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Sample records for system modulates sysemic

  1. The adipose renin-angiotensin system modulates sysemic markers of insulin sensitivity activates the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suyeon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Quignard-Boulange, Annie [Centre Biomedical des Cordeliers, Paris, France; Massiera, Florence [Centre de Biochimie, Nice, France; Teboul, Michele [Centre de Biochimie, Nice, France; Ailhaud, Gerard [Centre de Biochimie, Nice, France; Kim, Jung [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moustaid-Moussa, Naima [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Voy, Brynn H [ORNL

    2006-07-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing body of data provides increasing evidence that the adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass. Beyond its paracrine actions within adipose tissue, adipocyte-derived angiotensin II (Ang II) may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a genetic approach to manipulate adipose RAS activity in mice and then study the consequences on metabolic parameters and on feedback regulation of the RAS. The models included deletion of the angiotensinogen (Agt) gene (Agt-KO), its expression solely in adipose tissue under the control of an adipocyte-specific promoter (aP2-Agt/ Agt-KO), and overexpression in adipose tissue of wild type mice (aP2-Agt). Total body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and circulating levels of leptin, insulin and resistin were significantly decreased in Agt-KO mice, while plasma adiponectin levels were increased. Overexpression of Agt in adipose tissue resulted in increased adiposity and plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to wild type (WT) controls. Angiotensinogen and type I Ang II receptor protein levels were also markedly elevated in kidney of aP2-Agt mice, suggesting that hypertension in these animals may be in part due to stimulation of the intrarenal RAS. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results from this study demonstrate that alterations in adipose RAS activity significantly alter both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.

  2. Fault Injection Validation of a Safety-Critical TMR Sysem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrera, Ivano; Madeira, Henrique; Zentai, Andras; Hergovics, Beata

    2016-08-01

    Digital systems and their software are the core technology for controlling and monitoring industrial systems in practically all activity domains. Functional safety standards such as the European standard EN 50128 for railway applications define the procedures and technical requirements for the development of software for railway control and protection systems. The validation of such systems is a highly demanding task. In this paper we discuss the use of fault injection techniques, which have been used extensively in several domains, particularly in the space domain, to complement the traditional procedures to validate a SIL (Safety Integrity Level) 4 system for railway signalling, implementing a TMR (Triple Modular Redundancy) architecture. The fault injection tool is based on JTAG technology. The results of our injection campaign showed a high degree of tolerance to most of the injected faults, but several cases of unexpected behaviour have also been observed, helping understanding worst-case scenarios.

  3. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Seery, Martin N [San Rafael, CA; Holland, Rodney H [Novato, CA

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  4. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  5. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  6. CAMAC system test module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, W.K.; Gjovig, A.; Naivar, F.; Potter, J.; Smith, W.

    1981-01-01

    Since the CAMAC Branch Highway is used to both send information to and receive information from a CAMAC crate, faults in this highway can be difficult to recognize and diagnose. Similarly faults caused by a Crate Controller corrupting either instructions or data are difficult to distinguish from faults caused by the modules themselves. The CLIVIT (CAMAC Logic Integrity Via Interactive Testing) module is designed to largely eliminate such difficulties and ambiguities by allowing the verification of Branch Highway and Dataway transactions via an independent data communication path. The principle of operation of the CLIVIT is explained. Described are the prototype construction, testing and use

  7. Earth System Science Education Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  8. Plasma ARC/SCWO Sysems for Waste-to-Energy Applications Utilizing Milwaste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    approximately 140 kW of energy from burning syngas generated from the pyrolysis of medical waste • The PAV reactor generates a significant amount of fine...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2013-00213 PLASMA ARC/SCWO SYSTEMS FOR WASTE -TO- ENERGY APPLICATIONS UTILIZING MILWASTE FUELS Ralph H. Yates General...DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2013 Final 30 April 2004 – 3 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PLASMA ARC/SCWO SYSTEMS FOR WASTE -TO-ENERGY

  9. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  10. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  11. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  12. Smart Fan Modules And System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Kaufman, Richard I.; Mok, Lawrence S.

    2003-07-15

    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  13. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  14. Acquisition system for the CLIC Module

    CERN Document Server

    Vilalte, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    The status of R&D activities for CLIC module acquisition are discussed [1]. LAPP is involved in the design of the local CLIC module acquisition crate, described in the document Study of the CLIC Module Front-End Acquisition and Evaluation Electronics [2]. This acquisition system is a project based on a local crate, assigned to the CLIC module, including several mother boards. These motherboards are foreseen to hold mezzanines dedicated to the different subsystems. This system has to work in radiation environment. LAPP is involved in the development of Drive Beam stripline position monitors read-out, described in the document Drive Beam Stripline BPM Electronics and Acquisition [3]. LAPP also develops a generic acquisition mezzanine that allows to perform all-around acquisition and components tests for drive beam stripline BPM read-out.

  15. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  16. Nuclear modules of ITER tokamak systems code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.

    1987-10-01

    Nuclear modules were developed to model various reactor components in the ITER systems code. Several design options and cost algorithms are included for each component. The first wall, blanket and shield modules calculate the beryllium zone thickness, the disruptions results, the nuclear responses in different components including the toroidal field coils. Tungsten shield/water coolant/steel structure and steel shield/water coolant are the shield options for the inboard and outboard sections of the reactor. Lithium nitrate dissolved in the water coolant with a variable beryllium zone thickness in the outboard section of the reactor provides the tritium breeding capability. The reactor vault module defines the thickness of the reactor wall and the roof based on the dose equivalent during operation including skyshine contribution. The impurity control module provides the design parameters for the divertor including plate design, heat load, erosion rate, tritium permeation through the plate material to the coolant, plasma contamination by sputtered impurities, and plate lifetime. Several materials: Be, C, V, Mo, and W can be used for the divertor plate to cover a range of plasma edge temperatures. The tritium module calculates tritium and deuterium flow rates for the reactor plant. The tritium inventory in the fuelers, neutral beams, vacuum pumps, impurity control, first wall, and blanket is calculated. Tritium requirements are provided for different operating conditions. The nuclear models are summarized in this paper including the different design options and key analyses of each module. 39 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Cathode follower RF system with frequency modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Yano, Y.; Kaneko, N.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A model RF system with a cathode follower was tested under frequency modulation in the 1-3.5 MHz range. The repetition rate was 40 Hz. The oscillation was stable, and the output impedance was measured to be around 20 ohm. (author)

  18. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  19. System for Automated Calibration of Vector Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James; Boas, Amy; Li, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Vector modulators are used to impose baseband modulation on RF signals, but non-ideal behavior limits the overall performance. The non-ideal behavior of the vector modulator is compensated using data collected with the use of an automated test system driven by a LabVIEW program that systematically applies thousands of control-signal values to the device under test and collects RF measurement data. The technology innovation automates several steps in the process. First, an automated test system, using computer controlled digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and a computer-controlled vector network analyzer (VNA) systematically can apply different I and Q signals (which represent the complex number by which the RF signal is multiplied) to the vector modulator under test (VMUT), while measuring the RF performance specifically, gain and phase. The automated test system uses the LabVIEW software to control the test equipment, collect the data, and write it to a file. The input to the Lab - VIEW program is either user-input for systematic variation, or is provided in a file containing specific test values that should be fed to the VMUT. The output file contains both the control signals and the measured data. The second step is to post-process the file to determine the correction functions as needed. The result of the entire process is a tabular representation, which allows translation of a desired I/Q value to the required analog control signals to produce a particular RF behavior. In some applications, corrected performance is needed only for a limited range. If the vector modulator is being used as a phase shifter, there is only a need to correct I and Q values that represent points on a circle, not the entire plane. This innovation has been used to calibrate 2-GHz MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) vector modulators in the High EIRP Cluster Array project (EIRP is high effective isotropic radiated power). These calibrations were then used to create

  20. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  1. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  2. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  3. Health Occupations Module. The Skeletal System--I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the skeletal system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, three objectives (e.g., define the skeletal system and list its functions), and three learning…

  4. Test System for Thermoelectric Modules and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a design for a complex measuring device that enables its user to assess the parameters of power-generating thermoelectric modules (TEMs) (or bulk thermoelectric materials) under a wide range of temperatures ( T cold = 25°C to 90°C, T hot cooled copper-based cooler, (ii) an electrical load system, (iii) a type K thermocouple array connected to a data acquisition computer, and (iv) a thermostatic water-based cooling system with electronically controlled flow rate and temperature of cooling water. Our testing setup represents a useful tool able to assess, e.g., the thermoelectric parameters of newly developed TEMs and materials or to evaluate the thermoelectric parameters of commercially available modules and materials for comparison with values declared by the manufacturer.

  5. Modulator considerations for the SNS RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Reass, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an intense neutron source for neutron scattering experiments. The project is in the research stage, with construction funding beginning next year. The SNS is comprised of an ion source, a 1,000 MeV, H - linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a neutron producing target, and experimental area to utilize the scattering of the neutrons. The linear accelerator is RF driven, and the peak beam current is 27 mA and the beam duty factor is 5.84%. The peak RF power required is 104 MW, and the H - beam pulse length is 0.97 ms at a 60 Hz repetition rate. The RF pulses must be about 0.1 ms longer than the beam pulses, due to the Q of the accelerating cavities, and the time required to establish control of the cavity fields. The modulators for the klystrons in this accelerator are discussed in this paper. The SNS is designed to be expandable, so the beam power can be doubled or even quadrupled in the future. One of the double-power options is to double the beam pulse length and duty factor. The authors are specifying the klystrons to operate in this twice-duty-factor mode, and the modulator also should be expandable to 2 ms pulses at 60 Hz. Due to the long pulse length and low RF frequency of 805 MHz, the klystron power is specified at 2.5 MW peak, and the RF system will have 56 klystrons at 805 MHz, and three 1.25 MW peak power klystrons at 402.5 MHz for the low energy portion of the accelerator. The low frequency modulators are conventional floating-deck modulation anode control systems

  6. Health Occupations Module. The Skeletal System--II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on the skeletal system is one of eight modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module contains an introduction to the module topic, two objectives (e.g., list the types of joints and movements, and give examples), and two learning…

  7. An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, H.G.; Lee, P.S.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell is adversely affected by the significant increase of cell operating temperature during absorption of solar radiation. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system was designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated in this work. To actively cool the PV cells, a parallel array of ducts with inlet/outlet manifold designed for uniform airflow distribution was attached to the back of the PV panel. Experiments were performed with and without active cooling. A linear trend between the efficiency and temperature was found. Without active cooling, the temperature of the module was high and solar cells can only achieve an efficiency of 8–9%. However, when the module was operated under active cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly leading to an increase in efficiency of solar cells to between 12% and 14%. A heat transfer simulation model was developed to compare to the actual temperature profile of PV module and good agreement between the simulation and experimental results is obtained.

  8. Modulating the immune system through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacoba, Tamara G; Olivera, Ana; Torres, Dolores; Crecente-Campo, José; Alonso, María José

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, nanotechnology-based modulation of the immune system is presented as a cutting-edge strategy, which may lead to significant improvements in the treatment of severe diseases. In particular, efforts have been focused on the development of nanotechnology-based vaccines, which could be used for immunization or generation of tolerance. In this review, we highlight how different immune responses can be elicited by tuning nanosystems properties. In addition, we discuss specific formulation approaches designed for the development of anti-infectious and anti-autoimmune vaccines, as well as those intended to prevent the formation of antibodies against biologicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of anxiety circuits by serotonergic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowry, Christopher A; Johnson, Philip L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Anxiety is a complex emotional state associated with sustained heightened autonomic and behavioral arousal and an increase in avoidance behavior. Anxiety-related behavior is a form of risk assessment behavior that is associated with a level of uncertainty or unpredictability regarding the outcome...... of emotionally salient events, often when both rewarding and aversive outcomes are possible. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the neural circuits regulating anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior with an emphasis on the role of brainstem serotonergic systems in modulating...... anxiety-related circuits. In particular, we explore the possibility that the regulation of anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior by serotonergic systems is dependent on a specific, topographically organized mesolimbocortical serotonergic system that originates in the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal...

  10. Teller Training Module: Off-Line Banking System. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Candyce J.

    This teller training module on offline banking systems is intended to be part of a postsecondary financial applications course. The module contains the following sections: module objective; specific objective; content--electronic audit machine key functions, practice packet--sample bank transactions and practicing procedures, and…

  11. Energy detection UWB system based on pulse width modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new energy detection ultra-wideband system based on pulse width modulation is proposed. The bit error rate (BER performance of this new system is slightly worst than that of a pulse position modulation (PPM system in additive white Gaussian noise channels. In multipath channels, this system does not suffer from cross-modulation interference as PPM, so it can achieve better BER performance than PPM when cross-modulation interference occurs. In addition, when synchronisation errors occur, this system is more robust than PPM.

  12. ESP8266 WI-FI MODULE FOR MONITORING SYSTEM APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tae-Gue Oh; Chung-Hyuk Yim; Gyu-Sik Kim

    2017-01-01

    The ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is a self-contained system-on-chip (SOC) with integrated TCP/IP protocol stacks that can give any microcontroller access to a Wi-Fi network. In this paper, the interface between the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module and arduino MCU is studied for monitoring system application. Through some experimental studies, we believe that the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is very useful for monitoring system application.

  13. Encapsulated Thermoelectric Modules for Advanced Thermoelectric Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Jinushi, Takahiro; Ishijima, Zenzo

    2014-06-01

    An encapsulated thermoelectric (TE) module consists of a vacuum-tight stainless-steel container in which an SiGe or BiTe TE module is encapsulated. This construction enables maximum performance and durability because: the thermal expansion mismatch between the hot and cold sides of the container can be accommodated by a sliding sheet in the container; the TE module inside is always kept in a vacuum environment, therefore no oxidation can occur; and the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the container reduces thermal contact resistance inside the container. Our encapsulated SiGe module features higher operating temperature—up to 650°C for both hot and cold sides. Other high-temperature modules and conventional BiTe modules, including both-sides and one-side skeleton types, have been encapsulated. Several variants of the encapsulated module are available. Encapsulated thermoelectric modules with integrated coolers contain cooling panels through which water can pass. If the module hot side is heated by a radiating heat source (radiation coupling) or convection of a hot gas or fluid (convection coupling), no pressing force on the module is necessary. It therefore features minimum contact resistance with the cooling duct, because no pressure is applied, maximum TE power, and minimum installation cost. Another, larger, variant is a quadruple flexible container in which four modules (each of maximum size 40 mm × 40 mm) are encapsulated. These encapsulated modules were used in a powder metallurgy furnace and were in use for more than 3000 h. Application to cryogenic temperatures simulating the liquid nitrogen gas vaporizer has been also attempted.

  14. Connect Global Positioning System RF Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Garth W.; Young, Lawrence E.; Ciminera, Michael A.; Tien, Jeffrey Y.; Gorelik, Jacob; Okihiro, Brian Bachman; Koelewyn, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    The CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module (GPSM) slice is part of the JPL CoNNeCT Software Defined Radio (SDR). CoNNeCT is the Communications, Navigation, and Net working reconfigurable Testbed project that is part of NASA's Space Communication and Nav igation (SCaN) Program. The CoNNeCT project is an experimental dem onstration that will lead to the advancement of SDRs and provide a path for new space communication and navigation systems for future NASA exploration missions. The JPL CoNNeCT SDR will be flying on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012 in support of the SCaN CoNNeCT program. The GPSM is a radio-frequency sampler module (see Figure 1) that directly sub-harmonically samples the filtered GPS L-band signals at L1 (1575.42 MHz), L2 (1227.6 MHz), and L5 (1176.45 MHz). The JPL SDR receives GPS signals through a Dorne & Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The GPS signal is filtered against interference, amplified, split, and fed into three channels: L1, L2, and L5. In each of the L-band channels, there is a chain of bandpass filters and amplifiers, and the signal is fed through each of these channels to where the GPSM performs a one-bit analog-to-digital conversion (see Figure 2). The GPSM uses a sub-harmonic, single-bit L1, L2, and L5 sampler that samples at a clock rate of 38.656 MHz. The new capability is the down-conversion and sampling of the L5 signal when previous hardware did not provide this capability. The first GPS IIF Satellite was launched in 2010, providing the new L5 signal. With the JPL SDR flying on the ISS, it will be possible to demonstrate navigation solutions with 10-meter 3-D accuracy at 10-second intervals using a field-program mable gate array (FPGA)-based feedback loop running at 50 Hz. The GPS data bits will be decoded and used in the SDR. The GPSM will also allow other waveforms that are installed in the SDR to demonstrate various GNSS tracking techniques.

  15. A design of optical modulation system with pixel-level modulation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiwei; Qu, Xinghua; Feng, Wei; Liang, Baoqiu

    2018-01-01

    Vision measurement has been widely used in the field of dimensional measurement and surface metrology. However, traditional methods of vision measurement have many limits such as low dynamic range and poor reconfigurability. The optical modulation system before image formation has the advantage of high dynamic range, high accuracy and more flexibility, and the modulation accuracy is the key parameter which determines the accuracy and effectiveness of optical modulation system. In this paper, an optical modulation system with pixel level accuracy is designed and built based on multi-points reflective imaging theory and digital micromirror device (DMD). The system consisted of digital micromirror device, CCD camera and lens. Firstly we achieved accurate pixel-to-pixel correspondence between the DMD mirrors and the CCD pixels by moire fringe and an image processing of sampling and interpolation. Then we built three coordinate systems and calculated the mathematic relationship between the coordinate of digital micro-mirror and CCD pixels using a checkerboard pattern. A verification experiment proves that the correspondence error is less than 0.5 pixel. The results show that the modulation accuracy of system meets the requirements of modulation. Furthermore, the high reflecting edge of a metal circular piece can be detected using the system, which proves the effectiveness of the optical modulation system.

  16. WDM Phase-Modulated Millimeter-Wave Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Prince, Kamau; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a computer simulation case study of two typical WDM phase-modulated millimeter-wave systems. The phase-modulated 60 GHz fiber multi-channel transmission systems employ single sideband (SSB) and double sideband subcarrier modulation (DSB-SC) schemes and present one of the lat......This chapter presents a computer simulation case study of two typical WDM phase-modulated millimeter-wave systems. The phase-modulated 60 GHz fiber multi-channel transmission systems employ single sideband (SSB) and double sideband subcarrier modulation (DSB-SC) schemes and present one...... of the latest research efforts in the rapidly emerging Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) application space for in-house access networks....

  17. Mixed Light Modulation Mode Application for 3D Visualization System

    OpenAIRE

    Osmanis, K; Misāns, P

    2015-01-01

    3D visualization system consists of a multilayer optical shutter screen and a projection system. High-frame rate projector projects images on shutter screen. Projector is based on spatial light modulator (for example, Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device), that consists of a number of micromirrors, displaying a binary image. To achieve image with desired color depth, several light modulation methods can be used – binary pulse width modulation, light source intensity mod...

  18. Development of control system for the electron gun modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Nagasawa, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Hanaki, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing a compact and inexpensive electron gun modulator for the SPring-8 Linac. The modulator was redesigned and manufactured to achieve good maintainability and high controllability. A control system of the modulator and a high voltage station is composed mainly of PLCs as a controller and touch panels for human interface. This simplified construction will result in enhancement of its reliability. The rich graphical user interface on the touch panels greatly extends the function of the control system. (author)

  19. Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeke, Femke; Takiishi, Tatiana; Korf, Hannelie; Gysemans, Conny; Mathieu, Chantal

    2010-08-01

    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the active form of vitamin D, is known to regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism, thus being a key-player in bone-formation. However 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also has a physiological role beyond its well-known role in skeletal homeostasis. Here, we describe 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) as an immunomodulator targeting various immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), as well as T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, hence modulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides being targets, immune cells express vitamin D-activating enzymes, allowing local conversion of inactive vitamin D into 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) within the immune system. Taken together, these data indicate that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plays a role in maintenance of immune homeostasis. Several epidemiological studies have linked inadequate vitamin D levels to a higher susceptibility of immune-mediated disorders, including chronic infections and autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the complex immune-regulatory effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on immune cells as well as its role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, more in particular in tuberculosis and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tritium module for ITER/Tiber system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Willms, S.; Busigin, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    A tritium module was developed for the ITER/Tiber system code to provide information on capital costs, tritium inventory, power requirements and building volumes for these systems. In the tritium module, the main tritium subsystems/emdash/plasma processing, atmospheric cleanup, water cleanup, blanket processing/emdash/are each represented by simple scaleable algorithms. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Dense Z-pinch (DZP) as a fusion power reactor: preliminary scaling calculations and sysems energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual DT fusion reactor concept is described that is based upon the dense Z-pinch (DZP). This study emphasizes plasma modeling and the parametric assessment of the reactor energy balance. To this end simple analytic and numerical models have been developed and evaluated. The resulting optimal reactor operating point promises a high-Q, low-yield system of a scale that may allow the use of conventional high-voltage Marx/water-line technology to drive a potentially very small reactor system

  2. Dilation-and-modulation systems on the half real line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Zhang Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translation, dilation, and modulation are fundamental operations in wavelet analysis. Affine frames based on translation-and-dilation operation and Gabor frames based on translation-and-modulation operation have been extensively studied and seen great achievements. But dilation-and-modulation frames have not. This paper addresses a class of dilation-and-modulation systems in L 2 ( R + $L^{2}(\\mathbb {R}_{+}$ . We characterize frames, dual frames, and Parseval frames in L 2 ( R + $L^{2}(\\mathbb {R}_{+}$ generated by such systems. Interestingly, it turns out that, for such systems, Parseval frames, orthonormal bases, and orthonormal systems are mutually equivalent to each other, while this is not the case for affine systems and Gabor systems.

  3. Test system for thermoelectric modules and materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejtmánek, Jiří; Knížek, Karel; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2014), s. 3726-3732 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17538S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thermoelectric power module * automatic thermoelectric testing setup * heat flow measurement * power generation * heat recovery Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2014

  4. High extinction ratio integrated optical modulator for quantum telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronev, A.; Parfenov, M.; Agruzov, P.; Ilichev, I.; Shamray, A.

    2018-01-01

    A method for increasing the extinction ratio of integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on LiNbO3 via the photorefractive effect is proposed. The influence of the photorefractive effect on the X- and Y-splitters of intensity modulators is experimentally studied. An increase in the modulator extinction ratio by 17 dB (from 30 to 47 dB) is obtained. It is shown that fabricated modulators with a high extinction ratio are important for quantum key distribution systems.

  5. Hybrid photovoltaic and thermoelectric module for high concentration solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Ryo; Toyoda, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoichi; Matoba, Akinari; Minamikawa, Toshiharu; Tokuda, Masayuki; Masui, Megumi; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2017-09-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) hybrid module was developed for application to high concentration solar systems. The waste heat from the solar cells under concentrated light illumination was utilized to generate additional electricity by assembling TE devices below the multi-junction solar cells (MJSCs). Considering the high operating temperature of the PV and TE hybrid module compared with conventional concentrator PV modules, the TE device could compensate a part of the MJSC efficiency degradation at high temperature. The performance investigation clarified the feasibility of the hybrid PV and TE module under highly concentrated sunlight illumination.

  6. Dutch Risk Assessment System for New Chemicals: Soil Groundwater Module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; van der Linden AMA; van den Berg R

    1993-01-01

    A new Soil-Groundwater Module has been developed for incorporation in the Dutch Risk Assessment System for New Chemicals. In this module, the exposure of humans and the environment to xenobiotic substances due to sewage sludge application have been determined. Exposure criteria were: 1.

  7. A burn-up module coupling to an AMPX system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore Duque, M.; Gomez, S.E.; Patino, N.E.; Abbate, M.J.; Sbaffoni, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Reactors and Neutrons Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center uses the AMPX system for the study of high conversion reactors (HCR). Such system allows to make neutronic calculations from the nuclear data library (ENDF/B-IV). The Nuclear Engineering career of the Balseiro Institute developed and implemented a burn-up module at a μ-cell level (BUM: Burn-up Module) which agrees with the requirement to be coupled to the AMPX system. (Author) [es

  8. Electroacoustic verification of frequency modulation systems in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidêncio, Vanessa Luisa Destro; Jacob, Regina Tangerino de Souza; Tanamati, Liége Franzini; Bucuvic, Érika Cristina; Moret, Adriane Lima Mortari

    2017-12-26

    The frequency modulation system is a device that helps to improve speech perception in noise and is considered the most beneficial approach to improve speech recognition in noise in cochlear implant users. According to guidelines, there is a need to perform a check before fitting the frequency modulation system. Although there are recommendations regarding the behavioral tests that should be performed at the fitting of the frequency modulation system to cochlear implant users, there are no published recommendations regarding the electroacoustic test that should be performed. Perform and determine the validity of an electroacoustic verification test for frequency modulation systems coupled to different cochlear implant speech processors. The sample included 40 participants between 5 and 18 year's users of four different models of speech processors. For the electroacoustic evaluation, we used the Audioscan Verifit device with the HA-1 coupler and the listening check devices corresponding to each speech processor model. In cases where the transparency was not achieved, a modification was made in the frequency modulation gain adjustment and we used the Brazilian version of the "Phrases in Noise Test" to evaluate the speech perception in competitive noise. It was observed that there was transparency between the frequency modulation system and the cochlear implant in 85% of the participants evaluated. After adjusting the gain of the frequency modulation receiver in the other participants, the devices showed transparency when the electroacoustic verification test was repeated. It was also observed that patients demonstrated better performance in speech perception in noise after a new adjustment, that is, in these cases; the electroacoustic transparency caused behavioral transparency. The electroacoustic evaluation protocol suggested was effective in evaluation of transparency between the frequency modulation system and the cochlear implant. Performing the adjustment of

  9. Automation of Space Station module power management and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Robert; Weeks, Dave; Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on automation of space station module (SSM) power management and distribution (PMAD) system are presented. Topics covered include: reasons for power system automation; SSM/PMAD approach to automation; SSM/PMAD test bed; SSM/PMAD topology; functional partitioning; SSM/PMAD control; rack level autonomy; FRAMES AI system; and future technology needs for power system automation.

  10. System for fuel rod removal from a reactor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matchett, R.L.; Roof, O.R.; Kikta, T.J.; Wilczynski, R.; Nilsen, R.J.; Bacvinskas, W.S.; Fodor, G.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a robotic system for remote underwater withdrawal of the fuel rods from fuel modules of a light water breeder reactor includes a collet/grapple assembly for gripping and removing fuel rods in each module, which is positioned by use of a winch and a radial support means attached to a vertical support tube which is mounted over the fuel module. A programmable logic controller in conjunction with a microcomputer, provides control for the accurate positioning and pulling force of the rod grapple assembly. Closed circuit television cameras are provided which aid in operator interface with the robotic system

  11. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat

    2017-09-12

    A photovoltaic (PV) module includes an absorber layer coupled to an optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of PV elements. The optic layer includes a close-packed array of Keplerian telescope elements, each corresponding to one of an array of pupil elements. The Keplerian telescope substantially couple radiation that is incident on their objective surfaces into the corresponding pupil elements. Each pupil element relays radiation that is coupled into it from the corresponding Keplerian telescope element into the corresponding PV element.

  12. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  13. Broadcast Communication by System Frequency Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; You, Shi; Heussen, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Load controllers available today can measure AC system frequency and react to frequency deviations. A system operator can communicate to frequency sensitive loads by changing the set-points of the system’s dispatchable frequency regulation resources. Explicitly signaling system state by generating...... off-nominal system frequency values is a novel narrowband broadcast communications channel between system operators and frequency sensitive distributed energy resources (FS-DER). The feasibility of the proposed system is evaluated on an existing island power system in Denmark. This study shows...... that within standard frequency quality constraints, 4 distinct symbols are feasible on the island. However, the overarching imperative of system stability prevents the symbols from having arbitrary meanings. Higher frequency values must translate into greater consumption from loads, and vice versa. Within...

  14. Control System of Parameters of the Azimuthal Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Galtseva, O. V.; Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Tchekarova, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the azimuthal module of two-component vibrational micromechanical gyroscope were conducted. It is shown that the micromechanical gyroscope is a system with distributed parameters. The frequency analysis is performed using software T-Flex. The influence of mechanical disturbances on the movement of azimuthal module in the form of translational and angular oscillations is shown; the natural frequencies of the azimuth are defined.

  15. A novel anti-theft security system for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wasif Ali; Lim, Boon-Han; Lai, An-Chow; Chong, Kok-Keong

    2017-04-01

    Solar farms are considered as easy target for thieves because of insufficient protection measures. Existing anti-theft approaches are based on system level and are not very preventive and efficient because these can be bypassed with some technical knowledge. Additionally, it is difficult for security guards to tackle them as robbers come in a form of a gang equipped with heavy weapons. In this paper, a low power auto shut-off and non-destructive system is proposed for photovoltaic (PV) modules to achieve better level of security at module level. In proposed method, the power generation function of the PV module will be shut-off internally and cannot be re-activated by unauthorized personnel, in the case of theft. Hence, the PV module will not be functional even sold to new customers. The system comprises of a microcontroller, a low power position sensor, a controllable semiconductor switch and a wireless reactive-able system. The anti-theft system is developed to be laminated inside PV module and will be interconnected with solar cells so it becomes difficult for thieves to temper. The position of PV module is retrieved by position sensor and stored in a microcontroller as an initial reference value. Microcontroller uses this stored reference value to control power supply of PV module via power switch. The stored reference value can be altered using wireless circuitry by following authentication protocol. It makes the system non-destructive as anti-theft function can be reset again by authorized personnel, if it is recovered after theft or moved for maintenance purposes. The research component includes the design of a position sensing circuit, an auto shut-off circuit, a reactive-able wireless security protection algorithm and finally the integration of the multiple circuits.

  16. Interacting Brain Systems Modulate Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Christa K.; McGaugh, James L.; Williams, Cedric L.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional arousal influences the consolidation of long-term memory. This review discusses experimental approaches and relevant findings that provide the foundation for current understanding of coordinated interactions between arousal activated peripheral hormones and the brain processes that modulate memory formation. Rewarding or aversive experiences release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenalin) and glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands into the bloodstream. The effect of these hormones on memory consolidation depends upon binding of norepinephrine to beta-adrenergic receptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). Much evidence indicates that the stress hormones influence release of norepinephrine in the BLA through peripheral actions on the vagus nerve which stimulates, through polysynaptic connections, cells of the locus coeruleus to release norepinephrine. The BLA influences memory storage by actions on synapses, distributed throughout the brain, that are engaged in sensory and cognitive processing at the time of amygdala activation. The implications of the activation of these stress-activated memory processes are discussed in relation to stress-related memory disorders. PMID:22085800

  17. Modular microfluidic systems using reversibly attached PDMS fluid control modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Sip, Christopher G.; Folch, Albert

    2013-01-01

    alternatives to integration because they can be tailored for different applications piecewise and without redesigning every element of the system. We present a method for reversibly coupling hard materials to soft lithography defined systems through self-aligning O-ring features thereby enabling easy...... interfacing of complex-valve-based systems with simpler detachable units. Using this scheme, we demonstrate the seamless interfacing of a PDMS-based fluid control module with hard polymer chips. In our system, 32 self-aligning O-ring features protruding from the PDMS fluid control module form chip......-to-control module interconnections which are sealed by tightening four screws. The interconnection method is robust and supports complex fluidic operations in the reversibly attached passive chip. In addition, we developed a double-sided molding method for fabricating PDMS devices with integrated through...

  18. Modulation of systemic immune responses through commensal gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Schachtschneider

    Full Text Available Colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI tract is initiated during birth and continually seeded from the individual's environment. Gastrointestinal microorganisms play a central role in developing and modulating host immune responses and have been the subject of investigation over the last decades. Animal studies have demonstrated the impact of GI tract microbiota on local gastrointestinal immune responses; however, the full spectrum of action of early gastrointestinal tract stimulation and subsequent modulation of systemic immune responses is poorly understood. This study explored the utility of an oral microbial inoculum as a therapeutic tool to affect porcine systemic immune responses. For this study a litter of 12 pigs was split into two groups. One group of pigs was inoculated with a non-pathogenic oral inoculum (modulated, while another group (control was not. DNA extracted from nasal swabs and fecal samples collected throughout the study was sequenced to determine the effects of the oral inoculation on GI and respiratory microbial communities. The effects of GI microbial modulation on systemic immune responses were evaluated by experimentally infecting with the pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Coughing levels, pathology, toll-like receptors 2 and 6, and cytokine production were measured throughout the study. Sequencing results show a successful modulation of the GI and respiratory microbiomes through oral inoculation. Delayed type hypersensitivity responses were stronger (p = 0.07, and the average coughing levels and respiratory TNF-α variance were significantly lower in the modulated group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.0153, respectively. The M. hyopneumoniae infection study showed beneficial effects of the oral inoculum on systemic immune responses including antibody production, severity of infection and cytokine levels. These results suggest that an oral microbial inoculation can be used to modulate microbial communities, as well as

  19. GSM module for wireless radiation monitoring system via SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Hisyam Ibrahim, Noor; Lombigit, Lojius; Azman, Azraf; Jaafar, Zainudin; Arymaswati Abdullah, Nor; Hadzir Patai Mohamad, Glam

    2018-01-01

    A customised Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) module is designed for wireless radiation monitoring through Short Messaging Service (SMS). This module is able to receive serial data from radiation monitoring devices such as survey meter or area monitor and transmit the data as text SMS to a host server. It provides two-way communication for data transmission, status query, and configuration setup. The module hardware consists of GSM module, voltage level shifter, SIM circuit and Atmega328P microcontroller. Microcontroller provides control for sending, receiving and AT command processing to GSM module. The firmware is responsible to handle task related to communication between device and host server. It process all incoming SMS, extract, and store new configuration from Host, transmits alert/notification SMS when the radiation data reach/exceed threshold value, and transmits SMS data at every fixed interval according to configuration. Integration of this module with radiation survey/monitoring device will create mobile and wireless radiation monitoring system with prompt emergency alert at high-level radiation.

  20. Development of the integrated system reliability analysis code MODULE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.H.; Yoo, K.J.; Kim, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The major components in a system reliability analysis are the determination of cut sets, importance measure, and uncertainty analysis. Various computer codes have been used for these purposes. For example, SETS and FTAP are used to determine cut sets; Importance for importance calculations; and Sample, CONINT, and MOCUP for uncertainty analysis. There have been problems when the codes run each other and the input and output are not linked, which could result in errors when preparing input for each code. The code MODULE was developed to carry out the above calculations simultaneously without linking input and outputs to other codes. MODULE can also prepare input for SETS for the case of a large fault tree that cannot be handled by MODULE. The flow diagram of the MODULE code is shown. To verify the MODULE code, two examples are selected and the results and computation times are compared with those of SETS, FTAP, CONINT, and MOCUP on both Cyber 170-875 and IBM PC/AT. Two examples are fault trees of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) of Korea Nuclear Units (KNU)-1 and -2, which have 54 gates and 115 events, 39 gates and 92 events, respectively. The MODULE code has the advantage that it can calculate the cut sets, importances, and uncertainties in a single run with little increase in computing time over other codes and that it can be used in personal computers

  1. Two-mode dynamics in pulse-modulated control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Z.T.; Yanochkina, O.O.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    as an example the paper provides a survey of three new mechanisms of torus bifurcation that can be observed in pulse-modulated control systems. The paper concludes with a discussion of the influence that operation in the torus regimes will have on the efficiency of the converter......Pulse-modulated converter systems play an important role in modern power electronics. Systems of this type also deserve considerable theoretical interest because of the complex interplay they exhibit between ordinary (smooth) bifurcations and so-called border-collision bifurcations generated...... by the switching dynamics. Particularly interesting are the unusual transitions to torus dynamics, i.e., to a mode of behavior in which the regular switching dynamics is modulated by another oscillatory mode that may arise through instability in the feedback control. Using the model of a two-level DC/DC converter...

  2. Low Spectral Efficiency Trellis Coded Modulation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    2 bBW R= . The three alternative systems are all non- TCM systems and consist of QPSK with independent r=1/2 error correction coding on the in-phase...and quadrature components, with null-to-null bandwidth 2 bBW R= , 8-ary biorthogonal keying (8-BOK) with r=2/3 error correction coding with bandwidth...21 12 bBW R= and 16-BOK with r=3/4 error correction coding and with bandwidth 44 24 bBW R= . At the beginning of the analysis only the effect of

  3. Integrated microwave photonics for phase modulated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    For the last 25 years, microwave photonic (MWP) systems and links have relied almost exclusively on discrete optoelectronic devices, standard optical fibers and fiber-based components. With this concept, various functionalities like RF signal generation, distribution, processing and analysis have

  4. Identification of fractional order systems using modulating functions method

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dayan

    2013-06-01

    The modulating functions method has been used for the identification of linear and nonlinear systems. In this paper, we generalize this method to the on-line identification of fractional order systems based on the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. First, a new fractional integration by parts formula involving the fractional derivative of a modulating function is given. Then, we apply this formula to a fractional order system, for which the fractional derivatives of the input and the output can be transferred into the ones of the modulating functions. By choosing a set of modulating functions, a linear system of algebraic equations is obtained. Hence, the unknown parameters of a fractional order system can be estimated by solving a linear system. Using this method, we do not need any initial values which are usually unknown and not equal to zero. Also we do not need to estimate the fractional derivatives of noisy output. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed estimators are robust against high frequency sinusoidal noises and the ones due to a class of stochastic processes. Finally, the efficiency and the stability of the proposed method is confirmed by some numerical simulations.

  5. Plume Impingement Analysis for the European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, John; Sibe, Fabien; Lerardo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Plume impingement analyses were performed for the European Service Module (ESM) propulsion system Orbital Maneuvering System engine (OMS-E), auxiliary engines, and reaction control system (RCS) engines. The heat flux from plume impingement on the solar arrays and other surfaces are evaluated. This information is used to provide inputs for the ESM thermal analyses and help determine the optimal configuration for the RCS engines.

  6. Systemic approaches to teaching and learning a module of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we introduce the application of SATL in the subject of medical biochemistry. The strategy of this method is based on the collection, organization, and presentation of the map of concepts through the interactive system in the module of which the relations between the concepts and issues will be clarified.

  7. Digital Pulse Modulation Amplifier (PMA) systems based on PEDEC control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    The paper extends previous research and presents a suite of novel high efficiency digital PMA topologies based on Pulse Edge Delay Error Correction (PEDEC). The practical results are very encouraging, showing that digital modulator performance is maintained throughout the subsequent power...... conversion. The topologies are believed to be the first implemented digital PMA systems including effective power stage error correction....

  8. System on chip module configured for event-driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Kevin; Brady, Charles E.; Ashlock, Tad A.

    2017-10-17

    A system on chip (SoC) module is described herein, wherein the SoC modules comprise a processor subsystem and a hardware logic subsystem. The processor subsystem and hardware logic subsystem are in communication with one another, and transmit event messages between one another. The processor subsystem executes software actors, while the hardware logic subsystem includes hardware actors, the software actors and hardware actors conform to an event-driven architecture, such that the software actors receive and generate event messages and the hardware actors receive and generate event messages.

  9. Mixing chaos modulations for secure communications in OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Chatura; Leung, Henry

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we consider a novel chaotic OFDM communication scheme is to improve the physical layer security. By secure communication we refer to physical layer security that provides low probability of detection (LPD)/low probability of intercept (LPI) transmission. A mixture of chaotic modulation schemes is used to generate chaotically modulated symbols for each subcarrier of the OFDM transmitter. At the receiver, different demodulators are combined together for the different modulation schemes for enhanced security. Time domain, frequency domain and statistical randomness tests show that transmit signals are indistinguishable from background noise. BER performance comparison shows that the physical layer security of the proposed scheme comes with a slight performance degradation compared to conventional OFDM communication systems.

  10. A Buildings Module for the Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Lai, Judy

    2008-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) is building a new long-range (to 2050) forecasting model for use in budgetary and management applications called the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS), which explicitly incorporates uncertainty through its development within the Analytica(R) platform of Lumina Decision Systems. SEDS is designed to be a fast running (a few minutes), user-friendly model that analysts can readily run and modify in its entirety through a visual programming interface. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is responsible for implementing the SEDS Buildings Module. The initial Lite version of the module is complete and integrated with a shared code library for modeling demand-side technology choice developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Lumina. The module covers both commercial and residential buildings at the U.S. national level using an econometric forecast of floorspace requirement and a model of building stock turnover as the basis for forecasting overall demand for building services. Although the module is fundamentally an engineering-economic model with technology adoption decisions based on cost and energy performance characteristics of competing technologies, it differs from standard energy forecasting models by including considerations of passive building systems, interactions between technologies (such as internal heat gains), and on-site power generation.

  11. An Integrated Simulation Module for Cyber-Physical Automation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferracuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs into Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs is an important research problem to solve in order to increase the performances, safety, reliability and usability of wireless automation systems. Due to the complexity of real CPSs, emulators and simulators are often used to replace the real control devices and physical connections during the development stage. The most widespread simulators are free, open source, expandable, flexible and fully integrated into mathematical modeling tools; however, the connection at a physical level and the direct interaction with the real process via the WSN are only marginally tackled; moreover, the simulated wireless sensor motes are not able to generate the analogue output typically required for control purposes. A new simulation module for the control of a wireless cyber-physical system is proposed in this paper. The module integrates the COntiki OS JAva Simulator (COOJA, a cross-level wireless sensor network simulator, and the LabVIEW system design software from National Instruments. The proposed software module has been called “GILOO” (Graphical Integration of Labview and cOOja. It allows one to develop and to debug control strategies over the WSN both using virtual or real hardware modules, such as the National Instruments Real-Time Module platform, the CompactRio, the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA, etc. To test the proposed solution, we decided to integrate it with one of the most popular simulators, i.e., the Contiki OS, and wireless motes, i.e., the Sky mote. As a further contribution, the Contiki Sky DAC driver and a new “Advanced Sky GUI” have been proposed and tested in the COOJA Simulator in order to provide the possibility to develop control over the WSN. To test the performances of the proposed GILOO software module, several experimental tests have been made, and interesting preliminary results are reported. The GILOO module has been

  12. Design of SAW FIR filters for quadrature binary modulation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, A J; Malocha, D C; Belkerdid, M A

    1993-01-01

    Approaches for designing surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters used in pulsed quadrature binary modulation (QBM) systems are presented. Several previously defined pulse shapes were implemented by a SAW filter and showed good QBM system performance with respect to modulation envelope nonuniformity (AM) and intersymbol interference (ISI). A new approach to QBM pulse shape definition using both frequency- and time-domain design criteria is described. This approach allows families of new pulse shapes having various levels of AM and spectral confinement to be designed. The approaches to the design equations are presented, and examples of specific pulse shapes and their implementation using SAW filters are given. Time- and frequency-domain results of iteratively designed pulse shapes for application to QBM systems are also presented, showing good performance.

  13. Code-modulated interferometric imaging system using phased arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Greene, Kevin; Floyd, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging provides compelling capabilities for security screening, navigation, and bio- medical applications. Traditional scanned or focal-plane mm-wave imagers are bulky and costly. In contrast, phased-array hardware developed for mass-market wireless communications and automotive radar promise to be extremely low cost. In this work, we present techniques which can allow low-cost phased-array receivers to be reconfigured or re-purposed as interferometric imagers, removing the need for custom hardware and thereby reducing cost. Since traditional phased arrays power combine incoming signals prior to digitization, orthogonal code-modulation is applied to each incoming signal using phase shifters within each front-end and two-bit codes. These code-modulated signals can then be combined and processed coherently through a shared hardware path. Once digitized, visibility functions can be recovered through squaring and code-demultiplexing operations. Pro- vided that codes are selected such that the product of two orthogonal codes is a third unique and orthogonal code, it is possible to demultiplex complex visibility functions directly. As such, the proposed system modulates incoming signals but demodulates desired correlations. In this work, we present the operation of the system, a validation of its operation using behavioral models of a traditional phased array, and a benchmarking of the code-modulated interferometer against traditional interferometer and focal-plane arrays.

  14. A review of module inverter topologies suitable for photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Variath, Reshmi C; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Nielsen, Ole Neis

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates eight module inverter topologies and provides an overview of the merits and demerits of each on the basis of circuit level Pspice simulation. The complete system is modeled in Pspice and the model is made as realistic as possible by including the parasitic elements. Only...... the output stage is varied for different topologies keeping the system model unaltered with the same control system and degree of demodulation so as to differentiate the variation of efficiency of these topologies. The purpose of the analysis is to determine which of this topology would be a best fit...

  15. Study on Design of Control Module and Fuzzy Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Kyu; Sohn, Chang Ho; Kim, Jung Seon; Kim, Min Kyu

    2005-01-01

    Performance of control unit is improved by introduction of fuzzy control theory and compensation for input of control unit as FLC(Fuzzy Logic Controller). Here, FLC drives thermal control system by linguistic rule-base. Hence, In case of using compensative PID control unit, it doesn't need to revise or compensate for PID control unit. Consequently, this study shows proof that control system which implements H/W module and then uses fuzzy algorism in this system is stable and has reliable performance

  16. Verification and validation plan for the SFR system analysis module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-12-18

    This report documents the Verification and Validation (V&V) Plan for software verification and validation of the SFR System Analysis Module (SAM), developed at Argonne National Laboratory for sodium fast reactor whole-plant transient analysis. SAM is developed under the DOE NEAMS program and is part of the Reactor Product Line toolkit. The SAM code, the phenomena and computational models of interest, the software quality assurance, and the verification and validation requirements and plans are discussed in this report.

  17. Space Station module Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    This project consists of several tasks which are unified toward experimentally demonstrating the operation of a highly autonomous, user-supportive power management and distribution system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) habitation/laboratory modules. This goal will be extended to a demonstration of autonomous, cooperative power system operation for the whole SSF power system through a joint effort with NASA's Lewis Research Center, using their Autonomous Power System. Short term goals for the space station module power management and distribution include having an operational breadboard reflecting current plans for SSF, improving performance of the system communications, and improving the organization and mutability of the artificial intelligence (AI) systems. In the middle term, intermediate levels of autonomy will be added, user interfaces will be modified, and enhanced modeling capabilities will be integrated in the system. Long term goals involve conversion of all software into Ada, vigorous verification and validation efforts and, finally, seeing an impact of this research on the operation of SSF. Conversion of the system to a DC Star configuration is now in progress, and should be completed by the end of October, 1989. This configuration reflects the latest SSF module architecture. Hardware is now being procured which will improve system communications significantly. The Knowledge-Based Management System (KBMS) is initially developed and the rules from FRAMES have been implemented in the KBMS. Rules in the other two AI systems are also being grouped modularly, making them more tractable, and easier to eventually move into the KBMS. Adding an intermediate level of autonomy will require development of a planning utility, which will also be built using the KBMS. These changes will require having the user interface for the whole system available from one interface. An Enhanced Model will be developed, which will allow exercise of the system through the interface

  18. Design of a modulated orthovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Jessica M; Bender, Edward T; Lawless, Michael J; Culberson, Wesley S

    2017-07-01

    to the standard, open cone-collimated distribution. Simulations of tissue and bone confirmed previously published results that a higher energy beam (≥ 200 keV) would be preferable, but the 250 kVp beam was chosen for this work because it is available for future measurements. A methodology has been described that may be used to optimize the spatial distribution of added filtration material in an orthovoltage SRS beam to result in dose distributions with decreased flatness and penumbra statistics compared to standard open cones. This work provides the mathematical foundation for a novel, orthovoltage energy fluence-modulated SRS system. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Microfluidic hubs, systems, and methods for interface fluidic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michael S; Claudnic, Mark R; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L

    2015-01-27

    Embodiments of microfluidic hubs and systems are described that may be used to connect fluidic modules. A space between surfaces may be set by fixtures described herein. In some examples a fixture may set substrate-to-substrate spacing based on a distance between registration surfaces on which the respective substrates rest. Fluidic interfaces are described, including examples where fluid conduits (e.g. capillaries) extend into the fixture to the space between surfaces. Droplets of fluid may be introduced to and/or removed from microfluidic hubs described herein, and fluid actuators may be used to move droplets within the space between surfaces. Continuous flow modules may be integrated with the hubs in some examples.

  20. Phase Modulation Method for Control Systems of Rotary Machine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, vibration-based diagnostics takes the main place in a large complex of technical control means of rotary machine operation. It allows us to control the onset of extreme limit states of operating construction and its elements. However, vibration-based diagnostics is incapable to provide differentiated information about the condition of particular units, type of fault and point of its occurrence.From the practical experience of optoelectronic sensors development, methods of phase coding information about the behavior of the investigated object are known. They allow us to overcome the abovementioned disadvantage of vibration-based diagnostics through the modulation of the reflected radiation from the object. This phase modulation is performed with the image analyzers, in which the modulating raster (alternating transparent and nontransparent sectors is designed so, that the carrier frequency of oscillations is absent (suppressed in frequency spectrum, and all useful information can be found in the side frequencies.Carrier frequency suppression appears for two complete turns of the modulating raster. Each time during this process oscillations have a 180° phase shift (hop relatively to the initial oscillation on the boundary of each turn. It leads to a substantial increase in signal/noise ratio and possibility to conduct high-accuracy diagnostics.The principle of the pseudo inversion is used for measurements to suppress an adverse effect of various factors in dynamic control system. For this principle the leaving and returned beams practically go on the same way with small spatial shift. This shift occurs then the leaving beam reflects from a basic surface and the reflected – from the measured surface of the object. Therefore the measurements become insensitive to any other errors of system, except relative position of system «model-object».The main advantages of such measurements are the following:- system steadiness to error

  1. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eZanettini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  2. Exhaust, Dust Collection and Ventilation Systems. Module SH-44. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on exhaust, dust collection, and ventilation systems is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses the types of contaminants that can be controlled by ventilation, the types of ventilation systems, and the component parts of local exhaust systems. Following the introduction, 10 objectives…

  3. Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, K. B.

    2010-04-01

    The Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System produces user-selectable chip lengths and workpiece finishes and is compatible with any material, workpiece shape, and depth of cut. The MTP chip breaking system consistently creates the desired size of chips regardless of workpiece size, shape, or material, and the machine operator does not need to make any adjustments during the machining operation. The system's programmer configures the part program that commands the machine tool to move in a specific fashion to deliver the desired part size, shape, chip length, and workpiece surface finish. The MTP chip breaking system helps manufacturers avoid the detrimental effects of continuous chips, including expensive repair costs, delivery delays, and hazards to personnel.

  4. Characterization of modulated integrate-and-fire systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstroem, P.; Christiansen, B.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    The phase locking structure in threshold modulated integrate-and-fire systems is explored. The existence of a smooth critical line where the Poincare map has an infinite slope inflection point is emphasized. At and below this line the system is related to circle map systems. Especially, this allows realization of systems with higher order scaling structures, qualitatively distinct from ordinary third order circle map structures. Hourglass patterns develop in parameter space and at small modulation amplitudes the behavior of the phase-locking regions (Arnold tongues) change dramatically. Above the critical line the Arnold tongues complete the parameter space, leaving along any line a zero-dimensional Cantor set of points associated with irrational rotation numbers. The critical line is not associated with a transition to chaos. In particular non-chaotic regions with complete phase-locking exist. In the supercritical region a gap is present in the Poincare map. The features at this gap are examined. Also local hysteresis may occur. We discuss the applicability of the local approximation. (orig.)

  5. Module-based quality system functionality evaluation in production logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabbazi, M.R.; Wikander, J.; Onori, M.; Maffei, A.; Chen, D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses a comprehensive modeling and functionality evaluation of a module-based quality system in production logistics at the highest domain abstract level of business processes. All domain quality business processes and quality data transactions are modeled using BPMN and UML tools and standards at the business process and data modeling. A modular web-based prototype is developed to evaluate the models addressing the quality information system functionality requirements and modularity in production logistics through data scenarios and data queries. Using the object-oriented technique in design at the highest domain level, the proposed models are subject further development in the lower levels for the implementing case. The models are specifically able to manipulate all quality operations including remedy and control in a lot-based make-to-order production logistics system as an individual module. Due to the specification of system as domain design structure, all proposed BPMs, data models, and the actual database prototype are seen referential if not a solution as a practical “to-be” quality business process re-engineering template. This paper sets out to provide an explanatory approach using different practical technique at modeling steps as well as the prototype implementation. (Author)

  6. Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.

  7. Characteristics of Local Modulation Beam Propagating through Spatial Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewei You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As local defects may significantly harm beam quality and affect safe operation, a systematic analysis of the ability of a spatial filter to alleviate these adverse effects is required. Thus, the evolutional characteristics of a beam modulated by a local defect propagating through a spatial filter system at an image reply plane and a downstream plane are analyzed in detail. Modulation stripes appear at the image reply plane; these are caused by the pinhole cutoff effect. The modulation degree increases with increasing defect size. The maximum intensification factor can reach 3.2 under certain conditions. Thus, the defect size should be restricted to a reasonable size for safe operation with a specified pinhole size. Moreover, a maximal value appears at the downstream plane, and the intensity enhances with increasing defect size. To ensure beam quality, the maximum allowable defect size and angle of the spatial filter should meet special constraints. The maximum allowable defect size is calculated based on practical configuration parameters.

  8. Phase transitions in spin systems with modulated order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho Filho, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Spin systems which may display modulated structures are treated. A layered Ising model with competing interactions between nearest and next-nearest layers in the presence of a magnetic field is studied. In the context of a mean-field approximation, the high-temperature region of the phase diagram is studied analytically. The Λ surface, separating the paramagnetic and the modulated phases, is bounded by two lines of tricritical points which join smoothly at the Lifshitz point and terminate at multicritical points, beyond which lines of critical and double critical end points are expected to appear. The low-temperature region is studied numerically. T-H phase diagrams, which exhibit a variety of modulated phases, for various values of the ratio of the strength of the competing interactions are constructed. A theoretical interpretation for the occurrence of a Lifshitz point in the field-temperature phase diagram of MnP is presented. These results, which are based on a X-Y localized spin Hamiltonian, are in qualitative agreement with recently reported experiments. In particular, asymptotic expressions are obtained for the phase boundaries, which meet tangentially at the Lifshitz point, and for some other thermodynamic quantities of interest, such as the longitudinal and transverse susceptibilities. (Author) [pt

  9. Promoting tissue regeneration by modulating the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julier, Ziad; Park, Anthony J; Briquez, Priscilla S; Martino, Mikaël M

    2017-04-15

    The immune system plays a central role in tissue repair and regeneration. Indeed, the immune response to tissue injury is crucial in determining the speed and the outcome of the healing process, including the extent of scarring and the restoration of organ function. Therefore, controlling immune components via biomaterials and drug delivery systems is becoming an attractive approach in regenerative medicine, since therapies based on stem cells and growth factors have not yet proven to be broadly effective in the clinic. To integrate the immune system into regenerative strategies, one of the first challenges is to understand the precise functions of the different immune components during the tissue healing process. While remarkable progress has been made, the immune mechanisms involved are still elusive, and there is indication for both negative and positive roles depending on the tissue type or organ and life stage. It is well recognized that the innate immune response comprising danger signals, neutrophils and macrophages modulates tissue healing. In addition, it is becoming evident that the adaptive immune response, in particular T cell subset activities, plays a critical role. In this review, we first present an overview of the basic immune mechanisms involved in tissue repair and regeneration. Then, we highlight various approaches based on biomaterials and drug delivery systems that aim at modulating these mechanisms to limit fibrosis and promote regeneration. We propose that the next generation of regenerative therapies may evolve from typical biomaterial-, stem cell-, or growth factor-centric approaches to an immune-centric approach. Most regenerative strategies have not yet proven to be safe or reasonably efficient in the clinic. In addition to stem cells and growth factors, the immune system plays a crucial role in the tissue healing process. Here, we propose that controlling the immune-mediated mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration may support

  10. Sign reversal of drag in bilayer systems with in-plane periodic potential modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkauskas, A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for describing frictional drag in bilayer systems with in-plane periodic potential modulations, and use it to investigate the drag between bilayer systems in which one of the layers is modulated in one direction. At low temperatures, as the density of carriers in the modulated...

  11. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO 2 -fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  12. How photons modulate wound healing via the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Mary

    2009-02-01

    The immune system is a diverse group of cells that recognize and attack foreign substances, pathogenic organisms and cancer cells. It also produces inflammation, an essential component of the wound healing process and, following the resolution of inflammation, plays a crucial role in the control of granulation tissue formation. Granulation tissue is the precursor of scar tissue. Injured skin and mucous membranes generally heal rapidly. However, some wounds are either slow to heal or fail to heal while in others overgrowth of scar tissue occurs, resulting in the production of either hypertophic or keloid scars. The modulation of wound healing in such conditions is clinically important and may even be vital. Evidence will be presented that phototherapy can modulate wound healing, and that changes induced in the immune system, in particular the secretion of soluble protein mediators including cytokines, may be involved in this modulation. The immune system has peripheral and deep components. The former, being located mainly in the skin and mucous membranes, are readily accessible to photons, which can affect them directly. The components of the immune system are linked by lymphatic vessels and blood vessels, which include many capillaries located in the sub-epithelial connective tissues of the skin and mucous membranes. The superficial location of these capillaries provides the immune cells and molecules in transit through them with ready access to photons. When these cells and molecules, some modified by exposure to photons, reach susceptible cells such as lymphocytes in the deeper parts of the immune system and cells of injured tissues, they can modify their activity. In addition to having direct effects on peripheral cells, photons can thus also produce indirect effects on cells too distant for the photons to reach them. For example, cytokines released from peripheral macrophages in response to the direct action of photons can be transported to and affect other

  13. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITk pixel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, F. J.

    2018-03-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for an extensive modification of its detectors in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025. The ATLAS upgrade includes the replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will be a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in 2018. In this paper an overview of the ongoing R&D activities on modules and electronics for the ATLAS ITk is given including the main developments and achievements in silicon planar and 3D sensor technologies, readout and power challenges.

  14. Peripheral modulation of the endocannabinoid system in metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nirajan; Cuffe, James S M; Hutchinson, Dana S; Headrick, John P; Perkins, Anthony V; McAinch, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2018-03-01

    Dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been identified in metabolic disease. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1 ) is abundantly expressed in the brain but also expressed in the periphery. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB 2 ) is more abundant in the periphery, including the immune cells. In obesity, global antagonism of overexpressed CB 1 reduces bodyweight but leads to centrally mediated adverse psychological outcomes. Emerging research in isolated cultured cells or tissues has demonstrated that targeting the endocannabinoid system in the periphery alleviates the pathologies associated with metabolic disease. Further, peripheral specific cannabinoid ligands can reverse aspects of the metabolic phenotype. This Keynote review will focus on current research on the functionality of peripheral modulation of the ECS for the treatment of obesity. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITK pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for an extensive modification of its detectors in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025. The ATLAS upgrade includes the replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will be a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in 2017. In this paper an overview of the ongoing R\\&D activities on modules and electronics for the ATLAS ITk is given including the main developments and achievements in silicon planar and 3D sensor technologies, readout and power challenges.

  16. Optimal space communication techniques. [a discussion of delta modulation, pulse code modulation, and phase locked systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Encoding of video signals using adaptive delta modulation (DM) was investigated, along with the error correction of DM encoded signals corrupted by thermal noise. Conversion from pulse code modulation to delta modulation was studied; an expression for the signal to noise ratio of the DM signal derived was achieved by employing linear, 2-sample, interpolation between sample points. A phase locked loop using a nonlinear processor in lieu of a loop filter is discussed.

  17. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set II: Major Body Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…

  18. EPICS device support module as ATCA system manager for the ITER fast plant system controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo F., E-mail: pricardofc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Bruno; Gonçalves, Bruno; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Sousa, Jorge; Rodrigues, A.P.; Batista, António J.N.; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Varandas, Carlos A.F. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► In Nuclear Fusion, demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. ► ATCA based Nuclear Fusion Systems are composed by several electronic and mechanical component. ► Control and monitoring of ATCA electronic systems are recommended. ► ITER Fast Plant System Controller Project CODAC system prototype. ► EPICS device support module as External ATCA system manager solution. -- Abstract: This paper presents an Enhanced Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) device support module for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) project based in Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) specification. The developed EPICS device support module provides an External System Manager (ESM) solution for monitoring and control the ITER FPSC ATCA shelf system and data acquisition boards in order to take proper action and report problems to a control room operator or high level management unit in case of any system failure occurrence. EPICS device support module acts as a Channel Access (CA) server to report problems and publish ATCA system data information to the control room operator, high level management unit or other CA network clients such as Control System Studio Operator Interfaces (CSS OPIs), Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST), Best Ever Archive Utility (BEAUTY) or other CA client applications. EPICS device support module communicates with the ATCA Shelf manager (ShM) using HTTP protocol to send and receive commands through POST method in order to get and set system and shelf components properties such as fan speeds measurements, temperatures readings, module status and ATCA boards acquisition and configuration parameters. All system properties, states, commands and parameters are available through the EPICS device support module CA server in EPICS Process Variables (PV) and signals format. ATCA ShM receives the HTTP protocol

  19. Intensity modulated operating mode of the rotating gamma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Bishwambhar; Gulyas, Laszlo; Medlin, Donald; Koroknai, Tibor; Takacs, David; Filep, Gyorgy; Panko, Peter; Godo, Bence; Hollo, Tamas; Zheng, Xiao Ran; Fedorcsak, Imre; Dobai, Jozsef; Bognar, Laszlo; Takacs, Endre

    2018-03-26

    The purpose of this work was to explore two novel operation modalities of the rotating gamma systems (RGS) that could expand its clinical application to lesions in close proximity to critical organs at risk (OAR). The approach taken in this study consists of two components. First, a Geant4-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulation toolkit is used to model the dosimetric properties of the RGS Vertex 360™ for the normal, intensity modulated radiosurgery (IMRS), and speed modulated radiosurgery (SMRS) operation modalities. Second, the RGS Vertex 360™ at the Rotating Gamma Institute in Debrecen, Hungary is used to collect experimental data for the normal and IMRS operation modes. An ion chamber is used to record measurements of the absolute dose. The dose profiles are measured using Gafchromic EBT3 films positioned within a spherical water equivalent phantom. A strong dosimetric agreement between the measured and simulated dose profiles and penumbra was found for both the normal and IMRS operation modes for all collimator sizes (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm diameter). The simulated falloff and maximum dose regions agree better with the experimental results for the 4 and 8 mm diameter collimators. Although the falloff regions align well in the 14 and 18 mm collimators, the maximum dose regions have a larger difference. For the IMRS operation mode, the simulated and experimental dose distributions are ellipsoidal, where the short axis aligns with the blocked angles. Similarly, the simulated dose distributions for the SMRS operation mode also adopt an ellipsoidal shape, where the short axis aligns with the angles where the orbital speed is highest. For both modalities, the dose distribution is highly constrained with a sharper penumbra along the short axes. Dose modulation of the RGS can be achieved with the IMRS and SMRS modes. By providing a highly constrained dose distribution with a sharp penumbra, both modes could be clinically applicable for the treatment of lesions in close

  20. Development of a medical module for disaster information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Elif; Atilla, Rıdvan; Kaya, Hilal; Aribaş, Alirıza; Cengiz, Hakan; Dicle, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to improve a medical module which provides a real-time medical information flow about pre-hospital processes that gives health care in disasters; transferring, storing and processing the records that are in electronic media and over internet as a part of disaster information systems. In this study which is handled within the frame of providing information flow among professionals in a disaster case, to supply the coordination of healthcare team and transferring complete information to specified people at real time, Microsoft Access database and SQL query language were used to inform database applications. System was prepared on Microsoft .Net platform using C# language. Disaster information system-medical module was designed to be used in disaster area, field hospital, nearby hospitals, temporary inhabiting areas like tent city, vehicles that are used for dispatch, and providing information flow between medical officials and data centres. For fast recording of the disaster victim data, accessing to database which was used by health care professionals was provided (or granted) among analysing process steps and creating minimal datasets. Database fields were created in the manner of giving opportunity to enter new data and search old data which is recorded before disaster. Web application which provides access such as data entry to the database and searching towards the designed interfaces according to the login credentials access level. In this study, homepage and users' interfaces which were built on database in consequence of system analyses were provided with www.afmedinfo.com web site to the user access. With this study, a recommendation was made about how to use disaster-based information systems in the field of health. Awareness has been developed about the fact that disaster information system should not be perceived only as an early warning system. Contents and the differences of the health care practices of disaster information systems were

  1. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  2. Optical filtering in directly modulated/detected OOFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Capmany, J

    2013-12-16

    This work presents a theoretical investigation on the performance of directly modulated/detected (DM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OOFDM) systems subject to optical filtering. The impact of both linear and nonlinear distortion effects are taken into account to calculate the effective signal-to-noise ratio of each subcarrier. These results are then employed to optimize the design parameters of two simple optical filtering structures: a Mach Zehnder interferometer and a uniform fiber Bragg grating, leading to a significant optical power budget improvement given by 3.3 and 3dB, respectively. These can be further increased to 5.5 and 4.2dB respectively when balanced detection configurations are employed. We find as well that this improvement is highly dependent on the clipping ratio.

  3. Improving the security of optoelectronic delayed feedback system by parameter modulation and system coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Miao, Suoxia; Cheng, Mengfan; Gao, Xiaojing

    2016-02-01

    A coupled system with varying parameters is proposed to improve the security of optoelectronic delayed feedback system. This system is coupled by two parameter-varied optoelectronic delayed feedback systems with chaotic modulation. Dynamics performance results show that this system has a higher complexity compared to the original one. Furthermore, this system can conceal the time delay effectively against the autocorrelation function and delayed mutual information method and can increase the dimension space of secure parameters to resist brute-force attack by introducing the digital chaotic systems.

  4. Measurement Conversions: English and Metric Systems. Fundamentals of Occupational Mathematics. Module 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    This module is the ninth in a series of 12 learning modules designed to teach occupational mathematics. Blocks of informative material and rules are followed by examples and practice problems. The solutions to the practice problems are found at the end of the module. Specific topics covered include measurement conversions, the English system of…

  5. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Barbering/Cosmetology. Module 9.0: Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on the respiratory system is the ninth of ten (CE 028 308-318) in the barbering/cosmetology course of a bilingual skills training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook for modules 6-10 is available as CE 028 313.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experiences. Module objectives are for students to…

  6. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Barbering/Cosmetology. Module 7.0: Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on the endocrine system is the seventh of ten (CE 028 308-318) in the barbering/cosmetology course of a bilingual skills training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook for modules 6-10 is available as CE 028 313.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory epxerience. Module objectives are for students to…

  7. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Barbering/Cosmetology. Module 4.0: Skeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on the skeletal system is the fourth of ten (CE 028 308-318) in the barbering/cosmetology course of a bilingual skill training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook for modules 6-10 is available as CE 028 313.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience. Module objectives are for students to develop…

  8. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Barbering/Cosmetology. Module 8.0: Excretory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on the excretory system is the eighth (CE 028 308-318) in the barbering/cosmetology course of a bilingual skills training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook for modules 6-10 is available as CE 028 313.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience. Module objectives are for students to develop…

  9. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITK pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, Clara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Summary ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL‐ LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all‐silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). A revised trigger and data taking system is foreseen with triggers expected at lowest level at an average rate of 1 MHz. The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL‐LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. A new on‐detector readout chip is designed in the context of the RD53 collaboration in 65 nm CMOS technology. This paper will present the on‐going R&D within the ATLAS ITK project towards the new pixel modules and the off‐detector electronics. Pla...

  10. Controlling a Chaotic System through Control Parameter Self-Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, I.

    1994-01-01

    A method for obtaining active control of a chaotic system based on the modulation of a control parameter by adding to it a small perturbation proportional to one output signal is proposed. From a theoretical point of view, chaos can be stabilized in the framework of this method because small modifications of the vector field controlling the dynamics are allowed, and thus some of the previously existing unstable periodic trajectories can be made stable. The method is much inspired on recent treatments of some related problems, and it is compared with them. One of its most attractive features is that it should be very easy to implement it on real experiments. The method is tested on a system of ordinary differential equations modelling the coupling of two self-oscillating electronic circuits (van der Pol oscillators). Some brief comments are made on the possibility that it could be applied to complex spatio-temporal systems where multiple chaotic structures can coexist for some values of the control parameters

  11. Controlling a Chaotic System through Control Parameter Self-Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, I.

    1994-01-01

    A method for obtaining active control of a chaotic system based on the modulation of a control parameter by adding to it a small perturbation proportional to one output signal is proposed. From a theoretical point of view, chaos can be stabilized in the framework of this method because small modifications of the vector field controlling the dynamics are allowed, and thus some of the previously oxi sting unstable periodic trajectories can be made stable. The method is much inspired on recent treatments of some related problems, and i t is compared with them. One of its most attractive features is that is should be very easy to implement it on real experiments. The method is tested on a system of ordinary differential equations model ling the coupling of two se If - oscillating electronic circuits (van der Pol oscillators). Some brief comments are made on the no possibility that it could be applied to complex spatio-temporal systems where multiple chaotic structures can coexist for some values of the control parameters. (Author) 28 refs

  12. Controlling a Chaotic System through Control Parameter Self-Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, I.

    1994-07-01

    A method for obtaining active control of a chaotic system based on the modulation of a control parameter by adding to it a small perturbation proportional to one output signal is proposed. From a theoretical point of view, chaos can be stabilized in the framework of this method because small modifications of the vector field controlling the dynamics are allowed, and thus some of the previously oxi sting unstable periodic trajectories can be made stable. The method is much inspired on recent treatments of some related problems, and i t is compared with them. One of its most attractive features is that is should be very easy to implement it on real experiments. The method is tested on a system of ordinary differential equations model ling the coupling of two se If - oscillating electronic circuits (van der Pol oscillators). Some brief comments are made on the no possibility that it could be applied to complex spatio-temporal systems where multiple chaotic structures can coexist for some values of the control parameters. (Author) 28 refs.

  13. A side-by-side comparison of CPV module and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Marion, Bill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Ghosal, Kanchan [Semprius, Inc., 4915 Prospectus Drive, Suite C Durham NC 27713 USA; Burroughs, Scott [Semprius, Inc., 4915 Prospectus Drive, Suite C Durham NC 27713 USA; Libby, Cara [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave. Palo Alto CA 94304 USA; Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave. Palo Alto CA 94304 USA

    2016-02-23

    A side-by-side comparison is made between concentrator photovoltaic module and system direct current aperture efficiency data with a focus on quantifying system performance losses. The individual losses measured/calculated, when combined, are in good agreement with the total loss seen between the module and the system. Results indicate that for the given test period, the largest individual loss of 3.7% relative is due to the baseline performance difference between the individual module and the average for the 200 modules in the system. A basic empirical model is derived based on module spectral performance data and the tabulated losses between the module and the system. The model predicts instantaneous system direct current aperture efficiency with a root mean square error of 2.3% relative.

  14. Simultaneous optical carrier and radio frequency re-modulation in radio-over-fiber systems employing reflective SOA modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassar, Carvalho; Calabretta, Nicola; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an innovative full-duplex radio-over-fibre transmission system employing a reflective SOA to perform simultaneous reusing of the optical carrier and data re-modulation, thus avoiding the use of local radiofrequency oscillator at the station sites.......We demonstrate an innovative full-duplex radio-over-fibre transmission system employing a reflective SOA to perform simultaneous reusing of the optical carrier and data re-modulation, thus avoiding the use of local radiofrequency oscillator at the station sites....

  15. Tests of Silicon Detector Modules for the Tracker End Cap with the ARC System

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Franke, Torsten; Kasselmann, Stefan; Mnich, Joachim; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Schulte, Reiner

    2003-01-01

    During the production phase of the CMS silicon strip detector modules the ARC (APV Readout Controller) system will be used as a readout system for testing purposes. The first ten TEC (tracker end cap) modules built have been tested using the ARC system. After a description of the test environment and the test procedures the results for the so-called expressline modules are summarized.

  16. Photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan solar home systems market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.D.; Jacobson, A.; Kammen, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    As one of the largest unsubsidized markets for solar home systems (SHSs) in the world, Kenya represents a promising model for rural electrification based on private purchases of clean decentralized photovoltaic technologies. Small amorphous-silicon modules dominate the market and most brands provide high quality and affordable service. Product quality varies widely, however, and the public has limited capacity to distinguish among competing brands. This imposes direct hardships on households with the misfortune to purchase low-quality equipment, and it constrains sales as some customers refrain from purchasing solar equipment due to the associated performance uncertainty. This article analyzes market failure associated with photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan SHS market and develops strategies to address the problem - emphasizing that similar quality problems may exist for other SHS components and in other markets. The principal conclusion is that domestic product testing with public disclosure represents an inexpensive low-risk strategy, but it may prove inadequate. Mandatory product quality standards based on international testing regimes (e.g. IEC standards), augmented with a basic domestic testing option, would provide stronger assurance, but the risks associated with this intervention suggest caution. An emerging multilateral SHS market support effort (PVMTI) should ensure quality for the credit-based sales it promotes in Kenya; however, the long-term impact of this approach is not yet clear and it is unlikely to address quality problems associated with the unsubsidized sales-based markets for SHSs. Finally, fee-for-service models would decisively address quality problems, but launching this model in the Kenyan market would likely require large subsidies. (author)

  17. System and method of modulating electrical signals using photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductors as variable resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John Richardson; Caporaso, George J; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2013-10-22

    A system and method for producing modulated electrical signals. The system uses a variable resistor having a photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductor material construction whose conduction response to changes in amplitude of incident radiation is substantially linear throughout a non-saturation region to enable operation in non-avalanche mode. The system also includes a modulated radiation source, such as a modulated laser, for producing amplitude-modulated radiation with which to direct upon the variable resistor and modulate its conduction response. A voltage source and an output port, are both operably connected to the variable resistor so that an electrical signal may be produced at the output port by way of the variable resistor, either generated by activation of the variable resistor or propagating through the variable resistor. In this manner, the electrical signal is modulated by the variable resistor so as to have a waveform substantially similar to the amplitude-modulated radiation.

  18. Random Vibration Analysis of the XM2l Decontaminant Pumper Module of the Modular Decontamination System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colclough, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The XM21 Decontaminant Pumper module of the Modular Decontamination System was analyzed using finite element analysis techniques to show why the first design iteration passed transportation vibration...

  19. Module and electronics developments for the ATLAS ITK pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in 2017. A new on-detector readout chip is designed in the context of the RD53 collaboration in 65 nm CMOS technology. This paper will present the on-going R&D within the ATLAS ITK project towards the new pixel modules and the off-detector electronics. Planar and 3D sensors are being re-designed with cell sizes of 50x50 or 25x100 μm2, compatible with the RD53 chip. A sensor thickness equal or less th...

  20. Evaluation of modulation formats for 160 Gb/s transmission systems using Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenbo, Xu; Rottwitt, Karsten; Jeppesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    We evaluate 160 Gb/s systems with different modulation formats. RZ-DPSK gives best performance for a single channel system with 40% reach improvement compared to RZ, CSRZ-DPSK is more robust in a WDM system....

  1. Software requirements specification for the program analysis and control system risk management module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAEFER, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    TWR Program Analysis and Control System Risk Module is used to facilitate specific data processes surrounding the Risk Management program of the Tank Waste Retrieval environment. This document contains the Risk Management system requirements of the database system

  2. Research on Retro-reflecting Modulation in Space Optical Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifeng; Wang, Guannan

    2018-01-01

    Retro-reflecting modulation space optical communication is a new type of free space optical communication technology. Unlike traditional free space optical communication system, it applys asymmetric optical systems to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the system and can effectively solve the limits of traditional free space optical communication system application, so it can achieve the information transmission. This paper introduces the composition and working principle of retro-reflecting modulation optical communication system, analyzes the link budget of this system, reviews the types of optical system and optical modulator, summarizes this technology future research direction and application prospects.

  3. Module Ten: Transformers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module introduces a very important electrical device, the transformer. The module is divided into six lessons: transformer construction, transformer theory and operation, turns and voltage ratios, power and current, transformer efficiency, and semiconductor rectifiers. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson…

  4. Thermal and optical performance of encapsulation systems for flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minning, C. P.; Coakley, J. F.; Perrygo, C. M.; Garcia, A., III; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical power output from a photovoltaic module is strongly influenced by the thermal and optical characteristics of the module encapsulation system. Described are the methodology and computer model for performing fast and accurate thermal and optical evaluations of different encapsulation systems. The computer model is used to evaluate cell temperature, solar energy transmittance through the encapsulation system, and electric power output for operation in a terrestrial environment. Extensive results are presented for both superstrate-module and substrate-module design schemes which include different types of silicon cell materials, pottants, and antireflection coatings.

  5. Increasing the bit rate in OCDMA systems using pulse position modulation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Vahid R; Saghari, Poorya; Haghi, Mahta; Ebrahimi, Paniz; Willner, Alan E

    2007-09-17

    We have experimentally demonstrated two novel pulse position modulation techniques, namely Double Pulse Position Modulation (2-PPM) and Differential Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) in Time-Wavelength OCDMA systems that will operate at a higher bit rate compared to traditional OOK-OCDMA systems with the same bandwidth. With 2-PPM technique, the number of active users will be more than DPPM while their bit rate is almost the same. Both techniques provide variable quality of service in OCDMA networks.

  6. Amplitude modulator of radio frequency system for 1.3 GeV Electron Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, T.

    1977-01-01

    The amplitude modulator for the 8F68 VHF high power tetrode tube has been designed and constructed. The modulator was constructed with solid components such as transistors and integrated circuits. In case of changing circuit elements of the modulator to solid components from tubes, many attentions are paid for preventing the noise and the over load, due to connection between the low power circuits (modulator) and high power circuits (VHF amplifier). The new modulator is constructed with taking careful consideration into selection of the method of the power control and the protection system. (auth.)

  7. Sex modulates approach systems and impulsivity in substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert I; Krmpotich, Theodore; Thompson, Laetitia L; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody

    2013-11-01

    Personality traits such as pathological engagement in approach behaviors, high levels of impulsivity and heightened negative affect are consistently observed in substance dependent individuals (SDI). The clinical course of addiction has been shown to differ between sexes. For example, women increase their rates of consumption of some drugs of abuse more quickly than men. Despite the potential influence of personality and sex on features of addiction, few studies have investigated the interaction of these factors in substance dependence. Fifty-one SDI (26 males, 25 females) and 66 controls (41 males, 25 females) completed the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scales, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X). Data were analyzed with 2×2 ANCOVAs testing for main effects of group, sex and group by sex interactions, adjusting for education level. Significant group by sex interactions were observed for BAS scores [F(1,116)=7.03, pdrug use may be modulated by sex. These factors may contribute to differences in the disease course observed in male compared to female drug users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Status Report on NEAMS System Analysis Module Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yu, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Under the Reactor Product Line (RPL) of DOE-NE’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program, an advanced SFR System Analysis Module (SAM) is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The goal of the SAM development is to provide fast-running, improved-fidelity, whole-plant transient analyses capabilities. SAM utilizes an object-oriented application framework MOOSE), and its underlying meshing and finite-element library libMesh, as well as linear and non-linear solvers PETSc, to leverage modern advanced software environments and numerical methods. It also incorporates advances in physical and empirical models and seeks closure models based on information from high-fidelity simulations and experiments. This report provides an update on the SAM development, and summarizes the activities performed in FY15 and the first quarter of FY16. The tasks include: (1) implement the support of 2nd-order finite elements in SAM components for improved accuracy and computational efficiency; (2) improve the conjugate heat transfer modeling and develop pseudo 3-D full-core reactor heat transfer capabilities; (3) perform verification and validation tests as well as demonstration simulations; (4) develop the coupling requirements for SAS4A/SASSYS-1 and SAM integration.

  9. Experimental and theoretical analysis of cell module output performance for a thermophotovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaojie; Ye, Hong; Xu, Yexin; Shen, Mingrong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An accurate theoretical model for thermophotovoltaic system is constructed. • Parallel connected module is superior if radiator temperature is uneven. • Series connected module is superior if cell temperature is uneven. • Short circuit current of series module rises when the shunt resistance decreases. • Fill factor is not always accurate to evaluate the module performance. - Abstract: An experimental thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a cylindrical-geometry radiator was established to test the output performances of modules under different conditions. The results demonstrate that the output performance of a cell module decreases when the combustion power increases because of the uneven temperature of the radiator or cells. On this basis, a theoretical model for a TPV system was constructed to compare the performance under different conditions of the series-connected (SC) module and the parallel-connected (PC) module, and was verified by the experimental results. The influences of the temperature gradient of the radiator or the cell module, and the series and shunt resistance of the TPV cell on the module performance were analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the PC module can effectively reduce the mismatch loss of output power caused by the uneven radiator temperature. The PC module, for instance, has a maximum output power of 2.54 times higher than that of the SC module when the radiator temperature difference is 500 K. However, the output performance of the module connected in series is superior to the PC module while the cell temperature is non-uniform. The output power of the SC module is 9.93% higher than that of the PC module at the cell temperature difference of 125 K. The short circuit current of the SC module is sensitive to the series and shunt resistance if the radiator temperature distribution is non-uniform. As the shunt resistance falls from ∞ to 0.5 Ω, the current varies from 1.757 A to 4.488 A when the

  10. Bridging the gap between modules in isolation and as part of networks: A systems framework for elucidating interaction and regulation of signalling modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Govind; Krishnan, J.

    2016-07-01

    While signalling and biochemical modules have been the focus of numerous studies, they are typically studied in isolation, with no examination of the effects of the ambient network. In this paper we formulate and develop a systems framework, rooted in dynamical systems, to understand such effects, by studying the interaction of signalling modules. The modules we consider are (i) basic covalent modification, (ii) monostable switches, (iii) bistable switches, (iv) adaptive modules, and (v) oscillatory modules. We systematically examine the interaction of these modules by analyzing (a) sequential interaction without shared components, (b) sequential interaction with shared components, and (c) oblique interactions. Our studies reveal that the behaviour of a module in isolation may be substantially different from that in a network, and explicitly demonstrate how the behaviour of a given module, the characteristics of the ambient network, and the possibility of shared components can result in new effects. Our global approach illuminates different aspects of the structure and functioning of modules, revealing the importance of dynamical characteristics as well as biochemical features; this provides a methodological platform for investigating the complexity of natural modules shaped by evolution, elucidating the effects of ambient networks on a module in multiple cellular contexts, and highlighting the capabilities and constraints for engineering robust synthetic modules. Overall, such a systems framework provides a platform for bridging the gap between non-linear information processing modules, in isolation and as parts of networks, and a basis for understanding new aspects of natural and engineered cellular networks.

  11. A proton beam delivery system for conformal therapy and intensity modulated therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang

    2001-01-01

    A scattering proton beam delivery system for conformal therapy and intensity modulated therapy is described. The beam is laterally spread out by a dual-ring double scattering system and collimated by a program-controlled multileaf collimator and patient specific fixed collimators. The proton range is adjusted and modulated by a program controlled binary filter and ridge filters

  12. The Development of COBOL and RPG Instructional Modules to Audit Computerized Accounting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1982-01-01

    Details steps involved (as found in the literature) in the systems approach to design and develop instruction in order to provide a rationale for the development of instructional modules in COBOL and RPG to teach accounting students how to audit computerized accounting systems. Outlines of two modules are appended. (EAO)

  13. Implementation of the Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Inspection Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    7 5 T H A I R B A S E W I N G Implementation of the Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Inspection Module 2009 Environment...Implementation of the Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Inspection Module 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  14. Greenhouse Module for Space System: A Lunar Greenhouse Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidler Conrad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the next 10 to 20 years humankind will return to the Moon and/or travel to Mars. It is likely that astronauts will eventually build permanent settlements there, as a base for long-term crew tended research tasks. It is obvious that the crew of such settlements will need food to survive. With current mission architectures the provision of food for longduration missions away from Earth requires a significant number of resupply flights. Furthermore, it would be infeasible to provide the crew with continuous access to fresh produce, specifically crops with high water content such as tomatoes and peppers, on account of their limited shelf life. A greenhouse as an integrated part of a planetary surface base would be one solution to solve this challenge for long-duration missions. Astronauts could grow their own fresh fruit and vegetables in-situ to be more independent from supply from Earth. This paper presents the results of the design project for such a greenhouse, which was carried out by DLR and its partners within the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program. The consortium performed an extensive system analysis followed by a definition of system and subsystem requirements for greenhouse modules. Over 270 requirements were defined in this process. Afterwards the consortium performed an in-depth analysis of illumination strategies, potential growth accommodations and shapes for the external structure. Five different options for the outer shape were investigated, each of them with a set of possible internal configurations. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, the different concept options were evaluated and ranked against each other. The design option with the highest ranking was an inflatable outer structure with a rigid inner core, in which the subsystems are mounted. The inflatable shell is wrapped around the core during launch and transit to the lunar surface. The paper provides an overview of the

  15. Anaerobic degradation of cellulosic substrates - Bionic implementation of the forestomach sysem of a ruminant; Anaerober Abbau cellulosehaltiger Substrate. Bionische Implementierung des Vormagensystems des Wiederkaeuers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichgrebe, Dirk [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik; Stopp, Paul; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; Breves, Gerhard; Strecker, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The forestomach system of a ruminant technically can be realized by means of a two-stage arrangement of hydrolysis/acidification (first step) and methanation (second stage). Both stages are connected by a retention of solid substances and by a recirculation of process water. The first stage converts cellulose-rich substrates in short-chain volatile organic acids. The second stage converts these short-chain volatile organic acids into biogas. The technical realization of this two-stage arrangement is investigated by the co-operation project RUMEN-DAUMEN 2.0 of the Institute of Environmental Engineering at the Leibniz University of Hannover (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Physiological Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany). The aim of this study is to design a viable implementation of cellulosic waste materials by means of an efficient hydrolysis and to convert produced fatty acids efficiently in biogas.

  16. A 'V' shaped superconducting levitation module for lift and guidance of a magnetic transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ovidio, G.; Crisi, F.; Lanzara, G.

    2008-01-01

    A novel, YBCO based, magnetic transportation system (MagTranS) is presented and described. The feasibility of this system has been successfully tested and confirmed in a laboratory using a scaled demonstrator system. The MagTranS levitation system uses a stable, self-balancing 'V' shaped superconducting module for both lift and guidance of vehicles. The work concept of the MagTranS levitation module is described and differences with regards to the maglev current systems are highlighted. The results of levitation tests performed using a measurement set-up are presented and discussed. Lastly, levitation module performance studies are also carried out using numerical finite element analysis

  17. Photovoltaic Module Simulink Model for a Stand-alone PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chen; Ming, Zhu

    Photovoltaic(PV) Module is indispensable of a stand-alone PV system. In this paper, a one-diode equivalent circuit-based versatile simulation model in the form of masked block PV module is proposed. By the model, it is allowed to estimate behavior of PV module with respect changes on irradiance intensity, ambient temperature and parameters of the PV module. In addition, the model is capable of function of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) which can be used in the dynamic simulation of stand-alone PV systems.

  18. Algorithms and software for modules of automatic neurocomputer control of smart electromechanical system such as hexapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    The article discusses issues in developing algorithms and software for specialized computing devices based on neuroprocessors, to be used in automatic control of electric- mechanical system modules (in this case study, a hexapod) in a mode that is close to real-time. The practical implementation employed an NM6406 neuroprocessor based on an MC 51.03 tool module and an MB 77.07 microcomputer, developed by the Module Research Centre.

  19. Estimating the Effects of Module Area on Thin-Film Photovoltaic System Costs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Xingshu [Purdue University; Alam, Muhammad A [Purdue University

    2018-03-29

    We investigate the potential effects of module area on the cost and performance of photovoltaic systems. Applying a bottom-up methodology, we analyzed the costs associated with thin-film modules and systems as a function of module area. We calculate a potential for savings of up to 0.10 dollars/W and 0.13 dollars/W in module manufacturing costs for CdTe and CIGS respectively, with large area modules. We also find that an additional 0.04 dollars/W savings in balance-of-systems costs may be achieved. Sensitivity of the dollar/W cost savings to module efficiency, manufacturing yield, and other parameters is presented. Lifetime energy yield must also be maintained to realize reductions in the levelized cost of energy; the effects of module size on energy yield for monolithic thin-film modules are not yet well understood. Finally, we discuss possible non-cost barriers to adoption of large area modules.

  20. History-based Adaptive Modulation for a Downlink Multicast Channel in OFDMA systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haibo; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the adaptive modulation strategies for Multicast service in orthogonal frequency division multiple access systems. We defined a Reward function as the performance optimization target and developed adaptive modulation strategies to maximize this Reward function. The p...

  1. Optically envelope detected QAM and QPSK RF modulated signals in hybrid wireless-fiber systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Prince, Kamau; Seoane, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate optical envelope detection of 40 Mbaud 16-QAM and QPSK RF modulated signals. The proposed system employs an electro-absorption modulator performing the function of an optical halfwave rectifier. In this experiment, the QAM and QPSK signals are frequency down converted...

  2. Development Modules for Specification of Requirements for a System of Verification of Parallel Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Yu. Meltsov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the development of one of the modules of the system verification of parallel algorithms that are used to verify the inference engine. This module is designed to build the specification requirements, the feasibility of which on the algorithm is necessary to prove (test.

  3. A Matlab/Simulink-Based Interactive Module for Servo Systems Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliane, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive module for learning both the fundamental and practical issues of servo systems. This module, developed using Simulink in conjunction with the Matlab graphical user interface (Matlab-GUI) tool, is used to supplement conventional lectures in control engineering and robotics subjects. First, the paper introduces the…

  4. Transmission modulation system for mobile phone reduces battery consumption without increasing bit error rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, M.; Janssen, G.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The transmission modulation system minimizes the wasted 'out of band' power. The digital data (1) to be transmitted is fed via a pulse response filter (2) to a mixer (4) where it modulates a carrier wave (4). The digital data is also fed via a delay circuit (5) and identical filter (6) to a second

  5. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) V2.0 logistics module PBI acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the acceptance criteria for the Automated Transportation Management System V2.0 Logistics Module Performance Based Incentive (PBI). This acceptance criteria will be the primary basis for the generation of acceptance test procedures. The purpose of this document is to define the minimum criteria that must be fulfilled to guarantee acceptance of the Logistics Module

  6. Single-Server Queueing System with Markov-Modulated Arrivals and Service Times

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Markov-modulated queues, waiting time, heavy traffic. Markov-modulated queueing systems are those in which the input process or service mechanism is influenced by an underlying Markov chain. Several models for such systems have been investigated. In this paper we present heavy traffic analysis of single queueing system with Poisson arrival process whose arrival rate is a function of the state of Markov chain and service times depend on the state of the same Markov chain at the e...

  7. Square root module to combat dispersion-induced nonlinear distortion in Radio-over-Fiber Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Prat Gomà, Josep Joan; Santos Blanco, M. Concepción; Omella Cáncer, Mireia Esther

    2006-01-01

    Reduced dispersion-induced harmonics levels are reported for analogue radio-over-fiber systems by using a linearized receiver incorporating a memoryless electronic circuit with square root (SQRT)-like transfer function, and performing amplitude modulation (AM) at the transmitter. A practical implementation demonstrates the effectiveness of the AM-SQRT approach in linearizing the optical transmission system with respect to the conventional intensity modulation and direct detection system. P...

  8. Frequency Properties Research of Elevator Drive System with Direct Torque Control-Pulse with Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Koval

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article problems of frequency properties research for electric drive system with direct torque control and pulse width modulator are described. The mathematical description of elevator is present. Simplified mathematical description of direct torque control - pulse width modulator electric drive system is shown. Transfer functions for torque and speed loops are determined. Logarithmic frequency characteristics are computed. Damping properties of elevator drive system are estimated.

  9. A stepped FM/CW lidar system using a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-hua; Zhang, Yong; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Xu, Lu; Yang, Xu; Liu, Yue-hao; Jin, Chen-fei; Zhao, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    A stepped frequency-modulated continuous-wave lidar system using a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator with heterodyne detection is demonstrated. The lidar transmitter utilizes a modulation loop circuit composed of an electro-optic dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and a fiber amplifier, as well as a tunable Fabry-Perot filter to generate a bandwidth-enhanced stepped frequency-modulated signal. In addition, a centroid algorithm is used in the receiver to process the signal with both high precision and high accuracy. The simulation results demonstrated that the ranging precision of the proposed lidar was 2.09 cm and the ranging accuracy was 0.16 cm. A validation experiment verified that the data obtained in the simulation had a modulation bandwidth of 4 GHz using a 200-MHz signal source. The improvements resulted in a frequency-modulated continuous-wave lidar system with high precision and accuracy by operating a modulated signal with a wider modulation bandwidth using signal sources with low bandwidth in a low-cost and compact structure.

  10. Development of a diagnostic system for Klystron modulators using a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutoh, M.; Oonuma, T.; Shibasaki, Y.; Abe, I.; Nakahara, K.

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic system for klystron modulators using a neural network has been developed. Large changes in the voltage and current of the main circuit in a klystron modulator were observed just several ten milli-seconds before the modulator experienced trouble. These changes formed a peculiar pattern that depended on the parts with problems. Diagnosis was possible by means of pattern recognition. The recognition test of patterns using a neutral network has shown good results. This system, which is built in a linac control system, is presently being operated so as to collect new trouble patterns and to carry out tests for practical use. (author)

  11. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  12. A 60GHz RoF(radio-over-fiber) transmission system based on PM modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ting

    2016-11-01

    As one of the most important applications of microwave photonic ROF (Radio over Fiber) system which combines the advantages of optical communication and wireless communication is a good candidate for broadband mobile Communication In this paper, we built and simulation a 60GHz RoF(Radio-over-Fiber) transmission system based on PM modulator. First, we introduce the PM-IM(Phase modulation to intensity modulation) modulation mechanisms by the breaking the phase balanced approach. This method solves the problem that the constant envelope (phase modulation signal) generated by the phase modulator can not be directly detected by a photo detector. A standard single-mode fiber (SMF) is connected input to the F-P(Fabry-Perot) optical filter, which is to achieve the PM-IM modulation conversion by changing the wavelength of the laser or the frequency of the modulation factor of the F-P optical filter to adapt to different fiber lengths and the signal transmission rate. These two methods which changing the phase relationship between the optical carrier and the optical side band can realize the ideal phase transition to obtain efficient and low loss modulation conversion. Finally, the simulation results show that different fiber lengths and the signal transmission rate configuration of different wavelength of the laser or the frequency of the modulation factor of the F-P optical filter, the BER performance and the eye diagram of the 60GHz RoF transmission system signals have been improved based on these PM-IM modulation methods.

  13. An Analysis of the Cost and Performance of Photovoltaic Systems as a Function of Module Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Xingshu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Alam, Mohammed A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-04-07

    We investigate the potential effects of module area on the cost and performance of photovoltaic systems. Applying a bottom-up methodology, we analyzed the costs associated with mc-Si and thin-film modules and systems as a function of module area. We calculate a potential for savings of up to $0.04/W, $0.10/W, and $0.13/W in module manufacturing costs for mc-Si, CdTe, and CIGS respectively, with large area modules. We also find that an additional $0.05/W savings in balance-of-systems costs may be achieved. However, these savings are dependent on the ability to maintain efficiency and manufacturing yield as area scales. Lifetime energy yield must also be maintained to realize reductions in the levelized cost of energy. We explore the possible effects of module size on efficiency and energy production, and find that more research is required to understand these issues for each technology. Sensitivity of the $/W cost savings to module efficiency and manufacturing yield is presented. We also discuss non-cost barriers to adoption of large area modules.

  14. Construction of multi-functional open modulized Matlab simulation toolbox for imaging ladar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long; Zhao, Yuan; Tang, Meng; He, Jiang; Zhang, Yong

    2011-06-01

    Ladar system simulation is to simulate the ladar models using computer simulation technology in order to predict the performance of the ladar system. This paper presents the developments of laser imaging radar simulation for domestic and overseas studies and the studies of computer simulation on ladar system with different application requests. The LadarSim and FOI-LadarSIM simulation facilities of Utah State University and Swedish Defence Research Agency are introduced in details. This paper presents the low level of simulation scale, un-unified design and applications of domestic researches in imaging ladar system simulation, which are mostly to achieve simple function simulation based on ranging equations for ladar systems. Design of laser imaging radar simulation with open and modularized structure is proposed to design unified modules for ladar system, laser emitter, atmosphere models, target models, signal receiver, parameters setting and system controller. Unified Matlab toolbox and standard control modules have been built with regulated input and output of the functions, and the communication protocols between hardware modules. A simulation based on ICCD gain-modulated imaging ladar system for a space shuttle is made based on the toolbox. The simulation result shows that the models and parameter settings of the Matlab toolbox are able to simulate the actual detection process precisely. The unified control module and pre-defined parameter settings simplify the simulation of imaging ladar detection. Its open structures enable the toolbox to be modified for specialized requests. The modulization gives simulations flexibility.

  15. Localized modulated wave solutions in diffusive glucose–insulin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mvogo, Alain, E-mail: mvogal_2009@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Biophysics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, University of Yaounde (Cameroon); Centre d' Excellence Africain en Technologies de l' Information et de la Communication, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon); Tambue, Antoine [The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) and Stellenbosch University, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg 7945 (South Africa); Center for Research in Computational and Applied Mechanics (CERECAM), and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, 7701 Rondebosch (South Africa); Ben-Bolie, Germain H. [Centre d' Excellence Africain en Technologies de l' Information et de la Communication, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon); Laboratory of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, University of Yaounde (Cameroon); Kofané, Timoléon C. [Centre d' Excellence Africain en Technologies de l' Information et de la Communication, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon); Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, University of Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2016-06-03

    We investigate intercellular insulin dynamics in an array of diffusively coupled pancreatic islet β-cells. The cells are connected via gap junction coupling, where nearest neighbor interactions are included. Through the multiple scale expansion in the semi-discrete approximation, we show that the insulin dynamics can be governed by the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation. The localized solutions of this equation are reported. The results suggest from the biophysical point of view that the insulin propagates in pancreatic islet β-cells using both temporal and spatial dimensions in the form of localized modulated waves. - Highlights: • The dynamics of an array of diffusively coupled pancreatic islet beta-cells is investigated. • Through the multiple scale expansion, we show that the insulin dynamics can be governed by the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation. • Localized modulated waves are obtained for the insulin dynamics.

  16. Time domain referencing in intensity modulation fiber optic sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, G.

    1986-01-01

    Intensity modulation sensors are classified depending on the way in which the reference and signal channels are separated: in space, wavelength (frequency), or time domains. To implement the time domain referencing different types of fiber optic (FO) loops have been used. A pulse of short duration sent into the loop results in a series of pulses of different amplitudes. The information about the measured parameter is retrieved from the relative amplitudes of pulses in the same train.

  17. Glucocorticoids, master modulators of the thymic catecholaminergic system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pilipović

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the major mediators of stress, i.e., catecholamines and glucocorticoids, play an important role in modulating thymopoiesis and consequently immune responses. Furthermore, there are data suggesting that glucocorticoids influence catecholamine action. Therefore, to assess the putative relevance of glucocorticoid-catecholamine interplay in the modulation of thymopoiesis we analyzed thymocyte differentiation/maturation in non-adrenalectomized and andrenalectomized rats subjected to treatment with propranolol (0.4 mg·100 g body weight-1·day-1 for 4 days. The effects of β-adrenoceptor blockade on thymopoiesis in non-adrenalectomized rats differed not only quantitatively but also qualitatively from those in adrenalectomized rats. In adrenalectomized rats, besides a more efficient thymopoiesis [judged by a more pronounced increase in the relative proportion of the most mature single-positive TCRαβhigh thymocytes as revealed by two-way ANOVA; for CD4+CD8- F (1,20 = 10.92, P < 0.01; for CD4-CD8+ F (1,20 = 7.47, P < 0.05], a skewed thymocyte maturation towards the CD4-CD8+ phenotype, and consequently a diminished CD4+CD8-/CD4-CD8+ mature TCRαβhigh thymocyte ratio (3.41 ± 0.21 in non-adrenalectomized rats vs 2.90 ± 0.31 in adrenalectomized rats, P < 0.05 were found. Therefore, we assumed that catecholaminergic modulation of thymopoiesis exhibits a substantial degree of glucocorticoid-dependent plasticity. Given that glucocorticoids, apart from catecholamine synthesis, influence adrenoceptor expression, we also hypothesized that the lack of adrenal glucocorticoids affected not only β-adrenoceptor- but also α-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of thymopoiesis.

  18. Modulational instability and nonlocality management in coupled NLS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doktorov, Evgeny V; Molchan, Maxim A

    2007-01-01

    The modulational instability of two interacting waves in a nonlocal Kerr-type medium is considered analytically and numerically. For a generic choice of wave amplitudes, we give a complete description of stable/unstable regimes for zero group-velocity mismatch. It is shown that nonlocality suppresses considerably the growth rate and bandwidth of instability. For nonzero group-velocity mismatch we perform a geometrical analysis of a nonlocality management which can provide stability of waves otherwise unstable in a local medium

  19. Quasi-2D Unsteady Flow Solver Module for Rocket Engine and Propulsion System Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campell, Bryan T; Davis, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    .... The solver is targeted to the commercial dynamic simulation software package Simulink(Registered) for integration into a larger suite of modules developed for simulating rocket engines and propulsion systems...

  20. Evaluation of faciocutaneous clues to systemic diseases: A learning module for Chinese undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shen

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Introducing this additional learning module may offer an early opportunity to explore systemic diseases from a dermatological view and is likely to lay the foundations for interdisciplinary collaboration in the future practice for medical students.

  1. Test of CMS tracker silicon detector modules with the ARC readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, M; Flügge, G; Franke, T; Hegner, B; Hermanns, T; Kasselmann, S T; Mnich, J; Nowack, A; Pooth, O; Pottgens, M

    2004-01-01

    The CMS tracker will be equipped with 16,000 silicon microstrip detector modules covering a surface of approximately 220 m**2. For quality control, a compact and inexpensive DAQ system is needed to monitor the mass production in industry and in the CMS production centres. To meet these requirements a set-up called APV Readout Controller (ARC) system was developed and distributed among all collaborating institutes to perform full readout tests of hybrids and modules at each production step. The system consists of all necessary hardware components, C++ based readout software using LabVIEW **1 Lab VIEW is a product of National Instruments, Austin, USA. as graphical user interface and provides full database connection to track every single module component during the production phase. Two preseries of Tracker End Cap (TEC) silicon detector modules have been produced by the TEC community and tested with the ARC system at Aachen. The results of the second series are presented.

  2. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) For digitally modulated emissions, the Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) standard shall be employed. Both digital audio broadcasting and datacasting are authorized. The RF requirements for the DRM system are...

  3. MTR2: a discriminator and dead-time module used in counting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, J

    2000-03-01

    In the field of radioactivity measurement, there is a constant need for highly specialized electronic modules such as ADCs, amplifiers, discriminators, dead-time modules, etc. But sometimes it is almost impossible to find on the market the modules having the performances corresponding to our needs. The purpose of the module presented here, called MTR2 (Module de Temps-mort Reconductible), is to process, in terms of pulse height discrimination and dead-time corrections, the pulses delivered by the detectors used in counting systems. This dead-time, of the extendible type, is triggered by both the positive and negative parts of the incoming pulse and the dead-time corrections are made according to the live-time method. This module, which has been developed and tested at LPRI, can be used alone in simple counting channels or in more complex systems such as coincidence systems. The philosophy governing the choice and the implementation of this type of dead-time as well as the system used for the dead-time corrections is presented. The electronic scheme and the performances are also presented. This module is available in the NIM standard.

  4. MTR2: a discriminator and dead-time module used in counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of radioactivity measurement, there is a constant need for highly specialized electronic modules such as ADCs, amplifiers, discriminators, dead-time modules, etc. But sometimes it is almost impossible to find on the market the modules having the performances corresponding to our needs. The purpose of the module presented here, called MTR2 (Module de Temps-mort Reconductible), is to process, in terms of pulse height discrimination and dead-time corrections, the pulses delivered by the detectors used in counting systems. This dead-time, of the extendible type, is triggered by both the positive and negative parts of the incoming pulse and the dead-time corrections are made according to the live-time method. This module, which has been developed and tested at LPRI, can be used alone in simple counting channels or in more complex systems such as coincidence systems. The philosophy governing the choice and the implementation of this type of dead-time as well as the system used for the dead-time corrections is presented. The electronic scheme and the performances are also presented. This module is available in the NIM standard

  5. Rearrangeable and exchangeable optical module with system-on-chip for wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Numata, Takashi; Sato, Hiroki; Hiraizumi, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Hidenobu; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    We developed a system-on-chip (SoC)-incorporated light-emitting diode (LED) and avalanche photodiode (APD) modules to improve the usability and flexibility of a fiberless wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. The SoC has a microprocessing unit and programmable circuits. The time division method and the lock-in method were used for separately detecting signals from different positions and signals of different wavelengths, respectively. Each module autonomously works for this time-divided-lock-in measurement with a high sensitivity for haired regions. By supplying [Formula: see text] of power and base and data clocks, the LED module emits both 730- and 855-nm wavelengths of light, amplitudes of which are modulated in each lock-in frequency generated from the base clock, and the APD module provides the lock-in detected signals synchronizing with the data clock. The SoC provided many functions, including automatic-power-control of the LED, automatic judgment of detected power level, and automatic-gain-control of the programmable gain amplifier. The number and the arrangement of modules can be adaptively changed by connecting this exchangeable modules in a daisy chain and setting the parameters dependent on the probing position. Therefore, users can configure a variety of arrangements (single- or multidistance combinations) of them with this module-based system.

  6. Modelling the EDLC-based Power Supply Module for a Maneuvering System of a Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarin, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    The development of the model of the power supply module of a maneuvering system of a nanosatellite is described. The module is based on an EDLC battery as an energy buffer. The EDLC choice is described. Experiments are conducted to provide data for model. Simulation of the power supply module is made for charging and discharging of the battery processes. The difference between simulation and experiment does not exceed 0.5% for charging and 10% for discharging. The developed model can be used in early design and to adjust charger and load parameters. The model can be expanded to represent the entire power system.

  7. Phase Modulation for postcompensation of dispersion in 160-Gb/s systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahlo, Andrei; Clausen, A. T.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end.......Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end....

  8. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials (detachable plane panel); Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kenzai ittaigata module no kenkyu kaihatsu (chakudatsushiki heiban panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of technology for module structures, specifications of the horizontal muntin system module were newly determined in addition to the improved muntin system module, and the prototype pseudo-module integrated with construction material was prepared. The comparison results of the basic performance of both system modules clarified superior waterproofing and module temperature uniformity of the horizontal muntin system. Based on this specifications, integration technology of modules with back metal plates was studied. Formation of the integrated module close to final specifications was ascertained to be possible by use of passivation equipment to irregular form. (2) On development of construction and installation methods of modules, improvement of the waterproofing and workability of both system modules was studied. (3) On the study on practical use of modules, their design and ventilation/cooling structure were studied. 38 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. MODELING OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS WITH MODULATION BY MEANS OF KRONECKER VECTOR-MATRIX REPRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vasilyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling of dynamic systems with modulation by the possibilities of state-space method. This method, being the basis of modern control theory, is based on the possibilities of vector-matrix formalism of linear algebra and helps to solve various problems of technical control of continuous and discrete nature invariant with respect to the dimension of their “input-output” objects. Unfortunately, it turned its back on the wide group of control systems, which hardware environment modulates signals. The marked system deficiency is partially offset by this paper, which proposes Kronecker vector-matrix representations for purposes of system representation of processes with signal modulation. The main result is vector-matrix representation of processes with modulation with no formal difference from continuous systems. It has been found that abilities of these representations could be effectively used in research of systems with modulation. Obtained model representations of processes with modulation are best adapted to the state-space method. These approaches for counting eigenvalues of Kronecker matrix summaries, that are matrix basis of model representations of processes described by Kronecker vector products, give the possibility to use modal direction in research of dynamics for systems with modulation. It is shown that the use of controllability for eigenvalues of general matrixes applied to Kronecker structures enabled to divide successfully eigenvalue spectrum into directed and not directed components. Obtained findings including design problems for models of dynamic processes with modulation based on the features of Kronecker vector and matrix structures, invariant with respect to the dimension of input-output relations, are applicable in the development of alternate current servo drives.

  10. SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules as Power-System Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostetter, Alexander; Franks, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The term "SiC MCPMs" (wherein "MCPM" signifies "multi-chip power module") denotes electronic power-supply modules containing multiple silicon carbide power devices and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) control integrated-circuit chips. SiC MCPMs are being developed as building blocks of advanced expandable, reconfigurable, fault-tolerant power-supply systems. Exploiting the ability of SiC semiconductor devices to operate at temperatures, breakdown voltages, and current densities significantly greater than those of conventional Si devices, the designs of SiC MCPMs and of systems comprising multiple SiC MCPMs are expected to afford a greater degree of miniaturization through stacking of modules with reduced requirements for heat sinking. Moreover, the higher-temperature capabilities of SiC MCPMs could enable operation in environments hotter than Si-based power systems can withstand. The stacked SiC MCPMs in a given system can be electrically connected in series, parallel, or a series/parallel combination to increase the overall power-handling capability of the system. In addition to power connections, the modules have communication connections. The SOI controllers in the modules communicate with each other as nodes of a decentralized control network, in which no single controller exerts overall command of the system. Control functions effected via the network include synchronization of switching of power devices and rapid reconfiguration of power connections to enable the power system to continue to supply power to a load in the event of failure of one of the modules. In addition to serving as building blocks of reliable power-supply systems, SiC MCPMs could be augmented with external control circuitry to make them perform additional power-handling functions as needed for specific applications: typical functions could include regulating voltages, storing energy, and driving motors. Because identical SiC MCPM building blocks could be utilized in a variety of ways, the cost

  11. GAMSOURCE - WRS system module number 38474 for calculating gamma-ray sources produced by neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the source strength of gamma-rays arising from neutron capture in a system represented in one-dimensional geometry. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  12. REMTWO - WRS system module number 299 for calculating the removal flux in a slab shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the uncollided flux due to a distributed source in a one-dimensional plane geometry system. A method is used in which the flux is approximated by the sum of diffusion equation solutions. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  13. Research proposal on : amplitude modulated reflectometry system for JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, T.; Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la.

    1992-01-01

    Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been presented in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps' in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2 pi. The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad-band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for ionospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasma. the main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts (approx 2 pi). (author)

  14. High density, multi-range analog output Versa Module Europa board for control system applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kundan; Das, Ajit Lal

    2014-01-01

    A new VMEDAC64, 12-bit 64 channel digital-to-analog converter, a Versa Module Europa (VME) module, features 64 analog voltage outputs with user selectable multiple ranges, has been developed for control system applications at Inter University Accelerator Centre. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is the module's core, i.e., it implements the DAC control logic and complexity of VMEbus slave interface logic. The VMEbus slave interface and DAC control logic are completely designed and implemented on a single FPGA chip to achieve high density of 64 channels in a single width VME module and will reduce the module count in the control system applications, and hence will reduce the power consumption and cost of overall system. One of our early design goals was to develop the VME interface such that it can be easily integrated with the peripheral devices and satisfy the timing specifications of VME standard. The modular design of this module reduces the amount of time required to develop other custom modules for control system. The VME slave interface is written as a single component inside FPGA which will be used as a basic building block for any VMEbus interface project. The module offers multiple output voltage ranges depending upon the requirement. The output voltage range can be reduced or expanded by writing range selection bits in the control register. The module has programmable refresh rate and by default hold capacitors in the sample and hold circuit for each channel are charged periodically every 7.040 ms (i.e., update frequency 284 Hz). Each channel has software controlled output switch which disconnects analog output from the field. The modularity in the firmware design on FPGA makes the debugging very easy. On-board DC/DC converters are incorporated for isolated power supply for the analog section of the board.

  15. Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Chen, Min; Schaltz, Erik

    and the load. The DC/DC converter is under the control of a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) which insures that the TEG system produces the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g. temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different each TEG module will not produce its...... maximum power. The result of the system MPPT is therefore the best compromise of all the TEG modules in the system. On the other hand, if each TEG module is controlled individual, each TEG module can be operated in its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher....... A converter with an individual MPPT is denoted iMPPT in contrast to the oMPPT which is the denotation of converters which only applies an overall MPPT. In this manuscript a converter capable of handling four TEG-modules are presented and a comparison of the system output power due to an oMPPT and iMPPT...

  16. Modules program structures and the structuring of operating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Duijvestijn, W.; Lockemann, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper some views are presented on the way in which complex systems, such as Operating Systems and the programs to be interfaced with them can be constructed, and how such systems may become heavily library oriented. Although such systems have a dynamic nature, all interfacing within and

  17. Biological design principles of complex feedback modules in the E. coli ammonia assimilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Koichi; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    To synthesize natural or artificial life, it is critically important to understand the design principles of how biochemical networks generate particular cellular functions and evolve complex systems in comparison with engineering systems. Cellular systems maintain their robustness in the face of perturbations arising from environmental and genetic variations. In analogy to control engineering architectures, the complexity of modular structures within a cell can be attributed to the necessity of achieving robustness. To reveal such biological design, the E. coli ammonia assimilation system is analyzed, which consists of complex but highly structured modules: the glutamine synthetase (GS) activity feedback control module with bifunctional enzyme cascades for catalyzing reversible reactions, and the GS synthesis feedback control module with positive and negative feedback loops. We develop a full-scale dynamic model that unifies the two modules, and we analyze its robustness and fine tuning with respect to internal and external perturbations. The GS activity control is added to the GS synthesis module to improve its transient response to ammonia depletion, compensating the tradeoffs of each module, but its robustness to internal perturbations is lost. These findings suggest some design principles necessary for the synthesis of life.

  18. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  19. Design of embedded control system for high-power tetrode modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Rui; Yao Lieying; Xuan Weimin

    2010-01-01

    The design of embedded control system for the high-power tetrode modulator and its test results are given. This control system is a closed-loop feedback system based on the DSP and embedded into the high-voltage modulator. A new modified method of VF fiber transmission is used in the embedded control system. The new method improves the speed of the transmission of feedback system. The results of the experiment demonstrate that the embedded feedback control system greatly increases the response speed of the whole system and improves the performance of the high-power tetrode on the HL-2A tokamak. This embedded feedback control system greatly simplifies the complexity of the original centralized control system. The operation of the control system is reliable. (authors)

  20. GRUKON - A package of applied computer programs system input and operating procedures of functional modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsa, V.V.; Rineiskij, A.A.

    1993-04-01

    This manual describes a software package for the production of multigroup neutron cross-sections from evaluated nuclear data files. It presents the information necessary for the implementation of the program's modules in the framework of the execution of the program, including: operating procedures of the program, the data input, the macrocommand language, the assignment of the system's procedures. This report also presents the methodology used in the coding of the individual modules: the rules, the syntax, the method of procedures. The report also presents an example of the application of the data processing module. (author)

  1. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules, and a Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ceran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of energy analysis of a generation system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, a fuel cell with a polymer membrane, and an electrolyser. The analysis was carried out for three configurations of generating devices’ connections with consumer: I – wind turbines and photovoltaic modules supply electrolyser, II – paralel co-operation of fuel cell with renewables, III – renewables supply electrolyser, with the option of direct supply of the consumer.

  2. Event related desynchronization-modulated functional electrical stimulation system for stroke rehabilitation: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Mitsuru

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed an electroencephalogram-based brain computer interface system to modulate functional electrical stimulation (FES to the affected tibialis anterior muscle in a stroke patient. The intensity of FES current increased in a stepwise manner when the event-related desynchronization (ERD reflecting motor intent was continuously detected from the primary cortical motor area. Methods We tested the feasibility of the ERD-modulated FES system in comparison with FES without ERD modulation. The stroke patient who presented with severe hemiparesis attempted to perform dorsiflexion of the paralyzed ankle during which FES was applied either with or without ERD modulation. Results After 20 minutes of training, the range of movement at the ankle joint and the electromyography amplitude of the affected tibialis anterior muscle were significantly increased following the ERD-modulated FES compared with the FES alone. Conclusions The proposed rehabilitation technique using ERD-modulated FES for stroke patients was feasible. The system holds potentials to improve the limb function and to benefit stroke patients.

  3. A simplified model for nonlinear cross-phase modulation in hybrid optical coherent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhenning; Yan, Weizhen; Oda, Shoichiro; Hoshida, Takeshi; Rasmussen, Jens C

    2009-08-03

    Cross-phase modulation (XPM) has been considered as one of the ultimate obstacles for optical coherent dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. In order to facilitate the XPM analysis, a simplified model was proposed. The model reduced the distributed XPM phenomena to a lumped phase modulation. The XPM phase noise was generated by a linear system which was determined by the DWDM system parameters and whose inputs were undistorted pump channel intensity waveforms. The model limitations induced by the lumped phase modulation and undistorted pumps approximations were intensively discussed and verified. The simplified model showed a good agreement with simulations and experiments for a typical hybrid optical coherent system. Various XPM phenomena were explained by the proposed model.

  4. Automation of the space station core module power management and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Under the Advanced Development Program for Space Station, Marshall Space Flight Center has been developing advanced automation applications for the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system inside the Space Station modules for the past three years. The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD) test bed features three artificial intelligence (AI) systems coupled with conventional automation software functioning in an autonomous or closed-loop fashion. The AI systems in the test bed include a baseline scheduler/dynamic rescheduler (LES), a load shedding management system (LPLMS), and a fault recovery and management expert system (FRAMES). This test bed will be part of the NASA Systems Autonomy Demonstration for 1990 featuring cooperating expert systems in various Space Station subsystem test beds. It is concluded that advanced automation technology involving AI approaches is sufficiently mature to begin applying the technology to current and planned spacecraft applications including the Space Station.

  5. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module V. Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the respiratory system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Five units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system; (2) pathophysiology assessment of the patient; (3) pathophysiology and management of…

  6. Nouns Referring to Tools and Natural Objects Differentially Modulate the Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Patricia M.; Riggio, Lucia; Chersi, Fabian; Sato, Marc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a critical role for the motor system in language processing, the focus of previous work has been on the linguistic category of verbs. Here we tested whether nouns are effective in modulating the motor system and further whether different kinds of nouns--those referring to artifacts or natural items, and items…

  7. Intensity-based fibre-optic sensing system using contrast modulation of subcarrier interference pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, G.; Sherer, T. N.; Maitland, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    A novel technique to compensate for unwanted intensity losses in a fiber-optic sensing system is described. The technique involves a continuous sinusoidal modulation of the light source intensity at radio frequencies and an intensity sensor placed in an unbalanced interferometer. The system shows high sensitivity and stability.

  8. A unique modulation system for two channel data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, B. T.

    1972-01-01

    A simple low cost system is reported for the telemetry of information from meteorological rocket payloads including parachute borne systems. It uses S- or L-band microwave links with low cost oscillator type transmitters. An extension of this system to transmit two channels of data simultaneously by standard time and frequency multiplexing techniques as a sampled pulse is described. One channel is represented by the pulse repetition rate while the other channel is represented by the instantaneous duty cycle of the pulse train.

  9. System control for the modulated 252Cf source ''Shuffler''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.M.

    1975-06-01

    The design and theory of operation of the control chassis for a 252 Cf nondestructive assay system are described. This system repetitively transfers a 252 Cf source from the irradiation region to a shielded position before measuring the delayed neutrons. The design criteria for the system were: rapid movement and precise positioning of the 252 Cf source, precise positioning of the sample, and very accurate timing of the irradiate and count cycles. To achieve these results crystal oscillators were used for timing, and stepping motors were used to position the sample and the source. (U.S.)

  10. WRAP module 1 data management system software test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the test result information for the Data Management System (DMS). Appendix A contains test result information for all Functional Test cases and Appendix B contains the results for all the Performance Test cases

  11. Modulation of the renin-angiotensin system by food protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuike

    derived BAPs can promote their use as safe antihypertensive agents. Moreover, future studies are needed to elucidate the long-term systemic molecular interactions of antihypertensive BAPs with the human genome, proteome and other cellular ...

  12. ADST ARWA Visual System Module Software Design Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    a new visual scene. The VSC also monitors peripheral devices such as Out-The- Window Display System and the Head Tracker System and sends information...Helmet Mounted Display, Out-The- Window Display , and Joystick Interface: HardwareInterfaceControl Name: Hardware Interface Control Description: Hardware...Control going to CIG, Head Tracker, Helmet Mounted Display, Out-The- Window Display , and Joystick Interface: HardwareStat Name: Hardware Status

  13. Thermal and Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Module with an Integrated Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hammami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is proposing and analyzing an electric energy storage system fully integrated with a photovoltaic PV module, composed by a set of lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4 flat batteries, which constitutes a generation-storage PV unit. The batteries were surface-mounted on the back side of the PV module, distant from the PV backsheet, without exceeding the PV frame size. An additional low-emissivity sheet was introduced to shield the batteries from the backsheet thermal irradiance. The challenge addressed in this paper is to evaluate the PV cell temperature increase, due to the reduced thermal exchanges on the back of the module, and to estimate the temperature of the batteries, verifying their thermal constraints. Two one-dimensional (1D thermal models, numerically implemented by using the thermal library of Simulink-Matlab accounting for all the heat exchanges, are here proposed: one related to the original PV module, the other related to the portion of the area of the PV module in correspondence of the proposed energy-storage system. Convective and radiative coefficients were then calculated in relation to different configurations and ambient conditions. The model validation has been carried out considering the PV module to be at the nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT, and by specific experimental measurements with a thermographic camera. Finally, appropriate models were used to evaluate the increasing cell batteries temperature in different environmental conditions.

  14. Innovative measuring system for wear-out indication of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup; Due, Jens; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Power converter failures are a major issue in modern Wind turbines. One of the key elements of power converters for high power application is the IGBT modules. A test bench capable of performing an accelerated wear-out test through power cycling of IGBT modules has been made. In the test bench...... it is possible to stress the IGBT module in a real life working point, controlling the voltage, current and phase of the device under test. An analysis of failure mechanisms has been carried out, indicating that VCE can be used as an sign of wear out of the IGBT module. Therefore an innovative measuring system...... for VCE monitoring with an accuracy as low as a few mV has been implemented. The measurements on the IGBT in the test bench show that it is possible to monitor VCE and use this as an indicator of wear-out....

  15. Modulation of propagation-invariant Localized Waves for FSO communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The novel concept of spatio-Temporal modulation of Nyquist pulses is introduced, and the resulting wave-packets are termed Nyquist Localized Waves (LWs). Ideal Nyquist LWs belong to the generic family of LW solutions and can propagate indefinitely in unbounded media without attenuation or chromatic dispersion. The possibility of modulating Nyquist LWs for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems is demonstrated using two different modulation techniques. The first technique is on-off keying (OOK) with alternate mark inversion (AMI) coding for 1-bit per symbol transmission, and the second one is 16-Ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) for 4-bits per symbol transmission. Aspects related to the performance, detection and generation of the spatio-Temporally coupled wave-packets are discussed and future research directions are outlined. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  16. STUDIES ON IGBT MODULE TO IMPROVE THE RELIABILITY OF POWER ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin

    semiconductor devices are one of the most fragile components. Thus, they play a key role in the robustness and reliability of the overall power electronic systems. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules are the most widely used of their kind and the temperature stress is a major stressor...... of power electronic converters under IGBT failure conditions. The apparatus and methodology for an advanced accelerated power cycling test of IGBT modules are presented in Chapter 2. Further, an improved junction temperature estimation method is also proposed as well as power cycling test results...... are presented. Then, in Chapter 3, the effect of junction temperature swing duration t△Tj on the lifetime of the transfer molded Intelligent Power IGBT Module is investigated and modeled based on the power cycling test results. In addition, the physics-of-failure analysis results of the tested modules...

  17. Mathematical analysis and coordinated current allocation control in battery power module systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weiji; Zhang, Liang

    2017-12-01

    As the major energy storage device and power supply source in numerous energy applications, such as solar panels, wind plants, and electric vehicles, battery systems often face the issue of charge imbalance among battery cells/modules, which can accelerate battery degradation, cause more energy loss, and even incur fire hazard. To tackle this issue, various circuit designs have been developed to enable charge equalization among battery cells/modules. Recently, the battery power module (BPM) design has emerged to be one of the promising solutions for its capability of independent control of individual battery cells/modules. In this paper, we propose a new current allocation method based on charging/discharging space (CDS) for performance control in BPM systems. Based on the proposed method, the properties of CDS-based current allocation with constant parameters are analyzed. Then, real-time external total power requirement is taken into account and an algorithm is developed for coordinated system performance control. By choosing appropriate control parameters, the desired system performance can be achieved by coordinating the module charge balance and total power efficiency. Besides, the proposed algorithm has complete analytical solutions, and thus is very computationally efficient. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using simulations.

  18. Decoupling Control Design for the Module Suspension Control System in Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An engineering oriented decoupling control method for the module suspension system is proposed to solve the coupling issues of the two levitation units of the module in magnetic levitation (maglev train. According to the format of the system transfer matrix, a modified adjoint transfer matrix based decoupler is designed. Then, a compensated controller is obtained in the light of a desired close loop system performance. Optimization between the performance index and robustness index is also carried out to determine the controller parameters. However, due to the high orders and complexity of the obtained resultant controller, model reduction method is adopted to get a simplified controller with PID structure. Considering the modeling errors of the module suspension system as the uncertainties, experiments have been performed to obtain the weighting function of the system uncertainties. By using this, the robust stability of the decoupled module suspension control system is checked. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling design method is validated by simulations and physical experiments. The results illustrate that the presented decoupling design can result in a satisfactory decoupling and better dynamic performance, especially promoting the reliability of the suspension control system in practical engineering application.

  19. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  20. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...

  1. Modulation equations for spatially periodic systems: derivation and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schielen, R.; Doelman, A.

    1996-01-01

    We study a class of partial dierential equations in one spatial dimension, which can be seen as model equations for the analysis of pattern formation in physical systems dened on unbounded, weakly oscillating domains. We perform a linear and weakly nonlinear stability analysis for solutions that

  2. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  3. systemic approaches to teaching and learning a module of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Department of Biology – Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences,. University of Shkodra (Albania) ... relations between the concepts and issues will be clarified. The main structural element of the ... the application of systemic methodology, students will study not only concepts, principles, and various metabolic procedures ...

  4. Modulated self-organization in complex amphiphilic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevink, A; Zvelindovsky, A; Fraaije, H

    2000-01-01

    We discuss novel simulation methods for 3D pattern formation in complex amphiphilic systems. The focus is on the supra-molecular or mesoscopic level. The building blocks consist of sequences of dissimilar monomers, connected in copolymer chain molecules. Internal factors such as composition and

  5. Modulated self-organization in complex amphiphilic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, JGEM; Zvelindovsky, AV; Sevink, GJA; Maurits, NM

    2000-01-01

    We discuss novel simulation methods for 3D pattern formation in complex amphiphilic systems. The focus is on the supra-molecular or mesoscopic level. The building blocks consist of sequences of dissimilar monomers. connected in copolymer chain molecules. Internal factors such as composition and

  6. Modulation, resolution and signal processing in radar, sonar and related systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, R; Costrell, L

    1966-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 35: Modulation, Resolution and Signal Processing in Radar, Sonar and Related Systems presents the practical limitations and potentialities of advanced modulation systems. This book discusses the concepts and techniques in the radar context, but they are equally essential to sonar and to a wide range of signaling and data-processing applications, including seismology, radio astronomy, and band-spread communications.Organized into 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal developments sought in pulse radar. This text then provides a

  7. Modulating the serotonin system in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Debbi Ann; Stahl, Stephen M

    2014-12-01

    Discuss the theory of modulation of receptor activity or the blockade of the reuptake of multiple neurotransmitter systems for the future treatment of MDD. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious and often crippling psychiatric illness with a high risk of relapse and treatment resistance. In this article, we discuss the role of the serotonergic system in MDD including our current understanding of how various serotonin (5HT) receptors modulate monoamine neurotransmission and behavior. We also discuss how pharmacologic interventions, including novel and existing antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics, may be utilized to adjust serotonergic neurotransmission and provide more effective treatments for patients with MDD.

  8. GPLS VME Module: A Diagnostic and Display Tool for NSLS Micro Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, S.; Smith, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The General Purpose Light Source VME module is an integral part of every front-end micro in the NSLS control system. The board incorporates features such as a video character generator, clock signals, time-of-day clock, a VME bus interrupter and general-purpose digital inputs and outputs. This module serves as a valuable diagnostic and real-time display tool for the micro development as well as for the find operational systems. This paper describes the functions provided by the board for the NSLS micro control monitor software

  9. Projective Synchronization in Modulated Time-Delayed Chaotic Systems Using an Active Control Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cun-Fang; Wang Ying-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems is studied by applying an active control method. Based on the Lyapunov asymptotical stability theorem, the controller and sufficient condition for projective synchronization are calculated analytically. We give a general method with which we can achieve projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed chaotic systems. This method allows us to adjust the desired scaling factor arbitrarily. The effectiveness of our method is confirmed by using the famous delay-differential equations related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach. (general)

  10. A Low Cost System for Testing and Monitoring the Performance of Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU, V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a low cost system for testing and monitoring the performance of PV modules in outdoor conditions. In order to do this, we improved and adapted another measuring system. This system was developed by us and enables us to ensure the performance of the PV module through testing and monitoring, as well as saving collected data to a database. This database can be accessed through a graphical interface on a laptop connected to the system using serial interface. The error sources of this system are reduced to minimum because of human operators interfering with the system only through the graphical user interface. The Two Diode Model with series and parallel resistances was used to estimate the parameters of the electrical equivalent circuit for the PV module. This model will be simulated in CASPOC 2009. The performances of PV module were obtained in outdoor conditions and were saved to the database. They will be compared with the performances obtained through simulation, to prove the efficiency of the model.

  11. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures 2 -fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important 'affordability' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk

  12. Multiple-Feature Extracting Modules Based Leak Mining System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chiang Cho

    2013-01-01

    mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing.

  13. Developmental exposure to fluoxetine modulates the serotonin system in hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Berg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine (FLU, Prozac® is commonly prescribed for depression in pregnant women. This results in SSRI exposure of the developing fetus. However, there are knowledge gaps regarding the impact of SSRI exposure during development. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its cross-talk with sex hormone function, we investigated effects of developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of FLU (3 and 30 nM (measured on brain neurotransmitter levels, gonadal differentiation, aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and the thyroid system, using the Xenopus tropicalis model. Tadpoles were chronically exposed (8 weeks until metamorphosis. At metamorphosis brains were cryosectioned and levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and their metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid were measured in discrete regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and the reticular formation of the cryosections using high-performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to 30 nM FLU increased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in hypothalamus compared with controls. FLU exposure did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid histology, gonadal sex differentiation, or aromatase activity implying that the effect on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the hypothalamus region was specific. The FLU concentration that impacted the serotonin system is lower than the concentration measured in umbilical cord serum, suggesting that the serotonin system of the developing brain is highly sensitive to in utero exposure to FLU. To our knowledge this is the first study showing effects of developmental FLU exposure on brain neurochemistry. Given that SSRIs are present in the aquatic environment the current results warrant further investigation into the neurobehavioral effects of SSRIs in aquatic wildlife.

  14. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorey K. Takahashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS and accessory olfactory systems (AOS detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress hormone secretion. The medial amygdala also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus appear prominently involve in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala, medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator odors activate

  15. ADST ARWA Visual System Module Interface Design Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    Window Display Interface Control Document 901182-775AA Rotary Wing Aircraft Simulation System ESIG-2000 Image Generator Interface Control Document...OTWDisplaysjTOVSC interface. 3.8.1 0TW Displays To VSC Data Elements I Reference the vendor supplied interface control document for the Out-The- Window display for...VSC To OTW Displays Data Elements Reference the vendor supplied interface control document for the Out-The- I Window display for information regarding

  16. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lorey K

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala (MeA) appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone secretion. The MeA also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus (VHC) appear prominently involved in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator

  17. Module-based quality system functionality evaluation in production logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Reza Khabbazi

    2016-04-01

    Practical implications: Due to the specification of system as domain design structure, all proposed BPMs, data models, and the actual database prototype are seen referential if not a solution as a practical “to-be” quality business process re-engineering template. Originality/value: this paper sets out to provide an explanatory approach using different practical technique at modeling steps as well as the prototype implementation.

  18. Modulation of protein quality control systems by food phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira

    2013-05-01

    There is compelling evidence showing that dietary phytochemicals have exhibited pronounced bioactivities in a number of experimental models. In addition, a variety of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that frequent ingestion of vegetables and fruits, which contain abundant phytochemicals, lowers the risk of onset of some diseases. However, the action mechanisms by which dietary phytochemicals show bioactivity remain to be fully elucidated and a fundamental question is why this class of chemicals has great potential for regulating health. Meanwhile, maintenance and repair of biological proteins by molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, and clearance of abnormal proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy play central roles in health, some disease prevention, and longevity. Interestingly, several recent studies have revealed that phytochemicals, including curcumin (yellow pigment in turmeric), resveratrol (phytoalexin in grapes), quercetin (general flavonol in onions and others), and isothiocyanates (preferentially present in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage), are remarkable regulators of protein quality control systems, suggesting that their physiological and biological functions are exerted, at least in part, through activation of such unique mechanisms. This review article highlights recent findings regarding the effects of representative phytochemicals on protein quality control systems and their possible molecular mechanisms.

  19. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z Q; Heron, J T; Clarkson, J D; Hong, J; Ko, C; Biegalski, M D; Aschauer, U; Hsu, S L; Nowakowski, M E; Wu, J; Christen, H M; Salahuddin, S; Bokor, J B; Spaldin, N A; Schlom, D G; Ramesh, R

    2015-01-07

    In numerous systems, giant physical responses have been discovered when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. Here we have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a 'giant' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  20. WRAP Module 1 data management system (DMS) software design description (SDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, P.A.

    1995-03-17

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS) System Design Description (SDD) describes the logical and physical architecture of the system. The WRAP 1 DMS SDD formally partitions the elements of the system described in the WRAP 1 DMS Software requirements specification into design objects and describes the key properties and relationships among the design objects and interfaces with external systems such as the WRAP Plant Control System (PCS). The WRAP 1 DMS SDD can be thought of as a detailed blueprint for implementation activities. The design descriptions contained within this document will describe, in detail, the software products that will be developed to assist the Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1, in their management functions. The WRAP 1 DMS is required to collect, store, and report data related to certification, tracking, packaging, repackaging, processing, and shipment of waste processed or stored at the WRAP 1 facility.

  1. WRAP Module 1 data management system (DMS) software design description (SDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS) System Design Description (SDD) describes the logical and physical architecture of the system. The WRAP 1 DMS SDD formally partitions the elements of the system described in the WRAP 1 DMS Software requirements specification into design objects and describes the key properties and relationships among the design objects and interfaces with external systems such as the WRAP Plant Control System (PCS). The WRAP 1 DMS SDD can be thought of as a detailed blueprint for implementation activities. The design descriptions contained within this document will describe, in detail, the software products that will be developed to assist the Project W-026, Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1, in their management functions. The WRAP 1 DMS is required to collect, store, and report data related to certification, tracking, packaging, repackaging, processing, and shipment of waste processed or stored at the WRAP 1 facility

  2. A 60GHz-Band 3-Dimensional System-in-Package Transmitter Module with Integrated Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Noriharu; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Shoichi; Kameda, Suguru; Takagi, Tadashi; Tsubouchi, Kazuo

    A low cost, ultra small Radio Frequency (RF) transceiver module with integrated antenna is one of the key technologies for short range millimeter-wave wireless communication. This paper describes a 60GHz-band transmitter module with integrated dipole antenna. The module consists of three pieces of low-cost organic resin substrate. These substrates are vertically stacked by employing Cu ball bonding 3-dimensional (3-D) system-in-package (SiP) technology and the MMIC's are mounted on each organic substrates by using Au-stud bump bonding (SBB) technique. The planer dipole antenna is fabricated on the top of the stacked organic substrate to avoid the influence of the grounding metal on the base substrate. At 63GHz, maximum actual gain of 6.0dBi is obtained for fabricated planar dipole antenna. The measured radiation patterns are agreed with the electro-magnetic (EM) simulated result, therefore the other RF portion of the 3-D front-end module, such as flip chip mounted IC's on the top surface of the module, does not affect the antenna characteristics. The results show the feasibility of millimeter-wave low cost, ultra small antenna integrated module using stacked organic substrates.

  3. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  4. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  5. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  6. Configurable multiplier modules for an adaptive computing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pfänder

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of reconfigurable hardware is increasing steadily. For example, the primary approach of using adaptive systems based on programmable gate arrays and configurable routing resources has gone mainstream and high-performance programmable logic devices are rivaling traditional application-specific hardwired integrated circuits. Also, the idea of moving from the 2-D domain into a 3-D design which stacks several active layers above each other is gaining momentum in research and industry, to cope with the demand for smaller devices with a higher scale of integration. However, optimized arithmetic blocks in course-grain reconfigurable arrays as well as field-programmable architectures still play an important role. In countless digital systems and signal processing applications, the multiplication is one of the critical challenges, where in many cases a trade-off between area usage and data throughput has to be made. But the a priori choice of word-length and number representation can also be replaced by a dynamic choice at run-time, in order to improve flexibility, area efficiency and the level of parallelism in computation. In this contribution, we look at an adaptive computing system called 3-D-SoftChip to point out what parameters are crucial to implement flexible multiplier blocks into optimized elements for accelerated processing. The 3-D-SoftChip architecture uses a novel approach to 3-dimensional integration based on flip-chip bonding with indium bumps. The modular construction, the introduction of interfaces to realize the exchange of intermediate data, and the reconfigurable sign handling approach will be explained, as well as a beneficial way to handle and distribute the numerous required control signals.

  7. Scatter correction using a primary modulator on a clinical angiography C-arm CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Bastian; Berger, Martin; Maier, Andreas; Kachelrieß, Marc; Ritschl, Ludwig; Müller, Kerstin; Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2017-09-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) suffers from a large amount of scatter, resulting in severe scatter artifacts in the reconstructions. Recently, a new scatter correction approach, called improved primary modulator scatter estimation (iPMSE), was introduced. That approach utilizes a primary modulator that is inserted between the X-ray source and the object. This modulation enables estimation of the scatter in the projection domain by optimizing an objective function with respect to the scatter estimate. Up to now the approach has not been implemented on a clinical angiography C-arm CT system. In our work, the iPMSE method is transferred to a clinical C-arm CBCT. Additional processing steps are added in order to compensate for the C-arm scanner motion and the automatic X-ray tube current modulation. These challenges were overcome by establishing a reference modulator database and a block-matching algorithm. Experiments with phantom and experimental in vivo data were performed to evaluate the method. We show that scatter correction using primary modulation is possible on a clinical C-arm CBCT. Scatter artifacts in the reconstructions are reduced with the newly extended method. Compared to a scan with a narrow collimation, our approach showed superior results with an improvement of the contrast and the contrast-to-noise ratio for the phantom experiments. In vivo data are evaluated by comparing the results with a scan with a narrow collimation and with a constant scatter correction approach. Scatter correction using primary modulation is possible on a clinical CBCT by compensating for the scanner motion and the tube current modulation. Scatter artifacts could be reduced in the reconstructions of phantom scans and in experimental in vivo data. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Temperature control system with a pulse width modulated bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A temperature control system, which includes a modified wheatstone bridge with a resistive-capacitive (RC) circuit in one leg of the bridge, is disclosed. The RC circuit includes a resistor which provides an effective resistance as a function of its absolute resistance and the on-time to off-time ratio of pulses supplied to a switch connected across it. A sawtooth voltage is produced across the RC circuit. The voltage is compared with the voltage across a temperature sensor with heat being applied during each pulse period portion when the sawtooth voltage exceeds the voltage across the temperature sensor.

  9. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  10. Design of a holographic tracking module for long-range retroreflector free-space systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, C; Erry, G; Gomez, A; Thueux, Y; Faulkner, G E; O'Brien, D C

    2016-09-01

    Weight reduction and low power consumption are key requirements in the next generation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). To communicate with an operator, a secured link between the UAV and a ground-based station is desirable. To realize these links, retroreflecting free-space optics is potentially attractive as it offers light weight and low complexity at the UAV. However, the base station requires a high-performance tracking module to enable a steady illumination of the UAV retroreflector. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a tracking system, which consists of coarse tracking and holographic fine tracking modules working cooperatively. Using this system, experimental field trials were carried out by mounting a multiple-quantum-well-based modulated retroreflector on a commercial UAV. A 2 Mbps optical link was achieved with a bit error rate of ∼2×10-4 at a link range of 300 m.

  11. A Pulse Power Modulator System for Commercial High Power Ion Beam Surface Treatment Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, D.M.; Cockreham, B.D.; Dragt, A.J.; Ives, H.C.; Neau, E.L.; Reed, K.W.; White, F.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (lBESTrM) process utilizes high energy pulsed ion beams to deposit energy onto the surface of a material allowing near instantaneous melting of the surface layer. The melted layer typically re-solidifies at a very rapid rate which forms a homogeneous, fine- grained structure on the surface of the material resulting in significantly improved surface characteristics. In order to commercialize the IBESTTM process, a reliable and easy-to-operate modulator system has been developed. The QM-I modulator is a thyratron-switched five-stage magnetic pulse compression network which drives a two-stage linear induction adder. The adder provides 400 kV, 150 ns FWHM pulses at a maximum repetition rate of 10 pps for the acceleration of the ion beam. Special emphasis has been placed upon developing the modulator system to be consistent with long-life commercial service

  12. The Role of the Brain's Endocannabinoid System in Pain and Its Modulation by Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Louise; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2015-01-01

    Stress has a complex, bidirectional modulatory influence on pain. Stress may either reduce (stress-induced analgesia) or exacerbate (stress-induced hyperalgesia) pain depending on the nature, duration, and intensity of the stressor. The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system is present throughout the neuroanatomical pathways that mediate and modulate responses to painful stimuli. The specific role of the endocannabinoid system in the brain in pain and the modulation of pain by stress is reviewed herein. We first provide a brief overview of the endocannabinoid system, followed by a review of the evidence that the brain's endocannabinoid system modulates pain. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the role of the endocannabinoid system supraspinally, and particularly in the rostral ventromedial medulla, periaqueductal gray, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex, in pain, stress-induced analgesia, and stress-induced hyperalgesia. Increased understanding of endocannabinoid-mediated regulation of pain and its modulation by stress will inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches for pain and its comorbidity with stress-related disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DAZZLE project: UAV to ground communication system using a laser and a modulated retro-reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thueux, Yoann; Avlonitis, Nicholas; Erry, Gavin

    2014-10-01

    The advent of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has generated the need for reduced size, weight and power (SWaP) requirements for communications systems with a high data rate, enhanced security and quality of service. This paper presents the current results of the DAZZLE project run by Airbus Group Innovations. The specifications, integration steps and initial performance of a UAV to ground communication system using a laser and a modulated retro-reflector are detailed. The laser operates at the wavelength of 1550nm and at power levels that keep it eye safe. It is directed using a FLIR pan and tilt unit driven by an image processing-based system that tracks the UAV in flight at a range of a few kilometers. The modulated retro-reflector is capable of a data rate of 20Mbps over short distances, using 200mW of electrical power. The communication system was tested at the Pershore Laser Range in July 2014. Video data from a flying Octocopter was successfully transmitted over 1200m. During the next phase of the DAZZLE project, the team will attempt to produce a modulated retro-reflector capable of 1Gbps in partnership with the research institute Acreo1 based in Sweden. A high speed laser beam steering capability based on a Spatial Light Modulator will also be added to the system to improve beam pointing accuracy.

  14. Module and Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITK Pixel System

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, Clara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m$^{2}$, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. An intense R\\&D activity is taking place in the field of planar, 3D, CMOS sensors to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. In parallel various sensor-chip interconnection options are explored to identify reliable technologies when employing 100-150~$\\mu$m thin chips. While the new read-out chip is being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, the pixel off de...

  15. Module and Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITK Pixel System

    CERN Document Server

    Rummler, Andr{e}; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown around 2025 by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The pixel detector will be composed by the five innermost layers, instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m^2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. Different designs of planar, 3D, CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. In parallel sensor-chip interconnection options are evaluated in collaboration with industrial partners to identify reliable technologies when employing 100-150 μm thin chips. While the new read-out chip is being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, the pixel off detector read-out electronics will be implemented in the frame...

  16. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD. Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP. Results show that curcumin significantly (p<0.01 downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects.

  17. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  18. Modulation of the immune system for the treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katharina; Und Hohenstein-Blaul, Nadine von Thun; Teister, Julia; Grus, Franz H

    2017-07-19

    At present intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapies are the only approach to treat glaucoma. Neuroprotective strategies to protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) from apoptosis are lacking to date. Results from clinical studies revealed altered immunoreactivities against retinal and optic nerve antigens in sera and aqueous humor of glaucoma patients and point toward an autoimmune involvement in glaucomatous neurodegeneration and RGC death. IgG accumulations along with plasma cells were found localised in human glaucomatous retinae in a pro-inflammatory environment possibly maintained by microglia. Animal studies show that antibodies (e.g. anti- heat shock protein 60 and anti-myelin basic protein) elevated in glaucoma patients provoke autoaggressive RGC loss and are associated with IgG depositions and increased microglial cells. We demonstrate that intermittent IOP elevation in a rat model is sufficient to provoke glaucoma-like neurodegeneration and elicits correlating changes of IgG autoantibody reactivities. On the other hand, antibodies (e.g. anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-gamma-Synuclein) found decreased in glaucoma patients hold neuroprotective potential on immortalised neuroretinal cells and RGC in an adolescent porcine retina organ culture. We believe that our work not only demonstrates an autoimmune component in glaucoma, but also opens up new options for glaucoma diagnostics and treatment. Nevertheless the immune system also consists of other cells involved not only in the adaptive, but also innate immune system. Studies addressing changes in T lymphocytes, macrophages but also local immune responses in the retina have been performed and also hold promising results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Reasoning about fault diagnosis for the space station common module thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachtsevanos, G.; Hexmoor, H.; Purves, B.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed common module thermal control system for the Space Station is designed to integrate thermal distribution and thermal control functions in order to transport heat and provide environmental temperature control through the common module. When the thermal system is operating in an off-normal state, due to component faults, an intelligent controller is called upon to diagnose the fault type, identify the fault location and determine the appropriate control action required to isolate the faulty component. A methodology is introduced for fault diagnosis based upon a combination of signal redundancy techniques and fuzzy logic. An expert system utilizes parity space representation and analytic redundancy to derive fault symptoms, the aggregate of which is assessed by a multivalued rule based system. A subscale laboratory model of the thermal control system designed is used as the testbed for the study.

  20. ERP System Evaluation on SOFI XP Based Accounting Module in Software House Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Mardallena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accounting module is an important module for a company business process. The roles are in the form of parameter calculation of profits, losses and financial performance based on transaction, which basically is a real-time reporting system. The amount of company needs on accounting indicates that the accounting is one of the resources which support the establishment of a company. Thus, the company constantly improves the accounting performance, especially in handling of receivables, debts, and cash transactions. Evaluations which were performed at SOFI XP-based ERP system aims to provide a solution to a problem that was discovered during the analysis of the system needs. This evaluation was done in two stages: by collecting data and analyzing the system that running in the company. By doing this evaluation, the documentation of system performance and the solution for problems that were found in the company can be generated.

  1. Generalized synchronization-based multiparameter estimation in modulated time-delayed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut K.

    2011-09-01

    We propose a nonlinear active observer based generalized synchronization scheme for multiparameter estimation in time-delayed systems with periodic time delay. A sufficient condition for parameter estimation is derived using Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory. The suggested tool proves to be globally and asymptotically stable by means of Krasovskii-Lyapunov method. With this effective method, parameter identification and generalized synchronization of modulated time-delayed systems with all the system parameters unknown, can be achieved simultaneously. We restrict our study for multiple parameter estimation in modulated time-delayed systems with single state variable only. Theoretical proof and numerical simulation demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed technique. The block diagram of electronic circuit for multiple time delay system shows that the method is easily applicable in practical communication problems.

  2. FM-to-AM modulations induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in inertial confinement fusion laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Deng, Xuewei; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Dongxia; Guo, Huaiwen; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Bowang; Zhong, Wei; Deng, Wu

    2018-02-01

    We report on frequency to amplitude modulation (FM-to-AM) conversion induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in a complex laser system. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that when weak residual reflected pulses stack on the main pulse, the spectral intensity changes in the stacked region, which then converts to obvious AM. This kind of FM-to-AM effect often occurs in the tail of the pulse and cannot be eliminated by common compensation methods, which even enhance the modulation depth. Furthermore, the actual intensity modulation frequency and depth induced by the residual reflection stack are much higher and deeper than observed on the oscilloscope, which is harmful for safe operation of the laser facility and the driving power balance during inertial confinement fusion. To eliminate this kind of FM-to-AM effect, any possible on-axis and near-axis residual reflection in laser systems must be avoided.

  3. Modulation of radiosensitivity of biological systems by medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    The global environmental pollution is responsible for the exposure of living beings to the influence of various technogenic factors, including ionizing radiation. Exposure to such radiation represents a genuine, increasing threat to mankind and our environment. The steadily increasing applications of radiation in clinical practice, industrial and agricultural activities, residual radio-activity resulting from nuclear test explosions, have a measurable impact contributing to significant radiation hazards in humans. Further, the proliferation of terrorism and asymmetric warfare in the 21st century has rendered the modern world a dangerous place to live and work. With the realization of deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, a need was felt to protect human beings against these harmful effects by using physical and/or chemical means. Many chemical compounds have been tested for radio protective action but their practical applicability remained limited owing to their inherent toxicity at the optimum dose level. Various plants have been used for various ailments in humans since time immemorial, and herbal preparations have usually been considered safe and less toxic than the synthetic compounds. Therefore, screening of natural products present a major avenue for the discovery of new radio protective drugs and such products have drawn the attention of investigators during the last two decades. The Indian system of medicine employs a large number of plants and some of these herbals viz. The extracts of certain medicinal plant like Amla (Emblica officinalis), Rosemary (Rosemary officinalis), Methi (Trigonella foenum graecum) sapthaparna (Alstonia scholaris), Bael (Aegle inarmelos), Bhumi amla (Phyllanthus niruri), Jamun (Syzgium cumini), Gloe (Tinospora cordifolia) have been trialed in this laboratory for their radio protective action in various biological systems of mammals. The extracts of various parts of such plants have appreciable DRF on the basis of survival

  4. A Novel Application of Thermoelectric Modules in an HVAC System Under Cold Climate Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Toru; Radermacher, Reinhard; Hwang, Yunho

    2012-06-01

    A vapor compression cycle (VCC) with integrated thermoelectric (TE) modules to boost the heating capacity of the system in an energy-efficient way, especially for cold climate operation, is suggested in this paper. While a baseline heat pump (HP) cycle absorbs heat from a source through an evaporator, the proposed system utilizes TE modules as an intermediate (or third) stage of an otherwise two-stage vapor compression system with a vapor injection compressor. This increases the overall system efficiency and augments the system capacity through the high coefficient of performance (COP) of the TE for small temperature lift conditions. To demonstrate the concept, a prototype refrigerant-to-solid (TE) heat exchanger, consisting of TE modules and microchannel flat tubes, was designed and fabricated so that the whole system could realize an additional 1 kW of heating capacity compared with the baseline system. The TE heat exchanger was integrated into a residential HP unit that uses R-410A as a refrigerant, and the system was tested in a laboratory under the severe condition of -17.8°C, in order to investigate the capacity improvement and the overall COP. Finally, an application of this technique in an automotive heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system with HFC134a working fluid has been studied for the purpose of providing supplemental heating for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles by establishing a detailed simulation model of a HP system with the TE heat exchanger. Both the laboratory test and the calculation study show that a VCC with integrated TE modules has both reasonable efficiency and increased heating capacity.

  5. Multiple-feature extracting modules based leak mining system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, human dependence on the Internet has increased dramatically. A large amount of information is placed on the Internet and retrieved from it daily, which makes web security in terms of online information a major concern. In recent years, the most problematic issues in web security have been e-mail address leakage and SQL injection attacks. There are many possible causes of information leakage, such as inadequate precautions during the programming process, which lead to the leakage of e-mail addresses entered online or insufficient protection of database information, a loophole that enables malicious users to steal online content. In this paper, we implement a crawler mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing.

  6. The Endocannabinoid System and its Modulation by Phytocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Fabiana

    2015-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system is currently defined as the ensemble of the two 7-transmembrane-domain and G protein-coupled receptors for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (but not for most other plant cannabinoids or phytocannabinoids)-cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) and cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2R); their two most studied endogenous ligands, the "endocannabinoids" N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG); and the enzymes responsible for endocannabinoid metabolism. However, anandamide and 2-AG, and also the phytocannabinoids, have more molecular targets than just CB1R and CB2R. Furthermore, the endocannabinoids, like most other lipid mediators, have more than just one set of biosynthetic and degrading pathways and enzymes, which they often share with "endocannabinoid-like" mediators that may or may not interact with the same proteins as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and other phytocannabinoids. In some cases, these degrading pathways and enzymes lead to molecules that are not inactive and instead interact with other receptors. Finally, some of the metabolic enzymes may also participate in the chemical modification of molecules that have very little to do with endocannabinoid and cannabinoid targets. Here, we review the whole world of ligands, receptors, and enzymes, a true "endocannabinoidome", discovered after the cloning of CB1R and CB2R and the identification of anandamide and 2-AG, and its interactions with phytocannabinoids.

  7. Nouns referring to tools and natural objects differentially modulate the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Patricia M; Riggio, Lucia; Chersi, Fabian; Sato, Marc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a critical role for the motor system in language processing, the focus of previous work has been on the linguistic category of verbs. Here we tested whether nouns are effective in modulating the motor system and further whether different kinds of nouns - those referring to artifacts or natural items, and items that are graspable or ungraspable - would differentially modulate the system. A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) study was carried out to compare modulation of the motor system when subjects read nouns referring to objects which are Artificial or Natural and which are Graspable or Ungraspable. TMS was applied to the primary motor cortex representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of the right hand at 150 ms after noun presentation. Analyses of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) revealed that across the duration of the task, nouns referring to graspable artifacts (tools) were associated with significantly greater MEP areas. Analyses of the initial presentation of items revealed a main effect of graspability. The findings are in line with an embodied view of nouns, with MEP measures modulated according to whether nouns referred to natural objects or artifacts (tools), confirming tools as a special class of items in motor terms. Additionally our data support a difference for graspable versus non graspable objects, an effect which for natural objects is restricted to initial presentation of items. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Evaluation of the NetBeans Module System as a Product line Implementation Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    to standalone applications, these platforms and their facilities have not been investigated scientifically from a SPLE perspective. This paper remedies the situation by providing an evaluation and a discussion of the module system provided by NetBeans Platform (a RCP). The paper contributes to the catalog...

  9. New tools in modulating Maillard reaction from model systems to food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    New tools in modulating Maillard reaction from model systems to food
    The Maillard reaction (MR) supervises the final quality of foods and occupies a prominent place in food science. The first stable compounds, the Amadori rearrangement products

  10. Immune response modulation by Vitamin D: role in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirentxu eIruretagoyena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D plays key roles as a natural immune modulator and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. This review presents a summary and analysis of the recent literature regarding immunoregulatory effects of vitamin D as well as its importance in SLE development, clinical severity and possible effects of supplementation in disease treatment.

  11. Mathematical modelling of a flow-injection system with a membrane separation module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolev, S.D.; Kolev, Spas D.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model for a flow-injection system with a membrane separation module based on the axially dispersed plug flow model was developed. It takes into account the geometrical dimensions and dispersion properties of the main sections of the manifold, the mass transfer in the channels of the

  12. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  13. [Design of modulating intermediate frequency electrotherapy system based on microcontroller unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuefei; Liu, Xianfeng; Peng, Daming

    2010-12-01

    This article is devoted to the design of a system for modulating intermediate frequency electrotherapy waveform output. Prescriptions with different output waveform combinations were produced using microcontroller unit (MCU). The rich output waveforms effectively improve tolerance of human adaptability and achieve a therapeutic effect.

  14. Measuring Airflow in Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems. Module 23. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on measuring airflow in local exhaust ventilation systems. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  15. Model documentation Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analaytical approach and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1996 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described.

  16. Electrical Procedures and Environmental Control Systems. Building Maintenance. Module IV. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Garry

    This curriculum guide, one of six modules keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides materials for two units on electrical procedures and environmental control systems. Unit 1, on electrical procedures, includes the following lessons: electrical safety; troubleshooting and…

  17. Stress Response Recruits the Hippocampal Endocannabinoid System for the Modulation of Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Lucas de Oliveira; Engelke, Douglas Senna; Diehl, Felipe; Scheffer-Teixeira, Robson; Haubrich, Josue; Cassini, Lindsey de Freitas; Molina, Victor Alejandro; Quillfeldt, Jorge Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The modulation of memory processes is one of the several functions of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the brain, with CB1 receptors highly expressed in areas such as the dorsal hippocampus. Experimental evidence suggested an important role of the ECS in aversively motivated memories. Similarly, glucocorticoids released in response to stress…

  18. Ripples in Communication : Reconfigurable and Adaptive Wireless Communication Systems based on Wavelet Packet Modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakshmanan, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Wavelet Packet Modulation (WPM) is a multi-carrier transmission technique that uses orthogonal wavelet packet bases to combine a collection of information bits into a single composite signal. This system can be considered as a viable alternative, for wide-band communication, to the popular

  19. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  20. A Role for the Autonomic Nervous System in Modulating the Immune Response during Mild Emotional Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croiset, Gerda; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Wal, Wim E. van der; Boer, Sietse F. de; Wied, David de

    1990-01-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the modulation of the immune response to emotional stimuli, was established in rats subjected to the passive avoidance test. An increase in splenic primary antibody response directed against SRBC was found after exposure of rats to the passive avoidance

  1. Performance evaluations of hybrid modulation with different optical labels over PDQ in high bit-rate OLS network systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Li, Y; Kang, T Z; Zhang, T S; Ji, J H; Yang, S W

    2016-11-14

    Two orthogonal modulation optical label switching(OLS) schemes, which are based on payload of polarization multiplexing-differential quadrature phase shift keying(POLMUX-DQPSK or PDQ) modulated with identifications of duobinary (DB) label and pulse position modulation(PPM) label, are researched in high bit-rate OLS network. The BER performance of hybrid modulation with payload and label signals are discussed and evaluated in theory and simulation. The theoretical BER expressions of PDQ, PDQ-DB and PDQ-PPM are given with analysis method of hybrid modulation encoding in different the bit-rate ratios of payload and label. Theoretical derivation results are shown that the payload of hybrid modulation has a certain gain of receiver sensitivity than payload without label. The sizes of payload BER gain obtained from hybrid modulation are related to the different types of label. The simulation results are consistent with that of theoretical conclusions. The extinction ratio (ER) conflicting between hybrid encoding of intensity and phase types can be compromised and optimized in OLS system of hybrid modulation. The BER analysis method of hybrid modulation encoding in OLS system can be applied to other n-ary hybrid modulation or combination modulation systems.

  2. Development of module-based simulation system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.

    1990-01-01

    Module-based Simulation System (MSS) has been developed to realize a new software environment enabling versatile dynamic simulation of a complex nuclear power plant system flexibly. Described in the paper are (i) fundamental methods utilized in MMS and its software systemization, (ii) development of human interface system to help users in generating integrated simulation programs automatically, and (iii) development of an intelligent user support system for helping users in the two phases of automatical semantic diagnosis and consultation to automatic input data setup for the MSS-generated programs

  3. Dual-anticipating, dual and dual-lag synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, dual synchronization in modulated time delay system using delay feedback controller is proposed. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we suggest a general method to achieve the dual-anticipating, dual, dual-lag synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems and we find both its existing and sufficient stability conditions. Numerically it is shown that the dual synchronization is also possible when driving system contain two completely different systems. Effect of parameter mismatch on dual synchronization is also discussed. As an example, numerical simulations for the Mackey-Glass and Ikeda systems are conducted, which is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  4. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  5. Evaluation of fiber reinforced polymers using active infrared thermography system with thermoelectric cooling modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chady, Tomasz; Gorący, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    Active infrared thermography is increasingly used for nondestructive testing of various materials. Properties of this method are creating a unique possibility to utilize it for inspection of composites. In the case of active thermography, an external energy source is usually used to induce a thermal contrast inside tested objects. The conventional heating methods (like halogen lamps or flash lamps) are utilized for this purpose. In this study, we propose to use a cooling unit. The proposed system consists of a thermal imaging infrared camera, which is used to observe the surface of the inspected specimen and a specially designed cooling unit with thermoelectric modules (the Peltier modules).

  6. Note: A four-pass acousto-optic modulator system for laser cooling of sodium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Wang, Dajun

    2017-07-01

    We present a four-pass acousto-optic modulator (AOM) system for providing the repumping light for laser cooling of sodium atoms. With only one 400 MHz AOM, we achieve a tunable laser frequency shift around 1.6 GHz with total efficiency up to 30%. This setup provides an alternative over conventional methods to generate a sodium repumping light using more expensive high frequency AOMs or electro-optical modulators (EOMs) in the GHz domain. This compact and reliable setup can be easily adapted to other frequencies and may find applications in laser spectroscopy, laser cooling and trapping, and coherent manipulation of atomic quantum states.

  7. Joint Adaptive Modulation and Combining for Hybrid FSO/RF Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-11-12

    In this paper, we present and analyze a new transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF communication system based on joint adaptive modulation and adaptive combining. Specifically, the data rate on the FSO link is adjusted in discrete manner according to the FSO link\\'s instantaneous received signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). If the FSO link\\'s quality is too poor to maintain the target bit-error-rate, the system activates the RF link along with the FSO link. When the RF link is activated, simultaneous transmission of the same modulated data takes place on both links, where the received signals from both links are combined using maximal ratio combining scheme. In this case, the data rate of the system is adjusted according to the instantaneous combined SNRs. Novel analytical expression for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the received SNR for the proposed adaptive hybrid system is obtained. This CDF expression is used to study the spectral and outage performances of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system with that of switch-over hybrid FSO/RF and FSO-only systems employing the same adaptive modulation schemes. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. The Respiratory System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Respiratory System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This module on the respiratory system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use…

  9. The Endocrine System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Endocrine System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This module on the endocrine system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use the…

  10. Performance enhanced DDO-OFDM system with adaptively partitioned precoding and single sideband modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Liu, Deming

    2017-09-18

    As a promising solution for short-to-medium transmission systems, direct detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT) has been intensively investigated in last decade. Benefitting from the advantages of peak-to-average power (PAPR) reduction and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) equalization, precoding techniques are widely applied to enhance the performance of DDO-OFDM systems. However, the conventional method of partitioning precoding sets limits the ability of precoding schemes to optimize the SNR variation and the allocation of modulation formats. Thus, the precoding transmission systems are hard to reach the capacity that traditional bit-power loading (BPL) techniques, like the Levin-Campello (LC) algorithm, can achieve. In this paper, we investigate the principle of SNR variation for precoded DDO-OFDM systems and theoretically demonstrate that the SNR equalization effect of precoding techniques is actually determined by the noise equalization process. Based on this fact, we propose an adaptively partitioned precoding (APP) algorithm to unlock the ability to control the SNR of each subcarrier. As demonstrated by the simulation and experimental results, the proposed APP algorithm achieves the transmission capacity as high as the LC algorithm and has nearly 1 dB PAPR reduction. Besides, the look-up table (LUT) operation ensures low complexity of the proposed APP algorithm compared with LC algorithm. To avoid severe chromatic dispersion (CD) induced spectral fading, single sideband (SSB) modulation is also implemented. We find that SSB modulation can reach the capacity of double sideband (DSB) modulation in optical back-to-back (OB2B) configuration by optimizing the modulation index. Therefore, the APP based SSB-DDO-OFDM scheme can sufficiently enhance the performance of cost-sensitive short-to-medium reach optical fiber communication systems.

  11. The challenges of modulating the 'rest and digest' system: acetylcholine receptors as drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Sonya; Al-Abed, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholine, a major neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, was discovered in the early 1900s. Over the years, researchers have revealed much about its regulation, properties of its receptors and features of the downstream signaling that influence its terminal effects. The acetylcholine system, traditionally associated with neuromuscular communication, is now known to play a crucial part in modulation of the immune system and other 'rest and digest' effects. Recent research seeks to elucidate the system's role in brain functions including cognition, sleep, arousal, motivation, reward and pain. We highlight clinically approved and experimental drugs that modulate the acetylcholine receptors. The complexities in targeting the acetylcholine receptors are vast and finding future indications for drug development associated with specific acetylcholine receptors remains a challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development Of A Computerized I-V-Tracing System For Solar PV Module Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gour Chand Mazumder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available this paper is about a development work of I-V-Curve tracing system. The system is automatic and replaces manual procedure of conventional I-V-Curve tracing method for Photovoltaic Solar Cell or Panel. This system is basically a combination of several blocks consisted by electronic devices and instrument groups. Some blocks are developed for measurement requirements and some are proprietary. This instrument can be used at solar module assembling industry for panel testing. In recent years there are significant rises on the counts of these types of business in developing countries. As this particular requires much lesser cost in comparison to other such type it is expected that this device may contribute to solar industry to help manufacturing process and quality control. Universities and laboratories may also find this suitable for their purpose. Although there are some little fluctuations in the acquired data the system can analyze the module characteristics properly.

  13. Software design of an auto-testing system for CAMAC modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Xu Jiajun

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces one of software methods of how to get a PC graphic interface operation when a MS-DOS driver is the only possible copy for the device. Human-machine interactive graphic interface is more popular nowadays since it has rich pages and comfortable input-output operations. First step is to set a data exchange between MS-DOS and MS-Windows through a interrupt service. Second step is to program a dynamic link library which VB can invoke. VBX control is possible to extend the system functions. The testing system can test main performances automatically with CAMAC modules of IDIM, IDOM, PSC, SAM, and 3016. It seems the better way to test the linearity, AC correction and so on. The testing system proves to be usable in maintaining CAMAC modules of BEPC control system

  14. Software design of a auto-testing system for CAMAC modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Xu Jiajun

    1997-01-01

    The author introduces one of software methods of how to get a PC graphic interface operation when a MS-DOS driver is the only possible copy for the device. Human-machine interactive graphic interface is more popular nowadays since it has rich pages and comfortable input/output operations. First step is to set up a data exchange between MS-DOS and MS-Windows through a interrupt service. Second step is to program a dynamic link library which VB can invoke. VBX control is possible to extend the system functions. The testing system can test main performances automatically with CAMAC modules of IDIM, IDOM, PSC, SAM, and 3016. It seems the better way to test the linearity, AC correction and so on. The testing system is proved to be useable in maintaining CAMAC modules of BEPC control system

  15. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnick, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal

  16. Perceptual Color Space Representations in the Oculomotor System Are Modulated by Surround Suppression and Biased Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Kehoe, Devin H.; Rahimi, Maryam; Fallah, Mazyar

    2018-01-01

    The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was...

  17. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brann, E.C. II.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal

  18. Waste receiving and processing facility module 1 data management system software project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the software development plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store, and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal

  19. Application of the FADS system on the Re-entry Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Huang

    2016-07-01

    The aerodynamic model for Flush Air Data Sensing System (FADS) is built based on the surface pressure distribution obtained through the pressure orifices laid on specific positions of the surface,and the flight parameters,such as angle of attack,angle of side-slip,Mach number,free-stream static pressure and dynamic pressure are inferred from the aerodynamic model.The flush air data sensing system (FADS) has been used on several flight tests of aircraft and re-entry vehicle,such as,X-15,space shuttle,F-14,X-33,X-43A and so on. This paper discusses the application of the FADS on the re-entry module with blunt body to obtain high-precision aerodynamic parameters.First of all,a basic theory and operating principle of the FADS is shown.Then,the applications of the FADS on typical aircrafts and re-entry vehicles are described.Thirdly,the application mode on the re-entry module with blunt body is discussed in detail,including aerodynamic simulation,pressure distribution,trajectory reconstruction and the hardware shoule be used,such as flush air data sensing system(FADS),inertial navigation system (INS),data acquisition system,data storage system.Finally,ablunt module re-entry flight test from low earth orbit (LEO) is planned to obtain aerodynamic parameters and amend the aerodynamic model with this FADS system data.The results show that FADS system can be applied widely in re-entry module with blunt bodies.

  20. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brann, E.C. II

    1994-09-09

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  1. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This reference document provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. The NEMS Residential Sector Demand Module is currently used for mid-term forecasting purposes and energy policy analysis over the forecast horizon of 1993 through 2020. The model generates forecasts of energy demand for the residential sector by service, fuel, and Census Division. Policy impacts resulting from new technologies, market incentives, and regulatory changes can be estimated using the module. 26 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Photovoltaic module and array performance characterization methods for all system operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides new test methods and analytical procedures for characterizing the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays. The methods use outdoor measurements to provide performance parameters both at standard reporting conditions and for all operating conditions encountered by typical photovoltaic systems. Improvements over previously used test methods are identified, and examples of the successful application of the methodology are provided for crystalline- and amorphous-silicon modules and arrays. This work provides an improved understanding of module and array performance characteristics, and perhaps most importantly, a straight- forward yet rigorous model for predicting array performance at all operating conditions. For the first time, the influences of solar irradiance, operating temperature, solar spectrum, solar angle-of- incidence, and temperature coefficients are all addressed in a practical way that will benefit both designers and users of photovoltaics.

  3. Transient response simulation of gas separation membrane module for an atmosphere detritiation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takahiko, E-mail: t-sugiyama@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tanaka, Masahiro [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki-shi, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Munakata, Kenzo [Akita University, Tegata Gakuen-cho 1-1, Akita-shi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Yamamoto, Ichiro [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Transient response of a gas separation membrane module for the atmosphere detritiation system was numerically simulated with a mass transfer model. The module contains thousands of hollow fiber type polyimide membranes. The simulation model took into account permeation of water vapor through the dense layer of the membrane, diffusive transfer through the porous support layer and adsorption/desorption of water vapor into the matrix of the porous layer. The slow responses of the water vapor concentration in the retentate and the permeation rate were well reproduced by the present simulation, and transient changes in a follow fiber membrane were investigated in detail. The inventory and the mean residence time of water vapor at 303 K were estimated for the commercial membrane module (UMS-B2, Ube industries, Ltd.) as 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mol and 380 s, respectively.

  4. Module Equipped with a Life-Support System for Space Experiments with Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, E. A.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Guryeva, T. S.; Mednikova, E. I.

    2008-06-01

    A successful experiment with 12 Mongolian gerbils was performed during the 12-day flight of Russian automatic spacecraft Foton-M3 (September 14-26, 2007). Foton-M3 was not equipped with an air supply system. Due to this, a self-contained "CONTOUR" module equipped with its own Life-Support System, was developed. The cage for animals was equipped with yellow LEDs. The day/night cycle was 12:12 hours. In addition, the module was equipped with a digital video recorder located on the outside surface in front of a transparent window. In space flight, the animals were provided with food bars made of natural products and contained about 20% of water. This moisture met gerbils requirements in water; therefore, the module was not equipped with a water supply system. In the module, the environmental parameters were as follows: p02 = 143-156 (mean 150) mm Hg, pC02 - not more than 0.76 (mean 0.64) mm Hg, temperature = 23-28 (mean 26.7) °C, and RH = 29% at the beginning and 57% at the end of flight (mean 39%). Throughout the entire flight video recording of the animals was performed continuously during the daytime.

  5. Operators Manual and Technical Reference for the Z-Beamlet Phase Modulation Failsafe System: Version 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Darrell J.

    2014-09-01

    The need for pulse energies exceeding 4 kJ and pulse lengths [?] 2 ns in Sandia's Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) requires that the single-frequency spectrum of its fiber-laser master oscillator be converted to a phase modulated spectrum with a modulation in dex [?] 5. Because accidental injection of single-frequency light into ZBL could result i n damage to optical materials from transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering, the presence of phase modulated (PM) light must be monitored by a reliable failsafe system that can stop a las er shot within of a few 10's of ns following a failure of the PM system. This requirement is met by combining optical heterodyne detection with high-speed electronics to indicate the pres ence or absence of phase modulated light. The transition time for the failsafe signal resultin g from a sudden failure using this technique is approximately 35 ns. This is sufficiently short to safely stop a single-frequency laser pulse from leaving ZBL's regenerative amplifier with a n approximately 35 ns margin of safety. This manual and technical reference contains detai led instructions for daily use of the PM failsafe system and provides enough additional informat ion for its maintenance and repair.

  6. Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System: Vulnerability Factor and New Treatment Target for Stimulant Addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eOlière

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substance among users of stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Interestingly, recent accumulating evidence points toward the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECBS in the neurobiological processes related to stimulant addiction. This article presents an up-to-date review with deep-insights into the pivotal role of the ECBS in the neurobiology of stimulant addiction and the effects of its modulation on addictive behaviors. The aims of this article are to: 1 review the role of cannabis use and ECBS modulation in the neurobiological substrates of psychostimulant addiction and 2 evaluate the potential of cannabinoid-based pharmacological strategies to treat stimulant addiction. A growing number of studies support a critical role of the ECBS and its modulation by synthetic or natural cannabinoid in various neurobiological and behavioral aspects of stimulants addiction. Thus, cannabinoids modulate brain reward systems closely involved in stimulants addiction, and provide further evidence that the cannabinoid system could be explored as a potential drug discovery target for treating addiction across different classes of stimulants.

  7. Analysis of Performance for 100 Gbit/s Dual-Polarization QPSK Modulation Format System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiao-bo, Guo; Jing, Li

    2016-03-01

    This article introduces modulation technology, coherent reception technology, the overall design and other key issues for 100 Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulation. Using the technologies based on digital signal processing (DSP), it realizes the long-range transmissions of 100 Gbit/s optical systems to achieve optical signal dispersion compensation, polarized solution reuse and phase estimation. The effect of this scheme is verified with OptiSystem, and the simulation results indicate, with the help of DSP module for processing of the received signal, that the last constellation is ideal and the data transmission error rate is less than 1.3 e-4. The scheme is implemented simply and has high reliability, and it also has reference significance for the optimization of coherent optical detection hardware. As they feature in high spectrum efficiency and large dispersion and PMD tolerances, the DP-QPSK modulation can improve the line efficiency, and maximize the spectral efficiency of the dense wavelength division multiplexing systems. The quality of eye diagram is high, which is clean and has decent open degree.

  8. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moret Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  9. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Tonello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT modulated filter bank (FB. It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998, and Weiss and Stewart (2000, and Tonello (2006. A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  10. Module-based analysis of robustness tradeoffs in the heat shock response system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kurata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms, even in situations where much simpler designs seem to be sufficient for generating nominal functionality. Using module-based analysis coupled with rigorous mathematical comparisons, we propose that in analogy to control engineering architectures, the complexity of cellular systems and the presence of hierarchical modular structures can be attributed to the necessity of achieving robustness. We employ the Escherichia coli heat shock response system, a strongly conserved cellular mechanism, as an example to explore the design principles of such modular architectures. In the heat shock response system, the sigma-factor sigma32 is a central regulator that integrates multiple feedforward and feedback modules. Each of these modules provides a different type of robustness with its inherent tradeoffs in terms of transient response and efficiency. We demonstrate how the overall architecture of the system balances such tradeoffs. An extensive mathematical exploration nevertheless points to the existence of an array of alternative strategies for the existing heat shock response that could exhibit similar behavior. We therefore deduce that the evolutionary constraints facing the system might have steered its architecture toward one of many robustly functional solutions.

  11. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Nicola; Tonello, Andrea M.

    2010-12-01

    We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT) modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) modulated filter bank (FB). It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998), and Weiss and Stewart (2000), and Tonello (2006). A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  12. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  13. System Definition of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Ray; Aymergen, Cagatay; VanCampen, Julie; Abell, James; Smith, Miles; Driggers, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides the critical functions and the environment for the four science instruments on JWST. This complex system development across many international organizations presents unique challenges and unique solutions. Here we describe how the requirement flow has been coordinated through the documentation system, how the tools and processes are used to minimize impact to the development of the affected interfaces, how the system design has matured, how the design review process operates, and how the system implementation is managed through reporting to ensure a truly world class scientific instrument compliment is created as the final product.

  14. Design and Optimization of a Monoaxial Tracking System for Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents researches on increasing the energetic efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV string by designing and optimizing a tracking mechanism that simultaneously changes the daily position of the modules using a single driving source (there are modules with individual supports. The motion is transmitted from the driving source, which is a linear actuator, with a parallelogram mechanism. The main task in optimizing the tracking system is to maximize the energetic gain by increasing the solar input and minimizing the energy demand for tracking. The study is performed by developing the virtual prototype of the tracking system, which integrates the mechanical device and the control system, in mechatronic concept. Virtual prototyping software solutions (ADAMS, EASY5, and MAT are used in this study.

  15. Neural Network-Based Receiver in Band-Limited Communication System with MPPSK Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zixin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a type of the spectrally efficient modulation, the m-ary phase position shift keying (MPPSK has been considered to meet the increasing spectrum requirement in the future wireless system. To limit the signal bandwidth and cancel the out-band interference the band-pass filters are used, which introduce the waveform distortion and inter-symbol interference (ISI. Therefore, a single hidden-layer neural network (NN-based receiver is proposed to jointly equalize and demodulate the received signal. The impulse response of the system is static and the network parameters can be obtained after off-line training. The number of the hidden nodes is also determined through simulations. Simulation results show that the NN-based receiver works well in the communication system with different allocated bandwidths. By observing the modified confusion matrix, the false symbol decision is relevant to modulation index, waveform distortions and the ISI.

  16. The general Klein-Gordon-Schroedinger system: modulational instability and exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyan; Ding Wei

    2008-01-01

    The general Klein-Gordon-Schroedinger (gKGS) system is studied where the cubic auto-interactions are introduced in both the nonlinear Schroedinger and the nonlinear Klein-Gordon fields. We first investigate the modulational instability (MI) of the system, and thus derive the general dispersion relation between the frequency and wavenumber of the modulating perturbations, which demonstrates many possibilities for the MI regions. Using the travelling wave reduction, the gKGS system is greatly simplified. Via a simple function expansion method, we obtain some exact travelling wave solutions. Under some special parameter values, some representative wave structures are graphically displayed including the kink, anti-kink, bright, dark, grey and periodic solitons

  17. Underwater wireless optical MIMO system with spatial modulation and adaptive power allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiping; Tao, Linwei; Niu, Yilong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of underwater wireless optical multiple-input multiple-output communication system combining spatial modulation (SM-UOMIMO) with flag dual amplitude pulse position modulation (FDAPPM). Channel impulse response for coastal and harbor ocean water links are obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Moreover, we obtain the closed-form and upper bound average bit error rate (BER) expressions for receiver diversity including optical combining, equal gain combining and selected combining. And a novel adaptive power allocation algorithm (PAA) is proposed to minimize the average BER of SM-UOMIMO system. Our numeric results indicate an excellent match between the analytical results and numerical simulations, which confirms the accuracy of our derived expressions. Furthermore, the results show that adaptive PAA outperforms conventional fixed factor PAA and equal PAA obviously. Multiple-input single-output system with adaptive PAA obtains even better BER performance than MIMO one, at the same time reducing receiver complexity effectively.

  18. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

  19. A multi-system interface module for automating the patient treatment cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Tim; Brooks, Ken; Davis, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The use of many different computer systems in a radiation oncology department for treatment simulation, planning, and delivery typically introduces increased planning times and redundant data entry. This redundancy is not only a time-consuming chore, but it also has the possibility of introducing human errors at each step. These computer systems often have different hardware platforms and operating systems making it even more difficult to the users for accessing the data. In addition, there is typically a common set of patient and treatment information scattered among these various systems. The purpose of this study is to describe our experience for automating the patient treatment cycle which includes treatment simulation, planning, and delivery using an interface module for sharing this core set of data among the various computer systems in a department without additional complexity to the staff. Materials and Methods: An object-oriented software tool was developed to support a user-driven, dependent query, retrieve, and update of different radiation therapy data systems using Networked File Systems (NFS) and the Structured Query Language (SQL). The interface module was designed to support a many-to-many systems' connectivity depending on the needs of a department. The software tool makes use of the Virtual Machine Platform and Foundation Library specifications of the NCI-sponsored Radiation Therapy Planning Tools Collaborative Working Group for accessing treatment planning data from a system that conforms to these standards. It also takes advantage of the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard for accessing commercial radiation therapy database systems. A custom data access method is developed for any data system that does not conform to these two standards. The software tool has an intuitive graphical user interface for review and verification of the data after the query and retrieve process. The software was written in the C++ language

  20. Simulation Performance of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems Employing Single-Carrier Modulation and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saglam, Halil D

    2004-01-01

    ...) systems utilizing Alamouti-based space-time block coding (STBC) technique. The MIMO communication systems using STBC technique employing both single-carrier modulation and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM...

  1. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  2. Motor imagery learning modulates functional connectivity of multiple brain systems in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning.

  3. Statistical modeling of nitrogen-dependent modulation of root system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Takao; Kubo, Takuya; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Plant root development is strongly affected by nutrient availability. Despite the importance of structure and function of roots in nutrient acquisition, statistical modeling approaches to evaluate dynamic and temporal modulations of root system architecture in response to nutrient availability have remained as widely open and exploratory areas in root biology. In this study, we developed a statistical modeling approach to investigate modulations of root system architecture in response to nitrogen availability. Mathematical models were designed for quantitative assessment of root growth and root branching phenotypes and their dynamic relationships based on hierarchical configuration of primary and lateral roots formulating the fishbone-shaped root system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana. Time-series datasets reporting dynamic changes in root developmental traits on different nitrate or ammonium concentrations were generated for statistical analyses. Regression analyses unraveled key parameters associated with: (i) inhibition of primary root growth under nitrogen limitation or on ammonium; (ii) rapid progression of lateral root emergence in response to ammonium; and (iii) inhibition of lateral root elongation in the presence of excess nitrate or ammonium. This study provides a statistical framework for interpreting dynamic modulation of root system architecture, supported by meta-analysis of datasets displaying morphological responses of roots to diverse nitrogen supplies. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Study and Handling Methods of Power IGBT Module Failures in Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics plays an important role in a wide range of applications in order to achieve high efficiency and performance. Increasing efforts are being made to improve the reliability of power electronics systems to ensure compliance with more stringent constraints on cost, safety, and availa......Power electronics plays an important role in a wide range of applications in order to achieve high efficiency and performance. Increasing efforts are being made to improve the reliability of power electronics systems to ensure compliance with more stringent constraints on cost, safety......, and availability in different applications. This paper presents an overview of the major failure mechanisms of IGBT modules and their handling methods in power converter systems improving reliability. The major failure mechanisms of IGBT modules are presented first, and methods for predicting lifetime...... and estimating the junction temperature of IGBT modules are then discussed. Subsequently, different methods for detecting open- and short-circuit faults are presented. Finally, fault-tolerant strategies for improving the reliability of power electronic systems under field operation are explained and compared...

  5. Central nervous system control of gastrointestinal motility and secretion and modulation of gastrointestinal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Travagli, R Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Although the gastrointestinal (GI) tract possesses intrinsic neural plexuses that allow a significant degree of autonomy over GI functions, the central nervous system (CNS) provides extrinsic neural inputs that regulate, modulate, and control these functions. While the intestines are capable of functioning in the absence of extrinsic inputs, the stomach and esophagus are much more dependent upon extrinsic neural inputs, particularly from parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. The sympathetic nervous system exerts a predominantly inhibitory effect upon GI muscle and provides a tonic inhibitory influence over mucosal secretion while, at the same time, regulates GI blood flow via neurally mediated vasoconstriction. The parasympathetic nervous system, in contrast, exerts both excitatory and inhibitory control over gastric and intestinal tone and motility. Although GI functions are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and occur, by and large, independently of conscious perception, it is clear that the higher CNS centers influence homeostatic control as well as cognitive and behavioral functions. This review will describe the basic neural circuitry of extrinsic inputs to the GI tract as well as the major CNS nuclei that innervate and modulate the activity of these pathways. The role of CNS-centered reflexes in the regulation of GI functions will be discussed as will modulation of these reflexes under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Finally, future directions within the field will be discussed in terms of important questions that remain to be resolved and advances in technology that may help provide these answers.

  6. GoldenBraid: an iterative cloning system for standardized assembly of reusable genetic modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Sarrion-Perdigones

    Full Text Available Synthetic Biology requires efficient and versatile DNA assembly systems to facilitate the building of new genetic modules/pathways from basic DNA parts in a standardized way. Here we present GoldenBraid (GB, a standardized assembly system based on type IIS restriction enzymes that allows the indefinite growth of reusable gene modules made of standardized DNA pieces. The GB system consists of a set of four destination plasmids (pDGBs designed to incorporate multipartite assemblies made of standard DNA parts and to combine them binarily to build increasingly complex multigene constructs. The relative position of type IIS restriction sites inside pDGB vectors introduces a double loop ("braid" topology in the cloning strategy that allows the indefinite growth of composite parts through the succession of iterative assembling steps, while the overall simplicity of the system is maintained. We propose the use of GoldenBraid as an assembly standard for Plant Synthetic Biology. For this purpose we have GB-adapted a set of binary plasmids for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Fast GB-engineering of several multigene T-DNAs, including two alternative modules made of five reusable devices each, and comprising a total of 19 basic parts are also described.

  7. Development of atmospheric dispersion module and its integration with diagnostic system for radioactivity release evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, T.V.; Hari Prasad, M.; Gopika, V.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    As a part of development of diagnostic system for accident management in nuclear power plants (NPPs), an atmospheric dispersion module for radioactivity release evaluations using Kalman filter technique has been developed for emergency preparedness. In addition to the accident management, during normal reactor operations, it is desirable to monitor for any aerial releases of radionuclides. These radionuclides incur doses to the surrounding areas when they get carried away by the wind and dispersed in the air due to the turbulence. Normally, the releases from the NPP are in a controlled manner and monitored continuously. However, in case of an accidental release, the quantities may be very uncertain and correct estimation of the release is very important for emergency preparedness and planning in post accident scenarios. In this connection, a Kalman filter technique has been used to estimate the radioactivity release using environmental radiation monitoring data obtained close to the release point. The Kalman filter is a recursive predictor-corrector type estimator. It is based on a state space model in which the state variables, in the current setting, are the parameters of the Gaussian plume model.The plume model parameters, which are collected in the state vector consist of the source term, wind velocity and plume height. The observables consist of simultaneous gamma dose measurements (dose rate) and meteorological data (wind speed) at different times. In this analysis time evolution of the state is represented by the system equation and the measurements are linked to the state variables through the measurement equation. This model has been validated using the data obtained from radiation data acquisition system of a typical Indian nuclear power plant under normal operating conditions. The graphical user interface for atmospheric dispersion calculations has been developed and integrated with the diagnostic system on the high speed computing setup. This module

  8. Introducing Systems Biology to Bioscience students through mathematical modelling. A practical module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor V. Torres Darias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems Biology, one of the current approaches to the understanding of living things, aims to understand the behaviour of living systems through the creation of mathematical models that integrate the available knowledge of the system’s component parts and the relations among them. Accordingly, model building should play a central part in any biology degree program. One difficulty that we face when confronted with this task, however, is that the mathematical background of undergraduate students is very often deficient in essential concepts required for dynamic mathematical modelling. In this practical module, students are introduced to the basic techniques of mathematical modelling and computer simulation from a Systems Biology perspective.

  9. Design of Optical I/Q Modulator Using Dual-drive Mach-Zehnder Modulators in Coherent Optical-OFDM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Monika; Kedia, Deepak

    2018-04-01

    A CO-OFDM system combines the advantages of both coherent detection and OFDM modulation for future high speed fiber transmission. In this paper, we propose an I/Q modulation technique using dual-drive MZMs for high rate 10 Gb/s CO-OFDM system. The proposed modulator provides 10.63 dBm improved optical spectra compared to a single dual-drive MZM. The simulation results in terms of BER and Q factor are quite satisfactory upto a transmission reach of 3,000 km and that to without making use of any dispersion compensation. A BER of about 8.03×10-10 and 15.06 dB Q factor have been achieved at -10.43 dBm received optical power.

  10. Development of filter module for passive filtration and accident gas release confinement system for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelizarov, P.G.; Efanov, A.D.; Martynov, P.N.; Masalov, D.P.; Osipov, V.P.; Yagodkin, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: One of the urgent problems of the safe NPP operation is air cleaning from radioactive aerosols and volatile iodine compounds under the accident operation conditions of NPP. A principally new passive accident gas release confinement system is used as the basis of the designs of new generation reactor power blocks under the-beyond-design-basis accident conditions with total loss of current. The basic structural component of the passive filtration system (PFS) is the filter-sorber being heated up to 300 deg. C. The filter-sorber represents a design consisting of 150 connected in parallel two-step filtering modules. The first step is intended to clean air from radioactive aerosols, the second one - to clean air from radioactive iodine and its volatile compounds. The filter-sorber is located in the upper point of the exterior protection shell. Due to natural convection, it provides confinement of r/a impurities and controlled steam-gas release from the inter-shell space into atmosphere. The basic specific design feature is the two-section design of the PFS filter module consisting of a coarse-cleaning section and a fine-cleaning section. A combination of layer-by-layer put filtering materials on the basis of glass fiber and metal fiber. The pilot PFS filter module specimen tests run in conditions modeling accident situation indicated that at a filtration rate of 0,3 cm/s the aerodynamic resistance of the module does not exceed 12 Pa, the filtration effectiveness equals 99,99 % in terms of aerosol, no less than 99,9% in terms of radioactive 131 I and no less than 99,0% in terms of organic compounds of iodine (CH 3 131 I); the dust capacity amounts to a value above 50 g/m 2 . The obtained results of tests comply with the design requirements imposed on the PFS filter-sorber module. (authors)

  11. Optimal Power System and Grid Interface Design Considerations for the CLICs Klystron Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Marija, Jankovic; Jon, Clare; Pat, Wheeler; Davide, Aguglia

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an electron-positron collider under study at CERN with the aim to explore the next generation of high precision/high energy particles physics. The CLIC’s drive beams will be accelerated by approximately 1300 klystrons, requiring highly efficient and controllable solid state capacitor discharge modulators. Capacitor charger specifications include the requirement to mask the pulsed effect of the load from the utility grid, ensure maximum power quality, control the derived DC voltage precisely (to maximize accuracy for the modulators being implemented), and achieve high efficiency and operability of the overall power system. This paper presents the work carried out on the power system interface for the CLIC facility. In particular it discusses the challenges on the utility interface and analysis of the grid interface converters with regards to required functionality, efficiency, and control methodologies.

  12. A miniature frequency-stabilized VCSEL system emitting at 795 nm based on LTCC modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Florian; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Affolderbach, Christoph; Pétremand, Yves; de Rooij, Nico F.; Maeder, Thomas; Mileti, Gaetano

    2013-08-01

    We present a compact frequency-stabilized laser system locked to the Rubidium absorption line of a micro-fabricated reference cell. A printed circuit board (PCB) is used to carry all the components and part of the electronics, and low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) modules are used to temperature-stabilize the laser diode and the miniature Rubidium cell (cell inner dimensions: 5 mm diameter and 2 mm height). The measured frequency stability of the laser, in terms of Allan deviation, is ≤8×10-10 for integration times of 103-105s. The current overall dimensions of the system are 70×40×50 mm3, with good potential for realization of a frequency-stabilized laser module with few cm3 volume.

  13. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  14. Mucosal and systemic immune modulation by Trichuris trichiura in a self-infected individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, A; Rasmussen, T K; Nejsum, P

    2017-01-01

    Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic...... trichiura colonization induced equally increased expressions of T-helper (h)1-, Th2-, Th17- and Treg-associated cytokines and transcription factors, measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed several indicators of modulation of systemic immunity during the T. trichiura infection. Plasma...... immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T. trichiura clearance, and this served as a positive infectious control. Trichuris...

  15. A Novel Active Bouncer System for Klystron Modulators with Constant AC Power Consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Cabaleiro Magallanes, F; Viarouge, P; Cros, J; De Almeida Martins, C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the principles and design methodologies of a novel active bouncer system, to be implemented in a transformer-based klystron modulator, which is able to meet two different objectives: 1. Regulate the output pulse voltage flattop, and 2. Attenuate the power fluctuation withdrawn from the AC network. This solution allows the utilization of a standard constant voltage / constant current power supply as a capacitor charger. The solution consists of a 4-quadrant switching converter placed in series with the main capacitor bank (forming a unique element in parallel with the capacitor charger), controlled with specific feed-back loops to achieve the two objectives. The complete design method, including a numerical optimization, of the whole system, is presented in the paper. Analyses of the compromises between the active bouncer specifications and the other modulator sub-components design is presented as well.

  16. Cognitive approach to developing the intelligent modules of organizational and technical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Trembach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is intelligent modules of organizational-technical systems (OTS for solving the task of purposeful behavior taking into account features to operate the object in a rapidly changing external environment. A widely used computing paradigm contains inherent symbolic submissions of information and their processing with algorithms focused on the logic and combinatorics of procedures. This computer approach in solving some intellectual tasks is inferior to the man. One of the approaches to study complex tasks can be the use of a simpler model task. For such models, the article investigates the possibility of using the cognitive approach that can be used in the intelligent modules of OTS for solving tasks of purposeful behavior. In order to solve the task of purposeful behavior taking into account features to operate the object in a rapidly changing external environment a cognitive approach to cybernetic systems as intelligent modules of OTS can be used. The author considered the cybernetic approach to the evolution and use of simple model systems with purposeful behavior. A cognitive approach includes plenty of problems. The solution of these problems is connected with the methods, taking into account cognitive aspects referring to processes of perception, thinking, knowledge, explanations and understanding. In a system with a simple model the issues of categorization, the role and place of the Gestalt, the formation of the characteristic values as an important element of cognitive semantics are considered. In further studies it is necessary to pay due attention to the knowledge of cybernetic systems, their submissions, storage, processing, interpretation and production of new knowledge. As a result of the research, the structure of a cybernetic system with a simple model of behavior is proposed. This system is able to solve relatively simple tasks of purposeful behavior. When adding modules, providing recognition of primitive

  17. Time-domain effects on error rates of multilevel digital pulse interval modulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Rao, Jionghui; Pan, Chen

    2011-10-01

    A channel discretization was applied to investigate time-domain effects on error rates of Multilevel Digital Pulse Interval Modulation (MDPIM) underwater optical wireless communication systems imposed by water scattering. Taking time domain dispersion into account, package error rates of MDPIM were analyzed. The deterioration of package error rates were computed at various link ranges and transmitted rates. Theory model is an agreement with Monte Carlo simulation.

  18. Central Nervous System Control of Gastrointestinal Motility and Secretion and Modulation of Gastrointestinal Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Kirsteen N.; Travagli, R. Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Although the gastrointestinal (GI) tract possesses intrinsic neural plexuses that allow a significant degree of autonomy over GI functions, the central nervous system (CNS) provides extrinsic neural inputs that regulate, modulate, and control these functions. While the intestines are capable of functioning in the absence of extrinsic inputs, the stomach and esophagus are much more dependent upon extrinsic neural inputs, particularly from parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. The sympathet...

  19. Modulation operated by the sympathetic nervous system on jaw reflexes and masticatory movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro

    2007-04-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS), that is activated under condition of physical, psychological and psychosocial stress, affects force production and fatigability of muscles by controlling both muscle blood flow and the intracellular contractile mechanism. In addition SNS may affect motor function by modulating afferent activity from muscle spindles that are highly concentrated in jaw-closing muscles. Possible implications of these actions on masticatory function and myofascial pain are discussed.

  20. Systems Genetics Analysis to Identify the Genetic Modulation of a Glaucoma-Associated Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Sumana R; Jablonski, Monica M

    2017-01-01

    Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is one of the hallmarks of retinal neurodegenerative diseases, glaucoma being one of the most common. Recently, γ-synuclein (SNCG) was shown to be highly expressed in the somas and axons of RGCs. In various mouse models of glaucoma, downregulation of Sncg gene expression correlates with RGC loss. To investigate the regulation of Sncg in RGCs, we used a systems genetics approach to identify a gene that modulates the expression of Sncg, followed by confirmatory studies in both healthy and diseased retinas. We found that chromosome 1 harbors an eQTL that modulates the expression of Sncg in the mouse retina and identified Pfdn2 as the candidate upstream modulator of Sncg expression. Downregulation of Pfdn2 in enriched RGCs causes a concomitant reduction in Sncg. In this chapter, we describe our strategy and methods for identifying and confirming a genetic modulation of a glaucoma-associated gene. A similar method can be applied to other genes expressed in other tissues.

  1. Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (vagmed) module, multi-stage vagmed systems, and vagmed processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-06-30

    Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (VAGMED) modules, and multi-stage VAGMED systems and processes using the modules are provided. In an embodiment, the membrane distillation modules (10) can comprise: a) a condenser (12) including a condensation surface (15); b) a first passageway (13) having an inlet for receiving a first feed stream (14) and an outlet through which the first stream can pass out of the first passageway, the first passageway configured to bring the first feed stream into thermal communication with the condensation surface; c) an evaporator (17) including a permeable evaporation surface allowing condensable gas to pass there through; d) a second passageway (18) having an inlet for receiving a second feed stream (19) and an outlet through which the second feed stream can pass out of the second passageway, the second passageway configured to bring the second feed stream into communication with the permeable evaporation surface; and e) an enclosure (24) providing a vacuum compartment within which the condenser, the evaporator and the first and second passageways of the module are contained.

  2. A review of the role of orexin system in pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    The roles of orexinergic system (orexin-A, orexin-B) and their receptors (orexin receptor type-1, orexin receptor type-2) in various physiological processes such as arousal, reward seeking behavior, energy homeostasis, sensory modulation, stress processing, cognition, endocrine functions, visceral functions and pain modulation have been established. This review summarizes the studies investigating orexin antinociceptive effects and their cellular mechanisms in various types of pain including neuropathic pain, migraine and cluster headache, visceral and orofacial pains. Moreover, the role of orexins in stress induced analgesia and on the development of morphine analgesic tolerance has been discussed. The antinociceptive effects of orexins have been shown in several pain models including thermal, mechanical and chemical induced nociception. Orexins modulate pain perception at both spinal and supraspinal levels. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is one important supraspinal sites of orexin pain modulation. A possible involvement of endocannabinoids in supraspinal orexin-induced analgesia has been proposed. This review suggests a potential role of orexins in the management of pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of position monitor module in radioactive material transport monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi Abimanyu; Dwi Yuliansari N

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of safety and security of radioactive substances from the sender to the receiver is to be secured so as not to harm humans. In general, monitoring is done through conversation by telephone to determine the location and rate of exposure of radioactive substances. Through the development of science and technology makes it possible to develop a system of monitoring the transport of radioactive substances in real time by combining radiation monitor module, position monitors module and sending information nir-cable. Position monitor module developed using GPS-receiver and a micro controller ATMega8 based serial interrupts communication. Testing is done by testing communication between micro controller and GPS and also testing reading position by GPS receiver. From the test results concluded that the developed modules is good in serial communication is based on serial interrupts, good position measurement to be used outdoors and is not good enough for measurements indoors because the GPS receiver used is not using an outdoor antenna. (author)

  4. A study of the dose modulation systems in two multislice CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Giron, I.; Valverde Moran, J.; Mendez Fernandez, R.; Aramburu Nunez, D.; Nunez Villavicencio, C.; Calzado Cantera, A.

    2009-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography (TCMC) is a technique that for its gradual introduction and the spectacular increase in its indications in clinical practice represents the main contribution to the collective dose in diagnostic radiology. It is essential to optimize the protocols maintaining doses as low as possible without affecting the diagnostic quality of images. Automatic tube current modulation systems are a tool currently available in all CT scanners. They adapt the tube current to morphological characteristics of the patient and the anatomical area under study. The aim of this work has been to analyze two scanners from the same manufacturer and featuring similar geometry by assessing the relative dose differences and image quality. Modulation systems of general use can decrease the dose in a 20-60% with a reduction in the signal to noise ratio between 6% and 37%. Dedicated cardiac-CT modulation system gave rise to high relative differences (36-40%) even when varying the heart rate. Significant changes in image quality were not appreciated though the motion of the heart has not been simulated in this study. (Author) 14 refs.

  5. Differential Space-Time Block Code Modulation for DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A differential space-time block code (DSTBC modulation scheme is used to improve the performance of DS-CDMA systems in fast time-dispersive fading channels. The resulting scheme is referred to as the differential space-time block code modulation for DS-CDMA (DSTBC-CDMA systems. The new modulation and demodulation schemes are especially studied for the down-link transmission of DS-CDMA systems. We present three demodulation schemes, referred to as the differential space-time block code Rake (D-Rake receiver, differential space-time block code deterministic (D-Det receiver, and differential space-time block code deterministic de-prefix (D-Det-DP receiver, respectively. The D-Det receiver exploits the known information of the spreading sequences and their delayed paths deterministically besides the Rake type combination; consequently, it can outperform the D-Rake receiver, which employs the Rake type combination only. The D-Det-DP receiver avoids the effect of intersymbol interference and hence can offer better performance than the D-Det receiver.

  6. Propagation Modelling and Decision Aids for Communications, Radar and Navigation Systems (La Modelisation de la Propagation et Aides a la Decision Pour les Sysemes de elecommunicaions, de Radar et de Navigation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    distributed by NTIS �). It is described in a hand- ’ learn ’ what the function is by being given many examples in book by Eppink and Kuebler (1994), and...relationships and weights to the input parameters as it and requires a terrain profile. Using the terrain profile, the pro- learns . Eventually, it...material in this paper is an update of, or taken from, Hitney, et al. 171 and AGARDograph 326 181. Meanin Frequency Bandenter HF High Frequency 3B-30

  7. Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems. Volume 5: Test Methods for Digital Recorder/Reproducer Systems and Recorder Memory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    REPRODUCER SYSTEMS AND RECORDER MEMORY MODULES ABERDEEN TEST CENTER DUGWAY PROVING GROUND REAGAN TEST SITE WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE YUMA...ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...AND SUBSYSTEMS VOLUME V TEST METHODS FOR DIGITAL RECORDER/REPRODUCER SYSTEMS AND RECORDER MEMORY MODULES September 2016

  8. An Interdisciplinary Conservation Module for Condition Survey on Cultural Heritages with a 3d Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedelì, C.

    2013-07-01

    In order to make the most of the digital outsourced documents, based on new technologies (e.g.: 3D LASER scanners, photogrammetry, etc.), a new approach was followed and a new ad hoc information system was implemented. The obtained product allow to the final user to reuse and manage the digital documents providing graphic tools and an integrated specific database to manage the entire documentation and conservation process, starting from the condition assessment until the conservation / restoration work. The system is organised on two main modules: Archaeology and Conservation. This paper focus on the features and the advantages of the second one. In particular it is emphasized its logical organisation, the possibility to easily mapping by using a very precise 3D metric platform, to benefit of the integrated relational database which allows to well organise, compare, keep and manage different kind of information at different level. Conservation module can manage along the time the conservation process of a site, monuments, object or excavation and conservation work in progress. An alternative approach called OVO by the author of this paper, force the surveyor to observe and describe the entity decomposing it on functional components, materials and construction techniques. Some integrated tools as the "ICOMOS-ISCS Illustrated glossary … " help the user to describe pathologies with a unified approach and terminology. Also the conservation project phase is strongly supported to envision future intervention and cost. A final section is devoted to record the conservation/restoration work already done or in progress. All information areas of the conservation module are interconnected to each other to allows to the system a complete interchange of graphic and alphanumeric data. The conservation module it self is connected to the archaeological one to create an interdisciplinary daily tool.

  9. Development of a hemispherical rotational modulation collimator system for imaging spatial distribution of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, M.; Lee, S.; Kim, G.; Kim, H. S.; Rho, J.; Ok, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactive materials is of great importance for environmental and security issues. We design and present a novel hemispherical rotational modulation collimator (H-RMC) system which can visualize the location of the radiation source by collecting signals from incident rays that go through collimator masks. The H-RMC system comprises a servo motor-controlled rotating module and a hollow heavy-metallic hemisphere with slits/slats equally spaced with the same angle subtended from the main axis. In addition, we also designed an auxiliary instrument to test the imaging performance of the H-RMC system, comprising a high-precision x- and y-axis staging station on which one can mount radiation sources of various shapes. We fabricated the H-RMC system which can be operated in a fully-automated fashion through the computer-based controller, and verify the accuracy and reproducibility of the system by measuring the rotational and linear positions with respect to the programmed values. Our H-RMC system may provide a pivotal tool for spatial radiation imaging with high reliability and accuracy.

  10. Electrical Pressurization Concept for the Orion MPCV European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Jan-Hendrik; Weber, Jorg; Ierardo, Nicola; Quinn, Frank D.; Paisley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design of the pressurization system of the European Service Module (ESM) of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Being part of the propulsion subsystem, an electrical pressurization concept is implemented to condition propellants according to the engine needs via a bang-bang regulation system. Separate pressurization for the oxidizer and the fuel tank permits mixture ratio adjustments and prevents vapor mixing of the two hypergolic propellants during nominal operation. In case of loss of pressurization capability of a single side, the system can be converted into a common pressurization system. The regulation concept is based on evaluation of a set of tank pressure sensors and according activation of regulation valves, based on a single-failure tolerant weighting of three pressure signals. While regulation is performed on ESM level, commanding of regulation parameters as well as failure detection, isolation and recovery is performed from within the Crew Module, developed by Lockheed Martin Space System Company. The overall design and development maturity presented is post Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and reflects the current status of the MPCV ESM pressurization system.

  11. Discontinuous modulation functions and their application for analysis of modulated structures with the computing system JANA2006

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petříček, Václav; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Čejchan, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 231, č. 5 (2016), s. 301-312 ISSN 2194-4946 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure analysis * Jana2006 * modulated structures Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2016

  12. Modal Analysis and Study of the Vibration Characteristics of the Thermoelectric Modules of Vehicle Exhaust Power-Generation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Zhai, Pengcheng; Yu, Rui; Li, Guodong; Zhang, Qingjie

    2014-06-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials and modules are important components of vehicle exhaust power-generation systems. The road and the engine, the main sources of vibration of TE modules, have substantial effects on the vibration characteristics of TE modules. In this work, modal analysis and the vibration characteristics of TE modules were investigated in detail. On the basis of the TE modules and their service environment, simulations for modal analysis were performed by use of the finite-element method, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the TE modules were obtained. The numerical results were used to compare the natural frequencies of TE modules under different contact stiffness with the range of excitation frequencies of road and engine, in an attempt to prevent severe resonance. The effects on the vibration characteristics of geometric dimensions, service temperature, and thermal stress of the TE modules are also discussed in detail. The results reveal the vibration characteristics of the TE modules and provide theoretical guidance for structure optimization in the design of vehicle exhaust power-generation systems.

  13. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  14. Overview of CMS robotic silicon module assembly hardware based on Aerotech Gantry Positioning system.

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the robotic silicon module assembly pilot project is to fully automate the gluing and pick and placement of silicon sensors and front-end hybrid onto a carbon-fibre frame. The basis for thesystem is the Aerotech Gantry Positioning System (AGS10000) machineshown in the centre of the picture. To the left is the PC which contains the controller card and runs the user interface. To the rightis the rack of associated electronics which interfaces with the CERNbuilt tooling and vacuum chuck system.

  15. Design and development of a data acquisition system for photovoltaic modules characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmili, Hocine [Unite de Developpement des Equipements Solaires (UDES), Route Nationale No11, Bou-Isamil BP 365, Tipaza 42415, Algerie; Ait Cheikh, Salah Med; Haddadi, Mourad; Larbes, Cherif [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Laboratoire de Dispositifs de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique (LDCCP), 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach 16200 Alger (Algeria)

    2010-07-15

    Testing photovoltaic generators performance is complicated. This is due to the influence of a variety of interactive parameters related to the environment such as solar irradiation and temperature in addition to solar cell material (mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, amorphous and thin films). This paper presents a computer-based instrumentation system for the characterization of the photovoltaic (PV) conversion. It based on a design of a data acquisition system (DAQS) allowing the acquisition and the drawing of the characterization measure of PV modules in real meteorological test conditions. (author)

  16. Nonlinear Control of an Open-Loop Open-Winding Motor System with Modulated Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleschuk V.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this work - to provide wider control opportunities for multiphase open-end winding motor drive by modification of basic scheme of space-vector pulse-width modulation (PWM. It has been shown, that the proposed development of basic PWM scheme insures available solutions for realization of specific control dependences and modes of operation of adjustable speed ac drives with different types and kinds of loads. Suitable algorithms of PWM of converters of multiphase drive have been analyzed and compared. Extensive simulation studies have been executed for evaluation of performance and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Assessment of harmonic composition of the phase voltages of drive system with modified scheme of space-vector modulation has been done. Results of the executed simulations proved the fact, that the developed techniques of space-vector pulse-width modulation allow providing quarter-wave or half-wave symmetry of waveforms of the output voltage of six-phase adjustable speed drive systems during the analyzed non-standard modes and regimes of its operation.

  17. WRAP Module 1 data management system (DMS) software design description (SDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Revision 2 of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS) Preliminary Software Design Description (PSDD) provides a high-level design description of the system. The WRAP 1 DMS is required to collect, store, and report data related to certification, tracking, packaging, repackaging, processing, and shipment of waste processed or stored at the WRAP 1 facility. The WRAP 1 DMS SDD is used as the primary medium for communication software design information. This release provides design descriptions for the following process modules produced under Phase 1 of the development effort: Receiving Drum or Box Containers Process Routing and Picklists; Waste Inventory by Location and/or Container Relationships; LLW Process Glovebox Facility Radiologic Material Inventory Check (partial); Shipping (partial production); Drum or Box NDE Operations; and Drum or Box NDA Operations Data Review (partial production). In addition, design descriptions are included for the following process modules scheduled for development under Phases 2 and 3: Activity Comment; LLW RWM Glovebox Sample Management; TRU Process Glovebox; TRU RWM Glovebox; and TRUPACT Processing. Detailed design descriptions for Reports and Facility Metrics have also been provided for in Revision 2 of this document

  18. CpG-PEG Conjugates and their Immune Modulating Effects after Systemic Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Caixing; Xiang, Xiaofei; Yue, Yang; Li, Lin; Li, Yesen; Zhang, Chong; Xu, Yuhong

    2018-03-02

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs were found to be able to target cells that express Toll-like receptor 9 to modulate innate and adaptive immune reactions. But their in vivo application in immunotherapy against cancer has not been successful. We attempted in this study to examine polyethylene-glycol (PEG) conjugated CpG ODNs and investigated their mechanism of immune modulation in anti-cancer therapy. CpG-PEG conjugates with different PEG lengths were synthesized. In vitro activity as well as in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties were evaluated. CpG-PEG20Ks were found to be able to persist longer in circulation and activate various downstream effector cells. After intravenous injection, they resulted in higher levels of IL-12p70 in the circulation and lower M-MDSC infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment. Such activities were different from those of CpG ODNs without PEGylation, suggesting different PK-PD profiles systemically and locally. Our data support the development of CpG-PEGs as a new therapeutic agent that can be systemically administered to modulate immune responses and the microenvironment in tumor tissues.

  19. Model documentation report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 1997 (AEO 97). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code. This document serves three purposes. First it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS MAM used for the AEO 1997 production runs for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  20. SSYST-1 input description for the modules of the program system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulden, W.; Meyder, R.

    1978-06-01

    The modules of the SSYST program system allow the detailed analysis of an LWR fuel rod in the course of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. They provide a tool for considering the interaction between the heat conduction in the fuel rod, heat transfer in the gap, fuel and cladding tube deformation, pressure in the coolant, as well as thermal and fluid dynamics in the cooling channel and for calculating the time and location of ballooning and rod failure, respectively. They can be used both to precalculate the behavior of fuel rods during LWR accidents and in support of the design of experiments. Depending on the problem to be solved, the individual modules can be easily combined. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  1. MOSRA-SRAC. Lattice calculation module of the modular code system for nuclear reactor analyses MOSRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke

    2015-10-01

    MOSRA-SRAC is a lattice calculation module of the Modular code System for nuclear Reactor Analyses (MOSRA). This module performs the neutron transport calculation for various types of fuel elements including existing light water reactors, research reactors, etc. based on the collision probability method with a set of the 200-group cross-sections generated from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library JENDL-4.0. It has also a function of the isotope generation and depletion calculation for up to 234 nuclides in each fuel material in the lattice. In these ways, MOSRA-SRAC prepares the burn-up dependent effective microscopic and macroscopic cross-section data to be used in core calculations. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  2. SREM - WRS system module number 3348 for calculating the removal flux due to point, line or disc sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the uncollided flux and first-collision source from a disc source in a slab geometry system, a line source at the centre of a cylindrical system or a point source at the centre of a spherical system. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  3. Optical signal processing techniques and applications of optical phase modulation in high-speed communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning

    In recent years, optical phase modulation has attracted much research attention in the field of fiber optic communications. Compared with the traditional optical intensity-modulated signal, one of the main merits of the optical phase-modulated signal is the better transmission performance. For optical phase modulation, in spite of the comprehensive study of its transmission performance, only a little research has been carried out in terms of its functions, applications and signal processing for future optical networks. These issues are systematically investigated in this thesis. The research findings suggest that optical phase modulation and its signal processing can greatly facilitate flexible network functions and high bandwidth which can be enjoyed by end users. In the thesis, the most important physical-layer technology, signal processing and multiplexing, are investigated with optical phase-modulated signals. Novel and advantageous signal processing and multiplexing approaches are proposed and studied. Experimental investigations are also reported and discussed in the thesis. Optical time-division multiplexing and demultiplexing. With the ever-increasing demand on communication bandwidth, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) is an effective approach to upgrade the capacity of each wavelength channel in current optical systems. OTDM multiplexing can be simply realized, however, the demultiplexing requires relatively complicated signal processing and stringent timing control, and thus hinders its practicability. To tackle this problem, in this thesis a new OTDM scheme with hybrid DPSK and OOK signals is proposed. Experimental investigation shows this scheme can greatly enhance the demultiplexing timing misalignment and improve the demultiplexing performance, and thus make OTDM more practical and cost effective. All-optical signal processing. In current and future optical communication systems and networks, the data rate per wavelength has been approaching

  4. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α modulates systemic ketone body homeostasis and ameliorates diabetic hyperketonemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kristoffer; Albert, Verena; Cardel, Bettina; Salatino, Silvia; Handschin, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are crucial energy substrates during states of low carbohydrate availability. However, an aberrant regulation of KB homeostasis can lead to complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis. Exercise and diabetes affect systemic KB homeostasis, but the regulation of KB metabolism is still enigmatic. In our study in mice with either knockout or overexpression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α in skeletal muscle, PGC-1α regulated ketolytic gene transcription in muscle. Furthermore, KB homeostasis of these mice was investigated during withholding of food, exercise, and ketogenic diet feeding, and after streptozotocin injection. In response to these ketogenic stimuli, modulation of PGC-1α levels in muscle affected systemic KB homeostasis. Moreover, the data demonstrate that skeletal muscle PGC-1α is necessary for the enhanced ketolytic capacity in response to exercise training and overexpression of PGC-1α in muscle enhances systemic ketolytic capacity and is sufficient to ameliorate diabetic hyperketonemia in mice. In cultured myotubes, the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor-α was a partner of PGC-1α in the regulation of ketolytic gene transcription. These results demonstrate a central role of skeletal muscle PGC-1α in the transcriptional regulation of systemic ketolytic capacity.-Svensson, K., Albert, V., Cardel, B., Salatino, S., Handschin, C. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α modulates systemic ketone body homeostasis and ameliorates diabetic hyperketonemia in mice. © FASEB.

  5. In-situ calibration: Migrating control system IP module calibration from the bench to the storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.M.; Chin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Control System for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) uses in-house designed IndustryPack registered (IP) modules contained in compact PCI (cPCI) crates with 16-bit analog I/O to control instrumentation. To make the IP modules interchangeable, each module is calibrated for gain and offset compensation. We initially developed a method of verifying and calibrating the IP modules in a lab bench test environment using a PC with LabVIEW. The subsequent discovery that the ADCs have significant drift characteristics over periods of days of installed operation prompted development of an 'in-situ' calibration process - one in which the IP modules can be calibrated without removing them from the cPCI crates in the storage ring. This paper discusses the original LabVIEW PC calibration and the migration to the proposed in-situ EPICS control system calibration

  6. In-situ calibration: migrating control system IP module calibration from the bench to the storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Jonah M.; Chin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Control System for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) uses in-house designed IndustryPack(registered trademark) (IP) modules contained in compact PCI (cPCI) crates with 16-bit analog I/O to control instrumentation. To make the IP modules interchangeable, each module is calibrated for gain and offset compensation. We initially developed a method of verifying and calibrating the IP modules in a lab bench test environment using a PC with LabVIEW. The subsequent discovery that the ADCs have significant drift characteristics over periods of days of installed operation prompted development of an ''in-situ'' calibration process--one in which the IP modules can be calibrated without removing them from the cPCI crates in the storage ring. This paper discusses the original LabVIEW PC calibration and the migration to the proposed in-situ EPICS control system calibration

  7. [Research on Multi-Spectral Target Recognition System Based on the Magneto-Optical Modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-yan; Qin, Jian-min; Qiao, Ji-pin

    2016-03-01

    The technology of target recognition based on characteristic multi-spectrum has many advantages, such as strong detection capability and discriminating capability of target species. But there are some problems, it requires that you obtain the background spectrum as a priori knowledge, and it requires that the change of background spectrum is small with time. Thereby its application of real-time object recognition is limited in the new environment, or the complex environment. Based on magneto-optical modulation and characteristic multi-spectrum the method is designed, and the target is identified without prior access to the background spectrum. In order to achieve the function of the target information in the one acquisition time for tested, compared to conventional methods in terms of target detection, it's adaptability is better than before on the battlefield, and it is of more practical significance. Meanwhile, the magneto-optical modulator is used to suppress the interference of stray light background, thereby improving the probability of target recognition. Since the magneto-optical modulation provides incremental iterative target spectral information, therefore, even if the unknown background spectrum or background spectrum change is large, it can significantly improve the recognition accuracy of information through an iterative target spectrum. Different test targets back shimmering light intensity and background intensity values were analyzed during experiments, results showed that three targets for linearly polarized reflectance modulation is significantly stronger than the background. And it was of great influence to visible imaging target identification when measured target used camouflage color, but the system of polarization modulation type can still recognize target well. On this basis, the target range within 0.5 km x 2 km multi-wavelength characteristics of the target species were identified. When using three characteristic wavelengths, the

  8. A ballistics module as a part of the fire control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka R. Luković

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a ballistics module as a part of the fire control system of weapons for fire support (mortars, artillery weapons and rocket launchers. The software is "open" with the prominence of autonomy work. It can be modulated and adapted on the user demand. Moreover, it is independent of the hardware base. Introduction: The fire control system is based on a ballistic module (BM which determines the firing data for each weapon tool in the battery. Ballistic calculations, for the given position of the target in relation to the position of tools in the given weather conditions, determine firing data (elevation, direction, timing and locating devices so that the missile seems to cause the desired effect. This paper gives the basic information about the features the BM performs and the manner of their implementation in the fire control system without going into algorithmic solution procedures. Ballistic problem in the fire control system: Ballistic calculation is based on a trajectory calculation of all kinds of projectiles (current, time-fuze, illuminating, smoke, with conventional propulsion, rocket, with built-in gas generator, etc.. Instead of previous solutions, where a trajectory calculation of the fire control system was done by approximate methods, in this BM the trajectory calculation is made by the same model with the same data as for a weapon and ammunition in the process of creating a firing table. The data used in the fire control system are made simultaneously with the preparation of firing tables for a particular tool and associated ammunition,. A modified model of particle, standardized at the NATO level, is also used. Taking into account the meteorological situation, before the trajectory calculation is done, a relative position of the target in relation to the position of the tool should be determined. A selection or loading check is carried out (possibility of reaching a given target as well as the point at which the

  9. Perceptual Color Space Representations in the Oculomotor System Are Modulated by Surround Suppression and Biased Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Devin H; Rahimi, Maryam; Fallah, Mazyar

    2018-01-01

    The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE ( x , y ) color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals. We observed that saccade planning was modulated by the CIE ( x , y ) distances between stimuli thus demonstrating that color is encoded in perceptual color space by the oculomotor system. Furthermore, these representations were modulated by (1) cueing attention to a particular color thereby eliciting surround suppression in oculomotor color space and (2) inherent selection and encoding biases based on color category independent of cueing and perceptual discriminability. Since surround suppression emerges from recurrent feedback attenuation of sensory projections, observing oculomotor surround suppression suggested that oculomotor encoding of behavioral relevance results from integrating sensory and cognitive signals that are pre-attenuated based on task demands and that the oculomotor system therefore does not functionally contribute to this process. Second, although perceptual discriminability did partially account for oculomotor processing differences between color categories, we also observed preferential processing of the red color category across various behavioral metrics. This is consistent with numerous previous studies and could not be simply explained by perceptual discriminability. Since we utilized a memory-guided saccade task, this indicates that

  10. Perceptual Color Space Representations in the Oculomotor System Are Modulated by Surround Suppression and Biased Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin H. Kehoe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE (x,y color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals. We observed that saccade planning was modulated by the CIE (x,y distances between stimuli thus demonstrating that color is encoded in perceptual color space by the oculomotor system. Furthermore, these representations were modulated by (1 cueing attention to a particular color thereby eliciting surround suppression in oculomotor color space and (2 inherent selection and encoding biases based on color category independent of cueing and perceptual discriminability. Since surround suppression emerges from recurrent feedback attenuation of sensory projections, observing oculomotor surround suppression suggested that oculomotor encoding of behavioral relevance results from integrating sensory and cognitive signals that are pre-attenuated based on task demands and that the oculomotor system therefore does not functionally contribute to this process. Second, although perceptual discriminability did partially account for oculomotor processing differences between color categories, we also observed preferential processing of the red color category across various behavioral metrics. This is consistent with numerous previous studies and could not be simply explained by perceptual discriminability. Since we utilized a memory-guided saccade task, this

  11. Evaluation and application of a fast module in a PLC based interlock and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaera-Sanz, M [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Higher School of Technical Sciences CEU, Universidad Cardenal Herrera, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: manzaesan@yahoo.es

    2009-08-15

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of {mu}seconds. Siemens has introduced a 'so called' fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor). It provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This paper publishes the results of this study. As well, this paper could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  12. Evaluation of a fast PLC module in prospect of the LHC beam interlock system

    CERN Document Server

    Zaera-Sanz, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of mseconds. Siemens has introduced a “so called” fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor) that provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This note publishes the results of this study. As well, this note could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  13. Frequency modulation system test procedure shuttle task 501 approach and landing test configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doland, G. D.

    1976-01-01

    Shuttle Task 501 is an in-line task to test the performance and compatibility of radiofrequency links between the SSO and ground, and relay via a satellite. Under Shuttle Task 501 approach and landing test (ALT) phase only a limited portion of the communication and tracking (C&T) equipment is to be tested. The principal item to be tested is a frequency modulated (FM) data link. To test this RF link, an ALT FM System was designed, constructed, and the console wiring verified. A step-by-step procedure to be used to perform the ALT FM system is presented. The ALT FM system test is to be performed prior to delivery of the equipment to the Electronic Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL).

  14. ENC Measurement for ASIC Preamp Board as a Detector Module for PET System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nagara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We developed a gamma ray detector with an LuAG:Pr scintillator and an avalanche photodiode as a detector for a positron emission tomography (PET system. Studies have been performed on the influences of gamma irradiation on application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC preamp boards used as a detector module. As a device used in nuclear environments for substantial durations, the ASIC has to have a lifetime long enough to ensure that there will be a negligible failure rate during this period. These front-end systems must meet the requirements for standard positron emission tomography (PET systems. Therefore, an equivalent noise charge (ENC experiment is needed to measure the front-end system's characteristics. This study showed that minimum ENC conditions can be achieved if a shorter shaping time could be applied.

  15. Estimation of Multiple Point Sources for Linear Fractional Order Systems Using Modulating Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-06-28

    This paper proposes an estimation algorithm for the characterization of multiple point inputs for linear fractional order systems. First, using polynomial modulating functions method and a suitable change of variables the problem of estimating the locations and the amplitudes of a multi-pointwise input is decoupled into two algebraic systems of equations. The first system is nonlinear and solves for the time locations iteratively, whereas the second system is linear and solves for the input’s amplitudes. Second, closed form formulas for both the time location and the amplitude are provided in the particular case of single point input. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed technique in both noise-free and noisy cases. The joint estimation of pointwise input and fractional differentiation orders is also presented. Furthermore, a discussion on the performance of the proposed algorithm is provided.

  16. Development of intergrated accident management assessment technology; development of interface modules of risk-monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Seok, H.; Kim, D. K.; Han, J. K.; Park, B. R. [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Based on the development of interface modules with FORTE.- DynaRM can quantify risk model very fast (Very frequent risk model quantification is needed for configuration risk management).- risk monitoring system technology transfer to foreign NPPs. Contribution to component failure and maintenance control automation with the development of Tagging control System. On-Line risk monitoring system development by joint team between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and KOPEC is a request by KEPCO. The softwares developed in this study is easily implemented at domestic NPPs without extra study or cost. Economic benefit and Software export to foreign NPPs are expected because of the development of technology related to risk monitoring system and its management. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  17. INFLUENCE OF POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION ON THE EFFECT OF CROSS-PHASE MODULATION IN INTENSITY MODULATION-DIRECT DETECTION WDM TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Islam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-phase modulation (XPM changes the state-of-polarization (SOP of the channels through nonlinear polarization rotation and induces nonlinear time dependent phase shift for polarization components that leads to amplitude modulation of the propagating waves in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM system. Due to the presence of birefringence, the angle between the SOP changes randomly and as a result polarization mode dispersion (PMD causes XPM modulation amplitude fluctuation random in the perturbed channel. In this paper we analytically determine the probability density function of the random angle between the SOP of pump and probe, and evaluate the impact of polarization mode dispersion on XPM in terms of bit error rate, channel spacing etc for a two channel intensity modulation-direct detection WDM system at 10 Gb/s. It is found that the XPM induced crosstalk is polarization independent for channel spacing greater than 3 nm or PMD coefficient larger than 2 ps/√km. We also investigate the dependence of SOP variance on PMD coefficient and channel spacing.

  18. Development of intelligent interface for simulation execution by module-based simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Mizutani, Naoki; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Jiro

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent user support for the two phases of simulation execution was newly developed for Module-based Simulation System (MSS). The MSS has been in development as a flexible simulation environment to improve software productivity in complex, large-scale dynamic simulation of nuclear power plant. The AI programing by Smalltalk-80 was applied to materialize the two user-interface programs for (i) semantic diagnosis of the simulation program generated automatically by MSS, and (ii) consultation system by which user can set up consistent numerical input data files necessary for executing a MSS-generated program. Frame theory was utilized in those interface programs to represent the four knowledge bases, which are (i) usage information on module library in MSS and MSS-generated program, and (ii) expertise knowledge on nuclear power plant analysis such as material properties and reactor system configuration. Capabilities of those interface programs were confirmed by some example practice on LMFBR reactor dynamic calculation, and it was demonstrated that the knowledge-based systemization was effective to improve software work environment. (author)

  19. Dynamic modulation of sociality and aggression: an examination of plasticity within endocrine and neuroendocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Vitousek, Maren N

    2017-08-19

    Endocrine and neuroendocrine systems are key mediators of behavioural plasticity and allow for the ability to shift social behaviour across dynamic contexts. These systems operate across timescales, modulating both rapid responses to environmental changes and developmental plasticity in behavioural phenotypes. Thus, not only do endocrine systems mediate behavioural plasticity, but also the systems themselves exhibit plasticity in functional capabilities. This flexibility at both the mechanistic and behavioural levels can be crucial for reproduction and survival. Here, we discuss how plasticity in nonapeptide and steroid actions may influence the expression of, and allow rapid shifts between, sociality and aggression-behavioural shifts that can be particularly important for social interactions. Recent findings of overlap in the mechanisms that modulate social and aggressive behaviour suggest the potential for a mechanistic continuum between these behaviours. We briefly discuss the potential for a sociality-aggression continuum and novel techniques that will enable probing of the functional connectivity of social behaviours. From an evolutionary perspective, we suggest that plasticity in endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms of behaviour may be important targets of selection, and discuss the conditions under which we would predict selection to have resulted in differences in endocrine plasticity across species that differ in social organization.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. The temperature tracking system based on fiber Bragg grating and Peltier module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławrynowicz, Radosław; GÄ sior, Paweł; Markowski, Konrad

    2017-08-01

    Temperature measurement is regarded to be straightforward by means of standard electronic sensors, however, it becomes considerably more challenging if the sensor is exposed to strong electromagnetic interference or harsh environmental conditions such as e.g. chemical agents. In some cases, the problem may be solved by remote sensors, as pyrometers, but their application is conditioned by the possibility of the direct object observation, which is often excluded. In this contribution a solution is presented which allows for the temperature tracking in the fiber optic system which facilitates temperature measurements of distant, subjected to the harsh environment objects by transferring their temperatures to the Peltier module. The idea of the system is to adjust the temperature of the reference FBG (at the measurement stage) to the temperature of the sensor FBG with the use of the Peltier module and thus recover its temperature to have it measured with an arbitrary method. As all electronic part of the system can be installed far from the harsh environment and the system consists of low-cost optical and electronic components, the idea may be found competitive with other methods of the temperature measurements in onerous applications.

  1. Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution System (SSM/PMAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William (Compiler); Britt, Daniel (Compiler); Elges, Michael (Compiler); Myers, Chris (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed system and describes recent enhancements to that system. Four tasks made up the original contract: (1) common module power management and distribution system automation plan definition; (2) definition of hardware and software elements of automation; (3) design, implementation and delivery of the hardware and software making up the SSM/PMAD system; and (4) definition and development of the host breadboard computer environment. Additions and/or enhancements to the SSM/PMAD test bed that have occurred since July 1990 are reported. These include: (1) rehosting the MAESTRO scheduler; (2) reorganization of the automation software internals; (3) a more robust communications package; (4) the activity editor to the MAESTRO scheduler; (5) rehosting the LPLMS to execute under KNOMAD; implementation of intermediate levels of autonomy; (6) completion of the KNOMAD knowledge management facility; (7) significant improvement of the user interface; (8) soft and incipient fault handling design; (9) intermediate levels of autonomy, and (10) switch maintenance.

  2. Concept for a vertical maintenance remote handling system for multi module blanket segments in DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, M.; Sykes, N.; Cooper, D.; Iglesias, D.; Bastow, R.; Loving, A.; Harman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A conceptual architectural model for a vertical maintenance DEMO is presented. •Novel concepts for a set of DEMO remote handling equipment are put forward. •Remote maintenance of a multi module segment blanket is found to be feasible. •The criticality of space in the vertical port is highlighted. -- Abstract: The anticipated high neutron flux, and the consequent damage to plasma-facing components in DEMO, results in the need to regularly replace the tritium breeding and radiation shielding blanket. The current European multi module segment (MMS) blanket concept favours a less invasive small port entry maintenance system over large sector transport concepts, because of the reduced impact on other tokamak systems – particularly the magnetic coils. This paper presents a novel conceptual remote maintenance strategy for a Vertical Maintenance Scheme DEMO, incorporating substantiated designs for an in-vessel mover, to detach and attach the blanket segments, and cask-housed vertical maintenance devices to open and close access ports, cut and join service connections, and extract blanket segments from the vessel. In addition, a conceptual architectural model for DEMO was generated to capture functional and spatial interfaces between the remote maintenance equipment and other systems. Areas of further study are identified in order to comprehensively establish the feasibility of the proposed maintenance system

  3. Intrusion Detection System Requirements. A Capabilities Description in Terms of the Network Monitoring and Assessment Module of CSAP21

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metcalf, Therese R; LaPadula, Leonard J

    2000-01-01

    ...) module of the Computer Security Assistance Program for the Twenty-First Century (CSAP21) architecture. The advantage of this approach is that it provides a global and comprehensive context in which to describe intrusion detection system...

  4. The L-band klystron-modulator RF power system for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, P

    2000-01-01

    The long-pulse, high-power klystron-modulators are an important part of the CLIC drive-beam scheme and a number of design variations are being studied in order to improve their overall power efficiency, reliability and cost effectiveness. Because of the number needed (364 at 50 MW for the 3 TeV scheme) and their size, they will have a large impact on the capital cost of the pulsed RF power to be delivered to the beam and to the resistive losses in the drive-beam accelerating structures. Overall RF system efficiency is an important parameter for long linear colliders, and to a large extent, will be determined by the performance and efficiency of the klystron-modulators. The input AC power to output RF power efficiency of one CLIC klystron- modulator, including the klystron, power conversion, pulse transformer, auxiliary power and switching losses at 100 Hz and 100 mu s pulse width, is estimated as 52The RF to beam efficiency is estimated at 24, and after taking into account other RF power transmission losses w...

  5. A Novel Visual Data Mining Module for the Geographical Information System gvSIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romel Vázquez-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of large GIS models containing spatio-temporal information is a challenge. In this paper we propose the integration of scientific visualization (ScVis techniques into geographic information systems (GIS as an alternative for the visual analysis of data. Providing GIS with such tools improves the analysis and understanding of datasets with very low spatial density and allows to find correlations between variables in time and space. In this regard, we present a new visual data mining tool for the GIS gvSIG. This tool has been implemented as a gvSIG module and contains several ScVis techniques for multiparameter data with a wide range of possibilities to explore interactively the data. The developed module is a powerful visual data mining and data visualization tool to obtain knowledge from multiple datasets in time and space. A real case study with meteorological data from Villa Clara province (Cuba is presented, where the implemented visualization techniques were used to analyze the available datasets. Although it is tested with meteorological data, the developed module is of general application in the sense that it can be used in multiple application fields related with Earth Sciences.

  6. Tile Rear Extension Module for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS L1Calo PreProcessor System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00210769; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the Phase-I ATLAS upgrade the Tile calorimeter will have to provide its data via fast optical links to the new Feature Extractor (FEX) modules of the L1Calo trigger system. In order to provide the FEXes with digitised Tile data, new Tile Rear Extension (TREX) modules need to be developed and installed in the existing L1Calo PreProcessor system. The TREX modules are highly complex PCBs, with state-of-the-art FPGAs and high-speed optical transmitters working at rates up to 14 Gbps. The prototype design of TREX and first corresponding test results will be presented.

  7. Tile Rear Extension module for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS L1Calo PreProcessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, V.; Hanke, P.; Harion, T.; Schmitt, K.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Stamen, R.; Stock, P.

    2017-03-01

    After the Phase-I ATLAS upgrade the Tile calorimeter will have to provide its data via fast optical links to the new Feature Extractor (FEX) modules of the L1Calo trigger system. In order to provide the FEXes with digitised Tile data, new Tile Rear Extension (TREX) modules need to be developed and installed in the existing L1Calo PreProcessor system. The TREX modules are highly complex PCBs, with state-of-the-art FPGAs and high-speed optical transmitters working at rates up to 14 Gbps. The prototype design of TREX and first corresponding test results will be presented.

  8. 85 km Long Reach PON System Using a Reflective SOA-EA Modulator and Distributed Raman Fiber Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten

    2006-01-01

    We report on a bidirectional 85 km long reach PON system supported by distributed fiber Raman amplification with a record 7.5 Gb/s remote carrier modulated upstream signal by employing a reflective SOA-EA monolithically integrated circuit......We report on a bidirectional 85 km long reach PON system supported by distributed fiber Raman amplification with a record 7.5 Gb/s remote carrier modulated upstream signal by employing a reflective SOA-EA monolithically integrated circuit...

  9. JAK/STAT signalling--an executable model assembled from molecule-centred modules demonstrating a module-oriented database concept for systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blätke, Mary Ann; Dittrich, Anna; Rohr, Christian; Heiner, Monika; Schaper, Fred; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical models of molecular networks regulating biological processes in cells or organisms are most frequently designed as sets of ordinary differential equations. Various modularisation methods have been applied to reduce the complexity of models, to analyse their structural properties, to separate biological processes, or to reuse model parts. Taking the JAK/STAT signalling pathway with the extensive combinatorial cross-talk of its components as a case study, we make a natural approach to modularisation by creating one module for each biomolecule. Each module consists of a Petri net and associated metadata and is organised in a database publically accessible through a web interface (). The Petri net describes the reaction mechanism of a given biomolecule and its functional interactions with other components including relevant conformational states. The database is designed to support the curation, documentation, version control, and update of individual modules, and to assist the user in automatically composing complex models from modules. Biomolecule centred modules, associated metadata, and database support together allow the automatic creation of models by considering differential gene expression in given cell types or under certain physiological conditions or states of disease. Modularity also facilitates exploring the consequences of alternative molecular mechanisms by comparative simulation of automatically created models even for users without mathematical skills. Models may be selectively executed as an ODE system, stochastic, or qualitative models or hybrid and exported in the SBML format. The fully automated generation of models of redesigned networks by metadata-guided modification of modules representing biomolecules with mutated function or specificity is proposed.

  10. Distinct modulated pupil function system for real-time imaging of living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonobu M Watanabe

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy is one of the most contributive tools for cell biology in the past decades. Many microscopic techniques with various functions have been developed to date, i.e., phase contrast microscopy, differential interference contrast (DIC microscopy, confocal microscopy, two photon microscopy, superresolution microscopy, etc. However, person who is in charge of an experiment has to select one of the several microscopic techniques to achieve an experimental goal, which makes the biological assay time-consuming and expensive. To solve this problem, we have developed a microscopic system with various functions in one instrument based on the optical Fourier transformation with a lens system for detection while focusing on applicability and user-friendliness for biology. The present instrument can arbitrarily modulate the pupil function with a micro mirror array on the Fourier plane of the optical pathway for detection. We named the present instrument DiMPS (Distinct optical Modulated Pupil function System. The DiMPS is compatible with conventional fluorescent probes and illumination equipment, and gives us a Fourier-filtered image, a pseudo-relief image, and a deep focus depth. Furthermore, DiMPS achieved a resolution enhancement (pseudo-superresolution of 110 nm through the subtraction of two images whose pupil functions are independently modulated. In maximum, the spatial and temporal resolution was improved to 120 nm and 2 ms, respectively. Since the DiMPS is based on relay optics, it can be easily combined with another microscopic instrument such as confocal microscope, and provides a method for multi-color pseudo-superresolution. Thus, the DiMPS shows great promise as a flexible optical microscopy technique in biological research fields.

  11. The mPer2 clock gene modulates cocaine actions in the mouse circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brager, Allison J; Stowie, Adam C; Prosser, Rebecca A; Glass, J David

    2013-04-15

    Cocaine is a potent disruptor of photic and non-photic pathways for circadian entrainment of the master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These actions of cocaine likely involve its modulation of molecular (clock gene) components for SCN clock timekeeping. At present, however, the physiological basis of such an interaction is unclear. To address this question, we compared photic and non-photic phase-resetting responses between wild-type (WT) and Per2 mutant mice expressing nonfunctional PER2 protein to systemic and intra-SCN cocaine administrations. In the systemic trials, cocaine was administered i.p. (20 mg/kg) either at midday or prior to a light pulse in the early night to assess its non-photic and photic behavioral phase-resetting actions, respectively. In the intra-SCN trial, cocaine was administered by reverse microdialysis at midday to determine if the SCN is a direct target for its non-photic phase-resetting action. Non-photic phase-advancing responses to i.p. cocaine at midday were significantly (∼3.5-fold) greater in Per2 mutants than WTs. However, the phase-advancing action of intra-SCN cocaine perfusion at midday did not differ between genotypes. In the light pulse trial, Per2 mutants exhibited larger photic phase-delays than did WTs, and the attenuating action of cocaine on this response was proportionately larger than in WTs. These data indicate that the Per2 clock gene is a potent modulator of cocaine's actions in the circadian system. With regard to non-photic phase-resetting, the SCN is confirmed as a direct target of cocaine action; however, Per2 modulation of this effect likely occurs outside of the SCN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. THE THIOREDOXIN SYSTEM IN REGULATING MCF-7 CELL PROLIFERATION UNDER REDOX STATUS MODULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Stepovaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the available data on tumor cell functioning under the conditions of free radical-mediated oxidation, the mechanisms of redox regulation, cell proliferation management and apoptosis avoidance remain understudied.The objective of the study was to identify the role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation under redox status modulation with 1.4-dithioerythritol.Material and methods. The studies were conducted on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, grown in adherent cell culture. Cell redox status was modulated with5 mM N-ethylmaleimide – an SH group and peptide inhibitor and5 mM 1.4-dithioerythritol – a thiol group protector. The cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry, the same technique was used to measure the reactive oxygen species concentration. The levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione and the activity of thioredoxin reductase were identified by spectrophotometry. The intracellular concentrations of thioredoxin, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were determined by Western blot analysis.Results and discussion. The essential role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation was exhibited. S-phase arrest under the effect of N-ethylmaleimide and G0/G1-phase arrest under the effect of 1.4-dithioerythritol are associated with the changes in the activity of redox-sensitive protein complexes (cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that regulate cell proliferation.Conclusion. Redoxdependent modulation of proliferation regulating intracellular protein activity occurs due to the thioredoxin system. This is a promising research area for seeking molecular targets of breast cell malignization. 

  13. Development of user interface to support automatic program generation of nuclear power plant analysis by module-based simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Mizutani, Naoki; Nakaya, Ken-ichiro; Wakabayashi, Jiro

    1988-01-01

    Module-based Simulation System (MSS) has been developed to realize a new software work environment enabling versatile dynamic simulation of a complex nuclear power system flexibly. The MSS makes full use of modern software technology to replace a large fraction of human software works in complex, large-scale program development by computer automation. Fundamental methods utilized in MSS and developmental study on human interface system SESS-1 to help users in generating integrated simulation programs automatically are summarized as follows: (1) To enhance usability and 'communality' of program resources, the basic mathematical models of common usage in nuclear power plant analysis are programed as 'modules' and stored in a module library. The information on usage of individual modules are stored in module database with easy registration, update and retrieval by the interactive management system. (2) Target simulation programs and the input/output files are automatically generated with simple block-wise languages by a precompiler system for module integration purpose. (3) Working time for program development and analysis in an example study of an LMFBR plant thermal-hydraulic transient analysis was demonstrated to be remarkably shortened, with the introduction of an interface system SESS-1 developed as an automatic program generation environment. (author)

  14. Performance monitoring of different module technologies and design configurations of PV system in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance monitoring of different module technologies and design configurations of PV system in South Africa Presentation at the EU PVSEC 2016 Munich, 22 June 2016 Dr Kittessa Roro Cell: +27 825495131 Email: KRoro@csir.co.za 1 Agenda Polycrystalline... Procurement Programme (REIPPPP) 5 At present, more than 1 000 MW of PV are operational in South Africa Pipeline of PV projects in the REIPPPP for large, utility-scale PV 398 417 626 2 291 435 415 Operational 1 043 Under construction Awaiting...

  15. Space station common module power system network topology and hardware development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate power system newtork topologies for the space station common module are defined and developed and the necessary hardware for test and evaluation is provided. Martin Marietta's approach to performing the proposed program is presented. Performance of the tasks described will assure systematic development and evaluation of program results, and will provide the necessary management tools, visibility, and control techniques for performance assessment. The plan is submitted in accordance with the data requirements given and includes a comprehensive task logic flow diagram, time phased manpower requirements, a program milestone schedule, and detailed descriptions of each program task.

  16. Signal acquisition module design for multi-channel surface magnetic resonance sounding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Chen, Wuqiang; Du, Wenyuan; Zhao, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To obtain a precise 2D/3D image of fissure or karst water, multi-channel magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) systems using edge-to-edge or overlapping receiving coils are needed. Thus, acquiring a nano-volt signal for a small amount of the aquifer and suppressing the mutual coupling between adjacent coils are two important issues for the design of the signal acquisition module in the system. In the present study, we propose to use a passive low pass filter, consisted of a resistance (R) and capacitance (C), to inhibit the mutual coupling effects of the coils. Four low-noise operational amplifiers LT1028, OPA124, AD745, and OP27 were compared with respect to achieving the lowest system noise. As a result, 3 pieces of LT1028 were chosen and connected in parallel to serve as preamplifier, with a sensitivity of 1.4 nV/√Hz at 2 kHz. Experimental results are presented for 2D MRS groundwater investigations conducted in the suburb of Changchun, China. The inversion result is consistent with the result of drilling log, suggesting that the signal acquisition module is well developed.

  17. Dissipative parametric modulation instability and pattern formation in nonlinear optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, A. M.; Tarasov, N.; Churkin, D. V.; Turitsyn, S. K.; Staliunas, K.

    2016-04-01

    We present the essential features of the dissipative parametric instability, in the universal complex Ginzburg- Landau equation. Dissipative parametric instability is excited through a parametric modulation of frequency dependent losses in a zig-zag fashion in the spectral domain. Such damping is introduced respectively for spectral components in the +ΔF and in the -ΔF region in alternating fashion, where F can represent wavenumber or temporal frequency depending on the applications. Such a spectral modulation can destabilize the homogeneous stationary solution of the system leading to growth of spectral sidebands and to the consequent pattern formation: both stable and unstable patterns in one- and in two-dimensional systems can be excited. The dissipative parametric instability provides an useful and interesting tool for the control of pattern formation in nonlinear optical systems with potentially interesting applications in technological applications, like the design of mode- locked lasers emitting pulse trains with tunable repetition rate; but it could also find realizations in nanophotonics circuits or in dissipative polaritonic Bose-Einstein condensates.

  18. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  19. Integrated management data system for radioactive waste repositories (SGI3R) - development of the inventory module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fabio; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, CNEN is responsible for the intermediate and final storage of radioactive waste generated in the country. The CDTN/CNEN coordinates the RBMN Project for the implementation of the National Repository for disposal radioactive waste of low- and intermediate-level. The results of this Project should be presented so that all data being easily retrievable and useful for all institutions involved, including the regulators. To achieve this goal it was developed at the Waste Management Department - SEGRE/CDTN - a management database system, called 'Integrated Management System for the Management of Repository for Radioactive Waste' (SGI3R). The System consists of relational tables, forms and reports, preserving all available information, avoiding duplication of efforts, additional costs, and it will additionally give support to improve the management of RBMN Project. This paper presents a summary of this development with emphasis on the INVENTORY Module. The data from the inventory of disused sealed sources, which are stored in CDTN, were used to test the functionality of this module and of the SGI3R. These sources were categorized according to guidelines of the IAEA, and it was also presented how they should be safely managed over time. (author)

  20. System Analysis and Evaluation of Greenhouse Modules within Moon/Mars Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Nagendra, Narayan; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Long term settlement on different planets of the solar system is a fascination for mankind. Some researchers contemplate that planetary settlement is a necessity for the survival of the human race over millions of years. The generation of food for self sufficiency in space or on planetary bases is a vital part of this vision of space habitation. The amount of mass that can be transported in deep space missions is constrained by the launcher capability and its costs. The space community has proposed and designed various greenhouse modules to cater to human culinary requirements and act as part of life support systems. A survey of the different greenhouse space concepts and terrestrial test facilities is presented, drawing a list of measurable factors (e.g. growth area, power consumption, human activity index, etc.) for the evaluation of greenhouse modules. These factors include tangible and intangible parameters that have been used in the development of an evaluation method on greenhouse concepts as a subsystem of planetary habitats at the DLR Institute of Space Systems, Bremen.

  1. Control and Modulation Techniques for a Centralized PV Generation System Grid Connected via an Interleaved Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brando

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of grid connected photovoitaic (PV generation systems, there are two paramount aspects regarding the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT of the photovoltaic units and the continuity of the service. The most diffused MPPT algorithms are based on either perturb and observe, or on an incremental conductance approach and need both PV current and voltage measurements. Several topology reconfigurable converters are also associated with the PV plants, guaranteeing fault-tolerant features. The generation continuity can also be assured by interleaved inverters, which keep the system operating at reduced maximum power in case of failure. In this paper, an evolution of a hysteresis based MPPT algorithm is presented, based on the measurement of only one voltage, together with a novel space vector modulation suitable for a two-channel three-phase grid connected interleaved inverter. The proposed MMPT algorithm and modulation technique are tested by means of several numerical analyses on a PV generation system of about 200 kW maximum power. The results testify the validity of the proposed strategies, showing good performance, even during a fault occurrence and in the presence of deep shading conditions.

  2. Forecasting the Cell Temperature of PV Modules with an Adaptive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Ciulla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce energy consumptions and to optimize the processes of energy production has pushed the technology towards the implementation of hybrid systems for combined production of electric and thermal energies. In particular, recent researches look with interest at the installation of hybrid system PV/T. To improve the energy performance of these systems, it is necessary to know the operating temperature of the photovoltaic modules. The determination of the operating temperature is a key parameter for the assessment of the actual performance of photovoltaic panels. In the literature, it is possible to find different correlations that evaluate the referring to standard test conditions and/or applying some theoretical simplifications/assumptions. Nevertheless, the application of these different correlations, for the same conditions, does not lead to unequivocal results. In this work an alternative method, based on the employment of artificial neural networks (ANNs, was proposed to predict the operating temperature of a PV module. This methodology does not require any simplification or physical assumptions. In the paper is described the ANN that obtained the best performance: a multilayer perception network. The results have been compared with experimental monitored data and with some of the most cited empirical correlations proposed by different authors.

  3. The μs and ns mode modulation system for grid controlled gun of the HESYRL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guicheng; Hong, Jun; Pei, Yuanji

    1988-01-01

    A μs and ns mode modulation system has been developed for the grid-controlled gun in the HESYRL. The gun drived by this system generated 1A and 500 MA pulse current for μs and ns mode respectively. In the ns mode modulation pulse formulation system, the sharper was built up using one transistor 3DA87D as avalanche switch and a shortcircuit coaxal cable as waveform sharp element. Outline of the μs mode system and details of the ns mode system are presented. (author)

  4. Application Software for the Cabinet Operator Module of the Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Jung, Hae-Won; Lee, Sung-Jin; Koo, Young-Ho; Kim, Seong-Tae; Kwak, Tae-Kil; Jin, Kyo-Hong

    2006-01-01

    A reactor protection system (RPS) plays the roles of generating the reactor trip signal and the engineered safety features (ESF) actuation signal when the monitored plant processes reach predefined limits. A Korean project group, so-called KNICS (Korean Nuclear I and C System), is developing a new digitalized RPS and the Cabinet Operator Module (COM) of the RPS which is used for the RPS integrity testing and monitoring by equipment operators. A flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability is provided as a main user interface for the RPS. This paper shows the application software developed for the COM FPD. Equipment operators can monitor the status of the RPS and carry out various tests to verify system functions by means of the application software. A qualified hardware and software development environment are used to develop the application software

  5. Directly modulated laser-based optical radio frequency self-interference cancellation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojie; Xiao, Shilin; Zhang, Yunhao; Feng, Hanlin; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Zhao

    2016-02-01

    We propose a microwave photonics system for radio frequency self-interference cancellation using optical techniques. With a simple structure, this system employs two low-cost directly modulated lasers and a balanced photodetector to subtract the strong self-interference signal from a corrupted received signal. For commonly used wireless applications, 40-dB cancellation within 900-MHz band and 33-dB cancellation within 2.4-GHz band are experimentally obtained, both over 400-MHz bandwidth. Moreover, for ultra-wideband cancellation, this system achieves more than 27-dB cancellation over 6-GHz bandwidth. The experimental results show good recovery of the weak signal of interest buried by strong self-interference after the cancellation.

  6. DIFFUSION - WRS system module number 7539 for solving a set of multigroup diffusion equations in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to solve a set of multigroup diffusion equations for a system represented in one-dimensional plane, cylindrical or spherical geometry. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  7. ∑∆ Modulator System-Level Considerations for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a system-level design of a digital sigma-delta (∑∆) modulator for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage application. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion on various possibilities and tradeoffs of ∑∆ modulator system-level design parameter combinations...... - order, oversampling ratio (OSR) and number of bits in the quantizer - including their impact on interpolation filter design as well. The system is kept in digital domain up to the input of the Class D power stage including the digital pulse width modulation (DPWM) block. Notes on the impact of the DPWM...... block on the modulated spectrum are provided....

  8. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  9. Study of an accelerating superconducting module and its feedback loop systems for the MYRRHA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouly, F.

    2011-11-01

    The MYRRHA ( Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications ) project aims at constructing an accelerator driven system (ADS) demonstrator (50 a 100 MWth) to explore the feasibility of nuclear waste transmutation. Such a subcritical reactor requires an extremely reliable accelerator which delivers a CW high power protons beam (600 MeV, 4 mA). The reference solution for this machine is a superconducting linear accelerator. This thesis presents the work - undertaken at IPN Orsay in October 2008 - on the study of a prototypical superconducting module and the feedback control systems of its cavity for the high energy part of the MYRRHA linac. First, the optimization and the design of 5-cell elliptical cavities (β=0,65), operating at 704.4 MHz, are presented. Then, the experimental work focuses on a reliability oriented study of the 'cryo-module' which hold a prototypical 5-cell cavity (β=0,47). In this study, the dynamic behavior of the fast tuning system of the cavity was measured and qualified. The 'field flatness' issue in 'low beta' multi-cell cavity was also brought to light. Finally, a fault-tolerance analysis of the linac was carried out. Toward this goal, a model of the cavity, its RF feedback loop system and its tuning system feedback loop was developed. This study enabled to determine the RF power needs, the tuning system requirements and as well as to demonstrate the feasibility of fast fault-recovery scenarios to minimize the number of beam interruptions in the MYRRHA linac. (author)

  10. The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH system modulates behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjae Chung

    Full Text Available Deficits in sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle have been known as characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. PPI disruption is thought to rely on the activity of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and is inhibited by most antipsychotic drugs. These drugs however act also at the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and exert adverse locomotor responses. Finding a way to inhibit the mesocorticolimbic- without affecting the nigrostriatal-dopaminergic pathway may thus be beneficial to antipsychotic therapies. The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH system has been shown to modulate dopamine-related responses. Its receptor (MCH1R is expressed at high levels in the mesocorticolimbic and not in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. Interestingly a genomic linkage study revealed significant associations between schizophrenia and markers located in the MCH1R gene locus. We hypothesize that the MCH system can selectively modulate the behavior associated with the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway. Using mice, we found that central administration of MCH potentiates apomorphine-induced PPI deficits. Using congenic rat lines that differ in their responses to PPI, we found that the rats that are susceptible to apomorphine (APO-SUS rats and exhibit PPI deficits display higher MCH mRNA expression in the lateral hypothalamic region and that blocking the MCH system reverses their PPI deficits. On the other hand, in mice and rats, activation or inactivation of the MCH system does not affect stereotyped behaviors, dopamine-related responses that depend on the activity of the nigrostriatal pathway. Furthermore MCH does not affect dizocilpine-induced PPI deficit, a glutamate related response. Thus, our data present the MCH system as a regulator of sensorimotor gating, and provide a new rationale to understand the etiologies of schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders.

  11. New Module to Simulate Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Small-Scale Alluvial Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, L.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow depletion can occur when groundwater pumping wells lower water table elevations adjacent to a nearby stream. Being able to accurately model the severity of this process is of critical importance in semi-arid regions where groundwater-surface water interactions affect water rights and the sustainability of water resource practices. The finite-difference flow model MODFLOW is currently the standard for estimating groundwater-surface water interactions in many regions in the western United States. However, certain limitations of the model persist when highly-resolved spatial scales are used to represent the stream-aquifer system, e.g. when the size of computational grid cells is much less than the river width. In this study, an external module is developed and linked with MODFLOW that (1) allows for multiple computational grid cells over the width of the river; (2) computes streamflow and stream stage along the length of the river using the one-dimensional (1D) steady (over a stress period) shallow water equations, which allows for more accurate stream stages when normal flow cannot be assumed or a rating curve is not available; and (3) incorporates a process for computing streamflow loss when an unsaturated zone develops under the streambed. Use of the module not only provides highly-resolved estimates of streamflow depletion, but also of streambed hydraulic conductivity. The new module is applied to the stream-aquifer alluvial system along the South Platte River south of Denver, Colorado, with results tested against field-measured groundwater levels, streamflow, and streamflow depletion.

  12. Achievable Information Rates for Coded Modulation With Hard Decision Decoding for Coherent Fiber-Optic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Alireza; Amat, Alexandre Graell i.; Liva, Gianluigi

    2017-12-01

    We analyze the achievable information rates (AIRs) for coded modulation schemes with QAM constellations with both bit-wise and symbol-wise decoders, corresponding to the case where a binary code is used in combination with a higher-order modulation using the bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) paradigm and to the case where a nonbinary code over a field matched to the constellation size is used, respectively. In particular, we consider hard decision decoding, which is the preferable option for fiber-optic communication systems where decoding complexity is a concern. Recently, Liga \\emph{et al.} analyzed the AIRs for bit-wise and symbol-wise decoders considering what the authors called \\emph{hard decision decoder} which, however, exploits \\emph{soft information} of the transition probabilities of discrete-input discrete-output channel resulting from the hard detection. As such, the complexity of the decoder is essentially the same as the complexity of a soft decision decoder. In this paper, we analyze instead the AIRs for the standard hard decision decoder, commonly used in practice, where the decoding is based on the Hamming distance metric. We show that if standard hard decision decoding is used, bit-wise decoders yield significantly higher AIRs than symbol-wise decoders. As a result, contrary to the conclusion by Liga \\emph{et al.}, binary decoders together with the BICM paradigm are preferable for spectrally-efficient fiber-optic systems. We also design binary and nonbinary staircase codes and show that, in agreement with the AIRs, binary codes yield better performance.

  13. Design of the data management system for hard X-ray modulation telescope based on real-time Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Tao; Zhang Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope is an electronic subsystem, the data management system for capturing the data of the telescope, then managing and transferring them. The data management system also deals with the communication with the satellite. Because of these functions, it needs highly steady quality and good real-time performance. This paper describes the design of the system. (authors)

  14. VTA GABA neurons modulate specific learning behaviours through the control of dopamine and cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan C Creed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic reward system is primarily comprised of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc as well as their afferent and efferent connections. This circuitry is essential for learning about stimuli associated with motivationally-relevant outcomes. Moreover, addictive drugs affect and remodel this system, which may underlie their addictive properties. In addition to DA neurons, the VTA also contains approximately 30% ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons. The task of signalling both rewarding and aversive events from the VTA to the NAc has mostly been ascribed to DA neurons and the role of GABA neurons has been largely neglected until recently. GABA neurons provide local inhibition of DA neurons and also long-range inhibition of projection regions, including the NAc. Here we review studies using a combination of in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiology, pharmacogenetic and optogenetic manipulations that have characterized the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory circuits in the mesolimbic system, and describe how GABA neurons of the VTA regulate reward and aversion-related learning. We also discuss pharmacogenetic manipulation of this system with benzodiazepines (BDZs, a class of addictive drugs, which act directly on GABAA receptors located on GABA neurons of the VTA. The results gathered with each of these approaches suggest that VTA GABA neurons bi-directionally modulate activity of local DA neurons, underlying reward or aversion at the behavioural level. Conversely, long-range GABA projections from the VTA to the NAc selectively target cholinergic interneurons (CINs to pause their firing and temporarily reduce cholinergic tone in the NAc, which modulates associative learning. Further characterization of inhibitory circuit function within and beyond the VTA is needed in order to fully understand the function of the mesolimbic system under normal and pathological conditions.

  15. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapernick, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dixon, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James [INL; Qualls, Louis [ORNL; Radel, Ross [SNL

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  16. Modulation transfer function estimation of optical lens system by adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to estimate MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  17. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis GP43-derived peptides are potent modulators of local and systemic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Fabiana T C; Maricato, Juliana; Konno, Adriana Y C; Guereschi, Márcia G; Vivanco, Bruno C; Feitosa, Luciano dos Santos; Mariano, Mário; Lopes, José Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Its major antigen is a 43 kDa glycoprotein whose peptides embody different functions: P10 peptide, a T-cell epitope, induces protective response while P4 and P23 peptides inhibit both, macrophage functions and inflammatory reaction, thus facilitating infection. Here we investigated the modulating mechanisms of the immune response exerted by P4 and P23 involved in the latter inhibitory effect on macrophages. Moreover we analyzed the peptides effects in different models in vivo. While evaluating whether P4 and P23 present systemic anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, we showed that their intraperitonial administration decreased footpad swelling in mice infected with either P. brasiliensis or Mycobacterium bovis. Both, qPCR and ELISA assays suggested that this anti-inflammatory effect depended on alterations in the kinetics of production of innate immunity modulators such as TNF-α, IL6, IL10 and TLR2. IL10 seems to be early produced than TNF-α and IL6, produced later in presence of peptides. Higher doses or intravenously given P4 and P23 resulted in earlier and more prolonged anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, continuous treatment with P4 and P23 sustained the anti-inflammatory activity throughout. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Turning down the thermostat: Modulating the endocannabinoid system in ocular inflammation and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thomas Toguri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system (ECS has emerged as an important regulator of both physiological and pathological processes. Notably, this endogenous system plays a key role in the modulation of pain and inflammation in a number of tissues. The components of the ECS, including endocannabinoids, their cognate enzymes and cannabinoid receptors, are localized in the eye, and evidence indicates that ECS modulation plays a role in ocular disease states. Of these diseases, ocular inflammation presents a significant medical problem, given that current clinical treatments can be ineffective or are associated with intolerable side-effects. Furthermore, a prominent comorbidity of ocular inflammation is pain, including neuropathic pain, for which therapeutic options remain limited. Recent evidence supports the use of drugs targeting the ECS for the treatment of ocular inflammation and pain in animal models; however, the potential for therapeutic use of cannabinoid drugs in the eye has not been thoroughly investigated at this time. This review will highlight evidence from experimental studies identifying components of the ocular ECS and discuss the functional role of the ECS during different ocular inflammatory disease states, including uveitis and corneal keratitis. Candidate ECS targeted therapies will be discussed, drawing on experimental results obtained from both ocular and non-ocular tissue(s, together with their potential application for the treatment of ocular inflammation and pain.

  19. High-definition imaging system based on spatial light modulators with light-scattering mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takanori; Kawakita, Masahiro; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Fumio; Takizawa, Kuniharu

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a prototype high-definition imaging system using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) light valves, which can modulate unpolarized light with high spatial resolution and exhibit a high optical efficiency, based on the light-scattering effect. We fabricated high-definition light valves with a fine polymer-matrix structure in a PDLC film by controlling the curing conditions used during the photopolymerization-induced phase separation and formation process. This device has excellent characteristics, such as a high resolution, with 50 lp/mm for a limiting resolution and greater than 20 lp/mm at the 50% modulation transfer function point, and a reflectivity of greater than 60%. An optically addressable full-color projection display was designed, consisting of three PDLC light valves, a schlieren optical system based on shift-decentralization optics with a xenon lamp illumination and input-image sources with 1.5 million pixels, including electrical image compensation of the gamma characteristics. We succeeded in displaying pictures on a 110-inch screen with a resolution of 810 TV lines and a luminous flux of 1900-2100 American National Standards Institute lumens.

  20. Photovoltaic modules with cylindrical waveguides in a system for the secondary concentration of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. M.; Davidyuk, N. Yu.; Ionova, E. A.; Rumyantsev, V. D.

    2013-09-01

    The parameters of the concentrating photoelectric modules with triple-junction (InGaP/GaAs/Ge) solar cells whose focusing system contains an original secondary optical element are studied. The element consists of a plane-convex lens in optical contact with the front surface of an intermediate glass plate and a cylindrical waveguide that is located on the rear side of the glass plate above the surface of the solar element. It is demonstrated that the structure of the secondary optical element provides a wide misorientation characteristic of the concentrator and the cylindrical waveguide allows a more uniform radiation density over the surface of the solar cell. The effect of chromatic aberration in the primary and secondary optical systems on the parameters of photoelectric modules is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the presence of waveguides with a length of 3-5 mm leads to effective redistribution of radiation over the surface of the solar cell whereas shorter and longer waveguides provide the local concentration of radiation at the center of the photodetecting area.

  1. Wireless inclinometer acquisition system for reducing swing movement control module experiment of hook model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Ou, Jinping; Zhang, Chunwei; Li, Luyu

    2008-03-01

    Large Scale Heavy Derrick Lay Barge is very important for sea work. Under intense wind and wave load, the hook on the Barge will vibrate so large that in some cases it can not work. Through installing the Tuned Mass Damper(TMD) on the hook, the vibration will be reduced to a certain range to meet the demand on sea work, which is also important for increasing the efficiency of sea work. To design the suitable TMD for the hook, the dynamical parameters should be specified beforehand. Generally, the related dynamical parameters such as inclinometer and acceleration are measured by wire sensors. But due to the restriction of the actual condition, the wire sensors are very hard to implement. Recently, the wireless sensors have been presented to overcome the shortcomings of wire ones. It is more suitable and also convenient to utilize wireless sensors to acquire the useful data of large scale heavy derrick lay barge. In this paper, the hook reducing swing movement control module is designed for large scale heavy derrick lay barge. Secondly, wireless inclinometer sensor system is integrated using the technique of MEMS, sensing and wireless communication. Finally, the hook reducing swing movement control module is validated by the developed wireless inclinometer data acquisition system. The wireless inclinometer sensor can be used not only in swing monitoring for large scale heavy derrick lay barge's Hook, but also in vibration monitoring for TV tower, large crane. In general, it has great application foreground.

  2. Interface Control Document for the EMPACT Module that Estimates Electric Power Transmission System Response to EMP-Caused Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mccown, Andrew William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)ory

    2016-06-26

    The EPREP code is designed to evaluate the effects of an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) on the electric power transmission system. The EPREP code embodies an umbrella framework that allows a user to set up analysis conditions and to examine analysis results. The code links to three major physics/engineering modules. The first module describes the EM wave in space and time. The second module evaluates the damage caused by the wave on specific electric power (EP) transmission system components. The third module evaluates the consequence of the damaged network on its (reduced) ability to provide electric power to meet demand. This third module is the focus of the present paper. The EMPACT code serves as the third module. The EMPACT name denotes EMP effects on Alternating Current Transmission systems. The EMPACT algorithms compute electric power transmission network flow solutions under severely damaged network conditions. Initial solutions are often characterized by unacceptible network conditions including line overloads and bad voltages. The EMPACT code contains algorithms to adjust optimally network parameters to eliminate network problems while minimizing outages. System adjustments include automatically adjusting control equipment (generator V control, variable transformers, and variable shunts), as well as non-automatic control of generator power settings and minimal load shedding. The goal is to evaluate the minimal loss of customer load under equilibrium (steady-state) conditions during peak demand.

  3. Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Survey on the specific purpose modules; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoto module ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the specific purpose modules for photovoltaic power generation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the feasibility survey on new application fields, it was clarified that photovoltaic power generation is applicable to extensive areas such as farmland, road, railway and public facility as latent demand sites. (2) On the optimum modules for various specific purposes, the structure, production method, cost estimation and issues of various modules were studied for desert, wasteland, coast, ocean, river, embankment, railway, road, mobile facility and arcade. (3) On the survey on new materials and material development, various conventional materials and materials promising for required performance were surveyed for every application. (4) On the survey on technology trends, the survey members participated in the first international photovoltaic energy conversion conference and the photovoltaic power generation workshop, while the members held the 1st-5th specific purpose module subcommittees. 1 tab.

  4. Study of a water electrolysis system using a compact solar cell module with a plant shoot configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Shin' ya [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The system proposed in this paper produces hydrogen by supplying photovoltaic power to a water electrolyzer and then supplying this gas to a fuel cell with a time shift. The objective of this system is to supply power to an individual house or apartment building with only green energy. However, the solar cell module installation area is large in the proposed system. Therefore, this paper considered installing a solar cell module with a plant shoot configuration. As a result of this modification, the power generation area of the proposed system is 33-52% smaller than that of a conventional flat solar cell module. From these results, it should be possible to introduce the proposed system into an individual house. (author)

  5. A Targeted Attack For Enhancing Resiliency of Intelligent Intrusion Detection Modules in Energy Cyber Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Tarek [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); El Hariri, Mohammad [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Habib, Hani [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Mohammed, Osama [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Harmon, E [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Abstract— Secure high-speed communication is required to ensure proper operation of complex power grid systems and prevent malicious tampering activities. In this paper, artificial neural networks with temporal dependency are introduced for false data identification and mitigation for broadcasted IEC 61850 SMV messages. The fast responses of such intelligent modules in intrusion detection make them suitable for time- critical applications, such as protection. However, care must be taken in selecting the appropriate intelligence model and decision criteria. As such, this paper presents a customizable malware script to sniff and manipulate SMV messages and demonstrates the ability of the malware to trigger false positives in the neural network’s response. The malware developed is intended to be as a vaccine to harden the intrusion detection system against data manipulation attacks by enhancing the neural network’s ability to learn and adapt to these attacks.

  6. Double-image storage optimized by cross-phase modulation in a cold atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tianhui; Xie, Min

    2017-09-01

    A tripod-type cold atomic system driven by double-probe fields and a coupling field is explored to store double images based on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). During the storage time, an intensity-dependent signal field is applied further to extend the system with the fifth level involved, then the cross-phase modulation is introduced for coherently manipulating the stored images. Both analytical analysis and numerical simulation clearly demonstrate a tunable phase shift with low nonlinear absorption can be imprinted on the stored images, which effectively can improve the visibility of the reconstructed images. The phase shift and the energy retrieving rate of the probe fields are immune to the coupling intensity and the atomic optical density. The proposed scheme can easily be extended to the simultaneous storage of multiple images. This work may be exploited toward the end of EIT-based multiple-image storage devices for all-optical classical and quantum information processings.

  7. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs. and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Finally, such documentation facilitates continuity in EIA model development by providing information sufficient to perform model enhancements and data updates as part of EIA's ongoing mission to provide analytical and forecasting information systems

  8. Precision improvement of frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Fumin

    2018-03-01

    The measurement precision of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser distance measurement should be proportional to the scanning range of the tunable laser. However, the commercial external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is not an ideal tunable laser source in practical applications. Due to the unavoidable mode hopping and scanning nonlinearity of the ECDL, the measurement precision of FMCW laser distance measurements can be substantially affected. Therefore, an FMCW laser ranging system with two auxiliary interferometers is proposed in this paper. Moreover, to eliminate the effects of ECDL, the frequency-sampling method and mode hopping influence suppression method are employed. Compared with a fringe counting interferometer, this FMCW laser ranging system has a measuring error of ± 20 μm at the distance of 5.8 m.

  9. Modulation of Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by Nitric Oxide and Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma: SSc is a multisystem, connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular dysfunction, autoimmunity, and enhanced fibroblast activity resulting in fibrosis of the skin, heart, and lungs, and ultimately internal organ failure, and death. One of the most important and early modulators of disease activity is thought to be oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the free radical nitric oxide (NO, a key mediator of oxidative stress, can profoundly influence the early microvasculopathy, and possibly the ensuing fibrogenic response. Animal models and human studies have also identified dietary antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, to function as a protective system against oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hence, targeting EGCG may prove a possible candidate for therapeutic treatment aimed at reducing both oxidant stress and the fibrotic effects associated with SSc.

  10. A review of data acquisition and difficulties in sensor module of biometric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics refers to the recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. Thebiometric traits which may be considered for the authentication of a person are face, hand geometry, finger print, vein, iris,etc. A competent selection of a sensor, its mechanism and adaptability is required, as the absence of these will leave thebiometric sensor deceptive to information sensing. Selecting a sensor for a biometric application from the large number ofavailable sensors with different technologies always brought the issue of performance and accuracy. Therefore, various errorrates and sensibility contention differentiate the available biometric sensors. This paper presents the difficulties faced in thesensor module of the biometric system and the incomparable alternatives on the basis of availability of information at sensormodule of the various systems.

  11. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs. and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Finally, such documentation facilitates continuity in EIA model development by providing information sufficient to perform model enhancements and data updates as part of EIA`s ongoing mission to provide analytical and forecasting information systems.

  12. Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using the HI-ART II Helical Tomotherapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Timothy W.; Hudes, Richard; Dziuba, Sylwester; Kazi, Abdul; Hall, Mark; Dawson, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The highly integrated adaptive radiation therapy (HI-ART II) helical tomotherapy unit is a new radiotherapy machine designed to achieve highly precise and accurate treatments at all body sites. The precision and accuracy of the HI-ART II is similar to that provided by stereotactic radiosurgery systems, hence the historical distinction between external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic procedures based on differing precision requirements is removed for this device. The objectives of this work are: (1) to describe stereotactic helical tomotherapy processes (SRS, SBRT); (2) to show that the precision and accuracy of the HI-ART meet the requirements defined for SRS and SBRT; and (3) to describe the clinical implementation of a stereotactic image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) system that incorporates optical motion management

  13. Computational three-dimensional imaging method of compressive LIDAR system with gain modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-mei; An, Yu-long

    2017-11-01

    The distance resolution of a 3D LIDAR imaging is largely decided by the pulse duration of the laser source and rise time of the detector. Considering that breaking these limits generates low-cost systems, we present a computational method of 3D imaging by a compressive LIDAR system. Based on the theory of compressive sensing, reflective pulses are obtained by single-pixel detector and intensity maps are reconstructed by TVAL3 algorithm. Moreover, the distance information of each pixel can be calculated from the reconstructed intensity maps with gain modulation technology. The simulations are accomplished to validate the effectiveness of our method. Convincing computational results shows that our method is capable to achieve 3D imaging with less budget.

  14. Human Factors Support in the Design and Evaluation of the Reactor Protection System Cabinet Operator Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jung Woon

    2005-01-01

    A Korean project group, KNICS, is developing a new digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) and the developed system will be packaged into a cabinet with several racks. The cabinet of the RPS is used for the RPS function testing and monitoring by maintenance operators and is equipped with a flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability as a main user interface for the RPS operation. This paper describes the human factors activities involved in the development process of the RPS: conceptual design, design guidance, and evaluation. The activities include a functional requirements analysis and task analysis, user interface style guide for the RPS cabinet operator module (COM), and a human factors evaluation through an experiment and questionnaires

  15. Modules of the SUMMA system for data readout to the oscillograph, digital display devices and digital printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnin, Yu.B.; Denisenko, A.A.; Dunajtsev, A.F.; Rybakov, V.G.; Sytin, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    The modules of the ''Summa'' system are described which allow outputting of information to an oscilloscope, a digital tableau, and a digital printing mechanism; they are: a digital-analog converter, a converter that converts a binary code to a binary-decimal code, a digital display module, a block for outputting to a digital printing mechanism, and a block for stipulating the programs during information outputting. The block diagrams of the modules and the block diagram of the information-outputting programs are presented

  16. EDITAR: a module for reaction rate editing and cross-section averaging within the AUS neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1986-03-01

    The EDITAR module of the AUS neutronics code system edits one and two-dimensional flux data pools produced by other AUS modules to form reaction rates for materials and their constituent nuclides, and to average cross sections over space and energy. The module includes a Bsub(L) flux calculation for application to cell leakage. The STATUS data pool of the AUS system is used to enable the 'unsmearing' of fluxes and nuclide editing with minimal user input. The module distinguishes between neutron and photon groups, and printed reaction rates are formed accordingly. Bilinear weighting may be used to obtain material reactivity worths and to average cross sections. Bilinear weighting is at present restricted to diffusion theory leakage estimates made using mesh-average fluxes

  17. An endocannabinoid system is present in the mouse olfactory epithelium but does not modulate olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, C R; Hillard, C J; Jia, C; Hegg, C C

    2015-08-06

    Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse array of functions including progenitor cell proliferation in the central nervous system, and odorant detection and food intake in the mammalian central olfactory system and larval Xenopus laevis peripheral olfactory system. However, the presence and role of endocannabinoids in the peripheral olfactory epithelium have not been examined in mammals. We found the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor protein and mRNA in the olfactory epithelium. Using either immunohistochemistry or calcium imaging we localized CB1 receptors on neurons, glia-like sustentacular cells, microvillous cells and progenitor-like basal cells. To examine the role of endocannabinoids, CB1- and CB2- receptor-deficient (CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-)) mice were used. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) was present at high levels in both C57BL/6 wildtype and CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice. 2-AG synthetic and degradative enzymes are expressed in wildtype mice. A small but significant decrease in basal cell and olfactory sensory neuron numbers was observed in CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice compared to wildtype mice. The decrease in olfactory sensory neurons did not translate to impairment in olfactory-mediated behaviors assessed by the buried food test and habituation/dishabituation test. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of an endocannabinoid system in the mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike in tadpoles, endocannabinoids do not modulate olfaction. Further investigation on the role of endocannabinoids in progenitor cell function in the olfactory epithelium is warranted. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Martins-Pinge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  19. The CNAO dose delivery system for modulated scanning ion beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, S.; Marchetto, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Garella, M. A.; Donetti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Bourhaleb, F.; Monaco, V.; Hosseini, M. A.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Cirio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and Physics Department, University of Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Ciocca, M.; Mirandola, A. [Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the system for the dose delivery currently used at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) for ion beam modulated scanning radiotherapy. Methods: CNAO Foundation, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and University of Torino have designed, built, and commissioned a dose delivery system (DDS) to monitor and guide ion beams accelerated by a dedicated synchrotron and to distribute the dose with a full 3D scanning technique. Protons and carbon ions are provided for a wide range of energies in order to cover a sizable span of treatment depths. The target volume, segmented in several layers orthogonally to the beam direction, is irradiated by thousands of pencil beams which must be steered and held to the prescribed positions until the prescribed number of particles has been delivered. For the CNAO beam lines, these operations are performed by the DDS. The main components of this system are two independent beam monitoring detectors, called BOX1 and BOX2, interfaced with two control systems performing the tasks of real-time fast and slow control, and connected to the scanning magnets and the beam chopper. As a reaction to any condition leading to a potential hazard, a DDS interlock signal is sent to the patient interlock system which immediately stops the irradiation. The essential tasks and operations performed by the DDS are described following the data flow from the treatment planning system through the end of the treatment delivery. Results: The ability of the DDS to guarantee a safe and accurate treatment was validated during the commissioning phase by means of checks of the charge collection efficiency, gain uniformity of the chambers, and 2D dose distribution homogeneity and stability. A high level of reliability and robustness has been proven by three years of system activity needing rarely more than regular maintenance and working with 100% uptime. Four identical and independent DDS devices have been tested showing

  20. The endocannabinoid system expression in the female reproductive tract is modulated by estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, J; Almada, M; Silva, A; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N; Sá, S I; Fonseca, B M

    2017-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in several physiological events that resulted in a growing interest in its modulation. Moreover, the uterine levels of anandamide (AEA), the major endocannabinoid, must be tightly regulated to create proper embryo implantation conditions. However, there are no evidences about the regulation of AEA in uterus by estrogen. Thus, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether estradiol benzoate (EB) and tamoxifen (TAM) administration to ovariectomized (OVX) rats can induce changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors and AEA-metabolic enzymes in uterus by evaluating gene transcription and protein levels by qPCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the plasmatic and uterine levels of AEA and of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and prostaglandin F 2 α (PGF 2α ), the major cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) products, were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The immunohistochemistry showed that cannabinoid receptors, as well as AEA-metabolic enzymes are mainly located in the epithelial cells of both lumen and glands and, to a lesser extent, in the muscle cells. Moreover, EB administration to OVX rats significantly increased CB1, CB2, NAPE-PLD, FAAH and COX-2 expression and transcription. These effects were absent in TAM and TAM+EB treatments showing that this response is estrogen receptor dependent. Additionally, although uterine levels of AEA remained unchanged in EB or TAM treated animals, they showed a rise with EB treatment in plasma. The latter also produced a decrease in uterine PGE 2 levels. In summary, these data collectively indicate that the expression of ECS components, as well as, the AEA and PGE 2 levels in rat uterus is modulated by EB. Thus, estradiol may have a direct regulatory role in the modulation of ECS in female reproductive tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by the renin angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Verónica C; Ciancio, María C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Aiello, Ernesto A

    2013-01-01

    The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 1 molecule of HCO(-) 3 (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1) and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 2 molecules of HCO(-) 3 (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1). Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pH i ) and sodium concentration ([Na(+)] i ). In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pH i and [Na(+)] i , which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pH i and [Na(+)] i , which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

  2. The research and development of module 3D designing system for nuclear power project based on the PDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qinwu; Li Yi; Wu Xiangyong

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of implementing Modularization design in CPR1000 nuclear power projects, this study aims to develop, relying on CPR1000 nuclear power project, the self-reliant module 3D design system based on the PDMS. so as to offer a convenient and effective module 3D design tool for the designers. Satisfactory results have been achieved through the test and application of two design projects. The research and application have entered the domestic advanced level. (authors)

  3. Measurement of the presampled two-dimensional modulation transfer function of digital imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A.; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Schueler, Beth A.; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop methods to measure the presampled two-dimensional modulation transfer function (2D MTF) of digital imaging systems. A custom x-ray 'point source' phantom was created by machining 256 holes with diameter 0.107 mm through a 0.5-mm-thick copper plate. The phantom was imaged several times, resulting in many images of individual x-ray 'spots'. The center of each spot (with respect to the pixel matrix) was determined to subpixel accuracy by fitting each spot to a 2D Gaussian function. The subpixel spot center locations were used to create a 5x oversampled system point spread function (PSF), which characterizes the optical and electrical properties of the system and is independent of the pixel sampling of the original image. The modulus of the Fourier transform of the PSF was calculated. Next, the Fourier function was normalized to the zero frequency value. Finally, the Fourier transform function was divided by the first-order Bessel function that defined the frequency content of the holes, resulting in the presampled 2D MTF. The presampled 2D MTF of a 0.1 mm pixel pitch computed radiography system and 0.2 mm pixel pitch flat panel digital imaging system that utilized a cesium iodide scintillator was measured. Comparison of the axial components of the 2D MTF to one-dimensional MTF measurements acquired using an edge device method demonstrated that the two methods produced consistent results

  4. Performance Analysis of DWDM System for Different Modulation Schemes Using Variations in Channel Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Prajapati, Y. K.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reflects the analytical study of dense wavelength division multiplexed optical network with different number of channels at various channel spacing in order to achieve higher data rates by means of few advanced modulation schemes. Bit error rate and quality factor are being analyzed with the variation in number of channels, channel spacing and transmission length of fiber. Advanced modulation schemes being compared here are carrier suppressed return to zero (CSRZ), duobinary return to zero (DRZ), modified duobinary return to zero (MDRZ), 33 % differential phase shift keying (33 % DPSK), 66 % DPSK and differential quaternary phase shift keying (DQPSK). It is keenly observed that CSRZ scheme with 100 GHz channel spacing serves best performance in terms of max. Q factor, min. BER and maximum transmission coverage upto 4,000 km for 16 and 32 channels DWDM system since CSRZ is high tolerant to nonlinear effects. On the other hand, MDRZ scheme with 75 GHz channel spacing exhibits transmission coverage upto 4,000 km and 4,500 km for 16 and 32 channels respectively, but with degraded signal due to effect of inter symbol interference (ISI).

  5. Vagal Reactions during Cryoballoon-Based Pulmonary Vein Isolation: A Clue for Autonomic Nervous System Modulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Peyrol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF is known to be initiated by rapid firing of pulmonary veins (PV and non-PV triggers, the crucial role of cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS in the initiation and maintenance of AF has long been appreciated in both experimental and clinical studies. The cardiac intrinsic ANS is composed of ganglionated plexi (GPs, located close to the left atrium-pulmonary vein junctions and a vast network of interconnecting neurons. Ablation strategies aiming for complete PV isolation (PVI remain the cornerstone of AF ablation procedures. However, several observational studies and few randomized studies have suggested that GP ablation, as an adjunctive strategy, might achieve better clinical outcomes in patients undergoing radiofrequency-based PVI for both paroxysmal and nonparoxysmal AF. In these patients, vagal reactions (VR such as vagally mediated bradycardia or asystole are thought to reflect intrinsic cardiac ANS modulation and/or denervation. Vagal reactions occurring during cryoballoon- (CB- based PVI have been previously reported; however, little is known on resulting ANS modulation and/or prevalence and significance of vagal reactions during PVI with the CB technique. We conducted a review of prevalence, putative mechanisms, and significance of VR during CB-based PVI.

  6. Power adaptation for joint switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2012-09-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using transmit power adaptation, switched transmit diversity, and adaptive modulation in order to improve the performance of existing switching efficient schemes (SES) and bandwidth efficient schemes (BES). Taking advantage of the channel reciprocity principle, we assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the interference link is available to the secondary transmitter. This information is then used by the secondary transmitter to adapt its transmit power, modulation constellation size, and used transmit branch. The goal of this joint adaptation is to minimize the average number of switched branches and the average system delay given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. We analyze the proposed scheme in terms of the average number of branch switching, average delay, and we provide a closed-form expression of the average bit error rate (BER). We demonstrate through numerical examples that the proposed scheme provides a compromise between the SES and the BES schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Development of volume rendering module for real-time visualization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Takayuki; Muramatsu, Kazuhiro

    2000-03-01

    Volume rendering is a method to visualize the distribution of physical quantities in the three dimensional space from any viewpoint by tracing the ray direction on the ordinary two dimensional monitoring display. It enables to provide the interior information as well as the surfacial one by producing the translucent images. Therefore, it is regarded as a very useful means as well as an important one in the analysis of the computational results of the scientific calculations, although it has, unfortunately, disadvantage to need a large amount of computing time. This report describes algorithm and its performance of the volume rendering soft-ware which was developed as an important functional module in the real-time visualization system PATRAS. This module can directly visualize the computed results on BFC grid. Moreover, it has already realized the speed-up in some parts of the software by the use of a newly developed heuristic technique. This report includes the investigation on the speed-up of the software by parallel processing. (author)

  8. Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

  9. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources--wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

  10. Patient-tailored modulation of the immune system may revolutionize future lung cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuvers Marlies E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer research has devoted most of its energy over the past decades on unraveling the control mechanisms within tumor cells that govern its behavior. From this we know that the onset of cancer is the result of cumulative genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells leading to an unregulated cell cycle, unlimited replicative potential and the possibility for tissue invasion and metastasis. Until recently it was often thought that tumors are more or less undetected or tolerated by the patient’s immune system causing the neoplastic cells to divide and spread without resistance. However, it is without any doubt that the tumor environment contains a wide variety of recruited host immune cells. These tumor infiltrating immune cells influence anti-tumor responses in opposing ways and emerges as a critical regulator of tumor growth. Here we provide a summary of the relevant immunological cell types and their complex and dynamic roles within an established tumor microenvironment. For this, we focus on both the systemic compartment as well as the local presence within the tumor microenvironment of late-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, admitting that this multifaceted cellular composition will be different from earlier stages of the disease, between NSCLC patients. Understanding the paradoxical role that the immune system plays in cancer and increasing options for their modulation may alter the odds in favor of a more effective anti-tumor immune response. We predict that the future standard of care of lung cancer will involve patient-tailor-made combination therapies that associate (traditional chemotherapeutic drugs and biologicals with immune modulating agents and in this way complement the therapeutic armamentarium for this disease.

  11. One bit/s/Hz Spectrally Efficient Transmission for an Eight-Channel NRZ-Modulated DWDM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Robin; Sharma, Neeraj

    2016-03-01

    The core of the global telecommunication network consists of wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical transmission systems. WDM is the technology of choice as it allows for a high spectral efficiency. We propose an effective way to counter the nonlinearities like four-wave mixing and cross-phase modulation to achieve the spectral efficiency of 1 bit/s/Hz using non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. We use the concept of non-uniform channel spacing and non-uniform power assignment between adjacent channels of the WDM system. We have simulated an eight-channel WDM lightwave system with bit rates of 10 and 25 Gbit/s.

  12. Novel security enhancement technique against eavesdropper for OCDMA system using 2-D modulation format with code switching scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simranjit; Kaur, Ramandeep; Singh, Amanvir; Kaler, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, security of the spectrally encoded-optical code division multiplexed access (OCDMA) system is enhanced by using 2-D (orthogonal) modulation technique. This is an effective approach for simultaneous improvement of the system capacity and security. Also, the results show that the hybrid modulation technique proved to be a better option to enhance the data confidentiality at higher data rates using minimum utilization of bandwidth in a multiuser environment. Further, the proposed system performance is compared with the current state-of-the-art OCDMA schemes.

  13. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems: Developmental aspects based on the space flight results of the C.E.B.A.S. mini-module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüm, V.

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) is an artificial aquatic ecosystem which contains teleost fishes, water snails, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and edible non-gravitropic water plants. It serves as a model for aquatic food production modules which are not seriously affected by microgravity and other space conditions. Its space flight version, the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE was already successfidly tested in the STS-89 and STS-90 (NEUROLAB) missions. It will be flown a third time in space with the STS-107 mission in January 2003. All results obtained so far in space indicate that the basic concept of the system is more than suitable to drive forward its development. The C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE is located within a middeck locker with limited space for additional components. These technical limitations allow only some modifications which lead to a maximum experiment time span of 120 days which is not long enough for scientifically essential multi-generation-experiments. The first necessary step is the development of "harvesting devices" for the different organisms. In the limited space of the plant bioreactor a high biomass production leads to self-shadowing effects which results in an uncontrolled degradation and increased oxygen consumption by microorganisms which will endanger the fishes and snails. It was shown already that the latter reproduce excellently in space and that the reproductive functions of the fish species are not affected. Although the parent-offspring-cannibalism of the ovoviviparous fish species ( Xiphophorus helleri) serves as a regulating factor in population dynamics an uncontrolled snail reproduction will also induce an increased oxygen consumption per se and a high ammonia concentration in the water. If harvesting locks can be handled by astronauts in, e. g., 4-week intervals their construction is not very difficult and basic technical solutions are already developed. The second problem is the feeding of the

  14. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems: Developmental aspects based on the space flight results of the C.E.B.A. Mini Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, S. V.

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) is an artificial aquatic ecosystem which contains teleost fishes, water snails, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and edible non-gravitropic water plants. It serves as a model for aquatic food production modules which are not seriously affected by microgravity and other space conditions. Its space flight version, the so-called C.E.B.AS. MINI-MODULE was already successfully tested in the STS-89 and STS 90 (NEUROLAB) missions.- I will be flown a third time in space with the STS 107 mission in July 2002. All- results obtained so far in space indicate that the basic concept of the system is more than suitable to drive forward its development. The C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE is located within a middeck locker whith limited the space for additional components. These technical limitations allow only some modifications which lead to a maximum experiment time span of 120 days which is not long enough for the demanded scientifically essential multi-generation-experiments. This first necessary step is the development of "harvesting devices" for the different organisms. In the limited space of the plant bioreactor a high biomass production leads to self- shadowing effects which results in an uncontrolled degradation and increased oxygen consum ption by microorganisms which will endanger the fishes and snails. It was shown already that the latter reproduce excellently in space and that the reproductive functions of the fishes are not affected. Although the parent - offspring- cannibalism of the used ovoviviparous fish species (Xiphophorus helleri) serves as a regulating factor in population dynamics an uncontrolled snail reproduction will also induce an increased ox gen consumption per se and a high ammonia concentrationy in the water. If harvesting locks can be handled by astronauts in, e. g., 4w e e k- intervals their construction is not very difficult and basic technical solutions are already developed. The second problem is

  15. Special Features of the Advanced Loans Module of the ABCD Integrated Library System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "advanced loans" module of the relatively new library software, ABCD, is an addition to the normal loans module and it offers a "generic transaction decision-making engine" functionality. The module requires extra installation effort and parameterisation, so this article aims to explain to the many potentially interested libraries,…

  16. Modulational instability and higher-order rogue waves with parameters modulation in a coupled integrable AB system via the generalized Darboux transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya

    2015-12-01

    We study higher-order rogue wave (RW) solutions of the coupled integrable dispersive AB system (also called Pedlosky system), which describes the evolution of wave-packets in a marginally stable or unstable baroclinic shear flow in geophysical fluids. We propose its continuous-wave (CW) solutions and existent conditions for their modulation instability to form the rogue waves. A new generalized N-fold Darboux transformation (DT) is proposed in terms of the Taylor series expansion for the spectral parameter in the Darboux matrix and its limit procedure and applied to the CW solutions to generate multi-rogue wave solutions of the coupled AB system, which satisfy the general compatibility condition. The dynamical behaviors of these higher-order rogue wave solutions demonstrate both strong and weak interactions by modulating parameters, in which some weak interactions can generate the abundant triangle, pentagon structures, etc. Particularly, the trajectories of motion of peaks and depressions of profiles of the first-order RWs are explicitly analyzed. The generalized DT method used in this paper can be extended to other nonlinear integrable systems. These results may be useful for understanding the corresponding rogue-wave phenomena in fluid mechanics and related fields.

  17. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a (60)Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS...

  18. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Treatment Systems, Effluent Qualities, and Costs - Module 4, Objectives, Script, and Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module describes the following conventional treatment systems and evaluates their use as pretreatment steps for land application: preliminary, primary, secondary, disinfection, and advanced waste treatment. Effluent qualities are summarized, a brief discussion of application systems is given, and cost comparisons are discussed in some detail.…

  19. Parity generator and parity checker in the modified trinary number system using savart plate and spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amal K.

    2010-09-01

    The parity generators and the checkers are the most important circuits in communication systems. With the development of multi-valued logic (MVL), the proposed system with parity generators and checkers is the most required using the recently developed optoelectronic technology in the modified trinary number (MTN) system. This system also meets up the tremendous needs of speeds by exploiting the savart plates and spatial light modulators (SLM) in the optical tree architecture (OTA).

  20. Modulation of inflammasome activity by Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis and associated systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammasomes are large multiprotein complexes localized in the cytoplasm of the cell. They are responsible for the maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-18 as well as for the activation of inflammatory cell death, the so-called pyroptosis. Inflammasomes assemble in response to cellular infection, cellular stress, or tissue damage; promote inflammatory responses and are of great importance in regulating the innate immune system in chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis and several chronic systemic diseases. In addition to sensing cellular integrity, inflammasomes are involved in the homeostatic mutualism between the indigenous microbiota and the host. There are several types of inflammasomes of which NLRP3 is best characterized in microbial pathogenesis. Many opportunistic bacteria try to evade the innate immune system in order to survive in the host cells. One of these is the periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis which has been shown to have several mechanisms of modulating innate immunity by limiting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Among them, ATP-/P2X7- signaling is recently associated not only with periodontitis but also with development of several systemic diseases. The present paper reviews multiple mechanisms through which P. gingivalis can modify innate immunity by affecting inflammasome activity.

  1. Glycyrrhizin protects against porcine endotoxemia through modulation of systemic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Feng; Fang, Yong; Li, Xiantao; Shen, Lei; Cao, Tongwa; Zhu, Hechen

    2013-03-11

    Glycyrrhizin (GL) was recently found to suppress high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-induced injury by binding directly to it. However, the effect of GL on HMGB1 expression in endotoxemia as well as its underlying molecular mechanism remained unclear. Twenty-one pigs were divided into four groups: sham group (n=3), control group (n=6), ethyl pyruvate group (n=6) and glycyrrhizin group (n=6). Pigs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, monitored and given a continuous intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twelve hours after the start of the LPS infusion, ethyl pyruvate (30 mg/kg/hr) or glycyrrhizin (1 mg/kg/hr) was administered for 12 hours. Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, oxygen exchange, and metabolic status were measured. The concentrations of cytokines in serum and the corresponding gene and protein expressions in tissue samples from liver, lungs, kidneys, small intestine and lymph nodes were measured. GL maintained the stability of systemic hemodynamics and improved pulmonary oxygen exchange and metabolic status. GL also attenuated organ injury and decreased the serum levels of HMGB1 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting their gene and protein expression. GL improved systemic hemodynamics and protected vital organs against porcine endotoxemia through modulation of the systemic inflammatory response. By reducing the serum level and gene expression of HMGB1 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, GL may become a potential agent for the treatment of sepsis.

  2. A Monte Carlo dosimetric quality assurance system for dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takegawa, Hideki; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Miyabe, Yuki; Teshima, Teruki; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Yano, Shinsuke; Mizowaki, Takashi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation system, which can resolve dosimetric issues derived from multileaf collimator (MLC) design for routine dosimetric quality assurance (QA) of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The treatment head of the medical linear accelerator equipped with MLC was modeled using the EGS4 MC code. A graphical user interface (GUI) application was developed to implement MC dose computation in the CT-based patient model and compare the MC calculated results with those of a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) system, Varian Eclipse. To reduce computation time, the EGS4 MC code has been parallelized on massive parallel processing (MPP) system using the message passing interface (MPI). The MC treatment head model and MLC model were validated by the measurement data sets of percentage depth dose (PDD) and off-center ratio (OCR) in the water phantom and the film measurements for the static and dynamic test patterns, respectively. In the treatment head model, the MC calculated results agreed with those of measurements for both of PDD and OCR. The MC could reproduce all of the MLC dosimetric effects. A quantitative comparison between the results of MC and Eclipse was successfully performed with the GUI application. Parallel speed-up became almost linear. An MC dosimetric QA system for dynamic IMRT has been developed, however there were large dose discrepancies between the MC and the measurement in the MLC model simulation, which are now being investigated. (author)

  3. RETRACTED: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy prediction of modulation transfer function of optical lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Md Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Akib, Shatirah

    2014-07-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. Sections ;1. Introduction; and ;2. Modulation transfer function;, as well as Figures 1-3, plagiarize the article published by N. Gül and M. Efe in Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci 18 (2010) 71 (http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/elektrik/issues/elk-10-18-1/elk-18-1-6-0811-9.pdf). Sections ;4. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; and ;6. Conclusion; duplicate parts of the articles previously published by the corresponding author et al in ;Expert Systems with Applications; 39 (2012) 13295-13304, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2012.05.072 and ;Expert Systems with Applications; 40 (2013) 281-286, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2012.07.076. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  4. DESIGN OF DPSK MODULATOR AND DIRECT DETECTION RECEIVER FOR DWDM BASED OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjit Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 16-bit differential phase shift keying (DPSK modulator is designed for 32 dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM channels. The DWDM channels are designed with 0.8nm separation in wavelength and operated at 4dBm input power. In the DWDM system, these 32 multiplexed signals propagate through a fiber length of 100 km followed by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA inline. The channel is equipped with pre-amplifier and a dispersion compensating fiber for better performance. Also, a threshold detector is designed for both in-phase and quadrature components to detect the input amplitude and provide a quantized output amplitude level. The result shows that, a 16-bit DPSK optical signal is demodulated successfully using direct detection receiver.

  5. Analytical Predictor-Corrector Guidance Algorithm Based on Drag Modulation Flight Control System for Mars Aerocapture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ming Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerocapture is one of the essential technologies for future large-scale space exploration missions, as it can significantly reduce the Δv and fuel requirement. The performance and robustness of two different aerocapture control methods are analyzed around Mars exploration, and then an analytic predictor-corrector guidance algorithm for drag modulation flight control system is proposed. A piecewise linear function between velocity and flight path angle is established by appropriate approximations and assumptions, and then the state at atmosphere interface can be predicted by an analytical method; therefore, aerocapture guidance can be realized by feedback control. Numerical simulation is used to evaluate performance and robustness of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the guidance algorithm is accurate and robust, which can effectively overcome the influence of atmospheric density error, aerodynamic parameter error, and initial state uncertainty.

  6. Design of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Gas Distribution System for the Micromegas Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00084094; The ATLAS collaboration; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Maltezos, Stavros; Vlachos, Sotirios; Karentzos, Efstathios; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Moschovakos, Paris; Koutelieris, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present and describe the methodology, the particular calculations and simulations accordingly to achieve the appropriate gas flow rates ensuring a uniform gas distribution among the same type of NSW Micromegas modules. The majority of the components used are in large multiplicity so space saving criteria is taking into account and simplicity on the performance with respect to the total cost as well. An appropriate simulation program has been developed for studying the overall gas system determining the gauge pressure, flow rate in the crucial points and branches, respectively. Moreover, an overall prototype configuration, implemented at the NTUA laboratory and based on the Lock-in Amplifier technique to be used in conjunction with the gas leak test via the FRL method is presented. The obtained performances, by means of sensitivity and S/N ratio improvement, are also discussed.

  7. BER of subcarrier MPSK/MDPSK modulated OWC systems in Gamma-Gamma turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xuegui

    2013-12-01

    Bit-error rate (BER) performance of subcarrier Mary phase-shift keying (MPSK) and M-ary differential PSK (MDPSK) is analyzed for optical wireless communications in Gamma-Gamma turbulence. We study the relation between the exact BER and the approximate BER, which is obtained by dividing the symbol error rate by the number of bits per symbol, for subcarrier MPSK and MDPSK modulations. The asymptotic performance gap between the exact and the approximate BERs is quantified analytically through our asymptotic analyses. The accuracy of the approximate BER of both MPSK and MDPSK depends on the channel conditions. Under weak turbulence conditions, the approximate BER expression can be used to predict the system performance with high accuracy, while under strong turbulence conditions the approximate BER becomes inaccurate and can only serve as a loose lower bound of the exact BER. The asymptotic BER performance loss of MDPSK with respect to MPSK is also quantified analytically. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. PSB beam longitudinal blow-up by phase modulation with the digital LLRF prototype system

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Butterworth, A; Findlay, A; Jaussi, M; Leinonen, P; Molendijk, J; Sanchez-Quesada, J

    2014-01-01

    The PSB will be upgraded to a new, Digital Low-Level RF (DLLRF) system in 2014 at the injectors’ restart after LS1. This DLLRF is an evolution of that successfully deployed in LEIR and comprises new hardware, software and implementation strategies. Machine development studies have been carried out in the PSB over recent years with the existing LEIR-style hardware installed in PSB ring four. These studies have allowed testing approaches and validating implementation strategies. This note focuses on a series of MDs carried out during the 2011 run where a new implementation of the longitudinal beam blow-up obtained by phase modulation was tested. Test results and effects on the beam are show for a CNGS-type beam. Finally, an overview is given of the final longitudinal blow-up implementation planned with the new hardware, which will be operationally deployed in 2014.

  9. New Adaptive Method for IQ Imbalance Compensation of Quadrature Modulators in Predistortion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zareian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfections in quadrature modulators (QMs, such as inphase and quadrature (IQ imbalance, can severely impact the performance of power amplifier (PA linearization systems, in particular in adaptive digital predistorters (PDs. In this paper, we first analyze the effect of IQ imbalance on the performance of a memory orthogonal polynomials predistorter (MOP PD, and then we propose a new adaptive algorithm to estimate and compensate the unknown IQ imbalance in QM. Unlike previous compensation techniques, the proposed method was capable of online IQ imbalance compensation with faster convergence, and no special calibration or training signals were needed. The effectiveness of the proposed IQ imbalance compensator was validated by simulations. The results clearly show the performance of the MOP PD to be enhanced significantly by adding the proposed IQ imbalance compensator.

  10. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document that provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  11. Immune and Inflammatory Responses in the Central Nervous System: Modulation by Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; hidalgo, juan; aschner, michael

    2008-01-01

    , a process referred to as reactive astrogliosis/ astrocytosis. In addition, the review will discuss (3) the role of astrocytes as an abundant cellular source for immunoregulatory (cytokines) factors, and their fundamental roles in the type and extent of CNS immune and inflammatory responses. (4) Recent......Beyond their long-recognized support functions, astrocytes are active partners of neurons in processing information, synaptic integration, and production of trophic factors, just to name a few. Both microglia and astrocytes produce and secrete a number of cytokines, modulating and integrating...... the communication between hematogenous cells and resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS). This review will address (1) the functions of astrocytes in the normal brain and (2) their role in surveying noxious stimuli within the brain, with particular emphasis on astrocytic responses to damage or disease...

  12. Immune system modulation in the central nervous system: A possible role for endocannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Allah, Adel R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system is designed to protect the body from infection and tumor formation. To perform this function, cells of the immune system can be dangerous for the survival and function of the neuronal network in the brain under the influence of infection or immune imbalance. An attack of immune cells inside the brain includes the potential for severe neuronal damage or cell death and therefore impairment of the CNS function. To avoid such undesirable action of the immune system, the CNS performs a cascade of cellular and molecular mechanisms enabling strict control of immune reactions i mmune privilege . Under inflammatory and patholological conditions, uncontrolled immune system results in the activation of neuronal damage that is frequently associated with neurological diseases. On the other hand, processes of neuroprotection and neurorepair after neuronal damage depend on a steady and tightly controlled immunesurvelliance. Many immunoprotectants play a role to imbalance the immune reactions in the CNS and other organs which presents an important therapeutic target. It has been reported recently that endocannabinoids are secreted in abundance in the CNS following neuronal insult, probably for its protection. There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Both are coupled to G proteins. CB1 receptors exist primarily on central and peripheral neurons. CB2 receptors are present mainly on immune cells. Endogenous agonists for cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids), have been discovered, the most important being arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG), and 2-archidonyl glyceryl ether. Following their release, endocannabinoids are removed from the extracellular space and then degraded by intracellular enzymic hydrolysis. Therapeutic uses of cannabinoid receptor agonists/antagonists include the management of many disease conditions. They are also involved in immune system suppression and in cell to cell communication

  13. Covert communications using random noise signals: overall system simulation and modulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jack; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2005-06-01

    In military communications, there exist numerous potential threats to message security. Ultra-wideband (UWB) signals provide secure communications because they cannot, in general, be detected using conventional receivers and they can be made relatively immune from jamming. The security of an UWB signal can be further improved by mixing it with random noise. By using a random noise signal, the user can conceal the message signal within the noise waveform and thwart detection by hostile forces. This paper describes a novel spread spectrum technique that can be used for secure and covert communications. The technique is based on the use of heterodyne correlation techniques to inject coherence in a random noise signal. The modulated signal to be transmitted containing the coherent carrier is mixed with a sample of an ultrawideband random noise signal. The frequency range of the ultra-wideband noise signal is appropriately chosen so that the lower sideband of the mixing process falls over the same frequency range. Both the frequency-converted noise-like signal and the original random noise signal are simultaneously transmitted on orthogonally polarized channels through a dual-polarized transmitting antenna. The receiver consists of a similar dual-polarized antenna that simultaneously receives the two orthogonally polarized transmitted signals, amplifies each in a minimum phase limiting amplifier, and mixes these signals in a double sideband up-converter. The upper sideband of the mixing process recovers the modulated signal, which can then be demodulated. The advantage of this technique lies in the relative immunity of the random noise-like un-polarized transmit signal from detection and jamming. Since the transmit signal "appears" totally un-polarized and noise-like, linearly polarized receivers are unable to identify, decode, or otherwise extract useful information from the signal. The system is immune from interference caused by high power linearly polarized signal

  14. Antidepressant effects of insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice: Modulation of brain serotonin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepali; Kurhe, Yeshwant; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh

    2014-04-22

    Diabetes is a persistent metabolic disorder, which often leads to depression as a result of the impaired neurotransmitter function. Insulin is believed to have antidepressant effects in depression associated with diabetes; however, the mechanism underlying the postulated effect is poorly understood. In the present study, it is hypothesized that insulin mediates an antidepressant effect in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in mice through modulation of the serotonin system in the brain. Therefore, the current study investigated the antidepressant effect of insulin in STZ induced diabetes in mice and insulin mediated modulation in the brain serotonin system. In addition, the possible pathways that lead to altered serotonin levels as a result of insulin administration were examined. Experimentally, Swiss albino mice of either sex were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ. After one week, diabetic mice received a single dose of either insulin or saline or escitalopram for 14days. Thereafter, behavioral studies were conducted to test the behavioral despair effects using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), followed by biochemical estimations of serotonin concentrations and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the whole brain content. The results demonstrated that, STZ treated diabetic mice exhibited an increased duration of immobility in FST and TST as compared to non-diabetic mice, while insulin treatment significantly reversed the effect. Biochemical assays revealed that administration of insulin attenuated STZ treated diabetes induced neurochemical alterations as indicated by elevated serotonin levels and decreased MAO-A and MAO-B activities in the brain. Collectively, the data indicate that insulin exhibits antidepressant effects in depression associated with STZ induced diabetes in mice through the elevation of the brain serotonin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering study, development and prototype fabrication of the supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068725; Karyotakis, Yannis; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Alexopoulos, Theo; MEIS, Costantin; De Conto, Jean Marie; Jeremie, Andrea; Puzot, Patrique

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is based on the international collaboration in the field of high-energy particle physics research. The experiments carried out in its facilities are achieved through the existing particle accelerators. In addition, advanced accelerator research and development is one of the goals of CERN. For this reason, CLIC (the Compact LInear Collider) a new electron-positron linear accelerator is being studied at CERN. CLIC is built by the assembly of the Two-Beam Modules and takes advantage of an innovative acceleration principle, the Two-Beam acceleration. Each Module contains several technical systems that contribute to its successful operation. This thesis presents the development of the prototype supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module. At first, the physics requirements are translated into technical specifications and the fundamental parts of the supporting system are defined. The CLIC operational conditions are identified and the corresponding boundaries...

  16. Modulation of Type III Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Involvement of the PA4857 Gene Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Miao; Zhao, Jingru; Kang, Huaping; Kong, Weina; Zhao, Yuanyu; Wu, Min; Liang, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious acute or chronic infections in humans. Acute infections typically involve the type III secretion systems (T3SSs) and bacterial motility, whereas chronic infections are often associated with biofilm formation and the type VI secretion system. To identify new genes required for pathogenesis, a transposon mutagenesis library was constructed and the gene PA4857, named tspR, was found to modulate T3SS gene expression. Deletion of P. aeruginosa tspR reduced the virulence in a mouse acute lung infection model and diminished cytotoxicity. Suppression of T3SS gene expression in the tspR mutant resulted from compromised translation of the T3SS master regulator ExsA. TspR negatively regulated two small RNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, which control RsmA. Our data demonstrated that defects in T3SS expression and biofilm formation in retS mutant could be partially restored by overexpression of tspR. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the newly identified retS-tspR pathway is coordinated with the retS-gacS system, which regulates the genes associated with acute and chronic infections and controls the lifestyle choice of P. aeruginosa. PMID:26858696

  17. Modulation of bacterial Type III secretion system by a spermidine transporter dependent signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many gram-negative bacterial pathogens employ Type III secretion systems (T3SS to inject effector proteins into host cells in infectious processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By screening a transposon mutant library of P. aeruginosa, we found that mutation of spuDEFGH, which encode a major spermidine uptake system, abolished the expression of the exsCEBA operon that codes for key T3SS regulators under inducing conditions (low calcium. Whole genome microarray analysis revealed that inactivation of the spermidine uptake system significantly decreased the transcriptional expression of most, if not all, T3SS genes. Consistently, the spermidine uptake mutants showed decreased expression of the T3SS genes in responding to host cell extract and attenuated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, exogenous addition of spermidine to the wild type strain PAO1 enhanced the expression of exsCEBA and also the effector protein genes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Cumulatively, these data have depicted a novel spermidine transporter-dependent signaling pathway, which appears to play an essential role in modulation of T3SS expression in P. aeruginosa.

  18. Modulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Passiflora incarnata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Kurt; Rose, Thorsten; Fiebich, Bernd; Kammler, Thomas; Hoffmann, Christine; Weiss, Gabriele

    2011-06-01

    Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) is important in herbal medicine for treating anxiety or nervousness, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), symptoms of opiate withdrawal, insomnia, neuralgia, convulsion, spasmodic asthma, ADHD, palpitations, cardiac rhythm abnormalities, hypertension, sexual dysfunction and menopause. However, the mechanism of action is still under discussion. Despite gaps in our understanding of neurophysiological processes, it is increasingly being recognized that dysfunction of the GABA system is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including anxiety and depressive disorders. Therefore, the in vitro effects of a dry extract of Passiflora incarnata (sole active ingredient in Pascoflair® 425 mg) on the GABA system were investigated. The extract inhibited [(3) H]-GABA uptake into rat cortical synaptosomes but had no effect on GABA release and GABA transaminase activity. Passiflora incarnata inhibited concentration dependently the binding of [(3) H]- SR95531 to GABA(A) -receptors and of [(3) H]-CGP 54626 to GABA(B) -receptors. Using the [(35) S]-GTPγS binding assay Passiflora could be classified as an antagonist of the GABA(B) receptor. In contrast, the ethanol- and the benzodiazepine-site of the GABA(A) -receptor were not affected by this extract. In conclusion, the first evidence was shown that numerous pharmacological effects of Passiflora incarnata are mediated via modulation of the GABA system including affinity to GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors, and effects on GABA uptake. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Bile Salts Modulate the Mucin-Activated Type VI Secretion System of Pandemic Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Bachmann

    Full Text Available The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, regulates its diverse virulence factors to thrive in the human small intestine and environmental reservoirs. Among this pathogen's arsenal of virulence factors is the tightly regulated type VI secretion system (T6SS. This system acts as an inverted bacteriophage to inject toxins into competing bacteria and eukaryotic phagocytes. V. cholerae strains responsible for the current 7th pandemic activate their T6SS within the host. We established that T6SS-mediated competition occurs upon T6SS activation in the infant mouse, and that this system is functional under anaerobic conditions. When investigating the intestinal host factors mucins (a glycoprotein component of mucus and bile for potential regulatory roles in controlling the T6SS, we discovered that once mucins activate the T6SS, bile acids can further modulate T6SS activity. Microbiota modify bile acids to inhibit T6SS-mediated killing of commensal bacteria. This interplay is a novel interaction between commensal bacteria, host factors, and the V. cholerae T6SS, showing an active host role in infection.

  20. More than an imitation game: Top-down modulation of the human mirror system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Megan E J; Cunnington, Ross

    2017-04-01

    All interpersonal interactions are underpinned by action: perceiving and understanding the actions of others, and responding by planning and performing self-made actions. Perception of action, both self-made and observed, informs ongoing motor responses by iterative feedback within a perception-action loop. This fundamental phenomenon occurs within single-cells of the macaque brain which demonstrate sensory and motor response properties. These 'mirror' neurons have led to a swathe of research leading to the broadly accepted idea of a human mirror system. The current review examines the putative human mirror system literature to highlight several inconsistencies in comparison to the seminal macaque data, and ongoing controversies within human focused research (including mirror neuron origin and function). In particular, we will address the often-neglected other side to the 'mirror': complementary and opposing actions. We propose that engagement of the mirror system in meeting changing task-demands is dynamically modulated via frontal control networks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a user interface style guide for the reactor protection system cabinet operator module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung-Woon

    2004-01-01

    The reactor protection system (RPS) plays the roles of generating the reactor trip signal and the engineered safety features (ESF) actuation signal when the monitored plant processes reach the predefined limits. A Korean project group is developing a new digitalized RPS and the Cabinet Operator Module (COM) of the RPS is used for the RPS integrity testing and monitoring by an equipment operator. A flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability is provided as a main user interface for the RPS operation. To support the RPS COM user interface design, actually the FPD screen design, we developed a user interface style guide because the system designer could not properly deal with the many general human factors design guidelines. To develop the user interface style guide, various design guideline gatherings, a walk-though with a video recorder, guideline selection with respect to user interface design elements, determination of the properties of the design elements, discussion with system designers, and a conversion of the properties into the screen design were carried out. This paper describes the process details and the findings in the course of the style guide development. (Author)

  2. A portable respiratory rate estimation system with a passive single-lead electrocardiogram acquisition module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Nazrul Anuar; Risman, Nur Sabrina; Jaafar, Rosmina

    2016-07-27

    Among vital signs of acutely ill hospital patients, respiratory rate (RR) is a highly accurate predictor of health deterioration. This study proposes a system that consists of a passive and non-invasive single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition module and an ECG-derived respiratory (EDR) algorithm in the working prototype of a mobile application. Before estimating RR that produces the EDR rate, ECG signals were evaluated based on the signal quality index (SQI). The SQI algorithm was validated quantitatively using the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2011 training data set. The RR extraction algorithm was validated by adopting 40 MIT PhysioNet Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II data set. The estimated RR showed a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.4 compared with the ``gold standard'' RR. The proposed system was used to record 20 ECGs of healthy subjects and obtained the estimated RR with MAE of 0.7 bpm. Results indicate that the proposed hardware and algorithm could replace the manual counting method, uncomfortable nasal airflow sensor, chest band, and impedance pneumotachography often used in hospitals. The system also takes advantage of the prevalence of smartphone usage and increase the monitoring frequency of the current ECG of patients with critical illnesses.

  3. Prediction-error in the context of real social relationships modulates reward system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua ePoore

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation and non-social rewards (e.g., money and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to a potent social reward—social validation—and this activity’s relation to both attachment security and trust in the context of real romantic relationships. During the experiment, participants’ expectations for their romantic partners’ positive regard of them were confirmed (validated or violated, in either positive or negative directions. Primary analyses were conducted using predefined regions of interest, the locations of which were taken from previously published research. Results indicate that activity for mid-brain and striatal reward system regions of interest was modulated by social reward expectation violation in ways consistent with prior research on reward prediction-error. Additionally, activity in the striatum during viewing of disconfirmatory information was associated with both increases in post-scan reports of attachment anxiety and decreases in post-scan trust, a finding that follows directly from representational models of attachment and trust.

  4. Application of assembly module to high-temperature gas-cooled reactor full-scope simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sifeng; Li Fu; Ma Yuanle; Shi Lei

    2007-01-01

    According to the circumstances that exist in the reactor full-scope simulators development as long development cycle, very difficult upgrade and narrow range of applicability, a kind of new model was developed based on assembly module which root in Linux kernel and successfully applied to the design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor full-scope simulator system. The simulation results are coincident with the experimental ones, and it indicates that the new model based on assembly module is feasible to design of high-temperature gas cooled reactor simulation system. (authors)

  5. Advanced photovoltaic power systems using tandem GaAs/GaSb concentrator modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, L. M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Pietila, D. A.; Sundaram, V. S.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Avery, J. E.; Dihn, V.; Ballantyne, R.; Samuel, C.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, Boeing announced the fabrication of a tandem gallium concentrator solar cell with an energy conversion efficiency of 30 percent. This research breakthrough has now led to panels which are significantly smaller, lighter, more radiation resistant, and potentially less expensive than the traditional silicon flat plate electric power supply. The new Boeing tandem concentrator (BTC) module uses an array of lightweight silicone Fresnel lenses mounted on the front side of a light weight aluminum honeycomb structure to focus sunlight onto small area solar cells mounted on a thin back plane. This module design is shown schematically. The tandem solar cell in this new module consists of a gallium arsenide light sensitive cell with a 24 percent energy conversion efficiency stacked on top of a gallium antimonide infrared sensitive cell with a conversion efficiency of 6 percent. This gives a total efficiency 30 percent for the cell-stack. The lens optical efficiency is typically 85 percent. Discounting for efficiency losses associated with lens packing, cell wiring, and cell operating temperature still allows for a module efficiency of 22 percent which leads to a module power density of 300 Watts/sq. m. This performance provides more than twice the power density available from a single crystal silicon flat plate module and at least four times the power density available from amorphous silicon modules. The fact that the lenses are only 0.010 ft. thick and the aluminum foil back plane is only 0.003 ft. thick leads to a very lightweight module. Although the cells are an easy to handle thickness of 0.020 ft., the fact that they are small, occupying one-twenty-fifth of the module area, means that they add little to the module weight. After summing all the module weights and given the high module power, we find that we are able to fabricate BTC modules with specific power of 100 watts/kg.

  6. RANCANG BANGUN SISTEM E-LEARNING PEMROGRAMAN PADA MODUL DETEKSI PLAGIARISME KODE PROGRAM DAN STUDENT FEEDBACK SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Munif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kompetensi utama yang harus dimiliki oleh mahasiswa jurusan ilmu komputer/informatika adalah pemrograman. Perkuliahan yang berbasis pemrograman seringkali mewajibkan mahasiswa untuk mengerjakan soal yang cukup banyak. Hal ini tentunya akan menyulitkan dosen dalam mengevaluasi hasil pekerjaan mahasiswa. Selain itu, dimungkinkan pula adanya praktik mahasiswa yang memplagiat hasil dari mahasiswa lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjawab permasalahan tersebut. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan sebuah sistem pembelajaran/e-learning pemrograman. Modul sistem e-learning yang dibuat pada artikel ini terbatas pada modul deteksi kemiripan kode program dan student feedback system. Modul deteksi kemiripan kode program berfungsi untuk mengecek kemiripan kode program antar mahasiswa. Kemudian kode-kode program yang memiliki tingkat kemiripan tinggi akan dikelompokkan menjadi satu menggunakan algoritma hierarchical clustering. Proses pengecekan kemiripan program dimulai dari proses transformasi kode program ke dalam Abstract Syntax Tree (AST, kemudian ditransformasi menjadi sequence dan dihitung kemiripannya menggunakan algoritma Levenshtein Distance. Modul student feedback system berfungsi untuk mengecek kemiripan kode program mahasiswa dengan dosen. Mahasiswa akan mendapatkan informasi apakah kode program mereka sudah sesuai dengan yang diinginkan oleh dosen atau belum. Sebelum sistem memberikan umpan balik, terlebih dahulu kode program dosen dan mahasiswa diproses menjadi AST dan kemudian menjadi sequence. Sistem akan membandingkan kemiripan kode program dosen dan mahasiswa menggunakan algoritma Smith-Waterman yang telah dimodifikasi. Kemudian sistem menampilkan baris-baris kode mana saja yang sama antara kode program dosen dengan kode program mahasiswa. Dari hasil pengujian dapat disimpulkan bahwa modul deteksi plagiarisme dan student feedback system telah terimplementasi dengan baik.

  7. Developing a similarity searching module for patient safety event reporting system using semantic similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Gong, Yang

    2017-07-05

    The most important knowledge in the field of patient safety is regarding the prevention and reduction of patient safety events (PSE) during treatment and care. The similarities and patterns among the events may otherwise go unnoticed if they are not properly reported and analyzed. There is an urgent need for developing a PSE reporting system that can dynamically measure the similarities of the events and thus promote event analysis and learning effect. In this study, three prevailing algorithms of semantic similarity were implemented to measure the similarities of the 366 PSE annotated by the taxonomy of The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The performance of each algorithm was then evaluated by a group of domain experts based on a 4-point Likert scale. The consistency between the scales of the algorithms and experts was measured and compared with the scales randomly assigned. The similarity algorithms and scores, as a self-learning and self-updating module, were then integrated into the system. The result shows that the similarity scores reflect a high consistency with the experts' review than those randomly assigned. Moreover, incorporating the algorithms into our reporting system enables a mechanism to learn and update based upon PSE similarity. In conclusion, integrating semantic similarity algorithms into a PSE reporting system can help us learn from previous events and provide timely knowledge support to the reporters. With the knowledge base in the PSE domain, the new generation reporting system holds promise in educating healthcare providers and preventing the recurrence and serious consequences of PSE.

  8. The plasminogen activation system modulates differently adipogenesis and myogenesis of embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Hadadeh

    Full Text Available Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM plays an important functional role either in physiological or pathological conditions. The plasminogen activation (PA system, comprising the uPA and tPA proteases and their inhibitor PAI-1, is one of the main suppliers of extracellular proteolytic activity contributing to tissue remodeling. Although its function in development is well documented, its precise role in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation in vitro is unknown. We found that the PA system components are expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated ESCs and that upon differentiation uPA activity is detected mainly transiently, whereas tPA activity and PAI-1 protein are maximum in well differentiated cells. Adipocyte formation by ESCs is inhibited by amiloride treatment, a specific uPA inhibitor. Likewise, ESCs expressing ectopic PAI-1 under the control of an inducible expression system display reduced adipogenic capacities after induction of the gene. Furthermore, the adipogenic differentiation capacities of PAI-1(-/- induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are augmented as compared to wt iPSCs. Our results demonstrate that the control of ESC adipogenesis by the PA system correspond to different successive steps from undifferentiated to well differentiated ESCs. Similarly, skeletal myogenesis is decreased by uPA inhibition or PAI-1 overexpression during the terminal step of differentiation. However, interfering with uPA during days 0 to 3 of the differentiation process augments ESC myotube formation. Neither neurogenesis, cardiomyogenesis, endothelial cell nor smooth muscle formation are affected by amiloride or PAI-1 induction. Our results show that the PA system is capable to specifically modulate adipogenesis and skeletal myogenesis of ESCs by successive different molecular mechanisms.

  9. The plasminogen activation system modulates differently adipogenesis and myogenesis of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadeh, Ola; Barruet, Emilie; Peiretti, Franck; Verdier, Monique; Bernot, Denis; Hadjal, Yasmine; Yazidi, Claire El; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; De Paula, Andre Maues; Nègre, Didier; Iacovino, Michelina; Kyba, Michael; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Binétruy, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important functional role either in physiological or pathological conditions. The plasminogen activation (PA) system, comprising the uPA and tPA proteases and their inhibitor PAI-1, is one of the main suppliers of extracellular proteolytic activity contributing to tissue remodeling. Although its function in development is well documented, its precise role in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation in vitro is unknown. We found that the PA system components are expressed at very low levels in undifferentiated ESCs and that upon differentiation uPA activity is detected mainly transiently, whereas tPA activity and PAI-1 protein are maximum in well differentiated cells. Adipocyte formation by ESCs is inhibited by amiloride treatment, a specific uPA inhibitor. Likewise, ESCs expressing ectopic PAI-1 under the control of an inducible expression system display reduced adipogenic capacities after induction of the gene. Furthermore, the adipogenic differentiation capacities of PAI-1(-/-) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are augmented as compared to wt iPSCs. Our results demonstrate that the control of ESC adipogenesis by the PA system correspond to different successive steps from undifferentiated to well differentiated ESCs. Similarly, skeletal myogenesis is decreased by uPA inhibition or PAI-1 overexpression during the terminal step of differentiation. However, interfering with uPA during days 0 to 3 of the differentiation process augments ESC myotube formation. Neither neurogenesis, cardiomyogenesis, endothelial cell nor smooth muscle formation are affected by amiloride or PAI-1 induction. Our results show that the PA system is capable to specifically modulate adipogenesis and skeletal myogenesis of ESCs by successive different molecular mechanisms.

  10. Hemodynamic, morphometric and autonomic patterns in hypertensive rats - renin-angiotensin system modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Zamo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop left ventricular hypertrophy, increased blood pressure and blood pressure variability, which are important determinants of heart damage, like the activation of renin-angiotensin system. AIMS: To investigate the effects of the time-course of hypertension over 1 hemodynamic and autonomic patterns (blood pressure; blood pressure variability; heart rate; 2 left ventricular hypertrophy; and 3 local and systemic Renin-angiotensin system of the spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomized into two groups: young (n=13 and adult (n=12. Hemodynamic signals (blood pressure, heart rate, blood pressure variability (BPV and spectral analysis of the autonomic components of blood pressure were analyzed. LEFT ventricular hypertrophy was measured by the ratio of LV mass to body weight (mg/g, by myocyte diameter (μm and by relative fibrosis area (RFA, %. ACE and ACE2 activities were measured by fluorometry (UF/min, and plasma renin activity (PRA was assessed by a radioimmunoassay (ng/mL/h. Cardiac gene expressions of Agt, Ace and Ace2 were quantified by RT-PCR (AU. RESULTS: The time-course of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats increased BPV and reduced the alpha index in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Adult rats showed increases in left ventricular hypertrophy and in RFA. Compared to young spontaneously hypertensive rats, adult spontaneously hypertensive rats had lower cardiac ACE and ACE2 activities, and high levels of PRA. No change was observed in gene expression of Renin-angiotensin system components. CONCLUSIONS: The observed autonomic dysfunction and modulation of Renin-angiotensin system activity are contributing factors to end-organ damage in hypertension and could be interacting. Our findings suggest that the management of hypertensive disease must start before blood pressure reaches the highest stable levels and the consequent

  11. Role of immune system modulation in prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Abdulrhman Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An increased incidence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is expected worldwide. Eventually, T1DM is fatal unless treated with insulin. The expansion of interventions to prevent diabetes and the use of alternative treatments to insulin is a dream to be fulfilled. The pathophysiology in T1DM is basically a destruction of beta cells in the pancreas, regardless of which risk factors or causative entities have been present. Individual risk factors can have separate patho-physiological processes to, in turn, cause this beta cell destruction. Currently, autoimmunity is considered the major factor in the pathophysiology of T1DM. In a genetically susceptible individual, viral infection may stimulate the production of antibodies against a viral protein that trigger an autoimmune response against antigenically similar beta cell molecules. Many components of the immune system have been implicated in autoimmunity leading to β-cell destruction, including cytotoxic and helper T-cells, B-cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The inflammatory process in early diabetes is thought to be initiated and propagated by the effect of Th1-secreted cytokines (e.g. g interferon and suppressed by Th2-secreted antiinflammatory cytokines (interleukins. Structure and function of β-cell may be modulated by using Th1/Th2-secreted cytokines. Several experimental and clinical trials of applying GAD65, Hsp60, peptide-MHC, pepetide-277 immunization, anti-CD3 infusion, and interleukins to modulate immune response in T1DM were done. Applying such trials in patients with prediabetes, will most likely be the future key in preventing Type 1 autoimmune diabetes.

  12. Low voltage and high resolution phase modulator based on blue phase liquid crystals with external compact optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Xing, Yufei; Guo, Zhengbo; Li, Qing

    2015-06-15

    Liquid crystal phase modulators are emerging as a new technological advancement, since they can be used for a wide range of applications. To improve their performance, polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) phase modulators with fast response time and accurate phase profile become a necessary. Here, we proposed a facile PS-BPLC phase modulator to achieve particularly low voltage and high resolution. By employing a specific external compact optical system setup, the driving voltage is reduced to 26.09V to obtain 2π phase change at the wavelength of 532 nm. An accurate numerical modeling is also conducted to provide a systematic investigation of the fringing electric field effect to the performance of high resolution PS-BPLC phase modulator. The wavefront distortion caused by the fringing electric field can be automatically compensated to generate accurate phase profile for fast response liquid crystal phase modulator. This work provides a new protocol to realize liquid crystal on silicon based fast response and high resolution phase modulator.

  13. First operational experience with the HIE-Isolde helium cryogenic system including several RF cryo-modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillotin, N.; Dupont, T.; Gayet, Ph; Pirotte, O.

    2017-12-01

    The High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) upgrade project at CERN includes the deployment of new superconducting accelerating structures operated at 4.5 K (ultimately of six cryo-modules) installed in series, and the refurbishing of the helium cryo-plant previously used to cool the ALEPH magnet during the operation of the LEP accelerator from 1989 to 2000. The helium refrigerator is connected to a new cryogenic distribution line, supplying a 2000-liter storage dewar and six interconnecting valve boxes (i.e jumper boxes), one for each cryo-module. After a first operation period with one cryo-module during six months in 2015, a second cryo-module has been installed and operated during 2016. The operation of the cryo-plant with these two cryo-modules has required significant technical enhancements and tunings for the compressor station, the cold-box and the cryogenic distribution system in order to reach nominal and stable operational conditions. The present paper describes the commissioning results and the lessons learnt during the operation campaign of 2016 together with the preliminary experience acquired during the 2017 operation phase with a third cryo-module.

  14. ANFIS-based estimation of PV module equivalent parameters: application to a stand-alone PV system with MPPT controller

    OpenAIRE

    KULAKSIZ, Ahmet Afşin

    2012-01-01

    The performance and system cost of photovoltaic (PV) systems can be improved by employing high-efficiency power conditioners with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods. Fast implementation and accurate operation of MPPT controllers can be realized by modeling the characteristics of PV modules, obtaining equivalent parameters. In this study, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) have been used to obtain 3 of the parameters in a single-diode model of PV cells, namely serie...

  15. Digital Receiver-based Electronic Intelligence System Configuration for the Detection and Identification of Intrapulse Modulated Radar Signals

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Singh; K. Subba Rao

    2014-01-01

    An optimum electronic intelligence system configuration incorporating the state of the art technologies and achieving the highest parameter accuracies while processing the complex intrapulse modulated radar signals is presented in this paper. The system is based on the quad digital receiver, a state of the art single board solution for the detection and analysis of modern radar signals. The system consists of base line interferometry  configuration for high accuracy direction finding measurem...

  16. Design of the high voltage isolation transmission module with low delay for ECRH system on J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyan, MA; Donghui, XIA; Zhijiang, WANG; Fangtai, CUI; Zhenxiong, YU; Yikun, JIN; Changhai, LIU

    2018-02-01

    As a flexible auxiliary heating method, the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has been widely used in many tokamaks and also will be applied for the J-TEXT tokamak. To meet requirements of protection and fault analysis for the ECRH system on J-TEXT, signals of gyrotrons such as the cathode voltage and current, the anode voltage and current, etc should be transmitted to the control and data acquisition system. Considering the high voltage environment of gyrotrons, isolation transmission module based on FPGA and optical fiber communication has been designed and tested. The test results indicate that the designed module has strong anti-noise ability, low error rate and high transmission speed. The delay of the module is no more than 5 μs which can fulfill the requirements.

  17. Optical polarization modulation by competing atomic coherence effects in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Jong; Park, Chang Yong; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of optical polarization modulation of a linearly polarized infrared probe field is studied in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system. We have observed an anomalous transmission spectra of two circular polarization components of the probe field exhibiting an enhanced two-photon absorption and a three-photon gain with comparable magnitude, leading to the lossless transmission and enhanced circular dichroism. We carried out a proof-of-principle experiment of fast optical polarization modulation in such a system by modulating the polarization state of the coupling field. The observed enhanced two-photon absorption and three-photon gain of the probe field are due to the result of competing atomic coherence effects

  18. Three-Dimensional Dosimetric Validation of a Magnetic Resonance Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankine, Leith J., E-mail: Leith_Rankine@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Mein, Stewart [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cai, Bin; Curcuru, Austen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Juang, Titania; Miles, Devin [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Mutic, Sasa; Wang, Yuhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Oldham, Mark [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, H. Harold, E-mail: hli@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To validate the dosimetric accuracy of a commercially available magnetic resonance guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (MRgIMRT) system using a hybrid approach: 3-dimensional (3D) measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Methods and Materials: We used PRESAGE radiochromic plastic dosimeters with remote optical computed tomography readout to perform 3D high-resolution measurements, following a novel remote dosimetry protocol. We followed the intensity modulated radiation therapy commissioning recommendations of American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 119, adapted to incorporate 3D data. Preliminary tests (“AP” and “3D-Bands”) were delivered to 9.5-cm usable diameter cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters to validate the treatment planning system (TPS) for nonmodulated deliveries; assess the sensitivity, uniformity, and rotational symmetry of the PRESAGE dosimeters; and test the robustness of the remote dosimetry protocol. Following this, 4 clinical MRgIMRT plans (“MultiTarget,” “Prostate,” “Head/Neck,” and “C-Shape”) were measured using 13-cm usable diameter PRESAGE dosimeters. For all plans, 3D-γ (3% or 3 mm global, 10% threshold) passing rates were calculated and 3D-γ maps were examined. Point doses were measured with an IBA-CC01 ionization chamber for validation of absolute dose. Finally, by use of an in-house-developed, GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo algorithm (gPENELOPE), we independently calculated dose for all 6 Task Group 119 plans and compared against the TPS. Results: For PRESAGE measurements, 3D-γ analysis yielded passing rates of 98.7%, 99.2%, 98.5%, 98.0%, 99.2%, and 90.7% for AP, 3D-Bands, MultiTarget, Prostate, Head/Neck, and C-Shape, respectively. Ion chamber measurements were within an average of 0.5% (±1.1%) from the TPS dose. Monte Carlo calculations demonstrated good agreement with the TPS, with a mean 3D-γ passing rate of 98.5% ± 1.9% using a stricter 2%/2-mm criterion. Conclusions: We

  19. Three-Dimensional Dosimetric Validation of a Magnetic Resonance Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, Leith J.; Mein, Stewart; Cai, Bin; Curcuru, Austen; Juang, Titania; Miles, Devin; Mutic, Sasa; Wang, Yuhe; Oldham, Mark; Li, H. Harold

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To validate the dosimetric accuracy of a commercially available magnetic resonance guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (MRgIMRT) system using a hybrid approach: 3-dimensional (3D) measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Methods and Materials: We used PRESAGE radiochromic plastic dosimeters with remote optical computed tomography readout to perform 3D high-resolution measurements, following a novel remote dosimetry protocol. We followed the intensity modulated radiation therapy commissioning recommendations of American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 119, adapted to incorporate 3D data. Preliminary tests (“AP” and “3D-Bands”) were delivered to 9.5-cm usable diameter cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters to validate the treatment planning system (TPS) for nonmodulated deliveries; assess the sensitivity, uniformity, and rotational symmetry of the PRESAGE dosimeters; and test the robustness of the remote dosimetry protocol. Following this, 4 clinical MRgIMRT plans (“MultiTarget,” “Prostate,” “Head/Neck,” and “C-Shape”) were measured using 13-cm usable diameter PRESAGE dosimeters. For all plans, 3D-γ (3% or 3 mm global, 10% threshold) passing rates were calculated and 3D-γ maps were examined. Point doses were measured with an IBA-CC01 ionization chamber for validation of absolute dose. Finally, by use of an in-house-developed, GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo algorithm (gPENELOPE), we independently calculated dose for all 6 Task Group 119 plans and compared against the TPS. Results: For PRESAGE measurements, 3D-γ analysis yielded passing rates of 98.7%, 99.2%, 98.5%, 98.0%, 99.2%, and 90.7% for AP, 3D-Bands, MultiTarget, Prostate, Head/Neck, and C-Shape, respectively. Ion chamber measurements were within an average of 0.5% (±1.1%) from the TPS dose. Monte Carlo calculations demonstrated good agreement with the TPS, with a mean 3D-γ passing rate of 98.5% ± 1.9% using a stricter 2%/2-mm criterion. Conclusions: We

  20. The Endocannabinoid System Modulating Levels of Consciousness, Emotions and Likely Dream Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Pastrana-Trejo, Jose Carlos; Salas-Crisóstomo, Mireille; de-la-Cruz, Miriel

    2017-01-01

    indicate that the sleep-wake cycle is under the influence of endocannabinoids since the blocking of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor or the pharmacological inhibition of FAAH activity promotes wakefulness, whereas the obstruction of AMT function enhances sleep. However, no solid evidence is available regarding the role of the endocannabinoid system in an unquestionable emotional component of the sleep: Dream activity. Since dreaming is a mental activity that occurs during sleep (characterized by emotions, sensory perceptions, and bizarre components) and the endocannabinoid system modulates neurobiological processes involving consciousness, such as learning and memory, attention, pain perception, emotions and sleep, it is acceptable to hypothesize that the endocannabinoid system might be modulating dream activity. In this regard, an accumulative body of evidence in human and animal models has been reported regarding the role of the endocannabinoid system in the control of emotional states and dreams. Moreover, preliminary studies in humans have indicated that treatment with cannabinoids may decrease post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, including nightmares. Thus, based on a review of the literature available in PubMed, this article hypothesizes a conceptual framework within which the endocannabinoid system might influence the generation of dream experiences. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. FANTM: The First Article NIF Test Module for the Laser Power Conditioning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammon, Jud; Harjes, Henry C.; Moore, William B.S.; Smith, David L.; Wilson, J. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2. 1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS) that powers the flashlamps for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL), is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM. It was built at SNL and has operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final till NIF system will require 192 of them (48 in each of four capacitor bays). This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20%/cm with 24 capacitors

  2. A novel puborectalis muscle artificial anal sphincter system with the module of sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Guozheng; Jin, Wentian; Lu, Shan; Zhou, Zerun

    2017-02-01

    This article presents a novel puborectalis muscle artificial anal sphincter system (PM-AASS) with the module of sensory perception for treating severe faecal incontinence (FI). Due to the implantable feature of PM-AASS, this system applied low-power design and the total energy consumption could drop to 48.8 Ah/d. To reduce the injury of intestine and the pressure exerted on intestine, the actuator, including the structure of tings and the robot mechanism, of PM-AASS was presented and the middle ring was optimised. To realise the sensory perception, the intestinal flexible pressure sensors, comprising the radial sensors and the axial sensors, were designed. The sensors calibration showed the R-square of each fitting line were above 0.998, which presented a high goodness of fit and indicated we could figure out the pressure value with the analogue voltage captured by MCU. Through the in-vitro experiment, the results that the radial sensors were more relevant to the occlusion threshold while the axial sensors had more effect on the alarm threshold could be concluded. The practicability of the PM-AASS was verified by the results of the in-vivo experiment, which showed that the PM-AASS had the effect of improvement to the anorectal internal pressure.

  3. AUTOLOAD, an automatic optimal pressurized water reactor reload design system with an expert module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Levine, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    An automatic optimal pressurized water reactor (PWR) reload design expert system AUTOLOAD has been developed. It employs two important new techniques. The first is a new loading priority scheme that defines the optimal placement of the fuel in the core that has the maximum end-of-cycle state k eff . The second is a new power-shape-driven progressive iteration method for automatically determining the burnable poison (BP) loading in the fresh fuel assemblies. The Haling power distribution is used in converting the theoretically optimal solution into the practical design, which meets the design constraints for the given fuel assemblies. AUTOLOAD is a combination of C and FORTRAN languages. It requires only the required cycle length, the maximum peak normalized power, the BP type, the number of fresh fuel assemblies, the assembly burnup, and BP histories of the available fuel assemblies as its input. Knowledge-based modules have been built into the expert system computer code to perform all of the tasks involved in reloading a PWR. AUTOLOAD takes only ∼ 30 CPU min on an IBM 3090 600s mainframe to accomplish a practical reload design. A maximum of 12.5% fresh fuel enrichment saving is observed compared with the core used by the utility

  4. Precision of indirect bonding of lingual brackets using the Quick Modul System (QMS)®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Katharina; Halbich, Thomas; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Müller-Hartwich, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Almost all common laboratory procedures for lingual orthodontic appliances use indirect bonding of brackets via transfer trays. Ensuring precise transfer of these bracket positions to the oral cavity is especially important, as subsequent manual adjustments are challenging in lingual orthodontics and even minor errors of bracket placement may result in considerably deviating tooth positions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the precision of indirect bonding of lingual brackets using the "Quick Modul System" (QMS®; Halbich Lingualtechnik, Berlin, Germany). The study included eight consecutive patients treated with lingual brackets. After placing the brackets on a setup cast, the resultant positions were digitized with an optical scanner (OraScanner®; OraMetrix, Richardson, TX, USA). Individual transfer copings (QMS®) were used to transfer the brackets to the mouth, followed by intraoral scanning and virtual superimposition to analyze how much the intraoral bracket positions deviated from the positions on the cast. Translational deviations added up to a mean transfer error of 0.12 mm in the mesiodistal, 0.13 mm in the orovestibular, and 0.10 mm in the vertical planes. Mean deviations in rotational directions amounted to 2.20° of inclination, 3.21° of angulation, and 2.29° of rotation. The transfer system investigated in this study is capable of transferring bracket positions with good clinical precision. No differences between the bracket types and both modifications of the transfer copings were noted.

  5. Model documentation, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System`s (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS). CMM provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal for NEMS. In general, the CDS integrates the supply inputs from the CPS to satisfy demands for coal from exogenous demand models. The international area of the CDS forecasts annual world coal trade flows from major supply to major demand regions and provides annual forecasts of US coal exports for input to NEMS. Specifically, the CDS receives minemouth prices produced by the CPS, demand and other exogenous inputs from other NEMS components, and provides delivered coal prices and quantities to the NEMS economic sectors and regions.

  6. A versatile variable field module for Asylum Cypher scanning probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxue; Comes, Ryan; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart; Hodgson, Jim; Rutgers, Maarten

    2013-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become one of the most widely used techniques for measuring and manipulating various characteristics of materials at the nanoscale. However, there are very limited option for the characterization of field dependence properties. In this work, we demonstrate a versatile variable field module (VFM) with magnetic field up to 1800 Oe for the Asylum Research Cypher system. The magnetic field is changed by adjusting the distance between a rare earth magnet and the AFM probe. A built-in Hall sensor makes it possible to perform in-situ measurements of the field. Rotating the magnet makes it possible to do angular field dependent measurements. The capability of the VFM system is demonstrated by degaussing a floppy disk media with increasing magnetic field. The written bits are erased at about 800 Oe. Angular dependence measurements clearly show the evolution of magnetic domain structures. A completely reversible magnetic force microscopy (MFM) phase contrast is observed when the magnetic field is rotated by 180°. Further demonstration of successful magnetic switching of CoFe2O4 pillars in CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 nanocomposites will be presented and field dependent MFM and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) will be discussed. The work at University of Virginia was supported by DARPA under contract no. HR-0011-10-1-0072.

  7. Study on a low complexity adaptive modulation algorithm in OFDM-ROF system with sub-carrier grouping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong-xin; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Li-jia; Xin, Xiang-jun; Tian, Qing-hua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yong-jun; Rao, Lan; Mao, Yaya; Li, Deng-ao

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing radio-over-fiber (OFDM-ROF) system with adaptive modulation technology is of great interest due to its capability of raising the spectral efficiency dramatically, reducing the effects of fiber link or wireless channel, and improving the communication quality. In this study, according to theoretical analysis of nonlinear distortion and frequency selective fading on the transmitted signal, a low-complexity adaptive modulation algorithm is proposed in combination with sub-carrier grouping technology. This algorithm achieves the optimal performance of the system by calculating the average combined signal-to-noise ratio of each group and dynamically adjusting the origination modulation format according to the preset threshold and user's requirements. At the same time, this algorithm takes the sub-carrier group as the smallest unit in the initial bit allocation and the subsequent bit adjustment. So, the algorithm complexity is only 1 /M (M is the number of sub-carriers in each group) of Fischer algorithm, which is much smaller than many classic adaptive modulation algorithms, such as Hughes-Hartogs algorithm, Chow algorithm, and is in line with the development direction of green and high speed communication. Simulation results show that the performance of OFDM-ROF system with the improved algorithm is much better than those without adaptive modulation, and the BER of the former achieves 10e1 to 10e2 times lower than the latter when SNR values gets larger. We can obtain that this low complexity adaptive modulation algorithm is extremely useful for the OFDM-ROF system.

  8. On the implementation of new technology modules for fusion reactor systems codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franza, F., E-mail: fabrizio.franza@kit.edu [Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Boccaccini, L.V.; Fisher, U. [Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Gade, P.V.; Heller, R. [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • At KIT a new technology modules for systems code are under development. • A new algorithm for the definition of the main reactor's components is defined. • A new blanket model based on 1D neutronics analysis is described. • A new TF coil stress model based on 3D electromagnetic analysis is described. • The models were successfully benchmarked against more detailed models. - Abstract: In the frame of the pre-conceptual design of the next generation fusion power plant (DEMO), systems codes are being used from nearly 20 years. In such computational tools the main reactor components (e.g. plasma, blanket, magnets, etc.) are integrated in a unique computational algorithm and simulated by means of rather simplified mathematical models (e.g. steady state and zero dimensional models). The systems code tries to identify the main design parameters (e.g. major radius, net electrical power, toroidal field) and to make the reactor's requirements and constraints to be simultaneously accomplished. In fusion applications, requirements and constraints can be either of physics or technology kind. Concerning the latest category, at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology a new modelling activity has been recently launched aiming to develop improved models focusing on the main technology areas, such as neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, electromagnetics, structural mechanics, fuel cycle and vacuum systems. These activities started by developing: (1) a geometry model for the definition of poloidal profiles for the main reactors components, (2) a blanket model based on neutronics analyses and (3) a toroidal field coil model based on electromagnetic analysis, firstly focusing on the stresses calculations. The objective of this paper is therefore to give a short outline of these models.

  9. Modulation of cannabinoid signaling by amygdala α2-adrenergic system in fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Zamanparvar, Majid; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-03-01

    The noradrenergic system plays a critical role in the modulation of emotional state, primarily related to anxiety, arousal, and stress. Growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system mediates stress responses and emotional homeostasis, in part, by targeting noradrenergic circuits. In addition, there is an interaction between the cannabinoid and noradrenergic system that has significant functional and behavioral implications. Considering the importance of these systems in forming memories for fearful events, we have investigated the involvement of basolateral amygdala (BLA) α2-adrenoceptors on ACPA (as selective cannabinoid CB1 agonist)-induced inhibition of the acquisition of contextual and auditory conditioned fear. A contextual and auditory fear conditioning apparatus for assess fear memory in adult male NMRI mice was used. Pre-training, intraperitoneal administration of ACPA decreased the percentage freezing time in contextual (at doses of 0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) and auditory (at dose of 0.1 mg/kg) in the fear conditioning task, indicating memory acquisition deficit. The same result was observed with intra-BLA microinjection of clonidine (0.001-0.5 μg/mouse, for both memories), as α2-adrenoceptor agonist and yohimbine (at doses of 0.005 and 0.05 for contextual and at dose of 0.05 μg/mouse for auditory fear memory), as α2-adrenoceptor antagonist. In addition, intra-BLA microinjection of clonidine (0.0005 μg/mouse) did not alter ACPA response in both conditions, while the same dose of yohimbine potentiated ACPA response at the lower dose on contextual fear memory. It is concluded that BLA α2-adrenergic receptors may be involved in context- but not tone-dependent fear memory impairment induced by activation of CB1 receptors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. On the implementation of new technology modules for fusion reactor systems codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franza, F.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Fisher, U.; Gade, P.V.; Heller, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • At KIT a new technology modules for systems code are under development. • A new algorithm for the definition of the main reactor's components is defined. • A new blanket model based on 1D neutronics analysis is described. • A new TF coil stress model based on 3D electromagnetic analysis is described. • The models were successfully benchmarked against more detailed models. - Abstract: In the frame of the pre-conceptual design of the next generation fusion power plant (DEMO), systems codes are being used from nearly 20 years. In such computational tools the main reactor components (e.g. plasma, blanket, magnets, etc.) are integrated in a unique computational algorithm and simulated by means of rather simplified mathematical models (e.g. steady state and zero dimensional models). The systems code tries to identify the main design parameters (e.g. major radius, net electrical power, toroidal field) and to make the reactor's requirements and constraints to be simultaneously accomplished. In fusion applications, requirements and constraints can be either of physics or technology kind. Concerning the latest category, at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology a new modelling activity has been recently launched aiming to develop improved models focusing on the main technology areas, such as neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, electromagnetics, structural mechanics, fuel cycle and vacuum systems. These activities started by developing: (1) a geometry model for the definition of poloidal profiles for the main reactors components, (2) a blanket model based on neutronics analyses and (3) a toroidal field coil model based on electromagnetic analysis, firstly focusing on the stresses calculations. The objective of this paper is therefore to give a short outline of these models.

  11. High-resolution spectrally-resolved fiber optic sensor interrogation system based on a standard DWDM laser module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njegovec, Matej; Donlagic, Denis

    2010-11-08

    This paper presents a spectrally-resolved integration system suitable for the reading of Bragg grating, all-fiber Fabry-Perot, and similar spectrally-resolved fiber-optic sensors. This system is based on a standard telecommunication dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission module that contains a distributed feedback laser diode and a wavelength locker. Besides the transmission module, only a few additional opto-electronic components were needed to build an experimental interrogation system that demonstrated over a 2 nm wide wavelength interrogation range, and a 1 pm wavelength resolution. When the system was combined with a typical Bragg grating sensor, a strain resolution of 1 με and temperature resolution of 0.1 °C were demonstrated experimentally. The proposed interrogation system relies entirely on Telecordia standard compliant photonic components and can thus be straightforwardly qualified for use within the range of demanding applications.

  12. Coupling the System Analysis Module with SAS4A/SASSYS-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hu, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is a simulation tool used to perform deterministic analysis of anticipated events as well as design basis and beyond design basis accidents for advanced reactors, with an emphasis on sodium fast reactors. SAS4A/SASSYS-1 has been under development and in active use for nearly forty-five years, and is currently maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Office of Advanced Reactor Technology. Although SAS4A/SASSYS-1 contains a very capable primary and intermediate system modeling component, PRIMAR-4, it also has some shortcomings: outdated data management and code structure makes extension of the PRIMAR-4 module somewhat difficult. The user input format for PRIMAR-4 also limits the number of volumes and segments that can be used to describe a given system. The System Analysis Module (SAM) is a fairly new code development effort being carried out under the U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. SAM is being developed with advanced physical models, numerical methods, and software engineering practices; however, it is currently somewhat limited in the system components and phenomena that can be represented. For example, component models for electromagnetic pumps and multi-layer stratified volumes have not yet been developed. Nor is there support for a balance of plant model. Similarly, system-level phenomena such as control-rod driveline expansion and vessel elongation are not represented. This report documents fiscal year 2016 work that was carried out to couple the transient safety analysis capabilities of SAS4A/SASSYS-1 with the system modeling capabilities of SAM under the joint support of the ART and NEAMS programs. The coupling effort was successful and is demonstrated by evaluating an unprotected loss of flow transient for the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) design. There are differences between the stand-alone SAS4A/SASSYS-1 simulations and the coupled SAS/SAM simulations, but these are mainly

  13. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Functional modules F1-F8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with eight of the functional modules in the code. Those are: BONAMI - resonance self-shielding by the Bondarenko method; NITAWL-II - SCALE system module for performing resonance shielding and working library production; XSDRNPM - a one-dimensional discrete-ordinates code for transport analysis; XSDOSE - a module for calculating fluxes and dose rates at points outside a shield; KENO IV/S - an improved monte carlo criticality program; COUPLE; ORIGEN-S - SCALE system module to calculate fuel depletion, actinide transmutation, fission product buildup and decay, and associated radiation source terms; ICE

  14. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Functional modules F1-F8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume consists of the section of the manual dealing with eight of the functional modules in the code. Those are: BONAMI - resonance self-shielding by the Bondarenko method; NITAWL-II - SCALE system module for performing resonance shielding and working library production; XSDRNPM - a one-dimensional discrete-ordinates code for transport analysis; XSDOSE - a module for calculating fluxes and dose rates at points outside a shield; KENO IV/S - an improved monte carlo criticality program; COUPLE; ORIGEN-S - SCALE system module to calculate fuel depletion, actinide transmutation, fission product buildup and decay, and associated radiation source terms; ICE.

  15. A theoretical analysis of spatial/temporal modulation-based systems for prevention of illegal recordings in movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Pascal; Thiebaud, Sylvain; Doyen, Didier

    2008-02-01

    This document proposes a convenient theoretical analysis of light modulation-based systems for prevention of illegal recordings in movie theaters. Although the works presented in this paper do not solve the problem of camcorder piracy, people in the security community may find them interesting for further work in this area.

  16. 47 CFR 73.756 - System specifications for double-sideband (DBS) modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System specifications for double-sideband (DBS) modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service. 73.756 Section 73.756 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast...

  17. Analysis of the depth of field in hexagonal array integral imaging systems based on modulation transfer function and Strehl ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Ayatollah

    2016-04-10

    Integral imaging is a technique for displaying three-dimensional images using microlens arrays. In this paper, a method for calculating root mean squared wavefront error and modulation transfer function (MTF) of a defocused integral imaging capture system with hexagonal aperture microlens arrays is introduced. Also, maximum allowable depth of field with Century MTF analyzing and Strehl criterion are obtained.

  18. Module Seven: Combination Circuits and Voltage Dividers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn to apply the rules previously learned for series and parallel circuits to more complex circuits called series-parallel circuits, discover the utility of a common reference when making reference to voltage values, and learn how to obtain a required voltage from a voltage divider network. The module is divided…

  19. Module One: Electrical Current; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The student is introduced in this module to some fundamental concepts of electricity. The module is divided into five lessons: electricity and the electron, electron movement, current flow, measurement of current, and the ammeter. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson narratives, programed materials, and lesson…

  20. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module`s three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).