WorldWideScience

Sample records for system high resolution

  1. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  2. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Patel, Ankit H; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X

    2010-05-24

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 microm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within approximately 0.5 deg (approximately 100-150 microm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.

  3. AIRBORNE HIGH-RESOLUTION DIGITAL IMAGING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado-Molina, J.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost airborne digital imaging system capable to perform aerial surveys with small-format cameras isintroduced. The equipment is intended to obtain high-resolution multispectral digital photographs constituting so aviable alternative to conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery. Monitoring software handles all theprocedures involved in image acquisition, including flight planning, real-time graphics for aircraft position updatingin a mobile map, and supervises the main variables engaged in the imaging process. This software also creates fileswith the geographical position of the central point of every image, and the flight path followed by the aircraftduring the entire survey. The cameras are mounted on a three-axis stabilized platform. A set of inertial sensorsdetermines platform's deviations independently from the aircraft and an automatic control system keeps thecameras at a continuous nadir pointing and heading, with a precision better than ± 1 arc-degree in three-axis. Thecontrol system is also in charge of saving the platform’s orientation angles when the monitoring software triggersthe camera. These external orientation parameters, together with a procedure for camera calibration give theessential elements for image orthocorrection. Orthomosaics are constructed using commercial GIS software.This system demonstrates the feasibility of large area coverage in a practical and economical way using smallformatcameras. Monitoring and automatization reduce the work while increasing the quality and the amount ofuseful images.

  4. On the Design of High Resolution Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, A.; Reulke, R.

    2017-05-01

    The design of high-resolution systems is always a consideration of many parameters. Technological parameter of the imaging system, e.g. diameter of the imaging system, mass and power, as well as storage and data transfer, have an direct impact on spacecraft size and design. The paper describes the essential design parameters for the description of high-resolution systems.

  5. MULTIPULSE - high resolution and high power in one TDEM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianyou; Hodges, Greg; Miles, Philip

    2015-09-01

    An airborne time domain electromagnetic (TEM) system with high resolution and great depth of exploration is desired for geological mapping as well as for mineral exploration. The MULTIPULSE technology enables an airborne TEM system to transmit a high power pulse (a half-sine, for instance) and one or multiple low power pulse(s) (trapezoid or square) within a half-cycle. The high power pulse ensures good depth of exploration and the low power pulse allows a fast transmitter current turn off and earlier off-time measurement thus providing higher frequency signals, which allows higher near-surface resolution and better sensitivity to weak conductors. The power spectrum of the MULTIPULSE waveform comprising a half-sine and a trapezoid pulse clearly shows increased power in the higher frequency range (> ~2.3 kHz) compared to that of a single half-sine waveform. The addition of the low power trapezoid pulse extends the range of the sensitivity 10-fold towards the weak conductors, expanding the geological conductivity range of a system and increasing the scope of its applications. The MULTIPULSE technology can be applied to standard single-pulse airborne TEM systems on both helicopter and fixed-wing. We field tested the HELITEM MULTIPULSE system over a wire-loop in Iroquois Falls, demonstrating the different sensitivity of the high and low power pulses to the overburden and the wire-loop. We also tested both HELITEM and GEOTEM MULTIPULSE systems over a layered oil sand geologic setting in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The results show comparable shallow geologic resolution of the MULTIPULSE to that of the RESOLVE system while maintaining superior depth of exploration, confirming the increased geological conductivity range of a system employing MULTIPULSE compared to the standard single-pulse systems.

  6. Detection of proximal caries with high-resolution and standard resolution digital radiographic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, W.E.R.; Verheij, H.G.C.; Syriopoulos, K.; Li, G.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the diagnostic accuracy of the high-resolution and standard resolution settings of four digital imaging systems for caries diagnosis and (2) compare the effect on the diagnostic accuracy of reducing the high-resolution image sizes to the standard

  7. A Forward-Looking High-Resolution GPR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kositsky, Joel; Milanfar, Peyman

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) system was designed to help define the optimal radar parameters needed for the efficient standoff detection of buried and surface-laid antitank mines...

  8. Dual camera system for acquisition of high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papon, Jeremie A.; Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

    2007-02-01

    Video surveillance is ubiquitous in modern society, but surveillance cameras are severely limited in utility by their low resolution. With this in mind, we have developed a system that can autonomously take high resolution still frame images of moving objects. In order to do this, we combine a low resolution video camera and a high resolution still frame camera mounted on a pan/tilt mount. In order to determine what should be photographed (objects of interest), we employ a hierarchical method which first separates foreground from background using a temporal-based median filtering technique. We then use a feed-forward neural network classifier on the foreground regions to determine whether the regions contain the objects of interest. This is done over several frames, and a motion vector is deduced for the object. The pan/tilt mount then focuses the high resolution camera on the next predicted location of the object, and an image is acquired. All components are controlled through a single MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI). The final system we present will be able to detect multiple moving objects simultaneously, track them, and acquire high resolution images of them. Results will demonstrate performance tracking and imaging varying numbers of objects moving at different speeds.

  9. Design of UAV high resolution image transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Ji, Ming; Pang, Lan; Jiang, Wen-tao; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xingcheng

    2017-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of the bandwidth limitation of the image transmission system on UAV, a scheme with image compression technology for mini UAV is proposed, based on the requirements of High-definition image transmission system of UAV. The video codec standard H.264 coding module and key technology was analyzed and studied for UAV area video communication. Based on the research of high-resolution image encoding and decoding technique and wireless transmit method, The high-resolution image transmission system was designed on architecture of Android and video codec chip; the constructed system was confirmed by experimentation in laboratory, the bit-rate could be controlled easily, QoS is stable, the low latency could meets most applied requirement not only for military use but also for industrial applications.

  10. High Resolution Software Defined Radar System for Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Costanzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Software Radio Peripheral USRP NI2920, a software defined transceiver so far mainly used in Software Defined Radio applications, is adopted in this work to design a high resolution L-Band Software Defined Radar system. The enhanced available bandwidth, due to the Gigabit Ethernet interface, is exploited to obtain a higher slant-range resolution with respect to the existing Software Defined Radar implementations. A specific LabVIEW application, performing radar operations, is discussed, and successful validations are presented to demonstrate the accurate target detection capability of the proposed software radar architecture. In particular, outdoor and indoor test are performed by adopting a metal plate as reference structure located at different distances from the designed radar system, and results obtained from the measured echo are successfully processed to accurately reveal the correct target position, with the predicted slant-range resolution equal to 6 m.

  11. High resolution projection micro stereolithography system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Farquar, George; Weisgraber, Todd; Gemberling, Steven; Fang, Nicholas; Xu, Jun; Alonso, Matthew; Lee, Howon

    2016-11-15

    A high-resolution P.mu.SL system and method incorporating one or more of the following features with a standard P.mu.SL system using a SLM projected digital image to form components in a stereolithographic bath: a far-field superlens for producing sub-diffraction-limited features, multiple spatial light modulators (SLM) to generate spatially-controlled three-dimensional interference holograms with nanoscale features, and the integration of microfluidic components into the resin bath of a P.mu.SL system to fabricate microstructures of different materials.

  12. Detection of proximal caries with high-resolution and standard resolution digital radiographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, W E R; Verheij, J G C; Syriopoulos, K; Li, G; Sanderink, G C H; van der Stelt, P F

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the diagnostic accuracy of the high-resolution and standard resolution settings of four digital imaging systems for caries diagnosis and (2) compare the effect on the diagnostic accuracy of reducing the high-resolution image sizes to the standard resolution dimensions, and vice versa. 90 extracted human premolars were mounted in groups of 5 in plaster blocks, containing 4 test teeth and 1 non-test tooth. Two blocks at a time were placed in a jig to simulate a bitewing radiograph. Radiographs were taken using four digital systems (Planmeca Dixi 2; Gendex Visualix HDI; Dürr Vistascan; Digora Optime), each at two resolution settings. Next, the teeth were sectioned and a total of 65 surfaces were incorporated in the study. Additionally, the bicubic interpolation method was applied to reduce the high-resolution original images and to enlarge the standard resolution images. The original, reduced and enlarged images were randomly shown to five observers in two random sessions. The observers were asked to assess caries depth on a 4-point scale. The observers' scores were compared with the results from a histological examination. Data were analysed using the statistical theory for multivariate discrete data. Cohen's kappa was used to determine the agreement with the gold standard. None of the comparisons between the spatial resolution settings, or the comparisons between increased or reduced image size and the original image sizes, showed significant differences in the probability of caries detection (chi2=26.59, df=26, P approximately 0.50). The four digital systems used in this study differ significantly in the probability of caries detection (chi2=41.55, df=24, PCaries diagnosis does not improve when using high-resolution settings compared with the standard settings. The use of bicubic convolution interpolation for zooming has no detectable effect on caries diagnosis and therefore is recommended to use when enlarging or reducing

  13. Preliminary clinical evaluation of a high-resolution telemammography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, G S; Chang, T S; Sumkin, J H; Wintz, P W; Johns, C M; Ganott, M; Holbert, B L; Hakim, C M; Harris, K M; Gur, D; Herron, J M

    1997-04-01

    The authors designed, assembled, tested, and clinically evaluated a high-quality, fast, and relatively inexpensive telemammography system. The authors designed a telemammography system that uses a high-resolution film digitizer and high data compression (> or = 40:1) to send images over regular telephone lines to a high-resolution laser printer that produces images with the look and feel of the original image and can operate in a hub and spokes mode. The authors then evaluated the system's performance. In a preliminary clinical study, interpretations of the laser-printed system's output of 119 cases were compared with the original interpretations, followed by a review of any clinically significant differences. With the exception of the laser printer, which is a modified off-the-shelf product, all hardware components of the system are commercially available products. The system digitizes (50 microns pixel size), compresses, transmits, receives, decompresses, and prints a 30 MB mammography file in less than 4 minutes. In the clinical study, there were 13 differences (in 13 cases) in the level of concern or recommendations. Seven were found to be clinically insignificant by a third-party review. The remaining six were reviewed by the original interpreter, and three were determined to be significant enough for further action. All were found to result from intra-reader variability rather than differences in visualization of possible abnormalities. Almost real-time, high-quality telemammography without geographic boundaries is possible with the use of high-level data compression. Telemammography with laser-printed film as the display may make it possible to offer mammographic services in remote locations while using commercially available technology.

  14. A System for High-Resolution Topology Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Dick, Christian; Westermann, Rudiger

    2016-03-01

    A key requirement in 3D fabrication is to generate objects with individual exterior shapes and their interior being optimized to application-specific force constraints and low material consumption. Accomplishing this task is challenging on desktop computers, due to the extreme model resolutions that are required to accurately predict the physical shape properties, requiring memory and computational capacities going beyond what is currently available. Moreover, fabrication-specific constraints need to be considered to enable printability. To address these challenges, we present a scalable system for generating 3D objects using topology optimization, which allows to efficiently evolve the topology of high-resolution solids towards printable and light-weight-high-resistance structures. To achieve this, the system is equipped with a high-performance GPU solver which can efficiently handle models comprising several millions of elements. A minimum thickness constraint is built into the optimization process to automatically enforce printability of the resulting shapes. We further shed light on the question how to incorporate geometric shape constraints, such as symmetry and pattern repetition, in the optimization process. We analyze the performance of the system and demonstrate its potential by a variety of different shapes such as interior structures within closed surfaces, exposed support structures, and surface models.

  15. High-resolution AMLCD for the electronic library system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Russel A.; Middo, Kathy; Turner, William D.; Lewis, Alan; Thompson, Malcolm J.; Silverstein, Louis D.

    1994-06-01

    The Electronic Library System (ELS), is a proposed data resource for the cockpit which can provide the aircrew with a vast array of technical information on their aircraft and flight plan. This information includes, but is not limited to, approach plates, Jeppeson Charts, and aircraft technical manuals. Most of these data are appropriate for digitization at high resolution (300 spi). Xerox Corporation has developed a flat panel active matrix liquid crystal display, AMLCD, that is an excellent match to the ELS, due to its innovative and aggressive design.

  16. A high-resolution multimode digital microscope system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Edward D; Shaw, Sidney L; Waters, Jennifer C; Waterman-Storer, Clare M; Maddox, Paul S; Yeh, Elaine; Bloom, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the development of a high-resolution, multimode digital imaging system based on a wide-field epifluorescent and transmitted light microscope, and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The three main parts of this imaging system are Nikon FXA microscope, Hamamatsu C4880 cooled CCD camera, and MetaMorph digital imaging system. This chapter presents various design criteria for the instrument and describes the major features of the microscope components-the cooled CCD camera and the MetaMorph digital imaging system. The Nikon FXA upright microscope can produce high resolution images for both epifluorescent and transmitted light illumination without switching the objective or moving the specimen. The functional aspects of the microscope set-up can be considered in terms of the imaging optics, the epi-illumination optics, the transillumination optics, the focus control, and the vibration isolation table. This instrument is somewhat specialized for microtubule and mitosis studies, and it is also applicable to a variety of problems in cellular imaging, including tracking proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in live cells. The instrument is also valuable for correlating the assembly dynamics of individual cytoplasmic microtubules (labeled by conjugating X-rhodamine to tubulin) with the dynamics of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (labeled with DiOC6) and the dynamics of the cell cortex (by differential interference contrast) in migrating vertebrate epithelial cells. This imaging system also plays an important role in the analysis of mitotic mutants in the powerful yeast genetic system Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High Resolution X-ray Views of Solar System Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2011-05-01

    Over the last decade Chandra, and XMM-Newton, have revealed the beauty and multiplicity of X-ray emissions in our solar system: high resolution data, in both spectral and spatial domains, have been crucial in disentangling the physical processes at work. The talk will review the main findings in this area at the boundary between astrophysics and planetary science, and will show how the solar system offers `next door’ examples of widespread astrophysical phenomena. Jupiter shows bright X-ray aurorae, arising from the interactions of local and/or solar wind ions, and electrons, with its powerful magnetic environment: the ions undergo charge exchange with atmospheric neutrals and generate soft X-ray line emission, and the electrons give rise to bremsstrahlung X-rays. Chandra's unparalleled spatial resolution has shown how the X-ray footprints of the electrons in the aurorae coincide with the bright FUV auroral oval, indicating that the same electron population is likely to be at the origin of both emissions. Moreover, Jupiter's disk scatters solar X-rays, displaying a spectrum that closely resembles that of solar flares. Saturn has not revealed X-ray aurorae (yet), but its disk X-ray brightness, like Jupiter's, is strictly correlated with the Sun's X-ray output. A bright X-ray spot has also been resolved by Chandra on the eastern ansa of Saturn's rings, and its spectrum suggests an origin in the fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays on the rings icy particles. Both Mars and Venus have X-ray emitting disks and exospheres, which can be clearly resolved at high spectral and spatial resolution. And the Earth has bright X-ray aurorae that have been targets of Chandra observations. Finally, comets, with their extended neutral comae and extremely line-rich X-ray spectra, are spectacular X-ray sources, and ideal probes of the conditions of the solar wind in the Sun's proximity.

  18. High resolution solar spectrometer system for measuring atmospheric constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcray, Frank J.; Kosters, J. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Olson, J.; Murcray, David G.

    1990-01-01

    A mid-IR Michelson interferometer capable of obtaining 0.002/cm resolution solar spectra has been developed for balloon use. The interferometer is based on the Bomem self-aligning instrument, and is equipped with a solar tracking system, telemetry, and recording systems, as well as temperature control and gondola orientation. The interferometer has made two successful flights in the 7-14-micron interval up to 40 km. The basic systems are described and sample spectra are presented.

  19. Convex optimization of coincidence time resolution for a high-resolution PET system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Paul D; Olcott, Peter D; Pratx, Guillem; Lau, Frances W Y; Levin, Craig S

    2011-02-01

    We are developing a dual panel breast-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) system using LSO scintillators coupled to position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPD). The charge output is amplified and read using NOVA RENA-3 ASICs. This paper shows that the coincidence timing resolution of the RENA-3 ASIC can be improved using certain list-mode calibrations. We treat the calibration problem as a convex optimization problem and use the RENA-3's analog-based timing system to correct the measured data for time dispersion effects from correlated noise, PSAPD signal delays and varying signal amplitudes. The direct solution to the optimization problem involves a matrix inversion that grows order (n(3)) with the number of parameters. An iterative method using single-coordinate descent to approximate the inversion grows order (n). The inversion does not need to run to convergence, since any gains at high iteration number will be low compared to noise amplification. The system calibration method is demonstrated with measured pulser data as well as with two LSO-PSAPD detectors in electronic coincidence. After applying the algorithm, the 511 keV photopeak paired coincidence time resolution from the LSO-PSAPD detectors under study improved by 57%, from the raw value of 16.3 ±0.07 ns full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) to 6.92 ±0.02 ns FWHM ( 11.52 ±0.05 ns to 4.89 ±0.02 ns for unpaired photons).

  20. Positioning systems for high-resolution tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haylock, Thomas M.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Chifman, Lev M.; Christensen, Peter B.; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Hajian, Arsen R.; Hendrikse, Jan; Meade, Jeff T.

    2011-03-01

    Tissue handling systems position ex-vivo samples to a required accuracy that depends on the features to be imaged. For example, to resolve cellular structure, micron pixel spacing is needed. 3D tissue scanning at cellular resolution allows for more complete histology to be obtained and more accurate diagnosis to be made. However, accurate positioning of a light beam on the sample is a significant challenge, especially when fine spacing between scan steps is desired or large, inconsistently shaped samples need to be imaged. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an application where accurate positioning systems are required to reap the full benefit of the technology. By simultaneously manipulating the light beam position and sample location, a 3D image is reconstructed from a series of depth profiles produced. To automate image acquisition, a fully integrated and synchronised system is necessary. A tissue handling and light delivery system for free-space optical devices is described. Performance characteristics such as resolution, uncertainty, and repeatability are evaluated for novel hardware configurations of OCT. Typical scanning patterns with associated synchronisation requirements are discussed.

  1. A versatile computer-controlled high-resolution LBIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Fernandez-Lorenzo, C.; Poce-Fatou, J.A.; Alcantara, R. [Facultad de Ciencias, Cadiz (Spain). Dpto. de Quimica Fisica

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the design of versatile equipment for obtaining laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) images which allows the study of large surfaces as well as conversion areas of a few micrometers. The modular optomechanical design enables the user to modify the size of the irradiation spot by simply changing the microscope objective used as focal lens, albeit within the limits set by the wavelength. The use of an appropriate calculation algorithm makes it possible to rely on a computerized system to adjust the distance at which the focusing lens must be placed with respect to the sample plane. The possibility of working at micrometer resolution allows one to obtain very significant information for the study of irregularities, manufacturing defects, impurities, grain boundaries, dislocations, recombination centers, etc. in photovoltaic wafers. (author)

  2. New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite, airborne and terrestrial imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Börner, Anko; Lehmann, Frank

    2007-10-01

    The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 25 years experience with high-resolution imaging technology. The technology changes in the development of detectors, as well as the significant change of the manufacturing accuracy in combination with the engineering research define the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. The combination of large TDI lines, intelligent synchronization control, fast-readable sensors and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing instruments. This class of instruments is feasible for high-resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedicated tasks. The system theory of the instrument inside a simulated environment is the beginning of the optimization process for the optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Suitable procedures must be defined on component, module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware-in-the-loop design. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at DLR in the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes.

  3. Ultra-compact, High Resolution, LADAR system for 3D Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop an innovative, ultra-compact, high resolution, long range LADAR system to produce a 3D map of the exterior of any object in space such as...

  4. Compact & Ultra-High Resolution Terahertz Spectroscopic/Fingerprint System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    crystals, such as GaSe, ZnGeP2, GaP, to achieve the high power THz parametric generation. Recently, we noticed that the QPM-GaP and GaAs materials...approaches have been reported, such as rod-type waveguide, polymer cladding silicon core waveguide, and integrated GaAs optical waveguide. None of...Fig. 24 Characterization of the resonant peaks of methanol vapor: (a) measured by previous THz spectrometer; (b

  5. High-resolution reconstruction of a coastal barrier system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentary effects of Holocene sea-level rise on a modern coastal barrier system (CBS). Increasing concern over the evolution of CBSs due to future accelerated rates of sea-level rise calls for a better understanding of coastal barriers response...... from retreat of the barrier island and probably also due to formation of a tidal inlet close to the study area. Continued transgression and shoreface retreat created a distinct hiatus and wave ravinement surface in the seaward part of the CBS before the barrier shoreline stabilised between 5.0 and 4...

  6. High spectral resolution remote sensing detection system for atmosphere greenhouse gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Zheng, Yuquan

    2016-10-01

    Space-borne high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high spectral resolution spectral detection system with high detection accuracy (1-4ppm) is demonstrated under the application background of the detection of atmospheric carbon dioxide as the main component of greenhouse gases. According to greenhouse gas concentrations detection accuracy requirements and simulation of different spectral absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide, the reasonable spectral channel center wavelength, spectral bandwidth and spectral resolution is determined of the high spectral resolution carbon dioxide remote sensing system. Grating spectral imaging system using large area diffractive grating spectral as a core splitting element is to achieve fine spectrum splitting. By the application of large area array detector push-broom mode, the hyperspectral greenhouse gas detection system is developed with the spectrum center wavelength of 0.76um, 1.61um and 2.06um, spectral resolution indicators better than 0.047nm, 0.142nm and 0.182nm actually. The system components and working principle are described. Important parts involved in the system design such as spectral imaging system, large-array CCD visible-light detector, large-array HgCdTe infrared detectors, high SNR and low temperature drift imaging electronics, etc. are discussed. SNR indicators of three spectral ranges are estimated based on system parameters, in order to analyzing realizability of high detection accuracy of XCO2. The system performances are tested by taking fine spectral calibration and radiometric calibration methods in the laboratory. Spectral calibration results showed that: three spectral channels mean spectral resolutions of hyperspectral detection of greenhouse gases are better than 0.042 nm, 0.128nm and 0.17nm, three spectral channels average SNRs are up to 53dB, 48dB and 45dB respectively under the typical operating conditions of system. Development of this system successfully filled greenhouse gas detection systems

  7. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability in the Community Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Vertenstein, Mariana [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Mirin, Arthur A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Craig, Anthony [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Jacob, Robert L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Mickelson, Sheri A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2012-01-01

    With the fourth release of the Community Climate System Model, the ability to perform ultra-high resolution climate simulations is now possible, enabling eddy-resolving ocean and sea ice models to be coupled to a finite-volume atmosphere model for a range of atmospheric resolutions. This capability was made possible by enabling the model to use large scale parallelism, which required a significant refactoring of the software infrastructure. We describe the scalability of two ultra-high-resolution coupled configurations on leadership class computing platforms. We demonstrate the ability to utilize over 30,000 processor cores on a Cray XT5 system and over 60,000 cores on an IBM Blue Gene/P system to obtain climatologically relevant simulation rates for these configurations.

  8. Visualization of brainstem perfusion using a high spatial resolution SPECT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, R; Dobbeleir, A; Vandevivere, J; Abts, H; DeDeyn, P P

    1992-05-01

    The authors explored the high spatial resolution of a three-head rotating SPECT system, equipped with lead super-fine fanbeam collimator. The brainstem was high-lighted in a three-dimensional reconstruction, showing perfusion small structures such as mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata. The visualization of brainstem perfusion sets new landmarks in functional neuroimaging and, moreover, was obtained with a commercially available three-head SPECT system.

  9. Optimal design of an earth observation optical system with dual spectral and high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pei-pei; Jiang, Kai; Liu, Kai; Duan, Jing; Shan, Qiusha

    2017-02-01

    With the increasing demand of the high-resolution remote sensing images by military and civilians, Countries around the world are optimistic about the prospect of higher resolution remote sensing images. Moreover, design a visible/infrared integrative optic system has important value in earth observation. Because visible system can't identify camouflage and recon at night, so we should associate visible camera with infrared camera. An earth observation optical system with dual spectral and high resolution is designed. The paper mainly researches on the integrative design of visible and infrared optic system, which makes the system lighter and smaller, and achieves one satellite with two uses. The working waveband of the system covers visible, middle infrared (3-5um). Dual waveband clear imaging is achieved with dispersive RC system. The focal length of visible system is 3056mm, F/# is 10.91. And the focal length of middle infrared system is 1120mm, F/# is 4. In order to suppress the middle infrared thermal radiation and stray light, the second imaging system is achieved and the narcissus phenomenon is analyzed. The system characteristic is that the structure is simple. And the especial requirements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), spot, energy concentration, and distortion etc. are all satisfied.

  10. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Akio, E-mail: akio.yoneyama.bu@hitachi.com; Baba, Rika [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [Institute of Materials Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry Showa University, Ota-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, Tosu, Saga (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  11. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  12. Development of a High Resolution Analyzing Magnet System for Heavy Molecular Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Mohamed O. A. El; Dehnel, Morgan; Defrance, Pierre

    At the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST, Saudi Arabia), a versatile ion-beam injector was constructed to provide the electrostatic storage ring with the required high-quality ion beams. In order to remove the ambiguity over the ion mass due to the exclusive application of electric fields in the set-up, the injector is being equipped with a high resolution mass analyzing magnet. A high resolution Analyzing Magnet System has been designed to provide a singly-charged ion beam of kinetic energy up to 50 keV, mass up to 1500 Amu, and with the mass resolution fixed to Δm/m =1:1500. The system includes specific entrance and exit slits, designed to sustain the required mass resolution. Furthermore, specific focusing and shaping optics have been added upstream and downstream the system, in order to monitor and adapt the shape of the ion beam at the entrance and exit of the system, respectively. The present paper gives an overview on the design of this mass analyzing magnet system together with the upstream/downstream adapting optics.

  13. Is your system calibrated? MRI gradient system calibration for pre-clinical, high-resolution imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O'Callaghan

    Full Text Available High-field, pre-clinical MRI systems are widely used to characterise tissue structure and volume in small animals, using high resolution imaging. Both applications rely heavily on the consistent, accurate calibration of imaging gradients, yet such calibrations are typically only performed during maintenance sessions by equipment manufacturers, and potentially with acceptance limits that are inadequate for phenotyping. To overcome this difficulty, we present a protocol for gradient calibration quality assurance testing, based on a 3D-printed, open source, structural phantom that can be customised to the dimensions of individual scanners and RF coils. In trials on a 9.4 T system, the gradient scaling errors were reduced by an order of magnitude, and displacements of greater than 100 µm, caused by gradient non-linearity, were corrected using a post-processing technique. The step-by-step protocol can be integrated into routine pre-clinical MRI quality assurance to measure and correct for these errors. We suggest that this type of quality assurance is essential for robust pre-clinical MRI experiments that rely on accurate imaging gradients, including small animal phenotyping and diffusion MR.

  14. The high resolution video capture system on the alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A. J.; Terry, J. L.; Garnier, D.; Stillerman, J. A.; Wurden, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    A new system for routine digitization of video images is presently operating on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The PC-based system features high resolution video capture, storage, and retrieval. The captured images are stored temporarily on the PC, but are eventually written to CD. Video is captured from one of five filtered RS-170 CCD cameras at 30 frames per second (fps) with 640×480 pixel resolution. In addition, the system can digitize the output from a filtered Kodak Ektapro EM Digital Camera which captures images at 1000 fps with 239×192 resolution. Present views of this set of cameras include a wide angle and a tangential view of the plasma, two high resolution views of gas puff capillaries embedded in the plasma facing components, and a view of ablating, high speed Li pellets. The system is being used to study (1) the structure and location of visible emissions (including MARFEs) from the main plasma and divertor, (2) asymmetries in gas puff plumes due to flows in the scrape-off layer (SOL), and (3) the tilt and cigar-shaped spatial structure of the Li pellet ablation cloud.

  15. High resolution, high frame rate video technology development plan and the near-term system conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) development effort is to provide technology advancements to remove constraints on the amount of high speed, detailed optical data recorded and transmitted for microgravity science and application experiments. These advancements will enable the development of video systems capable of high resolution, high frame rate video data recording, processing, and transmission. Techniques such as multichannel image scan, video parameter tradeoff, and the use of dual recording media were identified as methods of making the most efficient use of the near-term technology.

  16. Acquistion of High Resolution Electroencephalogram Systems for Advancing Brain-Machine Interaction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    a strong research and education center on brain machine interaction (BMI) at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). By acquiring this system...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquistion of High Resolution Electroencephalogram Systems for Advancing Brain - Machine ...ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 electroencephalogram (EEG), brain -computer interface (BCI

  17. Development of a High-performance Optical System and Fluorescent Converters for High-resolution Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T.; Yasuda, R.; Iikura, H.; Nojima, T.; Matsubayashi, M.

    Two novel devices for use in neutron imaging technique are introduced. The first one is a high-performance optical lens for video camera systems. The lens system has a magnification of 1:1 and an F value of 3. The optical resolution is less than 5 μm. The second device is a high-resolution fluorescent plate that converts neutrons into visible light. The fluorescent converter material consists of a mixture of 6LiF and ZnS(Ag) fine powder, and the thickness of the converter is material is as little as 15 μm. The surface of the plate is coated with a 1 μm-thick gadolinium oxide layer. This layer is optically transparent and acts as an electron emitter for neutron detection. Our preliminary results show that the developed optical lens and fluorescent converter plates are very promising for high-resolution neutron imaging.

  18. Compact high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography system for multiphase flow studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieberle, A; Nehring, H; Berger, R; Arlit, M; Härting, H-U; Schubert, M; Hampel, U

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a compact high-resolution gamma-ray Computed Tomography (CompaCT) measurement system for multiphase flow studies and tomographic imaging of technical objects is presented. Its compact and robust design makes it particularly suitable for studies on industrial facilities and outdoor applications. Special care has been given to thermal ruggedness, shock resistance, and radiation protection. Main components of the system are a collimated (137)Cs isotopic source, a thermally stabilised modular high-resolution gamma-ray detector arc with 112 scintillation detector elements, and a transportable rotary unit. The CompaCT allows full CT scans of objects with a diameter of up to 130 mm and can be operated with any tilting angle from 0° (horizontal) to 90° (vertical).

  19. High Resolution Image Reconstruction Method for a Double-plane PET System with Changeable Spacing

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xiao-Yue; Li, Lin; Yin, Peng-Fei; Shang, Lei-Min; Yun, Ming-Kai; Lu, Zhen-Rui; Huang, Xian-Chao; Wei, Long

    2015-01-01

    Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) imaging systems with the ability in detection of millimeter-sized tumors were developed in recent years. And some of them have been well used in clinical applications. In consideration of biopsy application, a double-plane detector configuration is practical for the convenience of breast immobilization. However, the serious blurring effect in the double-plane system with changeable spacing for different breast size should be studied. Methods: We study a high resolution reconstruction method applicable for a double-plane PET system with a changeable detector spacing. Geometric and blurring components should be calculated at real time for different detector distance. Accurate geometric sensitivity is obtained with a tube area model. Resolution recovery is achieved by estimating blurring effects derived from simulated single gamma response information. Results: The results show that the new geometric modeling gives a more finite and smooth sensitivity weight in double-plane sy...

  20. Quantitative, high-resolution proteomics for data-driven systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, J.; Mann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology requires comprehensive data at all molecular levels. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has emerged as a powerful and universal method for the global measurement of proteins. In the most widespread format, it uses liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to high-resolution tandem...... primary structure of proteins including posttranslational modifications, to localize proteins to organelles, and to determine protein interactions. Here, we describe the principles of analysis and the areas of biology where proteomics can make unique contributions. The large-scale nature of proteomics...... data and its high accuracy pose special opportunities as well as challenges in systems biology that have been largely untapped so far....

  1. Multivariate Multi-data Assimilation System in Regional Model with High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkiran, M.; Chanut, J.; Giraud St Albin, S.; Drillet, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Mercator Ocean has developed a regional North East Shelf forecasting system over the North East Atlantic, taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO (1/12°). This regional forecasting system uses boundary conditions from the operational real-time Mercator Ocean North Atlantic high resolution system (1/12°). The assimilation component of the Mercator Ocean system, is based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). The error statistics are represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. The data assimilation system allows to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (RTG-SST), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORIOLIS database, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements.At last, we used PALM coupler which provides a general structure for a modular implementation of a data assimilation system, and makes easier the changes in the analysis algorithm. We will confront the results obtained with the regional forecast system (1/12°) with IAU (Incremental Analysis Updates) to the ones obtained with Mercator Ocean North Atlantic high resolution system (1/12°).

  2. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  3. Challenges in the development of very high resolution Earth System Models for climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Xie, Shaocheng; Ma, Po-Lun; Lin, Wuyin; Wan, Hui; Qian, Yun

    2017-04-01

    The authors represent the 20+ members of the ACME atmosphere development team. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has, like many other organizations around the world, identified the need for an Earth System Model capable of rapid completion of decade to century length simulations at very high (vertical and horizontal) resolution with good climate fidelity. Two years ago DOE initiated a multi-institution effort called ACME (Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy) to meet this an extraordinary challenge, targeting a model eventually capable of running at 10-25km horizontal and 20-400m vertical resolution through the troposphere on exascale computational platforms at speeds sufficient to complete 5+ simulated years per day. I will outline the challenges our team has encountered in development of the atmosphere component of this model, and the strategies we have been using for tuning and debugging a model that we can barely afford to run on today's computational platforms. These strategies include: 1) evaluation at lower resolutions; 2) ensembles of short simulations to explore parameter space, and perform rough tuning and evaluation; 3) use of regionally refined versions of the model for probing high resolution model behavior at less expense; 4) use of "auto-tuning" methodologies for model tuning; and 5) brute force long climate simulations.

  4. High resolution ultrasound elastomicroscopy imaging of soft tissues: system development and feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y P [Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Bridal, S L [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, UMR CNRS 7623, University of Paris VI, Paris (France); Shi, J [Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Saied, A [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, UMR CNRS 7623, University of Paris VI, Paris (France); Lu, M H [Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Jaffre, B [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, UMR CNRS 7623, University of Paris VI, Paris (France); Mak, A F T [Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Laugier, P [Laboratoire d' Imagerie Parametrique, UMR CNRS 7623, University of Paris VI, Paris (France)

    2004-09-07

    Research in elasticity imaging typically relies on 1-10 MHz ultrasound. Elasticity imaging at these frequencies can provide strain maps with a resolution in the order of millimetres, but this is not sufficient for applications to skin, articular cartilage or other fine structures. We developed a prototype high resolution elastomicroscopy system consisting of a 50 MHz ultrasound backscatter microscope system and a calibrated compression device using a load cell to measure the pressure applied to the specimen, which was installed between a rigidly fixed face-plate and a specimen platform. Radiofrequency data were acquired in a B-scan format (10 mm wide x 3 mm deep) in specimens of mouse skin and bovine patellar cartilage. The scanning resolution along the B-scan plane direction was 50 {mu}m, and the ultrasound signals were digitized at 500 MHz to achieve a sensitivity better than 1 {mu}m for the axial displacement measurement. Because of elevated attenuation of ultrasound at high frequencies, special consideration was necessary to design a face-plate permitting efficient ultrasound transmission into the specimen and relative uniformity of the compression. Best results were obtained using a thin plastic film to cover a specially shaped slit in the face-plate. Local tissue strain maps were constructed by applying a cross-correlation tracking method to signals obtained at the same site at different compression levels. The speed of sound in the tissue specimen (1589.8 {+-} 7.8 m s{sup -1} for cartilage and 1532.4 {+-} 4.4 m s{sup -1} for skin) was simultaneously measured during the compression test. Preliminary results demonstrated that this ultrasound elastomicroscopy technique was able to map deformations of the skin and articular cartilage specimens to high resolution, in the order of 50 {mu}m. This system can also be potentially used for the assessment of other biological tissues, bioengineered tissues or biomaterials with fine structures.

  5. High resolution ultrasound elastomicroscopy imaging of soft tissues: system development and feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y. P.; Bridal, S. L.; Shi, J.; Saied, A.; Lu, M. H.; Jaffre, B.; Mak, A. F. T.; Laugier, P.

    2004-09-01

    Research in elasticity imaging typically relies on 1-10 MHz ultrasound. Elasticity imaging at these frequencies can provide strain maps with a resolution in the order of millimetres, but this is not sufficient for applications to skin, articular cartilage or other fine structures. We developed a prototype high resolution elastomicroscopy system consisting of a 50 MHz ultrasound backscatter microscope system and a calibrated compression device using a load cell to measure the pressure applied to the specimen, which was installed between a rigidly fixed face-plate and a specimen platform. Radiofrequency data were acquired in a B-scan format (10 mm wide × 3 mm deep) in specimens of mouse skin and bovine patellar cartilage. The scanning resolution along the B-scan plane direction was 50 µm, and the ultrasound signals were digitized at 500 MHz to achieve a sensitivity better than 1 µm for the axial displacement measurement. Because of elevated attenuation of ultrasound at high frequencies, special consideration was necessary to design a face-plate permitting efficient ultrasound transmission into the specimen and relative uniformity of the compression. Best results were obtained using a thin plastic film to cover a specially shaped slit in the face-plate. Local tissue strain maps were constructed by applying a cross-correlation tracking method to signals obtained at the same site at different compression levels. The speed of sound in the tissue specimen (1589.8 ± 7.8 m s-1 for cartilage and 1532.4 ± 4.4 m s-1 for skin) was simultaneously measured during the compression test. Preliminary results demonstrated that this ultrasound elastomicroscopy technique was able to map deformations of the skin and articular cartilage specimens to high resolution, in the order of 50 µm. This system can also be potentially used for the assessment of other biological tissues, bioengineered tissues or biomaterials with fine structures.

  6. A clinical gamma camera-based pinhole collimated system for high resolution small animal SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y., E-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular; Castro, A.A. de; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Leite, J.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Braga, J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica

    2010-11-15

    The main objective of the present study was to upgrade a clinical gamma camera to obtain high resolution tomographic images of small animal organs. The system is based on a clinical gamma camera to which we have adapted a special-purpose pinhole collimator and a device for positioning and rotating the target based on a computer-controlled step motor. We developed a software tool to reconstruct the target's three-dimensional distribution of emission from a set of planar projections, based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. We present details on the hardware and software implementation. We imaged phantoms and heart and kidneys of rats. When using pinhole collimators, the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the imaging system depend on parameters such as the detector-to-collimator and detector-to-target distances and pinhole diameter. In this study, we reached an object voxel size of 0.6 mm and spatial resolution better than 2.4 and 1.7 mm full width at half maximum when 1.5- and 1.0-mm diameter pinholes were used, respectively. Appropriate sensitivity to study the target of interest was attained in both cases. Additionally, we show that as few as 12 projections are sufficient to attain good quality reconstructions, a result that implies a significant reduction of acquisition time and opens the possibility for radiotracer dynamic studies. In conclusion, a high resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system was developed using a commercial clinical gamma camera, allowing the acquisition of detailed volumetric images of small animal organs. This type of system has important implications for research areas such as Cardiology, Neurology or Oncology. (author)

  7. A Microscopic Optically Tracking Navigation System That Uses High-resolution 3D Computer Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masanori; Saito, Toki; Kin, Taichi; Nakagawa, Daichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics (CG) are useful for preoperative planning of neurosurgical operations. However, application of 3D CG to intraoperative navigation is not widespread because existing commercial operative navigation systems do not show 3D CG in sufficient detail. We have developed a microscopic optically tracking navigation system that uses high-resolution 3D CG. This article presents the technical details of our microscopic optically tracking navigation system. Our navigation system consists of three components: the operative microscope, registration, and the image display system. An optical tracker was attached to the microscope to monitor the position and attitude of the microscope in real time; point-pair registration was used to register the operation room coordinate system, and the image coordinate system; and the image display system showed the 3D CG image in the field-of-view of the microscope. Ten neurosurgeons (seven males, two females; mean age 32.9 years) participated in an experiment to assess the accuracy of this system using a phantom model. Accuracy of our system was compared with the commercial system. The 3D CG provided by the navigation system coincided well with the operative scene under the microscope. Target registration error for our system was 2.9 ± 1.9 mm. Our navigation system provides a clear image of the operation position and the surrounding structures. Systems like this may reduce intraoperative complications.

  8. A high-resolution mini-microscope system for wireless real-time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongjie; Boddeda, Akash; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Menard, Frederic; Kim, Keekyoung

    2017-09-04

    Compact, cost-effective and high-performance microscope that enables the real-time imaging of cells and lab-on-a-chip devices is highly demanded for cell biology and biomedical engineering. This paper aims to present the design and application of an inexpensive wireless mini-microscope with resolution up to 2592 × 1944 pixels and speed up to 90 fps. The mini-microscope system was built on a commercial embedded system (Raspberry Pi). We modified a camera module and adopted an inverse dual lens system to obtain the clear field of view and appropriate magnification for tens of micrometer objects. The system was capable of capturing time-lapse images and transferring image data wirelessly. The entire system can be operated wirelessly and cordlessly in a conventional cell culturing incubator. The developed mini-microscope was used to monitor the attachment and proliferation of NIH-3T3 and HEK 293 cells inside an incubator for 50 hours. In addition, the mini-microscope was used to monitor a droplet generation process in a microfluidic device. The high-quality images captured by the mini-microscope enabled us an automated analysis of experimental parameters. The successful applications prove the great potential of the developed mini-microscope for monitoring various biological samples and microfluidic devices. This paper presents the design of a high resolution mini-microscope system that enables the wireless real-time imaging of cells inside the incubator. This system has been verified to be a useful tool to obtain high-quality images and videos for the automated quantitative analysis of biological samples and lab-on-a-chip devices in the long term.

  9. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  10. Efficient methodologies for system matrix modelling in iterative image reconstruction for rotating high-resolution PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno, J E; Kontaxakis, G; Rubio, J L; Santos, A [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica (DIE), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Guerra, P [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: juanen@die.upm.es

    2010-04-07

    A fully 3D iterative image reconstruction algorithm has been developed for high-resolution PET cameras composed of pixelated scintillator crystal arrays and rotating planar detectors, based on the ordered subsets approach. The associated system matrix is precalculated with Monte Carlo methods that incorporate physical effects not included in analytical models, such as positron range effects and interaction of the incident gammas with the scintillator material. Custom Monte Carlo methodologies have been developed and optimized for modelling of system matrices for fast iterative image reconstruction adapted to specific scanner geometries, without redundant calculations. According to the methodology proposed here, only one-eighth of the voxels within two central transaxial slices need to be modelled in detail. The rest of the system matrix elements can be obtained with the aid of axial symmetries and redundancies, as well as in-plane symmetries within transaxial slices. Sparse matrix techniques for the non-zero system matrix elements are employed, allowing for fast execution of the image reconstruction process. This 3D image reconstruction scheme has been compared in terms of image quality to a 2D fast implementation of the OSEM algorithm combined with Fourier rebinning approaches. This work confirms the superiority of fully 3D OSEM in terms of spatial resolution, contrast recovery and noise reduction as compared to conventional 2D approaches based on rebinning schemes. At the same time it demonstrates that fully 3D methodologies can be efficiently applied to the image reconstruction problem for high-resolution rotational PET cameras by applying accurate pre-calculated system models and taking advantage of the system's symmetries.

  11. Results in coastal waters with high resolution in situ spectral radiometry: The Marine Optical System ROV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Mark; Feinholz, Michael; Flora, Stephanie; Houlihan, Terrance; Johnson, B. Carol; Kim, Yong S.; Murphy, Marilyn Y.; Ondrusek, Michael; Clark, Dennis

    2007-09-01

    The water-leaving spectral radiance is a basic ocean color remote sensing parameters required for the vicarious calibration. Determination of water-leaving spectral radiance using in-water radiometry requires measurements of the upwelling spectral radiance at several depths. The Marine Optical System (MOS) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) is a portable, fiber-coupled, high-resolution spectroradiometer system with spectral coverage from 340 nm to 960 nm. MOS was developed at the same time as the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) spectrometer system and is optically identical except that it is configured as a profiling instrument. Concerns with instrument self-shadowing because of the large exterior dimensions of the MOS underwater housing led to adapting MOS and ROV technology. This system provides for measurement of the near-surface upwelled spectral radiance while minimizing the effects of shadowing. A major advantage of this configuration is that the ROV provides the capability to acquire measurements 5 cm to 10 cm below the water surface and is capable of very accurate depth control (1 cm) allowing for high vertical resolution observations within the very near-surface. We describe the integrated system and its characterization and calibration. Initial measurements and results from observations of coral reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, extremely turbid waters in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, and in Case 1 waters off Southern Oahu, Hawaii are presented.

  12. Cosmochemistry, Cosmology, and Fundamental Constants High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Damped Lyman-Alpha Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, R.; Reimers, D.; Smette, A.; Garcet, O.; Ledoux, C.; Lopez, S.; Wisotzki, L.

    Spectroscopy of QSO absorption lines provides essential observational input for the study of nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies at high redshift. But new observations may indicate that present chemical abundance data are biased due to deficient spectral resolution and unknown selection effects: Recent high-resolution spectra reveal the hitherto unperceived chemical nonuniformity of a molecule-bearing damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) system, and the still ongoing H/ESO DLA survey produces convincing evidence for the effect of dust attenuation. We present a revised analysis of the H2-bearing DLA complex toward the QSO HE 0515.4414 showing nonuniform differential depletion of chemical elements onto dust grains, and introduce the H/ESO DLA survey and its implications. Conclusively, we aim at starting an unbiased chemical abundance database established on high-resolution spectroscopic observations. New data to probe the temperature-redshift relation predicted by standard cosmology and to test the constancy of fundamental constants will be potential spin-offs.

  13. Phenotyping of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using the modified Bhalla scoring system for high-resolution computed tomography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tulek, Baykal; Kivrak, Ali Sami; Ozbek, Seda; Kanat, Fikret; Suerdem, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    .... To characterize the phenotypes of COPD according to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings; and to correlate HRCT scores obtained using the modified Bhalla scoring system with clinical and physiological indicators of systemic inflammation...

  14. Design, construction, and evaluation of new high resolution medical imaging detector/systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit

    Increasing need of minimally invasive endovascular image guided interventional procedures (EIGI) for accurate and successful treatment of vascular disease has set a quest for better image quality. Current state of the art detectors are not up to the mark for these complex procedures due to their inherent limitations. Our group has been actively working on the design and construction of a high resolution, region of interest CCD-based X-ray imager for some time. As a part of that endeavor, a Micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) was developed to serve as a high resolution, ROI X-ray imaging detector in conjunction with large lower resolution full field of view (FOV) state-of-the-art x-ray detectors. The newly developed MAF is an indirect x-ray imaging detector capable of providing real-time images with high resolution, high sensitivity, no lag and low instrumentation noise. It consists of a CCD camera coupled to a light image intensifier (LII) through a fiber optic taper. The CsI(Tl) phosphor serving as the front end is coupled to the LII. For this work, the MAF was designed and constructed. The linear system cascade theory was used to evaluate the performance theoretically. Linear system metrics such as MTF and DQE were used to gauge the detector performance experimentally. The capabilities of the MAF as a complete system were tested using generalized linear system metrics. With generalized linear system metrics the effects of finite size focal spot, geometric magnification and the presence of scatter are included in the analysis and study. To minimize the effect of scatter, an anti-scatter grid specially designed for the MAF was also studied. The MAF was compared with the flat panel detector using signal-to-noise ratio and the two dimensional linear system metrics. The signal-to-noise comparison was carried out to point out the effect of pixel size and Point Spread Function of the detector. The two dimensional linear system metrics were used to investigate the

  15. Primary graft dysfunction; possible evaluation by high resolution computed tomography, and suggestions for a scoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther; Jensen, Claus; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2009-01-01

    We have reviewed and discussed current knowledge on existing scoring systems regarding high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images for the assessment of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation. Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been more widely studied...... performed on patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Sensitivity of HRCT for the detection of parenchymal changes is superior to other imaging methods. High levels of reproducibility are achievable amongst observers who score HRCT lung images. Development of standardized criteria that specify the inclusion......, and reproducibility of these systems were discussed. Lastly, the future perspectives for 64-multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) in relation to PGD were discussed. Few studies on scoring systems of lung tissue by HRCT in ARDS patients and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients were found. Most studies were...

  16. Design and fabrication of a passive droplet dispenser for portable high resolution imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Rubinstein, Jaden; Kong, Gary; Lee, Woei Ming

    2017-01-01

    Moldless lens manufacturing techniques using standard droplet dispensing technology often require precise control over pressure to initiate fluid flow and control droplet formation. We have determined a series of interfacial fluid parameters optimised using standard 3D printed tools to extract, dispense and capture a single silicone droplet that is then cured to obtain high quality lenses. The dispensing process relies on the recapitulation of liquid dripping action (Rayleigh-Plateau instability) and the capturing method uses the interplay of gravitational force, capillary forces and liquid pinning to control the droplet shape. The key advantage of the passive lens fabrication approach is rapid scale-up using 3D printing by avoiding complex dispensing tools. We characterise the quality of the lenses fabricated using the passive approach by measuring wavefront aberration and high resolution imaging. The fabricated lenses are then integrated into a portable imaging system; a wearable thimble imaging device with a detachable camera housing, that is constructed for field imaging. This paper provides the full exposition of steps, from lens fabrication to imaging platform, necessary to construct a standalone high resolution imaging system. The simplicity of our methodology can be implemented using a regular desktop 3D printer and commercially available digital imaging systems.

  17. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  18. Forecasting of Severe Weather in Austria and Hungary Using High-Resolution Ensemble Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Mihaly; Simon, Andre; Szintai, Balazs; Suklitsch, Martin; Wang, Yong; Wastl, Clemens; Boloni, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    The study presents and compares several approaches in EPS (ensemble prediction system) forecasting based on the non-hydrostatic, high resolution AROME model. The PEARP (global ARPEGE model EPS) was used for coupling. Besides, AROME-EPS was also generated upon hydrostatic ALADIN-EPS forecasts (LAEF), which were used as initial and lateral boundary conditions for each AROME-EPS run. The horizontal resolution of the AROME model is 2.5km and it uses 60 vertical levels for the vertical discretization. In most of the tests, the AROME-EPS run with 10+1 members in Hungarian and 16 members in Austrian implementation. The forecast length was usually set to 30-36 hours. The use of high-resolution EPS has advantages in almost all situations with severe convection (mostly in forecasting intense multicell thunderstorms or mesoscale convective systems of non-frontal origin). The possibility of severe thunderstorm was indicated by several EPS runs even if the deterministic (reference) AROME model failed to forecast the event. Similarly, it could be shown that the AROME-EPS can perform better than hydrostatic global or ALADIN-EPS models in situations with strong wind or heavy precipitation induced by large-scale circulation (mainly in mountain regions). Both EDA (Ensemble of Data Assimilation) and SPPT (Stochastically Perturbed Parameterized Tendencies) methods were tested as a potential perturbation generation method on limited area. The EDA method was able to improve the accuracy of single members through the reduction of the analysis error by applying local data assimilation. It was also able to increase the spread of the system in the early hours due to the additional analysis perturbations. The impact of the SPPT scheme was proven to be smaller in comparison to the impact of this method in global ensemble systems. Further possibilities of improving the assimilation methods and the setup of the AROME-EPS are also discussed.

  19. High-resolution x-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in highly correlated electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ghazi, M E

    2002-01-01

    addition, another very weak satellites with wavevector (1/2, 1, 1/2) were observed possibly due to spin ordering. two-dimensional in nature both by measurements of their correlation lengths and by measurement of the critical exponents of the charge stripe melting transition with an anomaly at x = 0.25. The results show by decreasing the hole concentration from the x = 0.33 to 0.2, the well-correlated charge stripes change to a glassy state at x = 0.25. The electronic transition into the charge stripe phase is second-order without any corresponding structural transition. Above the second-order transition critical scattering was observed due to fluctuations into the charge stripe phase. In a single-crystal of Nd sub 1 sub / sub 2 Sr sub 1 sub / sub 2 MnO sub 3 a series of phase transitions were observed using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray scattering. Above the charge ordering transition temperature, T sub C sub O , by measuring the peak profiles of Bragg reflections as a function of temperature, it was foun...

  20. High-resolution spectroscopy with the multi-anode microchannel array detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, J. G.; Joseph, C. L.; Wolf, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a series of high-resolution spectroscopic observations undertaken with a linear (1 x 1024)-pixel visible-light Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector on the Coudespectrograph of the 2.2-meter telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory and on the vacuum spectrograph of the McMath Solar telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory are described. In addition, the two-dimensional MAMA detector systems with (16 x 1024)-pixel, (24 x 1024)-pixel, and (256 x 1024)-pixel formats which are now being readied for use in a series of ground-based, balloon, and sounding-rocket observing programs are briefly described.

  1. SMA OBSERVATIONS OF CLASS 0 PROTOSTARS: A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION SURVEY OF PROTOSTELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuepeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Jorgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Lee, Chin-Fei [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Foster, Jonathan B. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Pineda, Jaime E., E-mail: xpchen@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu [ESO, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 {mu}m dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 {+-} 0.08 and 0.91 {+-} 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I young stellar objects, and approximately three (for MF) and four (for CSF) times larger than the values found among main-sequence stars, with a similar range of separations. Furthermore, the observed fraction of high-order multiple systems to binary systems in Class 0 protostars (0.50 {+-} 0.09) is also larger than the fractions found in Class I young stellar objects (0.31 {+-} 0.07) and main-sequence stars ({<=}0.2). These results suggest that binary properties evolve as protostars evolve, as predicted by numerical simulations. The distribution of separations for Class 0 protostellar binary/multiple systems shows a general trend in which CSF increases with decreasing companion separation. We find that 67% {+-} 8% of the protobinary systems have circumstellar mass ratios below 0.5, implying that unequal-mass systems are preferred in the process of binary star formation. We suggest an empirical sequential fragmentation picture for binary star formation, based on this

  2. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Apsimon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK in Japan. It consists of three stripline BPMs instrumented with analogue signal-processing electronics and a custom digitizer for logging the data. The design of the analogue processor units is presented in detail, along with measurements of the system performance. The processor latency is 15.6±0.1  ns. A single-pass beam position resolution of 291±10  nm has been achieved, using a beam with a bunch charge of approximately 1 nC.

  3. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  4. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Feng, Ling; Ozenne, Brice; Højgaard, Liselotte; Fisher, Patrick M; Svarer, Claus; Greve, Douglas N; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-01-04

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals. Comparison of the regional PET binding measures with postmortem human brain autoradiography outcomes showed a high correlation for the five 5-HT targets and this enabled us to transform the atlas to represent protein densities (in picomoles per milliliter). We also assessed the regional association between protein concentration and mRNA expression in the human brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system of the human brain. We present a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET)- and magnetic resonance imaging-based human brain atlas of important serotonin receptors and the transporter. The regional PET-derived binding measures correlate strongly with the corresponding autoradiography protein levels. The strong correlation enables the transformation of the PET-derived human brain atlas into a protein density map of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Next, we compared the regional receptor/transporter protein densities with mRNA levels and uncovered unique associations between protein expression and density at high detail. This new in vivo neuroimaging atlas of the 5-HT system not only provides insight in the human brain's regional protein synthesis

  5. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz-Benjaminsen, Melanie; Feng, Ling

    2017-01-01

    ) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals. Comparison of the regional PET binding measures...... brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system...... autoradiography protein levels. The strong correlation enables the transformation of the PET-derived human brain atlas into a protein density map of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Next, we compared the regional receptor/transporter protein densities with mRNA levels and uncovered unique...

  6. A high-resolution optical measurement system for rapid acquisition of radiation flux density maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Martin; Raeder, Christian; Willsch, Christian; Dibowski, Gerd

    2017-06-01

    To identify the power and flux density of concentrated solar radiation the Institute of Solar Research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt e. V.) has used the camera-based measurement system FATMES (Flux and Temperature Measurement System) since 1995. The disadvantages of low resolution, difficult handling and poor computing power required a revision of the existing measurement system. The measurement system FMAS (Flux Mapping Acquisition system) is equipped with state-of-the-art-hardware, is compatible with computers off-the-shelf and is programmed in LabView. The expenditure of time for an image evaluation is reduced by the factor 60 compared to FATMES. The new measurement system is no longer associated with the facilities Solar Furnace and High Flux Solar Simulator at the DLR in Cologne but is also applicable as a mobile system. The data and the algorithms are transparent throughout the complete process. The measurement accuracy of FMAS is determined to at most ±3 % until now. The error of measurement of FATMES is at least 2 % higher according to the conducted comparison tests.

  7. Silicon solid/state linear arrays for multispectral high resolution imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Solid-state, electronically scanned, linear detector arrays are now available which can be used in a pushbroom scan mode imaging system for high-resolution multispectral earth resource survey applications. These arrays provide high performance in the visible to near-IR region. Two performance criteria must be assessed in the choice of a detector array: signal-to-noise ratio and spectral response. Consideration of diffraction limitations shows that optics size cannot be significantly reduced by using very low-noise detectors. The required spectral response for a viable detector array should not have spectral ripples that cause a low-level, but significant, error in the detected effective reflectance of the target.

  8. A fuzzy decision making system for building damage map creation using high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastiveis, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Reinartz, P.

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown high resolution satellite imagery to be a powerful data source for post-earthquake damage assessment of buildings. Manual interpretation of these images, while being a reliable method for finding damaged buildings, is a subjective and time-consuming endeavor, rendering it unviable at times of emergency. The present research, proposes a new state-of-the-art method for automatic damage assessment of buildings using high resolution satellite imagery. In this method, at the first step a set of pre-processing algorithms are performed on the images. Then, extracting a candidate building from both pre- and post-event images, the intact roof part after an earthquake is found. Afterwards, by considering the shape and other structural properties of this roof part with its pre-event condition in a fuzzy inference system, the rate of damage for each candidate building is estimated. The results obtained from evaluation of this algorithm using QuickBird images of the December 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake prove the ability of this method for post-earthquake damage assessment of buildings.

  9. FBG based high sensitive pressure sensor and its low-cost interrogation system with enhanced resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachava, Vengal Rao; Kamineni, Srimannarayana; Madhuvarasu, Sai Shankar; Putha, Kishore; Mamidi, Venkata Reddy

    2015-12-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensor with high sensitivity and resolution has been designed and demonstrated. The sensor is configured by firmly fixing the FBG with a metal bellows structure. The sensor works by means of measuring the Bragg wavelength shift of the FBG with respect to pressure change. From the experimental results, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 90.6 pm/psi, which is approximately 4000 times as that of a bare fiber Bragg grating. A very good linearity of 99.86% is observed between the Bragg wavelength of the FBG and applied pressure. The designed sensor shows good repeatability with a negligible hysteresis error of ± 0.29 psi. A low-cost interrogation system that includes a long period grating (LPG) and a photodiode (PD) accompanied with simple electronic circuitry is demonstrated for the FBG sensor, which enables the sensor to attain high resolution of up to 0.025 psi. Thermal-strain cross sensitivity of the FBG pressure sensor is compensated using a reference FBG temperature sensor. The designed sensor can be used for liquid level, specific gravity, and static/dynamic low pressure measurement applications.

  10. Dynamic systemic resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulsombat, Morakot; Zhang, Yan; Ramström, Olof

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic Systemic Resolution is a powerful technique for selecting optimal constituents from dynamic systems by applying selection pressures, either externally by addition of target entities, or internally within the system constraints. This concept is a subset of Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry, and the dynamic systems are generally based on reversible covalent interactions between a range of components where the systems are maintained under thermodynamic control. In the present chapter, the concept will be described in detail, and a range of examples will be given for both selection classes. For external pressure generation, target enzymes, in aqueous and/or organic solution, have been used to demonstrate the resolution processes. In a first example, a dynamic transthiolesterification system was generated in aqueous solution at neutral pH, and resolved by hydrolysis using serine hydrolases (cholinesterases). In organic solution, lipase-catalyzed acylation was chosen to demonstrate asymmetric resolution in different dynamic systems, generating chiral ester and amide structures. By use of such biocatalysts, the optimal constituents were selectively chosen and amplified from the dynamic systems in one-pot processes. In internal selection pressure resolution, self-transformation and crystallization-induced diastereomeric resolution have been successfully used to challenge dynamic systems. The technique was, for example, used to identify the best diastereomeric substrate from a large and varied dynamic system in a single resolution reaction.

  11. Review: two-photon scanning systems for clinical high resolution in vivo tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, K.; Müller, J.; Höfer, M.; Müller, C.; Weinigel, M.; Bückle, R.; Elsner, P.; Kaatz, M.; Messerschmidt, B.

    2008-02-01

    The femtosecond laser multiphoton tomograph DermaInspect as well as high NA two-photon GRIN microendoscopes for in vivo tomography of human skin have been used to detect malignant melanoma as well as to study the diffusion and intradermal accumulation of topically applied cosmetical and pharmaceutical components. So far, more than 500 patients and volunteers in Europe, Australia, and Asia have been investigated with this unique tomograph. Near infrared 80 MHz picojoule femtosecond laser pulses were employed to excite endogenous fluorophores such as NAD(P)H, flavoproteins, melanin, and elastin as well as fluorescent components of a variety of ointments via a twophoton excitation process. In addition, collagen has been imaged by second harmonic generation. Using a two-PMT detection system, the ratio of elastin to collagen was determined during optical sectioning. A high submicron spatial resolution and 50 picosecond temporal resolution was achieved using galvoscan mirrors and piezodriven focusing optics as well as a time-correlated single photon counting module with a fast microchannel plate detector and fast photomultipliers. Individual intratissue cells, mitochondria, melanosomes, and the morphology of the nuclei as well as extracellular matrix elements could be clearly visualized due to molecular imaging and the calculation of fluorescence lifetime images. Nanoparticles and intratissue drugs have been detected non-invasively, in situ and over a period of up to 3 months. In addition, hydration effects and UV effects were studied by monitoring modifications of cellular morphology and autofluorescence. The system was used to observe the diffusion through the stratum corneum and the accumulation and release of functionalized nanoparticles along hair shafts and epidermal ridges. The DermaInspect been also employed to gain information on skin age and wound healing in patients with ulcers. Novel developments include a galvo/piezo-scan driven flexible articulated arm as

  12. A vision for an ultra-high resolution integrated water cycle observation and prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    Society's welfare, progress, and sustainable economic growth—and life itself—depend on the abundance and vigorous cycling and replenishing of water throughout the global environment. The water cycle operates on a continuum of time and space scales and exchanges large amounts of energy as water undergoes phase changes and is moved from one part of the Earth system to another. We must move toward an integrated observation and prediction paradigm that addresses broad local-to-global science and application issues by realizing synergies associated with multiple, coordinated observations and prediction systems. A central challenge of a future water and energy cycle observation strategy is to progress from single variable water-cycle instruments to multivariable integrated instruments in electromagnetic-band families. The microwave range in the electromagnetic spectrum is ideally suited for sensing the state and abundance of water because of water's dielectric properties. Eventually, a dedicated high-resolution water-cycle microwave-based satellite mission may be possible based on large-aperture antenna technology that can harvest the synergy that would be afforded by simultaneous multichannel active and passive microwave measurements. A partial demonstration of these ideas can even be realized with existing microwave satellite observations to support advanced multivariate retrieval methods that can exploit the totality of the microwave spectral information. The simultaneous multichannel active and passive microwave retrieval would allow improved-accuracy retrievals that are not possible with isolated measurements. Furthermore, the simultaneous monitoring of several of the land, atmospheric, oceanic, and cryospheric states brings synergies that will substantially enhance understanding of the global water and energy cycle as a system. The multichannel approach also affords advantages to some constituent retrievals—for instance, simultaneous retrieval of vegetation

  13. abour Dispute Resolution System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA). Even though the Labour. Relations Act 66/95 (LRA) has brought statutory dispute resolution within reach of the ordinary worker, it might actually have compounded the problems relating to dispute resolution in the country. The high rate of individual unfair dismissal cases ...

  14. High resolution X-ray fluorescence imaging for a microbeam radiation therapy treatment planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Inscoe, Christina; Burk, Laurel; Ger, Rachel; Yuan, Hong; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses an array of high-dose, narrow (~100 μm) beams separated by a fraction of a millimeter to treat various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. MRT has been shown to spare normal tissue up to 1000 Gy of entrance dose while still being highly tumoricidal. Current methods of tumor localization for our MRT treatments require MRI and X-ray imaging with subject motion and image registration that contribute to the measurement error. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel form of imaging to quickly and accurately assist in high resolution target positioning for MRT treatments using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The key to this method is using the microbeam to both treat and image. High Z contrast media is injected into the phantom or blood pool of the subject prior to imaging. Using a collimated spectrum analyzer, the region of interest is scanned through the MRT beam and the fluorescence signal is recorded for each slice. The signal can be processed to show vascular differences in the tissue and isolate tumor regions. Using the radiation therapy source as the imaging source, repositioning and registration errors are eliminated. A phantom study showed that a spatial resolution of a fraction of microbeam width can be achieved by precision translation of the mouse stage. Preliminary results from an animal study showed accurate iodine profusion, confirmed by CT. The proposed image guidance method, using XRF to locate and ablate tumors, can be used as a fast and accurate MRT treatment planning system.

  15. Renal stone characterization using high resolution imaging mode on a photon counting detector CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A.; Gutjahr, R.; Henning, A.; Kappler, S.; Halaweish, A.; Abdurakhimova, D.; Peterson, Z.; Montoya, J.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C.

    2017-03-01

    In addition to the standard-resolution (SR) acquisition mode, a high-resolution (HR) mode is available on a research photon-counting-detector (PCD) whole-body CT system. In the HR mode each detector consists of a 2x2 array of 0.225 mm x 0.225 mm subpixel elements. This is in contrast to the SR mode that consists of a 4x4 array of the same subelements, and results in 0.25 mm isotropic resolution at iso-center for the HR mode. In this study, we quantified ex vivo the capabilities of the HR mode to characterize renal stones in terms of morphology and mineral composition. Forty pure stones - 10 uric acid (UA), 10 cystine (CYS), 10 calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and 10 apatite (APA) - and 14 mixed stones were placed in a 20 cm water phantom and scanned in HR mode, at radiation dose matched to that of routine dual-energy stone exams. Data from micro CT provided a reference for the quantification of morphology and mineral composition of the mixed stones. The area under the ROC curve was 1.0 for discriminating UA from CYS, 0.89 for CYS vs COM and 0.84 for COM vs APA. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the percent UA in mixed stones was 11.0% with a medium-sharp kernel and 15.6% with the sharpest kernel. The HR showed qualitatively accurate characterization of stone morphology relative to micro CT.

  16. Miniaturization of high spectral spatial resolution hyperspectral imagers on unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Samuel L.; Clemens, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Traditional airborne environmental monitoring has frequently deployed hyperspectral imaging as a leading tool for characterizing and analyzing a scene's critical spectrum-based signatures for applications in agriculture genomics and crop health, vegetation and mineral monitoring, and hazardous material detection. As the acceptance of hyperspectral evaluation grows in the airborne community, there has been a dramatic trend in moving the technology from use on midsize aircraft to Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The use of UAS accomplishes a number of goals including the reduction in cost to run multiple seasonal evaluations over smaller but highly valuable land-areas, the ability to use frequent data collections to make rapid decisions on land management, and the improvement of spatial resolution by flying at lower altitudes (GIS datasets.

  17. High Resolution Hydraulic Profiling and Groundwater Sampling using FLUTe™ System in a Fractured Limestone Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Christensen, Anders G.; Grosen, Bernt

    innovative investi-gation methods for characterization of the source zone hydrogeology and contamination, including FLUTe system hydraulic profiling and Water-FLUTe multilevel groundwater sampling, in fractured bryo-zoan limestone bedrock. High resolution hydraulic profiling was conducted in three cored......Characterization of the contaminant source zone architecture and the hydraulics is essential to develop accurate site specific conceptual models, delineate and quantify contaminant mass, perform risk as-sessment, and select and design remediation alternatives. This characterization is particularly...... challeng-ing in deposit types as fractured limestone. The activities of a bulk distribution facility for perchloroe-thene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) at the Naverland site near Copenhagen, Denmark, has resulted in PCE and TCE DNAPL impacts to a fractured clay till and an underlying fractured limestone...

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION DEBRIS FLOW VOLUME MAPPING WITH UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS (UAS AND PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Adams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  19. High resolution acoustic measurement system and beam pattern reconstruction method for bat echolocation emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Jason E; Kloepper, Laura N; Warnecke, Michaela; Simmons, James A

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the transmit beam patterns emitted by echolocating bats have previously been limited to cross-sectional planes or averaged over multiple signals using sparse microphone arrays. To date, no high-resolution measurements of individual bat transmit beams have been reported in the literature. Recent studies indicate that bats may change the time-frequency structure of their calls depending on the task, and suggest that their beam patterns are more dynamic than previously thought. To investigate beam pattern dynamics in a variety of bat species, a high-density reconfigurable microphone array was designed and constructed using low-cost ultrasonic microphones and custom electronic circuitry. The planar array is 1.83 m wide by 1.42 m tall with microphones positioned on a 2.54 cm square grid. The system can capture up to 228 channels simultaneously at a 500 kHz sampling rate. Beam patterns are reconstructed in azimuth, elevation, and frequency for visualization and further analysis. Validation of the array measurement system and post-processing functions is shown by reconstructing the beam pattern of a transducer with a fixed circular aperture and comparing the result with a theoretical model. To demonstrate the system in use, transmit beam patterns of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, are shown.

  20. Variable high-resolution color CCD camera system with online capability for professional photo studio application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfelder, Stefan; Reichel, Frank R.; Gaertner, Ernst; Hacker, Erich J.; Cappellaro, Markus; Rudolf, Peter; Voelk, Ute

    1998-04-01

    Digital cameras are of increasing significance for professional applications in photo studios where fashion, portrait, product and catalog photographs or advertising photos of high quality have to be taken. The eyelike is a digital camera system which has been developed for such applications. It is capable of working online with high frame rates and images of full sensor size and it provides a resolution that can be varied between 2048 by 2048 and 6144 by 6144 pixel at a RGB color depth of 12 Bit per channel with an also variable exposure time of 1/60s to 1s. With an exposure time of 100 ms digitization takes approx. 2 seconds for an image of 2048 by 2048 pixels (12 Mbyte), 8 seconds for the image of 4096 by 4096 pixels (48 Mbyte) and 40 seconds for the image of 6144 by 6144 pixels (108 MByte). The eyelike can be used in various configurations. Used as a camera body most commercial lenses can be connected to the camera via existing lens adaptors. On the other hand the eyelike can be used as a back to most commercial 4' by 5' view cameras. This paper describes the eyelike camera concept with the essential system components. The article finishes with a description of the software, which is needed to bring the high quality of the camera to the user.

  1. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo Kakuda

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs, which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10-13 g (100 fg of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp, this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs.

  2. A high-resolution operational forecast system for oil spill response in Belfast Lough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abascal, Ana J; Castanedo, Sonia; Núñez, Paula; Mellor, Adam; Clements, Annika; Pérez, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Mar; Chiri, Helios; Medina, Raúl

    2017-01-15

    This paper presents a high-resolution operational forecast system for providing support to oil spill response in Belfast Lough. The system comprises an operational oceanographic module coupled to an oil spill forecast module that is integrated in a user-friendly web application. The oceanographic module is based on Delft3D model which uses daily boundary conditions and meteorological forcing obtained from COPERNICUS and from the UK Meteorological Office. Downscaled currents and meteorological forecasts are used to provide short-term oil spill fate and trajectory predictions at local scales. Both components of the system are calibrated and validated with observational data, including ADCP data, sea level, temperature and salinity measurements and drifting buoys released in the study area. The transport model is calibrated using a novel methodology to obtain the model coefficients that optimize the numerical simulations. The results obtained show the good performance of the system and its capability for oil spill forecast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The global Mercator Ocean analysis and forecasting high resolution system and its main future updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Legalloudec, Olivier; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Garric, Gilles; Greiner, Eric; Drévillon, Marie; Regnier, Charly; Testut, Charles-Emmanuel; Benkiran, Mounir; Drillet, Yann

    2015-04-01

    In April 2013, Mercator Ocean has performed a major upgrade of the global 1/12° high resolution system. This system currently delivers daily services, and includes numerous improvements related to the ocean/sea-ice model and the assimilation scheme. Observations are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. Altimeter data, satellite Sea Surface Temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. A 3D-Var scheme provides a correction for the slowly-evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity. In April 2015, Mercator Ocean will open the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and will be in charge of the global ocean at eddy resolving resolution. In this context, R&D activities conducted during the end of the MyOcean2 and MyOcean follow-on projects to deliver an improved version of the global system will continue throughout 2015. The main new updates we plan to integrate in the next version of the global system concern: 1) A new vertical mixing scheme k-epsilon: vertical physics has been explored with a special focus on the turbulent closure problem to improve the representation of temperature and salinity in the Mixed Layer Depth. 2) An adaptive tuning of observations errors: as the prescription of observation errors in the assimilation systems is often too approximate, some diagnostics have been developed. These diagnostics consist in the computation of the Desroziers ratio which is a function of observation errors, innovations and residuals. It helps to identify inconsistency on the specified observation errors and to tune an adaptive weight coefficient acting on the error of each assimilated observation. 3) The assimilation of sea-ice concentration observations: it is introduced in the

  4. Development a high-resolution radiation dosimetry system based on Fricke solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Mattea, F. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: josevedelago@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica E. Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Due to the growing complexity of modern medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation, dosimetry by non-conventional techniques is one of the research areas in the field of greatest interest nowadays. Tissue-equivalent high-resolution dosimetry systems capable of attaining continuous dose mapping are required. In this scenario, Fricke gel dosimetry is a very promising option for in-phantom dose measurements in complex radiation techniques. Implementation of this technique requires dedicated instruments capable of measuring and performing the immediate in situ analysis of the acquired data at the radiation facility. The versatility of Fricke gel dosimetry in different applications depending on the chemical and isotopic composition of the dosimeter extends its application to different high performance conventional and non-conventional radiation procedures involving diverse types of radiation treatments and also radiation diagnosis procedures. This work presents an integral dosimetry system, based on Fricke gel solutions and their analysis by optical techniques, aiming for an increase in the precision on dose determinations. The chemical synthesis and dosimeter preparation were accomplished at LIIFAMIRx facilities, following the procedures and protocols described in previous works. Additionally, specific instrumentation for optical sample analysis was completely designed and constructed at LIIFAMIRx facilities. The main outcome of this work was the development of a methodology that improves the integral dose determination performance by the pre-irradiation of Fricke gel dosimeters. (author)

  5. Tests of a high resolution time of flight system based on long and narrow scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, E; Sun, W; Yamamoto, H

    1996-01-01

    We have tested a prototype time-of-flight system based on bulk scintillator block of dimensions 2.5 \\times 2.5 \\times 200 cm. Using a calibration scheme similar to the one used in actual collider experiments, we have achieved a resolution of 71 ps using Amperex XP2020/UR photomultipliers and 81 ps using proximity-focusing fine-mesh photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R2021). Results are also obtained for scintillating fiber blocks of the same dimensions. Good internal reflectivity of the bulk scintillator block resulted in resolutions superior to the fibre blocks. A single-photon pulsed laser system was used to study photomultipliers and the results were used in a Monte Carlo simulation of the system to study the critical elements that determine the resolution.

  6. Three-dimensional integral television using extremely high-resolution video system with 4,000 scanning lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Fumio; Kawakita, Masahiro; Arai, Jun; Sasaki, Hisayuki; Yamashita, Takayuki; Sato, Masahito; Suehiro, Koya; Haino, Yasuyuki

    2007-09-01

    The integral method enables observers to see 3D images like real objects. It requires extremely high resolution for both capture and display stages. We present an experimental 3D television system based on the integral method using an extremely high-resolution video system. The video system has 4,000 scanning lines using the diagonal offset method for two green channels. The number of elemental lenses in the lens array is 140 (vertical) × 182 (horizontal). The viewing zone angle is wider than 20 degrees in practice. This television system can capture 3D objects and provides full color and full parallax 3D images in real time.

  7. Major upgrade of the global Mercator Océan analysis and forecasting high resolution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Legalloudec, Olivier; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Garric, Gilles; Greiner, Eric; Regnier, Charly; Bricaud, Clément; Testut, Charles-Emmanuel; Drevillon, Marie; Drillet, Yann; Dombrowsky, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Mercator Océan, the French ocean forecast service provider, was setup about ten years ago by all the French organizations holding stakes in ocean forecasting. It has been since then constantly developed and is currently operating operational ocean analysis and forecasting systems based on state-of-the-art Ocean General Circulation Models. The mandate of Mercator Océan is to cover the global ocean at eddy resolving resolution. To achieve this goal, Mercator Océan is strongly connected to the ocean modeling and data assimilation research communities, at French, European and international levels. Mercator Océan is engaged in the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European initiative and is currently coordinating a European consortium (~60 partners) gathering all European skills in ocean monitoring and forecasting to build the Marine forecast component of the GMES service. This is currently done in the MyOcean2 European funded project which started in 2012. In this context, we have recently performed a major upgrade of the global high resolution system operated at Mercator Océan. This new system now delivers weekly and daily services, and includes numerous improvements related to the ocean/sea-ice model and the assimilation scheme. The previous global system did not benefit from these improvements that were implemented for most of them only in the regional system. Consistency between Mercator Océan systems is thereby ensured by the use of a common basis for all Mercator Océan analysis and forecasting systems. Observations are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. Altimeter data, satellite Sea Surface Temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. A 3D-Var scheme provides a correction

  8. Autonomous agricultural remote sensing systems with high spatial and temporal resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Haitao

    In this research, two novel agricultural remote sensing (RS) systems, a Stand-alone Infield Crop Monitor RS System (SICMRS) and an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based RS system have been studied. A high-resolution digital color and multi-spectral camera was used as the image sensor for the SICMRS system. An artificially intelligent (AI) controller based on artificial neural network (ANN) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed. Morrow Plots corn field RS images in the 2004 and 2006 growing seasons were collected by the SICMRS system. The field site contained 8 subplots (9.14 m x 9.14 m) that were planted with corn and three different fertilizer treatments were used among those subplots. The raw RS images were geometrically corrected, resampled to 10cm resolution, removed soil background and calibrated to real reflectance. The RS images from two growing seasons were studied and 10 different vegetation indices were derived from each day's image. The result from the image processing demonstrated that the vegetation indices have temporal effects. To achieve high quality RS data, one has to utilize the right indices and capture the images at the right time in the growing season. Maximum variations among the image data set are within the V6-V10 stages, which indicated that these stages are the best period to identify the spatial variability caused by the nutrient stress in the corn field. The derived vegetation indices were also used to build yield prediction models via the linear regression method. At that point, all of the yield prediction models were evaluated by comparing the R2-value and the best index model from each day's image was picked based on the highest R 2-value. It was shown that the green normalized difference vegetation (GNDVI) based model is more sensitive to yield prediction than other indices-based models. During the VT-R4 stages, the GNDVI based models were able to explain more than 95% potential corn yield

  9. Calibration grooming and alignment for LDUA High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1998-01-27

    The High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS) was designed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to provide routine and troubleshooting views of tank interiors during characterization and remediation phases of underground storage tank (UST) processing. The HRSVS is a dual color camera system designed to provide stereo viewing of the interior of the tanks including the tank wall in a Class 1, Division 1, flammable atmosphere. The HRSVS was designed with a modular philosophy for easy maintenance and configuration modifications. During operation of the system with the LDUA, the control of the camera system will be performed by the LDUA supervisory data acquisition system (SDAS). Video and control status 1458 will be displayed on monitors within the LDUA control center. All control functions are accessible from the front panel of the control box located within the Operations Control Trailer (OCT). The LDUA will provide all positioning functions within the waste tank for the end effector. Various electronic measurement instruments will be used to perform CG and A activities. The instruments may include a digital volt meter, oscilloscope, signal generator, and other electronic repair equipment. None of these instruments will need to be calibrated beyond what comes from the manufacturer. During CG and A a temperature indicating device will be used to measure the temperature of the outside of the HRSVS from initial startup until the temperature has stabilized. This device will not need to be in calibration during CG and A but will have to have a current calibration sticker from the Standards Laboratory during any acceptance testing. This sensor will not need to be in calibration during CG and A but will have to have a current calibration sticker from the Standards Laboratory during any acceptance testing.

  10. A Development of Advanced Rigorous 2 Step System for the High Resolution Residual Dose Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Jea Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Hyun [Kyoto University, Sennan (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    In these days, an activation problem such as residual radiation is one of the important issues. The activated devices and structures can emit the residual radiation. Therefore, the activation should be properly analyzed to make a plan for design, operation, and decontamination of nuclear facilities. For activation calculation, Rigorous 2 Step (R2S) method is introduced as following strategy: (1) the particle transport calculation is performed for an object geometry to get particle spectra and total fluxes; (2) inventories of each cell are calculated by using flux information according to irradiation and decay history; (3) the residual gamma distribution was evaluated by transport code, if needed. This scheme is based on cell calculation of used geometry. In this method, the particle spectra and total fluxes are obtained by mesh tally for activation calculation. It is useful to reduce the effects of gradient flux information. Nevertheless, several limitations are known as follows: Firstly, high relative error of spectra, when lots of meshes were used; secondly, different flux information from spectrum of void in mesh-tally. To calculate high resolution residual dose, several method are developed such as R2Smesh and MCR2S unstructured mesh. The R2Smesh method products better efficiency for obtaining neutron spectra by using fine/coarse mesh. Also, the MCR2S unstructured mesh can effectively separate void spectrum. In this study, the AR2S system was developed to combine the features of those mesh based R2S method. To confirm the AR2S system, the simple activation problem was evaluated and compared with R2S method using same division. Those results have good agreement within 0.83 %. Therefore, it is expected that the AR2S system can properly estimate an activation problem.

  11. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm

  12. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  13. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  14. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Robert K [Hinsdale, IL

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  15. High-resolution sonography of the peripheral nervous system - a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, R; Visser, LH

    High-resolution sonography is capable of depicting peripheral nerves and the brachial plexus. In this study we review the literature on this subject. Normal peripheral nerves have a characteristic echotexture. Most nerves are readily visualized, although this is not always the case with the nerves

  16. Compact multichannel high-resolution micro-electro-mechanical systems-based interrogator for Fiber Bragg grating sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganziy, D; Rose, B; Bang, O

    2017-04-20

    We propose a novel type of compact high-resolution multichannel micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based interrogator, where we replace the linear detector with a digital micromirror device (DMD). The DMD is typically cheaper and has better pixel sampling than an InGaAs detector used in the 1550 nm range, which leads to cost reduction and better performance. Moreover, the DMD is a 2D array, which means that multichannel systems can be implemented without any additional optical components in the interrogator. This makes the proposed interrogator highly cost-effective, particularly for multichannel systems. The digital nature of the DMD also provides opportunities for advanced programmable Hadamard spectroscopy, which, without significant penalties, can greatly improve the wavelength fit resolution. Our results show that DMDs can be used in high-resolution spectroscopy and for Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation.

  17. Compact multichannel high-resolution micro-electro-mechanical systems-based interrogator for Fiber Bragg grating sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis; Rose, Bjarke; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel type of compact high-resolution multichannel micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based interrogator, where we replace the linear detector with a digital micromirror device (DMD). The DMD is typically cheaper and has better pixel sampling than an InGaAs detector used...... in the 1550 nm range, which leads to cost reduction and better performance. Moreover, the DMD is a 2D array, which means that multichannel systems can be implemented without any additional optical components in the interrogator. This makes the proposed interrogator highly cost-effective, particularly...... for multichannel systems. The digital nature of the DMD also provides opportunities for advanced programmable Hadamard spectroscopy, which, without significant penalties, can greatly improve the wavelength fit resolution. Our results show that DMDs can be used in high-resolution spectroscopy and for Fiber Bragg...

  18. A Nadir-adjusted Airborne Multi Spectral Imaging System (NAMSIS) for high-resolution remote sensing of carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Scott, S.; Rahman, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing is widely used in vegetation monitoring, water stress detection and carbon cycle modeling. However, image pixels from high temporal resolution satellite sensors (such as MODIS) have coarse spatial resolution, much larger than the canopies they are supposed to characterize. An alternative solution for on-demand high spatial resolution remote sensing is sensors onboard low-flying aircrafts. Airborne remote sensing has been traditionally used in crop management studies. In this presentation we demonstrate the application of a relatively low-cost airborne sensor system with customized spectral band combinations for studying forest carbon fluxes. Our team has developed an Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) controlled automated system to detach aircraft movements (pitch and roll) and engine vibration from the six-band programmable imager, in order to maintain the sensor at nadir view at all times during the flight. Flight lines are configured by a GPS-controleld system to simulate MODIS pixels. A feature-based algorithm is used to automatically generate a mosaic of individual images along the flight lines. This algorithm eliminates the need to mosiac and georeference images manually. An empirical line method is used to calculate reflectance from the raw data. Images from this airborne system produce reflectance values that are comparable with MODIS reflectance product. These high spatial resolution (~0.5 m) images deliver detailed information about tree species and phenological conditions within each MODIS pixel, and thus permit a high resolution spatio-temporal assessment of forest carbon fluxes.

  19. Brochopulmonary dysplasia: New high resolution computed tomography scorting system and correlation between the high resolution computed tomography score and clinical severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sumi; Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Han Suk; Lee, Whal; Jung, Ah Young; Kim, In One; Choi, Jung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (KR)

    2013-04-15

    To develop an high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring system for the assessment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and determine its usefulness as compared with the chest radiographic score. Forty-two very low-birth-weight preterm infants with BPD (25 male, 17 female) were prospectively evaluated with HRCT performed at the mean age of 39.1-week postmenstrual age. Clinical severity of BPD was categorized as mild, moderate or severe. The HRCT score (0-36) of each patient was the sum of the number of bronchopulmonary segments with 1) hyperaeration and 2) parenchymal lesions (linear lesions, segmental atelectasis, consolidation and architectural distortion), respectively. We compared the HRCT scores with the chest radiographic scores (the Toce system) in terms of correlation with clinical severity. The HRCT score had good interobserver (r = 0.969, p < 0.001) and intraobserver (r = 0.986, p < 0.001) reproducibility. The HRCT score showed better correlation (r = 0.646, p < 0.001) with the clinical severity of BPD than the chest radiographic score (r = 0.410, p = 0.007). The hyperaeration score showed better correlation (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) with the clinical severity of BPD than the parenchymal score (r = 0.523, p < 0.001). We have developed a new HRCT scoring system for BPD based on the quantitative evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities of BPD consisting of the hyperaeration score and the parenchymal score. The HRCT score shows better correlation with the clinical severity of BPD than the radiographic score.

  20. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Feng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2 emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes. We present a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model was coupled to a very high-resolution FFCO2 emission product, Hestia-LA, to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the LA megacity at spatial resolutions as fine as  ∼  1 km. We evaluated multiple WRF configurations, selecting one that minimized errors in wind speed, wind direction, and boundary layer height as evaluated by its performance against meteorological data collected during the CalNex-LA campaign (May–June 2010. Our results show no significant difference between moderate-resolution (4 km and high-resolution (1.3 km simulations when evaluated against surface meteorological data, but the high-resolution configurations better resolved planetary boundary layer heights and vertical gradients in the horizontal mean winds. We coupled our WRF configuration with the Vulcan 2.2 (10 km resolution and Hestia-LA (1.3 km resolution fossil fuel CO2 emission products to evaluate the impact of the spatial resolution of the CO2 emission products and the meteorological transport model on the representation of spatiotemporal variability in simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that high spatial resolution in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions is more important than in the atmospheric model to capture CO2 concentration variability across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach that employs simultaneous correlations of the simulated atmospheric CO2 fields to qualitatively evaluate the greenhouse gas measurement network over the LA megacity. Spatial correlations in the atmospheric CO2 fields reflect the coverage of

  1. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, G. A., E-mail: wurden@lanl.gov; Dunn, J. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stephey, L. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M. [Max Planck Institut für Plasma Physik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m{sup 2}), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  2. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurden, G. A.; Stephey, L. A.; Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Dunn, J. P.; Gamradt, M.

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (˜1-4.5 MW/m2), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO's can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  3. A curved image-plate detector system for high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, P; Haggerty, R P; Yoon, W; Knapp, M; Berghaeuser, A; Zschack, P; Karapetrova, E; Yang, N; Kriven, W M

    2009-03-01

    The developed curved image plate (CIP) is a one-dimensional detector which simultaneously records high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns over a 38.7 degrees 2theta range. In addition, an on-site reader enables rapid extraction, transfer and storage of X-ray intensity information in response is not compromised in the unsaturated regions of the image plate, regardless of saturation in another region. The speed of XRD data acquisition together with excellent resolution afforded by the CIP detector is unique and opens up wide possibilities in materials research accessible through X-ray diffraction. This article presents details of the basic features, operation and performance of the CIP detector along with some examples of applications, including high-temperature XRD.

  4. The ESA FELYX High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set System Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberner, M.; Shutler, J.; Walker, P.; Poulter, D.; Piolle, J.-F.; Donlon, C.; Guidetti, V.

    2013-10-01

    Felyx is currently under development and is the latest evolution of a generalised High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set system funded by ESA. It draws on previous prototype developments and experience in the GHRSST, Medspiration, GlobColour and GlobWave projects. In this paper, we outline the design and implementation of the system, and illustrate using the Ocean Colour demonstration activities. Felyx is fundamentally a tool to facilitate the analysis of EO data: it is being developed by IFREMER, PML and Pelamis. It will be free software written in python and javascript. The aim is to provide Earth Observation data producers and users with an opensource, flexible and reusable tool to allow the quality and performance of data streams from satellite, in situ and model sources to be easily monitored and studied. New to this project, is the ability to establish and incorporate multi-sensor match-up database capabilities. The systems will be deployable anywhere and even include interaction mechanisms between the deployed instances. The primary concept of Felyx is to work as an extraction tool. It allows for the extraction of subsets of source data over predefined target areas(which can be static or moving). These data subsets, and associated metrics, can then be accessed by users or client applications either as raw files or through automatic alerts. These data can then be used to generate periodic reports or be used for statistical analysis and visualisation through a flexible web interface. Felyx can be used for subsetting, the generation of statistics, the generation of reports or warnings/alerts, and in-depth analyses, to name a few. There are many potential applications but important uses foreseen are: * monitoring and assessing the quality of Earth observations (e.g. satellite products and time series) through statistical analysis and/or comparison with other data sources * assessing and inter-comparing geophysical inversion algorithms * observing a given phenomenon

  5. Fragmentation of urban forms and the environmental consequences: results from a high-spatial resolution model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, U. W.; Wang, Z. S.

    2008-10-01

    Each city has its unique urban form. The importance of urban form on sustainable development has been recognized in recent years. Traditionally, air quality modelling in a city is in a mesoscale with grid resolution of kilometers, regardless of its urban form. This paper introduces a GIS-based air quality and noise model system developed to study the built environment of highly compact urban forms. Compared with traditional mesoscale air quality model system, the present model system has a higher spatial resolution down to individual buildings along both sides of the street. Applying the developed model system in the Macao Peninsula with highly compact urban forms, the average spatial resolution of input and output data is as high as 174 receptor points per km2. Based on this input/output dataset with a high spatial resolution, this study shows that even the highly compact urban forms can be fragmented into a very small geographic scale of less than 3 km2. This is due to the significant temporal variation of urban development. The variation of urban form in each fragment in turn affects air dispersion, traffic condition, and thus air quality and noise in a measurable scale.

  6. a 24/7 High Resolution Storm Surge, Inundation and Circulation Forecasting System for Florida Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramygin, V.; Davis, J. R.; Sheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A 24/7 forecasting system for Florida is needed because of the high risk of tropical storm surge-induced coastal inundation and damage, and the need to support operational management of water resources, utility infrastructures, and fishery resources. With the anticipated climate change impacts, including sea level rise, coastal areas are facing the challenges of increasing inundation risk and increasing population. Accurate 24/7 forecasting of water level, inundation, and circulation will significantly enhance the sustainability of coastal communities and environments. Supported by the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) through NOAA IOOS, a 24/7 high-resolution forecasting system for storm surge, coastal inundation, and baroclinic circulation is being developed for Florida using CH3D Storm Surge Modeling System (CH3D-SSMS). CH3D-SSMS is based on the CH3D hydrodynamic model coupled to a coastal wave model SWAN and basin scale surge and wave models. CH3D-SSMS has been verified with surge, wave, and circulation data from several recent hurricanes in the U.S.: Isabel (2003); Charley, Dennis and Ivan (2004); Katrina and Wilma (2005); Ike and Fay (2008); and Irene (2011), as well as typhoons in the Pacific: Fanapi (2010) and Nanmadol (2011). The effects of tropical cyclones on flow and salinity distribution in estuarine and coastal waters has been simulated for Apalachicola Bay as well as Guana-Tolomato-Matanzas Estuary using CH3D-SSMS. The system successfully reproduced different physical phenomena including large waves during Ivan that damaged I-10 Bridges, a large alongshore wave and coastal flooding during Wilma, salinity drop during Fay, and flooding in Taiwan as a result of combined surge and rain effect during Fanapi. The system uses 4 domains that cover entire Florida coastline: West, which covers the Florida panhandle and Tampa Bay; Southwest spans from Florida Keys to Charlotte Harbor; Southeast, covering Biscayne Bay and Miami and

  7. A High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Clinical PET Detection System Using a Gapless PMT-Quadrant-Sharing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Hoi; Li, Hongdi; Zhang, Yuxuan; Ramirez, Rocio; An, Shaohui; Wang, Chao; Liu, Shitao; Dong, Yun; Baghaei, Hossain

    2015-10-01

    We developed a high-resolution Photomultiplier-Quadrant-Sharing (PQS) PET system for human imaging. This system is made up of 24 detector panels. Each panel (bank) consists of 3 ×7 detector blocks, and each block has 16 ×16 LYSO crystals of 2.35 ×2.35 ×15.2 mm3. We used a novel detector-grinding scheme that is compatible with the PQS detector-pixel-decoding requirements to make a gapless cylindrical detector ring for maximizing detection efficiency while delivering an ultrahigh spatial-resolution for a whole-body PET camera with a ring diameter of 87 cm and axial field of view of 27.6 cm. This grinding scheme enables two adjacent gapless panels to share one row of the PMTs to extend the PQS configuration beyond one panel and thus maximize the economic benefit (in PMT usage) of the PQS design. The entire detector ring has 129,024 crystals, all of which are clearly decoded using only 576 PMTs (38-mm diameter). Thus, each PMT on average decodes 224 crystals to achieve a high crystal-pitch resolution of 2.44 mm ×2.44 mm. The detector blocks were mass-produced with our slab-sandwich-slice technique using a set of optimized mirror-film patterns (between crystals) to maximize light output and achieve high spatial and timing resolution. This detection system with time-of-flight capability was placed in a human PET/CT gantry. The reconstructed image resolution of the system was about 2.87 mm using 2D-filtered back-projection. The time-of-flight resolution was 473 ps. The preliminary images of phantoms and clinical studies presented in this work demonstrate the capability of this new PET/CT system to produce high-quality images.

  8. Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Enrique; De Michele, Carlo; Todini, Ezio; Cifres, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    This project presented at the EGU 2016 born of solidarity and the need to dignify the most disadvantaged people living in the poorest countries (Africa, South America and Asia, which are continually exposed to changes in the hydrologic cycle suffering events of large floods and/or long periods of droughts. It is also a special year this 2016, Year of Mercy, in which we must engage with the most disadvantaged of our Planet (Gaia) making available to them what we do professionally and scientifically. The project called "Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution" is Non-Profit and aims to provide at global high resolution (1km2) hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time and continuously coupling Weather Forecast of Global Circulation Models, such us GFS-0.25° (Deterministic and Ensembles Run) forcing a physically based distributed hydrological model computationally efficient, such as the latest version extended of TOPKAPI model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended. Finally using the MCP approach for the proper use of ensembles for Predictive Uncertainty assessment essentially based on a multiple regression in the Normal space, can be easily extended to use ensembles to represent the local (in time) smaller or larger conditional predictive uncertainty, as a function of the ensemble spread. In this way, each prediction in time accounts for both the predictive uncertainty of the ensemble mean and that of the ensemble spread. To perform a continuous hydrological modeling with TOPKAPI-X model and have hot start of hydrological status of watersheds, the system assimilated products of rainfall and temperature derived from remote sensing, such as product 3B42RT of TRMM NASA and others.The system will be integrated into a Decision Support System (DSS) platform, based on geographical data. The DSS is a web application (For Pc, Tablet/Mobile phone): It does not need installation (all you need is a web browser and an internet

  9. High-Resolution Observations of Flares in an Arch Filament System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingna; Liu, Rui; Li, Shangwei; Cao, Wenda; Ji, Haisheng

    2017-08-01

    We present high-resolution observations of five sequential solar flares occurring in NOAA Active Region (AR) 12396 taken with the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory, complemented by IRIS and SDO observations. The main flaring region is an arch filament system (AFS) consisting of multiple bundles of dark filament threads enclosed by scattered flare brightenings. We study the magnetic configuration and evolution of the active region by constructing coronal magnetic field models based on SDO/HMI magnetograms using two independent methods, i.e., the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation and the flux rope insertion method. We are able to identify multiple flux ropes based on magnetic twist derived from the extrapolated NLFFF, which is consistent with the NST observations of multiple filaments. Both models suggest that the filament bundles may posses mixed signs of helicity, i.e., positive (negative) in the north (south). The footprints of quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) derived from the extrapolated NLFFF compare favorably with the observed flare ribbons. Moreover, magnetic field lines traced along the semi-circular footprint of a dome-like QSL surrounding the flaring region are connected to the regions of significant helicity and Poynting flux injection. An interesting double-ribbon fine structure located at the east border of the AFS is consistent with the fine structure of the QSL's footprint. The maps of magnetic twist show that positive twist became dominant as time progressed, which is consistent with the injection of positive helicity during a 26 hour interval before the flares. The trigger mechanisms and detailed dynamics of the observed flares are also discussed.

  10. High-resolution modeling and evaluation of ozone air quality of Osaka using MM5-CMAQ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Kundan Lal; Kondo, Akira; Kaga, Akikazu; Inoue, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution modeling approach is increasingly being considered as a necessary step for improving the monitoring and predictions of regional air quality. This is especially true for highly urbanized region with complex terrain and land-use. This study uses Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model coupled with MM5 mesoscale model for a comprehensive analysis to assess the suitability of such high-resolution modeling system in predicting ozone air quality in the complex terrains of Osaka, Japan. The 1-km and 3-km grid domains were nested inside a 9-km domain and the domain with 1-km grid covered the Osaka region. High-resolution Grid Point Value-Mesoscale Model (GPV-MSM) data were used after suitable validation. The simulated ozone concentrations were validated and evaluated using statistical metrics using performance criteria set for ozone. Daily maxima of ozone were found better simulated by the 1-km grid domain than the coarser 9-km and 3-km domains, with the maximum improvement in the mean absolute gross error about 3 ppbv. In addition, 1-km grid results fared better than other grids at most of the observation stations that showed noticeable differences in gross error as well as correlation. These results amply justify the use of the integrated high-resolution MMS-CMAQ modeling system in the highly urbanized region, such as the Osaka region, which has complex terrain and land-use.

  11. Very high resolution optical transition radiation imaging system: Comparison between simulation and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bolzon, B; Aumeyr, Thomas; Boogert, Stewart Takashi; Karataev, Pavel; Kruchinin, Konstantin; Lefevre, Thibaut; Mazzoni, Stefano; Nevay, Laurence James; Shevelev, M; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J; Welsch, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) has become a commonly used method for 2D beam imaging measurements. In the Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) at KEK, beam sizes smaller than the OTR point spread function have been measured. Simulations of the OTR imaging system have been performed using the ZEMAX software to study the effects of optical errors such as aberrations, diffraction, and misalignments of optical components. This paper presents a comparison of simulations of the OTR point spread function with experimental data obtained at ATF2. It shows how the quantification and control of optical errors impacts on optimizing the resolution of the system. We also show that the OTR point spread function needs to be predicted accurately to optimize any optical system and to predict the error made on measurement.

  12. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  13. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  14. A Methodology of Image Segmentation for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Based on Visual System and Markov Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Miaozhong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the visual system's tremendous ability to perceive and identify the information, a new image segmentation method is presented which simulates the mechanism of visual system for the high resolution remote sensing image segmentation with Markov random field model. Firstly, the characteristics of the visual system have been summarized as: hierarchy, learning ability, feature detection capability and sparse coding property. Secondly, the working mechanism of visual system is simulated by wavelet transform, unsupervised clustering algorithm, feature analysis and Laplace distribution. Then, the segmentation is achieved by the visual mechanism and the Markov random field. Different satellites remote sensing images are adopted as the experimental data, and the segmentation results demonstrate the proposed method have good performance in high resolution remote sensing images.

  15. SHARING HIGH-RESOLUTION MODELS AND INFORMATION ON WEB: THE WEB MODULE OF BIM3DSG SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rechichi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BIM3DSG system is described here. It is an ad hoc designed BIM system created for Cultural Heritage applications. It proposes some solutions to solve some issues related to the use of BIM in this field. First, it tries to resolve the problem of managing huge, complex, high resolution and heterogeneous 3D models, and then it offers a practical, easy and efficient solution for a wide sharing of data and information.

  16. Cryogenic microcalorimeter system for ultra-high resolution alpha-particle spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bacrania, Mnesh K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croce, Mark P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoteling, N J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, S P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plionis, A A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dry, D E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ullom, J N [NIST; Bennett, D A [NIST; Horansky, R [NIST; Kotsubo, V [NIST; Cantor, R [STAR CRYOELECTRONICS

    2009-01-01

    Microcalorimeters have been shown to yield unsurpassed energy resolution for alpha spectrometry, up to 1.06 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV. These detectors use a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) to measure the temperature change in an absorber from energy deposited by an interacting alpha particle. Our system has four independent detectors mounted inside a liquid nitrogen/liquid helium cryostat. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cools the detector stage to its operating temperature of 80 mK. Temperature regulation with {approx}15 uK peak-to-peak variation is achieved by PID control of the ADR. The detectors are voltage-biased, and the current signal is amplified by a commercial SQUID readout system and digitized for further analysis, This paper will discuss design and operation of our microcalorimeter alpha spectrometer, and will show recent results.

  17. Towards an operational high-resolution air quality forecasting system at ECCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Alpizar, Rodrigo; Stroud, Craig; Ren, Shuzhan; Belair, Stephane; Leroyer, Sylvie; Souvanlasy, Vanh; Spacek, Lubos; Pavlovic, Radenko; Davignon, Didier; Moran, Moran

    2017-04-01

    Urban environments are particularly sensitive to weather, air quality (AQ), and climatic conditions. Despite the efforts made in Canada to reduce pollution in urban areas, AQ continues to be a concern for the population, especially during short-term episodes that could lead to exceedances of daily air quality standards. Furthermore, urban air pollution has long been associated with significant adverse health effects. In Canada, the large percentage of the population living in urban areas ( 81%, according to the Canada's 2011 census) is exposed to elevated air pollution due to local emissions sources. Thus, in order to improve the services offered to the Canadian public, Environment and Climate Change Canada has launched an initiative to develop a high-resolution air quality prediction capacity for urban areas in Canada. This presentation will show observed pollution trends (2010-2016) for Canadian mega-cities along with some preliminary high-resolution air quality modelling results. Short-term and long-term plans for urban AQ forecasting in Canada will also be described.

  18. High resolution PolInSAR with the ground-based SAR (GB-SAR) System: measurement and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, K; Williams, M L

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based work is necessary for a comprehensive assessment of the operational potential and limitations of PolInSAR in airborne and satellite SAR applications. A study is made of the performance and usefulness of the UK’s Ground-Based SAR (GB-SAR) Outdoor System in high-resolution PolInSAR studies of vegetation using modeling results. The facility provides fully-polarimetric L- through X-band imagery down to a resolution of several wavelengths. However, the measurem...

  19. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a plan to build a prototype small stroke, high precision deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution...

  20. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9/Jupiter collision observed with a high resolution speckle imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravel, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    During the week of July 16, 1994, comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, broken into 20 plus pieces by tidal forces on its last orbit, smashed into the planet Jupiter, releasing the explosive energy of 500 thousand megatons. A team of observers from LLNL used the LLNL Speckle Imaging Camera mounted on the University of California`s Lick Observatory 3 Meter Telescope to capture continuous sequences of planet images during the comet encounter. Post processing with the bispectral phase reconstruction algorithm improves the resolution by removing much of the blurring due to atmospheric turbulence. High resolution images of the planet surface showing the aftermath of the impact are probably the best that were obtained from any ground-based telescope. We have been looking at the regions of the fragment impacts to try to discern any dynamic behavior of the spots left on Jupiter`s cloud tops. Such information can lead to conclusions about the nature of the comet and of Jupiter`s atmosphere. So far, the Hubble Space Telescope has observed expanding waves from the G impact whose mechanism is enigmatic since they appear to be too slow to be sound waves and too fast to be gravity waves, given the present knowledge of Jupiter`s atmosphere. Some of our data on the G and L impact region complements the Hubble observations but, so far, is inconclusive about spot dynamics.

  1. Development and Performance Verification of the GANDALF High-Resolution Transient Recorder System

    CERN Document Server

    Bartknecht, Stefan; Herrmann, Florian; Königsmann, Kay; Lauser, Louis; Schill, Christian; Schopferer, Sebastian; Wollny, Heiner

    2011-01-01

    With present-day detectors in high energy physics one often faces fast analog pulses of a few nanoseconds length which cover large dynamic ranges. In many experiments both amplitude and timing information have to be measured with high accuracy. Additionally, the data rate per readout channel can reach several MHz, which leads to high demands on the separation of pile-up pulses. For an upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN we have designed the GANDALF transient recorder with a resolution of 12bit@1GS/s and an analog bandwidth of 500\\:MHz. Signals are digitized with high precision and processed by fast algorithms to extract pulse arrival times and amplitudes in real-time and to generate trigger signals for the experiment. With up to 16 analog channels, deep memories and a high data rate interface, this 6U-VME64x/VXS module is not only a dead-time free digitization unit but also has huge numerical capabilities provided by the implementation of a Virtex5-SXT FPGA. Fast algorithms implemented in the FPGA may b...

  2. High resolution tip-tilt positioning system for a next generation MLL-based x-ray microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihe; Schlossberger, Noah; Xu, Wei; Yan, Hanfei; Huang, Xiaojing; Chu, Yong S.; Nazaretski, E.

    2017-12-01

    Multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) are x-ray focusing optics with the potential to focus hard x-rays down to a single nanometer level. In order to achieve point focus, an MLL microscope needs to have the capability to perform tip-tilt motion of MLL optics and to hold the angular position for an extended period of time. In this work, we present a 2D tip-tilt system that can achieve an angular resolution of over 100 microdegree with a working range of 4°, by utilizing a combination of laser interferometer and mini retroreflector. The linear dimensions of the developed system are about 30 mm in all directions, and the thermal dissipation of the system during operation is negligible. Compact design and high angular resolution make the developed system suitable for MLL optics alignment in the next generation of MLL-based x-ray microscopes.

  3. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  4. Coping with drought: A High Resolution Drought Monitoring and Prediction System for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M.; Nijssen, B.; Shukla, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) region in North America (defined here as the Columbia and Klamath River basins plus the coastal drainages) is a diverse geographic region with complex topography and a variety of climates. Agriculture (dryland and irrigated), forestry, fisheries, and hydropower provide significant economic benefit to the region and are directly dependent on the availability of sufficient water at the right time. Additional demands are made on water supplies by recreation, ecosystem services and emerging needs such as hydropower generation in support of wind energy integration. Several major droughts have occurred over the region in recent decades (notably 1977, 2001, and 2004), which have had significant consequences for the region's agricultural, hydropower production, and environment. An emerging need for the region is the coordination of existing regional climate activities, including a better awareness of the current water availability conditions across the region. The University of Washington has operated a surface water monitor for the continental United States since 2005, which provides near real-time estimates of surface water conditions at a spatial resolution of 1/2 degree in terms of soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and total moisture based on a suite of land surface models. A higher resolution Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (DMPS) for Washington State was originally implemented at 1/8 degree and later increased to 1/16 degree. This presentation describes the extension of this system to the entire PNW region at 1/16 degree. The expanded system provides daily updates of three primary drought-related indices based on near real-time station observations in the region: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Runoff Index (SRI), and Soil Moisture Percentiles (SMP). To make the drought measures relevant to water managers, surface water conditions are not only reported on a gridded map, but watershed-level drought summary

  5. Characterization Studies of Radioactive Waste Drums Using High Resolution Gamma Spectrometric Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, M.; Cristache, C.; Done, L.; Dragolici, F.; Sima, O.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste has become a critical issue in the country and worldwide. The radioactive waste containers, containing different radioactive materials, have to be characterized before their final disposal. Destructive methods, although being the most precise, are also the most expensive and not the easiest ones from the radioprotection point of view. In this situation, high resolution gamma spectrometry proved to be a reliable method for the non destructive assay method. However, the non-homogenous composition of the radioactive waste inside the drum makes the quantitative characterization of the radioactive waste drum a difficult task. Experimental studies and computed results, combined with Monte Carlo simulations using GESPECOR, are presented in this paper as a possibility to achieve this task.

  6. High-resolution all-optical photoacoustic imaging system for remote interrogation of biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin

    2014-05-01

    Conventional photoacoustic imaging (PAI) employs light pulses to produce a photoacoustic (PA) effect and detects the resulting acoustic waves using an ultrasound transducer acoustically coupled to the target tissue. The resolution of conventional PAI is limited by the sensitivity and bandwidth of the ultrasound transducer. We have developed an all-optical versatile PAI system for characterizing ex vivo and in vivo biological specimens. The system employs noncontact interferometric detection of the acoustic signals that overcomes limitations of conventional PAI. A 532-nm pump laser with a pulse duration of 5 ns excited the PA effect in tissue. Resulting acoustic waves produced surface displacements that were sensed using a 532-nm continuous-wave (CW) probe laser in a Michelson interferometer with a GHz bandwidth. The pump and probe beams were coaxially focused using a 50X objective giving a diffraction-limited spot size of 0.48 μm. The phase-encoded probe beam was demodulated using a homodyne interferometer. The detected time-domain signal was time reversed using k-space wave-propagation methods to produce a spatial distribution of PA sources in the target tissue. Performance was assessed using PA images of ex vivo rabbit lymph node specimens and human tooth samples. A minimum peak surface displacement sensitivity of 0.19 pm was measured. The all-optical PAI (AOPAI) system is well suited for assessment of retinal diseases, caries lesion detection, skin burns, section less histology and pressure or friction ulcers.

  7. Development of a compact and high spatial resolution gamma camera system using LaBr 3(Ce)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2010-10-01

    In small animal imaging using a single photon emitting radionuclide, a high spatial resolution gamma camera is required. However, its spatial resolution is limited by the light output of conventional scintillators such as NaI(Tl). We developed and tested a small field-of-view (FOV) gamma camera using a new scintillator, LaBr3(Ce). The LaBr3(Ce) gamma camera consists of a 2 mm thick LaBr3(Ce) scintillator, a 2 in. 8×8 multi-anode position sensitive photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu H8500), and a personal computer-based data acquisition system. The LaBr3(Ce) scintillator was directly coupled to the PSPMT and was contained in a hermetically shielded and light tight aluminum case. The signals from the PSPMT were gain corrected, weighted summed, and digitized by 100 MHz free running A-D converters in the data acquisition system. The detector part of the gamma camera was encased in a tungsten gamma shield, and a tungsten pinhole collimator was mounted in front of the detector surface. The intrinsic spatial resolution that was measured using a tungsten slit mask was 0.75 mm FWHM, and the energy resolution was 8.9% FWHM for 122 keV gamma photons. We obtained transmission and emission images that demonstrated the high spatial resolution of the gamma camera system. Approximately two years after the fabrication of the detector, the flood image showed significant distortion due to the change in LaBr3(Ce) of its hygroscopic characteristic. These results confirm that the developed LaBr3(Ce) gamma camera is promising for small animal imaging using a low energy single photon emitting radionuclide if the hygroscopic problem of LaBr3(Ce) will be solved.

  8. High resolution mass spectrometry method and system for analysis of whole proteins and other large molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN; Harris, William A [Naperville, IL

    2010-03-02

    A matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method and related system for analyzing high molecular weight analytes includes the steps of providing at least one matrix-containing particle inside an ion trap, wherein at least one high molecular weight analyte molecule is provided within the matrix-containing particle, and MALDI on the high molecular weight particle while within the ion trap. A laser power used for ionization is sufficient to completely vaporize the particle and form at least one high molecular weight analyte ion, but is low enough to avoid fragmenting the high molecular weight analyte ion. The high molecular weight analyte ion is extracted out from the ion trap, and is then analyzed using a detector. The detector is preferably a pyrolyzing and ionizing detector.

  9. Design of refocusing system for a high-resolution space TDICCD camera with wide-field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shiliang; Liu, Jinguo

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the design and realization of a refocusing system for a space TDICCD camera of 2.2-meter focal length, which, features a three mirror anastigmatic(TMA) optical system along with 8 TDICCDs assemble at the focal plane, is high resolution and wide field of view. TDICCDs assemble is a kind of major method of acquiring wide field of view for space camera. In this way, the swath width reach 60km. First, the design of TMA optical system and its advantage of this space TDICCD camera was introduced; Then, the refocusing system as well as the technique of mechanical interleaving assemble for TDICCDs focal plane of this space camera was discussed in detail, At last, the refocusing system was measured. Experimental results indicated that the precision of the refocusing system is +/- 3.12μm(3σ), which satisfy the refocusing control system requirements of higher precision and stabilization.

  10. Monitoring Changes in Water Resources Systems Using High Resolution Satellite Observations: Application to Lake Urmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; AghaKouchak, A.; Madani, K.; Mirchi, A.; Farahmand, A.; Conway, C.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Urmia with its unique ecosystem in northwestern Iran is the second largest saltwater lake in the world. It is home of more than 300 species of birds, reptiles, and mammals with high salinity level of more than 300 g/l. In recent years, a significant water retreat has occurred in this lake. In this study, we tried to monitor the desiccation of the lake over more than four decades using remote sensing observations. Multi-spectral high-resolution LandSat images of the Lake Urmia region from 1972 to 2012 were acquired to derive the lake area. The composite maps of the lake were created, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood classification technique was used to classify land and water in the composite maps. The time series of the lake area reveals that it has shrunk by more than 40% in the past ten years. Moreover, water budget related components such as precipitation, soil moisture, and drought indices from remote sensing of the lake basin were utilized to investigate if droughts or climate change are the primary driving forces behind this phenomenon. These analyses show that the retreat of the lake is not related to droughts or global climate change as it has survived several drought events before year 2000. Similar analyses conducted on Lake Van located about 400 km west of Lake Urmia with very similar climate pattern revealed no significant areal change despite the lake's exposure to similar drought events. These results raise serious concern about the destructive role of unbridled development coupled with supply-oriented water management scheme driven by a classic upstream-downstream competition for water in the Lake Urmia region. There is an urgent need to investigate sustainable restoration initiatives for Lake Urmia in order to prevent an environmental disaster comparable to catastrophic death of Aral Sea.

  11. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal we describe a plan to build a deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be...

  12. Task-Based Modeling of a 5k Ultra-High-Resolution Medical Imaging System for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution, low-noise X-ray detectors based on CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) technology have demonstrated superior imaging performance for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). This paper presents a task-based model for a high-resolution medical imaging system to evaluate its ability to detect simulated microcalcifications and masses as lesions for breast cancer. A 3-D cascaded system analysis for a 50- [Formula: see text] pixel pitch CMOS APS X-ray detector was integrated with an object task function, a medical imaging display model, and the human eye contrast sensitivity function to calculate the detectability index and area under the ROC curve (AUC). It was demonstrated that the display pixel pitch and zoom factor should be optimized to improve the AUC for detecting small microcalcifications. In addition, detector electronic noise of smaller than 300 e- and a high display maximum luminance (>1000 cd/cm 2) are desirable to distinguish microcalcifications of [Formula: see text] in size. For low contrast mass detection, a medical imaging display with a minimum of 12-bit gray levels is recommended to realize accurate luminance levels. A wide projection angle range of greater than ±30° in combination with the image gray level magnification could improve the mass detectability especially when the anatomical background noise is high. On the other hand, a narrower projection angle range below ±20° can improve the small, high contrast object detection. Due to the low mass contrast and luminance, the ambient luminance should be controlled below 5 cd/ [Formula: see text]. Task-based modeling provides important firsthand imaging performance of the high-resolution CMOS-based medical imaging system that is still at early stage development for DBT. The modeling results could guide the prototype design and clinical studies in the future.

  13. High resolution signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Donald W.

    1993-08-01

    Motivated by the goal of efficient, effective, high-speed integrated-circuit realization, we have discovered an algorithm for high speed Fourier analysis called the Arithmetic Fourier Transform (AFT). It is based on the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion, a method that is well suited for integrated-circuit realization. The computation of the AFT can be carried out in parallel, pipelined channels, and the individual operations are very simple to execute and control. Except for a single scaling in each channel, all the operations are additions or subtractions. Thus, it can reduce the required power, volume, and cost. Also, analog switched-capacitor realizations of the AFT have been studied. We have also analyzed the performance of a broad and useful class of data adaptive signal estimation algorithms. This in turn has led to our proposed improvements in the methods. We have used perturbation analysis of the rank-reduced data matrix to calculate its statistical properties. The improvements made have been demonstrated by computer simulation as well as by comparison with the Cramer-Rao Bound.

  14. Low flow water quality in rivers; septic tank systems and high-resolution phosphorus signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, K.A. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Jordan, P., E-mail: p.jordan@ulster.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Agricultural Catchments Programme, Teagasc, Wexford (Ireland); Cassidy, R. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Arnscheidt, J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Ward, C. [Blackwater Regional Partnership, Caledon, Tyrone, N. Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Rural point sources of phosphorus (P), including septic tank systems, provide a small part of the overall phosphorus budget to surface waters in agricultural catchments but can have a disproportionate impact on the low flow P concentration of receiving rivers. This has particular importance as the discharges are approximately constant into receiving waters and these have restricted dilution capacity during ecologically sensitive summer periods. In this study, a number of identified high impact septic systems were replaced with modern sequential batch reactors in three rural catchments during a monitoring period of 4 years. Sub-hourly P monitoring was conducted using bankside-analysers. Results show that strategic replacement of defective septic tank systems with modern systems and polishing filters decreased the low flow P concentration of one catchment stream by 0.032 mg TP L{sup -1} (0.018 mg TRP L{sup -1}) over the 4 years. However two of the catchment mitigation efforts were offset by continued new-builds that increased the density of septic systems from 3.4 km{sup -2} to 4.6 km{sup -2} and 13.8 km{sup -2} to 17.2 km{sup -2} and subsequently increased low flow P concentrations. Future considerations for septic system mitigation should include catchment carrying capacity as well as technology changes.

  15. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D imag...

  16. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of fluvio-deltaic systems: Prospects of system-wide chronostratigraphic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalman, Rory; Weltje, Gert Jan; Karamitopoulos, Pantelis

    2015-02-01

    with a lobe switch. Upstream of this site, the conformable surface passes into a surface of fluvial incision and terrace formation onlapped by aggradational channel-belt deposits. Identification of the isochronous bounding surfaces of chronosomes in the field offers the attractive prospect of high-resolution chronostratigraphic correlation throughout fluvio-deltaic systems.

  17. A High-Resolution SST Climatology Set for Next Generation NOAA Coral Reef Watch Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Eakin, C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Guild, L. S.; Nemani, R. R.; Hu, C.; Lynds, S. E.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Teleki, K.; Christensen, T.; Liu, G.; Nim, C.; Burgess, T.; Heron, S. F.; Skirving, W. J.; Vega-Rodriguez, M.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite-based observations provide a tool for synoptic, near-real-time monitoring of sea surface temperature (SST) at global scales. The current NOAA Coral Reef Watch’s (CRW) decision support system uses a suite of operational, near-real-time global satellite products for monitoring and predicting mass coral bleaching. The key products include SST, SST anomaly, coral bleaching HotSpots, and Degree Heating Weeks (DHW). Historically, the global CRW products have been generated using twice-weekly global nighttime-only SST analyses at 50-km resolution. A next generation Decision Support Systems (DSS) for ecosystem-based management of tropical coral reefs is currently under development that will enable researchers and resource managers to better understand the complex processes that can cause stress in coral reef ecosystems. It will provide improved, high-resolution tools and more accurate information to better understand thermal stress within coral reef ecosystems. The new DSS requires a set of global, high-resolution climatologies now under development and based on the Version 5.0 4-km Pathfinder nighttime-only daily SST dataset. High quality climatologies are essential for new DSS and inaccurate climatologies will lead to poor estimates of thermal stress. Climatology development will require identification of appropriate quality levels (flags) to accept in the Pathfinder-data set, followed by development of gap-filling algorithms that are consistent with gap filling that can be carried out on operational products. Once the new climatologies are developed, the team will begin work to develop and test new, higher spatial-resolution thermal stress products similar to those produced by Coral Reef Watch now.

  18. The ALMA Phasing System: A Beamforming Capability for Ultra-high-resolution Science at (Sub)Millimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, L. D.; Crew, G. B.; Doeleman, S. S.; Lacasse, R.; Saez, A. F.; Alef, W.; Akiyama, K.; Amestica, R.; Anderson, J. M.; Barkats, D. A.; Baudry, A.; Broguière, D.; Escoffier, R.; Fish, V. L.; Greenberg, J.; Hecht, M. H.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Honma, M.; Ho, P. T. P.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Inoue, M.; Kohno, Y.; Lopez, B.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Messias, H.; Meyer-Zhao, Z.; Mora-Klein, M.; Nagar, N. M.; Nishioka, H.; Oyama, T.; Pankratius, V.; Perez, J.; Phillips, N.; Pradel, N.; Rottmann, H.; Roy, A. L.; Ruszczyk, C. A.; Shillue, B.; Suzuki, S.; Treacy, R.

    2018-01-01

    The Atacama Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Phasing Project (APP) has developed and deployed the hardware and software necessary to coherently sum the signals of individual ALMA antennas and record the aggregate sum in Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Data Exchange Format. These beamforming capabilities allow the ALMA array to collectively function as the equivalent of a single large aperture and participate in global VLBI arrays. The inclusion of phased ALMA in current VLBI networks operating at (sub)millimeter wavelengths provides an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity, as well as enhancements in u–v coverage and north–south angular resolution. The availability of a phased ALMA enables a wide range of new ultra-high angular resolution science applications, including the resolution of supermassive black holes on event horizon scales and studies of the launch and collimation of astrophysical jets. It also provides a high-sensitivity aperture that may be used for investigations such as pulsar searches at high frequencies. This paper provides an overview of the ALMA Phasing System design, implementation, and performance characteristics.

  19. Optical scanner system for high resolution measurement of lubricant distributions on metal strips based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Philipp; Lutz, Christian; Brandenburg, Albrecht

    2017-06-01

    We present a new optical setup, which uses scanning mirrors in combination with laser induced fluorescence to monitor the spatial distribution of lubricant on metal sheets. Current trends in metal processing industry require forming procedures with increasing deformations. Thus a welldefined amount of lubricant is necessary to prevent the material from rupture, to reduce the wearing of the manufacturing tool as well as to prevent problems in post-deforming procedures. Therefore spatial resolved analysis of the thickness of lubricant layers is required. Current systems capture the lubricant distribution by moving sensor heads over the object along a linear axis. However the spatial resolution of these systems is insufficient at high strip speeds, e.g. at press plants. The presented technology uses fast rotating scanner mirrors to deflect a laser beam on the surface. This 405 nm laser light excites the autofluorescence of the investigated lubricants. A coaxial optic collects the fluorescence signal which is then spectrally filtered and recorded using a photomultiplier. From the acquired signal a two dimensional image is reconstructed in real time. This paper presents the sensor setup as well as its characterization. For the calibration of the system reference targets were prepared using an ink jet printer. The presented technology for the first time allows a spatial resolution in the millimetre range at production speed. The presented test system analyses an area of 300 x 300 mm² at a spatial resolution of 1.1 mm in less than 20 seconds. Despite this high speed of the measurement the limit of detection of the system described in this paper is better than 0.05 g/m² for the certified lubricant BAM K-009.

  20. High Spatiotemporal Resolution Prostate MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0341 TITLE: High Spatiotemporal Resolution Prostate MRI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen J. Riederer, Ph.D...Resolution Prostate MRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0341 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen J. Riederer E-Mail...overall purpose of this project is to develop improved means using MRI for detecting prostate cancer with the potential for differentiating disease

  1. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aircraft systems for watershed and rangeland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    UAS provide a new way to acquire hyperspatial data with a resolution of 6 cm that has not been available in the past. This hyperspatial data can be used to obtain detailed 1-m DEMs, mosaics of entire watersheds, detailed vegetation classification of bare soils and vegetation type, and input to mode...

  2. Develop Solid State Laser Sources for High Resolution Video Projection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickeen, B.K.

    2000-10-24

    Magic Lantern and Honeywell FM and T worked together to develop lower-cost, visible light solid-state laser sources to use in laser projector products. Work included a new family of video displays that use lasers as light sources. The displays would project electronic images up to 15 meters across and provide better resolution and clarity than movie film, up to five times the resolution of the best available computer monitors, up to 20 times the resolution of television, and up to six times the resolution of HDTV displays. The products that could be developed as a result of this CRADA could benefit the economy in many ways, such as: (1) Direct economic impact in the local manufacture and marketing of the units. (2) Direct economic impact in exports and foreign distribution. (3) Influencing the development of other elements of display technology that take advantage of the signals that these elements allow. (4) Increased productivity for engineers, FAA controllers, medical practitioners, and military operatives.

  3. Development of high spatial resolution X-ray CT system at BL47XU in SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Uesugi, K; Yagi, N; Tsuchiyama, A; Nakano, T

    2001-01-01

    High spatial resolution, micrometer range, X-ray CT system has been developed at SPring-8. The experiments were performed at the undulator beam line BL47XU. An 'in-vacuum type' undulator is employed as an X-ray source, and the X-rays are monochromatized with a liquid nitrogen cooled Si(1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. High precision rotation stage with air bearing was used for sample rotation. The transmitted images were obtained with a two-dimensional image detector, which consists of a single crystal phosphor screen (Lu sub 2 SiO sub 5 : Ce), an objective lens and a cooled CCD camera. In this system the smallest effective pixel size was set to 0.5 mu mx0.5 mu m. As a result of the experiments, three-dimensional images of a few micrometer-order texture has been successfully obtained with the developed CT system.

  4. Substrate stiffness influences high resolution printing of living cells with an ink-jet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirella, Annalisa; Vozzi, Federico; De Maria, Carmelo; Vozzi, Giovanni; Sandri, Tazio; Sassano, Duccio; Cognolato, Livio; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2011-07-01

    The adaptation of inkjet printing technology for the realisation of controlled micro- and nano-scaled biological structures is of great potential in tissue and biomaterial engineering. In this paper we present the Olivetti BioJet system and its applications in tissue engineering and cell printing. BioJet, which employs a thermal inkjet cartridge, was used to print biomolecules and living cells. It is well known that high stresses and forces are developed during the inkjet printing process. When printing living particles (i.e., cell suspensions) the mechanical loading profile can dramatically damage the processed cells. Therefore computational models were developed to predict the velocity profile and the mechanical load acting on a droplet during the printing process. The model was used to investigate the role of the stiffness of the deposition substrate during droplet impact and compared with experimental investigations on cell viability after printing on different materials. The computational model and the experimental results confirm that impact forces are highly dependent on the deposition substrate and that soft and viscous surfaces can reduce the forces acting on the droplet, preventing cell damage. These results have high relevance for cell bioprinting; substrates should be designed to have a good compromise between substrate stiffness to conserve spatial patterning without droplet coalescence but soft enough to absorb the kinetic energy of droplets in order to maintain cell viability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Assessment of an Operational System for Crop Type Map Production Using High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Satellite Optical Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Inglada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop area extent estimates and crop type maps provide crucial information for agricultural monitoring and management. Remote sensing imagery in general and, more specifically, high temporal and high spatial resolution data as the ones which will be available with upcoming systems, such as Sentinel-2, constitute a major asset for this kind of application. The goal of this paper is to assess to what extent state-of-the-art supervised classification methods can be applied to high resolution multi-temporal optical imagery to produce accurate crop type maps at the global scale. Five concurrent strategies for automatic crop type map production have been selected and benchmarked using SPOT4 (Take5 and Landsat 8 data over 12 test sites spread all over the globe (four in Europe, four in Africa, two in America and two in Asia. This variety of tests sites allows one to draw conclusions applicable to a wide variety of landscapes and crop systems. The results show that a random forest classifier operating on linearly temporally gap-filled images can achieve overall accuracies above 80% for most sites. Only two sites showed low performances: Madagascar due to the presence of fields smaller than the pixel size and Burkina Faso due to a mix of trees and crops in the fields. The approach is based on supervised machine learning techniques, which need in situ data collection for the training step, but the map production is fully automatic.

  6. High-resolution combined global gravity field modelling: Solving large kite systems using distributed computational algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingerle, Philipp; Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    One of the major obstacles in modern global gravity field modelling is the seamless combination of lower degree inhomogeneous gravity field observations (e.g. data from satellite missions) with (very) high degree homogeneous information (e.g. gridded and reduced gravity anomalies, beyond d/o 1000). Actual approaches mostly combine such data only on the basis of the coefficients, meaning that previously for both observation classes (resp. models) a spherical harmonic analysis is done independently, solving dense normal equations (NEQ) for the inhomogeneous model and block-diagonal NEQs for the homogeneous. Obviously those methods are unable to identify or eliminate effects as spectral leakage due to band limitations of the models and non-orthogonality of the spherical harmonic base functions. To antagonize such problems a combination of both models on NEQ-basis is desirable. Theoretically this can be achieved using NEQ-stacking. Because of the higher maximum degree of the homogeneous model a reordering of the coefficient is needed which leads inevitably to the destruction of the block diagonal structure of the appropriate NEQ-matrix and therefore also to the destruction of simple sparsity. Hence, a special coefficient ordering is needed to create some new favorable sparsity pattern leading to a later efficient computational solving method. Such pattern can be found in the so called kite-structure (Bosch, 1993), achieving when applying the kite-ordering to the stacked NEQ-matrix. In a first step it is shown what is needed to attain the kite-(NEQ)system, how to solve it efficiently and also how to calculate the appropriate variance information from it. Further, because of the massive computational workload when operating on large kite-systems (theoretically possible up to about max. d/o 100.000), the main emphasis is put on to the presentation of special distributed algorithms which may solve those systems parallel on an indeterminate number of processes and are

  7. Air quality over Europe and Iberian Peninsula for 2004 at high horizontal resolution: evaluation of the CALIOPE modelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorba, O.; Piot, M.; Pay, M. T.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; López, E.; Pérez, C.; Gassó, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-09-01

    In the frame of the CALIOPE project (Baldasano et al., 2008a), a high-resolution air quality forecasting system, WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ/DREAM, is under development and applied to the European domain (12km x 12km, 1hr) as well as to the Iberian Peninsula domain (4km x 4km, 1hr) to provide air quality forecasts for Spain (http://www.bsc.es/caliope/). The simulation of such high-resolution model system is possible by its implementation on the MareNostrum supercomputer. To reassure potential users and reduce uncertainties, the model system must be evaluated to assess its performances in terms of air quality levels and dynamics reproducibility. The present contribution describes a thorough quantitative evaluation study performed for a reference year (2004). CALIOPE is a complex system that integrates a variety of environmental models. WRF-ARW provides high-resolution meteorological fields to the system. It is configured with 38 vertical layers reaching up to 50 hPa. Meteorological initial and boundary conditions are obtained from the NCEP final analysis data. The HERMES emission model (Baldasano et al., 2008b) computes the emissions for the Iberian Peninsula simulation at 4 km horizontal resolution every hour using a bottom-up approach. For the European domain, HERMES disaggregates the EMEP expert emission inventory for 2004. The CMAQ chemical transport model solves the physico-chemical processes in the system. The vertical resolution of CMAQ for gas-phase and aerosols has been increased from 8 to 15 layers in order to simulate vertical exchanges more accurately. Chemical boundary conditions are provided by the LMDz-INCA2 global climate-chemistry model (see Hauglustaine et al., 2004). Finally, the DREAM model simulates long-range transport of mineral dust over the domains under study. In order to evaluate the performances of the CALIOPE system, model simulations were compared with ground-based measurements from the EMEP and Spanish air quality networks. For the European

  8. Designing A New CAD System for Pulmonary Nodule Detection in High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bakhshayesh Karam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases and lung cancer are among the most dangerous diseases with high mortality in both men and women. Lung nodules are abnormal pulmonary masses and are among major lung symptoms. A Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD system may play an important role in accurate and early detection of lung nodules. This article presents a new CAD system for lung nodule detection from chest computed tomography (CT images.Methods: Twenty-five adult patients with lung nodules in their CT scan images presented to the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2011-2012 were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned into two experimental (9 female, 6 male, mean age 43±5.63 yrs and control (6 female, 4 male, mean age 39±4.91 yrs groups. A fully-automatic method was developed for detecting lung nodules by employing medical image processing and analysis and statistical pattern recognition algorithms.esults: Using segmentation methods, the lung parenchyma was extracted from 2-D CT images. Then, candidate regions were labeled in pseudo-color images. In the next step, some features of lung nodules were extracted. Finally, an artificial feed forward neural network was used for classification of nodules.Conclusion: Considering the complexity and different shapes of lung nodules and large number of CT images to evaluate, finding lung nodules are difficult and time consuming for physicians and include human error. Experimental results showed the accuracy of the proposed method to be appropriate (P<0.05 for lung nodule detection.

  9. The NEMO-AROME WMED high-resolution air-sea coupled system: impact on dense water formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    The North-Western Mediterranean Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur, especially during winter when the succession of strong northerly and north-westerly wind boosts the dense water formation. The second Special Observation Period (SOP2) of the HyMeX program, which took place between 1st February and 15th March 2013, was dedicated to the observation of the dense water formation and ocean deep convection processes. During this period, several platforms sampled the area, providing a unique dataset to better identify the coupled processes leading to dense water formation. This study investigates the impacts of the fine scale ocean-atmosphere coupled processes on dense water formation during winter 2012-2013. We developed the coupling between the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36° resolution) and the AROME-WMED numerical weather prediction model (2.5 km resolution) and ran the high-resolution air-sea coupled system over SOP2. The coupled simulation is compared to an ocean-only simulation forced by AROME-WMED operational forecasts and to air-sea observations collected during the HyMeX SOP2. The results show small differences in term of surface fluxes. Dense water formation is slightly changed in the coupled simulation, whereas fine-scale ocean processes are significantly modified.

  10. Assessment of pulmonary changes in the course of systemic lupus erythematosus – application of high resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Jeka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease that leads to a chronic inflammatory process in tissues and organs. The ailments of the respiratory system are dominated by dry or exudative pleurisy. Interstitial changes can occur, and their effects vary depending on their severity. In extreme cases, they may lead to death. The paper presents a description of three SLE patients with different severity of organ changes treated in the Department of Rheumatology. During the process of diagnosis and treatment, among others chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT of the lungs were performed. Based on the chest X-ray results, no interstitial lung changes were detected, whereas based on the HRCT every patient was diagnosed with an interstitial lung process. In the assessment of pulmonary changes in the course of SLE, HRCT allows the diagnosis of organ damage in an early stage and the introduction of appropriate treatment.

  11. Analysis of Properties of Reflectance Reference Targets for Permanent Radiometric Test Sites of High Resolution Airborne Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Ahokas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and optimal exploitation of rapidly developing airborne imaging methods requires geometric and radiometric quality assurance of production systems in operational conditions. Permanent test sites are the most promising approach for cost-efficient performance assessment. Optimal construction of permanent radiometric test sites for high resolution airborne imaging systems is an unresolved issue. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of commercially available gravels and painted and unpainted concrete targets for permanent, open-air radiometric test sites under sub-optimal climate conditions in Southern Finland. The reflectance spectrum and reflectance anisotropy and their stability were characterized during the summer of 2009. The management of reflectance anisotropy and stability were shown to be the key issues for better than 5% reflectance accuracy.

  12. Feature extraction from high resolution satellite imagery as an input to the development and rapid update of a METRANS geographic information system (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report describes an accuracy assessment of extracted features derived from three : subsets of Quickbird pan-sharpened high resolution satellite image for the area of the : Port of Los Angeles, CA. Visual Learning Systems Feature Analyst and D...

  13. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled 1,1 '-Diphenylethylene: Electronically Excited and Ionic States of a Prototypical Cross-Conjugated System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolarek, S.; Vdovin, A.; Rijs, A.; van Walree, C. A.; Zgierski, M. Z.; Buma, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated pi-system, 1,1'-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio

  14. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for high resolution topography and monitoring: civil protection purposes on hydrogeological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Eleonora; Castagnetti, Cristina; Corsini, Alessandro; De Cono, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    The proposed work concerns the analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), also known as drones, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or UAS (Unmanned Aerial System), on hydrogeological contexts for civil protection purposes, underlying the advantages of using a flexible and relatively low cost system. The capabilities of photogrammetric RPAS multi-sensors platform were examined in term of mapping, creation of orthophotos, 3D models generation, data integration into a 3D GIS (Geographic Information System) and validation through independent techniques such as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). The RPAS used (multirotor OktoXL, of the Mikrokopter) was equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, digital cameras for photos and videos, an inertial navigation system, a radio device for communication and telemetry, etc. This innovative way of viewing and understanding the environment showed huge potentialities for the study of the territory, and due to its characteristics could be well integrated with aircraft surveys. However, such characteristics seem to give priority to local applications for rigorous and accurate analysis, while it remains a means of expeditious investigation for more extended areas. According to civil protection purposes, the experimentation was carried out by simulating operational protocols, for example for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, land mapping, georeferencing methods (with or without Ground Control Points - GCP) based on high resolution topography (2D and 3D information).

  15. Cooperation on Improved Isotopic Identification and Analysis Software for Portable, Electrically Cooled High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Jonathan G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Tzu-Fang [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vo, Duc T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, Pierre F. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Weber, Anne-Laure [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2017-07-20

    Under a 2006 agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America and the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) of France, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) within DOE and IRSN initiated a collaboration to improve isotopic identification and analysis of nuclear material [i.e., plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U)]. The specific aim of the collaborative project was to develop new versions of two types of isotopic identification and analysis software: (1) the fixed-energy response-function analysis for multiple energies (FRAM) codes and (2) multi-group analysis (MGA) codes. The project is entitled Action Sheet 4 – Cooperation on Improved Isotopic Identification and Analysis Software for Portable, Electrically Cooled, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Systems (Action Sheet 4). FRAM and MGA/U235HI are software codes used to analyze isotopic ratios of U and Pu. FRAM is an application that uses parameter sets for the analysis of U or Pu. MGA and U235HI are two separate applications that analyze Pu or U, respectively. They have traditionally been used by safeguards practitioners to analyze gamma spectra acquired with high-resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) systems that are cooled by liquid nitrogen. However, it was discovered that these analysis programs were not as accurate when used on spectra acquired with a newer generation of more portable, electrically cooled HRGS (ECHRGS) systems. In response to this need, DOE/NNSA and IRSN collaborated to update the FRAM and U235HI codes to improve their performance with newer ECHRGS systems. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed this work for DOE/NNSA.

  16. Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom); Chard, Patrick [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom); Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States); MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

  17. High resolution polarimeter-interferometer system for fast equilibrium dynamics and MHD instability studies on Joint-TEXT tokamak (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Zhuang, G; Li, Q; Liu, Y; Gao, L; Zhou, Y N; Jian, X; Xiong, C Y; Wang, Z J; Brower, D L; Ding, W X

    2014-11-01

    A high-performance Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system has been developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. This system has time response up to 1 μs, phase resolution MHD) instabilities and external coil-induced Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMP). The 3-wave technique, in which the line-integrated Faraday angle and electron density are measured simultaneously by three laser beams with specific polarizations and frequency offsets, is used. In order to achieve optimum resolution, three frequency-stabilized HCOOH lasers (694 GHz, >35 mW per cavity) and sensitive Planar Schottky Diode mixers are used, providing stable intermediate-frequency signals (0.5-3 MHz) with S/N > 50. The collinear R- and L-wave probe beams, which propagate through the plasma poloidal cross section (a = 0.25-0.27 m) vertically, are expanded using parabolic mirrors to cover the entire plasma column. Sources of systematic errors, e.g., stemming from mechanical vibration, beam non-collinearity, and beam polarization distortion are individually examined and minimized to ensure measurement accuracy. Simultaneous density and Faraday measurements have been successfully achieved for 14 chords. Based on measurements, temporal evolution of safety factor profile, current density profile, and electron density profile are resolved. Core magnetic and density perturbations associated with MHD tearing instabilities are clearly detected. Effects of non-axisymmetric 3D RMP in ohmically heated plasmas are directly observed by polarimetry for the first time.

  18. High-resolution light-sheet microscopy: a simulation of an optical illumination system for oil immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Heintzmann, Rainer; Leischner, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Light sheet microscopy is a microscopy technique characterized by an illumination from the side, perpendicular to the direction of observation. While this is often used and easy to implement for imaging samples with water-immersion, the application in combination with oil-immersion is less often used and requires a specific optimization. In this paper we present our design of a light-sheet illumination optical system with a ~1μm illumination thickness, a long working distance through the immersion oil, and including a focusing system allowing for moving the focus-spot of the lightsheet laterally through the field of view. This optical design allows for the acquisition of fluorescence images in 3D with isotropic resolution of below 1 micrometer of whole-mount samples with a size of ~1mm diameter. This technique enables high-resolution insights in the 3D structure of biological samples, e.g. for research of insect anatomy or for imaging of biopsies in medical diagnostics.

  19. Fast high-resolution computer-generated hologram computation using multiple graphics processing unit cluster system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Naoki; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shiraki, Atsushi; Okada, Naohisa; Oikawa, Minoru; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-10-20

    To overcome the computational complexity of a computer-generated hologram (CGH), we implement an optimized CGH computation in our multi-graphics processing unit cluster system. Our system can calculate a CGH of 6,400×3,072 pixels from a three-dimensional (3D) object composed of 2,048 points in 55 ms. Furthermore, in the case of a 3D object composed of 4096 points, our system is 553 times faster than a conventional central processing unit (using eight threads).

  20. High resolution time-intensity recording with synchronized solution delivery system for the human dynamic taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tazuko K; Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Suen, Justin Long Kiu; Fong, Barry Siu Keung; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-04-30

    Time-intensity sensory evaluation of human taste perception is useful to know the feedback of a taste stimulus from tongue. However, it has not been profiled together with reaction time under the constant stimulating tongue in high time resolution. We first made intra-oral device to deliver taste solution to anterior, lateral and posterior tongue in standardized condition. Second, we developed a time-intensity sensory evaluation meter linked to synchronized taste solution delivery system. Time-intensity profiles were recorded in higher temporal resolution than our past study. Third, we analyzed the corrected taste quality reaction time from raw sensory perception data, and following sensory evaluation profile. The new method acquired taste sensory evaluation data with 1 ms temporal resolution and found the reaction timing was 908 ms, the corrected taste quality reaction time was 712 ms, maximum intensity was 3.47, and corrected time to reach maximum intensity was 1312 ms. The coefficient of variation ranged from 0.007 to 0.236 indicating low variance. Time-intensity sensory evaluation in this study did not sacrifice the feature of raw data. The relative comparison of time-intensity sensory profile among subjects will be available in this system in future study, while it was still difficult to define the absolute value of reaction time. Our method could gather real-time feedback for the time-intensity sensory evaluation of a taste stimulus under the standardized stimulating tongue. This could be useful for establishing database of time-intensity sensory profiles for comparison of delicate taste perceptions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High Resolution Imagery of Nikunau Island Coral Reef Systems Prior to and During Suspected Bleaching Events

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a collection of imagery of Nikunau Island coral reef systems. They are pairs of imagery where one image was acquired during a suspected bleaching...

  2. High Resolution Imagery of Keppel Island Coral Reef Systems Prior to and During Suspected Bleaching Events

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a collection of imagery of Keppel Island coral reef systems. They are pairs of imagery where one image was acquired during a suspected bleaching...

  3. High Resolution Imagery of Howland Island Coral Reef Systems Prior to and During Suspected Bleaching Events

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a collection of imagery of Howland Island coral reef systems. They are pairs of imagery where one image was acquired during a suspected bleaching...

  4. System for Reporting High Resolution Ocean Pressures in Near Realtime for the Purposes of Tsunami Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This invention is the NOAA Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) system, which utilizes a seafloor tsunameter linked to an ocean surface buoy via...

  5. Identification of TNIP1 Polymorphisms by High Resolution Melting Analysis with Unlabelled Probe: Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Yuewen; Shao, Yong; Wu, Qi; Guan, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Wan, Jun; Yu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background. TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) interacting with protein 1 (TNIP1) acts as a negative regulator of NF-κB and plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of immune system. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) showed that the polymorphism of TNIP1 was associated with the disease risk of SLE in Caucasian. In this study, we investigated whether the association of TNIP1 with SLE was replicated in Chinese population. Methods. The association of TNIP1 SNP rs7708392 (G/C) was determined by high resolution melting (HRM) analysis with unlabeled probe in 285 SLE patients and 336 healthy controls. Results. A new SNP rs79937737 located on 5 bp upstream of rs7708392 was discovered during the HRM analysis. No association of rs7708392 or rs79937737 with the disease risk of SLE was found. Furthermore, rs7708392 and rs79937737 were in weak linkage disequilibrium (LD). Hypotypes analysis of the two SNPs also showed no association with SLE in Chinese population. Conclusions. High resolution melting analysis with unlabeled probes proves to be a powerful and efficient genotyping method for identifying and screening SNPs. No association of rs7708392 or rs79937737 with the disease risk of SLE was observed in Chinese population. PMID:22852072

  6. Identification of TNIP1 Polymorphisms by High Resolution Melting Analysis with Unlabelled Probe: Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3 interacting with protein 1 (TNIP1 acts as a negative regulator of NF-κB and plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of immune system. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS showed that the polymorphism of TNIP1 was associated with the disease risk of SLE in Caucasian. In this study, we investigated whether the association of TNIP1 with SLE was replicated in Chinese population. Methods. The association of TNIP1 SNP rs7708392 (G/C was determined by high resolution melting (HRM analysis with unlabeled probe in 285 SLE patients and 336 healthy controls. Results. A new SNP rs79937737 located on 5 bp upstream of rs7708392 was discovered during the HRM analysis. No association of rs7708392 or rs79937737 with the disease risk of SLE was found. Furthermore, rs7708392 and rs79937737 were in weak linkage disequilibrium (LD. Hypotypes analysis of the two SNPs also showed no association with SLE in Chinese population. Conclusions. High resolution melting analysis with unlabeled probes proves to be a powerful and efficient genotyping method for identifying and screening SNPs. No association of rs7708392 or rs79937737 with the disease risk of SLE was observed in Chinese population.

  7. A high resolution data assimilation system for the Aegean Sea hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korres, G.; Nittis, K.; Hoteit, I.; Triantafyllou, G.

    2009-05-01

    We present the development and validation of an eddy-resolving sequential data assimilation system for the Aegean Sea hydrodynamics that has been developed as part of the Poseidon operational system. The assimilation scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter which is an error subspace Extended Kalman filter that operates with low-rank error covariance matrices as a way to reduce the computational burden. The filter was used to correct the forecast state of a 1/20° Princeton Ocean Model (POM) of the Aegean Sea every time new observations were available. The model is forced with hourly fluxes from a 1/10° ETA regional atmospheric model and is one-way nested to a 1/10° POM model of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The assimilated data set is multivariate including weekly AVISO sea level anomalies, weekly AVHRR sea surface temperature, and daily Ferrybox sea surface salinity (SSS) along the ferry boat route from Piraeus to Heraklion. Data assimilation experiments are performed to validate the system over a 6-month period (January-June, 2004). In one of the assimilation experiments, where the Ferrybox SSS data were not assimilated and used as independent observations, the multivariate assimilation system was able to reduce the error on the SSS prediction. Additional assimilation of the Ferrybox data on a daily basis shows their positive impact on other predicted variables of the system and their significant local effect on the SSS prediction within the southern Aegean Sea.

  8. Characterization of the spatial resolution of different high-frequency imaging systems using a novel anechoic-sphere phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoux, Erwan; Mamou, Jonathan; Aristizábal, Orlando; Ketterling, Jeffrey A

    2011-05-01

    The spatial resolution of high-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >20 MHz) imaging systems is usually determined using wires perpendicular to the beam. Recently, two tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) were developed to estimate three-dimensional (3-D) resolution. Each TMP consists of nine 1-cm-wide slabs of tissue-mimicking material containing randomly distributed anechoic spheres. All anechoic spheres in one slab have the same dimensions, and their diameter is increased from 0.1 mm in the first slab to 1.09 mm in the last. The scattering background for one set of slabs was fabricated using 3.5-μm glass beads; the second set used 6.4-μm glass beads. The ability of a HFU system to detect these spheres against a speckle background provides a realistic estimation of its 3-D spatial resolution. In the present study, these TMPs were used with HFU systems using single-element transducers, linear arrays, and annular arrays. The TMPs were immersed in water and each slab was scanned using two commercial imaging systems and a custom HFU system based on a 5-element annular array. The annular array had a nominal center frequency of 40 MHz, a focal length of 12 mm, and a total aperture of 6 mm. A synthetic-focusing algorithm was used to form images with an increased depth-of-field. The penetration depth was increased by using a linear-chirp signal spanning 15 to 65 MHz over 4 μs. Results obtained with the custom system were compared with those of the commercial systems (40-MHz probes) in terms of sphere detection, i.e., 3-D spatial resolution, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Resulting B-mode images indicated that only the linear-array transducer failed to clearly resolve the 0.2-mm spheres, which showed that the 3-D spatial resolution of the single-element and annular-array transducers was superior to that of the linear array. The single-element transducer could only detect these spheres over a narrow 1.5 mm depth-of-field, whereas the annular array was able to detect them to

  9. The Sensitivity and Specificity of a new Scoring System Using High Resolution Computed Tomography to Diagnose Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman A. Abdullah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To find a non-invasive diagnostic method for lung cancer with the results almost as accurate as histopathological examinations using HRCT scoring system.Method This study was conducted from December 2006 until March 2008. A total of 55 persons, comprised of 40 male and 15 female patients suspected of having lung cancer, underwent high resolution computed tomography with and without contrast as well as CT-guided transthoracic needle aspiration to obtain cytology specimens.Results Histopathological examinations revealed the existence of lung cancer in 43 patients (78% and benign lesions in 12 patients (22%. A scoring system was then made based on the similarities of findings from CT and histopathologic examinations. In the the age group of 49 years and above, tumor volume of more than 68 cm3, HU of more than 21, spicula positive, angiogram positive and lymph node positive had a value of respectively 20, 19, 10, 24, 18, and 17 (total score 108.Conclusion This new method to diagnose lung cancer is constantly as accurate as histological findings with a sensitivity of 97.7% and a specificity of 83,3% and a cut-off score of 35. According to this system, a score of less than 35 indicates that the lesions were benign while a score higher than 35 is suggestive malignant. (Med J Indones2009;18:179-86Key word: High resolution CT; Lung cancer; Scoring

  10. Cognitive Vision and Perceptual Grouping by Production Systems with Blackboard Control - An Example for High-Resolution SAR-Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Eckart; Middelmann, Wolfgang; Sörgel, Uwe

    The laws of gestalt-perception play an important role in human vision. Psychological studies identified similarity, good continuation, proximity and symmetry as important inter-object relations that distinguish perceptive gestalts from arbitrary sets of clutter objects. Particularly, symmetry and continuation possess a high potential in detection, identification, and reconstruction of man-made objects. This contribution focuses on coding this principle in an automatic production system. Such systems capture declarative knowledge. Procedural details are defined as control strategy for an interpreter. Often an exact solution is not feasible while approximately correct interpretations of the data with the production system are sufficient. Given input data and a production system the control acts accumulatively instead of reducing. The approach is assessment driven features any-time capability and fits well into the recently discussed paradigms of cognitive vision. An example from automatic extraction of groupings and symmetry in man-made structure from high resolution SAR-image data is given. The contribution also discusses the relations of such approach to the "mid-level" of what is today proposed as "cognitive vision".

  11. A High-Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Kjær, Helle Astrid

    2016-01-01

    signals of abrupt climate change in deep polar ice cores. To test its performance, we used the system to analyze different climate intervals in ice drilled at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) site, Greenland. The quality of our continuous measurement of stable water isotopes has been...... at NEEM camp....

  12. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for Vegetation Mapping: Very High Resolution Multispectral Imagery and Terrain Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the interest in using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for remote sensing of natural resources has been growing considerably. Over the last few years, we have used a small UAS equipped with a low-cost digital camera to acquire thousands of images (6-8 cm GSD), which have been orthore...

  13. Retrieval of foliar information about plant pigment systems from high resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ustin, S.L.; Gitelson, A.A.; Jacquemoud, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Asner, G.P.; Gamon, J.A.; Zarco-Tejada, P.

    2009-01-01

    Life on Earth depends on photosynthesis. Photosynthetic systems evolved early in Earth history and have been stable for 2.5 billion years, providing prima facie evidence for the significance of pigments in plant functions. Photosynthetic pigments fill multiple roles from increasing the range of

  14. JOINT PROCESSING OF UAV IMAGERY AND TERRESTRIAL MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM DATA FOR VERY HIGH RESOLUTION CITY MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gruen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Both unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technology and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS are important techniques for surveying and mapping. In recent years, the UAV technology has seen tremendous interest, both in the mapping community and in many other fields of application. Carrying off-the shelf digital cameras, the UAV can collect high quality aerial optical images for city modeling using photogrammetric techniques. In addition, a MMS can acquire high density point clouds of ground objects along the roads. The UAV, if operated in an aerial mode, has difficulties in acquiring information of ground objects under the trees and along façades of buildings. On the contrary, the MMS collects accurate point clouds of objects from the ground, together with stereo images, but it suffers from system errors due to loss of GPS signals, and also lacks the information of the roofs. Therefore, both technologies are complementary. This paper focuses on the integration of UAV images, MMS point cloud data and terrestrial images to build very high resolution 3D city models. The work we will show is a practical modeling project of the National University of Singapore (NUS campus, which includes buildings, some of them very high, roads and other man-made objects, dense tropical vegetation and DTM. This is an intermediate report. We present work in progress.

  15. Characterization of a Compact, High Resolution Readout System for Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Liangliang; Mjörnmark, U

    2013-01-01

    For the electronics, the requirements on miniaturization, the data volume and transfer bandwidth, temperature stability, power consumption and radiation hardness, high density of integration have to be driven to the technical limits and the detector development towards this is going on for the linear collider experiment. To meet these needs, S-ALTRO16 c...

  16. High resolution quantum metrology via quantum interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajoy, Ashok; Liu, Yixiang; Saha, Kasturi; Marseglia, Luca; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Cappellaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a promising platform for quantum metrology - in particular for nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging to determine high resolution structures of single molecules placed outside the diamond. The conventional technique for sensing of external nuclear spins involves monitoring the effects of the target nuclear spins on the NV center coherence under dynamical decoupling (the CPMG/XY8 pulse sequence). However, the nuclear spin affects the NV coherence only at precise free evolution times - and finite timing resolution set by hardware often severely limits the sensitivity and resolution of the method. In this work, we overcome this timing resolution barrier by developing a technique to supersample the metrology signal by effectively implementing a quantum interpolation of the spin system dynamics. This method will enable spin sensing at high magnetic fields and high repetition rate, allowing significant improvements in sensitivity and spectral resolution. We experimentally demonstrate a resolution boost by over a factor of 100 for spin sensing and AC magnetometry. The method is shown to be robust, versatile to sensing normal and spurious signal harmonics, and ultimately limited in resolution only by the number of pulses that can be applied.

  17. High-speed, high-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system for retinal imaging in the 1060 nm wavelength region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanathasan, Prabakar; Forbes, Peter; Ren, Zhao; Malchow, Doug; Boyd, Shelley; Bizheva, Kostadinka

    2008-11-01

    A high-speed (47,000 A-scans/s), ultrahigh axial resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for retinal imaging at approximately 1060 nm, based on a 1024 pixel linear array, 47 kHz readout rate InGaAs camera is presented. When interfaced with a custom superluminescent diode (lambda(c) = 1020 nm, Deltalambda = 108 nm, Pout = 9 mW), the system provides 3.3 microm axial OCT resolution at the surface of biological tissue, approximately 4.5 microm in vivo in rat retina, approximately 5.7 microm in vivo in human retina, and 110 dB sensitivity for 870 microW incident power and 21 mus integration time. Retinal tomograms acquired in vivo from a human volunteer and a rat animal model show clear visualization of all intraretinal layer and increased penetration into the choroid.

  18. Development of a high-resolution detection module for the INSERT SPECT/MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busca, Paolo; Fiorini, Carlo; Butt, Arslan D; Occhipinti, Michele; Quaglia, Riccardo; Trigilio, Paolo [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nemeth, Gabor; Major, Peter; Bukki, Tamas; Nagy, Kalman [Mediso Medical Imaging Systems, Alsotorokvesz 14, H-1022 Budapest (Hungary); Piemonte, Claudio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rieger, Jan [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.UniversityF.F.), Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (Integrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes are being developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging (7 and 9.4 T), the second one dedicated to clinical imaging (3 T).

  19. High-resolution spectrally-resolved fiber optic sensor interrogation system based on a standard DWDM laser module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njegovec, Matej; Donlagic, Denis

    2010-11-08

    This paper presents a spectrally-resolved integration system suitable for the reading of Bragg grating, all-fiber Fabry-Perot, and similar spectrally-resolved fiber-optic sensors. This system is based on a standard telecommunication dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission module that contains a distributed feedback laser diode and a wavelength locker. Besides the transmission module, only a few additional opto-electronic components were needed to build an experimental interrogation system that demonstrated over a 2 nm wide wavelength interrogation range, and a 1 pm wavelength resolution. When the system was combined with a typical Bragg grating sensor, a strain resolution of 1 με and temperature resolution of 0.1 °C were demonstrated experimentally. The proposed interrogation system relies entirely on Telecordia standard compliant photonic components and can thus be straightforwardly qualified for use within the range of demanding applications.

  20. High resolution magic angle spinning 1H NMR of childhood brain and nervous system tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Nigel P

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain and nervous system tumours are the most common solid cancers in children. Molecular characterisation of these tumours is important for providing novel biomarkers of disease and identifying molecular pathways which may provide putative targets for new therapies. 1H magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS is a powerful tool for determining metabolite profiles from small pieces of intact tissue and could potentially provide important molecular information. Methods Forty tissue samples from 29 children with glial and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours were analysed using HR-MAS (600 MHz Varian gHX nanoprobe. Tumour spectra were fitted to a library of individual metabolite spectra to provide metabolite values. These values were then used in a two tailed t-test and multi-variate analysis employing a principal component analysis and a linear discriminant analysis. Classification accuracy was estimated using a leave-one-out analysis and B632+ bootstrapping. Results Glial tumours had significantly (two tailed t-test p Conclusion HR-MAS identified key differences in the metabolite profiles of childhood brain and nervous system improving the molecular characterisation of these tumours. Further investigation of the underlying molecular pathways is required to assess their potential as targets for new agents.

  1. High-resolution annual maps of whole system mangrove carbon stocks from 2000 to 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove forests store high densities of organic carbon compared to other forested ecosystems1. Such high carbon storage coupled with their rate of deforestation means that mangroves can contribute to global carbon emissions and are candidates for Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes. This study quantifies two important datasets required for emissions and PES reporting: 1) annual mangrove carbon stocks from 2000 to 2012 at the global, national, and sub-national level; and 2) global carbon emissions resulting from deforestation within this period. We show that mangroves stored 4.19 Pg of carbon in 2012, with Indonesia, Brazil, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea accounting for greater than 50% of this stock. Of this 4.19 Pg, 2.96 Pg of the global carbon stock is contained within the soil and 1.23 Pg in the living biomass. Two percent of global carbon was lost between 2000 and 2012, equivalent to 316,705 tonnes of potential C02 emissions.

  2. High-Resolution Modelling of Health Impacts from Air Pollution for Denmark using the Integrated Model System EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an integrated health impact assessment system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution; Brandt et al., 2013a; 2013b), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. The EVA system has previously been used to assess the health impacts based on results from a regional model DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model; Brandt et al., 2012). In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different scales; the DEHM model to calculate the air pollution levels with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the UBM model (Urban Background Model ; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) to further calculate the air pollution at 1 km x 1 km resolution for Denmark using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data based on the SPREAD model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. The new developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over the years 2006-2014 for Denmark. Furthermore, a sensitivity study of the health impact using coarse and fine resolutions in the model system has been carried out to evaluate the effect of improved description of the geographical population distribution with respect to location of local emissions. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt

  3. A Short-Term and High-Resolution System Load Forecasting Approach Using Support Vector Regression with Hybrid Parameters Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaiguang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-25

    This work proposes an approach for distribution system load forecasting, which aims to provide highly accurate short-term load forecasting with high resolution utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) based forecaster and a two-step hybrid parameters optimization method. Specifically, because the load profiles in distribution systems contain abrupt deviations, a data normalization is designed as the pretreatment for the collected historical load data. Then an SVR model is trained by the load data to forecast the future load. For better performance of SVR, a two-step hybrid optimization algorithm is proposed to determine the best parameters. In the first step of the hybrid optimization algorithm, a designed grid traverse algorithm (GTA) is used to narrow the parameters searching area from a global to local space. In the second step, based on the result of the GTA, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to determine the best parameters in the local parameter space. After the best parameters are determined, the SVR model is used to forecast the short-term load deviation in the distribution system.

  4. Heterodyne high-spectral-resolution lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouza, Fernando; Witschas, Benjamin; Reitebuch, Oliver

    2017-10-10

    In this work, a novel lidar technique to perform high-spectral-resolution measurements of the atmospheric backscatter is discussed and the first results are presented. The proposed method, which relies on a heterodyne detection receiver, allows us not only to separate the molecular and the aerosol component of the atmospheric backscatter, but also to investigate the spectral shape of the Rayleigh-Brillouin line. As in the case of the direct-detection high-spectral-resolution lidars, the separation of the different scattering processes would allow an independent system calibration and aerosol extinction measurements. The proposed retrieval technique was successfully tested on the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt airborne Doppler wind lidar system with measurements conducted during different measurement campaigns and under different atmospheric conditions. In light of these results, further ideas for the implementation of a dedicated heterodyne high-spectral-resolution lidar are discussed.

  5. Estimating spatially distributed turbulent heat fluxes from high-resolution thermal imagery acquired with a UAV system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Claire; Thiem, Christina Elisabeth; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-05-19

    aerodynamic and radiometric temperature) that depends on the surface-to-air temperature gradient yielded the best agreement with EC measurements. This study showed that the applied UAV system equipped with a dual-camera set-up allows for the acquisition of thermal imagery with high spatial and temporal resolution that illustrates the small-scale heterogeneity of thermal surface properties. The UAV-based thermal imagery therefore provides the means for analysing patterns of LST and other surface properties with a high level of detail that cannot be obtained by traditional remote sensing methods.

  6. High resolution resistivity profiling using STRATAGEM system; Stratagem wo mochiita kobunkainohi teiko kozo tansarei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inazaki, T. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A tensor type CSMT method (STRATAGEM) was introduced for the purpose of investigating shallow subsurface, and a field test has been carried out thereon. This system consists of a transmission section, and a sensor section and a data acquisition and processing section to observe waveforms in a responsive electromagnetic field. The signal source is a semi-circular air loop with a radius of a little smaller than 2 m. The measuring points were selected at locations about 200 m apart from the signal source to measure two electric field components and two magnetic field components by using sensors installed on the ground surface. The field test was performed at the Yutsubo area in Oita Prefecture, Japan. The electric field dipole is basically 5 m long, while S and E lines are 10 m long. The measurement frequency ranges from 96 kHz to 1000 kHz. The measurement time was about five minutes, and the whole measurement work including apparatus set-up and withdrawal was completed in about 15 minutes to minimize interference with the field which is a meadow. The field test result revealed that resistivity profile in shallow subsurface can be obtained much more easily than with the conventional CSMT method. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Raman, AFM and SNOM high resolution imaging of carotene crystals in a model carrot cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygula, Anna; Oleszkiewicz, Tomasz; Grzebelus, Ewa; Pacia, Marta Z; Baranska, Malgorzata; Baranski, Rafal

    2018-02-02

    Three non-destructive and complementary techniques, Raman imaging, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy were used simultaneously to show for the first time chemical and structural differences of carotenoid crystals. Spectroscopic and microscopic scanning probe measurements were applied to the released crystals or to crystals accumulated in a unique, carotenoids rich callus tissue growing in vitro that is considered as a new model system for plant carotenoid research. Three distinct morphological crystal types of various carotenoid composition were identified, a needle-like, rhomboidal and helical. Raman imaging using 532 and 488 nm excitation lines provided evidence that the needle-like and rhomboidal crystals had similar carotenoid composition and that they were composed mainly of β-carotene accompanied by α-carotene. However, the presence of α-carotene was not identified in the helical crystals, which had the characteristic spatial structure. AFM measurements of crystals identified by Raman imaging revealed the crystal topography and showed the needle-like and rhomboidal crystals were planar but they differed in all three dimensions. Combining SNOM and Raman imaging enabled indication of carotenoid rich structures and visualised their distribution in the cell. The morphology of identified subcellular structures was characteristic for crystalline, membraneous and tubular chromoplasts that are plant organelles responsible for carotenoid accumulation in cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Anomalies by High-Resolution Chromosomal Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the contribution of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA in the prenatal diagnosis of fetuses with central nervous system (CNS anomalies but normal chromosomal karyotype. A total of 46 fetuses with CNS anomalies with or without other ultrasound anomalies but normal karyotypes were evaluated by array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH or single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array. The result showed that CNVs were detected in 17 (37.0% fetuses. Of these, CNVs identified in 5 (5/46, 10.9% fetuses were considered to be likely pathogenic, and CNVs detected in 3 (3/46, 6.5% fetuses were defined as being of uncertain clinical significance. Fetuses with CNS malformations plus other ultrasound anomalies had a higher rate of pathogenic CNVs than those with isolated CNS anomalies (13.6% versus 8.3%, but there was no significant difference (Fisher’s exact test, P>0.05. Pathogenic CNVs were detected most frequently in fetuses with Dandy-Walker syndrome (2/6, 33.3% when compared with other types of neural malformations, and holoprosencephaly (2/7, 28.6% ranked the second. CMA is valuable in prenatal genetic diagnosis of fetuses with CNS anomalies. It should be considered as part of prenatal diagnosis in fetuses with CNS malformations and normal karyotypes.

  9. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  10. High Resolution Imaging with AEOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patience, J; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E

    2001-08-27

    The U. S. Air Force Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) which includes a 941 actuator adaptive optics system on a 3.7m telescope has recently been made available for astronomical programs. Operating at a wavelength of 750 nm, the diffraction-limited angular resolution of the system is 0.04 inches; currently, the magnitude limit is V {approx} 7 mag. At the distances of nearby open clusters, diffraction-limited images should resolve companions with separations as small as 4-6 AU--comparable to the Sun-Jupiter distance. The ability to study such close separations is critical, since most companions are expected to have separations in the few AU to tens of AU range. With the exceptional angular resolution of the current AEOS setup, but restricted target magnitude range, we are conducting a companion search of a large, well-defined sample of bright early-type stars in nearby open clusters and in the field. Our data set will both characterize this relatively new adaptive optics system and answer questions in binary star formation and stellar X-ray activity. We will discuss our experience using AEOS, the data analysis involved, and our initial results.

  11. High resolution seismic refraction method with multichannel digital data acquisition system; Digital ta channel sokutei system wo mochiita koseido kussetsuho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper introduces a multichannel digital data acquisition system and examples of measurements with the system in seismic exploration using the high resolution seismic refraction method. The high resolution seismic refraction system performs analyses nearly automatically by using a computer after initial travel time has been read. Therefore, the system requires high-accuracy travel time data, for which a multichannel digital measuring instrument developed recently for seismic exploration using the refraction method has been used for the measurement. The specification specifies the number of channels at 144 as a maximum, a sampling time of 62.5 {mu}sec to 4 m sec, the maximum number of sampling of 80,000 samples, and gain accuracy of {plus_minus} 1%. The system was used for surveying a tunnel having a maximum soil cover of about 800 m. The traverse line length is about 6 km, the distance between vibration receiving points is 50 m, and the number of vibration receiving points is 194. Executing measurements of single point system using GPS can derive accurate velocity in the vicinity of the basic face of the tunnel construction. Results were obtained from the investigation, which can serve more for actual construction work. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A High-resolution 3D Geodynamical Model of the Present-day India-Asia Collision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B.; Baumann, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-resolution, 3D geodynamic model of the present-day India-Asia collision system. The model is separated into multiple tectonic blocks, for which we estimate the first order rheological properties and the impact on the dynamics of the collision system. This is done by performing systematic simulations with different rheologies to minimize the misfit to observational constraints such as the GPS-velocity field. The simulations are performed with the parallel staggered grid FD code LaMEM using a numerical resolution of at least 512x512x256 cells to resolve dynamically important shear zones reasonably well. A fundamental part of this study is the reconstruction of the 3D present-day geometry of Tibet and the adjacent regions. Our interpretations of crust and mantle lithosphere geometry are jointly based on a globally available shear wave tomography (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013) and the Crust 1.0 model (Laske et al. http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust1.html). We regionally refined and modified our interpretations based on seismicity distributions and focal mechanisms and incorporated regional receiver function studies to improve the accuracy of the Moho in particular. Results suggest that we can identify at least one "best-fit" solution in terms of rheological model properties that reproduces the observed velocity field reasonably well, including the strong rotation of the GPS velocity around the eastern syntax of the Himalaya. We also present model co-variances to illustrate the trade-offs between the rheological model parameters, their respective uncertainties, and the model fit. Schaeffer, A.J., Lebedev, S., 2013. Global shear speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophysical Journal International 194, 417-449. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt095

  13. TerraSAR-X high-resolution radar remote sensing: an operational warning system for Rift Valley fever risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vignolles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the vicinity of the Barkedji village (in the Ferlo region of Senegal, the abundance and aggressiveness of the vector mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever (RVF are strongly linked to rainfall events and associated ponds dynamics. Initially, these results were obtained from spectral analysis of high-resolution (~10 m Spot-5 images, but, as a part of the French AdaptFVR project, identification of the free water dynamics within ponds was made with the new high-resolution (down to 3-meter pixels, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite (TerraSAR-X produced by Infoterra GmbH, Friedrichshafen/Potsdam, Germany. During summer 2008, within a 30 x 50 km radar image, it was found that identified free water fell well within the footprints of ponds localized by optical data (i.e. Spot-5 images, which increased the confidence in this new and complementary remote sensing technique. Moreover, by using near real-time rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, NASA/JAXA joint mission, the filling-up and flushingout rates of the ponds can be accurately determined. The latter allows for a precise, spatio-temporal mapping of the zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes capable of revealing the variability of pond surfaces. The risk for RVF infection of gathered bovines and small ruminants (~1 park/km2 can thus be assessed. This new operational approach (which is independent of weather conditions is an important development in the mapping of risk components (i.e. hazards plus vulnerability related to RVF transmission during the summer monsoon, thus contributing to a RVF early warning system.

  14. TerraSAR-X high-resolution radar remote sensing: an operational warning system for Rift Valley fever risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolles, Cécile; Tourre, Yves M; Mora, Oscar; Imanache, Laurent; Lafaye, Murielle

    2010-11-01

    In the vicinity of the Barkedji village (in the Ferlo region of Senegal), the abundance and aggressiveness of the vector mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever (RVF) are strongly linked to rainfall events and associated ponds dynamics. Initially, these results were obtained from spectral analysis of high-resolution (~10 m) Spot-5 images, but, as a part of the French AdaptFVR project, identification of the free water dynamics within ponds was made with the new high-resolution (down to 3-meter pixels), Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite (TerraSAR-X) produced by Infoterra GmbH, Friedrichshafen/Potsdam, Germany. During summer 2008, within a 30 x 50 km radar image, it was found that identified free water fell well within the footprints of ponds localized by optical data (i.e. Spot-5 images), which increased the confidence in this new and complementary remote sensing technique. Moreover, by using near real-time rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), NASA/JAXA joint mission, the filling-up and flushing-out rates of the ponds can be accurately determined. The latter allows for a precise, spatio-temporal mapping of the zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes capable of revealing the variability of pond surfaces. The risk for RVF infection of gathered bovines and small ruminants (~1 park/km(2)) can thus be assessed. This new operational approach (which is independent of weather conditions) is an important development in the mapping of risk components (i.e. hazards plus vulnerability) related to RVF transmission during the summer monsoon, thus contributing to a RVF early warning system.

  15. LabVIEW graphical user interface for a new high sensitivity, high resolution micro-angio-fluoroscopic and ROI-CBCT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleshis, C.; Ionita, C. N.; Yadava, G.; Patel, V.; Bednarek, D. R.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Verevkin, A.; Rudin, S.

    2008-03-01

    A graphical user interface based on LabVIEW software was developed to enable clinical evaluation of a new High-Sensitivity Micro-Angio-Fluoroscopic (HSMAF) system for real-time acquisition, display and rapid frame transfer of high-resolution region-of-interest images. The HSMAF detector consists of a CsI(Tl) phosphor, a light image intensifier (LII), and a fiber-optic taper coupled to a progressive scan, frame-transfer, charged-coupled device (CCD) camera which provides real-time 12 bit, 1k × 1k images capable of greater than 10 lp/mm resolution. Images can be captured in continuous or triggered mode, and the camera can be programmed by a computer using Camera Link serial communication. A graphical user interface was developed to control the camera modes such as gain and pixel binning as well as to acquire, store, display, and process the images. The program, written in LabVIEW, has the following capabilities: camera initialization, synchronized image acquisition with the x-ray pulses, roadmap and digital subtraction angiography acquisition (DSA), flat field correction, brightness and contrast control, last frame hold in fluoroscopy, looped play-back of the acquired images in angiography, recursive temporal filtering and LII gain control. Frame rates can be up to 30 fps in full-resolution mode. The user friendly implementation of the interface along with the high frame-rate acquisition and display for this unique high-resolution detector should provide angiographers and interventionalists with a new capability for visualizing details of small vessels and endovascular devices such as stents and hence enable more accurate diagnoses and image guided interventions.

  16. LabVIEW Graphical User Interface for a New High Sensitivity, High Resolution Micro-Angio-Fluoroscopic and ROI-CBCT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleshis, C; Ionita, Cn; Yadava, G; Patel, V; Bednarek, Dr; Hoffmann, Kr; Verevkin, A; Rudin, S

    2008-01-01

    A graphical user interface based on LabVIEW software was developed to enable clinical evaluation of a new High-Sensitivity Micro-Angio-Fluoroscopic (HSMAF) system for real-time acquisition, display and rapid frame transfer of high-resolution region-of-interest images. The HSMAF detector consists of a CsI(Tl) phosphor, a light image intensifier (LII), and a fiber-optic taper coupled to a progressive scan, frame-transfer, charged-coupled device (CCD) camera which provides real-time 12 bit, 1k × 1k images capable of greater than 10 lp/mm resolution. Images can be captured in continuous or triggered mode, and the camera can be programmed by a computer using Camera Link serial communication. A graphical user interface was developed to control the camera modes such as gain and pixel binning as well as to acquire, store, display, and process the images. The program, written in LabVIEW, has the following capabilities: camera initialization, synchronized image acquisition with the x-ray pulses, roadmap and digital subtraction angiography acquisition (DSA), flat field correction, brightness and contrast control, last frame hold in fluoroscopy, looped playback of the acquired images in angiography, recursive temporal filtering and LII gain control. Frame rates can be up to 30 fps in full-resolution mode. The user friendly implementation of the interface along with the high framerate acquisition and display for this unique high-resolution detector should provide angiographers and interventionalists with a new capability for visualizing details of small vessels and endovascular devices such as stents and hence enable more accurate diagnoses and image guided interventions. (Support: NIH Grants R01NS43924, R01EB002873).

  17. LabVIEW Graphical User Interface for a New High Sensitivity, High Resolution Micro-Angio-Fluoroscopic and ROI-CBCT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleshis, C; Ionita, CN; Yadava, G; Patel, V; Bednarek, DR; Hoffmann, KR; Verevkin, A; Rudin, S

    2008-01-01

    A graphical user interface based on LabVIEW software was developed to enable clinical evaluation of a new High-Sensitivity Micro-Angio-Fluoroscopic (HSMAF) system for real-time acquisition, display and rapid frame transfer of high-resolution region-of-interest images. The HSMAF detector consists of a CsI(Tl) phosphor, a light image intensifier (LII), and a fiber-optic taper coupled to a progressive scan, frame-transfer, charged-coupled device (CCD) camera which provides real-time 12 bit, 1k × 1k images capable of greater than 10 lp/mm resolution. Images can be captured in continuous or triggered mode, and the camera can be programmed by a computer using Camera Link serial communication. A graphical user interface was developed to control the camera modes such as gain and pixel binning as well as to acquire, store, display, and process the images. The program, written in LabVIEW, has the following capabilities: camera initialization, synchronized image acquisition with the x-ray pulses, roadmap and digital subtraction angiography acquisition (DSA), flat field correction, brightness and contrast control, last frame hold in fluoroscopy, looped playback of the acquired images in angiography, recursive temporal filtering and LII gain control. Frame rates can be up to 30 fps in full-resolution mode. The user friendly implementation of the interface along with the high framerate acquisition and display for this unique high-resolution detector should provide angiographers and interventionalists with a new capability for visualizing details of small vessels and endovascular devices such as stents and hence enable more accurate diagnoses and image guided interventions. (Support: NIH Grants R01NS43924, R01EB002873) PMID:18836570

  18. Development of high-resolution multi-scale modelling system for simulation of coastal-fluvial urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joanne; Indiana Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen; Hartnett, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Urban developments in coastal zones are often exposed to natural hazards such as flooding. In this research, a state-of-the-art, multi-scale nested flood (MSN_Flood) model is applied to simulate complex coastal-fluvial urban flooding due to combined effects of tides, surges and river discharges. Cork city on Ireland's southwest coast is a study case. The flood modelling system comprises a cascade of four dynamically linked models that resolve the hydrodynamics of Cork Harbour and/or its sub-region at four scales: 90, 30, 6 and 2 m. Results demonstrate that the internalization of the nested boundary through the use of ghost cells combined with a tailored adaptive interpolation technique creates a highly dynamic moving boundary that permits flooding and drying of the nested boundary. This novel feature of MSN_Flood provides a high degree of choice regarding the location of the boundaries to the nested domain and therefore flexibility in model application. The nested MSN_Flood model through dynamic downscaling facilitates significant improvements in accuracy of model output without incurring the computational expense of high spatial resolution over the entire model domain. The urban flood model provides full characteristics of water levels and flow regimes necessary for flood hazard identification and flood risk assessment.

  19. Time-domain multiplexed high resolution fiber optics strain sensor system based on temporal response of fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiageng; Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan

    2017-09-04

    We developed a multiplexed strain sensor system with high resolution using fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (FFPI) as sensing elements. The temporal responses of the FFPIs excited by rectangular laser pulses are used to obtain the strain applied on each FFPI. The FFPIs are connected by cascaded couplers and delay fiber rolls for the time-domain multiplexing. A compact optoelectronic system performing closed-loop cyclic interrogation is employed to improve the sensing resolution and the frequency response. In the demonstration experiment, 3-channel strain sensing with resolutions better than 0.1 nε and frequency response higher than 100 Hz is realized.

  20. High-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg

    2014-03-15

    An ultracompact high-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscope with a femtosecond near infrared fiber laser has been utilized to study the cellular autofluorescence during freezing and thawing of cells. Cooling resulted in an increase of the intracellular fluorescence intensity followed by morphological modifications at temperatures below -10 °C, depending on the application of the cryoprotectant DMSO and the cooling rate. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging revealed an increase of the mean lifetime with a decrease in temperature. Non-destructive, label-free optical biopsies of biomaterial in ice can be obtained with sub-20 mW mean powers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating High-Resolution Geophysical Technologies with a GIS-Based Decision Support System into Evaluation and Management of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, N. M.

    2004-05-01

    Wetlands perform many ecological functions and provide numerous societal benefits such as providing unique wildlife habitats, natural mechanisms for water purification, flood storage, recreational opportunities and natural resources. Geophysical technologies are increasingly used on land for environmental assessment. However, geophysical evaluation of wetlands has received minimal attention. The problems associated with conventional direct sampling of subsurface properties are exasperated in shallow water wetlands due to the logistical constraints imposed by these environments. Growing interest in wetlands highlights a need for high-resolution, non-invasive methods for evaluating and managing wetland water resources. We have developed an integrated geophysical-GIS approach to investigating shallow water wetlands. Rapid geophysical data acquisition in shallow water (less than 2 ft) is achieved using a plastic paddleboat modified as a "research vessel" for conducting high-resolution geophysical surveys. The vessel is designed for reconnaissance electromagnetic terrain conductivity (TC), reconnaissance gradiometer and 2D/3D continuous electrical resistivity imaging. A buoyant 12-electrode array, using non-polarizing Pb-PbCl2 junctions, is pulled behind the boat with simultaneous measurement of 10 resistances at two-second intervals using a SYSCAL PRO acquisition system. All instrumentation was tested and modified to ensure removal of artifacts caused by the metal steering mechanism. A multi-purpose surface water quality probe simultaneously records water depth, surface water conductivity, salinity, temperature, pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen content. All instruments are set to take a multi parameter measurement every two seconds while paddling. Decimeter scale location of all measurements is obtained at the instant of acquisition using precision differential GPS unit. We are typically able to survey an average of 8 km in one day, producing over 6,000 measurements

  2. Evaluation of the use of high spatial resolution AOD retrievals from MODIS on air quality monitoring system in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, A. D.; Natali, L.; Prinn, R.; Molina, L.; Artaxo, P.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L.; Chin, M.

    2007-12-01

    The aerosol quality monitoring system in most mega-cities is based on a network of ground-based stations essentially measuring aerosol mass concentrations in one or two particle size ranges (usually PM10 and PM2.5). Satellite retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over urban areas has become an extremely important additional source of aerosol data as urbanization increases exponentially worldwide, and is critical in megacities without ground-based networks. Progress in this satellite domain will provide an alternative tool to complement the monitoring of urban air-pollution control efforts. Recent studies have compared quantitative AOD data from the MODIS sensor on the Terra and Aqua satellite (10 km x 10 km pixels) with data from ground-based particulate matter monitoring networks and have shown that the remote sensing product can be used quantitatively to estimate PM2.5 under certain conditions. Nevertheless, major improvements in the accuracy and spatial resolution of the satellite products are required for air quality applications in urban areas. We discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of satellite AOD products with high spatial resolution over urban areas as air quality monitoring tools. The AOD product from satellites was compared specifically to the measured ground based PM2.5 mass concentrations of aerosols in different urban areas including Mexico City and Sao Paulo. We will present the results of a study evaluating the use of the remote sensing of aerosols as a complementary tool to the ground based monitoring of aerosols in the atmosphere in urban areas.

  3. A Generalized Image Scene Decomposition-Based System for Supervised Classification of Very High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiYong Lv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Very high resolution (VHR remote sensing images are widely used for land cover classification. However, to the best of our knowledge, few approaches have been shown to improve classification accuracies through image scene decomposition. In this paper, a simple yet powerful observational scene scale decomposition (OSSD-based system is proposed for the classification of VHR images. Different from the traditional methods, the OSSD-based system aims to improve the classification performance by decomposing the complexity of an image’s content. First, an image scene is divided into sub-image blocks through segmentation to decompose the image content. Subsequently, each sub-image block is classified respectively, or each block is processed firstly through an image filter or spectral–spatial feature extraction method, and then each processed segment is taken as the feature input of a classifier. Finally, classified sub-maps are fused together for accuracy evaluation. The effectiveness of our proposed approach was investigated through experiments performed on different images with different supervised classifiers, namely, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbor, naive Bayes classifier, and maximum likelihood classifier. Compared with the accuracy achieved without OSSD processing, the accuracy of each classifier improved significantly, and our proposed approach shows outstanding performance in terms of classification accuracy.

  4. SyPRID sampler: A large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Andrew; Kaiser, Carl; Young, Craig M.; Hiebert, Laurel S.; Cole, Eli; Wagner, Jamie K. S.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2017-03-01

    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening-closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.

  5. Combining high resolution vertical gradients and sequence stratigraphy to delineate hydrogeologic units for a contaminated sedimentary rock aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica R.; Parker, Beth L.; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Runkel, Anthony C.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogeologic units (HGUs), representing subsurface contrasts in hydraulic conductivity, form the basis for all conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow. However, conventionally, delineation of these units relies heavily on data sets indirect with respect to hydraulic properties. Here, we use the spatial and temporal characteristics of the vertical component of hydraulic gradient (i.e., vertical gradient) as the primary line of evidence for delineating HGUs for Cambrian-Ordovician sedimentary rocks at a site in Dane County, Wisconsin. The site includes a 16 km2 area encompassing a 3 km long mixed organic contaminants plume. The vertical gradients are derived from hydraulic head profiles obtained using high resolution Westbay multilevel systems installed at 7 locations along two, orthogonal 4 km long cross-sections and monitoring to depths between 90 and 146 m with an average of 3-4 monitoring zones per 10 m. These vertical gradient cross-sections reveal 11 laterally extensive HGUs with contrasting vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv). The position and thickness of the Kv contrasts are consistently associated with sequence stratigraphic features (maximum flooding intervals and sequence boundaries) distinguished at the site using cores and borehole geophysical logs. The same sequence stratigraphic features are also traceable across much of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system of the Midwest US. The vertical gradients and sequence stratigraphy were arrived at independently and when combined provide a hydraulically calibrated sequence stratigraphic framework for the site. This framework provides increased confidence in the precise delineation and description of the nature of HGU contacts in each borehole, reduced uncertainty in interpolation of the HGUs between boreholes, and some capability to predict HGU boundaries and thickness in offsite areas where high resolution hydraulic data sets are not available. Consequently, this HGU conceptual model will

  6. Monsoon low-pressure systems over India: a climatology study and high-resolution climate sensitivity simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørland, S.; Sorteberg, A.; Rasmussen, R.; Liu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Monsoon low-pressure systems (LPS) are thought to be one of the most rain-bearing synoptic scale systems that develop during the Indian monsoon. Because of the large socioeconomic impact these cyclonic storms may have on the Indian community, it is important to understand their dynamical and thermodynamic structure. A cyclone tracking algorithm has been used to detect the monsoon LPS in the ERA-Interim reanalysis for the time period 1979-2010. By using both the ERA-Interim precipitation and the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) daily gridded rainfall, the LPS that generated an extreme rainfall event, defined by the 99.5 percentile, is picked out, and analyzed. Composite and statistical analysis has been preformed on different ERA-Interim parameters that has been chosen based on a simple description of the precipitation. The general structure of the LPS is seen in the different composite, with a pronounced cold core at lower levels and warm core aloft. The results from the composite also suggest that it is the latent heat release that induces the strong upward motion, and is thus important for driving the monsoon LPS. By performing a stepwise linear regression we show that we can describe a large part of the precipitation variability within a monsoon LPS, with only a few meteorological parameters. The sensitivity to a change in one of the meteorological parameters is also investigated, and the precipitation shows largest sensitivity to a change in the temperature at 950hPa, and to the vertical velocity and specific humidity at 750hPa. Next, 10 of the monsoon low-pressure systems detected by the tracking algorithm, is picked out and simulated with the high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The horizontal resolution is 4km. For each case, 3 different simulations are performed: one control run, where the initial and lateral boundary conditions are from the ERA-Interim reanalysis; and two perturbed runs. The method for generating the

  7. Solar corona at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Zombeck, M. V. Z.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The earth's surface is shielded from solar X rays almost completely by the atmosphere. It is, therefore, necessary to place X-ray detectors on rockets or orbiting satellites. Solar rays were detected for the first time in the late 1940's, using V-2 rockets. In 1960, the first true X-ray images of the sun were obtained with the aid of a simple pinhole camera. The spatial resolution of the X-ray images could be considerably improved by making use of reflective optics, operating at grazing incidence. Aspects of X-ray mirror developments are discussed along with the results obtained in coronal studies utilizing the new devices for the observation of solar X-ray emission. It is pointed out that the major achievements of the Skylab missions were due primarily to the unique opportunity to obtain data over an extended period of time. Attention is given to normal incidence X-ray optics, achievements possible by making use of high spatial resolution optics, and details of improved mirror design.

  8. High-resolution seismic characterization of the gas and gas hydrate system at Green Canyon 955, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Hart, Patrick E.; Collett, Timothy S.; Shedd, William; Frye, Matthew; Weimer, Paul; Boswell, Ray

    2017-01-01

    The Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments at lease block Green Canyon 955 (GC955) in the Gulf of Mexico include sand-rich strata with high saturations of gas hydrate; these gas hydrate accumulations and the associated geology have been characterized over the past decade using conventional industry three-dimensional (3D) seismic data and dedicated logging-while-drilling (LWD) borehole data. To improve structural and stratigraphic characterization and to address questions of gas flow and reservoir properties, in 2013 the U.S. Geological Survey acquired high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) seismic data at GC955. Combined analysis of all available data improves our understanding of the geological evolution of the study area, which includes basin-scale migration of the Mississippi River sediment influx as well as local-scale shifting of sedimentary channels at GC955 in response to salt-driven uplift, structural deformation associated with the salt uplift, and upward gas migration from deeper sediments that charges the main gas hydrate reservoir and shallower strata. The 2D data confirm that the sand-rich reservoir is composed principally of sediments deposited in a proximal levee setting and that episodes of channel scour, interspersed with levee deposition, have resulted in an assemblage of many individual proximal levee deposit “pods” each with horizontal extent up to several hundred meters. Joint analysis of the 2D and 3D data reveals new detail of a complex fault network that controls the fluid-flow system; large east-west trending normal faults allow fluid flow through the reservoir-sealing fine-grained unit, and smaller north-south oriented faults provide focused fluid-flow pathways (chimneys) through the shallower sediments. This system has enabled the flow of gas from the main reservoir to the seafloor throughout the recent history at GC955, and its intricacies help explain the distributed occurrences of gas hydrate in the intervening strata.

  9. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  10. The Transition of High-Resolution NASA MODIS Sea Surface Temperatures into the WRF Environmental Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Jedlove, Gary J.; Santos, Pablo; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) composite at 2-km resolution that has been implemented in version 3 of the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). The WRF EMS is a complete, full physics numerical weather prediction package that incorporates dynamical cores from both the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). The installation, configuration, and execution of either the ARW or NMM models is greatly simplified by the WRF EMS to encourage its use by NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and the university community. The WRF EMS is easy to run on most Linux workstations and clusters without the need for compilers. Version 3 of the WRF EMS contains the most recent public release of the WRF-NMM and ARW modeling system (version 3 of the ARW is described in Skamarock et al. 2008), the WRF Pre-processing System (WPS) utilities, and the WRF Post-Processing program. The system is developed and maintained by the NWS National Science Operations Officer Science and Training Resource Coordinator. To initialize the WRF EMS with high-resolution MODIS SSTs, SPoRT developed the composite product consisting of MODIS SSTs over oceans and large lakes with the NCEP Real-Time Global (RTG) filling data over land points. Filling the land points is required due to minor inconsistencies between the WRF land-sea mask and that used to generate the MODIS SST composites. This methodology ensures a continuous field that adequately initializes all appropriate arrays in WRF. MODIS composites covering the Gulf of Mexico, western Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean are generated daily at 0400, 0700, 1600, and 1900 UTC corresponding to overpass times of the NASA Aqua and Terra polar orbiting satellites. The MODIS SST product is output in gridded binary-1 (GRIB-1) data

  11. Status and Perspectives of the Mini-MegaTORTORA Wide-field Monitoring System with High Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Karpov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we briefly summarize our long-term experience of constructing and operating wide-field monitoring cameras with sub-second temporal resolution to look for optical components of GRBs, fast-moving satellites and meteors. The general hardware requirements for these systems are discussed, along with algorithms for real-time detection and classification of various kinds of short optical transients. We also give a status report on the next generation, the MegaTORTORA multi-objective and transforming monitoring system, whose 6-channel (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Spain and 9-channel prototypes (Mini-MegaTORTORA-Kazan we have been building at SAO RAS. This system combines a wide field of view with subsecond temporal resolution in monitoring regime, and is able, within fractions of a second, to reconfigure itself to follow-up mode, which has better sensitivity and simultaneously provides multi-color and polarimetric information on detected transients.

  12. Development and application of a high resolution hybrid modelling system for the evaluation of urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, N.; Pirovano, G.; Lonati, G.; Balzarini, A.; Toppetti, A.; Riva, G. M.; Bedogni, M.

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid modelling system (HMS) was developed to provide hourly concentrations at the urban local scale. The system is based on the combination of a meteorological model (WRF), a chemical and transport eulerian model (CAMx), which computes concentration levels over the regional domains, and a lagrangian dispersion model (AUSTAL2000), accounting for dispersion phenomena within the urban area due to local emission sources; a source apportionment algorithm is also included in the HMS in order to avoid the double counting of local emissions. The HMS was applied over a set of nested domains, the innermost covering a 1.6 × 1.6 km2 area in Milan city center with 20 m grid resolution, for NOX simulation in 2010. For this paper the innermost domain was defined as ;local;, excluding usual definition of urban areas. WRF model captured the overall evolution of the main meteorological features, except for some very stagnant situations, thus influencing the subsequent performance of regional scale model CAMx. Indeed, CAMx was able to reproduce the spatial and temporal evolution of NOX concentration over the regional domain, except a few episodes, when observed concentrations were higher than 100 ppb. The local scale model AUSTAL2000 provided high-resolution concentration fields that sensibly mirrored the road and traffic pattern in the urban domain. Therefore, the first important outcome of the work is that the application of the hybrid modelling system allowed a thorough and consistent description of urban air quality. This result represents a relevant starting point for future evaluation of pollution exposure within an urban context. However, the overall performance of the HMS did not provide remarkable improvements with respect to stand-alone CAMx at the two only monitoring sites in Milan city center. HMS results were characterized by a smaller average bias, that improved about 6-8 ppb corresponding to 12-13% of the observed concentration, but by a lower correlation, that

  13. Effects of multiple-interaction photon events in a high-resolution PET system that uses 3-D positioning detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Pratx, Guillem; Lau, Frances W. Y.; Levin, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    .7% for coincidence) was noted for a uniform phantom when MIPEs with summed-energy falling within a ±12% window around the photopeak were also included. Both experimental and simulation data demonstrate that deposition falling within that energy window interacted with both crystal arrays within the same dual-LSO-PSAPD module. This result establishes the feasibility of a proposed multiplexed readout of analog output signals of the two PSAPDs within each module. Using MIPEs with summed-energy deposition within the 511 keV±12% photopeak window and a new method for estimating the location of the first photon interaction in MIPEs, the corresponding reconstructed image exhibited a peak CNR of 7.23 for the 8 mm diameter phantom spheres versus a CNR of 6.69 from images based solely on single LSO array interaction events. The improved system photon sensitivity could be exploited to reduce the scan time by up to approximately 10%, while still maintaining image quality comparable to that achieved if MIPEs were excluded. Conclusions: MIPE distribution in the detectors allows the proposed photodetector multiplexing arrangement without significant information loss. Furthermore, acquiring MIPEs can enhance system photon sensitivity and improve PET image CNR and CRC. The system under development can therefore competently acquire and analyze MIPEs and produce high-resolution PET images. PMID:21089785

  14. Effects of multiple-interaction photon events in a high-resolution PET system that uses 3-D positioning detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Pratx, Guillem; Lau, Frances W Y; Levin, Craig S

    2010-10-01

    for a uniform phantom when MIPEs with summed-energy falling within a +/- 12% window around the photopeak were also included. Both experimental and simulation data demonstrate that image exhibited a peak CNR of 7.23 for the 8 mm diameter phantom spheres versus a CNR of 6.69 from images based solely on single LSO array interaction events. The improved system photon sensitivity could be exploited to reduce the scan time by up to approximately 10%, while still maintaining image quality comparable to that achieved if MIPEs were excluded. MIPE distribution in the detectors allows the proposed photodetector multiplexing arrangement without significant information loss. Furthermore, acquiring MIPEs can enhance system photon sensitivity and improve PET image CNR and CRC. The system under development can therefore competently acquire and analyze MIPEs and produce high-resolution PET images.

  15. Fiber-Coupled Planar Light-Wave Circuit for Seed Laser Control in High Spectral Resolution Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anthony; McNeil, Shirley; Switzer, Gregg; Battle, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Precise laser remote sensing of aerosol extinction and backscatter in the atmosphere requires a high-power, pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser that is wavelength- stabilized to a narrow absorption line such as found in iodine vapor. One method for precise wavelength control is to injection seed the Nd:YAG laser with a low-power CW laser that is stabilized by frequency converting a fraction of the beam to 532 nm, and to actively frequency-lock it to an iodine vapor absorption line. While the feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated using bulk optics in NASA Langley s Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program, an ideal, lower cost solution is to develop an all-waveguide, frequency-locked seed laser in a compact, robust package that will withstand the temperature, shock, and vibration levels associated with airborne and space-based remote sensing platforms. A key technology leading to this miniaturization is the integration of an efficient waveguide frequency doubling element, and a low-voltage phase modulation element into a single, monolithic, planar light-wave circuit (PLC). The PLC concept advances NASA's future lidar systems due to its compact, efficient and reliable design, thus enabling use on small aircraft and satellites. The immediate application for this technology is targeted for NASA Langley's HSRL system for aerosol and cloud characterization. This Phase I effort proposes the development of a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide phase modulator for future integration into a PLC. For this innovation, the proposed device is the integration of a waveguide-based frequency doubler and phase modulator in a single, fiber pigtail device that will be capable of efficient second harmonic generation of 1,064-nm light and subsequent phase modulation of the 532 nm light at 250 MHz, providing a properly spectrally formatted beam for HSRL s seed laser locking system. Fabrication of the integrated PLC chip for NASA Langley, planned for

  16. Resolution enhancement of low quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of

  17. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  18. High-Temporal-Resolution High-Spatial-Resolution Spaceborne SAR Based on Continuously Varying PRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Zhirong; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Fang, Yue

    2017-07-25

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a well-established and powerful imaging technique for acquiring high-spatial-resolution images of the Earth's surface. With the development of beam steering techniques, sliding spotlight and staring spotlight modes have been employed to support high-spatial-resolution applications. In addition to this strengthened high-spatial-resolution and wide-swath capability, high-temporal-resolution (short repeat-observation interval) represents a key capability for numerous applications. However, conventional SAR systems are limited in that the same patch can only be illuminated for several seconds within a single pass. This paper considers a novel high-squint-angle system intended to acquire high-spatial-resolution spaceborne SAR images with repeat-observation intervals varying from tens of seconds to several minutes within a single pass. However, an exponentially increased range cell migration would arise and lead to a conflict between the receive window and 'blind ranges'. An efficient data acquisition technique for high-temporal-resolution, high-spatial-resolution and high-squint-angle spaceborne SAR, in which the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is continuously varied according to the changing slant range, is presented in this paper. This technique allows echo data to remain in the receive window instead of conflicting with the transmitted pulse or nadir echo. Considering the precision of hardware, a compromise and practical strategy is also proposed. Furthermore, a detailed performance analysis of range ambiguities is provided with respect to parameters of TerraSAR-X. For strong point-like targets, the range ambiguity of this technique would be better than that of uniform PRF technique. For this innovative technique, a resampling strategy and modified imaging algorithm have been developed to handle the non-uniformly sampled echo data. Simulations are performed to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique and the associated

  19. Global lateral transfer and evasion of C in freshwater systems - a revised high-resolution budget analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerwald, Ronny; Laruelle, Goulven; Hartmann, Jens; Ciais, Philippe; Regnier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The net CO2 evasion from rivers (FCO2) is an important component when quantifying the lateral displacement of biologically fixed carbon from terrestrial systems and wetlands through the river network. Here, we present global maps of FCO2 from stream orders 3 and higher at 0.5° resolution (Lauerwald et al., 2015 - GBC). This resolution is comparable to that of Earth System Model simulations of vegetation and soil C dynamics and is also compatible with GlobalNEWS simulations of fluvial DOC and POC exports to the sea (Mayorga et al., 2010 - Environmental Modeling and Software). A GIS based approach was used to derive an empirical pCO2 model trained on data from 1182 sampling locations. While only few sampling data are available for Asia and Africa, the sampling locations cover the full spectrum from high to low latitudes. The empirical model predicts pCO2 from terrestrial net primary production, population density, and slope gradient within the river catchment and mean air temperature at the sampling location (r² = 0.47). The predicted pCO2 map was combined with spatially explicit estimates of stream surface area and gas exchange velocity calculated from published empirical equations and data sets to derive the FCO2 map. We used Monte Carlo simulations to assess the uncertainties of our estimates. At the global scale, we estimate an average river pCO2 of 2400 (2019-2826) μatm and a FCO2 of 650 (483-846) Tg C yr-1 (5th and 95th percentiles of confidence interval). Our maps reveal strong latitudinal gradients in pCO2, stream surface area, and FCO2. The zone between 10°N and 10°S contributes about half of the global CO2 evasion. Combining riverine FCO2 with the estimated fluvial DOC and POC exports from GlobalNEWS and FCO2 from lakes (downscaled from Raymond et al. 2013 - Nature), the total lateral transfer of biologically fixed C on land and in wetlands adds up to 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This estimate is likely conservative because CO2 evasion from smaller streams is not

  20. High-resolution spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for surface structure determination and the study of correlated electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, Jr., Edward John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The surface structure of three molecular adsorbate systems on transition metal surfaces, (√3 x √3)R30° and (1.5 x 1.5)R18° CO adsorbed on Cu(111), and c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), have been determined using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS). The adsorption site and bond lengths are reported for the adsorbate-metal bond and the first two substrate layers. The ARPEFS diffraction pattern of the shake-up peak for c(2x2) N2/Ni(100) is also discussed. A unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level satellites is presented. We show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. Specifically, we present data for the C 1s from (√3x√3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2x1)CO/Ni(110), N is from c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), and Ni 3p from clean nickel(111). The satellite peaks in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature. A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FF-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The spectrometer is designed for ultra-high resolution theoretical resolving power E/ΔE≈-106 in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  1. High-resolution infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2010-08-01

    The hands and mind of an artist are intimately involved in the creative process of image formation, intrinsically making paintings significantly more complex than photographs to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the artist David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists began using optical projections as early as c1425 - nearly 175 years before Galileo - as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of our work, Hockney and I developed insights that I have been applying to a new approach to computerized image analysis. Recently I developed and characterized a portable high resolution infrared for capturing additional information from paintings. Because many pigments are semi-transparent in the IR, in a number of cases IR photographs ("reflectograms") have revealed marks made by the artists that had been hidden under paint ever since they were made. I have used this IR camera to capture photographs ("reflectograms") of hundreds of paintings in over a dozen museums on three continents and, in some cases, these reflectograms have provided new insights into decisions the artists made in creating the final images that we see in the visible.

  2. VT Hydrography Dataset - High Resolution NHD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) is compliant with the local resolution (also known as High Resolution) National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)...

  3. Diagnostic performance comparison of the Chartis System and high-resolution computerized tomography fissure analysis for planning endoscopic lung volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gompelmann, Daniela; Eberhardt, Ralf; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Brown, Matthew S.; Abtin, Fereidoun; Kim, Hyun J.; Holmes-Higgin, Debby; Radhakrishnan, Sri; Herth, Felix J. F.; Goldin, Jonathan

    Background and objective Endobronchial valve (EBV) therapy is optimized in patients who demonstrate little or no collateral ventilation (CV). The accuracy of the Chartis System and visual assessment of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) fissure completeness by a core radiology laboratory

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1,1 '-diphenylethylene: electronically excited and ionic states of a prototypical cross-conjugated system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolarek, S.; Vdovin, A.; Rijs, A.; van Walree, C.A.; Zgierski, M.Z.; Buma, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated π-system, 1,1′-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio calculations. We

  5. High-resolution neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikerov, V.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhitnik, I.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ignat`ev, A.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Isakov, A.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korneev, V.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krutov, V.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuzin, S.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oparin, S.N. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pertsov, A.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Podolyak, E.R. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sobel`man, I.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tindo, I.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tukarev, B.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A neutron tomography technique with a coordinate resolution of several tens of micrometers has been developed. Our results indicate that the technique resolves details with dimensions less than 100 {mu}m and measures a linear attenuation of less than {approx} 0.1 cm{sup -1}. Tomograms can be reconstructed using incomplete data. Limits on the resolution of the restored pattern are analyzed, and ways to improve the sensitivity of the technique are discussed. (orig.).

  6. New insights into hydrochemical processes in lowland river systems gained from in situ, high-resolution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew; Palmer-Felgate, Elizabeth; Halliday, Sarah; Skeffington, Richard; Loewenthal, Matthew; Jarvie, Helen; Bowes, Michael; Greenway, Gillian; Haswell, Stephen; Bell, Ian; Joly, Etienne; Fallatah, Ahmed; Neal, Colin; Williams, Richard; Gozzard, Emma; Newman, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    This work focuses on the insights obtained from in situ, high-resolution hydrochemical monitoring in three lowland UK catchments experiencing different levels of nutrient enrichment. Between November 2009 and February 2012, the upper River Kennet, the River Enborne and The Cut, all located within the Thames basin, southeast England, were instrumented with in situ analytical equipment to make hourly measurements of a range of hydrochemical determinands. The upper River Kennet is a rural catchment with limited effluent inputs above the selected monitoring point. The River Enborne is a rural catchment, impacted by agricultural runoff, and septic tank and sewage treatment works (STWs) discharges. The Cut is a highly urbanised system significantly affected by STW discharges. On the upper River Kennet and the River Enborne hourly measurements of Total Reactive Phosphorus (TRP) were made using a Systea Micromac C. In addition on the River Enborne, a Hach Lange Nitratax was used to measure nitrate (NO3). On The Cut both Total P and TRP were measured using a Hach Lange Phosphax Sigma. At all stations nutrient monitoring was supplemented with hourly pH, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity and water temperature using YSI 6600 Multi-parameter sondes. Instream hydrochemical dynamics were investigated using non-stationary time-series analysis techniques. The results reveal complex nutrient dynamics, with diurnal patterns which exhibit seasonal changes in phase and amplitude, and are influenced by flow conditions, shading and nutrient sources. On the River Enborne a marked diurnal cycle was present within the streamwater NO3 time-series. The cycle was strongest in the spring before riparian shading developed. At times of low flow a two peak diurnal cycle was also evident in the streamwater NO3 time-series. The reduction in diurnal NO3 processing after the development of riparian shading was also accompanied by a marked drop in dissolved oxygen at this time. The

  7. Recycling isoelectric focusing with computer controlled data acquisition system. [for high resolution electrophoretic separation and purification of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egen, N. B.; Twitty, G. E.; Bier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing is a high-resolution technique for separating and purifying large peptides, proteins, and other biomolecules. The apparatus described in the present paper constitutes a new approach to fluid stabilization and increased throughput. Stabilization is achieved by flowing the process fluid uniformly through an array of closely spaced filter elements oriented parallel both to the electrodes and the direction of the flow. This seems to overcome the major difficulties of parabolic flow and electroosmosis at the walls, while limiting the convection to chamber compartments defined by adjacent spacers. Increased throughput is achieved by recirculating the process fluid through external heat exchange reservoirs, where the Joule heat is dissipated.

  8. Development of high-resolution two-dimensional magnetic field measurement system by use of printed-circuit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimitsu, Moe; Qinghong, Cao; Sawada, Asuka; Hatano, Hironori; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasushi; TS-Group Team

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a new-types of high-resolution magnetic probe array for our new magnetic reconnection experiments: TS-3U (ST, FRC: R =0.2m, 2017-) and TS-4U (ST, FRC: R =0.5m, 2018-), using the advanced printed-circuit technology. They are equipped with all three-components of magnetic pick-up coils whose size is 1-5mm x 3mm. Each coil is composed of two-sided coil pattern with line width of 0.05mm. We can install two or three printed arrays in a single glass (ceramic) tube for two or three component measurements. Based on this new probe technique, we started high-resolution and high-accuracy measurement of the current sheet thickness and studied its plasma parameter dependence. We found that the thickness of current sheet increases inversely with the guide toroidal field. It is probably determined by the ion gyroradius in agreement with the particle simulation by Horiuchi etc. While the reconnection speed is steady under low guide field condition, it is observed to oscillate in the specific range of guide field, suggesting transition from the quasi-steady reconnection to the intermittent reconnection. Cause and mechanism for intermittent reconnection will be discussed using the current sheet dissipation and dynamic balance between plasma inflow and outflow. This work supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 15H05750, 15K14279 and 17H04863.

  9. High resolution of racemic phenylalanine with dication imidazolium-based chiral ionic liquids in a solid-liquid two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Haoran; Wang, Zhixia; Luo, Yingjie; Song, Hang

    2017-01-06

    A novel solid-liquid two-phase system was developed for the chiral separation of racemic phenylalanine with new dication imidazolium-based chiral ionic liquids. Preliminary experiments showed distinct enantioselectivity in amino acid extraction with the novel solid-liquid two-phase system, more L-enantiomer of amino acid cooperatively interacted with ionic liquids and copper ions to be the solid phase. Various factors, including the alkyl chain length of cations of ionic liquids, the amount of copper acetate, the ratio of n(ILs)/n(Cu2+), the amount of water and racemic phenylalanine, the resolution time together with the resolution temperature, were systematically investigated for their influence on resolution efficiency. The results showed that, under a certain condition, the enantiomeric excess value and the yield of phenylalanine in liquid phase (mainly containing D-enantiomer) were 67.8% and 96.5%, the enantiomeric excess value and the yield of phenylalanine in solid phase (mainly containing L-enantiomer) were 99.2% and 85.2%. Finally, 2D NMR technology, infrared spectroscopy and molecular simulation method were used to study the interaction mechanism. The results indicated that L-enantiomer of phenylalanine interacts more strongly with chiral ILs and Cu2+. The novel system has characteristics of free-organic solvent, simple operation, fast separation process and very high resolution efficiency for racemic phenylalanine. This work could provide a new and alternative resolution approach for other chiral separations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Harmful Algal Bloom Characterization at Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Deon; Price, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI) that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV). Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r2-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level. PMID:25826055

  11. Harmful Algal Bloom Characterization at Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Van der Merwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV. Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r2-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level.

  12. Harmful algal bloom characterization at ultra-high spatial and temporal resolution using small unmanned aircraft systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Deon; Price, Kevin P

    2015-03-27

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI) that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV). Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r(2)-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level.

  13. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  14. High-resolution and high sensitivity mesoscopic fluorescence tomography based on de-scanning EMCCD: System design and thick tissue imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mehmet Saadeddin

    Optical microscopy has been one of the essential tools for biological studies for decades, however, its application areas was limited to superficial investigation due to strong scattering in live tissues. Even though advanced techniques such as confocal or multiphoton methods have been recently developed to penetrate beyond a few hundreds of microns deep in tissues, they still cannot perform in the mesoscopic regime (millimeter scale) without using destructive sample preparation protocols such as clearing techniques. They provide rich cellular information; however, they cannot be readily employed to investigate the biological processes at larger scales. Herein, we will present our effort to establish a novel imaging approach that can quantify molecular expression in intact tissues, well beyond the current microscopy depth limits. Mesoscopic Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (MFMT) is an emerging imaging modality that offers unique potential for the non-invasive molecular assessment of thick in-vitro and in-vivo live tissues. This novel imaging modality is based on an optical inverse problem that allows for retrieval of the quantitative spatial distribution of fluorescent tagged bio-markers at millimeter depth. MFMT is well-suited for in-vivo subsurface tissue imaging and thick bio-printed specimens due to its high sensitivity and fast acquisition times, as well as relatively large fields of view. Herein, we will first demonstrate the potential of this technique using our first generation MFMT system applied to multiplexed reporter gene imaging (in-vitro) and determination of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) agent bio-distribution in a mouse model (in-vivo). Second, we will present the design rationale, in silico benchmarking, and experimental validation of a second generation MFMT (2GMFMT) system. We will demonstrate the gain in resolution and sensitivity achieved due to the de-scanned dense detector configuration implemented. The potential of this novel platform will be

  15. Simultaneous observations of structure function parameter of refractive index using a high-resolution radar and the DataHawk small airborne measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Scipión

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The SOUSY (SOUnding SYstem radar was relocated to the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO near Lima, Peru, in 2000, where the radar controller and acquisition system were upgraded with state-of-the-art parts to take full advantage of its potential for high-resolution atmospheric sounding. Due to its broad bandwidth (4 MHz, it is able to characterize clear-air backscattering with high range resolution (37.5 m. A campaign conducted at JRO in July 2014 aimed to characterize the lower troposphere with a high temporal resolution (8.1 Hz using the DataHawk (DH small unmanned aircraft system, which provides in situ atmospheric measurements at scales as small as 1 m in the lower troposphere and can be GPS-guided to obtain measurements within the beam of the radar. This was a unique opportunity to make coincident observations by both systems and to directly compare their in situ and remotely sensed parameters. Because SOUSY only points vertically, it is only possible to retrieve vertical radar profiles caused by changes in the refractive index within the resolution volume. Turbulent variations due to scattering are described by the structure function parameter of refractive index Cn2. Profiles of Cn2 from the DH are obtained by combining pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements along the helical trajectory and integrated at the same scale as the radar range resolution. Excellent agreement is observed between the Cn2 estimates obtained from the DH and SOUSY in the overlapping measurement regime from 1200 m up to 4200 m above sea level, and this correspondence provides the first accurate calibration of the SOUSY radar for measuring Cn2.

  16. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  17. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, N; Chatti, K; Coulon, P; Maitrejean, S; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.03.014

    2004-01-01

    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of beta radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as /sup 99m/Tc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range gamma -rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm/sup 2/ for /sup 3/H and 0.01 for /sup 14/C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10/sup 4/) and spatial resolution (50 mu m for /sup 3/H or /sup 99m/Tc to 150 mu m for /sup 32/P or /sup 18/F ( beta /sup +/)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitte...

  18. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  19. Design for a high-resolution small-animal spect system usingpixellated Si(Li) detectors for in vivo Iodine-125 imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.; Tindall, Craig S.; Luke,Paul N.

    2004-08-01

    We propose a design for a high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system for in vivo {sup 125}I imaging in small animal using pixellated lithium-drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors. The proposed detectors are expected to have high interaction probability (>90%), good energy resolution (<15% FWHM), and good intrinsic spatial resolution ({approx}1 mm FWHM). The SPECT system will consist of a dual head detector geometry with the distance between the detectors ranging 30-50 mm to minimize the imaging distance between the mouse and the detectors. The detectors, each with an active area of 64 mm x 40 mm (64 x 40 array of 1 mm{sup 2} pixels and a 6 mm thick Si(Li) detector), will be mounted on a rotating gantry with an axial field-of-view of 64 mm. The detector signals will be read out by custom application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). Using a high-resolution parallel-hole collimator, the expected spatial resolution is 1.6 mm FWHM at an imaging distance of 20 mm, and sensitivity is 6.7 cps/{micro}Ci. {sup 125}I is a readily available radioisotope with a long half-life of 59.4 days and it is commonly used to label biological compounds in molecular biology. Conventional gamma cameras are not optimized to detect the low emission energies (27 to 35 keV) of {sup 125}I. However, Si(Li) detector provides an ideal solution for detecting the low-energy emissions of {sup 125}I. In addition to presenting the design of the system, this paper presents a feasibility study of using Si(Li) detectors to detect the emissions of {sup 125}I.

  20. A high resolution hydrodynamic model system suitable for novel harmful algal bloom modelling in areas of complex coastline and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleynik, Dmitry; Dale, Andrew C; Porter, Marie; Davidson, Keith

    2016-03-01

    Fjordic coastlines provide sheltered locations for finfish and shellfish aquaculture, and are often subject to harmful algal blooms (HABs) some of which develop offshore and are then advected to impact nearshore aquaculture. Numerical models are a potentially important tool for providing early warning of such HAB events. However, the complex topography of fjordic shelf regions is a significant challenge to modelling. This is frequently compounded by complex bathymetry and local weather patterns. Existing structured grid models do not provide the resolution needed to represent these coastlines in their wider shelf context. In a number of locations advectively transported blooms of the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi are of particular concern for the finfish industry. Here were present a novel hydrodynamic model of the coastal waters to the west of Scotland that is based on unstructured finite volume methodology, providing a sufficiently high resolution hydrodynamical structure to realistically simulate the transport of particles (such as K. mikimotoi cells) within nearshore waters where aquaculture sites are sited. Model-observation comparisons reveal close correspondence of tidal elevations for major semidiurnal and diurnal tidal constituents. The thermohaline structure of the model and its current fields are also in good agreement with a number of existing observational datasets. Simulations of the transport of Lagrangian drifting buoys, along with the incorporation of an individual-based biological model, based on a bloom of K. mikimotoi, demonstrate that unstructured grid models have considerable potential for HAB prediction in Scotland and in complex topographical regions elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  2. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groote, R. P.; Lynch, K. M.; Wilkins, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  3. High-resolution W-band ISAR imaging system utilizing a logic-operation-based photonic digital-to-analog converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shaowen; Li, Shangyuan; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Xiao, Xuedi; Wu, Dexin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhou, Bingkun

    2018-01-22

    W-band inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging systems are very useful for automatic target recognition and classification due to their high spatial resolution, high penetration and small antenna size. Broadband linear frequency modulated wave (LFMW) is usually applied to this system for its de-chirping characteristic. However, nearly all of the LFMW generated in electronic W-band ISAR system are based on multipliers and mixers, suffering seriously from electromagnetic interference (EMI) and timing jitter. And photonic-assisted LFMW generator reported before is always limited by bandwidth or time aperture. In this paper, for the first time, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a high-resolution W-band ISAR imaging system utilizing a novel logic-operation-based photonic digital-to-analog converter (LOPDAC). The equivalent sampling rate of the LOPDAC is twice as large as the rate of the digital driving signal. Thus, a broadband LFMW with a large time aperture can be generated by the LOPDAC. This LFMW is up-converted to W band with an optical frequency comb. After photonic-assisted de-chirping processing and data processing to the echo, a high-resolution two-dimension image can be obtained. Experimentally, W-band radar with a time-bandwidth product (TBWP) as large as 79200 (bandwidth 8 GHz; temporal duration 9.9 us) is established and investigated. Results show that the two-dimension (range and cross-range) imaging resolution is ~1.9 cm × ~1.6 cm with a sampling rate of 100 MSa/s in the receiver.

  4. Evolution of a double-front Rayleigh-Taylor system using a GPU-based high resolution thermal Lattice-Boltzmann model

    CERN Document Server

    Ripesi, P; Schifano, S F; Tripiccione, R

    2014-01-01

    We study the turbulent evolution originated from a system subjected to a Rayleigh-Taylor instability with a double density at high resolution in a 2 dimensional geometry using a highly optimized thermal Lattice Boltzmann code for GPUs. The novelty of our investigation stems from the initial condition, given by the superposition of three layers with three different densities, leading to the development of two Rayleigh-Taylor fronts that expand upward and downward and collide in the middle of the cell. By using high resolution numerical data we highlight the effects induced by the collision of the two turbulent fronts in the long time asymptotic regime. We also provide details on the optimized Lattice-Boltzmann code that we have run on a cluster of GPUs

  5. Nanoscale analysis of unstained biological specimens in water without radiation damage using high-resolution frequency transmission electric-field system based on FE-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2015-04-10

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to examine biological specimens of bacteria, viruses and proteins. Until now, atmospheric and/or wet biological specimens have been examined using various atmospheric holders or special equipment involving SEM. Unfortunately, they undergo heavy radiation damage by the direct electron beam. In addition, images of unstained biological samples in water yield poor contrast. We recently developed a new analytical technology involving a frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method based on thermionic SEM. This method is suitable for high-contrast imaging of unstained biological specimens. Our aim was to optimise the method. Here we describe a high-resolution FTE system based on field-emission SEM; it allows for imaging and nanoscale examination of various biological specimens in water without radiation damage. The spatial resolution is 8 nm, which is higher than 41 nm of the existing FTE system. Our new method can be easily utilised for examination of unstained biological specimens including bacteria, viruses and protein complexes. Furthermore, our high-resolution FTE system can be used for diverse liquid samples across a broad range of scientific fields, e.g. nanoparticles, nanotubes and organic and catalytic materials. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Generalized Subspace Least Mean Square Method for High-resolution Accurate Estimation of Power System Oscillation Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Ning; Abdollahi, Ali

    2013-09-10

    A Generalized Subspace-Least Mean Square (GSLMS) method is presented for accurate and robust estimation of oscillation modes from exponentially damped power system signals. The method is based on orthogonality of signal and noise eigenvectors of the signal autocorrelation matrix. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation and compared with Prony method. Test results show that the GSLMS is highly resilient to noise and significantly dominates Prony method in tracking power system modes under noisy environments.

  7. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  8. High Resolution Global View of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Io, the most volcanic body in the solar system is seen in the highest resolution obtained to date by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. There are rugged mountains several kilometers high, layered materials forming plateaus, and many irregular depressions called volcanic calderas. Several of the dark, flow-like features correspond to hot spots, and may be active lava flows. There are no landforms resembling impact craters, as the volcanism covers the surface with new deposits much more rapidly than the flux of comets and asteroids can create large impact craters. The picture is centered on the side of Io that always faces away from Jupiter; north is to the top.Color images acquired on September 7, 1996 have been merged with higher resolution images acquired on November 6, 1996 by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The color is composed of data taken, at a range of 487,000 kilometers, in the near-infrared, green, and violet filters and has been enhanced to emphasize the extraordinary variations in color and brightness that characterize Io's face. The high resolution images were obtained at ranges which varied from 245,719 kilometers to 403,100 kilometers.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  9. High-Resolution Data for a Low-Resolution World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Brendan Williams [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-10

    In the past 15 years, the upper section of Cañon de Valle has been severely altered by wildfires and subsequent runoff events. Loss of root structures on high-angle slopes results in debris flow and sediment accumulation in the narrow canyon bottom. The original intent of the study described here was to better understand the changes occurring in watershed soil elevations over the course of several post-fire years. An elevation dataset from 5 years post-Cerro Grande fire was compared to high-resolution LiDAR data from 14 years post-Cerro Grande fire (also 3 years post-Las Conchas fire). The following analysis was motivated by a problematic comparison of these datasets of unlike resolution, and therefore focuses on what the data reveals of itself. The objective of this study is to highlight the effects vegetation can have on remote sensing data that intends to read ground surface elevation.

  10. Toward an improved representation of ocean/atmosphere interactions in high-resolution global ocean forecasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Florian; Samson, Guillaume; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Giordani, Hervé; Madec, Gurvan; Couvelard, Xavier; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Drillet, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Within the ALBATROS project, an objective is to derive a simplified model of the marine atmospheric boundary layer which would have the ability to represent key processes associated to air/sea interactions at the characteristic scales of the oceanic mesoscale. This model called SIMBAD (SIMplified Boundary Atmospheric layer moDel) is of intermediate complexity between a bulk parameterization and a full three-dimensional atmospheric model. A one-dimensional version of SIMBAD forced by large-scale atmospheric real-time data from ECMWF operational models has been integrated to the NEMO surface module and appropriate preprocessing tools have been developed. In this talk we first introduce the formulation of SIMBAD1d model and the results obtained for some atmosphere-only analytical testcases available in the literature. Then we describe the implementation of the NEMO-SIMBAD1d coupling infrastructure. This coupled system has been tested on a toy model at 1/12° resolution covering a small area of the north-east atlantic ocean. We conclude by giving the various possibilities to relax the assumption of horizontal homogeneity behind SIMBAD1d in order to further improve the realism of the coupling.

  11. Preparing a landslide and shadow inventory map from high-spatial-resolution imagery facilitated by an expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Chien

    2015-01-01

    An expert system was developed to integrate all useful spatial information and help the interpreters determine the landslide and shaded areas quickly and accurately. The intersection of two spectral indices, namely the normalized difference vegetation index and the normalized green red difference index, as well as the first principle component of the panchromatic band, is employed to automatically determine the regional thresholds of nonvegetation and dark areas. These boundaries are overlaid on the locally enhanced image and the digital topography model to closely inspect each area with a preferred viewing direction. The other geospatial information can be switched on and off to facilitate interpretation. This new approach is tested with 2 m pan-sharpened multispectral imagery from Formosat-2 taken on August 24, 2009, for several disaster areas of Typhoon Morakot. The generated inventory of landslide and shadow areas is validated with the one manually delineated from the 25 cm aerial photos taken on the same day. The production, user, and overall accuracies are higher than 82%, 85%, and 98%, respectively. The fall in production and user accuracies mainly comes from the differences in resolution. This new approach is as accurate as the general approach of manual delineation and visual interpretation, yet significantly reduces the required time.

  12. Analysis of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging using positive matrix factorization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectra: application to the dodecane low-NOx system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Flagan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive matrix factorization (PMF of high-resolution laboratory chamber aerosol mass spectra is applied for the first time, the results of which are consistent with molecular level MOVI-HRToF-CIMS aerosol-phase and CIMS gas-phase measurements. Secondary organic aerosol was generated by photooxidation of dodecane under low-NOx conditions in the Caltech environmental chamber. The PMF results exhibit three factors representing a combination of gas-particle partitioning, chemical conversion in the aerosol, and wall deposition. The slope of the measured high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS composition data on a Van Krevelen diagram is consistent with that of other low-NOx alkane systems in the same O : C range. Elemental analysis of the PMF factor mass spectral profiles elucidates the combinations of functionality that contribute to the slope on the Van Krevelen diagram.

  13. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy. Project: "Health impacts and external costs from air pollution in Denmark over 25 years" and NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project: "Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health impacts and welfare in the

  14. Resolution limits in imaging ladar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Lorenzo, Joseph; Kierstead, John; Pyburn, Dana; Sengupta, Sandip K.

    2006-02-01

    We introduce a new design concept of laser radar systems that combines both phase comparison and time-of-flight methods. We show from signal-to-noise ratio considerations that there is a fundamental limit to the overall resolution in three-dimensional imaging range laser radar (ladar). We introduce a new metric, volume of resolution, and we show from quantum noise considerations that there is a maximum resolution volume that can be achieved for a given set of system parameters. Consequently, there is a direct trade-off between range resolution and spatial resolution. Thus, in a ladar system, range resolution may be maximized at the expense of spatial image resolution and vice versa. We introduce resolution efficiency etar as a new figure of merit for ladar that describes system resolution under the constraints of a specific design, compared with its optimal resolution performance derived from quantum noise considerations. We analyze how the resolution efficiency could be utilized to improve the resolution performance of a ladar system. Our analysis could be extended to all ladars, regardless of whether they are imaging or scanning laser systems.

  15. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov

    2015-01-01

    shortcoming in preventing impasses is a need to have a priori information on the future demand for resources, and it is not always possible.One of ways to "struggle" against impasses when there is no a priori information on the process demand for resources is to detect deadlocks. Detection of impasses (without leading to their resolution yet is a periodical use of the algorithm which checks current distribution of resources to reveal whether there is an impasse and if it exists what processes are involved in it.The work objective is to develop methods and algorithms allowing us to minimize losses because of impasses in CS using the optimum strategy of conflict resolution. The offered approach is especially effective to eliminate deadlocks in management (control computer systems having a fixed set of programmes.The article offers a developed efficient strategy of the information processes management in multiprocessing CS, which detects and prevents impasses. The strategy is based on allocation of indivisible resources to computing processes so that losses caused by conflicts are minimized. The article studies a multi-criterion problem of indivisible resources allocation to the processes, with the optimality principle expressed by the known binary relation over set of average vectors of penalties for conflicts in each of resources. It is shown that sharing a decision theory tool and a classical one allows more efficient problem solution to eliminate deadlock. The feature of suggesting effective methods and algorithms to eliminate deadlocks is that they can be used in CS development and operation in real time. The article-given example shows that the proposed method and algorithm for the impasse resolution in multiprocessing CS are capable and promising.The offered method and algorithm provide reducing the average number of CS conflicts by 30-40 %.

  16. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  17. Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor; Clear, Robert

    2011-01-11

    The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

  18. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  19. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  20. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  1. High resolution technology for FPD lithography tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabu, Nobuhiko; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Tomura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro

    2013-06-01

    As the resolution of LCD panels adapted for Smartphone and Tablet PC rapidly becomes higher, the performance needed for lithography tools to produce them also becomes higher than ever. To respond to such needs, we have developed new lithography tools for mass production of high resolution LCD panels. We have executed various exposure tests to evaluate their performance. In this paper, we present the results of these tests. By employing higher NA projection optics, high resolution (2.0μm and under) has been achieved. We also present the effect of special illumination and the difference in profile between kinds of photoresist. Furthermore, we also refer what will be needed for masks and blanks in the next generation. To achieve even higher resolution, it is necessary for masks and blanks to have high flatness, low level of defects and small linewidth error.

  2. Vegetation and land carbon feedbacks in the high-resolution transient Holocene simulations using the MPI Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, Victor; Lorenz, Stephan; Raddatz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Plants influence climate through changes in the land surface biophysics (albedo, transpiration) and concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases. One of the interesting periods to investigate a climatic role of terrestrial biosphere is the Holocene, when, despite of the relatively steady global climate, the atmospheric CO2 grew by about 20 ppm from 7 kyr BP to pre-industrial. We use a new setup of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM1 consisting of the latest version of the atmospheric model ECHAM6, including the land surface model JSBACH3 with carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, coupled to the ocean circulation model MPI-OM, which includes the HAMOCC model of ocean biogeochemistry. The model has been run for several simulations over the Holocene period of the last 8000 years under the forcing data sets of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosols, solar irradiance and stratospheric ozone, as well as land-use changes. In response to this forcing, the land carbon storage increased by about 60 PgC between 8 and 4 kyr BP, stayed relatively constant until 2 kyr BP, and decreased by about 90 PgC by 1850 AD due to land use changes. Vegetation and soil carbon changes significantly affected atmospheric CO2 during the periods of strong volcanic eruptions. In response to the eruption-caused cooling, the land initially stores more carbon as respiration decreases, but then it releases even more carbon due to productivity decrease. This decadal- scale variability helps to quantify the vegetation and land carbon feedbacks during the past periods when the temporal resolution of the ice-core CO2 record is not sufficient to capture fast CO2 variations. From a set of Holocene simulations with prescribed or interactive atmospheric CO2, we get estimates of climate-carbon feedback useful for future climate studies. Members of the Hamburg Holocene Team: Jürgen Bader1, Sebastian Bathiany2, Victor Brovkin1, Martin Claussen1,3, Traute Cr

  3. High resolution imaging detectors and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan K

    2015-01-01

    Interferometric observations need snapshots of very high time resolution of the order of (i) frame integration of about 100 Hz or (ii) photon-recording rates of several megahertz (MHz). Detectors play a key role in astronomical observations, and since the explanation of the photoelectric effect by Albert Einstein, the technology has evolved rather fast. The present-day technology has made it possible to develop large-format complementary metal oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled device (CCD) array mosaics, orthogonal transfer CCDs, electron-multiplication CCDs, electron-avalanche photodiode arrays, and quantum-well infrared (IR) photon detectors. The requirements to develop artifact-free photon shot noise-limited images are higher sensitivity and quantum efficiency, reduced noise that includes dark current, read-out and amplifier noise, smaller point-spread functions, and higher spectral bandwidth. This book aims to address such systems, technologies and design, evaluation and calibration, control...

  4. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  5. Physical model of a fumarolic system inferred from a high-resolution 3-D Resistivity image of Solfatara volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Byrdina, Svetlana; Chiodini, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Johnson, Timothy C.; Ricci, Tullio; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Lebourg, Thomas; Mangiacapra, Annarita

    2017-04-01

    Solfatara crater, located inside the Phlegrean Fields caldera, is showing a significant unrest activity since 10 years with a increase of ground deformation, degassing and heating. Electrical Resistivity Imaging was performed between 2012 and 2016 with the purpose of improving our knowledge of the shallow hydrothermal system. The complete dataset includes 43,432 D-C measurements inverted using the E4D code. This 3-D inversion was compared with the mappings of surface temperature, diffuse soil CO2 flux and self-potential in order to better constrain the interpretation of the observed resistivity structure in terms of lithological contrasts and hydrothermal signatures. For the first time, we highlighted in 3-D the main geological units: Monte Olibano lava dome and Solfatara crypto-dome appear as two relatively resistive bodies (50-100 Ω.m). Furthermore, the resistivity model clearly revealed the contrasting geometry of the hydrothermal circulation in the Solfatara crater. A channel-like conductive structure (7 Ω.m) represents the condensate that flows from the main fumarolic area down to the liquid-dominated Fangaia mud pool. This interpretation is consistent with the negative Self-Potential anomaly and with the surface observations. We imaged at a metric-resolution the two main fumaroles, Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova, that have the following geochemical characteristics. Bocca Grande vent: 162°C, ˜150 t of CO2 released per day with a mass ratio CO2/H20 = 0.4 and Bocca Nuova vent: 148°C, ˜50 t of CO2 released per day with a mass ratio CO2/H20 = 0.45. The differences between these geochemical characteristics could lead one to believe that they are fed by two distinct sources at depth. On the contrary, our resistivity model shows that the two fumarolic vents are directly connected to a common resistive body (30-50 Ω.m) at a depth of 50 meters. This structure likely represents a single gas reservoir feeding the two fumaroles. Its depth corresponds indeed to a

  6. Integration of myocardial scar identified by preoperative delayed contrast-enhanced MRI into a high-resolution mapping system for planning and guidance of VT ablation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Suzuki, A.; Wang, S.; Pottinger, N.; Arter, J.; Netzer, A.; Parker, K.; Viker, K.; Packer, D. L.

    2017-03-01

    Myocardial scarring creates a substrate for reentrant circuits which can lead to ventricular tachycardia. In ventricular catheter ablation therapy, regions of myocardial scarring are targeted to interrupt arrhythmic electrical pathways. Low voltage regions are a surrogate for myocardial scar and are identified by generating an electro anatomic map at the start of the procedure. Recent efforts have focussed on integration of preoperative scar information generated from delayed contrast-enhanced MR imaging to augment intraprocedural information. In this work, we describe an initial feasibility study of integration of a preoperative MRI derived scar maps into a high-resolution mapping system to improve planning and guidance of VT ablation procedures.

  7. 3D noninvasive, high-resolution imaging using a photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system and rapid wavelength-cycling lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Gross, Daniel; Klosner, Marc; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-05-01

    Globally, cancer is a major health issue as advances in modern medicine continue to extend the human life span. Breast cancer ranks second as a cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) provides high molecular contrast at greater depths in tissue without the use of ionizing radiation. In this work, we describe the development of a PA tomography (PAT) system and a rapid wavelength-cycling Alexandrite laser designed for clinical PAI applications. The laser produces 450 mJ/pulse at 25 Hz to illuminate the entire breast, which eliminates the need to scan the laser source. Wavelength cycling provides a pulse sequence in which the output wavelength repeatedly alternates between 755 nm and 797 nm rapidly within milliseconds. We present imaging results of breast phantoms with inclusions of different sizes at varying depths, obtained with this laser source, a 5-MHz 128-element transducer and a 128-channel Verasonics system. Results include PA images and 3D reconstruction of the breast phantom at 755 and 797 nm, delineating the inclusions that mimic tumors in the breast.

  8. Fine-scale planktonic habitat partitioning at a shelf-slope front revealed by a high-resolution imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Adam T.; Cowen, Robert K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Hare, Jonathan A.

    2015-02-01

    Ocean fronts represent productive regions of the ocean, but predator-prey interactions within these features are poorly understood partially due to the coarse-scale and biases of net-based sampling methods. We used the In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) to sample across a front near the Georges Bank shelf edge on two separate sampling days in August 2010. Salinity characterized the transition from shelf to slope water, with isopycnals sloping vertically, seaward, and shoaling at the thermocline. A frontal feature defined by the convergence of isopycnals and a surface temperature gradient was sampled inshore of the shallowest zone of the shelf-slope front. Zooplankton and larval fishes were abundant on the shelf side of the front and displayed taxon-dependent depth distributions but were rare in the slope waters. Supervised automated particle counting showed small particles with high solidity, verified to be zooplankton (copepods and appendicularians), aggregating near surface above the front. Salps were most abundant in zones of intermediate chlorophyll-a fluorescence, distinctly separate from high abundances of other grazers and found almost exclusively in colonial form (97.5%). Distributions of gelatinous zooplankton differed among taxa but tended to follow isopycnals. Fine-scale sampling revealed distinct habitat partitioning of various planktonic taxa, resulting from a balance of physical and biological drivers in relation to the front.

  9. Optical Demonstration of a Medical Imaging System with an EMCCD-Sensor Array for Use in a High Resolution Dynamic X-ray Imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Huang, Ying; Wang, Weiyuan; Sharma, Prateek; Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T; Cartwright, Alexander N; Titus, Albert H; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-10-30

    Use of an extensible array of Electron Multiplying CCDs (EMCCDs) in medical x-ray imager applications was demonstrated for the first time. The large variable electronic-gain (up to 2000) and small pixel size of EMCCDs provide effective suppression of readout noise compared to signal, as well as high resolution, enabling the development of an x-ray detector with far superior performance compared to conventional x-ray image intensifiers and flat panel detectors. We are developing arrays of EMCCDs to overcome their limited field of view (FOV). In this work we report on an array of two EMCCD sensors running simultaneously at a high frame rate and optically focused on a mammogram film showing calcified ducts. The work was conducted on an optical table with a pulsed LED bar used to provide a uniform diffuse light onto the film to simulate x-ray projection images. The system can be selected to run at up to 17.5 frames per second or even higher frame rate with binning. Integration time for the sensors can be adjusted from 1 ms to 1000 ms. Twelve-bit correlated double sampling AD converters were used to digitize the images, which were acquired by a National Instruments dual-channel Camera Link PC board in real time. A user-friendly interface was programmed using LabVIEW to save and display 2K × 1K pixel matrix digital images. The demonstration tiles a 2 × 1 array to acquire increased-FOV stationary images taken at different gains and fluoroscopic-like videos recorded by scanning the mammogram simultaneously with both sensors. The results show high resolution and high dynamic range images stitched together with minimal adjustments needed. The EMCCD array design allows for expansion to an M×N array for arbitrarily larger FOV, yet with high resolution and large dynamic range maintained.

  10. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Lietzmann, Florian; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Schad, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm(2) removes the necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. • Omitting the z-axis-filter allows a reduction in radiation dose of 50% • A smaller focal spot of 0.2 mm (2) significantly improves spatial resolution • Ultra-high-resolution temporal-bone-CT helps to gain diagnostic information of the middle/inner ear.

  11. 4D-var assimilation of CRISTA-NF H2O and MLS retrievals with the high resolution SACADA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasradze, Ketevan; Elbern, Hendrik; Schwinger, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    SACADA is a 4-dimensional variational assimilation system for trace gas observations. A novel global chemistry transport model with its adjoint version is the kernel of this system. Since the German Weather Service global forecast model (GME) is used as an online meteorological driver, the icosahedral grid structure and the horizontal transport are adopted from GME. Recently the horizontal and vertical scheme resolution of the model grid was refined: The distance of the horizontal grid points was reduced to about 150 km and vertical separation between grid levels is now less then 1 km below 22 km altitude. In order to better describe chemical processes in the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the chemistry module was extended and revised. All this modifications were done in order to draw full advantage from high resolution limb sounding instruments, like CRISTA-NF (Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers). As a case study, assimilation of MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) data with diagnosis of observation and background error statistics in observation space for H2O was performed. Relative humidity is used to filter observations and the background field. It is shown that the H2O analysis significantly improves compared to the ECMWF operational analisys. Additionally, data from the CRISTA-NF instrument, which has been operated on board the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica, was assimilated. These CRISTA-NF observations have been taken during the AMMA (African Mansoon Measurements Analysis) Campaign in summer 2006 by ICG I (Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Research Centre Jülich). A basic finding is that the H2O-analysis based on the additional CRISTA data in the UT/LS region improves with the SACADA high resolution configuration.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  13. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  14. High-Resolution Sonars: What Resolution Do We Need for Target Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailhas Yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognition in sonar imagery has long been an active research area in the maritime domain, especially in the mine-counter measure context. Recently it has received even more attention as new sensors with increased resolution have been developed; new threats to critical maritime assets and a new paradigm for target recognition based on autonomous platforms have emerged. With the recent introduction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar systems and high-frequency sonars, sonar resolution has dramatically increased and noise levels decreased. Sonar images are distance images but at high resolution they tend to appear visually as optical images. Traditionally algorithms have been developed specifically for imaging sonars because of their limited resolution and high noise levels. With high-resolution sonars, algorithms developed in the image processing field for natural images become applicable. However, the lack of large datasets has hampered the development of such algorithms. Here we present a fast and realistic sonar simulator enabling development and evaluation of such algorithms.We develop a classifier and then analyse its performances using our simulated synthetic sonar images. Finally, we discuss sensor resolution requirements to achieve effective classification of various targets and demonstrate that with high resolution sonars target highlight analysis is the key for target recognition.

  15. MUSIC - Multifunctional stereo imaging camera system for wide angle and high resolution stereo and color observations on the Mars-94 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, D.; Jahn, H.; Sandau, R.; Walter, I.; Driescher, H.

    1990-10-01

    Objectives of the multifunctional stereo imaging camera (MUSIC) system to be deployed on the Soviet Mars-94 mission are outlined. A high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and wide-angle opto-electronic stereo scanner (WAOSS) are combined in terms of hardware, software, technology aspects, and solutions. Both HRSC and WAOSS are push-button instruments containing a single optical system and focal plates with several parallel CCD line sensors. Emphasis is placed on the MUSIC system's stereo capability, its design, mass memory, and data compression. A 1-Gbit memory is divided into two parts: 80 percent for HRSC and 20 percent for WAOSS, while the selected on-line compression strategy is based on macropixel coding and real-time transform coding.

  16. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  17. The characteristics of weakly forced mountain-to-plain precipitation systems based on radar observations and high-resolution reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xian; Sun, Juanzhen; Chen, Mingxuan; Qie, Xiushu; Wang, Yingchun; Ying, Zhuming

    2017-03-01

    The metropolis of Beijing in China is located on a plain adjacent to high mountains to its northwest and the gulf of the Bohai Sea to its southeast. One of the most challenging forecast problems for Beijing is to predict whether thunderstorms initiating over the mountains will propagate to the adjacent plains and intensify. In this study, 18 warm season convective cases between 2008 and 2013 initiating on the mountains and intensifying on the plains under weak synoptic forcing were analyzed to gain an understanding of their characteristics. The statistical analysis was based on mosaic reflectivity data from six operational Doppler radars and reanalysis data produced by the Four-Dimensional Variational Doppler Radar Analysis System (VDRAS). The analysis of the radar reflectivity data shows that convective precipitation strengthened on the plains at certain preferred locations. To investigate the environmental conditions favoring the strengthening of the mountain-to-plain convective systems, statistical diagnoses of the rapid-update (12 min) 3 km reanalyses from VDRAS for the 18 cases were performed by computing the horizontal and temporal means of convective available potential energy, convective inhibition, vertical wind shear, and low-level wind for the plain and mountain regions separately. The results were compared with those from a baseline representing the warm season average and from a set of null cases and found considerable differences in these fields between the three data sets. The mean distributions of VDRAS reanalysis fields were also examined. The results suggest that the convergence between the low-level outflows associated with cold pools and the south-southeasterly environmental flows corresponds well with the preferred locations of convective intensification on the plains.

  18. Ocular Imaging Combining Ultrahigh Resolution and High Speed OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Tilman; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    The impact of ultrahigh-resolution and ultrahigh-speed OCT technique on corneal and retinal imaging is shown. The capabilities of advanced OCT system for imaging of the cornea and the thickness determination of the tear film, corneal epithelium, and Bowman's layer over a wide field of view are demonstrated. The high transverse and axial resolution of OCT system allowing one to image individual nerve fiber bundles, the parafoveal capillary network, and individual cone photoreceptors is described.

  19. Evaluating the CALIOPE air quality modelling system: dynamics and chemistry over Europe and Iberian Peninsula for 2004 at high horizontal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, M.; Pay, M. T.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; López, E.; Pérez, C.; Gassó, S.

    2009-04-01

    Often in Europe, population exposure to air pollution exceeds standards set by the EU and the World Health Organization (WHO). Urban/suburban areas are predominantly impacted upon, although exceedances of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and Ozone (O3) also take place in rural areas. In the frame of the CALIOPE project (Baldasano et al., 2008a), a high-resolution air quality forecasting system, WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ/DREAM, has been developed and applied to the European domain (12km x 12km, 1hr) as well as to the Iberian Peninsula domain (4km x 4km, 1hr) to provide air quality forecasts for Spain (http://www.bsc.es/caliope/). The simulation of such high-resolution model system has been made possible by its implementation on the MareNostrum supercomputer. To reassure potential users and reduce uncertainties, the model system must be evaluated to assess its performances in terms of air quality levels and dynamics reproducibility. The present contribution describes a thorough quantitative evaluation study performed for a reference year (2004). The CALIOPE modelling system is configured with 38 vertical layers reaching up to 50 hPa for the meteorological core. Atmospheric initial and boundary conditions are obtained from the NCEP final analysis data. The vertical resolution of the CMAQ chemistry-transport model for gas-phase and aerosols has been increased from 8 to 15 layers in order to simulate vertical exchanges more accurately. Gas phase boundary conditions are provided by the LMDz-INCA2 global climate-chemistry model (see Hauglustaine et al., 2004). The DREAM model simulates long-range transport of mineral dust over the domains under study. For the European simulation, emissions are disaggregated from the EMEP expert emission inventory for 2004 to the utilized resolution using the criteria implemented in the HERMES emission model (Baldasano et al., 2008b). The HERMES model system, using a bottom-up approach, was adopted to estimate emissions for the Iberian

  20. The Evaluation of the Spanish Air Quality Modelling System: CALIOPE. Dynamics and Chemistry over Europe and Iberian Peninsula for 2004 at high horizontal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, M.; Pay, M.; Jorba, O.; Lopez, E.; Pirez, C.; Gasso, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    In Europe, human exposure to air pollution often exceeds standards set by the EU commission (Directives 1996/62/EC, 2002/3/EC, 2008/50/EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Urban/suburban areas are predominantly impacted upon, although exceedances of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and Ozone (O3) also take place in rural areas. Within the CALIOPE project, a high-resolution air quality forecasting system, namely WRF-ARW/HERMES04/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM, has been developed and applied to the European domain (12x12 sq. km, 1hr) as well as the Spanish domain (4x4 sq. km, 1hr). The simulation of such high-resolution model system has been made possible by its implementation on the MareNostrum supercomputer. This contribution describes a thorough quantitative evaluation study performed for the reference year 2004. The WRF-ARW meteorological model contains 38 vertical layers reaching up to 50 hPa. The vertical resolution of the CMAQ chemistry-transport model for gas-phase and aerosols has been increased from 8 to 15 layers in order to simulate vertical exchanges more accurately. Gas phase boundary conditions are provided by the LMDz-INCA2 global climate-chemistry model. For the European simulation, emissions are disaggregated from the EMEP emission inventory for 2004 to the utilized resolution using the criteria implemented in the HERMES04 emission model. The HERMES04 model system, running through a bottom-up approach, is used to estimate emissions for Spain at a 1x1 sq. km horizontal resolution, every hour. In order to evaluate the performances of the CALIOPE system, the model simulation for Europe was compared with ground-based measurements from the EMEP and the Spanish air quality networks (total of 60 stations for O3, 43 for NO2, 31 for SO2, 25 for PM10 and 16 for PM2.5). The model simulation for Europe satisfactorily reproduces O3 concentrations throughout the year (annual correlation: 0.66) with relatively small errors: MNGE values range from 13% to 26%, and MNBE

  1. High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) systems provide vertical profiles of optical depth, backscatter cross-section, depolarization, and backscatter phase function. All HSRL measurements are absolutely calibrated by reference to molecular scattering, which is measured at each point in the lidar profile. Like the Raman lidar but unlike simple backscatter lidars such as the micropulse lidar, the HSRL can measure backscatter cross-sections and optical depths without prior assumptions about the scattering properties of the atmosphere. The depolarization observations also allow robust discrimination between ice and water clouds. In addition, rigorous error estimates can be computed for all measurements. A very narrow, angular field of view reduces multiple scattering contributions. The small field of view, coupled with a narrow optical bandwidth, nearly eliminates noise due to scattered sunlight. There are two operational U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility HSRL systems, one at the Barrow North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site and the other in the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) collection of instrumentation.

  2. High spatial resolution distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor with enhanced frequency and strain resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Ali; Newson, Trevor P

    2017-01-15

    A distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor with high spatial and frequency resolution is demonstrated. The sensor, which uses the ϕ-OTDR interrogation technique, exhibited a higher sensitivity thanks to an improved optical arrangement and a new signal processing procedure. The proposed sensing system is capable of fully quantifying multiple dynamic perturbations along a 5 km long sensing fiber with a frequency and spatial resolution of 5 Hz and 50 cm, respectively. The strain resolution of the sensor was measured to be 40 nε.

  3. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Iglesias-Freire

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic force microscopy (MFM is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm topographic (magnetic lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  4. Effect of Considering Sub-Grid Scale Uncertainties on the Forecasts of a High-Resolution Limited Area Ensemble Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SeHyun; Kim, Hyun Mee

    2017-05-01

    The ensemble prediction system (EPS) is widely used in research and at operation center because it can represent the uncertainty of predicted atmospheric state and provide information of probabilities. The high-resolution (so-called "convection-permitting") limited area EPS can represent the convection and turbulence related to precipitation phenomena in more detail, but it is also much sensitive to small-scale or sub-grid scale processes. The convection and turbulence are represented using physical processes in the model and model errors occur due to sub-grid scale processes that were not resolved. This study examined the effect of considering sub-grid scale uncertainties using the high-resolution limited area EPS of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). The developed EPS has horizontal resolution of 3 km and 12 ensemble members. The initial and boundary conditions were provided by the global model. The Random Parameters (RP) scheme was used to represent sub-grid scale uncertainties. The EPSs with and without the RP scheme were developed and the results were compared. During the one month period of July, 2013, a significant difference was shown in the spread of 1.5 m temperature and the Root Mean Square Error and spread of 10 m zonal wind due to application of the RP scheme. For precipitation forecast, the precipitation tended to be overestimated relative to the observation when the RP scheme was applied. Moreover, the forecast became more accurate for heavy precipitations and the longer forecast lead times. For two heavy rainfall cases occurred during the research period, the higher Equitable Threat Score was observed for heavy precipitations in the system with the RP scheme compared to the one without, demonstrating consistency with the statistical results for the research period. Therefore, the predictability for heavy precipitation phenomena that affected the Korean Peninsula increases if the RP scheme is used to consider sub-grid scale uncertainties

  5. Qualitative interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data from some parts of offshore Niger delta, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The original raster map, obtained from the Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA) in half degree sheet, was subjected to qualitative data analysis using the ...

  6. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  7. Compressive sensing for high resolution radar imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present some preliminary results on the application of Compressive Sensing (CS) to high resolution radar imaging. CS is a recently developed theory which allows reconstruction of sparse signals with a number of measurements much lower than what is required by the Shannon sampling

  8. Compact high-resolution spectral phase shaper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; van der Walle, P.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    The design and operation of a high-resolution spectral phase shaper with a footprint of only 7×10 cm2 is presented. The liquid-crystal modulator has 4096 elements. More than 600 independent degrees of freedom can be positioned with a relative accuracy of 1 pixel. The spectral shaping of pulses from

  9. High resolution analysis of interphase chromosome domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A. E.; Jaunin, F.; Fakan, S.; Aten, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome territories need to be well defined at high resolution before functional aspects of chromosome organization in interphase can be explored. To visualize chromosomes by electron microscopy (EM), the DNA of Chinese hamster fibroblasts was labeled in vivo with thymidine analogue BrdU. Labeled

  10. High-Resolution, Two-Wavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Henry, Paul K.; Logiurato, D. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Modified two-color pyrometer measures temperatures of objects with high spatial resolution. Image focused on hole 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) in diameter in brass sheet near end of bundle, causing image to be distributed so fibers covered by defocused radiation from target. Pinhole ensures radiation from only small part of target scene reaches detector, thus providing required spatial resolution. By spreading radiation over bundle, pinhole ensures entire active area of detectors utilized. Produces signal as quiet as conventional instruments but with only 1/64 input radiation.

  11. In vivo functional connectome of human brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, autonomic, and motor systems by high spatial resolution 7-Tesla fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Eichner, Cornelius; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Setsompop, Kawin; Brown, Emery N; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to map the in vivo human functional connectivity of several brainstem nuclei with the rest of the brain by using seed-based correlation of ultra-high magnetic field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We used the recently developed template of 11 brainstem nuclei derived from multi-contrast structural MRI at 7 Tesla as seed regions to determine their connectivity to the rest of the brain. To achieve this, we used the increased contrast-to-noise ratio of 7-Tesla fMRI compared with 3 Tesla and time-efficient simultaneous multi-slice imaging to cover the brain with high spatial resolution (1.1-mm isotropic nominal resolution) while maintaining a short repetition time (2.5 s). The delineated Pearson's correlation-based functional connectivity diagrams (connectomes) of 11 brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, motor, and autonomic systems from 12 controls are presented and discussed in the context of existing histology and animal work. Considering that the investigated brainstem nuclei play a crucial role in several vital functions, the delineated preliminary connectomes might prove useful for future in vivo research and clinical studies of human brainstem function and pathology, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, Parkinson's disease, and other motor disorders.

  12. R2OBBIE-3D, a Fast Robotic High-Resolution System for Quantitative Phenotyping of Surface Geometry and Colour-Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukyan, Liana; Milinkovitch, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    While recent imaging techniques provide insights into biological processes from the molecular to the cellular scale, phenotypes at larger scales remain poorly amenable to quantitative analyses. For example, investigations of the biophysical mechanisms generating skin morphological complexity and diversity would greatly benefit from 3D geometry and colour-texture reconstructions. Here, we report on R2OBBIE-3D, an integrated system that combines a robotic arm, a high-resolution digital colour camera, an illumination basket of high-intensity light-emitting diodes and state-of-the-art 3D-reconstruction approaches. We demonstrate that R2OBBIE generates accurate 3D models of biological objects between 1 and 100 cm, makes multiview photometric stereo scanning possible in practical processing times, and enables the capture of colour-texture and geometric resolutions better than 15 μm without the use of magnifying lenses. R2OBBIE has the potential to greatly improve quantitative analyses of phenotypes in addition to providing multiple new applications in, e.g., biomedical science. PMID:26039509

  13. UV-laser microdissection system - A novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records (δ13C/δ18O) from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Helle, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Intra-annual stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) studies of tree rings at various incremental resolutions have been attempting to extract valuable seasonal climatic and environmental information or assessing plant ecophysiological processes. For preparing high-resolution isotope samples normally wood segments or cores are mechanically divided in radial direction or cut in tangential direction. After mechanical dissection, wood samples are ground to a fine powder and either cellulose is extracted or bulk wood samples are analyzed. Here, we present a novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records from tree rings using an UV-laser microdissection system. Firstly, tree-ring cellulose is directly extracted from wholewood cross-sections largely leaving the wood anatomical structure intact and saving time as compared to the classical procedure. Secondly, micro-samples from cellulose cross-sections are dissected with an UV-Laser dissection microscope. Tissues of interest from cellulose cross-sections are identified and marked precisely with a screen-pen and dissected via an UV-laser beam. Dissected cellulose segments were automatically collected in capsules and are prepared for stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) analysis. The new techniques facilitate inter- and intra-annual isotope analysis on tree-ring and open various possibilities for comparisons with wood anatomy in plant eco-physiological studies. We describe the design and the handling of this novel methodology and discuss advantages and constraints given by the example of intra-annual oxygen isotope analysis on tropical trees.

  14. High Resolution Regional Climate Simulations over Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Clark, M. P.; Arnold, J.; Newman, A. J.; Musselman, K. N.; Barlage, M. J.; Xue, L.; Liu, C.; Gutmann, E. D.; Rasmussen, R.

    2016-12-01

    In order to appropriately plan future projects to build and maintain infrastructure (e.g., dams, dikes, highways, airports), a number of U.S. federal agencies seek to better understand how hydrologic regimes may shift across the country due to climate change. Building on the successful completion of a series of high-resolution WRF simulations over the Colorado River Headwaters and contiguous USA, our team is now extending these simulations over the challenging U.S. States of Alaska and Hawaii. In this presentation we summarize results from a newly completed 4-km resolution WRF simulation over Alaska spanning 2002-2016 at 4-km spatial resolution. Our aim is to gain insight into the thermodynamics that drive key precipitation processes, particularly the extremes that are most damaging to infrastructure.

  15. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  16. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

  17. The High Time Resolution Radio Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D.

    2013-11-01

    Pulsars are laboratories for extreme physics unachievable on Earth. As individual sources and possible orbital companions can be used to study magnetospheric, emission, and superfluid physics, general relativistic effects, and stellar and binary evolution. As populations they exhibit a wide range of sub-types, with parameters varying by many orders of magnitude signifying fundamental differences in their evolutionary history and potential uses. There are currently around 2200 known pulsars in the Milky Way, the Magellanic clouds, and globular clusters, most of which have been discovered with radio survey observations. These observations, as well as being suitable for detecting the repeating signals from pulsars, are well suited for identifying other transient astronomical radio bursts that last just a few milliseconds that either singular in nature, or rarely repeating. Prior to the work of this thesis non-repeating radio transients at extragalactic distances had possibly been discovered, however with just one example status a real astronomical sources was in doubt. Finding more of these sources was a vital to proving they were real and to open up the universe for millisecond-duration radio astronomy. The High Time Resolution Universe survey uses the multibeam receiver on the 64-m Parkes radio telescope to search the whole visible sky for pulsars and transients. The temporal and spectral resolution of the receiver and the digital back-end enable the detection of relatively faint, and distant radio sources. From the Parkes telescope a large portion of the Galactic plane can be seen, a rich hunting ground for radio pulsars of all types, while previously poorly surveyed regions away from the Galactic plane are also covered. I have made a number of pulsar discoveries in the survey, including some rare systems. These include PSR J1226-6208, a possible double neutron star system in a remarkably circular orbit, PSR J1431-471 which is being eclipsed by its companion with

  18. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hau, Ionel Dragos [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  19. High-resolution seismic imaging of the Sohagpur Gondwana basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 6 ... In this study, we illustrate how Gondwana tectonics affected the Sohagpur Gondwana basin that occurs at the junction of the Mahanadi and Son–Narmada rift systems in the central India, through a high-resolution seismic reflection study along six ...

  20. Calibration of a High Resolution Airborne 3-D SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Grinder-Pedersen, Jan; Madsen, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    The potential of across-track interferometric (XTI) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for producing high resolution 3D imagery has been demonstrated by several airborne systems including EMISAR, the dual frequency, polarimetric, and interferometric SAR developed at the Dept. of Electromagnetic Systems...

  1. High Resolution Digital Imaging of Paintings: The Vasari Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk

    1991-01-01

    Describes VASARI (the Visual Art System for Archiving and Retrieval of Images), a project funded by the European Community to show the feasibility of high resolution colormetric imaging directly from paintings. The hardware and software used in the system are explained, storage on optical disks is described, and initial results are reported. (five…

  2. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  3. Do high-resolution convection-permitting experiments on Europe need to be driven by high resolution global runs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthou, Segolene; Chan, Steven; Kendon, Elizabeth; Roberts, Malcolm; Lee, Robert; Vanniere, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Challenges of getting appropriate climate-change scenarios over Europe both come from having a good representation of the synoptic systems reaching Europe and having a good-enough representation of local and orographic processes in Europe. Therefore we perform both the evaluation of the driving global model and its dynamical downscaling with a 2.2km regional model on the present day period, in the perspective of using this configuration in a future climate scenario. 20-year long atmosphere-only simulations with the Unified Model of the Met Office were run at different global resolutions (130km, 60km and 25km) and the highest resolution was chosen to give the boundaries of a European-wide convection permitting simulation with a 2.2km resolution. The synoptic situation of the different global resolutions are comparable in terms of latitudinal distribution of the jets and weather regimes but there is consistent improvement in the frequency of storms reaching Europe at 25km resolution. High resolution global runs therefore mainly show added value in the high-frequency synoptic drivers. Compared to high resolution precipitation datasets, the 25km resolution is showing good representation of winter precipitation distribution, although with too many days of moderate precipitation in Western Europe. It shows a dry bias in summer, consistent with a mean jet too north.

  4. Fundamental constants and high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, P.; Rahmani, H.; Whitmore, J. B.; Wendt, M.; Centurion, M.; Molaro, P.; Srianand, R.; Murphy, M. T.; Petitjean, P.; Agafonova, I. I.; D'Odorico, S.; Evans, T. M.; Levshakov, S. A.; Lopez, S.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Reimers, D.; Vladilo, G.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption-line systems detected in high resolution quasar spectra can be used to compare the value of dimensionless fundamental constants such as the fine-structure constant, α, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ = m_p/m_e, as measured in remote regions of the Universe to their value today on Earth. In recent years, some evidence has emerged of small temporal and also spatial variations in α on cosmological scales which may reach a fractional level of ≈ 10 ppm (parts per million). We are conducting a Large Programme of observations with the Very Large Telescope's Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), and are obtaining high-resolution ({R ≈ 60 000}) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 100) spectra calibrated specifically to study the variations of the fundamental constants. We here provide a general overview of the Large Programme and report on the first results for these two constants, discussed in detail in Molaro et al. (2013) and Rahmani et al. (2013). A stringent bound for Δα/α is obtained for the absorber at z_abs = 1.6919 towards HE 2217-2818. The absorption profile is complex with several very narrow features, and is modeled with 32 velocity components. The relative variation in α in this system is +1.3± 2.4_stat ± 1.0_sys ppm if Al II λ 1670 Å and three Fe II transitions are used, and +1.1 ± 2.6_stat ppm in a slightly different analysis with only Fe II transitions used. This is one of the tightest bounds on α-variation from an individual absorber and reveals no evidence for variation in α at the 3-ppm precision level (1σ confidence). The expectation at this sky position of the recently-reported dipolar variation of α is (3.2-5.4)±1.7 ppm depending on dipole model used and this constraint of Δα/α at face value is not supporting this expectation but not inconsistent with it at the 3σ level. For the proton-to-electron mass ratio the analysis of the H_2 absorption lines of the z_abs ≈ 2.4018 damped Lyα system

  5. METH-33 - Performance assessment for the high resolution and wide swath (HRWS) post-Sentinel-1 SAR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zonno, Mariantonietta; Maria J., Sanjuan-Ferrer,; Lopez-Dekker, Paco

    requirements on the design of spaceborne SAR systems. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that by applying Digital Beam Forming (DBF) techniques, such as Scan-on-Receive (SCORE), and Multiple Azimuth Phase centers (MAPS), it becomes possible to overcome these fundamental limitations of conventional SAR...... or numerical models and, if these are not available, real SAR images as well as numerical algorithms and some explicit simulations of the data and of the inversion process are employed. The tool uses as input the HRWS SAR instrument performance for the different applicable modes and produces as output results...

  6. Bulk- and surface-sensitive high-resolution photoemission study of two mott-hubbard systems: SrVO3 and CaVO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, R; Kiss, T; Tsuda, S; Shimojima, T; Mizokami, T; Yokoya, T; Chainani, A; Shin, S; Inoue, I H; Togashi, T; Watanabe, S; Zhang, C Q; Chen, C T; Arita, M; Shimada, K; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M

    2006-02-24

    We study the electronic structure of Mott-Hubbard systems SrVO3 and CaVO3 with bulk and surface-sensitive high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy, using a vacuum ultraviolet laser, synchrotron radiation, and a discharge lamp (hv = 7-21 eV). A systematic suppression of the density of states (DOS) within approximately 0.2 eV of the Fermi level (EF) is found on decreasing photon energy, i.e., on increasing bulk sensitivity. The coherent band in SrVO3 and CaVO3 is shown to consist of surface and bulk-derived features, separated in energy. The stronger distortion on surface of CaVO3 compared to SrVO3 leads to a higher surface metallicity in the coherent DOS at EF, consistent with recent theory.

  7. The effects of magnetic fields exposure on relative permittivity of saline solutions measured by a high resolution SPR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Xinyuan; Fei, Yue; Yu, Dongdong; Qian, Jun; Tong, Jinguang; Chen, Guangdi; He, Sailing

    2016-04-28

    A measurement system for the relative permittivity of a physiological solution under 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) is presented. It is based on a phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system. Relative permittivity was analyzed for different solute concentrations of sodium chloride under various MF exposure parameters. We found that MF exposure at 0.2-4.0 mT step-wise decreased significantly the SPR phase signal of a 0.9% sodium chloride solution while 0.1 mT of MF exposure did not. The decreases in the SPR phase signal depended on the duration of MF exposure, and the signal reached a plateau after 15 min of exposure. Interestingly, the decreased SPR phase signal showed a gradual increase and approached the background level when the exposure was drawn off. In addition, we found that the response of the sodium chloride solution to MF also depended on its concentration. In brief, the relative permittivity of sodium chloride in solutions appears to be practically affected by 50 Hz MF exposure. Our data indicates that the relative permittivity of the saline solution influenced by MF exposure should be considered when investigating the biological effects of MF exposure on organisms in experimental study.

  8. High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps - results from the PROSA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ludwig; Dusik, Jana-Marie; Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Näher, Martin; Philipp, Rumohr; Philipp, Glira; Lucas, Vehling; Michael, Becht

    2016-04-01

    In June 2012, the PROSA-project was initiated with the goal to construct a sediment budget of the Upper Kaunertal Valley, Ötztal Alps, Austria. A unique feature of the project being the dedicated usage of study-area wide multi-volume LiDAR survey data of relatively high density on a meso-scale catchment resulting in a data base of over 4 billion LiDAR measurement points. A high effort was undertaken to produce classified point data as a methodological backbone of the project. Both ALS and georeferenced TLS data as well as other remote sensing and mapping products were used in addition to extensive fieldwork as basis for a regionalization of monitoring-site based measurements to arrive at basin-wide sediment production rates and identification of sediment pathways. Results can now be presented for: Rock fall (plot-based measurement and subsequent model-based regionalization), debris flows (study area-wide direct measurement from LiDAR and analysis of historical orthophotos), rock glaciers (feature-tracking and direct differencing), hillslope channels (plot-based measurements and model-based regionalization) and avalanches (sample site measurement, mapping and extrapolation). Sediment budgets were subsequently constructed for different representative subsystems within the 62.5 km2 catchment. Although also glacier and main channel transport was looked into by the PROSA-project, the presentation will focus on the processes mentioned above.

  9. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubor, Nenad M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  10. High-Resolution Broadband Spectral Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    We demonstrate solar spectra from a novel interferometric method for compact broadband high-resolution spectroscopy. The spectral interferometer (SI) is a hybrid instrument that uses a spectrometer to externally disperse the output of a fixed-delay interferometer. It also has been called an externally dispersed interferometer (EDI). The interferometer can be used with linear spectrometers for imaging spectroscopy or with echelle spectrometers for very broad-band coverage. EDI's heterodyning technique enhances the spectrometer's response to high spectral-density features, increasing the effective resolution by factors of several while retaining its bandwidth. The method is extremely robust to instrumental insults such as focal spot size or displacement. The EDI uses no moving parts, such as purely interferometric FTS spectrometers, and can cover a much wider simultaneous bandpass than other internally dispersed interferometers (e.g. HHS or SHS).

  11. Super-resolution for scanning light stimulation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitzer, L. A.; Neumann, K.; Benson, N., E-mail: niels.benson@uni-due.de; Schmechel, R. [Faculty of Engineering, NST and CENIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Super-resolution (SR) is a technique used in digital image processing to overcome the resolution limitation of imaging systems. In this process, a single high resolution image is reconstructed from multiple low resolution images. SR is commonly used for CCD and CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) sensor images, as well as for medical applications, e.g., magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we demonstrate that super-resolution can be applied with scanning light stimulation (LS) systems, which are common to obtain space-resolved electro-optical parameters of a sample. For our purposes, the Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS) was chosen and modified to suit the needs of LS systems. To demonstrate the SR adaption, an Optical Beam Induced Current (OBIC) LS system was used. The POCS algorithm was optimized by means of OBIC short circuit current measurements on a multicrystalline solar cell, resulting in a mean square error reduction of up to 61% and improved image quality.

  12. High Resolution Spectra of HE Detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-07

    region. We shall assume for present purposes that the emissivity of the detonation products of a 50 to 100 lb HE explosion is also in the viciity of... speed . Incorporated in the emulsion layers are dye forming coup- lers which react simultaneously during I , developmentto produce a separate dye S...Best Available Cop 1~EV~ AFTAC-TR-80-24 HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRA OF HE DETONATIONS HSS Inc 2 Alfred Circle Bedford, MA 01730 7 JULY 1980 AUG 4 9D

  13. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1969-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as chemical shifts, lattices, and couplings. The book first offers information on the theory of NMR, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, spin lattice relaxation, line widths, saturation, quantum mechanical description of NMR, and ringing. The text then ponders on instrumentation and techniques and chemical shifts. Discussions focus on the origin of chemical shifts, reference compounds, empirical correlations of chemical shifts, modulation and phase detection,

  14. High resolution measurement of the glycolytic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla X Bittner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently-developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

  15. Quantum interpolation for high-resolution sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajoy, Ashok; Liu, Yi-Xiang; Saha, Kasturi; Marseglia, Luca; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Bissbort, Ulf; Cappellaro, Paola

    2017-02-28

    Recent advances in engineering and control of nanoscale quantum sensors have opened new paradigms in precision metrology. Unfortunately, hardware restrictions often limit the sensor performance. In nanoscale magnetic resonance probes, for instance, finite sampling times greatly limit the achievable sensitivity and spectral resolution. Here we introduce a technique for coherent quantum interpolation that can overcome these problems. Using a quantum sensor associated with the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum interpolation can achieve spectroscopy of classical magnetic fields and individual quantum spins with orders of magnitude finer frequency resolution than conventionally possible. Not only is quantum interpolation an enabling technique to extract structural and chemical information from single biomolecules, but it can be directly applied to other quantum systems for superresolution quantum spectroscopy.

  16. High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super-Resolution Algorithm Super-Resolution Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5514--17-9692 High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate

  17. Simulation of HyperSPECT: a high-resolution small-animal system with in-line x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbelin, Sandra; Nillius, Peter; Danielsson, Mats

    2012-03-21

    SPECT has become an important tool in pre-clinical applications. Small-animal imaging systems based on the use of one or more pinhole collimators now reach sub-half-mm resolution but unfortunately suffer from a compromise between sensitivity and resolution due to the pinhole collimators. We propose a small-animal SPECT system based not on pinholes but on in-line x-ray optics, which is rare in medical imaging systems for nuclear medicine. The x-ray lenses are optimized for 27 keV for low-energy imaging with iodine-125. We believe that this new system, HyperSPECT, can simultaneously improve on sensitivity and resolution compared to today's state-of-the-art systems. A full three-dimensional simulation of the system has been performed including the prism-array lenses, pre- and post-collimators and scintillator-based detector. Images of capillary phantoms have been reconstructed using an iterative image reconstruction method. Sensitivity was uniformly 0.37% throughout the 1 cm diameter spherical field of view and rod sizes of around 100 μm diameter were distinguishable in the images of simulated capillary phantoms. These results indicate an increase in resolution by a factor of 5 during a simultaneous increase in sensitivity by a factor of 2 compared to the current state-of-the-art small-animal SPECT systems. © 2012 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine

  18. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  19. Investigation of the imaging characteristics of the Gd 2O 3:Eu nanophosphor for high-resolution digital X-ray imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-yeong; Park, Ji-koon; Kang, Sang-sik; Cha, Byung-youl; Cho, Sung-ho; Shin, Jung-wook; Son, Dae-woong; Nam, Sang-hee

    2007-06-01

    For possible applications in high-resolution medical image systems, we manufactured a Eu 3+-doped Gd 2O 3 nanophosphor using the low-temperature solution combustion method, and evaluated its performance as an image sensor. The structural and optical characteristics of the fabricated nanophosphor were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence spectrum (PL), and luminescence decay time measurements. From the FE-SEM and XRD results, we established that the fabricated nanophosphor was formed of spherical particles of about 30-40 nm, and confirmed that the particles agglomerated as the sintering temperature increases. From PL spectra, a strong peak appeared near 611 nm, and the luminescent intensity was seen to be affected by the doping concentration of Eu. Gd 2O 3:Eu nanophosphor particles have shown the highest luminescent efficiency at a Eu concentration of 5 wt%. In the luminescent decay time measurements, the mean decay time was about 2.3-2.6 ms, about two times longer than that of the general bulk phosphor, and affected by the of Eu-doping concentration. For the investigation of the imaging characteristics of the fabricated nanophosphor, we connected the Gd 2O 3:Eu nanophosphor film to a commercial CMOS image sensor, obtained the X-ray images and evaluated the modulation transfer function (MTF) as a function of the Eu concentration. We were able to obtain high-resolution X-ray images and found that the Eu concentration also influenced the imaging characteristics.

  20. Dynamics of explosive paroxysms at open-vent andesitic systems: High-resolution mass distribution analyses of the 2006 Tungurahua fall deposit (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychenne, Julia; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Ramón, Patricio; Yepes, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Long-lasting andesitic eruptions sometimes include strong short-lived explosive events, which can pose significant hazards in populated regions. The origin and dynamics of such violent eruptions remain poorly known and may involve a combination of different factors. Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, reawakens in 1999 and is an example of such an open-vent system that experienced a strong and deadly andesitic pyroclastic flow-forming event in August 2006. Inspection of the deposits suggested that the event could have been triggered by magma mixing (coexistence of both silicic pumices and andesitic scoria in the tephra), magma-water interaction (presence of xenolithic clasts) or deep andesitic magma reinjection (based on mineral chemistry). Here we investigate these options by performing a high-resolution mass budget analysis of the scoria fall deposit. This is achieved by analysing componentry compositions and their mass distribution pattern in the layer, which allow us to document and integrate exponential and power laws mass decay rates over wide areas. The results yield a total mass for the tephra layer of ˜2×1010 kg. The pumice mass fraction is far too small (paroxysm. Altogether our results support an explosive event fed by a deep gas-rich andesitic reinjection, which would have incorporated a pocket of older differentiated magma and eroded the upper conduit during the sub-plinian event. The high-resolution mass-based approach reveals useful to decipher the origin of the violent 2006 paroxysm and has potential to improve magnitude determinations of ancient eruption by considering componentry mass instead of volume. It is also applicable for monitoring purposes in the context of ongoing crises at andesitic volcanoes worldwide

  1. Lung nodule volume quantification and shape differentiation with an ultra-high resolution technique on a photon counting detector CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Montoya, J.; Gutjahr, R.; Ferrero, A.; Halaweish, A.; Kappler, S.; McCollough, C.; Leng, S.

    2017-03-01

    A new ultra high-resolution (UHR) mode has been implemented on a whole body photon counting-detector (PCD) CT system. The UHR mode has a pixel size of 0.25 mm by 0.25 mm at the iso-center, while the conventional (macro) mode is limited to 0.5 mm by 0.5 mm. A set of synthetic lung nodules (two shapes, five sizes, and two radio-densities) was scanned using both the UHR and macro modes and reconstructed with 2 reconstruction kernels (4 sets of images in total). Linear regression analysis was performed to compare measured nodule volumes from CT images to reference volumes. Surface curvature was calculated for each nodule and the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the curvature histogram was used as a shape index to differentiate sphere and star shape nodules. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used as a figure of merit for the differentiation task. Results showed strong linear relationship between measured nodule volume and reference standard for both UHR and macro mode. For all nodules, volume estimation was more accurate using UHR mode with sharp kernel (S80f), with lower mean absolute percent error (MAPE) (6.5%) compared with macro mode (11.1% to 12.9%). The improvement of volume measurement from UHR mode was more evident particularly for small nodule size (3mm, 5mm), or star-shape nodules. Images from UHR mode with sharp kernel (S80f) consistently demonstrated the best performance (AUC = 0.85) when separating star from sphere shape nodules among all acquisition and reconstruction modes. Our results showed the advantages of UHR mode on a PCD CT scanner in lung nodule characterization. Various clinical applications, including quantitative imaging, can benefit substantially from this high resolution mode.

  2. Development of New High Resolution Neutron Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostella, L. D., III; Rajabali, M.; Loureiro, D. P.; Grzywacz, R.

    2017-09-01

    Beta-delayed neutron emission is a prevalent form of decay for neutron-rich nuclei. This occurs when an unstable nucleus undergoes beta decay, but produces a daughter nucleus in an excited state above the neutron separation energy. The daughter nucleus then de-excites by ejecting one or more neutrons. We wish to map the states from which these nuclei decay via neutron spectroscopy using NEXT, a new high resolution neutron detector. NEXT utilizes silicon photomultipliers and 6 mm thick pulse-shape discriminating plastic scintillators, allowing for smaller and more compact modular geometries in the NEXT array. Timing measurements for the detector were performed and a resolution of 893 ps (FWHM) has been achieved so far. Aspects of the detector that were investigated and will be presented here include scintillator geometry, wrapping materials, fitting functions for the digitized signals, and electronic components coupled to the silicon photomultipliers for signal shaping.

  3. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare, Imaging and Therapy Division, Forchheim (Germany); Lietzmann, Florian; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg University, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm{sup 2} removesthe necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p < 0.05). Total effective dose was 63 %/39 % lower for the third generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. (orig.)

  4. High resolution probabilistic precipitation forecast over Spain combining the statistical downscaling tool PROMETEO and the AEMET short range EPS system (AEMET/SREPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofino, A. S.; Santos, C.; Garcia-Moya, J. A.; Gutierrez, J. M.; Orfila, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Short-Range Ensemble Prediction System (SREPS) is a multi-LAM (UM, HIRLAM, MM5, LM and HRM) multi analysis/boundary conditions (ECMWF, UKMetOffice, DWD and GFS) run twice a day by AEMET (72 hours lead time) over a European domain, with a total of 5 (LAMs) x 4 (GCMs) = 20 members. One of the main goals of this project is analyzing the impact of models and boundary conditions in the short-range high-resolution forecasted precipitation. A previous validation of this method has been done considering a set of climate networks in Spain, France and Germany, by interpolating the prediction to the gauge locations (SREPS, 2008). In this work we compare these results with those obtained by using a statistical downscaling method to post-process the global predictions, obtaining an "advanced interpolation" for the local precipitation using climate network precipitation observations. In particular, we apply the PROMETEO downscaling system based on analogs and compare the SREPS ensemble of 20 members with the PROMETEO statistical ensemble of 5 (analog ensemble) x 4 (GCMs) = 20 members. Moreover, we will also compare the performance of a combined approach post-processing the SREPS outputs using the PROMETEO system. References: SREPS 2008. 2008 EWGLAM-SRNWP Meeting (http://www.aemet.es/documentos/va/divulgacion/conferencias/prediccion/Ewglam/PRED_CSantos.pdf)

  5. High-resolution neutron microtomography with noiseless neutron counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Feller, W. B.; Lehmann, E.; Butler, L. G.; Dawson, M.

    2011-10-01

    The improved collimation and intensity of thermal and cold neutron beamlines combined with recent advances in neutron imaging devices enable high-resolution neutron radiography and microtomography, which can provide information on the internal structure of objects not achievable with conventional X-ray imaging techniques. Neutron detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution (important for the studies of dynamic processes) and low background count rate are among the crucial parameters defining the quality of radiographic images and tomographic reconstructions. The unique capabilities of neutron counting detectors with neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) and with Timepix CMOS readouts providing high neutron detection efficiency (˜70% for cold neutrons), spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 55 μm and a temporal resolution of ˜1 μs—combined with the virtual absence of readout noise—make these devices very attractive for high-resolution microtomography. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of an MCP-Timepix detection system applied to microtomographic imaging, performed at the ICON cold neutron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The high resolution and the absence of readout noise enable accurate reconstruction of texture in a relatively opaque wood sample, differentiation of internal tissues of a fly and imaging of individual ˜400 μm grains in an organic powder encapsulated in a ˜700 μm thick metal casing.

  6. Evaluation of a high resolution atmospheric modelling system against observed data from a dense network of continuous CO2 and CH4 measurement stations across France

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazidi, Abdelhadi; Broquet, Gregoire; Pison, Isabelle; Ramonet, Michel; Ciais, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    In the context of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions for the next decade, the European countries work together in order to develop robust methods for monitoring and verifying their sources and sinks. The implementation of dense atmospheric monitoring surface networks such as the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) provides novel data for emission quantification at national and sub-national scales. Data assimilation approaches using numerical atmospheric transport models together with observed atmospheric concentrations, are used to constrain GHG sources and sinks. The main advantages of the so called inverse methods is to bring an independent method for the verification of GHG inventories at the national scale. This study aims at developing an innovative inverse modelling framework using GHG measurements from the ICOS network, meteorological data and national emission inventories in order to improve the estimates of sources and natural sinks in France. The monitoring network provide a set of continuous measured data across France in near real time. We have access to 6 GHG monitoring stations in France including 3 near borders. We sudy the representativeness of GHG concentrations depending on the meteorological situation, with the objective to optimize the constrained GHG fluxes. A set of 8 forward simulations is performed using the Eulerian off-line chemistry-transport model CHIMERE with two meteorological fields, two biogenic models, and two anthropogenic inventories. The set of simulation is compared to measurements, in order to assess the sensitivity of simulated concentration to various input data at national and sub-national scales. In plains sites low resolution meteorological data (15 km) improves the simulated GHG concentrations compared to a high resolution model. However, at mountain sites the higher resolution model (2.5km) decreases the rmse compared to measurements, by 1 ppm for CO2 and 10 ppb for CH4.The 8 simulations are able to

  7. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system; Arima Takatsuki Rokko katsudanso chiiki ni okeru komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Okuma, S.; Morijiri, R.; Makino, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted in December, 1995, over the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system, where the 1995 Hyogo-South (Kobe) earthquake took place. Based on the surveyed data, the magnetic anomaly distribution in the Kei-Hanshin district was illustrated. Features of magnetic anomaly observed in it were discussed. Influence of artificial structures in the coastal zone of Kobe City was tried to be removed. Distinct magnetic anomaly observed in the center of Kyoto City was located at the southern part near Shijo-Karasuma. This was mainly affected by the artificial structure. A high magnetic anomaly with a long wave length was observed in the southern part of Kyoto. There was a high magnetic anomaly in an area surrounded by central cities of Nishinomiya-Toyonaka district. At the location where positive and negative magnetic anomalies were illustrated in NEDO`s map in the coastal zone of Kobe City, the anomaly pattern was clarified. The influence of artificial structure was approximated using a point dipole. The dipole was placed in each block having a magnetic anomaly. The parameter was determined by the inverse analysis, to remove the influence. Consequently, most of magnetic anomalies due to artificial structures could be removed. 6 figs.

  8. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  9. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N

    1999-07-27

    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  10. Invited article: High resolution digital camera for infrared reflectography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles M

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of a high resolution infrared (IR) imaging system operating over the wavelength range of 830-1100 nm, based on a modified 8 Mpixels commercial digital camera, with which nonspecialists can obtain IR reflectograms of works of art in situ in a museum environment. The relevant imaging properties of sensitivity, resolution, noise, and contrast are characterized and the capabilities of this system are illustrated with an example that has revealed important new information about the working practices of a 16th century artist.

  11. Track prediction of very severe cyclone 'Nargis' using high resolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, a detailed diagnostic analysis of the system 'Nargis' is carried out initially to investigate the features associated with this unusual movement and subsequently the real time forecast of VSCS 'Nargis' using high resolution advanced version weather research forecasting (WRF) model is presented.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  13. Interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic data over southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 2 ... High resolution airborne magnetic data of parts of the southern Benue Trough were digitally processed and analyzed in order to estimate the depth of magnetic sources and to map the distribution and orientation of subsurface structural features.

  14. Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

  15. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  16. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in multi-year high-resolution Arctic aerosol record by double focusing Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with desolvation nebulizer inlet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardi, Fabio; Traversi, Rita; Becagli, Silvia; Severi, Mirko; Caiazzo, Laura; Ancillotti, Claudia; Udisti, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    An inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS) was used to develop an analytical method for the fast determination of Na, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Y, Mo, Cd, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Pb in Arctic size-segregated aerosol samples (PM10), after microwave acidic digestion. The ICP-SFMS was coupled with a microflow nebulizer and a desolvation system for the sample introduction, which reduced the isobaric interferences due to oxides and the required volume of sample solutions, compared to the usual nebulization chamber methods. With its very low limit of detection, and taking into account the level of blanks, this method allowed the quantification of many metals in very low concentration. Particular attention was given to Rare Earth Elements (REEs - La to Lu). The efficiency in the extraction of REEs was proved to be acceptable, with recoveries over 83% obtained with a Certified Reference Material (AMiS 0356). The analytical method was then applied to particulate matter samples, collected at ground level in Ny Ålesund (Svalbard Islands, Norway), during spring and summer, from 2010 to 2015, with daily resolution and using a low-volume device. Thus, for the first time, a large atmospheric concentrations dataset of metals in Arctic particulate matter at high temporal resolution is presented. On the basis of differences in LREE/HREE ratio and Ce and Eu anomalies in spring and summer samples, basic information to distinguish local and long-range transported dust were achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of high-resolution lidar digital topographic data along the Marlborough Fault System: The Awatere and Clarence faults, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, R. W.; Dolan, J. F.; Rhodes, E. J.; Van Dissen, R. J.; Langridge, R.; Grenader, J.; McGuire, C. P.; Nicol, A.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze newly acquired lidar high-resolution digital topographic data to measure offset geomorphic markers along the Awatere and Clarence faults in the Marlborough Fault System, northern South Island, New Zealand. With an average shot density of ≥ 12 shots/m2, these lidar data, which were acquired for us by the US National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) and New Zealand Aerial Mapping, offer a uniquely detailed view of the topography along ~90 km of the Awatere fault and ~160 km of the Clarence fault, allowing us to measure geomorphic offsets ranging in size from ~1 m to 100s of meters. In this specific study, we examine offset river terraces at the well-known Saxton River site on the Awatere fault, and at Tophouse Road on the Clarence fault. By constraining the ages of those river terraces using post-IR IRSL (225 °C) single-grain K-feldspar dating protocols, we determine latest Pleistocene to late-Holocene slip histories of the Awatere and Clarence faults at those locations. This project is part of a broader effort to generate incremental slip rates and paleoearthquake ages from the four main faults that comprise the Marlborough Fault System with the goal of further understanding how mechanically complementary faults work together to accommodate relative plate motions.

  18. An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels.

  19. A fast high-spatial-resolution Raman distributed temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hartog, A. H.; Marsh, R. J.; Hilton, I. M.; Hadley, M. R.; Ross, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    Conventional high-spatial-resolution Raman distributed temperature sensing (DTS) systems are based on photoncounting techniques, which result in slow measurements over short sensing fibers. We describe an alternative approach that uses a high-power, short-pulse-width laser and provides fast measurements over fibers longer than 1 km. We demonstrate measurements with 1-s update times over fiber lengths greater than 1 km with better than 0.4-m spatial resolution. We introduce a figure of merit for DTS and we show a substantial improvement (x 100) over earlier results.

  20. A high resolution ion microscope for cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Markus; Schefzyk, Hannah; Fortágh, József; Günther, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We report on an ion-optical system that serves as a microscope for ultracold ground state and Rydberg atoms. The system is designed to achieve a magnification of up to 1000 and a spatial resolution in the 100 nm range, thereby surpassing many standard imaging techniques for cold atoms. The microscope consists of four electrostatic lenses and a microchannel plate in conjunction with a delay line detector in order to achieve single particle sensitivity with high temporal and spatial resolution. We describe the design process of the microscope including ion-optical simulations of the imaging system and characterize aberrations and the resolution limit. Furthermore, we present the experimental realization of the microscope in a cold atom setup and investigate its performance by patterned ionization with a structure size down to 2.7 μm. The microscope meets the requirements for studying various many-body effects, ranging from correlations in cold quantum gases up to Rydberg molecule formation.

  1. Detailed mitochondrial phenotyping by high resolution metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Roede

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial phenotype is complex and difficult to define at the level of individual cell types. Newer metabolic profiling methods provide information on dozens of metabolic pathways from a relatively small sample. This pilot study used "top-down" metabolic profiling to determine the spectrum of metabolites present in liver mitochondria. High resolution mass spectral analyses and multivariate statistical tests provided global metabolic information about mitochondria and showed that liver mitochondria possess a significant phenotype based on gender and genotype. The data also show that mitochondria contain a large number of unidentified chemicals.

  2. Novel high resolution tactile robotic fingertips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Jankovics, Vince; Gorsic, Matija

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel robotic fingertip based on piezoresistive rubber that can sense pressure tactile stimuli with a high spatial resolution over curved surfaces. The working principle is based on a three-layer sandwich structure (conductive electrodes on top and bottom and piezoresistive...... rubber in the middle). For the conductive layers we use ring patterns of silver epoxy and flex PCB electrode arrays. The proposed sensorised fingertip has 60 sensitive regions (taxels) arranged in 5 rings and 12 columns that have a smooth pressure to resistance characteristic. Using the sensor...

  3. A new high resolution computed tomography scoring system for pulmonary fibrosis, pleural disease, and emphysema in patients with asbestos related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, N A; Wilkinson, P; Pearson, M C; Rudd, R M

    1992-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a scoring system for high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans analogous to the International Labour Office (ILO) scoring system for plain chest radiographs in patients with asbestos related disease. Interstitial fibrosis, pleural disease, and emphysema were scored, the reproducibility and the interobserver agreement using this scoring system were examined, and the extent of the various types of disease was correlated with measurements of lung function. Sixty asbestos workers (five women and 55 men) mean age 59 (range 34-78) were studied. The lungs were divided into upper, middle, and lower thirds. An HRCT score for the extent of pleural disease and pulmonary disease in each third was recorded in a way analogous to the International Labour Office (ILO) method of scoring pleural and parenchymal disease on chest radiographs. A CT score for the extent of emphysema was also recorded. Pleural disease and interstitial fibrosis on the plain chest radiographs were assessed according to the ILO scoring system. A chest radiographic score for emphysema analogous to that used for HRCT was also recorded. Two independent readers assigned HRCT scores that differed by two categories or less in 96%, 92%, and 85% compared with 90%, 78%, and 79% of cases for chest radiographs for fibrosis, emphysema, and pleural disease respectively. There was better intraobserver repeatability for the HRCT scores than for the chest radiograph scores for all disorders. Multiple regression analysis showed that scores for interstitial fibrosis, emphysema, and pleural disease on chest radiographs and HRCT correlated to a similar degree with impairment of lung function.

  4. High-resolution gamma imaging; Imagerie gamma haute resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmentier, M.; Pousse, A.; Tamba, N.; Chavanelle, J.; Bakkali, A.; Kastler, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lab. Imagerie et Ingenierie pour la Sante, Faculte de Medecine, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2004-01-01

    Gamma imaging involves two-dimensional images of the volume distribution of a radioactive tracer previously injected into the organ under functional exploration. Our Besancon laboratory developed a gamma imager with a spatial resolution three or four times higher than a classic device, which is very useful for functional explorations on small animal, as recently demonstrated by work on myocyte apoptosis and necrosis scintigraphy in the rat. We expect progress in this promising medical imaging technology to be driven by developments in scintillating crystals and position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, and by medical demand in applications such as early detection of breast cancer. (authors)

  5. High Resolution Interseismic Velocity Model of the San Andreas Fault System From a Joint Inversion of GPS and InSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic observations along the plate boundary have been used to constrain moment accumulation rate and stressing rate of active faults during the interseismic period. We compared 4 of these interseismic velocity models of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) based on GPS observations [Mccaffrey, 2005; Meade and Hager, 2005; Smith-Konter and Sandwell, 2009; Zeng and Shen, 2010]. The standard deviations of these 4 models are larger north of the Bay Area, near the Creeping segment in Central California, and along the San Jacinto fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone in Southern California. A coherence spectrum analysis indicates relatively high correlation among the 4 models at longer wavelengths (>15-40 km), with lower correlation at shorter wavelengths. To improve the short-wavelength accuracy of our GPS-derived interseismic velocity model, we integrated InSAR observations, initially from ALOS ascending data (spanning from the middle of 2006 to the end of 2010, totaling more than 1100 interferograms), using a Sum/Remove/Filter/Restore (SURF) approach. The final InSAR line-of-site (LOS) data match the point GPS observations with a mean absolute deviation of 1.3 mm/yr. These new LOS data were subsampled according to the magnitude of the strain rate and are available at ftp://topex.ucsd.edu/pub/SAF_models/insar/sample.tar We use this high-resolution InSAR LOS data, combined with geological slip rate constraints and secular GPS vectors to invert for the fault slip rate of 50 active fault segments in California using a 3-D viscoelastic earthquake cycle model. This model simulates interseismic deformation resulting from deep slip on faults extending from a prescribed locking depth to the bottom of an elastic plate which overlies the viscoelastic half-space [Smith-Konter and Sandwell, 2009]. The linear least squares problem is solved by Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and the uncertainties are estimated using covariance matrix of the solution parameters. In this

  6. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  7. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  8. Role of pharmacokinetic parameters derived with high temporal resolution DCE MRI using simultaneous PET/MRI system in breast cancer: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Amarnath; Taneja, Sangeeta; Singh, Aru; Negi, Pradeep; Mehta, Shashi Bhushan; Sarin, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of pharmacokinetic parameters like K(trans), Kep and ve derived through DCE MRI breast protocol using 3T Simultaneous PET/MRI (3Tesla Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging) system in distinguishing benign and malignant lesions. High temporal resolution DCE (Dynamic Contrast Enhancement) MRI performed as routine breast MRI for diagnosis or as a part of PET/MRI for cancer staging using a 3T simultaneous PET/MRI system in 98 women having 109 breast lesions were analyzed for calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters (K(trans), ve, and Kep) at 60s time point using an in-house developed computation scheme. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed a cut off value for K(trans), Kep, ve as 0.50, 2.59, 0.15 respectively which reliably distinguished benign and malignant breast lesions. Data analysis revealed an overall accuracy of 94.50%, 79.82% and 87.16% for K(trans), Kep, ve respectively. Introduction of native T1 normalization with an externally placed phantom showed a higher accuracy (94.50%) than without native T1 normalization (93.50%) with an increase in specificity of 87% vs 84%. Overall the results indicate that reliable measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters with reduced acquisition time is feasible in a 3TMRI embedded PET/MRI system with reasonable accuracy and application may be extended to exploit the potential of simultaneous PET/MRI in further work on breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A rigorous analysis of digital pre-emphasis and DAC resolution for interleaved DAC Nyquist-WDM signal generation in high-speed coherent optical transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2018-02-01

    The Nyquist spectral shaping techniques facilitate a promising solution to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) and further reduce the cost-per-bit in high-speed wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. Hypothetically, any Nyquist WDM signals with arbitrary shapes can be generated by the use of the digital signal processing (DSP) based electrical filters (E-filter). Nonetheless, in actual 100G/ 200G coherent systems, the performance as well as DSP complexity are increasingly restricted by cost and power consumption. Henceforward it is indispensable to optimize DSP to accomplish the preferred performance at the least complexity. In this paper, we systematically investigated the minimum requirements and challenges of Nyquist WDM signal generation, particularly for higher-order modulation formats, including 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or 64QAM. A variety of interrelated parameters, such as channel spacing and roll-off factor, have been evaluated to optimize the requirements of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) resolution and transmitter E-filter bandwidth. The impact of spectral pre-emphasis has been predominantly enhanced via the proposed interleaved DAC architecture by at least 4%, and hence reducing the required optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 by over 0.45 dB at a channel spacing of 1.05 symbol rate and an optimized roll-off factor of 0.1. Furthermore, the requirements of sampling rate for different types of super-Gaussian E-filters are discussed for 64QAM Nyquist WDM transmission systems. Finally, the impact of the non-50% duty cycle error between sub-DACs upon the quality of the generated signals for the interleaved DAC structure has been analyzed.

  10. Regional High Resolution Reanalysis Covered European North East Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Benkiran, M.; Chanut, J.; Drillet, Y.; Reffray, G.

    2011-12-01

    Mercator-Ocean has developed a regional forecasting system at 1/12° resolution over the North East Atlantic (IBI: Iberia, Biscay and Irish), taking advantage of the recent developments in NEMO. This regional forecasting system uses boundary conditions from the Mercator-Ocean global reanalysis (GLORYS: Global Ocean ReanalYses and Simulations). The assimilation component of the Mercator Ocean system, is based on a reduced-order Kalman filter (the SEEK or Singular Extended Evolutive Kalman filter). An IAU method (Incremental Analysis Updates) is used to apply the increments in the system. The error statistics are represented in a sub-space spanned by a small number of dominant 3D error directions. The data assimilation system allows to constrain the model in a multivariate way with Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR + Multi-satellite High resolution), together with all available satellite Sea Level Anomalies, and with in situ observations from the CORA-03 data base, including ARGO floats temperature and salinity measurements. This reanalysis covers the period from January 2002 to December 2009. In this presentation, the results obtained with this reanalysis system (1/12°) are compared to the GLORYS ones. A special focus will be made on the gain thanks to the higher resolution of the model and higher resolution of the SST assimilated in this reanalysis.

  11. Linking innovative measurement technologies (ConMon and Dataflow© systems) for high-resolution temporal and spatial dissolved oxygen criteria assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, C A; Perry, E; Bayard, A; Wainger, L; Boynton, W R

    2015-10-01

    One consequence of nutrient-induced eutrophication in shallow estuarine waters is the occurrence of hypoxia and anoxia that has serious impacts on biota, habitats, and biogeochemical cycles of important elements. Because of the important role of dissolved oxygen (DO) on these ecosystem features, a variety of DO criteria have been established as indicators of system condition. However, DO dynamics are complex and vary on time scales ranging from diel to decadal and spatial scales from meters to multiple kilometers. Because of these complexities, determining DO criteria attainment or failure remains difficult. We propose a method for linking two common measurement technologies for shallow water DO criteria assessment using a Chesapeake Bay tributary as a test case. Dataflow© is a spatially intensive (30-60-m collection intervals) system used to map surface water conditions at the whole estuary scale, and ConMon is a high-frequency (15-min collection intervals) fixed station approach. The former technology is effective with spatial descriptions but poor regarding temporal resolution, while the latter provides excellent temporal but very limited spatial resolution. Our methodology for combining the strengths of these measurement technologies involved a sequence of steps. First, a statistical model of surface water DO dynamics, based on temporally intense ConMon data, was developed. The results of this model were used to calculate daily DO minimum concentrations. Second, this model was then inserted into Dataflow©-generated spatial maps of DO conditions and used to adjust measured DO concentrations to daily minimum concentrations. This information was used to assess DO criteria compliance at the full tributary scale. Model results indicated that it is vital to consider the short-term time scale DO criteria across both space and time concurrently. Large fluctuations in DO occurred within a 24-h time period, and DO dynamics varied across the length and width of the

  12. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  13. The high-resolution stratigraphic architecture and evolution of the Burdigalian carbonate-silici-clastic sedimentary systems on the Mut Basin, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, Ph.

    1999-06-01

    The subject of this doctorate study are the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) carbonate systems in the Mut basin, in south central Turkey. This area is chosen because it presents extraordinary large (seismic) scale 3D outcrops showing depositional geometries. In addition, these carbonates are considered as good outcrop analogues for time equivalent carbonate buildups in the Far East, that are oil and gas bearing. The carbonates were deposited in a complex relict topography, following a tectonically active phase in the Oligocene. During the Burdigalian transgression shallow platform carbonates were deposited in a variety of settings, locally accompanied by some silici-clastic input. Observations on the strata geometries and the facies were combined into a high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework controlled by bio-stratigraphy. With the help of relative sea level curves constructed for the three studied sites, a basin-wide correlation scheme is proposed. This chronostratigraphic framework permits the recognition of condensation and omission surfaces in the basinal and platform settings, to identify basin-wide variations in sedimentation pattern, and to evaluate the relative influence of tectonism, eustatism and the environment. The exceptional quality of the outcrops with its variety of environments, and its location at the Tethys margin, make this a good candidate for a reference model for Burdigalian reef and platform architectures. Examples of a quantitative approach of the geometries of potential carbonate reservoir bodies are given in the annex. The data-files are incorporated in the carbonate reservoir body database CARABAS. (author)

  14. Assimilation of high-resolution sea surface temperature data into an operational nowcast/forecast system around Japan using a multi-scale three-dimensional variational scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Miyama, Toru; Guo, Xinyu; Hihara, Tsutomu; Kiyomatsu, Keiji; Kachi, Misako; Kurihara, Yukio; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    A multi-scale three-dimensional variational (MS-3DVAR) scheme is developed to assimilate high-resolution Himawari-8 sea surface temperature (SST) data for the first time into an operational ocean nowcast/forecast system targeting the North Western Pacific, JCOPE2. MS-3DVAR improves representation of the Kuroshio path south of Japan, its associated sea level variations, and temperature/salinity profiles south of Japan, the Kuroshio/Oyashio mixed water region, and the Japan Sea as compared to those of the products by the traditional single-scale 3DVAR. Validation results demonstrate that MS-3DVAR well assimilates the sparsely distributed in situ temperature and salinity profiles data by spreading the information over the large scale and by representing the detailed information near the measurement points. MS-3DVAR succeeds to assimilate the Himawari-8 SST product without noisy features caused by the cloud effects. We also find that MS-3DVAR is more effective for estimating oceanic conditions in regions with smaller mesoscale variability including the mixed water region and Japan Sea than in south of Japan.

  15. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1,1'-diphenylethylene: electronically excited and ionic states of a prototypical cross-conjugated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Szymon; Vdovin, Alexander; Rijs, Anouk; van Walree, Cornelis A; Zgierski, Marek Z; Buma, Wybren J

    2011-09-01

    The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated π-system, 1,1'-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio calculations. We find that the excitation spectrum of S(1) displays extensive vibrational progressions that we identify to arise from large changes in the torsional angles of the phenyl rings upon electronic excitation. The extensive activity of the antisymmetric inter-ring torsional vibration provides conclusive evidence for a loss of symmetry upon excitation, leading to an inequivalence of the two phenyl rings. Nonresonant zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy from the ground state of the neutral molecule to the ground state of the radical cation, on the other hand, demonstrates that upon ionization symmetry is retained, and that the geometry changes are considerably smaller. Apart from elucidating how removal of an electron affects the structure of the molecule, these measurements provide an accurate value for the adiabatic ionization energy (65274 ± 1 cm(-1) (8.093 eV)). Zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectra obtained after excitation of vibronic levels in S(1) confirm these conclusions and provide us with an extensive atlas of ionic vibronic energy levels. For higher excitation energies the excitation spectrum of S(1) becomes quite congested and shows unexpected large intensities. Ab initio calculations strongly suggest that this is caused by a conical intersection between S(1) and S(2). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Clinical indications for high-resolution MRI diagnostics of the peripheral nervous system; Klinische Indikationen hochaufloesender MRT-Diagnostik des peripheren Nervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Weiler, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Neurologische Klinik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Peripheral neuropathies are common and diagnostically often challenging disorders. Difficulties particularly exist in lesion localization and recognition of complex spatial lesion patterns. Medical history taking, neurological examination, neurophysiological tests and nerve ultrasonography represent the gold standard in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve lesions but have known methodical limitations. The use of 3 Tesla magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is an additional diagnostic imaging tool recently developed for the high-resolution visualization of long segments of peripheral nerves. Reasonable clinical indications for MRN are exemplarily presented. Using MRN a direct visualization and thus precise localization of focal and non-focal peripheral nerve lesions of various origins can be achieved with high spatial resolution down to the anatomical level of nerve fascicles. Using MRN large anatomical areas of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be covered in a single examination session, spatial nerve lesion patterns can be evaluated and the underlying causes can often be detected. The MRN is a valuable supplement to the diagnostic work-up of the PNS, especially in cases that cannot be clarified with standard diagnostic methods. Evaluation of the spatial nerve lesion pattern gives additional information on the origin of the underlying disease. Reasonable indications for MRN are the assessment of proximal nerve structures including the brachial and lumbosacral nerve plexi, the clarification of inconclusive diagnostic results, preoperative, postoperative and posttraumatic assessments, the identification of fascicular nerve lesions and the differential diagnosis of an alleged somatoform disorder. (orig.) [German] Periphere Neuropathien sind haeufige und diagnostisch mitunter anspruchsvolle Erkrankungen. Schwierigkeiten bestehen v. a. bei der Laesionslokalisation und Erkennung komplexer Laesionsmuster. Anamnese, klinisch-neurologische Untersuchung

  17. Dynamics of explosive paroxysms at open andesitic systems: high-resolution mass distribution analyses of 2006 tephra from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pennec, J.; Eychenne, J.; Ramon, P.; Yepes, H.

    2012-12-01

    Many andesitic volcanoes at subduction plate margins can experience in the course of their evolution periods of sub-continuous eruption during years, decades, or centuries. Such long-lived periods may embrace more or less intense outgassing events, extrusion of viscous lava flows and domes (e.g. Colima in Mexico, Merapi in Indonesia, Arenal in Costa Rica), and explosive activity of uneven intensity (e.g. Semeru in Indonesia, Sakurajima in Japan, Sangay in Ecuador). In addition, strong explosive events of short duration may occur, with potential generation of pyroclastic flows on the flanks and beyond, which can pose significant hazards in populated regions. The origin and dynamics of such violent eruptions remain poorly known and may involve a combination of different factors. Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, reawaken in 1999 and is an example of such open-system behaviour that experienced a strong and deadly andesitic pyroclastic flow-forming event in August 2006. Inspection of the deposits suggested that the event could have been triggered by magma mixing (silicic pumices in the tephra), magma-water interaction (presence of xenolithic clasts) or deep andesitic magma reinjection (based on mineral chemistry). Here we investigate these options by performing a high-resolution mass budget analysis of the scoria fall deposit. This is achieved by analysing componentry compositions and their mass distribution pattern in the layer, which allow us to document and integrate exponential and power laws mass decay rates over wide areas. The results yield a total mass for the tephra layer of ~2 x 1010kg. The pumice mass fraction is far too small (paroxysm. Altogether our results support an explosive event fed by a deep gas-rich andesitic reinjection, which would have incorporated a pocket of older differentiated magma and eroded the upper conduit during the sub-plinian event. The high-resolution mass-based approach reveals useful to decipher the origin of the violent 2006 paroxysm

  18. Ultra-high resolution and high-brightness AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Ghosh, Amal; Prache, Olivier; Draper, Russ; Fellowes, Dave

    2012-06-01

    As part of its continuing effort to improve both the resolution and optical performance of AMOLED microdisplays, eMagin has recently developed an SXGA (1280×3×1024) microdisplay under a US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD contract that combines the world's smallest OLED pixel pitch with an ultra-high brightness green OLED emitter. This development is aimed at next-generation HMD systems with "see-through" and daylight imaging requirements. The OLED pixel array is built on a 0.18-micron CMOS backplane and contains over 4 million individually addressable pixels with a pixel pitch of 2.7 × 8.1 microns, resulting in an active area of 0.52 inches diagonal. Using both spatial and temporal enhancement, the display can provide over 10-bits of gray-level control for high dynamic range applications. The new pixel design also enables the future implementation of a full-color QSXGA (2560 × RGB × 2048) microdisplay in an active area of only 1.05 inch diagonal. A low-power serialized low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) interface is integrated into the display for use as a remote video link for tethered systems. The new SXGA backplane has been combined with the high-brightness green OLED device developed by eMagin under an NVESD contract. This OLED device has produced an output brightness of more than 8000fL with all pixels on; lifetime measurements are currently underway and will presented at the meeting. This paper will describe the operational features and first optical and electrical test results of the new SXGA demonstrator microdisplay.

  19. A high-resolution microchip optomechanical accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Alexander G.; Winger, Martin; Blasius, Tim D.; Lin, Qiang; Painter, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    The monitoring of acceleration is essential for a variety of applications ranging from inertial navigation to consumer electronics. Typical accelerometer operation involves the sensitive displacement measurement of a flexibly mounted test mass, which can be realized using capacitive, piezo-electric, tunnel-current or optical methods. Although optical detection provides superior displacement resolution, resilience to electromagnetic interference and long-range readout, current optical accelerometers either do not allow for chip-scale integration or utilize relatively bulky test mass sensors of low bandwidth. Here, we demonstrate an optomechanical accelerometer that makes use of ultrasensitive displacement readout using a photonic-crystal nanocavity monolithically integrated with a nanotethered test mass of high mechanical Q-factor. This device achieves an acceleration resolution of 10 µg Hz-1/2 with submilliwatt optical power, bandwidth greater than 20 kHz and a dynamic range of greater than 40 dB. Moreover, the nanogram test masses used here allow for strong optomechanical backaction, setting the stage for a new class of motional sensors.

  20. Fast diffusion imaging with high angular resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Chiou, Jr-Yuan George; Maier, Stephan E; Madore, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) is a well-established method to help reveal the architecture of nerve bundles, but long scan times and geometric distortions inherent to echo planar imaging (EPI) have limited its integration into clinical protocols. A fast imaging method is proposed here that combines accelerated multishot diffusion imaging (AMDI), multiplexed sensitivity encoding (MUSE), and crossing fiber angular resolution of intravoxel structure (CFARI) to reduce spatial distortions and reduce total scan time. A multishot EPI sequence was used to improve geometrical fidelity as compared to a single-shot EPI acquisition, and acceleration in both k-space and diffusion sampling enabled reductions in scan time. The method is regularized and self-navigated for motion correction. Seven volunteers were scanned in this study, including four with volumetric whole brain acquisitions. The average similarity of microstructural orientations between undersampled datasets and their fully sampled counterparts was above 85%, with scan times below 5 min for whole-brain acquisitions. Up to 2.7-fold scan time acceleration along with four-fold distortion reduction was achieved. The proposed imaging strategy can generate HARDI results with relatively good geometrical fidelity and low scan duration, which may help facilitate the transition of HARDI from a successful research tool to a practical clinical one. Magn Reson Med 77:696-706, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Improving Arctic Sea Ice Edge Forecasts by Assimilating High Horizontal Resolution Sea Ice Concentration Data into the US Navy’s Ice Forecast Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    avoid nearly all ice hazards. The location of the ice edge can shift , based on the resolution of the data sources. The IMS product (Fig. 6 – blue ...Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 also showed a substantial improvement in ice edge location over a system using the SSMIS sea ice concentration product...Global Ocean Fore- cast System (GOFS 3.1). Prior to 2 February 2015, the ice concentration fields from both ACNFS and GOFS 3.1 had been updated with

  2. A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Bollmeyer, Christoph; Crewell, Susanne; Friederichs, Petra; Hense, Andreas; Keller, Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kneifel, Stefan; Ohlwein, Christian; Pscheidt, Ieda; Redl, Stephanie; Steinke, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on the regional reanalysis for Europe with a domain matching the CORDEX-EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). The COSMO reanalysis system comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-interim data. The reanalysis data set currently covers 6 years (2007-2012). The evaluation of the reanalyses is done using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations. The development and evaluation of the COSMO-based reanalysis for the CORDEX-Euro domain can be seen as a preparation for joint European activities on the development of an ensemble system of regional reanalyses for Europe.

  3. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  4. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  5. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  6. High resolution color band pyrometer ratioing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B. (Inventor); Henry, Paul K. (Inventor); LoGiurato, D. Daniel (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The sensing head of a two-color band ratioing pyrometer of a known type using a fiber optic cable to couple radiation to dual detector photodiodes is improved to have high spatial resolution by focusing the radiation received through an objective lens (i.e., by focusing the image of a target area) onto an opaque sheet spaced in front of the input end of the fiber optic cable. A two-mil hole in that sheet then passes radiation to the input end of the cable. The detector has two channels, one for each color band, with an electronic-chopper stabilized current amplifier as the input stage followed by an electronic-chopper stabilized voltage amplifier.

  7. High-Resolution Movement EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Štastný

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the contribution is to analyze possibilities of high-resolution movement classification using human EEG. For this purpose, a database of the EEG recorded during right-thumb and little-finger fast flexion movements of the experimental subjects was created. The statistical analysis of the EEG was done on the subject's basis instead of the commonly used grand averaging. Statistically significant differences between the EEG accompanying movements of both fingers were found, extending the results of other so far published works. The classifier based on hidden Markov models was able to distinguish between movement and resting states (classification score of 94–100%, but it was unable to recognize the type of the movement. This is caused by the large fraction of other (nonmovement related EEG activities in the recorded signals. A classification method based on advanced EEG signal denoising is being currently developed to overcome this problem.

  8. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  9. MALIBU: A High Spatial Resolution Multi-Angle Imaging Unmanned Airborne System to Validate Satellite-derived BRDF/Albedo Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Roman, M. O.; Pahlevan, N.; Stachura, M.; McCorkel, J.; Bland, G.; Schaaf, C.

    2016-12-01

    Albedo is a key climate forcing variable that governs the absorption of incoming solar radiation and its ultimate transfer to the atmosphere. Albedo contributes significant uncertainties in the simulation of climate changes; and as such, it is defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) as a terrestrial essential climate variable (ECV) required by global and regional climate and biogeochemical models. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's Multi AngLe Imaging Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function small-UAS (MALIBU) is part of a series of pathfinder missions to develop enhanced multi-angular remote sensing techniques using small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS). The MALIBU instrument package includes two multispectral imagers oriented at two different viewing geometries (i.e., port and starboard sides) capture vegetation optical properties and structural characteristics. This is achieved by analyzing the surface reflectance anisotropy signal (i.e., BRDF shape) obtained from the combination of surface reflectance from different view-illumination angles and spectral channels. Satellite measures of surface albedo from MODIS, VIIRS, and Landsat have been evaluated by comparison with spatially representative albedometer data from sparsely distributed flux towers at fixed heights. However, the mismatch between the footprint of ground measurements and the satellite footprint challenges efforts at validation, especially for heterogeneous landscapes. The BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) models of surface anisotropy have only been evaluated with airborne BRDF data over a very few locations. The MALIBU platform that acquires extremely high resolution sub-meter measures of surface anisotropy and surface albedo, can thus serve as an important source of reference data to enable global land product validation efforts, and resolve the errors and uncertainties in the various existing products generated by NASA and its national and

  10. High-resolution transcriptome of human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Beyer

    Full Text Available Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like and alternative (M2-like polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7 as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226 cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease.

  11. High-Resolution Transcriptome of Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea; Vorholt, Daniela; Krebs, Wolfgang; Sommer, Daniel; Sander, Jil; Mertens, Christina; Nino-Castro, Andrea; Schmidt, Susanne V.; Schultze, Joachim L.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like) and alternative (M2-like) polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7) as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226) cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease. PMID:23029029

  12. Measurement of the absorbed dose distribution near an 192Ir intravascular brachytherapy seed using a high-spatial-resolution gel dosimetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massillon-JL, G.; Minniti, R.; Mitch, M. G.; Soares, C. G.

    2012-06-01

    The absorbed dose distribution at sub-millimeter distances from the Best single 192Ir intravascular brachytherapy seed was measured using a high-spatial-resolution gel dosimetry system. Two gel phantoms from the same batch were used; one for the seed irradiation and one for calibration. Since the response of this gel is energy independent for photons between 20 and 1250 keV, the gel was calibrated using a narrowly collimated 60Co gamma-ray beam (cross-sectional area ˜1 cm2). A small format laser computed tomography scanner was used to acquire the data. The measurements were carried out with a spatial resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions. The seed was calibrated at NIST in terms of air-kerma strength. The absorbed dose rate as well as the radial dose function, gL(r), was measured for radial distances between 0.6 and 12.6 mm from the seed center. The dose rate constant was measured, yielding a value of Λ = (1.122 ± 0.032) cGy h-1 U-1, which agrees with published data within the measurement uncertainty. For distances between 0.6 and 1.5 mm, gL(r) decreases from a maximum value of 1.06 down to 1.00; between 1.5 and 6.7 mm, an enhancement is clearly observed with a maximum value around 1.24 and beyond 6.7 mm, gL(r) has an approximately constant value around 1.0, which suggests that this seed can be considered as a point source only at distances larger than 6.7 mm. This latter observation agrees with data for the same seed reported previously using Gafchromic film MD-55-2. Additionally, published Monte Carlo (MC) calculations have predicted the observed behavior of the radial dose function resulting from the absorbed dose contributions of beta particles and electrons emitted by the 192Ir seed. Nonetheless, in the enhancement region, MC underestimates the dose by approximately 20%. This work suggests that beta particles and electrons emitted from the seed make a significant contribution to the total absorbed dose delivered at distances near the seed center (less

  13. High-resolution digital imaging with storage phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, C R; Gur, D; Schaetzing, R

    1990-01-01

    This article describes the current status and potential applications of high-resolution storage phosphor for imaging of the chest. Digital imaging that uses storage phosphor technology is easily adaptable to existing x-ray--generating equipment and can also be used with mobile equipment. The wide latitude of the storage phosphor technique permits satisfactory imaging in situations in which exposure factors cannot be accurately estimated or easily controlled. Early experience with an experimental Kodak high-resolution (4K x 4K) storage phosphor system suggests that standard and portal chest images of excellent quality can be obtained. Many issues must be resolved, however, before digital radiology with a storage phosphor can be advocated as being preferable to conventional film-screen systems. These issues, which include display modalities (film or television monitor), resolution requirements, and the effects of image processing, can only be resolved by further large-scale accuracy studies. The change to a digital imaging system will involve major expenditures for equipment and computers. Cost will be related largely to the level of spatial resolution required for primary radiographic diagnosis.

  14. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research.

  15. Optical Demonstration of a Medical Imaging System with an EMCCD-Sensor Array for Use in a High Resolution Dynamic X-ray Imager

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Bin; Huang, Ying; Wang, Weiyuan; Sharma, Prateek; Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Titus, Albert H.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Use of an extensible array of Electron Multiplying CCDs (EMCCDs) in medical x-ray imager applications was demonstrated for the first time. The large variable electronic-gain (up to 2000) and small pixel size of EMCCDs provide effective suppression of readout noise compared to signal, as well as high resolution, enabling the development of an x-ray detector with far superior performance compared to conventional x-ray image intensifiers and flat panel detectors. We are developing arrays of EMCC...

  16. Forming intermediate spatial resolution of microscopy images for continuous zooming on multi-resolution processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Evan H. E.; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Usuki, Shin; Miura, Kenjiro T.

    2017-09-01

    Digital zooming especially on microscopy image has attempted to improve their quality of measurement into a better assessment. However, since the field of view of high-resolution image are not wide despite of the fact that high-resolution image has more information detail and low-resolution image has their merits which is bring a big picture of the whole structure, we need to observe the sample in any scale. This problem was been solved by developing dual-view of high and low images resolution1 but in a single interpolated images. The goal of this research is utilize multi-resolution images to develop smooth zooming magnification of microscopy image. In order to achieve smooth zooming magnification on different condition of the images, scheme process will be needed. First, we took a several spatial images of the same sample based on the different objective lens, author was used 4 objective lens which are 10×, 20×, 50× and 150× magnification. In this synthesize phase, we interpolate lower resolution image for synthesize purpose with the next higher resolution image of the sample. Second, continue to looking for the feature point of both images with SIFT feature point method until we synthesize both images. Third, author treat this synthesized image with discrete fourier transform (DFT) with low-pass filter as the same size with numerical aperture (NA) that was input on the first phase. Then the fourth phase is looping this processes until intermediate images are generated enough to be blend with pyramid blend method. In this article we also try to make a system that can arbitrarily generate intermediate image with hierarchical system.

  17. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  18. Combining structure-from-motion derived point clouds from satellites and unmanned aircraft systems images with ground-truth data to create high-resolution digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu, M.; Thatcher, C.; Danielson, J.; Gesch, D. B.; Poppenga, S.; Kottermair, M.; Jalandoni, A.; Carlson, E.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal topographic and bathymetric (topobathymetric) data with high spatial resolution (1-meter or better) and high vertical accuracy are needed to assess the vulnerability of Pacific Islands to climate change impacts, including sea level rise. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports, low-lying atolls in the Pacific Ocean are extremely vulnerable to king tide events, storm surge, tsunamis, and sea-level rise. The lack of coastal topobathymetric data has been identified as a critical data gap for climate vulnerability and adaptation efforts in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). For Majuro Atoll, home to the largest city of RMI, the only elevation dataset currently available is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data which has a 30-meter spatial resolution and 16-meter vertical accuracy (expressed as linear error at 90%). To generate high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in the RMI, elevation information and photographic imagery have been collected from field surveys using GNSS/total station and unmanned aerial vehicles for Structure-from-Motion (SfM) point cloud generation. Digital Globe WorldView II imagery was processed to create SfM point clouds to fill in gaps in the point cloud derived from the higher resolution UAS photos. The combined point cloud data is filtered and classified to bare-earth and georeferenced using the GNSS data acquired on roads and along survey transects perpendicular to the coast. A total station was used to collect elevation data under tree canopies where heavy vegetation cover blocked the view of GNSS satellites. A subset of the GPS / total station data was set aside for error assessment of the resulting DEM.

  19. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  20. Spatial Ensemble Postprocessing of Precipitation Forecasts Using High Resolution Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Schicker, Irene; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble prediction systems are designed to account for errors or uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, imperfect parameterizations, etc. However, due to sampling errors and underestimation of the model errors, these ensemble forecasts tend to be underdispersive, and to lack both reliability and sharpness. To overcome such limitations, statistical postprocessing methods are commonly applied to these forecasts. In this study, a full-distributional spatial post-processing method is applied to short-range precipitation forecasts over Austria using Standardized Anomaly Model Output Statistics (SAMOS). Following Stauffer et al. (2016), observation and forecast fields are transformed into standardized anomalies by subtracting a site-specific climatological mean and dividing by the climatological standard deviation. Due to the need of fitting only a single regression model for the whole domain, the SAMOS framework provides a computationally inexpensive method to create operationally calibrated probabilistic forecasts for any arbitrary location or for all grid points in the domain simultaneously. Taking advantage of the INCA system (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis), high resolution analyses are used for the computation of the observed climatology and for model training. The INCA system operationally combines station measurements and remote sensing data into real-time objective analysis fields at 1 km-horizontal resolution and 1 h-temporal resolution. The precipitation forecast used in this study is obtained from a limited area model ensemble prediction system also operated by ZAMG. The so called ALADIN-LAEF provides, by applying a multi-physics approach, a 17-member forecast at a horizontal resolution of 10.9 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour. The performed SAMOS approach statistically combines the in-house developed high resolution analysis and ensemble prediction system. The station-based validation of 6 hour precipitation sums

  1. High resolution surface plasmon imaging of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berguiga, Lotfi; Roland, Thibault; Fahys, Audrey; Elezgaray, Juan; Argoul, Françoise

    2010-05-01

    We report a technique of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) which pushes down the resolution limit to sub-micronic scales. To confirm the sensitivity and resolution of this non labeling microscopy we show images of gold and dielectric nanoparticules detected in air. The contrast mechanism is discussed versus the defocusing and versus the nature of the particules.

  2. A medium resolution fingerprint matching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammad Bahaa-Eldin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel minutiae based fingerprint matching system is proposed. The system is suitable for medium resolution fingerprint images obtained by low cost commercial sensors. The paper presents a new thinning algorithm, a new features extraction and representation, and a novel feature distance matching algorithm. The proposed system is rotation and translation invariant and is suitable for complete or partial fingerprint matching. The proposed algorithms are optimized to be executed on low resource environments both in CPU power and memory space. The system was evaluated using a standard fingerprint dataset and good performance and accuracy were achieved under certain image quality requirements. In addition, the proposed system was compared favorably to that of the state of the art systems.

  3. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Chritin, N.; Soby, L.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Wendt, M.; Yakovlev, V.

    2012-01-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  4. CSpace high-resolution volumetric 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Melnik, George; Willner, Mark

    2013-05-01

    We are currently in the process of developing a static-volume 3D display, CSpace® display, that has the capability to produce images of much larger size than any other static-volume display currently under development, with up to nearly 800 million voxel resolution. A key component in achieving the size and resolution of the display is the optical system that transfers the pixel data from a standard DMD projection unit to the voxel size required by the display with high contrast and minimal distortion. The current optical system is capable of such performance for only small image sizes, and thus new designs of the optical system must be developed. We report here on the design and testing of a new optical projection system with the intent of achieving performance close to that of a telecentric lens. Theoretical analysis with Zemax allowed selection of appropriate lens size, spacing, and focal length, and identified the need for tilting the assembly to produce the desired beam properties. Experimental analysis using the CSpace® prototype showed that the improved beam parameters allowed for higher resolution and brighter images than those previously achieved, though their remains room for further improvement of the design. Heating of the DMD and its housing components were also addressed to minimize heating effects on the optical system. A combination of a thermo-electric cooler and a small fan produced sufficient cooling to stabilize the temperature of the system to acceptable levels.

  5. SU-G-BRB-10: New Generation of High Frame-Rate and High Spatial-Resolution EPID QA System for Full-Body MLC-Based Robotic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B; Xing, L; Wang, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To systematically investigate an ultra-high spatial-resolution amorphous silicon flat-panel electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for MLC-based full-body robotic radiosurgery geometric and dosimetric quality assurance (QA). Methods: The high frame-rate and ultra-high spatial resolution EPID is an outstanding detector for measuring profiles, MLC-shaped radiosurgery field aperture verification, and small field dosimetry. A Monte Carlo based technique with a robotic linac specific response and calibration is developed to convert a raw EPID-measured image of a radiosurgery field into water-based dose distribution. The technique is applied to measure output factors and profiles for 6MV MLC-defined radiosurgery fields with various sizes ranging from 7.6mm×7.7mm to 100mm×100.1mm and the results are compared with the radiosurgery diode scan measurements in water tank. The EPID measured field sizes and the penumbra regions are analyzed to evaluate the MLC positioning accuracy. Results: For all MLC fields, the EPID measured output factors of MLC-shaped fields are in good agreement with the diode measurements. The mean output difference between the EPID and diode measurement is 0.05±0.87%. The max difference is −1.33% for 7.6mm×7.7mm field. The MLC field size derived from the EPID measurements are in good agreement comparing to the diode scan result. For crossline field sizes, the mean difference is −0.17mm±0.14mm with a maximum of −0.35mm for the 30.8mm×30.8mm field. For inline field sizes, the mean difference is +0.08mm±0.18mm with a maximum of +0.45mm for the 100mm×100.1mm field. The high resolution EPID is able to measure the whole radiation field, without the need to align the detector center perfectly at field center as diode or ion chamber measurement. The setup time is greatly reduced so that the whole process is possible for machine and patient-specific QA. Conclusion: The high spatial-resolution EPID is proved to be an accurate and efficient

  6. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.; Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Bollmeyer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers 6 years (2007-2012) and is currently extended to 16 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  7. The high-resolution regional reanalysis COSMO-REA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2016-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  8. High spatial resolution probes for neurobiology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, D. E.; Kenney, C. J.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive biological neural networks, such as the brain and the retina, require position-sensitive detection methods to identify, map and study their behavior. Traditionally, planar microelectrodes have been employed to record the cell's electrical activity with device limitations arising from the electrode's 2-D nature. Described here is the development and characterization of an array of electrically conductive micro-needles aimed at addressing the limitations of planar electrodes. The capability of this array to penetrate neural tissue improves the electrode-cell electrical interface and allows more complicated 3-D networks of neurons, such as those found in brain slices, to be studied. State-of-the-art semiconductor fabrication techniques were used to etch and passivate conformally the metal coat and fill high aspect ratio holes in silicon. These are subsequently transformed into needles with conductive tips. This process has enabled the fabrication of arrays of unprecedented dimensions: 61 hexagonally close-packed electrodes, ˜200 μm tall with 60 μm spacing. Electroplating the tungsten tips with platinum ensure suitable impedance values (˜600 kΩ at 1 kHz) for the recording of neuronal signals. Without compromising spatial resolution of the neuronal recordings, this array adds a new and exciting dimension to the study of biological neural networks.

  9. Response of O2 and pH to ENSO in the California Current System in a high-resolution global climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Turi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal upwelling systems, such as the California Current System (CalCS, naturally experience a wide range of O2 concentrations and pH values due to the seasonality of upwelling. Nonetheless, changes in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO have been shown to measurably affect the biogeochemical and physical properties of coastal upwelling regions. In this study, we use a novel, high-resolution global climate model (GFDL-ESM2.6 to investigate the influence of warm and cold ENSO events on variations in the O2 concentration and the pH of the CalCS coastal waters. An assessment of the CalCS response to six El Niño and seven La Niña events in ESM2.6 reveals significant variations in the response between events. However, these variations overlay a consistent physical and biogeochemical (O2 and pH response in the composite mean. Focusing on the mean response, our results demonstrate that O2 and pH are affected rather differently in the euphotic zone above  ∼  100 m. The strongest O2 response reaches up to several hundreds of kilometers offshore, whereas the pH signal occurs only within a  ∼  100 km wide band along the coast. By splitting the changes in O2 and pH into individual physical and biogeochemical components that are affected by ENSO variability, we found that O2 variability in the surface ocean is primarily driven by changes in surface temperature that affect the O2 solubility. In contrast, surface pH changes are predominantly driven by changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, which in turn is affected by upwelling, explaining the confined nature of the pH signal close to the coast. Below  ∼  100 m, we find conditions with anomalously low O2 and pH, and by extension also anomalously low aragonite saturation, during La Niña. This result is consistent with findings from previous studies and highlights the stress that the CalCS ecosystem could periodically undergo in addition to impacts due to climate

  10. Accelerated high-resolution photoacoustic tomography via compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, Simon; Beard, Paul; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward

    2016-12-21

    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining model-based, variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: first, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then, we discuss how to implement them using the FP interferometer and demonstrate the potential of these novel compressed sensing PAT devices through simulated data from a realistic numerical phantom and through measured data from a dynamic experimental phantom as well as from in vivo experiments. Our results show that images with good spatial resolution and contrast can be obtained from highly sub-sampled PAT data if variational image reconstruction techniques that describe the tissues structures with suitable sparsity-constraints are used. In particular, we examine the use of total variation (TV) regularization enhanced by Bregman iterations. These novel reconstruction strategies offer new opportunities to dramatically increase the acquisition speed of photoacoustic scanners that employ point-by-point sequential scanning as well as reducing the channel count of parallelized schemes that use detector arrays.

  11. Accelerated high-resolution photoacoustic tomography via compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, Simon; Beard, Paul; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining model-based, variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: first, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then, we discuss how to implement them using the FP interferometer and demonstrate the potential of these novel compressed sensing PAT devices through simulated data from a realistic numerical phantom and through measured data from a dynamic experimental phantom as well as from in vivo experiments. Our results show that images with good spatial resolution and contrast can be obtained from highly sub-sampled PAT data if variational image reconstruction techniques that describe the tissues structures with suitable sparsity-constraints are used. In particular, we examine the use of total variation (TV) regularization enhanced by Bregman iterations. These novel reconstruction strategies offer new opportunities to dramatically increase the acquisition speed of photoacoustic scanners that employ point-by-point sequential scanning as well as reducing the channel count of parallelized schemes that use detector arrays.

  12. Multitemporal field-based plant height estimation using 3D point clouds generated from small unmanned aerial systems high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malambo, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Murray, S. C.; Putman, E.; Pugh, N. A.; Horne, D. W.; Richardson, G.; Sheridan, R.; Rooney, W. L.; Avant, R.; Vidrine, M.; McCutchen, B.; Baltensperger, D.; Bishop, M.

    2018-02-01

    Plant breeders and agronomists are increasingly interested in repeated plant height measurements over large experimental fields to study critical aspects of plant physiology, genetics and environmental conditions during plant growth. However, collecting such measurements using commonly used manual field measurements is inefficient. 3D point clouds generated from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) images using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques offer a new option for efficiently deriving in-field crop height data. This study evaluated UAS/SfM for multitemporal 3D crop modelling and developed and assessed a methodology for estimating plant height data from point clouds generated using SfM. High-resolution images in visible spectrum were collected weekly across 12 dates from April (planting) to July (harvest) 2016 over 288 maize (Zea mays L.) and 460 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) plots using a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAS. The study compared SfM point clouds with terrestrial lidar (TLS) at two dates to evaluate the ability of SfM point clouds to accurately capture ground surfaces and crop canopies, both of which are critical for plant height estimation. Extended plant height comparisons were carried out between SfM plant height (the 90th, 95th, 99th percentiles and maximum height) per plot and field plant height measurements at six dates throughout the growing season to test the repeatability and consistency of SfM estimates. High correlations were observed between SfM and TLS data (R2 = 0.88-0.97, RMSE = 0.01-0.02 m and R2 = 0.60-0.77 RMSE = 0.12-0.16 m for the ground surface and canopy comparison, respectively). Extended height comparisons also showed strong correlations (R2 = 0.42-0.91, RMSE = 0.11-0.19 m for maize and R2 = 0.61-0.85, RMSE = 0.12-0.24 m for sorghum). In general, the 90th, 95th and 99th percentile height metrics had higher correlations to field measurements than the maximum metric though differences among them were not statistically significant. The

  13. Geographic information systems and logistic regression for high-resolution malaria risk mapping in a rural settlement of the southern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Elaine Cristina; dos Santos, Emerson Soares; Zeilhofer, Peter; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Atanaka-Santos, Marina

    2013-11-15

    In Brazil, 99% of the cases of malaria are concentrated in the Amazon region, with high level of transmission. The objectives of the study were to use geographic information systems (GIS) analysis and logistic regression as a tool to identify and analyse the relative likelihood and its socio-environmental determinants of malaria infection in the Vale do Amanhecer rural settlement, Brazil. A GIS database of georeferenced malaria cases, recorded in 2005, and multiple explanatory data layers was built, based on a multispectral Landsat 5 TM image, digital map of the settlement blocks and a SRTM digital elevation model. Satellite imagery was used to map the spatial patterns of land use and cover (LUC) and to derive spectral indices of vegetation density (NDVI) and soil/vegetation humidity (VSHI). An Euclidian distance operator was applied to measure proximity of domiciles to potential mosquito breeding habitats and gold mining areas. The malaria risk model was generated by multiple logistic regression, in which environmental factors were considered as independent variables and the number of cases, binarized by a threshold value was the dependent variable. Out of a total of 336 cases of malaria, 133 positive slides were from inhabitants at Road 08, which corresponds to 37.60% of the notifications. The southern region of the settlement presented 276 cases and a greater number of domiciles in which more than ten cases/home were notified. From these, 102 (30.36%) cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 174 (51.79%) cases by Plasmodium vivax. Malaria risk is the highest in the south of the settlement, associated with proximity to gold mining sites, intense land use, high levels of soil/vegetation humidity and low vegetation density. Mid-resolution, remote sensing data and GIS-derived distance measures can be successfully combined with digital maps of the housing location of (non-) infected inhabitants to predict relative likelihood of disease infection through the

  14. High-resolution imaging spectroscopy of two micro-pores and an arch filament system in a small emerging-flux region

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Manrique, S. J.; Bello González, N.; Denker, C.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Emerging flux regions mark the first stage in the accumulation of magnetic flux eventually leading to pores, sunspots, and (complex) active regions. These flux regions are highly dynamic, show a variety of fine structure, and in many cases live only for a short time (less than a day) before dissolving quickly into the ubiquitous quiet-Sun magnetic field. Aims: The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the temporal evolution of a minute emerging flux region, the associated photospheric and chromospheric flow fields, and the properties of the accompanying arch filament system. We aim to explore flux emergence and decay processes and investigate if they scale with structure size and magnetic flux contents. Methods: This study is based on imaging spectroscopy with the Göttingen Fabry-Pérot Interferometer at the Vacuum Tower Telescope, Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain on 2008 August 7. Photospheric horizontal proper motions were measured with Local correlation tracking using broadband images restored with multi-object multi-frame blind deconvolution. Cloud model (CM) inversions of line scans in the strong chromospheric absorption Hαλ656.28 nm line yielded CM parameters (Doppler velocity, Doppler width, optical thickness, and source function), which describe the cool plasma contained in the arch filament system. Results: The high-resolution observations cover the decay and convergence of two micro-pores with diameters of less than one arcsecond and provide decay rates for intensity and area. The photospheric horizontal flow speed is suppressed near the two micro-pores indicating that the magnetic field is already sufficiently strong to affect the convective energy transport. The micro-pores are accompanied by a small arch filament system as seen in Hα, where small-scale loops connect two regions with Hα line-core brightenings containing an emerging flux region with opposite polarities. The Doppler width, optical thickness, and source

  15. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  16. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of High-Resolution Satellite ZY-3 TLC Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Wei; Luo, Heng; Ying, Shen

    2017-05-07

    Super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction is a technique used to recover a high-resolution image using the cumulative information provided by several low-resolution images. With the help of SR techniques, satellite remotely sensed images can be combined to achieve a higher-resolution image, which is especially useful for a two- or three-line camera satellite, e.g., the ZY-3 high-resolution Three Line Camera (TLC) satellite. In this paper, we introduce the application of the SR reconstruction method, including motion estimation and the robust super-resolution technique, to ZY-3 TLC images. The results show that SR reconstruction can significantly improve both the resolution and image quality of ZY-3 TLC images.

  17. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  18. A low cost Mobile Network System for monitoring climate and air quality of urban areas at high resolution: a preliminary application in Florence (IT) metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibari, Camilla; Moriondo, Marco; Matese, Alessandro; Sabatini, Francesco; Trombi, Giacomo; Zaldei, Alessandro; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    specifically for buses or tramways and four MWSs were then installed on Florence public transport means (tramways and buses); the system is designed either to log further pollution parameters (i.e. fine particles) and to be extended to other Florence mobile vectors in order to get high resolution maps (in space and time) of meteo/environmental variables in the urban area. Coupling spatial distribution of the extreme events with information regarding those areas frequented by individuals more sensitive to climate extremes (e.g. elder people and children), prompt countermeasures (e.g. pre-warning of the nearest sanitary structures) could be timely taken. References: Pascal M, Laaidi K, Ledrans M, Baffert E, Caserio-Schönemann C, Le Tertre A, Manach J, Medina S, Rudant J, Empereur-Bissonnet P (2006) France's heat health watch warning system. Int.J.Biometeorol 50:144-153. Petralli M, Massetti L, Orlandini S (2010) Five years of thermal intra-urban monitoring in Florence (Italy) and application of climatological indices. Theor.Appl.Climatol 104:349-356. Schär C, Vidale PL, Lüthi, D, Frei C, Häberli C, Liniger MA, Appenzeller C (2004) The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves. Nature 427:332-336.

  19. High resolution CT findings of pseudoalveolar sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Eun; Park, Jun Gyun; Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Sang Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hoon; Im, Jung Gi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo [Sungkunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Koun Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyae Young [National Cancer Centar, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    To determine the specific high-resolution CT features of sarcoidosis in which the observed pattern is predominantly pseudoalveolar. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings in 15 cases in which chest radiography demonstrated pseudoalveolar consolidation. In all 15, sarcoidosis was pathologically proven. The distribution and characterization of the following CT features was meticulously scrutinized: distribution and characterization of pseudoalveolar lesions, air-bronchograms, micronodules, thickening of bronchovascular bundles and interlobular septa, lung distortion, ground-glass opacities and combined hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Follow-up CT scans were available in three cases after corticosteroid administration. Between one and 12 (mean, 5.6) pseudoalveolar lesions appeared as dense homogeneous or inhomogeneous opacities 1-4.5 cm in diameter and with an irregular margin located either at the lung periphery adjacent to the pleural surface or along the bronchovascular bundles, with mainly bilateral distribution (n=14, 93%). An air-bronchogram was observed in ten cases. Micronodules were observed at the periphery of the lesion or surrounding lung, which along with a thickened bronchovascular bundle was a consistent feature in all cases. Additional CT features included hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n=14, 93%), thickened interlobular septa (n=12, 80%), and ground-glass opacity (n=10, 67%). Lung distortion was noted in only one case (7%). After steroid administration pseudoalveolar lesions decreased in number and size in all three cases in which follow-up CT was available. The consistent HRCT features of pseudoalveolar sarcoidosis are bilateral multifocal dense homogenous or inhomogenous opacity and an irregular margin located either at the lung periphery adjacent to the pleural surface or along the bronchovascular bundles. Micronodules are present at the periphery of the lesion or surrounding lung. The features are reversible administration.

  20. High time-resolution sprite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    Imaging sprites at 10,000 fps have revealed new details about their temporal development. TV observations show a highly structured central body with downward tendrils and upward branches. But rather than being leaders, as suggested by the long streaks in the TV recordings, tendrils and branches are actually formed by spatially compact streamer heads moving at velocities up to 0.3 c. In an individual sprite event the downward moving streamer heads start first forming the tendrils; later, and from a lower altitude and from existing luminous sprite structures, upward moving streamer heads may appear to form the branches. If there are no upward moving streamer heads the event would be classified as a C-sprite, otherwise it would be a carrot sprite. Following the streamer head activity we see afterglow in which little or no temporal and spatial activity is present. The streamer heads are very bright and they appear to be point sources, i.e. their spatial dimensions are less than our 100-200 m image resolution. Streamer head modeling indicates a scale size of ~25 m in which case the brightness would be in the range 1-100 GR. Other models predict volume emission rates leading to a streamer head spatial scale size in the 10 to 100 m range. Our observations conclusively show the downward and upward propagating streamer heads to be separated in time and space. This is in contrast to a number of models in which both down and up going streamer heads emanates from the origin of the process. We frequently see old sprites re-appear in response to new activity suggesting that sprite activity leaves some imprint on the background atmosphere. Given the very large brightness of the streamer heads it would not be surprising if sprite activity initiates chemical processes that could locally affect the composition of the atmosphere, but whether this affects the mesosphere on a larger scale remains uncertain.

  1. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  2. Localized corrosion information using high resolution measurement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2005-01-01

    High performance demand for several engineering alloys and components, and miniaturization of electronics and development of MEMS requires better understanding of local corrosion characteristics frequently down to µm scale. This is because in metallic materials corrosion is a sensitive function...... in conjunction with microstructural analysis, using advanced microscopic tools, becomes very important. Corrosion of microelectronics circuits and MEMs is also a recent problem, which demands measurement resolution down to few microns as the components are extremely small, and measurement needs to be carried out...... of the technique could be further enhanced by adding new features such as high resolution video visualization systems, fretting/tribo-corroson attachments, and also by integrating it with stress corrosion testing, corrosion investigation of concrete for a few to name with. The corrosion group in MPT, Technical...

  3. High Resolution Pulse Compression Imaging Using Super Resolution FM-Chirp Correlation Method (SCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, M.; Okubo, K.; Tagawa, N.

    This study addresses the issue of the super-resolution pulse compression technique (PCT) for ultrasound imaging. Time resolution of multiple ultrasonic echoes using the FM-Chirp PCT is limited by the bandwidth of the sweep-frequency. That is, the resolution depends on the sharpness of auto-correlation function. We propose the Super resolution FM-Chirp correlation Method (SCM) and evaluate its performance. This method is based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. Our simulations were made for the model assuming multiple signals reflected from some scatterers. We confirmed that SCM detects time delay of complicated reflected signals successfully with high resolution.

  4. High resolution micro-pattern gas detectors for particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhtman, L.; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrovnikov, V.; Bondar, A.; Fedotovich, G.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Maltsev, T.; Nikolenko, D.; Rachek, I.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.

    2017-07-01

    Micro-pattern gaseous detectors (MPGDs) allow operation at very high background particle flux with high efficiency and spatial resolution. This combination of parameters determines the main application of these detectors in particle physics experiments: precise tracking in the areas close to the beam and in the end-cap regions of general-purpose detectors. MPGDs of different configurations have been developed and are under development for several experiments in the Budker INP. The system of eight two-coordinate detectors based on a cascade of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) is working in the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M collider in the tagging system that detects electrons and positrons that lost their energy in two-photon interactions and left the equilibrium orbit due to a dedicated magnetic system. Another set of cascaded GEM detectors is developed for the almost-real Photon Tagging System (PTS) of the DEUTRON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring. The PTS contains three very light detectors with very high spatial resolution (below 50 μm). Dedicated detectors based on cascaded GEMs are developed for the extracted electron beam facility at the VEPP-4M collider. These devices will allow precise particle tracking with minimal multiple scattering due to very low material content. An upgrade of the coordinate system of the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 collider is proposed on the basis of the resistive micro-WELL (μ-rWELL). A research activity on this subject has just started.

  5. Performance of high-resolution SEM/EDX systems equipped with transmission mode (TSEM) for imaging and measurement of size and size distribution of spherical nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Motzkus, Charles; Macé, Tatiana; Vaslin-Reimann, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    The analytical performance of high-resolution scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) for accurate determination of the size, size distribution, qualitative elemental analysis of nanoparticles (NPs) was systematically investigated. It is demonstrated how powerful high-resolution SEM is by using both mono- and bi-modal distributions of SiO2 airborne NPs collected on appropriate substrates after their generation from colloidal suspension. The transmission mode of the SEM (TSEM) is systematically employed for NPs prepared on thin film substrates such as transmission electron microscopy grids. Measurements in the transmission mode were performed by using a "single-unit" TSEM transmission setup as manufactured and patented by Zeiss. This alternative to the "conventional" STEM detector consists of a special sample holder that is used in conjunction with the in-place Everhart-Thornley detector. In addition, the EDX capabilities for imaging NPs, highlighting the promising potential with respect to exploitation of the sensitivity of the new large area silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers were also investigated. The work was carried out in the frame of a large prenormative VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) project, dedicated to finding appropriate methods and procedures for traceable characterization of NP size and size distribution.

  6. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Kanai; Higgins, William; Van Loef, Edgar V

    2006-01-23

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr3:Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr3:Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBrxI3-x:Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr3 and LaI3) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBrxCl3-x:Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr3 and LaCl3) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr3:Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce is lower than that for LaBr3:Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl3 is lower than that of LaBr3), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce than LaBr3:Ce since in some instances (for example, CdxZn1-xTe), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu2+ and Pr3+, tried in LaBr3 host crystals, the Eu2+ doped samples exhibited low light output. This was mostly because a

  7. 3D detectors with high space and time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, A.

    2018-01-01

    For future high luminosity LHC experiments it will be important to develop new detector systems with increased space and time resolution and also better radiation hardness in order to operate in high luminosity environment. A possible technology which could give such performances is 3D silicon detectors. This work explores the possibility of a pixel geometry by designing and simulating different solutions, using Sentaurus Tecnology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) as design and simulation tool, and analysing their performances. A key factor during the selection was the generated electric field and the carrier velocity inside the active area of the pixel.

  8. High Resolution-Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy on uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimi, Amin, E-mail: hakimi@uni-mainz.de; Fischbach, Thomas [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Raeder, Sebastian [TRIUMF (Canada); Trautmann, Norbert [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernchemie (Germany); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    High Resolution-Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (HR-RIS) allows for sensitive probing of atomic structures and energy level schemes even for highly complex systems. This work explores the applicability of commercial diode lasers for isotope selective spectroscopy of uranium. Using narrow bandwidth continuous-wave (cw) diode lasers, multi step excitation processes were investigated involving levels which could be populated with the radiation of 405 nm BluRay{sup Copyright-Sign} laser diodes as a first step for ultra trace analysis of uranium.

  9. Dynamics of High-Resolution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran

    NETWORKS are everywhere. From the smallest confines of the cells within our bodies to the webs of social relations across the globe. Networks are not static, they constantly change, adapt, and evolve to suit new conditions. In order to understand the fundamental laws that govern networks we need...... the unprecedented amounts of information collected by mobile phones to gain detailed insight into the dynamics of social systems. This dissertation presents an unparalleled data collection campaign, collecting highly detailed traces for approximately 1000 people over the course of multiple years. The availability...

  10. High resolution microphotonic needle for endoscopic imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Mohammad Amin; Mohanty, Aseema; Roberts, Samantha P.; Barbosa, Felippe; Lipson, Michal

    2017-02-01

    GRIN (Graded index) lens have revolutionized micro endoscopy enabling deep tissue imaging with high resolution. The challenges of traditional GRIN lenses are their large size (when compared with the field of view) and their limited resolution. This is because of the relatively weak NA in standard graded index lenses. Here we introduce a novel micro-needle platform for endoscopy with much higher resolution than traditional GRIN lenses and a FOV that corresponds to the whole cross section of the needle. The platform is based on polymeric (SU-8) waveguide integrated with a microlens micro fabricated on a silicon substrate using a unique molding process. Due to the high index of refraction of the material the NA of the needle is much higher than traditional GRIN lenses. We tested the probe in a fluorescent dye solution (19.6 µM Alexa Flour 647 solution) and measured a numerical aperture of 0.25, focal length of about 175 µm and minimal spot size of about 1.6 µm. We show that the platform can image a sample with the field of view corresponding to the cross sectional area of the waveguide (80x100 µm2). The waveguide size can in principle be modified to vary size of the imaging field of view. This demonstration, combined with our previous work demonstrating our ability to implant the high NA needle in a live animal, shows that the proposed system can be used for deep tissue imaging with very high resolution and high field of view.

  11. High-resolution multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    This review focuses on multimodal multiphoton tomography based on near infrared femtosecond lasers. Clinical multiphoton tomographs for 3D high-resolution in vivo imaging have been placed into the market several years ago. The second generation of this Prism-Award winning High-Tech skin imaging tool (MPTflex) was introduced in 2010. The same year, the world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph. In particular, non-fluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen has been imaged with submicron resolution in patients suffering from psoriasis. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution wide-field systems such as ultrasound, optoacoustical, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer, optimization of treatment strategies, and cosmetic research including long-term testing of sunscreen nanoparticles as well as anti-aging products.

  12. Radiation length imaging with high-resolution telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B.; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C.; Lütticke, F.

    2017-02-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length X/X0 profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D images of the radiation length of thin planar objects. At the heart of the X/X0 imaging is a spatially resolved measurement of the scattering angles of particles traversing the object under study. The main challenges are the alignment of the reference telescope and the calibration of its angular resolution. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of X/X0 imaging, a test beam experiment has been conducted. The devices under test were two mechanical prototype modules of the Belle II vertex detector. A data sample of 100 million tracks at 4 GeV has been collected, which is sufficient to resolve complex material profiles on the 30 μm scale.

  13. High-Resolution Mammography Detector Employing Optical Switching Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Katsutoshi; Sendai, Tomonari; Hosoi, Yuichi

    Conceiving a new detector structure, FUJIFILM Corporation has successfully put its invention of an X-ray detector employing "Optical Switching" into practical use. Since Optical Switching Technology allows an electrode structure to be easily designed, both high resolution of pixel pitch and low electrical noise readout have been achieved, which have consequently realized the world's smallest pixel size of 50×50 μm2 from a Direct-conversion FPD system as well as high DQE. The digital mammography system equipped with this detector enables to acquire high definition images while maintaining granularity. Its outstanding feature is to be able to acquire high-precision images of microcalcifications which is an important index in breast examination.

  14. Very High Resolution SAR Tomography via Compressive Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Xiang; Bamler, Richard

    2010-03-01

    By using multi-pass SAR acquisitions, SAR tomography (TomoSAR) extends the synthetic aperture principle into the elevation direction for 3-D imaging. Since the orbits of modern space-borne SAR systems, like TerraSAR-X, are tightly controlled, the elevation resolution (depending on the elevation aperture size) is at least an order of magnitude lower than in range and azimuth. Hence, super- resolution algorithms are desired. The high anisotropic 3- D resolution element renders the signals sparse in elevation. This property suggests using compressive sensing (CS) methods. The paper presents the theory of 4- D (i.e. space-time) CS TomoSAR and compares it with classical tomographic methods. Super-resolution properties and point localization accuracies are demonstrated using simulations and real data. A CS reconstruction of a building complex from TerraSAR-X spotlight data is presented. In addition, the model based time warp method for differential tomographic non-linear motion monitoring is proposed and validated by reconstructing seasonal motion (caused by thermal expansion) of a building complex.

  15. High resolution carbon isotope of Crassostrea cuttakensis: A proxy for seasonally varying carbon dynamics in a tropical delta-estuary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemany, Arpita

    2017-04-01

    isotopic composition (δ13Cshelland δ18Oshell). The oyster shell was cut along the maximum growth line and the umbo of the oyster was analyzed for the stable isotopic measurement. An online laser ablation system, attached to a Delta V Advantage Mass Spectrometer via. Gas-bench II, was used for very high resolution (˜125μm, equivalent to ˜6 days) isotope data. Additionally, water samples were collected from the study area in different seasons and the δ13CDICof the ambient water was analyzed. The shell carbonate δ13C profile shows excellent seasonal variation and very good correlation with the measured δ13CDIC. Though more water samples from different seasons are needed to accurately calibrate the vital effect of this species, it can be suggested from the limited dataset that the carbonate shell of this species was precipitated in equilibrium with the ambient water and can be used as a reliable proxy for the δ13CDIC.

  16. Development of a high resolution module for PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, G.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Stojkovic, A.; Tavernier, S.; Niknejad, T.; Varela, J.; Paganoni, M.; Auffray, E.

    2017-02-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners require high performances in term of spatial resolution and sensitivity to allow early detection of cancer masses. In small animal and organ dedicated PET scanners the Depth of Interaction (DOI) information has to be obtained to avoid parallax errors and to reconstruct high resolution images. In the whole body PET, the DOI information can be useful to correct for the time jitter of the optical photons along the main axis of the scintillator, improving the time performances. In this work we present the development of PET module designed to reach high performance as compared to the current scanners while keeping the complexity of the system reasonably low. The module presented is based on a 64 LYSO (Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate) crystals matrix and on a 4×4 MPPC (Multi Pixels Photon Counter) array as detector in a 4 to 1 coupling between the crystals and the detector and a single side readout. The lateral surfaces of the crystals are optically treated to be unpolished. The DOI and the energy resolution of the PET module are presented and a fast method to obtain the DOI calibration is discussed.

  17. High Resolution Definition of Subsurface Heterogeneity for Understanding the Biodynamics of Natural Field Systems: Advancing the Ability for Scaling to Field Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    1999-12-31

    This research is an integrated project which uses physical (geophysical and hydrologic) and innovative geophysical imaging and microbial characterization methods to identify key scales of physical heterogeneities that affect bioremediation. In the this effort data from controlled laboratory and in situ experiments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) site were used to determine the dominant physical characteristics (lithologic, structural, and hydrologic) that can be imaged in situ and correlated with flow and transport properties. Emphasis was placed on identifying fundamental scales of variation of physical parameters that control transport behavior relative to subsurface microbial dynamics that could be used to develop a predictive model. A key hypothesis of the work was that nutrient flux and transport properties are key factors in controlling microbial dynamics, and that geophysical techniques could be used to identify the critical physical properties and scales controlling transport. This hypothesis was essentially validated. The goal was not only to develop and apply methods to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of the bioremediation in fractured sites such as TAN, but also to develop methods applicable to a wider range of DOE sites. The outcome has been an improved understanding of the relationship between physical, chemical and microbial processes in heterogeneous environments, thus applicable to the design and monitoring of bioremediation strategies for a variety of environments. In this EMSP work we demonstrated that high resolution geophysical methods have considerable resolving power, especially when linked with modern advanced processing and interpretation. In terms of basic science, in addition to providing innovative methods for monitoring bioremediation, the work also provided a strong motivation for developing and extending high resolution geophysical methods.

  18. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Watson

    Full Text Available Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  19. High resolution X-ray CT for advanced electronics packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, M.; Zerna, T.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced electronics packaging is a challenge for non-destructive Testing (NDT). More, smaller and mostly hidden interconnects dominate modern electronics components and systems. To solve the demands of customers to get products with a high functionality by low volume, weight and price (e.g. mobile phones, personal medical monitoring systems) often the designers use System-in-Package solutions (SiP). The non-destructive testing of such devices is a big challenge. So our paper will impart fundamentals and applications for non-destructive evaluation of inner structures of electronics packaging for quality assurance and reliability investigations with a focus on X-ray methods, especially on high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  20. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  1. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  2. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto [Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria y Administracion

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2{pi} solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  3. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  4. High-resolution analysis of the mechanical behavior of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, Alexa W.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical behavior and properties of biomaterials, such as tissue, have been directly and indirectly connected to numerous malignant physiological states. For example, an increase in the Young's Modulus of tissue can be indicative of cancer. Due to the heterogeneity of biomaterials, it is extremely important to perform these measurements using whole or unprocessed tissue because the tissue matrix contains important information about the intercellular interactions and the structure. Thus, developing high-resolution approaches that can accurately measure the elasticity of unprocessed tissue samples is of great interest. Unfortunately, conventional elastography methods such as atomic force microscopy, compression testing, and ultrasound elastography either require sample processing or have poor resolution. In the present work, we demonstrate the characterization of unprocessed salmon muscle using an optical polarimetric elastography system. We compare the results of compression testing within different samples of salmon skeletal muscle with different numbers of collagen membranes to characterize differences in heterogeneity. Using the intrinsic collagen membranes as markers, we determine the resolution of the system when testing biomaterials. The device reproducibly measures the stiffness of the tissues at variable strains. By analyzing the amount of energy lost by the sample during compression, collagen membranes that are 500 μm in size are detected.

  5. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Hernández, Trinitat, E-mail: mtrinitat@eresa.com; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del [Department of Nuclear Medicine, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Roselló Ferrando, Joan [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good

  6. High resolution, high bandwidth global shutter CMOS area scan sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzpour, Naser; Sonder, Matthias; Li, Binqiao

    2013-10-01

    Global shuttering, sometimes also known as electronic shuttering, enables the use of CMOS sensors in a vast range of applications. Teledyne DALSA Global shutter sensors are able to integrate light synchronously across millions of pixels with microsecond accuracy. Teledyne DALSA offers 5 transistor global shutter pixels in variety of resolutions, pitches and noise and full-well combinations. One of the recent generations of these pixels is implemented in 12 mega pixel area scan device at 6 um pitch and that images up to 70 frames per second with 58 dB dynamic range. These square pixels include microlens and optional color filters. These sensors also offer exposure control, anti-blooming and high dynamic range operation by introduction of a drain and a PPD reset gate to the pixel. The state of the art sense node design of Teledyne DALSA's 5T pixel offers exceptional shutter rejection ratio. The architecture is consistent with the requirements to use stitching to achieve very large area scan devices. Parallel or serial digital output is provided on these sensors using on-chip, column-wise analog to digital converters. Flexible ADC bit depth combined with windowing (adjustable region of interest, ROI) allows these sensors to run with variety of resolution/bandwidth combinations. The low power, state of the art LVDS I/O technology allows for overall power consumptions of less than 2W at full performance conditions.

  7. High resolution modeling of a small urban catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Plakali, Ilektra; Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of the most complex issues that urban environments have to deal with. In France, flooding remains the first natural risk with 72% of decrees state of natural disaster issued between October 1982 and mid-November 2014. Flooding is a result of meteorological extremes that are usually aggravated by the hydrological behavior of urban catchments and human factors. The continuing urbanization process is indeed changing the whole urban water cycle by limiting the infiltration and promoting runoff. Urban environments are very complex systems due to their extreme variability, the interference between human activities and natural processes but also the effect of the ongoing urbanization process that changes the landscape and hardly influences their hydrologic behavior. Moreover, many recent works highlight the need to simulate all urban water processes at their specific temporal and spatial scales. However, considering urban catchments heterogeneity still challenging for urban hydrology, even after advances noticed in term of high-resolution data collection and computational resources. This issue is more to be related to the architecture of urban models being used and how far these models are ready to take into account the extreme variability of urban catchments. In this work, high spatio-temporal resolution modeling is performed for a small and well-equipped urban catchment. The aim of this work is to identify urban modeling needs in terms of spatial and temporal resolution especially for a very small urban area (3.7 ha urban catchment located in the Perreux-sur-Marne city at the southeast of Paris) MultiHydro model was selected to carry out this work, it is a physical based and fully distributed model that interacts four existing modules each of them representing a portion of the water cycle in urban environments. MultiHydro was implemented at 10m, 5m and 2m resolution. Simulations were performed at different spatio-temporal resolutions and analyzed with

  8. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  9. Multilayer Patterning of High Resolution Intrinsically Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Stauffer, Flurin; Vörös, Janos

    2016-05-01

    Stretchable electronics can bridge the gap between hard planar electronic circuits and the curved, soft and elastic objects of nature. This has led to applications like conformal displays, electronic skin and soft neuroprosthetics. A remaining challenge, however, is to match the dimensions of the interfaced systems, as all require feature sizes well below 100 μm. Intrinsically stretchable nanocomposites are attractive in this context as the mechanical deformations occur on the nanoscale, although methods for patterning high performance materials have been lacking. Here we address these issues by reporting on a multilayer additive patterning approach for high resolution fabrication of stretchable electronic devices. The method yields highly conductive 30 μm tracks with similar performance to their macroscopic counterparts. Further, we demonstrate a three layer micropatterned stretchable electroluminescent display with pixel sizes down to 70 μm. These presented findings pave the way towards future developments of high definition displays, electronic skins and dense multielectrode arrays.

  10. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction technique, employing a three-crystal monochromator–collimator ... observed by high-resolution electron microscopy in both ..... 1988 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B34 228. Kato N 1992 J. Acta Crystallogr. A48 834. Kaur B, Bhat M, Licci F, Kumar R, Kotru P N and Bamzai K K. 2004 Nucl. Instrum. Meth ...

  11. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, so...

  12. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  13. High resolution UV spectroscopy and laser-focused nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis combines two at first glance different techniques: High Resolution Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) of small aromatic molecules and Laser Focusing of atoms for Nanofabrication. The thesis starts with the introduction to the high resolution LIF technique of small aromatic

  14. Towards high resolution data assimilation and ensemble forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Due the increase in computational power of supercomputers the grid resolution of high resolution numerical weather prediction models is now reaching the 1 km scale. As a result, mesoscale processes related to high impact weather (such as deep convection) can now explicitly be resolved by the models.

  15. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Schmitt, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODnet is entering its 3rd phase with operational portals providing access to marine data for bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities, complemented by checkpoint projects, analysing the fitness for purpose of data provision. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs from 27 European data providers from 15 countries. For areas without coverage use has been made of the latest GEBCO DTM. The catalogue services and the generated EMODnet DTM have been published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal which includes a versatile DTM viewing service that also supports downloading in various formats. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM) as part of the third phase of EMODnet. This new project will continue gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry

  16. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-08-06

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  17. High resolution image reconstruction with constrained, total-variation minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Sidky, Emil Y; Duchin, Yuval; Ullberg, Christer; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    This work is concerned with applying iterative image reconstruction, based on constrained total-variation minimization, to low-intensity X-ray CT systems that have a high sampling rate. Such systems pose a challenge for iterative image reconstruction, because a very fine image grid is needed to realize the resolution inherent in such scanners. These image arrays lead to under-determined imaging models whose inversion is unstable and can result in undesirable artifacts and noise patterns. There are many possibilities to stabilize the imaging model, and this work proposes a method which may have an advantage in terms of algorithm efficiency. The proposed method introduces additional constraints in the optimization problem; these constraints set to zero high spatial frequency components which are beyond the sensing capability of the detector. The method is demonstrated with an actual CT data set and compared with another method based on projection up-sampling.

  18. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  19. The high spectral resolution (scanning) lidar (HSRL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Lidars enable the spatial resolution of optical depth variation in clouds. The optical depth must be inverted from the backscatter signal, a process which is complicated by the fact that both molecular and aerosol backscatter signals are present. The HSRL has the advantage of allowing these two signals to be separated. It has a huge dynamic range, allowing optical depth retrieval for t = 0.01 to 3. Depolarization is used to determine the nature of hydrometeors present. Experiments show that water clouds must almost always be taken into account during cirrus observations. An exciting new development is the possibility of measuring effective radius via diffraction peak width and variable field-of-view measurements. 2 figs.

  20. A graphical automated detection system to locate hardwood log surface defects using high-resolution three-dimensional laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liya Thomas; R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an automated defect detection system and a state-of-the-art Graphic User Interface (GUI) for hardwood logs. The algorithm identifies defects at least 0.5 inch high and at least 3 inches in diameter on barked hardwood log and stem surfaces. To summarize defect features and to build a knowledge base, hundreds of defects were measured, photographed, and...

  1. Adaptive resolution simulations of biomolecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Bevc, Staš; Praprotnik, Matej

    2017-12-01

    In this review article, we discuss and analyze some recently developed hybrid atomistic-mesoscopic solvent models for multiscale biomolecular simulations. We focus on the biomolecular applications of the adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS), which allows solvent molecules to change their resolution back and forth between atomistic and coarse-grained representations according to their positions in the system. First, we discuss coupling of atomistic and coarse-grained models of salt solution using a 1-to-1 molecular mapping-i.e., one coarse-grained bead represents one water molecule-for development of a multiscale salt solution model. In order to make use of coarse-grained molecular models that are compatible with the MARTINI force field, one has to resort to a supramolecular mapping, in particular to a 4-to-1 mapping, where four water molecules are represented with one coarse-grained bead. To this end, bundled atomistic water models are employed, i.e., the relative movement of water molecules that are mapped to the same coarse-grained bead is restricted by employing harmonic springs. Supramolecular coupling has recently also been extended to polarizable coarse-grained water models with explicit charges. Since these coarse-grained models consist of several interaction sites, orientational degrees of freedom of the atomistic and coarse-grained representations are coupled via a harmonic energy penalty term. The latter aligns the dipole moments of both representations. The reviewed multiscale solvent models are ready to be used in biomolecular simulations, as illustrated in a few examples.

  2. Activation and Resolution of Periodontal Inflammation and Its Systemic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a highly organized event impacting upon organs, tissues and biological systems. Periodontal diseases are characterized by dysregulation or dysfunction of resolution pathways of inflammation resulting in a failure of healing and a dominant chronic, progressive, destructive and predominantly unresolved inflammation. The biological consequences of inflammatory processes may be independent of the etiological agents such as trauma, microbial organisms and stress. The impact of the ...

  3. High-Resolution Infrared Imaging of Young Outflow-Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibisch, Thomas; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd

    For a better understanding of the mechanisms by which jets and outflows from young stellar objects are generated accelerated and collimated it is essential to look as close as possible to their launching point at the disk/star boundary. High-spatial resolution is therefore of crucial importance for further progress in this field. In this contribution we present recent results from our near-infrared bispectrum speckle interferometry studies of several outflow sources. With a spatial resolution of up to 0.055'' our images have the highest spatial resolution achieved so far for these objects and exhibit previously unseen complex structures. Our results include the identification of two distinct bipolar outflow systems originating simultaneously from the protostar S140 IRS1 the detection of an episodic precessing jet from S140 IRS3 and the discovery of a micro-jet from one of the embedded sources in Mon R2 IRS3. We will also discuss the relation of the observed circumstellar structures to the jets and outflows from the young stellar objects

  4. High-resolution velocity measurements on fully identified light nuclides produced in {sup 56}Fe + protons and {sup 56}Fe + titanium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napolitani, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Institut de Physique Nucleaire (IPN), 91 - Orsay (France); Schmidt, K.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Botvina, A.S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Rejmund, F.; Tassan-Got, L. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire (IPN), 91 - Orsay (France); Villagrasa, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (FR). Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA)

    2004-07-01

    New experimental results on the kinematics and the residue production are obtained for the interactions of {sup 56}Fe projectiles with protons and {sup nat}Ti target nuclei, respectively, at the incident energy of 1 A GeV. The titanium-induced reaction serves as a reference case for multifragmentation. Already in the proton-induced reaction, the characteristics of the isotopic cross sections and the shapes of the velocity spectra of light residues indicate that high thermal energy is deposited in the system during the collision. In the {sup 56}Fe+p system the high excitation seems to favour the onset of fast break-up decays dominated by very asymmetric partitions of the disassembling system. This configuration leads to the simultaneous formation of one or more light fragments together with one heavy residue. (orig.)

  5. High-Resolution Velocity Measurements on Fully Identified Light Nuclides Produced in 56Fe+Hydrogen and 56Fe+Titanium Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Napolitani, P; Botvina, A S; Rejmund, F; Tassan-Got, L; Villagrasa, L

    2004-01-01

    New experimental results on the kinematics and the residue production are obtained for the interactions of 56Fe projectiles with protons and natTi target nuclei, respectively, at the incident energy of 1 A GeV. The titanium-induced reaction serves as a reference case for multifragmentation. Already in the proton-induced reaction, the characteristics of the isotopic cross sections and the shapes of the velocity spectra of light residues indicate that high thermal energy is deposited in the system during the collision. In the 56Fe+p system the high excitation seems to favour the onset of fast break-up decays dominated by very asymmetric partitions of the disassembling system. This configuration leads to the simultaneous formation of one or more light fragments together with one heavy residue.

  6. High resolution solar observations from first principles to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.

    2009-10-01

    The expression "high-resolution observations" in Solar Physics refers to the spatial, temporal and spectral domains in their entirety. High-resolution observations of solar fine structure are a necessity to answer many of the intriguing questions related to solar activity. However, a researcher building instruments for high-resolution observations has to cope with the fact that these three domains often have diametrically opposed boundary conditions. Many factors have to be considered in the design of a successful instrument. Modern post-focus instruments are more closely linked with the solar telescopes that they serve than in past. In principle, the quest for high-resolution observations already starts with the selection of the observatory site. The site survey of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has identified Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) as one of the best sites for solar observations. In a first step, the seeing characteristics at BBSO based on the data collected for the ATST site survey are described. The analysis will aid in the scheduling of high-resolution observations at BBSO as well as provide useful information concerning the design and implementation of a thermal control system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). NST is an off-axis open-structure Gregorian-style telescope with a 1.6 m aperture. NST will be housed in a newly constructed 5/8-sphere ventilated dome. With optics exposed to the surrounding air, NST's open-structure design makes it particularly vulnerable to the effects of enclosure-related seeing. In an effort to mitigate these effects, the initial design of a thermal control system for the NST dome is presented. The goal is to remediate thermal related seeing effects present within the dome interior. The THermal Control System (THCS) is an essential component for the open-telescope design of NST to work. Following these tasks, a calibration routine for the

  7. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  8. Designing a Low-Resolution Face Recognition System for Long-Range Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Most face recognition systems deal well with high-resolution facial images, but perform much worse on low-resolution facial images. In low-resolution face recognition, there is a specific but realistic surveillance scenario: a surveillance camera monitoring a large area. In this scenario, usually

  9. High-Resolution EUV Spectroscopy of White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We compare results of high-resolution EUV spectroscopic measurements of the isolated white dwarf G191-B2B and the binary system Feige 24 obtained with the J-PEX (Joint Plasmadynamic Experiment), which was sponsored jointly by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and NASA. J-PEX delivers the world's highest resolution in EUV and does so at high effective area (e.g., more effective area in a sounding rocket than is available with Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach). The capability J-PEX represents is applicable to the astrophysics of hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the ISM. G191-B2B and Feige 24 are quite distinct hot white dwarf systems having in common that they are bright in the portion of the EUV where He emission features and edges occur, hence they can be exploited to probe both the stellar atmosphere and the ISM, separating those components by model-fitting that sums over all relevant (He) spectral features in the band. There is evidence from these fits that atmospheric He is being detected but the result is more conservatively cast as a pair of upper limits. We discuss how longer duration satellite observations with the same instrumentation could increase exposure to detect atmospheric He in these and other nearby hot white dwarfs.

  10. Collective Thomson scattering measurements with high frequency resolution at TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the development and first results of a receiver system for the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic at TEXTOR with frequency resolution in the megahertz range or better. The improved frequency resolution expands the diagnostic range and utility of CTS measurements in general...

  11. The Singapore high resolution single cell imaging facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Frank; Chen, Xiao; Vera, Armin Baysic De; Udalagama, Chammika N. B.; Ren, M.; Kan, Jeroen A. van; Bettiol, Andrew A.

    2011-10-01

    The Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore has recently expanded from three state-of-the-art beam lines to five. Two new beam lines have been constructed: A second generation proton beam writing line, and a high resolution single cell imaging facility. Both systems feature high demagnification lens systems based on compact Oxford Microbeams OM52 lenses, coupled with reduced lens/image distances. The single cell imaging facility is designed around OM52 compact lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations including the spaced Oxford triplet and the double crossover Russian quadruplet. The new facility has design specifications aimed at spatial resolutions below 50 nm, with a variety of techniques including STIM, secondary electron and fluorescence imaging, and an in-built optical and fluorescence microscope for sample imaging, identification and positioning. Preliminary tests using the single space Oxford triplet configuration have indicated a beam spot size of 31 × 39 nm in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, at beam currents of ∼10,000 protons per second. However, a weakness in the specifications of the electrostatic scanning system has been identified, and a more stable scanning system needs to be implemented before we can fully realize the optimum performance. A single whole fibroblast cell has been scanned using 1.5 MeV protons, and a median fit to the proton transmission energy loss data has shown that proton STIM gives excellent details of the cell structure despite the relatively poor contrast of proton STIM compared with alpha STIM.

  12. The Singapore high resolution single cell imaging facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, Frank, E-mail: phywattf@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Dept. of Physics, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Chen, Xiao; Vera, Armin Baysic De; Udalagama, Chammika N.B.; Ren, M.; Kan, Jeroen A van; Bettiol, Andrew A [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Dept. of Physics, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2011-10-15

    The Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore has recently expanded from three state-of-the-art beam lines to five. Two new beam lines have been constructed: A second generation proton beam writing line, and a high resolution single cell imaging facility. Both systems feature high demagnification lens systems based on compact Oxford Microbeams OM52 lenses, coupled with reduced lens/image distances. The single cell imaging facility is designed around OM52 compact lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations including the spaced Oxford triplet and the double crossover Russian quadruplet. The new facility has design specifications aimed at spatial resolutions below 50 nm, with a variety of techniques including STIM, secondary electron and fluorescence imaging, and an in-built optical and fluorescence microscope for sample imaging, identification and positioning. Preliminary tests using the single space Oxford triplet configuration have indicated a beam spot size of 31 x 39 nm in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, at beam currents of {approx}10,000 protons per second. However, a weakness in the specifications of the electrostatic scanning system has been identified, and a more stable scanning system needs to be implemented before we can fully realize the optimum performance. A single whole fibroblast cell has been scanned using 1.5 MeV protons, and a median fit to the proton transmission energy loss data has shown that proton STIM gives excellent details of the cell structure despite the relatively poor contrast of proton STIM compared with alpha STIM.

  13. The Suzaku High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Allen, Christine A.; Arsenovic, Petar; Audley, Michael D.; Bialas, Thomas G.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Boyle, Robert F.; Breon, Susan R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Cottam, Jean; Dipirro, Michael J.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Furusho, Tae; Gendreau, Keith C.; Gochar, Gene G.; Gonzalez, Oscar; Hirabayashi, Masayuki; Holt, Stephen S.; Inoue, Hajime; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Jones, Carol S.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; McCammon, Dan; Morita, Umeyo; Moseley, S. Harvey; Mott, Brent; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Ogawara, Yoshiaki; Ohashi, Takaya; Ota, Naomi; Panek, John S.; Porter, F. Scott; Serlemitsos, Aristides; Shirron, Peter J.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tveekrem, June L.; Volz, Stephen M.; Yamamoto, Mikio; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.

    2007-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) has been designed to provide the Suzaku Observatory with non-dispersive, high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. As designed, the instrument covers the energy range 0.3 to 12keV, which encompasses the most diagnostically rich part of the X-ray band. The sensor consists of a 32-channel array of X-ray microcalorimeters, each with an energy resolution of about 6eV. The very low temperature required for operation of the array (60mK) is provided by a four-stage cooling system containing a single-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, a superfluid-helium cryostat, a solid-neon dewar, and a single-stage, Stirling-cycle cooler. The Suzaku/XRS is the first orbiting X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer and was designed to last more than three years in orbit. The early verification phase of the mission demonstrated that the instrument worked properly and that the cryogen consumption rate was low enough to ensure a mission lifetime exceeding 3 years. However, the liquid-He cryogen was completely vaporized two weeks after opening the dewar guard vacuum vent. The problem has been traced to inadequate venting of the dewar He and Ne gases out of the spacecraft and into space. In this paper we present the design and ground testing of the XRS instrument, and then describe the in-flight performance. An energy resolution of 6eV was achieved during pre-launch tests and a resolution of 7eV was obtained in orbit. The slight degradation is due to the effects of cosmic rays.

  14. A new high-resolution electromagnetic method for subsurface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanjie

    For most electromagnetic (EM) geophysical systems, the contamination of primary fields on secondary fields ultimately limits the capability of the controlled-source EM methods. Null coupling techniques were proposed to solve this problem. However, the small orientation errors in the null coupling systems greatly restrict the applications of these systems. Another problem encountered by most EM systems is the surface interference and geologic noise, which sometimes make the geophysical survey impossible to carry out. In order to solve these problems, the alternating target antenna coupling (ATAC) method was introduced, which greatly removed the influence of the primary field and reduced the surface interference. But this system has limitations on the maximum transmitter moment that can be used. The differential target antenna coupling (DTAC) method was proposed to allow much larger transmitter moments and at the same time maintain the advantages of the ATAC method. In this dissertation, first, the theoretical DTAC calculations were derived mathematically using Born and Wolf's complex magnetic vector. 1D layered and 2D blocked earth models were used to demonstrate that the DTAC method has no responses for 1D and 2D structures. Analytical studies of the plate model influenced by conductive and resistive backgrounds were presented to explain the physical phenomenology behind the DTAC method, which is the magnetic fields of the subsurface targets are required to be frequency dependent. Then, the advantages of the DTAC method, e.g., high-resolution, reducing the geologic noise and insensitive to surface interference, were analyzed using surface and subsurface numerical examples in the EMGIMA software. Next, the theoretical advantages, such as high resolution and insensitive to surface interference, were verified by designing and developing a low-power (moment of 50 Am 2) vertical-array DTAC system and testing it on controlled targets and scaled target coils. At last, a

  15. High-resolution interference with programmable classical incoherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Er-Feng; Liu, Wei-Tao; Chen, Ping-Xing

    2015-07-01

    A scheme of high-resolution interference with classical incoherent light is proposed. In this scheme, the classical incoherent light is programmable in the amplitude distribution and wavefront, and with the programmable classical incoherent light we improve the resolution of the interference pattern by a factor of 2 compared with the scheme by Erkmen [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29, 782 (2012)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.29.000782]. Compared with other schemes for observing interference patterns, only single-pixel detection is needed in our proposal. Moreover, the high-resolution interference pattern can be inverted to obtain an image with better resolution compared with that of the scheme proposed by Erkmen. Furthermore, this scheme of high-resolution interference is verified in detail by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.

  16. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  17. P-CSI v1.0, an accelerated barotropic solver for the high-resolution ocean model component in the Community Earth System Model v2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaomeng; Tang, Qiang; Tseng, Yuheng; Hu, Yong; Baker, Allison H.; Bryan, Frank O.; Dennis, John; Fu, Haohuan; Yang, Guangwen

    2016-11-01

    In the Community Earth System Model (CESM), the ocean model is computationally expensive for high-resolution grids and is often the least scalable component for high-resolution production experiments. The major bottleneck is that the barotropic solver scales poorly at high core counts. We design a new barotropic solver to accelerate the high-resolution ocean simulation. The novel solver adopts a Chebyshev-type iterative method to reduce the global communication cost in conjunction with an effective block preconditioner to further reduce the iterations. The algorithm and its computational complexity are theoretically analyzed and compared with other existing methods. We confirm the significant reduction of the global communication time with a competitive convergence rate using a series of idealized tests. Numerical experiments using the CESM 0.1° global ocean model show that the proposed approach results in a factor of 1.7 speed-up over the original method with no loss of accuracy, achieving 10.5 simulated years per wall-clock day on 16 875 cores.

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. High-Resolution Stamp Fabrication by Edge Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the project was to create high resolution stamps for thermal nanoimprint applications. The creation of nanoridges with sub-100 nm resolutions was explored by means of edge lithography via top-down routes, i.e. in combination with micromachining technology. Edge lithography is an add-on

  20. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climatemodel in recent years over Indian summer monsoon region is investigated. Two sets of regional climatemodel simulations are performed, one with a coarse resolution land surface initial conditions and secondone used a ...

  1. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  2. Pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus assessment with high resolution computed tomography, chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, S.M.; Doran, M.; Fenelon, H.M.; Breatnach, E.S. [University of Michigan (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The objective has to assess the nature of pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities, with particular reference to interstitial lung disease (ILD), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) In conclusion, HRCT is more sensitive than PFTs or CXR in the evaluation of pleuro-pulmonary disease in SLE. We report an unusually high prevalence of HRCT appearances suggestive of ILD in patients with SLE. subclinical lung disease is common in patients with SLE. (author)

  3. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive

  4. Resolution analysis of high-resolution marine seismic data acquired off Yeosu, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonsik; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Park, Keun-Pil; Yoo, Dong-Geun; Kang, Dong-Hyo; Kim, Young-Gun; Seo, Gab-Seok; Hwang, Kyu-Duk

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution marine seismic surveys have been conducted for the mineral exploration and engineering purpose survey. To improve the quality of high-resolution seismic data, small-scaled multi-channel seismic techniques are used. In this study, we designed high-resolution marine seismic survey using a small airgun and an 8-channel streamer cable and analyzed the resolution of the seismic data related to acquisition and processing parameters. The field survey was conducted off Yeosu, Korea where the stratified thin sedimentary layers are deposited. We used a 30 in3 airgun and an 8-channel streamer cable with a 5 m group interval. We shoot the airgun with a 5 m shot interval and recorded digital data with a 0.1 ms sample interval and 1 s record length. The offset between the source and the first channel was 20 m. We processed the acquired data with simple procedure such as gain recovery, deconvolution, digital filtering, CMP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. To understand the effect of the acquisition parameters on the vertical and horizontal resolution, we resampled the acquired data using various sample intervals and CMP intervals and produced seismic sections. The analysis results show that the detailed subsurface structures can be imaged with good resolution and continuity using acquisition parameters with a sample interval shorter than 0.2 ms and a CMP interval shorter than 2.5 m. A high-resolution marine 8-channel airgun seismic survey using appropriate acquisition and processing parameters can be effective in imaging marine subsurface structure with a high resolution. This study is a part of a National Research Laboratory (NRL) project and a part of an Energy Technology Innovation (ETI) Project of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE). The authors thank the officers and crew of the R/V Tamhae II for their efforts in the field survey.

  5. High resolution fluorescence bio-imaging upconversion nanoparticles in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Masfer; Chen, Yunyun; Pedraza, Julie J; González, Jorge M; Parkinson, Dilworth Y; Hemmer, Philip R; Liang, Hong

    2017-01-23

    Imaging fluorescent markers with brightness, photostability, and continuous emission with auto fluorescence background suppression in biological samples has always been challenging due to limitations of available and economical techniques. Here we report a new approach, to achieve high contrast imaging inside small and difficult biological systems with special geometry such as fire ants, an important agricultural pest, using a homemade cost-effective optical system. Unlike the commonly used rare-earth doped fluoride nanoparticles, we utilized nanoparticles with a high upconversion efficiency in water. Specifically Y2O3:Er+3,Yb+3 nanoparticles (40-50 nm diameter) were fed to fire ants as food and then a simple illuminating experiment was conducted at 980 nm wavelength at relatively low pump intensity8 kW.cm-2. The locations were further confirmed by X-ray tomography, where most particles aggregated inside the ant's mouth. High resolution, fast, and economical optical imaging system opens the door for studying more complex biological systems.

  6. Software-defined microwave photonic filter with high reconfigurable resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yi, Lilin; Jaouën, Yves; Hu, Weisheng

    2016-10-19

    Microwave photonic filters (MPFs) are of great interest in radio frequency systems since they provide prominent flexibility on microwave signal processing. Although filter reconfigurability and tunability have been demonstrated repeatedly, it is still difficult to control the filter shape with very high precision. Thus the MPF application is basically limited to signal selection. Here we present a polarization-insensitive single-passband arbitrary-shaped MPF with ~GHz bandwidth based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fibre. For the first time the filter shape, bandwidth and central frequency can all be precisely defined by software with ~MHz resolution. The unprecedented multi-dimensional filter flexibility offers new possibilities to process microwave signals directly in optical domain with high precision thus enhancing the MPF functionality. Nanosecond pulse shaping by implementing precisely defined filters is demonstrated to prove the filter superiority and practicability.

  7. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  8. Activation and resolution of periodontal inflammation and its systemic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation is a highly organized event impacting upon organs, tissues and biological systems. Periodontal diseases are characterized by dysregulation or dysfunction of resolution pathways of inflammation that results in failure to heal and in a dominant chronic, progressive, destructive and predominantly unresolved inflammation. The biological consequences of inflammatory processes may be independent of the etiological agents, such as trauma, microbial organisms and stress. The impact of the inflammatory pathological process depends upon the tissues or organ system affected. Whilst mediators are similar, there is tissue specificity for the inflammatory events. It is plausible that inflammatory processes in one organ could directly lead to pathologies in another organ or tissue. Communication between distant parts of the body and their inflammatory status is also mediated by common signaling mechanisms mediated via cells and soluble mediators. This review focuses on periodontal inflammation, its systemic associations and advances in therapeutic approaches based on mediators acting through orchestration of natural pathways to resolution of inflammation. We also discuss a new treatment concept in which natural pathways of resolution of periodontal inflammation can be used to limit systemic inflammation and promote healing and regeneration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Vedula; G Brannigan; N Economou; J Xi; M Hall; R Liu; M Rossi; W Dailey; K Grasty; et. al.

    2011-12-31

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  10. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Brannigan, Grace; Economou, Nicoleta J.; Xi, Jin; Hall, Michael A.; Liu, Renyu; Rossi, Matthew J.; Dailey, William P.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Klein, Michael L.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Loll, Patrick J.; (Drexel-MED); (UPENN)

    2009-10-21

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  11. High-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer of linear displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ping; Xia, Haojie; Fei, Yetai

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution transducer of linear displacements is presented. The system is based on semiconductor laser illumination and a diffraction grating applied as a length master. The theory of the optical method is formulated using Doppler description. The relationship model among the interference strips, measurement errors, grating deflection around the X, Y and Z axes and translation along the Z axis is built. The grating interference strips' direction and space is not changed with movement along the X (direction of grating movement), Y (direction of grating line), Z axis, and the direction and space has a great effect when rotating around the X axis. Moreover the space is little affected by deflection around the Z axis however the direction is changed dramatically. In addition, the strips' position shifted rightward or downwards respectively for deflection around the X or Y axis. Because the emitted beams are separated on the grating plane, the tilt around the X axis error of the stage during motion will lead to the optical path difference of the two beams resulting in phase shift. This study investigates the influence of the tilt around the X axis error. Experiments show that after yaw error compensation, the high-resolution diffraction grating interferometric transducer readings can be significantly improved. The error can be reduced from +/-80 nm to +/-30 nm in maximum.

  12. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Buchhold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD. The downstream microcontroller’s software identifies the geometric shape’s center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels, the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user’s range of motion (stroke and force. This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability.

  13. High temporal resolution functional MRI using parallel echo volumar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabrait, C.; Ciuciu, P.; Ribes, A.; Poupon, C.; Dehaine-Lambertz, G.; LeBihan, D.; Lethimonnier, F. [CEA Saclay, DSV, I2BM, Neurospin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Le Roux, P. [GEHC, Buc (France); Dehaine-Lambertz, G. [Unite INSERM 562, Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To combine parallel imaging with 3D single-shot acquisition (echo volumar imaging, EVI) in order to acquire high temporal resolution volumar functional MRI (fMRI) data. Materials and Methods: An improved EVI sequence was associated with parallel acquisition and field of view reduction in order to acquire a large brain volume in 200 msec. Temporal stability and functional sensitivity were increased through optimization of all imaging parameters and Tikhonov regularization of parallel reconstruction. Two human volunteers were scanned with parallel EVI in a 1.5 T whole-body MR system, while submitted to a slow event-related auditory paradigm. Results: Thanks to parallel acquisition, the EVI volumes display a low level of geometric distortions and signal losses. After removal of low-frequency drifts and physiological artifacts,activations were detected in the temporal lobes of both volunteers and voxel-wise hemodynamic response functions (HRF) could be computed. On these HRF different habituation behaviors in response to sentence repetition could be identified. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of high temporal resolution 3D fMRI with parallel EVI. Combined with advanced estimation tools,this acquisition method should prove useful to measure neural activity timing differences or study the nonlinearities and non-stationarities of the BOLD response. (authors)

  14. Continuous online field deployable high precision and high resolution water isotope analysis from ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkinis, Vasileios; Popp, Trevor; Johnsen, Sigfus; Blunier, Thomas; Stowasser, Christopher; Kettner, Ernesto

    2010-05-01

    One of the most important features of ice cores as climate and atmospheric paleoarchives is their potential for high temporal resolution. The measurement of chemical impurities in ice cores that fully exploits this high resolution has become standard with the advent of Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) from continuously melted ice core segments, often performed in the field. Meanwhile, the measurement of water stable isotopic composition (deuterium and oxygen-18) continues, for the most part, to be performed offline via discrete sampling with traditional mass spectroscopy. These offline procedures are time consuming, expensive, and do not fully exploit the temporal resolution available in the ice core. Here we describe a new method and the first results for the determination of water isotopic content measured from a continuous melted rod with a commercially available near-infrared cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS; http://www.picarro.com/) coupled to a CFA system both in the field on the Greenland ice sheet and in the laboratory. For the measurement of water isotopes a carefully controlled fraction of the CFA melt stream is evaporated directly into the laser cavity for simultaneous analysis of both deuterium and oxygen-18 content. The details of the system have been tested with a deployment to the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) coupled to the University of Bern CFA system and in the laboratory with NGRIP ice coupled to the University of Copenhagen CFA system. The results show that the system already produces the highest interpretable resolution records that are comparable or somewhat less precise than traditional mass spectroscopy discrete sample methods. The enormous potential of the system is being realized in the density and resolution of the produced records in connection with other highly resolved series (e.g. chemical impurities), and also in the efficiency by which the records can be produced. Among other things, time series from this type of

  15. High Resolution, Range/Range-Rate Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to develop a design for a small, lightweight, high resolution, in x, y, and z Doppler imager to assist in the guidance, navigation and control...

  16. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  17. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  18. High Resolution Orthoimagery = Orthorectified Metro Areas: 2000 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — High resolution orthorectified images combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An orthoimage is a...

  19. Topological Data Analysis of High-Resolution Temporal Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsteanu, Alin Andrei; Fernández Méndez, Félix; Vásquez Aguilar, Raciel

    2017-04-01

    This study applies topological data analysis (TDA) to the state space representations of high-resolution temporal rainfall intensity data from Iowa City (IIHR, U of Iowa). Using a sufficient embedding dimension, topological properties of the underlying manifold are depicted.

  20. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  1. High resolution remote sensing of water surface patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodget, A.; Visser, F.; Maddock, I.; Carbonneau, P.

    2012-12-01

    The assessment of in-stream habitat availability within fluvial environments in the UK traditionally includes the mapping of patterns which appear on the surface of the water, known as 'surface flow types' (SFTs). The UK's River Habitat Survey identifies ten key SFTs, including categories such as rippled flow, upwelling, broken standing waves and smooth flow. SFTs result from the interaction between the underlying channel morphology, water depth and velocity and reflect the local flow hydraulics. It has been shown that SFTs can be both biologically and hydraulically distinct. SFT mapping is usually conducted from the river banks where estimates of spatial coverage are made by eye. This approach is affected by user subjectivity and inaccuracies in the spatial extent of mapped units. Remote sensing and specifically the recent developments in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) may now offer an alternative approach for SFT mapping, with the capability for rapid and repeatable collection of very high resolution imagery from low altitudes, under bespoke flight conditions. This PhD research is aimed at investigating the mapping of SFTs using high resolution optical imagery (less than 10cm) collected from a helicopter-based UAS flown at low altitudes (less than 100m). This paper presents the initial findings from a series of structured experiments on the River Arrow, a small lowland river in Warwickshire, UK. These experiments investigate the potential for mapping SFTs from still and video imagery of different spatial resolutions collected at different flying altitudes and from different viewing angles (i.e. vertical and oblique). Imagery is processed using 3D mosaicking software to create orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEM). The types of image analysis which are tested include a simple, manual visual assessment undertaken in a GIS environment, based on the high resolution optical imagery. In addition, an object-based image analysis approach which makes use of the

  2. Synthesis of rainfall time series in a high temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callau Poduje, Ana Claudia; Haberlandt, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In order to optimize the design and operation of urban drainage systems, long and continuous rain series in a high temporal resolution are essential. As the length of the rainfall records is often short, particularly the data available with the temporal and regional resolutions required for urban hydrology, it is necessary to find some numerical representation of the precipitation phenomenon to generate long synthetic rainfall series. An Alternating Renewal Model (ARM) is applied for this purpose, which consists of two structures: external and internal. The former is the sequence of wet and dry spells, described by their durations which are simulated stochastically. The internal structure is characterized by the amount of rain corresponding to each wet spell and its distribution within the spell. A multivariate frequency analysis is applied to analyze the internal structure of the wet spells and to generate synthetic events. The stochastic time series must reproduce the statistical characteristics of observed high resolution precipitation measurements used to generate them. The spatio-temporal interdependencies between stations are addressed by resampling the continuous synthetic series based on the Simulated Annealing (SA) procedure. The state of Lower-Saxony and surrounding areas, located in the north-west of Germany is used to develop the ARM. A total of 26 rainfall stations with high temporal resolution records, i.e. rainfall data every 5 minutes, are used to define the events, find the most suitable probability distributions, calibrate the corresponding parameters, simulate long synthetic series and evaluate the results. The length of the available data ranges from 10 to 20 years. The rainfall series involved in the different steps of calculation are compared using a rainfall-runoff model to simulate the runoff behavior in urban areas. The EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is applied for this evaluation. The results show a good representation of the

  3. High-resolution Imaging Techniques for the Assessment of Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Roland; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of assessing the bone’s microarchitectural make-up in addition to its mineral density in the context of osteoporosis has been emphasized in a number of publications. The high spatial resolution required to resolve the bone’s microstructure in a clinically feasible scan time is challenging. Currently, the best suited modalities meeting these requirements in vivo are high-resolution peripheral quantitative imaging (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas HR-pQCT is...

  4. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  5. Commissioning and Characterization of a Dedicated