Sample records for system flight model

  1. Simulation model for the Boeing 720B aircraft-flight control system in continuous flight. (United States)


    A mathematical model of the Boeing 720B aircraft and autopilot has been derived. The model is representative of the 720B aircraft for continuous flight within a flight envelope defined by a Mach number of .4 at 20,000 feet altitude in a cruise config...

  2. Cross-Compiler for Modeling Space-Flight Systems (United States)

    James, Mark


    Ripples is a computer program that makes it possible to specify arbitrarily complex space-flight systems in an easy-to-learn, high-level programming language and to have the specification automatically translated into LibSim, which is a text-based computing language in which such simulations are implemented. LibSim is a very powerful simulation language, but learning it takes considerable time, and it requires that models of systems and their components be described at a very low level of abstraction. To construct a model in LibSim, it is necessary to go through a time-consuming process that includes modeling each subsystem, including defining its fault-injection states, input and output conditions, and the topology of its connections to other subsystems. Ripples makes it possible to describe the same models at a much higher level of abstraction, thereby enabling the user to build models faster and with fewer errors. Ripples can be executed in a variety of computers and operating systems, and can be supplied in either source code or binary form. It must be run in conjunction with a Lisp compiler.

  3. Modeling of Supersonic Combustion Systems for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Neill


    Full Text Available Through Computational Fluid Dynamics and validation, an optimal scramjet combustor has been designed based on twin-strut Hydrogen injection to sustain flight at a desired speed of Mach 8. An investigation undertaken into the efficacy of supersonic combustion through various means of injection saw promising results for Hydrogen-based systems, whereby strut-style injectors were selected over transverse injectors based on their pressure recovery performance and combustive efficiency. The final configuration of twin-strut injectors provided robust combustion and a stable region of net thrust (1873 kN in the nozzle. Using fixed combustor inlet parameters and injection equivalence ratio, the finalized injection method advanced to the early stages of two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D scramjet engine integration. The overall investigation provided a feasible supersonic combustion system, such that Mach 8 sustained cruise could be achieved by the aircraft concept in a computational design domain.

  4. Mathematical model validation of a thermal architecture system connecting east/west radiators by flight data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Alejandro; Mishkinis, Donatas; Kaya, Tarik


    A novel satellite thermal architecture connecting the east and west radiators of a geostationary telecommunication satellite via loop heat pipes (LHPs) is flight tested on board the satellite Hispasat 1E. The LHP operating temperature is regulated by using pressure regulating valves (PRVs). The flight data demonstrated the successful operation of the proposed concept. A transient numerical model specifically developed for the design of this system satisfactorily simulated the flight data. The validated mathematical model can be used to design and analyze the thermal behavior of more complex architectures. - Highlights: •A novel spacecraft thermal control architecture is presented. •The east–west radiators of a GEO communications satellite are connected using LHPs. •A transient mathematical model is validated with flight data. •The space flight data proved successful in-orbit operation of the novel architecture. •The model can be used to design/analyze LHP based complex thermal architectures

  5. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald


    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  6. Toward a Model-Based Approach to Flight System Fault Protection (United States)

    Day, John; Murray, Alex; Meakin, Peter


    Fault Protection (FP) is a distinct and separate systems engineering sub-discipline that is concerned with the off-nominal behavior of a system. Flight system fault protection is an important part of the overall flight system systems engineering effort, with its own products and processes. As with other aspects of systems engineering, the FP domain is highly amenable to expression and management in models. However, while there are standards and guidelines for performing FP related analyses, there are not standards or guidelines for formally relating the FP analyses to each other or to the system hardware and software design. As a result, the material generated for these analyses are effectively creating separate models that are only loosely-related to the system being designed. Development of approaches that enable modeling of FP concerns in the same model as the system hardware and software design enables establishment of formal relationships that has great potential for improving the efficiency, correctness, and verification of the implementation of flight system FP. This paper begins with an overview of the FP domain, and then continues with a presentation of a SysML/UML model of the FP domain and the particular analyses that it contains, by way of showing a potential model-based approach to flight system fault protection, and an exposition of the use of the FP models in FSW engineering. The analyses are small examples, inspired by current real-project examples of FP analyses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko


    Full Text Available  The Air Navigation System is presented as a complex socio-technical system. The influence on decision-making by Air Navigation System's human-operator of the professional factors as well as the factors of non-professional nature has been defined. Logic determined and stochastic models of decision-making by the Air Navigation System's human-operator in flight emergencies have been developed. The scenarios of developing a flight situation in case of selecting either the positive or negative pole in accordance with the reflexive theory have been obtained. The informational support system of the operator in the unusual situations on the basis of Neural Network model of evaluating the efficiency of the potential alternative of flight completion has been built.

  8. Neural Flight Control System (United States)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen


    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  9. Initial virtual flight test for a dynamically similar aircraft model with control augmentation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linliang Guo


    Full Text Available To satisfy the validation requirements of flight control law for advanced aircraft, a wind tunnel based virtual flight testing has been implemented in a low speed wind tunnel. A 3-degree-of-freedom gimbal, ventrally installed in the model, was used in conjunction with an actively controlled dynamically similar model of aircraft, which was equipped with the inertial measurement unit, attitude and heading reference system, embedded computer and servo-actuators. The model, which could be rotated around its center of gravity freely by the aerodynamic moments, together with the flow field, operator and real time control system made up the closed-loop testing circuit. The model is statically unstable in longitudinal direction, and it can fly stably in wind tunnel with the function of control augmentation of the flight control laws. The experimental results indicate that the model responds well to the operator’s instructions. The response of the model in the tests shows reasonable agreement with the simulation results. The difference of response of angle of attack is less than 0.5°. The effect of stability augmentation and attitude control law was validated in the test, meanwhile the feasibility of virtual flight test technique treated as preliminary evaluation tool for advanced flight vehicle configuration research was also verified.

  10. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Space Flight Medical Systems (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; deCarvalho, Mary Freire; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David


    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and designing medical systems for space flight missions. The IMM provides an evidence based approach for optimizing medical resources and minimizing risks within space flight operational constraints. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew profiles, medical condition incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential crew functional impairments, and clinical end-states are established to determine probable mission outcomes. Stochastic computational methods are used to forecast probability distributions of crew health and medical resource utilization, as well as estimates of medical evacuation and loss of crew life. The IMM has been used in support of the International Space Station (ISS) medical kit redesign, the medical component of the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment, and the development of the Constellation Medical Conditions List. The IMM also will be used to refine medical requirements for the Constellation program. The IMM outputs for ISS and Constellation design reference missions will be presented to demonstrate the potential of the IMM in assessing risks, planning missions, and designing medical systems. The implementation of the IMM verification and validation plan will be reviewed. Additional planned capabilities of the IMM, including optimization techniques and the inclusion of a mission timeline, will be discussed. Given the space flight constraints of mass, volume, and crew medical training, the IMM is a valuable risk assessment and decision support tool for medical system design and mission planning.

  11. Development of a Human Motor Model for the Evaluation of an Integrated Alerting and Notification Flight Deck System (United States)

    Daiker, Ron; Schnell, Thomas


    A human motor model was developed on the basis of performance data that was collected in a flight simulator. The motor model is under consideration as one component of a virtual pilot model for the evaluation of NextGen crew alerting and notification systems in flight decks. This model may be used in a digital Monte Carlo simulation to compare flight deck layout design alternatives. The virtual pilot model is being developed as part of a NASA project to evaluate multiple crews alerting and notification flight deck configurations. Model parameters were derived from empirical distributions of pilot data collected in a flight simulator experiment. The goal of this model is to simulate pilot motor performance in the approach-to-landing task. The unique challenges associated with modeling the complex dynamics of humans interacting with the cockpit environment are discussed, along with the current state and future direction of the model.

  12. Computational Model of Human and System Dynamics in Free Flight: Studies in Distributed Control Technologies (United States)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Pisanich, Gregory; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)


    This paper presents a set of studies in full mission simulation and the development of a predictive computational model of human performance in control of complex airspace operations. NASA and the FAA have initiated programs of research and development to provide flight crew, airline operations and air traffic managers with automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area to support the goals of safe, flexible, predictable and efficient operations. In support of these developments, we present a computational model to aid design that includes representation of multiple cognitive agents (both human operators and intelligent aiding systems). The demands of air traffic management require representation of many intelligent agents sharing world-models, coordinating action/intention, and scheduling goals and actions in a potentially unpredictable world of operations. The operator-model structure includes attention functions, action priority, and situation assessment. The cognitive model has been expanded to include working memory operations including retrieval from long-term store, and interference. The operator's activity structures have been developed to provide for anticipation (knowledge of the intention and action of remote operators), and to respond to failures of the system and other operators in the system in situation-specific paradigms. System stability and operator actions can be predicted by using the model. The model's predictive accuracy was verified using the full-mission simulation data of commercial flight deck operations with advanced air traffic management techniques.

  13. Modeling Pilot Behavior for Assessing Integrated Alert and Notification Systems on Flight Decks (United States)

    Cover, Mathew; Schnell, Thomas


    Numerous new flight deck configurations for caution, warning, and alerts can be conceived; yet testing them with human-in-the-Ioop experiments to evaluate each one would not be practical. New sensors, instruments, and displays are being put into cockpits every day and this is particularly true as we enter the dawn of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). By modeling pilot behavior in a computer simulation, an unlimited number of unique caution, warning, and alert configurations can be evaluated 24/7 by a computer. These computer simulations can then identify the most promising candidate formats to further evaluate in higher fidelity, but more costly, Human-in-the-Ioop (HITL) simulations. Evaluations using batch simulations with human performance models saves time, money, and enables a broader consideration of possible caution, warning, and alerting configurations for future flight decks.

  14. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode... (United States)


    ... Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or... Unusual Design Features The GVI will have a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system. This system...

  15. Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control for Flight Systems with Input Saturation and Model Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wang


    the original reference model may not be appropriate. Under this circumstance, an adaptive reference model which can also provide satisfactory performance is designed. Simulations of a flight control example are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  16. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng


    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  17. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.


    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  18. Model and Sensor Based Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Control with Online System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.G.


    Consensus exists that many loss-of-control (LOC) in flight accidents caused by severe aircraft damage or system failure could be prevented if flight performance could be recovered using the valid and remaining control authorities. However, the safe maneuverability of a post-failure aircraft will

  19. Interface Management for a NASA Flight Project Using Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) (United States)

    Vipavetz, Kevin; Shull, Thomas A.; Infeld, Samatha; Price, Jim


    The goal of interface management is to identify, define, control, and verify interfaces; ensure compatibility; provide an efficient system development; be on time and within budget; while meeting stakeholder requirements. This paper will present a successful seven-step approach to interface management used in several NASA flight projects. The seven-step approach using Model Based Systems Engineering will be illustrated by interface examples from the Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X) project. The MISSE-X was being developed as an International Space Station (ISS) external platform for space environmental studies, designed to advance the technology readiness of materials and devices critical for future space exploration. Emphasis will be given to best practices covering key areas such as interface definition, writing good interface requirements, utilizing interface working groups, developing and controlling interface documents, handling interface agreements, the use of shadow documents, the importance of interface requirement ownership, interface verification, and product transition.

  20. Model-Based Systems Engineering for Capturing Mission Architecture System Processes with an Application Case Study - Orion Flight Test 1 (United States)

    Bonanne, Kevin H.


    Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.

  1. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode... (United States)


    ... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or.... The FAA must also issue a finding of regulatory adequacy pursuant to section 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in...

  2. Flight controller design of unmanned airplane for radiation monitoring system via structured robust controller design using multiple model approach. Radiation monitoring flight in Namie-machi in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masayuki; Muraoka, Koji; Hozumi, Koki; Sanada, Yukihisa; Yamada, Tsutomu; Torii, Tatsuo


    Due to the tragic accident of radioactive contaminant spread from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the necessity of unmanned systems for radiation monitoring has been increasing. This paper concerns the flight controller design of an unmanned airplane which has been developed for radiation monitoring around the power plant. The flight controller consists of conventional control elements, i.e. Stability/Control Augmentation System (S/CAS) with PI controllers and guidance loops with PID controllers. The gains in these controllers are designed by minimizing appropriately defined cost functions for several possible models and disturbances to produce structured robust flight controllers. (This method is called as 'multiple model approach'.) Control performance of our flight controller was evaluated through flight tests and a primitive flight of radiation monitoring in Namie-machi in Fukushima prefecture was conducted in Jan. 2014. Flight results are included in this paper. (author)

  3. Getting expert systems off the ground: Lessons learned from integrating model-based diagnostics with prototype flight hardware (United States)

    Stephan, Amy; Erikson, Carol A.


    As an initial attempt to introduce expert system technology into an onboard environment, a model based diagnostic system using the TRW MARPLE software tool was integrated with prototype flight hardware and its corresponding control software. Because this experiment was designed primarily to test the effectiveness of the model based reasoning technique used, the expert system ran on a separate hardware platform, and interactions between the control software and the model based diagnostics were limited. While this project met its objective of showing that model based reasoning can effectively isolate failures in flight hardware, it also identified the need for an integrated development path for expert system and control software for onboard applications. In developing expert systems that are ready for flight, artificial intelligence techniques must be evaluated to determine whether they offer a real advantage onboard, identify which diagnostic functions should be performed by the expert systems and which are better left to the procedural software, and work closely with both the hardware and the software developers from the beginning of a project to produce a well designed and thoroughly integrated application.

  4. Flight Systems Monitor, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  5. Current and Future Flight Operating Systems (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current real time operating system (RTOS) type in use with current flight systems. A new RTOS model is described, i.e. the process model. Included is a review of the challenges of migrating from the classic RTOS to the Process Model type.

  6. Simulacioni model sistema za upravljanje letom protivbrodske rakete / Model for simulating the flight control system of a antiship missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša N. Gaćeša


    Full Text Available U radu je analiziran program za simulaciju sistema za upravljanje letom protivbrodske rakete sa radarskom glavom za samonavođenje. Analiziran je matematički model rakete, model autopilota i model cilja. Ovakvim pristupom dobijen je rezultat koji omogućava uspostavljanje realnijeg procesa praćenja leta konkretne protivbrodske rakete, budući da upravljanje letom rakete na celoj trajektoriji ima znatne prednosti u odnosu na nevođene projektile, pre svega zbog mogućnosti gađanja pokretnih ciljeva. Simulacioni model upravljanja letom rakete pruža mogućnosti za dalje proučavanje ove klase raketa. / The paper analyzes a program for simulating the flight control of an antiship missile with the radar seeker. The paper analyzes a mathematic missile model an autopilot model and a target model. Thus obtained results enable a more realistic process of flight tracking of a particular antiship missile as the missile guidance along the whole trajectory provides many advantages over unguided projectiles, primarily because of the possibility to fire at moving targets. The flight control simulation model enables further study of this missile class.

  7. An experimentally verified model for estimating the distance resolution capability of direct time of flight 3D optical imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, K Q K; Fisher, E M D; Walton, A J; Underwood, I


    This report introduces a new statistical model for time-resolved photon detection in a generic single-photon-sensitive sensor array. The model is validated by comparing modelled data with experimental data collected on a single-photon avalanche diode sensor array. Data produced by the model are used alongside corresponding experimental data to calculate, for the first time, the effective distance resolution of a pulsed direct time of flight 3D optical imaging system over a range of conditions using four peak-detection algorithms. The relative performance of the algorithms is compared. The model can be used to improve the system design process and inform selection of the optimal peak-detection algorithm. (paper)

  8. 78 FR 11553 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System... (United States)


    ... adequacy under Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) associated with the control surface awareness and mode annunciation of the electronic flight control system...

  9. Rapid Development of Guidance, Navigation, and Control Core Flight System Software Applications Using Simulink Models (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate a new Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Flight Software (FSW) application development paradigm which takes...

  10. 77 FR 57039 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System... (United States)


    ... adequacy under Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special... Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation... feature(s) associated with the control surface awareness and mode annunciation of the electronic flight...

  11. The Integrated Medical Model - Optimizing In-flight Space Medical Systems to Reduce Crew Health Risk and Mission Impacts (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric; Walton, Marlei; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; Myers, Jerry; Butler, Doug; Lyengar, Sriram; Fitts, Mary; Johnson-Throop, Kathy


    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool used by medical system planners and designers as they prepare for exploration planning activities of the Constellation program (CxP). IMM provides an evidence-based approach to help optimize the allocation of in-flight medical resources for a specified level of risk within spacecraft operational constraints. Eighty medical conditions and associated resources are represented in IMM. Nine conditions are due to Space Adaptation Syndrome. The IMM helps answer fundamental medical mission planning questions such as What medical conditions can be expected? What type and quantity of medical resources are most likely to be used?", and "What is the probability of crew death or evacuation due to medical events?" For a specified mission and crew profile, the IMM effectively characterizes the sequence of events that could potentially occur should a medical condition happen. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew attributes, medical conditions and incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential clinical and crew health end states are established to generate end state probabilities. A Monte Carlo computational method is used to determine the probable outcomes and requires up to 25,000 mission trials to reach convergence. For each mission trial, the pharmaceuticals and supplies required to diagnose and treat prevalent medical conditions are tracked and decremented. The uncertainty of patient response to treatment is bounded via a best-case, worst-case, untreated case algorithm. A Crew Health Index (CHI) metric, developed to account for functional impairment due to a medical condition, provides a quantified measure of risk and enables risk comparisons across mission scenarios. The use of historical in-flight medical data, terrestrial surrogate data as appropriate, and space medicine subject matter expertise has enabled the development of a probabilistic, stochastic decision support tool capable of

  12. Flight mechanics expert systems (United States)

    Burns, Rowland E.


    A method is established which can be used to solve any problem in equation-driven disciplines. This is accomplished by solving all applicable equations of the given discipline for all variables which occur in each of the equations. The system then provides logic tests to determine if enough information is available to calculate a new variable. By recording the order in which the equations are used, the machine can also supply a derivation of the answer to each problem.

  13. 76 FR 8278 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Enhanced Flight Vision System (United States)


    ... alignment. Hence, safety standards are needed for each of the following factors: --An acceptable degree of image transparency; --Image alignment; --Lack of significant distortion; and --The potential for pilot... tasks during any phase of flight in which it is to be used. 2. To avoid unacceptable interference with...

  14. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications (United States)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.


    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  15. Development and Implementation of a Model-Driven Envelope Protection System for In-Flight Ice Contamination (United States)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Martos, Borja; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene


    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  16. F-15 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.


    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the F-15 aircraft, flight tests, aircraft performance and overall advanced neural network based flight control technologies for aerospace systems designs.

  17. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  18. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  19. Non-uniform hybrid strategy for architecting and modeling flight vehicle focused system-of-systems operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yifeng


    Full Text Available To balance the contradiction between comprehensiveness of system-of-systems (SoS description and cost of modeling and simulation, a non-uniform hybrid strategy (NUHYS is proposed. NUHYS groups elements of an SoS operation into system community or relatively independent system based on contributors complexity and focus relationship according to the focus of SoS problem. Meanwhile, modeling methods are categorized based on details attention rate and dynamic attention rate, seeking for matching contributors. Taking helicopter rescue in earthquake relief as an example, the procedure of applying NUHYS and its effectiveness are verified.

  20. Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.


    Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

  1. A Rapid Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic Modeling, Analysis and Optimization System for Advanced Flight Vehicles, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stirling Dynamics Inc and the University of Washington propose to develop a MATLAB toolbox for rapid aeroelastic (AE) and aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling, analysis...

  2. A sociotechnical model of the flight crew task. (United States)

    Cahill, Joan; McDonald, Nick; Losa, Gabriel


    The objective of this research was to advance an improved model of Flight Crew task performance. Existing task models present a "local" description of Flight Crew task performance. Process mapping workshops, interviews, and observations were conducted with both pilots and flight operations personnel from five airlines, as part of the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems (HILAS) project. The functional logic of the process dictates Flight Crew task requirements and specific task workflows. The Flight Crew task involves managing different levels of operational and environmental complexity, associated with the particular flight context. In so doing, the Flight Crew act as a coordinating interface between different human agents involved in the Active Flight Operations process and other processes that interface with this process. This article presents a new sociotechnical model of the Flight Crew task. The proposed model reflects a shift from a local explanation of Flight Crew task activity to a broader process-centric explanation. In so doing, it illuminates the complex role of procedures in commercial operations. The task model suggests specific requirements for pilot task support tools, procedures design, performance evaluation and crew resource management (CRM) training. Also, this model might be used to assess future operational concepts and associated technology requirements. Lastly, this model provides the basis for the operational validation of both existing and future cockpit technologies.

  3. 75 FR 47176 - Special Conditions: Dassault Aviation Model Falcon 7X; Enhanced Flight Visibility System (EFVS) (United States)


    ... to determine that the imagery provides the intended visual enhancements without undue interference... outside scene, the system must be able to ensure accurate alignment. Therefore, safety standards are needed for each of the following factors: An acceptable degree of image transparency; Image alignment...

  4. 77 FR 21861 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 777F; Enhanced Flight Vision System (United States)


    ... enhancements without undue interference with the pilot's outside compartment view. The FAA's intent is that the... with the outside scene, the system must be able to ensure accurate alignment. Therefore, safety... alignment; Lack of significant distortion; and The potential for pilot confusion or misleading information...

  5. Modeling human response errors in synthetic flight simulator domain (United States)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.


    This paper presents a control theoretic approach to modeling human response errors (HRE) in the flight simulation domain. The human pilot is modeled as a supervisor of a highly automated system. The synthesis uses the theory of optimal control pilot modeling for integrating the pilot's observation error and the error due to the simulation model (experimental error). Methods for solving the HRE problem are suggested. Experimental verification of the models will be tested in a flight quality handling simulation.

  6. Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS) (United States)

    Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)


    The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

  7. F-15 IFCS: Intelligent Flight Control System (United States)

    Bosworth, John


    This viewgraph presentation describes the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS). The goals of this project include: 1) Demonstrate revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance in both normal and failure conditions; and 2) Demonstrate advance neural network-based flight control technology for new aerospace systems designs.

  8. Life-critical digital flight control systems (United States)

    Mcwha, James


    Digital autopilot systems were first used on commercial airplanes in the late 1970s. The A-320 airplane was the first air transport airplane with a fly-by-wire primary flight control system. On the 767-X (777) airplane Boeing will install all fly-by-wire flight controls. Activities related to safety, industry status and program phases are discussed.

  9. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design (United States)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.


    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  10. Technique for Assessing the Stability and Controllability Characteristics of Naval Aircraft Systems Based on the Rational Combination of Modeling, Identification and Flight Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Nikolaev


    motion in the range of main flight operating conditions. This model is aimed at using to not only to support testing, but at subsequent stages of the aviation system life cycle as well. These models are necessary when training the pilots to fly to the ship, when developing the simulators, at the stage of modernization, in examination of aircraft accidents, etc. As a result of the work, have been created a new technique for evaluating the stability and controllability characteristics of the naval aircraft system, including a new procedure for the identification and also the new algorithmic techniques that can be used to visualize the dependence of aerodynamic coefficients as a function of the angle of attack and a new approach to identify longitudinal channel according to lateral test flight modes. All the results are confirmed by processing of flight experiment materials.The work is fulfilled with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR, project 15-08-06237.

  11. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T


    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  12. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented

  13. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  14. Interactive flight control system analysis program (United States)

    Mahesh, J. K.; Konar, A. F.; Ward, M. D.


    A summary of the development, use, and documentation of the interactive software (DIGIKON IV) for flight control system analyses is presented. A list of recommendations for future development is also included.

  15. Core Flight System (CFS) Integrated Development Environment (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to create an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for the Core Flight System (CFS) software to reduce the time it takes to...

  16. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  17. Adaptive and Resilient Flight Control System for a Small Unmanned Aerial System


    Gonzalo Garcia; Shahriar Keshmiri


    The main purpose of this paper is to develop an onboard adaptive and robust flight control system that improves control, stability, and survivability of a small unmanned aerial system in off-nominal or out-of-envelope conditions. The aerodynamics of aircraft associated with hazardous and adverse onboard conditions is inherently nonlinear and unsteady. The presented flight control system improves functionalities required to adapt the flight control in the presence of aircraft model uncertainti...

  18. Wind and Wake Sensing with UAV Formation Flight: System Development and Flight Testing (United States)

    Larrabee, Trenton Jameson

    sensing data using UAVs in formation flight. This has been achieved and well documented before in manned aircraft but very little work has been done on UAV wake sensing especially during flight testing. This document describes the development and flight testing of small unmanned aerial system (UAS) for wind and wake sensing purpose including a Ground Control Station (GCS) and UAVs. This research can be stated in four major components. Firstly, formation flight was obtained by integrating a formation flight controller on the WVU Phastball Research UAV aircraft platform from the Flight Control Systems Laboratory (FCSL) at West Virginia University (WVU). Second, a new approach to wind estimation using an Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is discussed along with results from flight data. Third, wake modeling within a simulator and wake sensing during formation flight is shown. Finally, experimental results are used to discuss the "sweet spot" for energy harvesting in formation flight, a novel approach to cooperative wind estimation, and gust suppression control for a follower aircraft in formation flight.

  19. Flight-Test Validation and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a Rotorcraft UAV Flight Control System (United States)

    Mettler, Bernard; Tuschler, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo


    This paper presents a process of design and flight-test validation and flying qualities evaluation of a flight control system for a rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV). The keystone of this process is an accurate flight-dynamic model of the aircraft, derived by using system identification modeling. The model captures the most relevant dynamic features of our unmanned rotorcraft, and explicitly accounts for the presence of a stabilizer bar. Using the identified model we were able to determine the performance margins of our original control system and identify limiting factors. The performance limitations were addressed and the attitude control system was 0ptimize.d for different three performance levels: slow, medium, fast. The optimized control laws will be implemented in our RUAV. We will first determine the validity of our control design approach by flight test validating our optimized controllers. Subsequently, we will fly a series of maneuvers with the three optimized controllers to determine the level of flying qualities that can be attained. The outcome enable us to draw important conclusions on the flying qualities requirements for small-scale RUAVs.

  20. System safety education focused on flight safety (United States)

    Holt, E.


    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  1. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  2. Flight Results of the NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Aircraft with Adaptation to a Longitudinally Destabilized Plant (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.


    Adaptive flight control systems have the potential to be resilient to extreme changes in airplane behavior. Extreme changes could be a result of a system failure or of damage to the airplane. The goal for the adaptive system is to provide an increase in survivability in the event that these extreme changes occur. A direct adaptive neural-network-based flight control system was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System airplane. The adaptive element was incorporated into a dynamic inversion controller with explicit reference model-following. As a test the system was subjected to an abrupt change in plant stability simulating a destabilizing failure. Flight evaluations were performed with and without neural network adaptation. The results of these flight tests are presented. Comparison with simulation predictions and analysis of the performance of the adaptation system are discussed. The performance of the adaptation system is assessed in terms of its ability to stabilize the vehicle and reestablish good onboard reference model-following. Flight evaluation with the simulated destabilizing failure and adaptation engaged showed improvement in the vehicle stability margins. The convergent properties of this initial system warrant additional improvement since continued maneuvering caused continued adaptation change. Compared to the non-adaptive system the adaptive system provided better closed-loop behavior with improved matching of the onboard reference model. A detailed discussion of the flight results is presented.

  3. From an automated flight-test management system to a flight-test engineer's workstation (United States)

    Duke, E. L.; Brumbaugh, R. W.; Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.


    Described here are the capabilities and evolution of a flight-test engineer's workstation (called TEST PLAN) from an automated flight-test management system. The concept and capabilities of the automated flight-test management system are explored and discussed to illustrate the value of advanced system prototyping and evolutionary software development.

  4. PHARAO laser source flight model: Design and performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lévèque, T., E-mail:; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Grosjean, O.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P. [Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Bomer, T.; Pichon, A.; Béraud, P.; Lelay, J. P.; Thomin, S. [Sodern, 20 Avenue Descartes, 94451 Limeil-Brévannes (France); Laurent, Ph. [LNE-SYRTE, CNRS, UPMC, Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)


    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature, and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the laser source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions.

  5. High pressure gas storage system consumable analyses for ALT flights free flight 1 and free flight 6 (United States)

    Hurst, J. E.


    Consumables analyses are presented for the high pressure gas storage oxygen (O2), and hydrogen (H2) reactant systems for orbiter vehicle 101 approach and landing tests, for two flights, free flight 1 and free flight 6 are given. The consumables analyses are based on average power data. The required system and mission data updates were made in order to perform the analyses, notably the thermal environment profiles of the reactant storage cylinders and the power profile for the Electrical power subsystem. No mission-dependent environment profiles were provided; therefore, nominal free flight mission profile was used to generate environment profiles for free flights 1 and 6.

  6. Rotorcraft Noise Abatement Flight Path Modeling (United States)

    Murty, Hema; Berezin, Charles R.


    This report addresses development of a rotor state/trim modeling capability for noise modeling of decelerating rotorcraft approaches. The resulting technique employs discretization of the descent trajectory as multiple steady state segments for input to CAMRAD.Mod 1 to predict rotor states for acoustic analysis. Deceleration is included by modifying the CAMRAD.Mod 1 free flight trim options to allow trim to the specified acceleration/deceleration components.

  7. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study (United States)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.


    The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.

  8. Hybrid Adaptive Flight Control with Model Inversion Adaptation (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan


    This study investigates a hybrid adaptive flight control method as a design possibility for a flight control system that can enable an effective adaptation strategy to deal with off-nominal flight conditions. The hybrid adaptive control blends both direct and indirect adaptive control in a model inversion flight control architecture. The blending of both direct and indirect adaptive control provides a much more flexible and effective adaptive flight control architecture than that with either direct or indirect adaptive control alone. The indirect adaptive control is used to update the model inversion controller by an on-line parameter estimation of uncertain plant dynamics based on two methods. The first parameter estimation method is an indirect adaptive law based on the Lyapunov theory, and the second method is a recursive least-squares indirect adaptive law. The model inversion controller is therefore made to adapt to changes in the plant dynamics due to uncertainty. As a result, the modeling error is reduced that directly leads to a decrease in the tracking error. In conjunction with the indirect adaptive control that updates the model inversion controller, a direct adaptive control is implemented as an augmented command to further reduce any residual tracking error that is not entirely eliminated by the indirect adaptive control.

  9. Kilowatt isotope power system phase II plan. Volume II: flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) is described. Included are a background, a description of the flight system conceptual design, configuration of components, flight system performance, Ground Demonstration System test results, and advanced development tests.

  10. A neural based intelligent flight control system for the NASA F-15 flight research aircraft (United States)

    Urnes, James M.; Hoy, Stephen E.; Ladage, Robert N.; Stewart, James


    A flight control concept that can identify aircraft stability properties and continually optimize the aircraft flying qualities has been developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company under a contract with the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight concept, termed the Intelligent Flight Control System, utilizes Neural Network technology to identify the host aircraft stability and control properties during flight, and use this information to design on-line the control system feedback gains to provide continuous optimum flight response. This self-repairing capability can provide high performance flight maneuvering response throughout large flight envelopes, such as needed for the National Aerospace Plane. Moreover, achieving this response early in the vehicle's development schedule will save cost.

  11. Survival of the lichen model system Circinaria gyrosa before flight to the ISS (EXPOSE R2 mission) (United States)

    De la Torre Noetzel, Rosa

    Abstract Space Verification Tests (SVT) are necessary for selection of the most promising biological organisms for flight experiments in Low Earth Orbit or other space destinations: Simulation of sample assembly, exposure to expected space parameters and sample disassembly are significantly advanced by such tests, will be performed with this tests, allowing post-analysis of the exposed biological material and thus a deeper understanding of the individual and synergistic effects of space. In this work we present the results obtained with the lichen species Circinaria gyrosa after the SVT 2 run-2 tests concerning the EXPOSE-R2 Mission Preflight Test Program, performed at the planetary and space simulation facilities at DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Cologne, Germany) [1], from October 2013 to January 2014. This vagrant lichen species was collected at the steppic highlands of Central Spain and defined as “astrobiological model system” due to previous test at space missions (BIOPAN-6, Foton M-3) [2, 3], Therefore, C. gyrosa is part of the BIOMEX experiment (Biology and Mars Experiment, ESA) [4] which will be exposed from July 2014 to January 2016 on board of EXPOSE R2 on the International Space Station. C. gyrosa was exposed at DLR to simulated space- and Mars parameters: a) space vacuum 10-5 Pa, space UV-radiation (200-400 nm, fluence of 12 months mission = 5 x 105 kJm-2) and temperature fluctuations (-25 ºC to 10 ºC); b); Mars Simulated CO2 atmosphere, Mars pressure of 103 Pa, Mars UV-radiation (200-400 nm), and temperature fluctuations (-25 ºC to 10 ºC). In line with the lichen's well studied adaptations to harsh environmental conditions [5, 6] we observed a high recovery- and resistance capacity of C. gyrosa which was demonstrated after a 72 hours re-activation process of in the UV-Radiation and Bioclimatology Laboratories of INTA (Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation, Dept. Earth Observation). These results confirm the high survival

  12. Design of All Digital Flight Program Training Desktop Application System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu


    Full Text Available All digital flight program training desktop application system operating conditions are simple. Can make the aircraft aircrew learning theory and operation training closely. Improve the training efficiency and effectiveness. This paper studies the application field and design requirements of flight program training system. Based on the WINDOWS operating system desktop application, the design idea and system architecture of the all digital flight program training system are put forward. Flight characteristics, key airborne systems and aircraft cockpit are simulated. Finally, By comparing flight training simulator and the specific script program training system, The characteristics and advantages of the training system are analyzed in this paper.

  13. Development and Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Systems (United States)

    Song, Yong D.; Gupta, Kajal (Technical Monitor)


    The research is concerned with developing a new approach to enhancing fault tolerance of flight control systems. The original motivation for fault-tolerant control comes from the need for safe operation of control elements (e.g. actuators) in the event of hardware failures in high reliability systems. One such example is modem space vehicle subjected to actuator/sensor impairments. A major task in flight control is to revise the control policy to balance impairment detectability and to achieve sufficient robustness. This involves careful selection of types and parameters of the controllers and the impairment detecting filters used. It also involves a decision, upon the identification of some failures, on whether and how a control reconfiguration should take place in order to maintain a certain system performance level. In this project new flight dynamic model under uncertain flight conditions is considered, in which the effects of both ramp and jump faults are reflected. Stabilization algorithms based on neural network and adaptive method are derived. The control algorithms are shown to be effective in dealing with uncertain dynamics due to external disturbances and unpredictable faults. The overall strategy is easy to set up and the computation involved is much less as compared with other strategies. Computer simulation software is developed. A serious of simulation studies have been conducted with varying flight conditions.

  14. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.


    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

  15. Aerodynamic Models for the Low Density Supersonic Declerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) (United States)

    Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian


    An overview of pre-flight aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a large helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. The first flight test (SFDT-1) delivered a 6 meter diameter robotic mission class decelerator (SIAD-R) to several seconds of flight on June 28, 2014, and was successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R. The trajectory was off-nominal, however, lofting to over 8 km higher than predicted in flight simulations. Comparisons between reconstructed flight data and aerodynamic models show that SIAD-R aerodynamic performance was in good agreement with pre-flight predictions. Similar comparisons of powered ascent phase aerodynamics show that the pre-flight model overpredicted TV pitch stability, leading to underprediction of trajectory peak altitude. Comparisons between pre-flight aerodynamic models and reconstructed flight data are shown, and changes to aerodynamic models using improved fidelity and knowledge gained from SFDT-1 are discussed.

  16. FlightDynLib: An Object-Oriented Model Component Library for Constructing Multi-Disciplinary Aircraft Dynamics Models


    Looye, G.; Hecker, S.; Kier, T.; Reschke, C.


    In this paper a model component library for developing multi-disciplinary aircraft flight dynamics models is presented, named FlightDynLib. This library is based on the object-oriented modelling language Modelica that has been designed for modelling of large scale multi-physics systems. The flight dynamics library allows for graphical construction of comlex rigid as well as flexible aircraft dynamics models and is fully compatible with other available libraries for electronics, thermodynamics...

  17. The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control Systems: Generation II (United States)

    Buschbacher, Mark; Bosworth, John


    The Second Generation (Gen II) control system for the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) program implements direct adaptive neural networks to demonstrate robust tolerance to faults and failures. The direct adaptive tracking controller integrates learning neural networks (NNs) with a dynamic inversion control law. The term direct adaptive is used because the error between the reference model and the aircraft response is being compensated or directly adapted to minimize error without regard to knowing the cause of the error. No parameter estimation is needed for this direct adaptive control system. In the Gen II design, the feedback errors are regulated with a proportional-plus-integral (PI) compensator. This basic compensator is augmented with an online NN that changes the system gains via an error-based adaptation law to improve aircraft performance at all times, including normal flight, system failures, mispredicted behavior, or changes in behavior resulting from damage.

  18. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  19. Reactive In-flight Multisensor Security System (RIMSS), Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for in-flight event detection and monitoring systems is clear. To address this and other safety and security needs, IEM proposed the Reactive In-flight...

  20. Automated Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative Autonomous Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) system to autonomously and reliably terminate the flight of an errant launch...

  1. Automated Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative Autonomous Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) system to autonomously and reliably terminate the flight of an errant launch...

  2. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries,...

  3. A predictive model of flight crew performance in automated air traffic control and flight management operations (United States)


    Prepared ca. 1995. This paper describes Air-MIDAS, a model of pilot performance in interaction with varied levels of automation in flight management operations. The model was used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew responding to c...

  4. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey


    This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in

  5. Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling From Flight Data Using Advanced Piloted Maneuvers and Fuzzy Logic (United States)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Morelli, Eugene A.


    Results of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Seedling Project Phase I research project entitled "Nonlinear Aerodynamics Modeling using Fuzzy Logic" are presented. Efficient and rapid flight test capabilities were developed for estimating highly nonlinear models of airplane aerodynamics over a large flight envelope. Results showed that the flight maneuvers developed, used in conjunction with the fuzzy-logic system identification algorithms, produced very good model fits of the data, with no model structure inputs required, for flight conditions ranging from cruise to departure and spin conditions.

  6. Automatic Flight Controller With Model Inversion (United States)

    Meyer, George; Smith, G. Allan


    Automatic digital electronic control system based on inverse-model-follower concept being developed for proposed vertical-attitude-takeoff-and-landing airplane. Inverse-model-follower control places inverse mathematical model of dynamics of controlled plant in series with control actuators of controlled plant so response of combination of model and plant to command is unity. System includes feedback to compensate for uncertainties in mathematical model and disturbances imposed from without.

  7. Linear Time Invariant Models for Integrated Flight and Rotor Control (United States)

    Olcer, Fahri Ersel


    Recent developments on individual blade control (IBC) and physics based reduced order models of various on-blade control (OBC) actuation concepts are opening up opportunities to explore innovative rotor control strategies for improved rotor aerodynamic performance, reduced vibration and BVI noise, and improved rotor stability, etc. Further, recent developments in computationally efficient algorithms for the extraction of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models are providing a convenient framework for exploring integrated flight and rotor control, while accounting for the important couplings that exist between body and low frequency rotor response and high frequency rotor response. Formulation of linear time invariant (LTI) models of a nonlinear system about a periodic equilibrium using the harmonic domain representation of LTI model states has been studied in the literature. This thesis presents an alternative method and a computationally efficient scheme for implementation of the developed method for extraction of linear time invariant (LTI) models from a helicopter nonlinear model in forward flight. The fidelity of the extracted LTI models is evaluated using response comparisons between the extracted LTI models and the nonlinear model in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the fidelity of stability properties is studied through the eigenvalue and eigenvector comparisons between LTI and LTP models by making use of the Floquet Transition Matrix. For time domain evaluations, individual blade control (IBC) and On-Blade Control (OBC) inputs that have been tried in the literature for vibration and noise control studies are used. For frequency domain evaluations, frequency sweep inputs are used to obtain frequency responses of fixed system hub loads to a single blade IBC input. The evaluation results demonstrate the fidelity of the extracted LTI models, and thus, establish the validity of the LTI model extraction process for use in integrated flight and rotor control

  8. Flight simulation testing equipment for composite material systems (United States)

    Haskins, J. F.; Wilkins, D. J.; Stein, B. A.


    A test program is discussed which aims at establishing the time-temperature-stress characteristics of several classes of high-temperature composite materials in order to determine their suitability for applications in supersonic cruise aircraft. Five advanced composite materials (a boron epoxy, a boron polyimide, a graphite epoxy, a graphite polyimide, and diffusion-bonded boron aluminum) are being evaluated using a flight-test simulator capable of long-term automatic testing based on random loading and realistic flight temperature profiles. The design, construction, and checkout of this simulator are described along with the digital load programmer, load magnitude controllers, the hydraulic pumping system, the heating and cooling systems, the control console, and the data recording system. Typical results for short-term tests performed at constant temperatures and accelerated load rates are presented in terms of a random-load spectrum and a wearout model.

  9. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.


    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  10. Intelligent Flight Control System and Aeronautics Research at NASA Dryden (United States)

    Brown, Nelson A.


    This video presentation reviews the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System and contains clips of flight tests and aircraft performance in the areas of target tracking, takeoff and differential stabilators. Video of the APG milestone flight 1g formation is included.

  11. The human cardiovascular system during space flight (United States)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Kotovskaya, A. R.; Fomina, G. A.


    Purpose of the work is to analyze and to summarize the data of investigations into human hemodynamics performed over 20 years aboard orbital stations Salyut-7 and Mir with participation of 26 cosmonauts on space flights (SF) from 8 to 438 days in duration. The ultrasonic techniques and occlusive plethysmography demonstrated dynamics of changes in the cardiovascular system during SF of various durations. The parameters of general hemodynamics, the pumping function of the heart and arterial circulation in the brain remained stable in all the space flights; however, there were alterations in peripheral circulation associated with blood redistribution and hypovolemie in microgravity. The anti-gravity distribution of the vascular tone decayed gradually as unneeded. The most considerable changes were observed in leg vessels, equally in arteries (decrease in resistance) and veins (increase in maximum capacity). The lower body negative pressure test (LBNP) revealed deterioration of the gravity-dependent reactions that changed for the worse as SF duration extended. The cardiovascular deconditioning showed itself as loss of descent acceleration tolerance and orthostatic instability in the postflight period.

  12. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation for the Automated Flight Test Management System (United States)

    Tartt, David M.; Hewett, Marle D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Cooper, James A.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.


    The Automated Flight Test Management System (ATMS) is being developed as part of the NASA Aircraft Automation Program. This program focuses on the application of interdisciplinary state-of-the-art technology in artificial intelligence, control theory, and systems methodology to problems of operating and flight testing high-performance aircraft. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation (FTEWS) is presented, with a detailed description of the system, technical details, and future planned developments. The goal of the FTEWS is to provide flight test engineers and project officers with an automated computer environment for planning, scheduling, and performing flight test programs. The FTEWS system is an outgrowth of the development of ATMS and is an implementation of a component of ATMS on SUN workstations.

  13. Flight Test Implementation of a Second Generation Intelligent Flight Control System (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.


    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team was to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology, to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions, and to stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. The Intelligent Flight Control System team is currently in the process of implementing a second generation control scheme, collectively known as Generation 2 or Gen 2, for flight testing on the NASA F-15 aircraft. This report describes the Gen 2 system as implemented by the team for flight test evaluation. Simulation results are shown which describe the experiment to be performed in flight and highlight the ways in which the Gen 2 system meets the defined objectives.

  14. The Flight Control System of the Hovereye (Trademark) VTOL UAV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Paolo; Trouchet, Daniel; Pollini, Lorenzo; Innocenti, Mario; Hamel, Tarek; Le Bras, Florent


    ..... This system stabilizes the vehicle, provides operators with easy manual flight commands, and automatically performs mission segments such as automatic landing, in the face of strong gusting wind...

  15. Rapid prototyping facility for flight research in artificial-intelligence-based flight systems concepts (United States)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.; Deets, D. A.


    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center is developing a rapid prototyping facility for flight research in flight systems concepts that are based on artificial intelligence (AI). The facility will include real-time high-fidelity aircraft simulators, conventional and symbolic processors, and a high-performance research aircraft specially modified to accept commands from the ground-based AI computers. This facility is being developed as part of the NASA-DARPA automated wingman program. This document discusses the need for flight research and for a national flight research facility for the rapid prototyping of AI-based avionics systems and the NASA response to those needs.

  16. Haptic-Multimodal Flight Control System Update (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.


    The rapidly advancing capabilities of autonomous aircraft suggest a future where many of the responsibilities of today s pilot transition to the vehicle, transforming the pilot s job into something akin to driving a car or simply being a passenger. Notionally, this transition will reduce the specialized skills, training, and attention required of the human user while improving safety and performance. However, our experience with highly automated aircraft highlights many challenges to this transition including: lack of automation resilience; adverse human-automation interaction under stress; and the difficulty of developing certification standards and methods of compliance for complex systems performing critical functions traditionally performed by the pilot (e.g., sense and avoid vs. see and avoid). Recognizing these opportunities and realities, researchers at NASA Langley are developing a haptic-multimodal flight control (HFC) system concept that can serve as a bridge between today s state of the art aircraft that are highly automated but have little autonomy and can only be operated safely by highly trained experts (i.e., pilots) to a future in which non-experts (e.g., drivers) can safely and reliably use autonomous aircraft to perform a variety of missions. This paper reviews the motivation and theoretical basis of the HFC system, describes its current state of development, and presents results from two pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies. These preliminary studies suggest the HFC reshapes human-automation interaction in a way well-suited to revolutionary ease-of-use.

  17. UAV Flight Control Based on RTX System Simulation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Duan


    Full Text Available This paper proposes RTX and Matlab UAV flight control system simulation platform based on the advantages and disadvantages of Windows and real-time system RTX. In the simulation platform, we set the RTW toolbox configuration and modify grt_main.c in order to make simulation platform endowed with online parameter adjustment, fault injection. Meanwhile, we develop the interface of the system simulation platform by CVI, thus it makes effective and has good prospects in application. In order to improve the real-time performance of simulation system, the current computer of real-time simulation mostly use real-time operating system to solve simulation model, as well as dual- framework containing in Host and target machine. The system is complex, high cost, and generally used for the control and half of practical system simulation. For the control system designers, they expect to design control law at a computer with Windows-based environment and conduct real-time simulation. This paper proposes simulation platform for UAV flight control system based on RTX and Matlab for this demand.

  18. Verification and Validation for Flight-Critical Systems (VVFCS) (United States)

    Graves, Sharon S.; Jacobsen, Robert A.


    On March 31, 2009 a Request for Information (RFI) was issued by NASA s Aviation Safety Program to gather input on the subject of Verification and Validation (V & V) of Flight-Critical Systems. The responses were provided to NASA on or before April 24, 2009. The RFI asked for comments in three topic areas: Modeling and Validation of New Concepts for Vehicles and Operations; Verification of Complex Integrated and Distributed Systems; and Software Safety Assurance. There were a total of 34 responses to the RFI, representing a cross-section of academic (26%), small & large industry (47%) and government agency (27%).

  19. Modeling of aerodynamic Space-to-Surface flight with optimal trajectory for targeting


    Gornev, Serge


    Modeling has been created for a Space-to-Surface system defined for an optimal trajectory for targeting in terminal phase. The modeling includes models for simulation atmosphere, speed of sound, aerodynamic flight and navigation by an infrared system. The modeling simulation includes statistical analysis of the modeling results.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Aerodynamic Space -to - Surface Flight with Trajectory for Avoid Intercepting Process


    Gornev, Serge


    Modeling has been created for a Space-to-Surface system defined for an optimal trajectory for targeting in terminal phase with avoids an intercepting process. The modeling includes models for simulation atmosphere, speed of sound, aerodynamic flight and navigation by an infrared system. The modeling and simulation includes statistical analysis of the modeling results.

  1. Orion Exploration Flight Test Reaction Control System Jet Interaction Heating Environment from Flight Data (United States)

    White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.


    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re-­-entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.

  2. A quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (United States)

    Doyle, Stacy A.; Dugan, Joanne B.; Patterson-Hine, Ann


    This paper presents an informal quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (FCS). The analysis technique combines a coverage model with a fault tree model. To demonstrate the method's extensive capabilities, we replace the fault tree with a digraph model of the F18 FCS, the only model available to us. The substitution shows that while digraphs have primarily been used for qualitative analysis, they can also be used for quantitative analysis. Based on our assumptions and the particular failure rates assigned to the F18 FCS components, we show that coverage does have a significant effect on the system's reliability and thus it is important to include coverage in the reliability analysis.

  3. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129 Section 415.129 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General. An...

  4. Laser Obstacle Detection System Flight Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Timothy


    ...). The Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) was contracted to mount the HELLAS sensor on the nose of a UH-60L Blackhawk helicopter and to conduct flight tests to evaluate the HELLAS obstacle detection sensor...

  5. EKF-based fault detection for guided missiles flight control system (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Yongjin


    The guided missiles flight control system is essential for guidance accuracy and kill probability. It is complicated and fragile. Since actuator faults and sensor faults could seriously affect the security and reliability of the system, fault detection for missiles flight control system is of great significance. This paper deals with the problem of fault detection for the closed-loop nonlinear model of the guided missiles flight control system in the presence of disturbance. First, set up the fault model of flight control system, and then design the residual generation based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for the Eulerian-discrete fault model. After that, the Chi-square test was selected for the residual evaluation and the fault detention task for guided missiles closed-loop system was accomplished. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach proposed in the case of elevator fault separately.

  6. Design Considerations for a Launch Vehicle Development Flight Instrumentation System (United States)

    Johnson, Martin L.; Crawford, Kevin


    When embarking into the design of a new launch vehicle, engineering models of expected vehicle performance are always generated. While many models are well established and understood, some models contain design features that are only marginally known. Unfortunately, these analytical models produce uncertainties in design margins. The best way to answer these analytical issues is with vehicle level testing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration respond to these uncertainties by using a vehicle level system called the Development Flight Instrumentation, or DFI. This DFI system can be simple to implement, with only a few measurements, or it may be a sophisticated system with hundreds of measurement and video, without a recording capability. From experience with DFI systems, DFI never goes away. The system is renamed and allowed to continue, in most cases. Proper system design can aid the transition to future data requirements. This paper will discuss design features that need to be considered when developing a DFI system for a launch vehicle. It will briefly review the data acquisition units, sensors, multiplexers and recorders, telemetry components and harnessing. It will present a reasonable set of requirements which should be implemented in the beginning of the program in order to start the design. It will discuss a simplistic DFI architecture that could be the basis for the next NASA launch vehicle. This will be followed by a discussion of the "experiences gained" from a past DFI system implementation, such as the very successful Ares I-X test flight. Application of these design considerations may not work for every situation, but they may direct a path toward success or at least make one pause and ask the right questions.

  7. Autonomous, In-Flight Crew Health Risk Management for Exploration-Class Missions: Leveraging the Integrated Medical Model for the Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project (United States)

    Butler, D. J.; Kerstman, E.; Saile, L.; Myers, J.; Walton, M.; Lopez, V.; McGrath, T.


    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) captures organizational knowledge across the space medicine, training, operations, engineering, and research domains. IMM uses this knowledge in the context of a mission and crew profile to forecast risks to crew health and mission success. The IMM establishes a quantified, statistical relationship among medical conditions, risk factors, available medical resources, and crew health and mission outcomes. These relationships may provide an appropriate foundation for developing an in-flight medical decision support tool that helps optimize the use of medical resources and assists in overall crew health management by an autonomous crew with extremely limited interactions with ground support personnel and no chance of resupply.

  8. Parachute-Payload System Flight Dynamics and Trajectory Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guglieri


    Full Text Available The work traces a general procedure for the design of a flight simulation tool still representative of the major flight physics of a parachute-payload system along decelerated trajectories. An example of limited complexity simulation models for a payload decelerated by one or more parachutes is given, including details and implementation features usually omitted as the focus of the research in this field is typically on the investigation of mission design issues, rather than addressing general implementation guidelines for the development of a reconfigurable simulation tool. The dynamics of the system are modeled through a simple multibody model that represents the expected behavior of an entry vehicle during the terminal deceleration phase. The simulators are designed according to a comprehensive vision that enforces the simplification of the coupling mechanism between the payload and the parachute, with an adequate level of physical insight still available. The results presented for a realistic case study define the sensitivity of the simulation outputs to the functional complexity of the mathematical model. Far from being an absolute address for the software designer, this paper tries to contribute to the area of interest with some technical considerations and clarifications.

  9. Partnership Opportunities with AFRC for Wireless Systems Flight Testing (United States)

    Hang, Richard


    The presentation will overview the flight test capabilities at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), to open up partnership collaboration opportunities for Wireless Community to conduct flight testing of aerospace wireless technologies. Also, it will brief the current activities on wireless sensor system at AFRC through SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) proposals, and it will show the current areas of interest on wireless technologies that AFRC would like collaborate with Wireless Community to further and testing.

  10. An application of the Multi-Purpose System Simulation /MPSS/ model to the Monitor and Control Display System /MACDS/ at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration /NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center /GSFC/ (United States)

    Mill, F. W.; Krebs, G. N.; Strauss, E. S.


    The Multi-Purpose System Simulator (MPSS) model was used to investigate the current and projected performance of the Monitor and Control Display System (MACDS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center in processing and displaying launch data adequately. MACDS consists of two interconnected mini-computers with associated terminal input and display output equipment and a disk-stored data base. Three configurations of MACDS were evaluated via MPSS and their performances ascertained. First, the current version of MACDS was found inadequate to handle projected launch data loads because of unacceptable data backlogging. Second, the current MACDS hardware with enhanced software was capable of handling two times the anticipated data loads. Third, an up-graded hardware ensemble combined with the enhanced software was capable of handling four times the anticipated data loads.

  11. Miniature UAV Wind LIDAR & Flight Extension System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation and Texas A&M University propose a Wind Measurement LIDAR System for extending the flight duration or decreasing...

  12. Flight Dynamic Model Exchange using XML (United States)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.


    The AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee has worked for several years to develop a standard by which the information needed to develop physics-based models of aircraft can be specified. The purpose of this standard is to provide a well-defined set of information, definitions, data tables and axis systems so that cooperating organizations can transfer a model from one simulation facility to another with maximum efficiency. This paper proposes using an application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to implement the AIAA simulation standard. The motivation and justification for using a standard such as XML is discussed. Necessary data elements to be supported are outlined. An example of an aerodynamic model as an XML file is given. This example includes definition of independent and dependent variables for function tables, definition of key variables used to define the model, and axis systems used. The final steps necessary for implementation of the standard are presented. Software to take an XML-defined model and import/export it to/from a given simulation facility is discussed, but not demonstrated. That would be the next step in final implementation of standards for physics-based aircraft dynamic models.

  13. Knowledge-based system for flight information management. Thesis (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell R.


    The use of knowledge-based system (KBS) architectures to manage information on the primary flight display (PFD) of commercial aircraft is described. The PFD information management strategy used tailored the information on the PFD to the tasks the pilot performed. The KBS design and implementation of the task-tailored PFD information management application is described. The knowledge acquisition and subsequent system design of a flight-phase-detection KBS is also described. The flight-phase output of this KBS was used as input to the task-tailored PFD information management KBS. The implementation and integration of this KBS with existing aircraft systems and the other KBS is described. The flight tests are examined of both KBS's, collectively called the Task-Tailored Flight Information Manager (TTFIM), which verified their implementation and integration, and validated the software engineering advantages of the KBS approach in an operational environment.

  14. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.


    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  15. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience (United States)

    Curry, Donald M.


    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  16. A system look at electromechanical actuation for primary flight control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomonova, E.A.


    An overview is presented of the emergence of the ALL Electric flight control system (FCS) or power-by-wire (PBW) concept. The concept of fly-by-power refers to the actuator using electrical rather than hydraulic power. The development of the primary flight control Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

  17. Visual Advantage of Enhanced Flight Vision System During NextGen Flight Test Evaluation (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K.


    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment. Simulation and flight tests were jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to evaluate potential safety and operational benefits of SVS/EFVS technologies in low visibility Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SVS/EFVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights were flown in Gulfstream's G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SVS/EFVS technologies under low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 feet to 3600 feet reported visibility) under different obscurants (mist, fog, drizzle fog, frozen fog) and sky cover (broken, overcast). Flight test videos were evaluated at three different altitudes (decision altitude, 100 feet radar altitude, and touchdown) to determine the visual advantage afforded to the pilot using the EFVS/Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imagery compared to natural vision. Results indicate the EFVS provided a visual advantage of two to three times over that of the out-the-window (OTW) view. The EFVS allowed pilots to view the runway environment, specifically runway lights, before they would be able to OTW with natural vision.

  18. Crash Survivable Flight Data Recording System Study. (United States)


    checklist (before StaL- fled In Appendix B of this Part- IfD Each flight recorder required by Ins engines for the purpose of fljg- (1) Time, altitude...gisetrici&I power glictli dse of this sucetion must meet be installed so that- from the bus ithat provides, the mai- Me uffinh-um Performsnce Btandard

  19. A Placement Model for Flight Simulators. (United States)


    simulator basing strategies. Captains David R. VanDenburg and Jon D. Veith developed a mathematical model to assist in the placement analysis of A-7...Institute for Defense Analysis, Arlington VA, August 1977. AD A049979. 23. Sugarman , Robert C., Steven L. Johnson, and William F. H. Ring. "B-I Systems...USAF Cost and Plan- nin& Factors. AFR 173-13. Washington: Govern- ment Printing Office, I February 1982. * 30. Van Denburg, Captain David R., USAF

  20. Design and utilization of a Flight Test Engineering Database Management System at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (United States)

    Knighton, Donna L.


    A Flight Test Engineering Database Management System (FTE DBMS) was designed and implemented at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The X-29 Forward Swept Wing Advanced Technology Demonstrator flight research program was chosen for the initial system development and implementation. The FTE DBMS greatly assisted in planning and 'mass production' card preparation for an accelerated X-29 research program. Improved Test Plan tracking and maneuver management for a high flight-rate program were proven, and flight rates of up to three flights per day, two times per week were maintained.

  1. In-flight Fault Detection and Isolation in Aircraft Flight Control Systems (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Allanach, Jeffrey; Poll, Scott; Patterson-Hine, Ann


    In this paper we consider the problem of test design for real-time fault detection and isolation (FDI) in the flight control system of fixed-wing aircraft. We focus on the faults that are manifested in the control surface elements (e.g., aileron, elevator, rudder and stabilizer) of an aircraft. For demonstration purposes, we restrict our focus on the faults belonging to nine basic fault classes. The diagnostic tests are performed on the features extracted from fifty monitored system parameters. The proposed tests are able to uniquely isolate each of the faults at almost all severity levels. A neural network-based flight control simulator, FLTZ(Registered TradeMark), is used for the simulation of various faults in fixed-wing aircraft flight control systems for the purpose of FDI.

  2. Implementation and flight tests for the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS). Part 1: Flight software equations, flight test description and selected flight test data (United States)

    Hueschen, R. M.


    Five flight tests of the Digital Automated Landing System (DIALS) were conducted on the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Research Vehicle (TSRV) -- a modified Boeing 737 aircraft for advanced controls and displays research. These flight tests were conducted at NASA's Wallops Flight Center using the microwave landing system (MLS) installation on runway 22. This report describes the flight software equations of the DIALS which was designed using modern control theory direct-digital design methods and employed a constant gain Kalman filter. Selected flight test performance data is presented for localizer (runway centerline) capture and track at various intercept angles, for glideslope capture and track of 3, 4.5, and 5 degree glideslopes, for the decrab maneuver, and for the flare maneuver. Data is also presented to illustrate the system performance in the presence of cross, gust, and shear winds. The mean and standard deviation of the peak position errors for localizer capture were, respectively, 24 feet and 26 feet. For mild wind conditions, glideslope and localizer tracking position errors did not exceed, respectively, 5 and 20 feet. For gusty wind conditions (8 to 10 knots), these errors were, respectively, 10 and 30 feet. Ten hands off automatic lands were performed. The standard deviation of the touchdown position and velocity errors from the mean values were, respectively, 244 feet and 0.7 feet/sec.

  3. Radiometric Performance of the Clouds and The Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Proto-Flight Model on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft for 1998 (United States)

    Priestley, Kory J.; Lee, Robert B., III; Green, Richard N.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.


    On November 27, 1997 the CERES Proto-Flight Model (PFM) instrument package was launched on the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft National Space Development Agency) NASA /Japan launch vehicle placed the TRMM spacecraft into a low-inclination 35-deg, 350-km altitude orbit. Analysis of the first thirteen months of on-orbit internal calibration and calibration validation studies indicate that the ground-based radiometric calibrations, which were tied to ITS'90 have been successfully carried into orbit to within 0.12, 0.08, and 0.29 percent for the Total, Window and Shortwave channels respectively. Additionally, these analyses have indicated that on-orbit radiometric stability has remained at levels of better than 0.13. 0.2 and 0.2-percent for the Total Window and Shortwave channels. In TOA these levels correspond to magnitudes of less than 0.3, 0.2 and 0.15 v /sq m.

  4. NASA-LaRc Flight-Critical Digital Systems Technology Workshop (United States)

    Meissner, C. W., Jr. (Editor); Dunham, J. R. (Editor); Crim, G. (Editor)


    The outcome is documented of a Flight-Critical Digital Systems Technology Workshop held at NASA-Langley December 13 to 15 1988. The purpose of the workshop was to elicit the aerospace industry's view of the issues which must be addressed for the practical realization of flight-critical digital systems. The workshop was divided into three parts: an overview session; three half-day meetings of seven working groups addressing aeronautical and space requirements, system design for validation, failure modes, system modeling, reliable software, and flight test; and a half-day summary of the research issues presented by the working group chairmen. Issues that generated the most consensus across the workshop were: (1) the lack of effective design and validation methods with support tools to enable engineering of highly-integrated, flight-critical digital systems, and (2) the lack of high quality laboratory and field data on system failures especially due to electromagnetic environment (EME).

  5. The endocrine system in space flight (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.


    A trial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, has been measured in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF has increased by 59 percent, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell proudction, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  6. Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Nickkar


    Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.

  7. Autonomous formation flight of helicopters: Model predictive control approach (United States)

    Chung, Hoam

    Formation flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter formations is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter formation flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level formation management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe formations. The starting point for safe autonomous formation flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous formations, our decentralized model predictive control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a formation. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter formations comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a formation manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The formation manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the formation manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected

  8. Intification and modelling of flight characteristics for self-build shock flyer type UAV (United States)

    Rashid., Z. A.; Dardin, A. S. F. Syed.; Azid, A. A.; Ahmad, K. A.


    The development of an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) requires a fundamentals studies of the UAV's flight characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify and model the flight characteristic of a conventional fixed-wing type UAV. Subsequence to this, the mode of flight of the UAV can be investigated. One technique to identify the characteristic of a UAV is a flight test where it required specific maneuvering to be executed while measuring the attitude sensor. In this study, a simple shock flyer type UAV was used as the aircraft. The result shows that the modeled flight characteristic has a significant relation with actual values but the fitting value is rather small. It is suggested that the future study is conducted with an improvement of the physical UAV, data filtering and better system identification methods.

  9. F-15 837 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System Project (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) for the F-15. The goals of the project are: (1) Demonstrate Revolutionary Control Approaches that can Efficiently Optimize Aircraft Performance in both Normal and Failure Conditions (2) Advance Neural Network-Based Flight Control Technology for New Aerospace Systems Designs. The motivation for the development are to reduce the chance and skill required for survival.

  10. Flight Dynamics and Control of Elastic Hypersonic Vehicles Uncertainty Modeling (United States)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.


    It has been shown previously that hypersonic air-breathing aircraft exhibit strong aeroelastic/aeropropulsive dynamic interactions. To investigate these, especially from the perspective of the vehicle dynamics and control, analytical expressions for key stability derivatives were derived, and an analysis of the dynamics was performed. In this paper, the important issue of model uncertainty, and the appropriate forms for representing this uncertainty, is addressed. It is shown that the methods suggested in the literature for analyzing the robustness of multivariable feedback systems, which as a prerequisite to their application assume particular forms of model uncertainty, can be difficult to apply on real atmospheric flight vehicles. Also, the extent to which available methods are conservative is demonstrated for this class of vehicle dynamics.

  11. Adaptive and Resilient Flight Control System for a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garcia


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop an onboard adaptive and robust flight control system that improves control, stability, and survivability of a small unmanned aerial system in off-nominal or out-of-envelope conditions. The aerodynamics of aircraft associated with hazardous and adverse onboard conditions is inherently nonlinear and unsteady. The presented flight control system improves functionalities required to adapt the flight control in the presence of aircraft model uncertainties. The fault tolerant inner loop is enhanced by an adaptive real-time artificial neural network parameter identification to monitor important changes in the aircraft’s dynamics due to nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamics. The real-time artificial neural network parameter identification is done using the sliding mode learning concept and a modified version of the self-adaptive Levenberg algorithm. Numerically estimated stability and control derivatives are obtained by delta-based methods. New nonlinear guidance logic, stable in Lyapunov sense, is developed to guide the aircraft. The designed flight control system has better performance compared to a commercial off-the-shelf autopilot system in guiding and controlling an unmanned air system during a trajectory following.

  12. An intelligent training system for space shuttle flight controllers (United States)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Wang, Lui; Baffes, Paul; Hua, Grace


    An autonomous intelligent training system which integrates expert system technology with training/teaching methodologies is described. The system was designed to train Mission Control Center (MCC) Flight Dynamics Officers (FDOs) to deploy a certain type of satellite from the Space Shuttle. The Payload-assist module Deploys/Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (PD/ICAT) system consists of five components: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The interface provides the trainee with information of the characteristics of the current training session and with on-line help. The domain expert (DeplEx for Deploy Expert) contains the rules and procedural knowledge needed by the FDO to carry out the satellite deploy. The DeplEx also contains mal-rules which permit the identification and diagnosis of common errors made by the trainee. The training session manager (TSM) examines the actions of the trainee and compares them with the actions of DeplEx in order to determine appropriate responses. A trainee model is developed for each individual using the system. The model includes a history of the trainee's interactions with the training system and provides evaluative data on the trainee's current skill level. A training scenario generator (TSG) designs appropriate training exercises for each trainee based on the trainee model and the training goals. All of the expert system components of PD/ICAT communicate via a common blackboard. The PD/ICAT is currently being tested. Ultimately, this project will serve as a vehicle for developing a general architecture for intelligent training systems together with a software environment for creating such systems.

  13. In-flight data acquisition and flight testing for system identification of flapping-wing MAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caetano, J. V.; Armanini, S.F.; Karasek, M.


    Although flapping-wing micro aerial vehicles have become a hot topic in academia, the knowledge we have of these systems, their force generation mechanisms and dynamics is still limited. Recent technological advances have allowed for the development of free flight test setups using on-board

  14. Evaluating Flight Crew Performance by a Bayesian Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen


    Full Text Available Flight crew performance is of great significance in keeping flights safe and sound. When evaluating the crew performance, quantitative detailed behavior information may not be available. The present paper introduces the Bayesian Network to perform flight crew performance evaluation, which permits the utilization of multidisciplinary sources of objective and subjective information, despite sparse behavioral data. In this paper, the causal factors are selected based on the analysis of 484 aviation accidents caused by human factors. Then, a network termed Flight Crew Performance Model is constructed. The Delphi technique helps to gather subjective data as a supplement to objective data from accident reports. The conditional probabilities are elicited by the leaky noisy MAX model. Two ways of inference for the BN—probability prediction and probabilistic diagnosis are used and some interesting conclusions are drawn, which could provide data support to make interventions for human error management in aviation safety.

  15. Armstrong Flight Research Center Flight Test Capabilities and Opportunities for the Applications of Wireless Data Acquisition Systems (United States)

    Hang, Richard


    The presentation will overview NASA Armstrong Flight Research Centers flight test capabilities, which can provide various means for flight testing of passive and active wireless sensor systems, also, it will address the needs of the wireless data acquisition solutions for the centers flight instrumentation issues such as additional weight caused by added instrumentation wire bundles, connectors, wire cables routing, moving components, etc., that the Passive Wireless Sensor Technology Workshop may help. The presentation shows the constraints and requirements that the wireless sensor systems will face in the flight test applications.

  16. Buffet induced structural/flight-control system interaction of the X-29A aircraft (United States)

    Voracek, David F.; Clarke, Robert


    High angle-of-attack flight regime research is currently being conducted for modern fighter aircraft at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight regime provides enhanced maneuverability to fighter pilots in combat situations. Flight research data are being acquired to compare and validate advanced computational fluid dynamic solutions and wind-tunnel models. High angle-of-attack flight creates unique aerodynamic phenomena including wing rock and buffet on the airframe. These phenomena increase the level of excitation of the structural modes, especially on the vertical and horizontal stabilizers. With high gain digital flight-control systems, this structural response may result in an aeroservoelastic interaction. A structural interaction on the X-29A aircraft was observed during high angle-of-attack flight testing. The roll and yaw rate gyros sensed the aircraft's structural modes at 11, 13, and 16 Hz. The rate gyro output signals were then amplified through the flight-control laws and sent as commands to the flaperons and rudder. The flight data indicated that as the angle of attack increased, the amplitude of the buffet on the vertical stabilizer increased, which resulted in more excitation to the structural modes. The flight-control system sensors and command signals showed this increase in modal power at the structural frequencies up to a 30 degree angle-of-attack. Beyond a 30 degree angle-of-attack, the vertical stabilizer response, the feedback sensor amplitude, and control surface command signal amplitude remained relatively constant. Data are presented that show the increased modal power in the aircraft structural accelerometers, the feedback sensors, and the command signals as a function of angle of attack. This structural interaction is traced from the aerodynamic buffet to the flight-control surfaces.

  17. Development and Flight Test of an Emergency Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an MD-11 Transport Airplane (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Burken, John J.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon


    An emergency flight control system that uses only engine thrust, called the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, was developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. The PCA system is a thrust-only control system, which augments pilot flightpath and track commands with aircraft feedback parameters to control engine thrust. The PCA system was implemented on the MD-11 airplane using only software modifications to existing computers. Results of a 25-hr flight test show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds, altitudes, and configurations. PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any normal flight controls were demonstrated, including ILS-coupled hands-off landings. PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. The PCA system was also tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control, a history of accidents or incidents in which some or all flight controls were lost, the MD-11 airplane and its systems, PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  18. PHARAO flight model: optical on ground performance tests (United States)

    Lévèque, T.; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Grosjean, O.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Escande, C.; Gasc, Ph.; Ratsimandresy, A.; Béraud, S.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P.; Larivière, Ph.; Bernard, V.; Bomer, T.; Thomin, S.; Salomon, C.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, D.; Moric, I.; Laurent, Ph.


    PHARAO (Projet d'Horloge Atomique par Refroidissement d'Atomes en Orbite), which has been developed by CNES, is the first primary frequency standard specially designed for operation in space. PHARAO is the main instrument of the ESA mission ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space). ACES payload will be installed on-board the International Space Station (ISS) to perform fundamental physics experiments. All the sub-systems of the Flight Model (FM) have now passed the qualification process and the whole FM of the cold cesium clock, PHARAO, is being assembled and will undergo extensive tests. The expected performances in space are frequency accuracy less than 3.10-16 (with a final goal at 10-16) and frequency stability of 10-13 τ-1/2. In this paper, we focus on the laser source performances and the main results on the cold atom manipulation.

  19. On-board fault diagnostics for fly-by-light flight control systems using neural network flight processors (United States)

    Urnes, James M., Sr.; Cushing, John; Bond, William E.; Nunes, Steve


    Fly-by-Light control systems offer higher performance for fighter and transport aircraft, with efficient fiber optic data transmission, electric control surface actuation, and multi-channel high capacity centralized processing combining to provide maximum aircraft flight control system handling qualities and safety. The key to efficient support for these vehicles is timely and accurate fault diagnostics of all control system components. These diagnostic tests are best conducted during flight when all facts relating to the failure are present. The resulting data can be used by the ground crew for efficient repair and turnaround of the aircraft, saving time and money in support costs. These difficult to diagnose (Cannot Duplicate) fault indications average 40 - 50% of maintenance activities on today's fighter and transport aircraft, adding significantly to fleet support cost. Fiber optic data transmission can support a wealth of data for fault monitoring; the most efficient method of fault diagnostics is accurate modeling of the component response under normal and failed conditions for use in comparison with the actual component flight data. Neural Network hardware processors offer an efficient and cost-effective method to install fault diagnostics in flight systems, permitting on-board diagnostic modeling of very complex subsystems. Task 2C of the ARPA FLASH program is a design demonstration of this diagnostics approach, using the very high speed computation of the Adaptive Solutions Neural Network processor to monitor an advanced Electrohydrostatic control surface actuator linked through a AS-1773A fiber optic bus. This paper describes the design approach and projected performance of this on-line diagnostics system.

  20. Flight test of a resident backup software system (United States)

    Deets, Dwain A.; Lock, Wilton P.; Megna, Vincent A.


    A new fault-tolerant system software concept employing the primary digital computers as host for the backup software portion has been implemented and flight tested in the F-8 digital fly-by-wire airplane. The system was implemented in such a way that essentially no transients occurred in transferring from primary to backup software. This was accomplished without a significant increase in the complexity of the backup software. The primary digital system was frame synchronized, which provided several advantages in implementing the resident backup software system. Since the time of the flight tests, two other flight vehicle programs have made a commitment to incorporate resident backup software similar in nature to the system described here.

  1. Nonlinear flight dynamics and stability of hovering model insects (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Sun, Mao


    Current analyses on insect dynamic flight stability are based on linear theory and limited to small disturbance motions. However, insects' aerial environment is filled with swirling eddies and wind gusts, and large disturbances are common. Here, we numerically solve the equations of motion coupled with the Navier–Stokes equations to simulate the large disturbance motions and analyse the nonlinear flight dynamics of hovering model insects. We consider two representative model insects, a model hawkmoth (large size, low wingbeat frequency) and a model dronefly (small size, high wingbeat frequency). For small and large initial disturbances, the disturbance motion grows with time, and the insects tumble and never return to the equilibrium state; the hovering flight is inherently (passively) unstable. The instability is caused by a pitch moment produced by forward/backward motion and/or a roll moment produced by side motion of the insect. PMID:23697714

  2. Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft (United States)

    Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.


    The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  3. Implementation of an Adaptive Controller System from Concept to Flight Test (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.; Burken, John J.; Butler, Bradley S.; Yokum, Steve


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) is conducting ongoing flight research using adaptive controller algorithms. A highly modified McDonnell-Douglas NF-15B airplane called the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) is used to test and develop these algorithms. Modifications to this airplane include adding canards and changing the flight control systems to interface a single-string research controller processor for neural network algorithms. Research goals include demonstration of revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance in both normal and failure conditions and advancement of neural-network-based flight control technology for new aerospace system designs. This report presents an overview of the processes utilized to develop adaptive controller algorithms during a flight-test program, including a description of initial adaptive controller concepts and a discussion of modeling formulation and performance testing. Design finalization led to integration with the system interfaces, verification of the software, validation of the hardware to the requirements, design of failure detection, development of safety limiters to minimize the effect of erroneous neural network commands, and creation of flight test control room displays to maximize human situational awareness; these are also discussed.

  4. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco


    This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

  5. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)


    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Development and Flight Test of an Augmented Thrust-Only Flight Control System on an MD-11 Transport Airplane (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Burken, John J.; Pappas, Drew


    An emergency flight control system using only engine thrust, called Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA), has been developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. In this thrust-only control system, pilot flight path and track commands and aircraft feedback parameters are used to control the throttles. The PCA system was installed on the MD-11 airplane using software modifications to existing computers. Flight test results show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds and altitudes. The PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any non-nal flight controls have been demonstrated, including instrument landing system-coupled hands-off landings. The PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. In addition, PCA was tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control; describes the MD-11 airplane and systems; and discusses PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  7. Flight test of a digital controller used in a helicopter autoland system (United States)

    Downing, David R.; Bryant, Wayne H.


    This paper describes the flight test evaluation of an advanced digital helicopter flight control system. The controller was designed using an optimal control design procedure for a fully coupled lateral and longitudinal vehicle model. Explicit integrals of the guidance error were included to produce a type 1 characteristic. Gain scheduling was used to account for changes in the vehicle dynamics. The digital controller was exercised by combining it with state estimators, a trajectory generator, and a closed-loop guidance algorithm to form a helicopter autoland system. A CH-47 tandem rotor helicopter was equipped with sensors, on-board digital flight computers, and electrohydraulic actuators. The system was exercised by automatically flying straight-in descending decelerating trajectories typcial of VFR manual landing approaches. A description of the test-ground facilities, the flight hardware and software, and the velocity and position tracking performance is included.

  8. Design and Analysis of Morpheus Lander Flight Control System (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Yang, Lee; Fritz, Mathew; Nguyen, Louis H.; Johnson, Wyatt R.; Hart, Jeremy J.


    The Morpheus Lander is a vertical takeoff and landing test bed vehicle developed to demonstrate the system performance of the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system capability for the integrated autonomous landing and hazard avoidance system hardware and software. The Morpheus flight control system design must be robust to various mission profiles. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Morpheus flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics and propellant slosh. Under the assumption that the Morpheus time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Both control gains in the inner attitude control loop and guidance gains in the outer position control loop are designed to maximize the vehicle performance while ensuring robustness. The flight control system designs provided herein have been demonstrated to provide stable control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the NASA/JSC Trick-based Morpheus time domain simulation.

  9. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology (ZONA) proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology that utilizes flight data with...

  10. Modeling Flight: The Role of Dynamically Scaled Free-Flight Models in Support of NASA's Aerospace Programs (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph


    The state of the art in aeronautical engineering has been continually accelerated by the development of advanced analysis and design tools. Used in the early design stages for aircraft and spacecraft, these methods have provided a fundamental understanding of physical phenomena and enabled designers to predict and analyze critical characteristics of new vehicles, including the capability to control or modify unsatisfactory behavior. For example, the relatively recent emergence and routine use of extremely powerful digital computer hardware and software has had a major impact on design capabilities and procedures. Sophisticated new airflow measurement and visualization systems permit the analyst to conduct micro- and macro-studies of properties within flow fields on and off the surfaces of models in advanced wind tunnels. Trade studies of the most efficient geometrical shapes for aircraft can be conducted with blazing speed within a broad scope of integrated technical disciplines, and the use of sophisticated piloted simulators in the vehicle development process permits the most important segment of operations the human pilot to make early assessments of the acceptability of the vehicle for its intended mission. Knowledgeable applications of these tools of the trade dramatically reduce risk and redesign, and increase the marketability and safety of new aerospace vehicles. Arguably, one of the more viable and valuable design tools since the advent of flight has been testing of subscale models. As used herein, the term "model" refers to a physical article used in experimental analyses of a larger full-scale vehicle. The reader is probably aware that many other forms of mathematical and computer-based models are also used in aerospace design; however, such topics are beyond the intended scope of this document. Model aircraft have always been a source of fascination, inspiration, and recreation for humans since the earliest days of flight. Within the scientific

  11. Development of flight control systems for maneuverable missile weapon systems. Example of operation organization (United States)

    Bub, W.


    The organization of the development of flight control systems for maneuverable missiles is discussed. The basic functions of a flight control system are explained. The working domains of the different divisions taking part in the development are described. These divisions are control and systems theory, control and systems technique, control and steering electronics, computer aided systems, flight control software, simulation and computer technique, and the main division control and simulation.

  12. A knowledge-based flight status monitor for real-time application in digital avionics systems (United States)

    Duke, E. L.; Disbrow, J. D.; Butler, G. F.


    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) is the principal NASA facility for the flight testing and evaluation of new and complex avionics systems. To aid in the interpretation of system health and status data, a knowledge-based flight status monitor was designed. The monitor was designed to use fault indicators from the onboard system which are telemetered to the ground and processed by a rule-based model of the aircraft failure management system to give timely advice and recommendations in the mission control room. One of the important constraints on the flight status monitor is the need to operate in real time, and to pursue this aspect, a joint research activity between NASA Ames-Dryden and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on real-time knowledge-based systems was established. Under this agreement, the original LISP knowledge base for the flight status monitor was reimplemented using the intelligent knowledge-based system toolkit, MUSE, which was developed under RAE sponsorship. Details of the flight status monitor and the MUSE implementation are presented.

  13. Preliminary Flight Results of a Fly-by-throttle Emergency Flight Control System on an F-15 Airplane (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Wells, Edward A.


    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies were followed by flight tests. The principles of throttles only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including actual landings with throttles-only control are discussed.

  14. Preliminary flight test results of a fly-by-throttle emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. G.; Wells, Edward A.


    A multi-engine aircraft, with some or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. NASA Dryden has conducted a study of the capability and techniques for this emergency flight control method for the F-15 airplane. With an augmented control system, engine thrust, along with appropriate feedback parameters, is used to control flightpath and bank angle. Extensive simulation studies have been followed by flight tests. This paper discusses the principles of throttles-only control, the F-15 airplane, the augmented system, and the flight results including landing approaches with throttles-only control to within 10 ft of the ground.

  15. Advances in Modelling, System Identification and Parameter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    models determined from flight test data by using parameter estimation methods find extensive use in design/modification of flight control systems, high fidelity flight simulators and evaluation of handling qualitites of aircraft and rotorcraft. R K Mehra et al present new algorithms and results for flutter tests and adaptive notching ...

  16. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing (United States)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.


    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  17. Stress testing of digital flight-control system software (United States)

    Rajan, N.; Defeo, P. V.; Saito, J.


    A technique for dynamically testing digital flight-control system software on a module-by-module basis is described. Each test module is repetitively executed faster than real-time with an exhaustive input sequence. Outputs of the test module are compared with outputs generated by an alternate, simpler implementation for the same input data. Discrepancies between the two sets of output indicate the possible presence of a software error. The results of an implementation of this technique in the Digital Flight-Control System Software Verification Laboratory are discussed.

  18. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua, E-mail:; Wang, Xiaohua [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Wang, Xuyong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  19. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep


    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  20. Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method


    Frantisek Jelenciak; Michael Gerke; Ulrich Borgolte


    This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM) as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that - in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a...

  1. Flight termination system equipment. Volume 1: Antennas and antenna couplers (United States)

    This document is the result of the efforts of the Flight Termination System Ad Hoc Committee of the Range Safety Group, Range Commanders Council. The Flight Termination System Equipment Catalog provides a ready reference to missile antennas and antenna couplers used at U.S. missile ranges and test facilities. Since use of each antenna/antenna coupler must be approved by the Range Commander with the in-flight range safety responsibility, inclusion in this catalog does not constitute sanction of such use nor approval for use on other missiles/space vehicles on the same range or on the same missile/space vehicle on other ranges. This catalog is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all flight termination antennas/antenna couplers available on the open market. The information contained in this publication has been provided by the manufacturer or extracted from manufacturers' specifications and is provided only as a guide. No conclusions are to be implied or assumed relative to the merits of one antenna/antenna coupler versus another. Where applicable, a history of the flight usage has been provided.

  2. Space-flight simulations of calcium metabolism using a mathematical model of calcium regulation (United States)

    Brand, S. N.


    The results of a series of simulation studies of calcium matabolic changes which have been recorded during human exposure to bed rest and space flight are presented. Space flight and bed rest data demonstrate losses of total body calcium during exposure to hypogravic environments. These losses are evidenced by higher than normal rates of urine calcium excretion and by negative calcium balances. In addition, intestinal absorption rates and bone mineral content are assumed to decrease. The bed rest and space flight simulations were executed on a mathematical model of the calcium metabolic system. The purpose of the simulations is to theoretically test hypotheses and predict system responses which are occurring during given experimental stresses. In this case, hypogravity occurs through the comparison of simulation and experimental data and through the analysis of model structure and system responses. The model reliably simulates the responses of selected bed rest and space flight parameters. When experimental data are available, the simulated skeletal responses and regulatory factors involved in the responses agree with space flight data collected on rodents. In addition, areas within the model that need improvement are identified.

  3. Time-of-flight estimation based on covariance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Tuquerres, G.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    We address the problem of estimating the time-of-flight (ToF) of a waveform that is disturbed heavily by additional reflections from nearby objects. These additional reflections cause interference patterns that are difficult to predict. The introduction of a model for the reflection in terms of a

  4. Flight Overbooking Problem–Use of a Probability Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Flight Overbooking Problem – Use of a Probability Model. T Krishnan. Classroom Volume 7 Issue 3 March 2002 pp 56-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  5. Validation of Flight Critical Control Systems (United States)


    1985. [8] Avizienis, A., and Lyu, M., "On the Effectiveness of Multiversion Software in Digital Avionics", AIAA Computers in Aerospace VI Conference...Experimentation and Modelling. NASA CR-165036, 1982. [12] Eckhardt, D. E.; and Lee, L. D.: A Theoretical Basis for the Analysis of Multiversion

  6. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)


    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short

  7. Micropropulsion Systems for Precision Controlled Space Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jack

    of the disturbance forces and their influence on a precision controlled spacecraft, is used to deduce the requirements for a micropropulsion system compensating for these. Following this an LTCC based resistojet microthruster is developed and fabricated, utilizing water as fuel. Towards the end of the project...

  8. Flight Test Results from the NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Project with Adaptation to a Simulated Stabilator Failure (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.; Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.


    Adaptive flight control systems have the potential to be more resilient to extreme changes in airplane behavior. Extreme changes could be a result of a system failure or of damage to the airplane. A direct adaptive neural-network-based flight control system was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System airplane and subjected to an inflight simulation of a failed (frozen) (unmovable) stabilator. Formation flight handling qualities evaluations were performed with and without neural network adaptation. The results of these flight tests are presented. Comparison with simulation predictions and analysis of the performance of the adaptation system are discussed. The performance of the adaptation system is assessed in terms of its ability to decouple the roll and pitch response and reestablish good onboard model tracking. Flight evaluation with the simulated stabilator failure and adaptation engaged showed that there was generally improvement in the pitch response; however, a tendency for roll pilot-induced oscillation was experienced. A detailed discussion of the cause of the mixed results is presented.

  9. Reliability analysis of Airbus A-330 computer flight management system


    Fajmut, Metod


    Diploma thesis deals with digitized, computerized flight control system »Fly-by-wire« and security aspects of the computer system of an aircraft Airbus A330. As for space and military aircraft structures is also in commercial airplanes, much of the financial contribution devoted to reliability. Conventional aircraft control systems have, and some are still, to rely on mechanical and hydraulic connections between the controls on aircraft operated by the pilot and control surfaces. But newer a...

  10. Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System. N E Udonwa. Abstract. No Abstract Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 16 (4) 2007: pp. 307-311. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African ...

  11. A neutron time-of-flight data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.V.


    A neutron time-of-flight scaler system is described for use with the Harwell Linac. The equipment is sufficiently versatile to be used with several types of computers although normally used with DEC PDP 11/45 and PDP 11/34. Using a combination of different input and memory boards most types of experiments can be accommodated. (author)

  12. Dawn Spacecraft Reaction Control System Flight Experience (United States)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Nakazono, Barry


    The NASA Dawn spacecraft mission is studying conditions and processes of the solar system's earliest epoch by investigating two protoplanets remaining intact since their formations, Ceres and Vesta. Launch was in 2007. Ion propulsion is used to fly to and enter orbit around Vesta, depart Vesta and fly to Ceres, and enter orbit around Ceres. A conventional blowdown hydrazine reaction control system (RCS) is used to provide external torques for attitude control. Reaction wheel assemblies were intended to provide attitude control in most cases. However, the spacecraft experienced one, then two apparent failures of reaction wheels. Also, similar thrusters experienced degradation in a long life application on another spacecraft. Those factors led to RCS being operated in ways completely different than anticipated prior to launch. Numerous mitigations and developments needed to be implemented. The Vesta mission was fully successful. Even with the compromises necessary due to those anomalies, the Ceres mission is also projected to be feasible.

  13. Specification and Design of Electrical Flight System Architectures with SysML (United States)

    McKelvin, Mark L., Jr.; Jimenez, Alejandro


    Modern space flight systems are required to perform more complex functions than previous generations to support space missions. This demand is driving the trend to deploy more electronics to realize system functionality. The traditional approach for the specification, design, and deployment of electrical system architectures in space flight systems includes the use of informal definitions and descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled but highly interdependent design documents. Traditional methods become inefficient to cope with increasing system complexity, evolving requirements, and the ability to meet project budget and time constraints. Thus, there is a need for more rigorous methods to capture the relevant information about the electrical system architecture as the design evolves. In this work, we propose a model-centric approach to support the specification and design of electrical flight system architectures using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In our approach, we develop a domain specific language for specifying electrical system architectures, and we propose a design flow for the specification and design of electrical interfaces. Our approach is applied to a practical flight system.

  14. Using software metrics and software reliability models to attain acceptable quality software for flight and ground support software for avionic systems (United States)

    Lawrence, Stella


    This paper is concerned with methods of measuring and developing quality software. Reliable flight and ground support software is a highly important factor in the successful operation of the space shuttle program. Reliability is probably the most important of the characteristics inherent in the concept of 'software quality'. It is the probability of failure free operation of a computer program for a specified time and environment.

  15. Real-Time Reliability Verification for UAV Flight Control System Supporting Airworthiness Certification. (United States)

    Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Ping


    In order to verify the real-time reliability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight control system and comply with the airworthiness certification standard, we proposed a model-based integration framework for modeling and verification of time property. Combining with the advantages of MARTE, this framework uses class diagram to create the static model of software system, and utilizes state chart to create the dynamic model. In term of the defined transformation rules, the MARTE model could be transformed to formal integrated model, and the different part of the model could also be verified by using existing formal tools. For the real-time specifications of software system, we also proposed a generating algorithm for temporal logic formula, which could automatically extract real-time property from time-sensitive live sequence chart (TLSC). Finally, we modeled the simplified flight control system of UAV to check its real-time property. The results showed that the framework could be used to create the system model, as well as precisely analyze and verify the real-time reliability of UAV flight control system.

  16. Analysis of Pilot-Induced-Oscillation and Pilot Vehicle System Stability Using UAS Flight Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay K. Mandal


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a Pilot-Induced Oscillation (PIO and human pilot control characterization study performed using flight data collected with a Remotely Controlled (R/C unmanned research aircraft. The study was carried out on the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Several existing Category 1 and Category 2 PIO criteria developed for manned aircraft are first surveyed and their effectiveness for predicting the PIO susceptibility for the R/C unmanned aircraft is evaluated using several flight experiments. It was found that the Bandwidth/Pitch rate overshoot and open loop onset point (OLOP criteria prediction results matched flight test observations. However, other criteria failed to provide accurate prediction results. To further characterize the human pilot control behavior during these experiments, a quasi-linear pilot model is used. The parameters of the pilot model estimated using data obtained from flight tests are then used to obtain information about the stability of the Pilot Vehicle System (PVS for Category 1 PIOs occurred during straight and level flights. The batch estimation technique used to estimate the parameters of the quasi-linear pilot model failed to completely capture the compatibility nature of the human pilot. The estimation results however provided valuable insights into the frequency characteristics of the human pilot commands. Additionally, stability analysis of the Category 2 PIOs for elevator actuator rate limiting is carried out using simulations and the results are compared with actual flight results.

  17. Integration of an Evidence Base into a Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model. The Integrated Medical Model Database: An Organized Evidence Base for Assessing In-Flight Crew Health Risk and System Design (United States)

    Saile, Lynn; Lopez, Vilma; Bickham, Grandin; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Kerstman, Eric; Byrne, Vicky; Butler, Douglas; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei


    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) database, which is an organized evidence base for assessing in-flight crew health risk. The database is a relational database accessible to many people. The database quantifies the model inputs by a ranking based on the highest value of the data as Level of Evidence (LOE) and the quality of evidence (QOE) score that provides an assessment of the evidence base for each medical condition. The IMM evidence base has already been able to provide invaluable information for designers, and for other uses.

  18. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors (United States)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.


    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  19. Development of Flight-Test Performance Estimation Techniques for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (United States)

    McCrink, Matthew Henry

    This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is

  20. Bird Flight as a Model for a Course in Unsteady Aerodynamics (United States)

    Jacob, Jamey; Mitchell, Jonathan; Puopolo, Michael


    Traditional unsteady aerodynamics courses at the graduate level focus on theoretical formulations of oscillating airfoil behavior. Aerodynamics students with a vision for understanding bird-flight and small unmanned aircraft dynamics desire to move beyond traditional flow models towards new and creative ways of appreciating the motion of agile flight systems. High-speed videos are used to record kinematics of bird flight, particularly barred owls and red-shouldered hawks during perching maneuvers, and compared with model aircraft performing similar maneuvers. Development of a perching glider and associated control laws to model the dynamics are used as a class project. Observations are used to determine what different species and sizes of birds share in their methods to approach a perch under similar conditions. Using fundamental flight dynamics, simplified models capable of predicting position, attitude, and velocity of the flier are developed and compared with the observations. By comparing the measured data from the videos and predicted and measured motions from the glider models, it is hoped that the students gain a better understanding of the complexity of unsteady aerodynamics and aeronautics and an appreciation for the beauty of avian flight.

  1. System security in the space flight operations center (United States)

    Wagner, David A.


    The Space Flight Operations Center is a networked system of workstation-class computers that will provide ground support for NASA's next generation of deep-space missions. The author recounts the development of the SFOC system security policy and discusses the various management and technology issues involved. Particular attention is given to risk assessment, security plan development, security implications of design requirements, automatic safeguards, and procedural safeguards.

  2. Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Jelenciak


    Full Text Available This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that -in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a dynamics viewpoint. The principle of this method is based on applying Newton's mechanics, which are then combined with a specific form of the finite element method to cover additional effects. The main advantage of the PEM is that it is not necessary to carry out measurements in a wind tunnel for the identification of the model's parameters. The plausible dynamical behaviour of the model can be achieved by specific correction parameters, which can be determined on the basis of experimental data obtained during the flight of the aircraft. In this article, we present the PEM as applied to an airship as well as a comparison of the data calculated by the PEM and experimental flight data.

  3. An aerodynamic model for insect flapping wings in forward flight. (United States)

    Han, Jong-Seob; Chang, Jo Won; Han, Jae-Hung


    This paper proposes a semi-empirical quasi-steady aerodynamic model of a flapping wing in forward flight. A total of 147 individual cases, which consisted of advance ratios J of 0 (hovering), 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and  ∞, and angles of attack α of  -5 to 95° at intervals of 5°, were examined to extract the aerodynamic coefficients. The Polhamus leading-edge suction analogy and power functions were then employed to establish the aerodynamic model. In order to preserve the existing level of simplicity, K P and K V , the correction factors of the potential and vortex force models, were rebuilt as functions of J and α. The estimations were nearly identical to direct force/moment measurements which were obtained from both artificial and practical wingbeat motions of a hawkmoth. The model effectively compensated for the influences of J, particularly showing outstanding moment estimation capabilities. With this model, we found that using a lower value of α during the downstroke would be an effective strategy for generating adequate lift in forward flight. The rotational force and moment components had noticeable portions generating both thrust and counteract pitching moment during pronation. In the upstroke phase, the added mass component played a major role in generating thrust in forward flight. The proposed model would be useful for a better understanding of flight stability, control, and the dynamic characteristics of flapping wing flyers, and for designing flapping-wing micro air vehicles.




    It remains urgent problem of damping of elastic vibrations occurring aircraft structure means the automatic control systems on board. In solving this problem the aircraft elastic model is the basis for the synthesis of control laws and analysis of closed-loop system "control object - the regulator." In general, the problem of mathematical modeling of flight dynamics of the elastic aircraft breaks for at least another two objectives, one of which - direct simulation of the behavior of elastic ...

  5. CCSDS telemetry systems experience at the Goddard Space Flight Center (United States)

    Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III


    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.

  6. Dynamic flight stability of a hovering model dragonfly. (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Sun, Mao


    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a model dragonfly at hovering flight is studied, using the method of computational fluid dynamics to compute the stability derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis for solving the equations of motion. Three natural modes of motion are identified for the hovering flight: one unstable oscillatory mode, one stable fast subsidence mode and one stable slow subsidence mode. The flight is dynamically unstable owing to the unstable oscillatory mode. The instability is caused by a pitch-moment derivative with respect to horizontal velocity. The damping force and moment derivatives (with respect to horizontal and vertical velocities and pitch-rotational velocity, respectively) weaken the instability considerably. The aerodynamic interaction between the forewing and the hindwing does not have significant effect on the stability properties. The dragonfly has similar stability derivatives, hence stability properties, to that of a one-wing-pair insect at normal hovering, but there are differences in how the derivatives are produced because of the highly inclined stroke plane of the dragonfly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Du, Wei

    This research focuses on dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of large flexible launch vehicles such as the Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A complete set of six-degrees-of-freedom dynamic models of the Ares-I, incorporating its propulsion, aerodynamics, guidance and control, and structural flexibility, is developed. NASA's Ares-I reference model and the SAVANT Simulink-based program are utilized to develop a Matlab-based simulation and linearization tool for an independent validation of the performance and stability of the ascent flight control system of large flexible launch vehicles. A linearized state-space model as well as a non-minimum-phase transfer function model (which is typical for flexible vehicles with non-collocated actuators and sensors) are validated for ascent flight control design and analysis. This research also investigates fundamental principles of flight control analysis and design for launch vehicles, in particular the classical "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack can significantly improve overall performance and stability, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbances. For a typical "non-collocated actuator and sensor" control problem for large flexible launch vehicles, non-minimum-phase filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes is also shown to be effective. The uncertainty model of a flexible launch vehicle is derived. The robust stability of an ascent flight control system design, which directly controls the inertial attitude-error quaternion and also employs the non-minimum-phase filters, is verified by the framework of structured singular value (mu) analysis. Furthermore, nonlinear coupled dynamic simulation results are presented for a reference model of the Ares-I CLV as another validation of the feasibility of the ascent flight control system design. Another important issue for a single main engine launch vehicle is

  8. Stability and control flight test results of the space transportation system's orbiter (United States)

    Culp, M. A.; Cooke, D. R.


    Flight testing of the Space Shuttle Orbiter is in progress and current results of the post-flight aerodynamic analyses are discussed. The purpose of these analyses is to reduce the pre-flight aerodynamic uncertainties, thereby leading to operational certification of the Orbiter flight envelope relative to the integrated airframe and flight control system. Primary data reduction is accomplished with a well documented maximum likelihood system identification techniques.

  9. Modeling methods for high-fidelity rotorcraft flight mechanics simulation (United States)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Tischler, Mark B.; Chaimovich, Menahem; Rosen, Aviv; Rand, Omri


    The cooperative effort being carried out under the agreements of the United States-Israel Memorandum of Understanding is discussed. Two different models of the AH-64 Apache Helicopter, which may differ in their approach to modeling the main rotor, are presented. The first model, the Blade Element Model for the Apache (BEMAP), was developed at Ames Research Center, and is the only model of the Apache to employ a direct blade element approach to calculating the coupled flap-lag motion of the blades and the rotor force and moment. The second model was developed at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and uses an harmonic approach to analyze the rotor. The approach allows two different levels of approximation, ranging from the 'first harmonic' (similar to a tip-path-plane model) to 'complete high harmonics' (comparable to a blade element approach). The development of the two models is outlined and the two are compared using available flight test data.

  10. Integrated testing and verification system for research flight software (United States)

    Taylor, R. N.


    The MUST (Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology) program is being developed to cut the cost of producing research flight software through a system of software support tools. An integrated verification and testing capability was designed as part of MUST. Documentation, verification and test options are provided with special attention on real-time, multiprocessing issues. The needs of the entire software production cycle were considered, with effective management and reduced lifecycle costs as foremost goals.

  11. Design and simulation of flight control system for man-portable micro reconnaissance quadcopter (United States)

    Yin, Xinfan; Zhang, Daibing; Fang, Qiang; Shen, Lincheng


    The quadcopter has been widely used in the field of aerial photography and environmental detection, because of its advantages of VTOL, simple structure, and easy-control. In the field of urban anti-terrorism or special operations, micro reconnaissance quadcpter has its unique advantages such as all-weather taking off and landing, small noise and so on, and it is very popular with special forces and riot police. This paper aims at the flight control problem of the micro quadcopter, for the purposes of attitude stabilization control and trajectory tracking control of the micro quadcopter, first, the modeling of the micro quadcopter is presented. And using the MATLAB/SIMULINK toolbox to build the flight controller of the micro quadcopter, and then simulation analysis and real flight test are given. The results of the experiment show that the designed PID controller can correct the flight attitude shift effectively and track the planned tracks well, and can achieve the goal of stable and reliable flight of the quadcopter. It can be a useful reference for the flight control system design of future special operations micro UAV.

  12. Methodology for Flight Relevant Arc-Jet Testing of Flexible Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Bruce, Walter E., III; Mesick, Nathaniel J.; Sutton, Kenneth


    A methodology to correlate flight aeroheating environments to the arc-jet environment is presented. For a desired hot-wall flight heating rate, the methodology provides the arcjet bulk enthalpy for the corresponding cold-wall heating rate. A series of analyses were conducted to examine the effects of the test sample model holder geometry to the overall performance of the test sample. The analyses were compared with arc-jet test samples and challenges and issues are presented. The transient flight environment was calculated for the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Earth Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle, which is a planned demonstration vehicle using a large inflatable, flexible thermal protection system to reenter the Earth's atmosphere from the International Space Station. A series of correlations were developed to define the relevant arc-jet test environment to properly approximate the HEART flight environment. The computed arcjet environments were compared with the measured arc-jet values to define the uncertainty of the correlated environment. The results show that for a given flight surface heat flux and a fully-catalytic TPS, the flight relevant arc-jet heat flux increases with the arc-jet bulk enthalpy while for a non-catalytic TPS the arc-jet heat flux decreases with the bulk enthalpy.

  13. High resolution time-of-flight electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.


    A new electronics system for time-of-flight measurements has been developed to meet the performance requirements of the Mark II Detector for operation at the PEP Storage Ring of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This system incorporated high resolution time measurements with the capability to correct systemic errors from the scintillator and photomultiplier tubes. The correction technique involves making three measurements on each photomultiplier signal every storage ring beam interaction. Two timing measurements are made relative to the beam interaction time with different discriminator threshold level settings. The charge integral of each photomultiplier pulse is also recorded

  14. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim


    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  15. Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Flight System Integration at Its Best (United States)

    Wood, T. David; Kanner, Howard S.; Freeland, Donna M.; Olson, Derek T.


    The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) element integrates all the subsystems needed for ascent flight, entry, and recovery of the combined Booster and Motor system. These include the structures, avionics, thrust vector control, pyrotechnic, range safety, deceleration, thermal protection, and retrieval systems. This represents the only human-rated, recoverable and refurbishable solid rocket ever developed and flown. Challenges included subsystem integration, thermal environments and severe loads (including water impact), sometimes resulting in hardware attrition. Several of the subsystems evolved during the program through design changes. These included the thermal protection system, range safety system, parachute/recovery system, and others. Because the system was recovered, the SRB was ideal for data and imagery acquisition, which proved essential for understanding loads, environments and system response. The three main parachutes that lower the SRBs to the ocean are the largest parachutes ever designed, and the SRBs are the largest structures ever to be lowered by parachutes. SRB recovery from the ocean was a unique process and represented a significant operational challenge; requiring personnel, facilities, transportation, and ground support equipment. The SRB element achieved reliability via extensive system testing and checkout, redundancy management, and a thorough postflight assessment process. However, the in-flight data and postflight assessment process revealed the hardware was affected much more strongly than originally anticipated. Assembly and integration of the booster subsystems required acceptance testing of reused hardware components for each build. Extensive testing was done to assure hardware functionality at each level of stage integration. Because the booster element is recoverable, subsystems were available for inspection and testing postflight, unique to the Shuttle launch vehicle. Problems were noted and corrective actions were implemented as needed

  16. High-order state space simulation models of helicopter flight mechanics (United States)

    Kim, Frederick D.; Celi, Roberto; Tischler, Mark B.


    This paper describes the formulation and validation of a high-order linearized mathematical model of helicopter flight mechanics, which includes rotor flap and lag degrees of freedom as well as inflow dynamics. The model is extracted numerically from an existing nonlinear, blade element, real-time simulation model. Extensive modifications in the formulation and solution process of the nonlinear model, required for a theoetically rigorous linearization, are described in detail. The validation results show that the linearized model successfully captures the coupled rotor-fuselage dynamics in the frequency band most critical for the design of advanced flight control systems. Additional results quantify the extent to which the order of the model can be reduced without loss of fidelity.

  17. Model-Based GN and C Simulation and Flight Software Development for Orion Missions beyond LEO (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Milenkovic, Zoran; Henry, Joel; Buttacoli, Michael


    For Orion missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system is being developed using a model-based approach for simulation and flight software. Lessons learned from the development of GN&C algorithms and flight software for the Orion Exploration Flight Test One (EFT-1) vehicle have been applied to the development of further capabilities for Orion GN&C beyond EFT-1. Continuing the use of a Model-Based Development (MBD) approach with the Matlab®/Simulink® tool suite, the process for GN&C development and analysis has been largely improved. Furthermore, a model-based simulation environment in Simulink, rather than an external C-based simulation, greatly eases the process for development of flight algorithms. The benefits seen by employing lessons learned from EFT-1 are described, as well as the approach for implementing additional MBD techniques. Also detailed are the key enablers for improvements to the MBD process, including enhanced configuration management techniques for model-based software systems, automated code and artifact generation, and automated testing and integration.

  18. Human capital flight challenges within an equitable health system. (United States)

    Udonwa, N E


    The issue of human capital flight has been discussed at different forums with a consensus opinion that it has its merits and demerits to equitable health system. Most often one nation becomes a substantial net exporter of talent, leaving the provider nation at risk of depleting its natural supply of talent. This paper looks into the historical perspective of human capital flight or "brain drain", and its burden. It attempts to elucidate the various causes and suggested solutions. The paper's objective is to educate colleagues on the conceptual and contextual imperatives of the issue. Using a convenient sample of key informants who were medical colleagues in Nigeria relevant information was sourced from these colleagues, documents from the postgraduate medical college of Nigeria and the internet on maters relating to human capital flight and brain drain. Every year, thousands of qualified doctors, and other professionals leave Nigeria tempted by significantly higher wages, brighter prospects for employment and education, stability, food security. It appears that the potential exposure to different working conditions, resources and professional environments can be of advantage to the country, should Nigeria be able to recall these professionals. It also appears that necessary economic reforms that make staying at home rewarding, that is--good leadership, and policy planning that seriously looks into rural development, among other issues, are keys ingredients to reversing the trend in order to ensure a more equitable health system.

  19. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system design and operation... Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.127 Flight safety system design and operation... safety review document must describe an applicant's flight safety system and its operation. Part 417...

  20. Flight Dynamics Simulation Modeling and Control of a Large Flexible Tiltrotor Aircraft (United States)


    were always needed. Thanks go to Cal and John for being good friends in and out of school. Hopefully we remain close friends now that we live in...discuss seemingly random derivations with me over the past few years. In addition, I thank my friends from Johns Hopkins, who often spent their va...model used was derived by fitting structural coefficients to flight data [67]. A flexible model for this system was created and used in the NASA Dryden

  1. Near-space flight of a correlated photon system (United States)

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Sean, Yau Yong; Cheng, Cliff; Wildfeuer, Christoph; Ling, Alexander


    We report the successful test flight of a device for generating and monitoring correlated photon pairs under near-space conditions up to 35.5 km altitude. Data from ground based qualification tests and the high altitude experiment demonstrate that the device continues to operate even under harsh environmental conditions. The design of the rugged, compact and power-efficient photon pair system is presented. This design enables autonomous photon pair systems to be deployed on low-resource platforms such as nanosatellites hosting remote nodes of a quantum key distribution network. These results pave the way for tests of entangled photon technology in low earth orbit.

  2. NASTRAN Modeling of Flight Test Components for UH-60A Airloads Program Test Configuration (United States)

    Idosor, Florentino R.; Seible, Frieder


    Based upon the recommendations of the UH-60A Airloads Program Review Committee, work towards a NASTRAN remodeling effort has been conducted. This effort modeled and added the necessary structural/mass components to the existing UH-60A baseline NASTRAN model to reflect the addition of flight test components currently in place on the UH-60A Airloads Program Test Configuration used in NASA-Ames Research Center's Modern Technology Rotor Airloads Program. These components include necessary flight hardware such as instrument booms, movable ballast cart, equipment mounting racks, etc. Recent modeling revisions have also been included in the analyses to reflect the inclusion of new and updated primary and secondary structural components (i.e., tail rotor shaft service cover, tail rotor pylon) and improvements to the existing finite element mesh (i.e., revisions of material property estimates). Mode frequency and shape results have shown that components such as the Trimmable Ballast System baseplate and its respective payload ballast have caused a significant frequency change in a limited number of modes while only small percent changes in mode frequency are brought about with the addition of the other MTRAP flight components. With the addition of the MTRAP flight components, update of the primary and secondary structural model, and imposition of the final MTRAP weight distribution, modal results are computed representative of the 'best' model presently available.

  3. Aeroelastic stability of full-span tiltrotor aircraft model in forward flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan LI


    Full Text Available The existing full-span models of the tiltrotor aircraft adopted the rigid blade model without considering the coupling relationship among the elastic blade, wing and fuselage. To overcome the limitations of the existing full-span models and improve the precision of aeroelastic analysis of tiltrotor aircraft in forward flight, the aeroelastic stability analysis model of full-span tiltrotor aircraft in forward flight has been presented in this paper by considering the coupling among elastic blade, wing, fuselage and various components. The analytical model is validated by comparing with the calculation results and experimental data in the existing references. The influence of some structural parameters, such as the fuselage degrees of freedom, relative displacement between the hub center and the gravity center, and nacelle length, on the system stability is also investigated. The results show that the fuselage degrees of freedom decrease the critical stability velocity of tiltrotor aircraft, and the variation of the structural parameters has great influence on the system stability, and the instability form of system can change between the anti-symmetric and symmetric wing motions of vertical and chordwise bending. Keywords: Aeroelastic stability, Forward flight, Full-span model, Modal analysis, Tiltrotor aircraft

  4. Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) Analysis of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Flight Termination System and Power Supply (United States)

    Morehouse, Dennis V.


    In order to perform public risk analyses for vehicles containing Flight Termination Systems (FTS), it is necessary for the analyst to know the reliability of each of the components of the FTS. These systems are typically divided into two segments; a transmitter system and associated equipment, typically in a ground station or on a support aircraft, and a receiver system and associated equipment on the target vehicle. This analysis attempts to analyze the reliability of the NASA DFRC flight termination system ground transmitter segment for use in the larger risk analysis and to compare the results against two established Department of Defense availability standards for such equipment.

  5. Flight critical system design guidelines and validation methods (United States)

    Holt, H. M.; Lupton, A. O.; Holden, D. G.


    Efforts being expended at NASA-Langley to define a validation methodology, techniques for comparing advanced systems concepts, and design guidelines for characterizing fault tolerant digital avionics are described with an emphasis on the capabilities of AIRLAB, an environmentally controlled laboratory. AIRLAB has VAX 11/750 and 11/780 computers with an aggregate of 22 Mb memory and over 650 Mb storage, interconnected at 256 kbaud. An additional computer is programmed to emulate digital devices. Ongoing work is easily accessed at user stations by either chronological or key word indexing. The CARE III program aids in analyzing the capabilities of test systems to recover from faults. An additional code, the semi-Markov unreliability program (SURE) generates upper and lower reliability bounds. The AIRLAB facility is mainly dedicated to research on designs of digital flight-critical systems which must have acceptable reliability before incorporation into aircraft control systems. The digital systems would be too costly to submit to a full battery of flight tests and must be initially examined with the AIRLAB simulation capabilities.

  6. A Time of Flight Fast Neutron Imaging System Design Study (United States)

    Canion, Bonnie; Glenn, Andrew; Sheets, Steven; Wurtz, Ron; Nakae, Les; Hausladen, Paul; McConchie, Seth; Blackston, Matthew; Fabris, Lorenzo; Newby, Jason


    LLNL and ORNL are designing an active/passive fast neutron imaging system that is flexible to non-ideal detector positioning. It is often not possible to move an inspection object in fieldable imager applications such as safeguards, arms control treaty verification, and emergency response. Particularly, we are interested in scenarios which inspectors do not have access to all sides of an inspection object, due to interfering objects or walls. This paper will present the results of a simulation-based design parameter study, that will determine the optimum system design parameters for a fieldable system to perform time-of-flight based imaging analysis. The imaging analysis is based on the use of an associated particle imaging deuterium-tritium (API DT) neutron generator to get the time-of-flight of radiation induced within an inspection object. This design study will investigate the optimum design parameters for such a system (e.g. detector size, ideal placement, etc.), as well as the upper and lower feasible design parameters that the system can expect to provide results within a reasonable amount of time (e.g. minimum/maximum detector efficiency, detector standoff, etc.). Ideally the final prototype from this project will be capable of using full-access techniques, such as transmission imaging, when the measurement circumstances allow, but with the additional capability of producing results at reduced accessibility.

  7. [Study on relationship between emotional stability in flight and nerve system excitability]. (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Huang, Wei-fen; Jing, Xiao-lu; Zhang, Ping


    To study the related factors of emotional stability in flight. Based on the operable definition of emotional stability in flight and the related literature review, 63 experienced pilots and flight coaches were investigated and the other-rating questionnaire of emotional stability in flight was established. To test the senior nerve system, Uchida Kraeplin (UK) test was administrated on 153 19-21 years old male student pilots of the second grade in the department of flight technique in China Civil Aviation College, who were selected through 13 h flight, 35 h solo flight, and acted as the standardization group. In the end, the correlation was explored between the testing results and their emotional behavioral characteristics in flight. Significant positive correlation was found between emotional feature indexes of emotional stability in flight and excitability in UK test. The excitability in UK test are good predictors for emotional stability in flight.

  8. Loop containment (joint integrity) assessment Brayton Isotope Power System flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) contains a large number of joints. Since the failure of a joint would result in loss of the working fluid and consequential failure of the BIPS, the integrity of the joints is of paramount importance. The reliability of the ERDA BIPS loop containment (joint integrity) is evaluated. The conceptual flight system as presently configured is depicted. A brief description of the flight system is given

  9. Physiological modelling of oxygen consumption in birds during flight (United States)

    Bishop; Butler


    This study combines data on changes in cardiovascular variables with body mass (Mb) and with exercise intensity to model the oxygen supply available to birds during flight. Its main purpose is to provide a framework for identifying the factors involved in limiting aerobic power input to birds during flight and to suggest which cardiovascular variables are the most likely to have been influenced by natural selection when considering both allometric and adaptive variation. It is argued that natural selection has acted on heart rate (fh) and cardiac stroke volume (Vs), so that the difference in the arteriovenous oxygen content (CaO2-Cv¯O2) in birds, both at rest and during flight, is independent of Mb. Therefore, the Mb exponent for oxygen consumption (V(dot)O2) during flight can be estimated from measurements of heart rate and stroke volume. Stroke volume is likely to be directly proportional to heart mass (Mh) and, using empirical data, values for the Mb coefficients and exponents of various cardiovascular variables are estimated. It is concluded that, as found for mammals, fh is the main adaptive variable when considering allometric variation, although Mh also shows a slight scaling effect. Relative Mh is likely to be the most important when considering adaptive specialisations. The Fick equation may be represented as: (V(dot)O2)Mbz = (fh)Mbw x (Vs)Mbx x (CaO2 - Cv¯O2)Mby , where w, x, y, z are the body mass exponents for each variable and the terms in parentheses represent the Mb coefficients. Utilising this formula and data from the literature, the scaling of minimum V(dot)O2 during flight for bird species with a 'high aerobic capacity' (excluding hummingbirds) is calculated to be: 166Mb0.77±0.09 = 574Mb-0.19±0.02 x 3.48Mb0.96±0.02 x 0.083Mb0.00±0.05 , and for hummingbirds (considered separately owing to their unique wing kinematics) it is: 314Mb0.90±0.22 = 617Mb-0.10±0.06 x 6.13Mb1.00±0.11 x 0.083Mb0.00±0.05 . These results are largely dependent on the

  10. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch (United States)

    Gilligan, Eric


    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  11. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.


    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  12. In-Flight Validation of a Pilot Rating Scale for Evaluating Failure Transients in Electronic Flight Control Systems (United States)

    Kalinowski, Kevin F.; Tucker, George E.; Moralez, Ernesto, III


    Engineering development and qualification of a Research Flight Control System (RFCS) for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A has motivated the development of a pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems. The RASCAL RFCS includes a highly-reliable, dual-channel Servo Control Unit (SCU) to command and monitor the performance of the fly-by-wire actuators and protect against the effects of erroneous commands from the flexible, but single-thread Flight Control Computer. During the design phase of the RFCS, two piloted simulations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to help define the required performance characteristics of the safety monitoring algorithms in the SCU. Simulated failures, including hard-over and slow-over commands, were injected into the command path, and the aircraft response and safety monitor performance were evaluated. A subjective Failure/Recovery Rating (F/RR) scale was developed as a means of quantifying the effects of the injected failures on the aircraft state and the degree of pilot effort required to safely recover the aircraft. A brief evaluation of the rating scale was also conducted on the Army/NASA CH-47B variable stability helicopter to confirm that the rating scale was likely to be equally applicable to in-flight evaluations. Following the initial research flight qualification of the RFCS in 2002, a flight test effort was begun to validate the performance of the safety monitors and to validate their design for the safe conduct of research flight testing. Simulated failures were injected into the SCU, and the F/RR scale was applied to assess the results. The results validate the performance of the monitors, and indicate that the Failure/Recovery Rating scale is a very useful tool for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems.

  13. Modeling Aircraft Wing Loads from Flight Data Using Neural Networks (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.; Dibley, Ryan P.


    Neural networks were used to model wing bending-moment loads, torsion loads, and control surface hinge-moments of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) aircraft. Accurate loads models are required for the development of control laws designed to increase roll performance through wing twist while not exceeding load limits. Inputs to the model include aircraft rates, accelerations, and control surface positions. Neural networks were chosen to model aircraft loads because they can account for uncharacterized nonlinear effects while retaining the capability to generalize. The accuracy of the neural network models was improved by first developing linear loads models to use as starting points for network training. Neural networks were then trained with flight data for rolls, loaded reversals, wind-up-turns, and individual control surface doublets for load excitation. Generalization was improved by using gain weighting and early stopping. Results are presented for neural network loads models of four wing loads and four control surface hinge moments at Mach 0.90 and an altitude of 15,000 ft. An average model prediction error reduction of 18.6 percent was calculated for the neural network models when compared to the linear models. This paper documents the input data conditioning, input parameter selection, structure, training, and validation of the neural network models.

  14. Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nonlinear Dynamic Flight Simulation (NL-DFS) system will be developed in the Phase II project by combining the classical nonlinear rigid-body flight dynamics...

  15. Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark


    This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

  16. F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System and Aeronautics Research at NASA Dryden (United States)

    Brown, Nelson A.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System and Aeronautics including Autonomous Aerial Refueling Demonstrations, X-48B Blended Wing Body, F-15 Quiet Spike, and NF-15 Intelligent Flight Controls.

  17. Unique Aspects of Flight Testing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    Additionally, the use of Local Area Networks, and wireless networks within the command and controls systems can add additional FLIGHT TESTING 4 - 6 RTO-AG...Salisbury SP4 0JQ Lautrupbjerg 1-5, 2750 Ballerup Attn: Biblioteket P.O. Box 25 SLOVAQUIE ESPAGNE NO-2007 Kjeller Akadémia ozbrojených síl SDG ...Ljubljana PO Box 18 Royal Netherlands Military 197 21 Praha 9 Academy Library SPAIN P.O. Box 90.002 SDG TECEN / DGAM DENMARK 4800 PA Breda C

  18. Total aircraft flight-control system - Balanced open- and closed-loop control with dynamic trim maps (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.


    The availability of the airborne digital computer has made possible a Total Aircraft Flight Control System (TAFCOS) that uses virtually the complete nonlinear propulsive and aerodynamic data for the aircraft to construct dynamic trim maps that represent an inversion of the aircraft model. The trim maps, in series with the aircraft, provide essentially a linear feed-forward path. Basically, open-loop trajectory control is employed with only a small perturbation feedback signal required to compensate for inaccuracy in the aircraft model and for external disturbances. Simulation results for application to an automatic carrier-landing system are presented. Flight-test results for a STOL aircraft operating automatically over a major portion of its flight regime are presented. The concept promises a more rapid and straightforward design from aerodynamic principles, particularly for highly nonlinear configurations, and requires substantially less digital computer capacity than conventional automatic flight-control system designs.

  19. Development of an Integrated Nonlinear Aeroservoelastic Flight Dynamic Model of the NASA Generic Transport Model (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric


    This paper describes a recent development of an integrated fully coupled aeroservoelastic flight dynamic model of the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM). The integrated model couples nonlinear flight dynamics to a nonlinear aeroelastic model of the GTM. The nonlinearity includes the coupling of the rigid-body aircraft states in the partial derivatives of the aeroelastic angle of attack. Aeroservoelastic modeling of the control surfaces which are modeled by the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap is also conducted. The R.T. Jones' method is implemented to approximate unsteady aerodynamics. Simulations of the GTM are conducted with simulated continuous and discrete gust loads..

  20. New reference trajectory optimization algorithm for a flight management system inspired in beam search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available With the objective of reducing the flight cost and the amount of polluting emissions released in the atmosphere, a new optimization algorithm considering the climb, cruise and descent phases is presented for the reference vertical flight trajectory. The selection of the reference vertical navigation speeds and altitudes was solved as a discrete combinatory problem by means of a graph-tree passing through nodes using the beam search optimization technique. To achieve a compromise between the execution time and the algorithm’s ability to find the global optimal solution, a heuristic methodology introducing a parameter called “optimism coefficient was used in order to estimate the trajectory’s flight cost at every node. The optimal trajectory cost obtained with the developed algorithm was compared with the cost of the optimal trajectory provided by a commercial flight management system(FMS. The global optimal solution was validated against an exhaustive search algorithm(ESA, other than the proposed algorithm. The developed algorithm takes into account weather effects, step climbs during cruise and air traffic management constraints such as constant altitude segments, constant cruise Mach, and a pre-defined reference lateral navigation route. The aircraft fuel burn was computed using a numerical performance model which was created and validated using flight test experimental data.

  1. A review and discussion of flight management system incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (United States)


    This report covers the activities related to the description, classification and : analysis of the types and kinds of flight crew errors, incidents and actions, as : reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, that can occur as ...

  2. The use of vestibular models for design and evaluation of flight simulator motion (United States)

    Bussolari, Steven R.; Young, Laurence R.; Lee, Alfred T.


    Quantitative models for the dynamics of the human vestibular system are applied to the design and evaluation of flight simulator platform motion. An optimal simulator motion control algorithm is generated to minimize the vector difference between perceived spatial orientation estimated in flight and in simulation. The motion controller has been implemented on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center and evaluated experimentally through measurement of pilot performance and subjective rating during VTOL aircraft simulation. In general, pilot performance in a longitudinal tracking task (formation flight) did not appear to be sensitive to variations in platform motion condition as long as motion was present. However, pilot assessment of motion fidelity by means of a rating scale designed for this purpose, were sensitive to motion controller design. Platform motion generated with the optimal motion controller was found to be generally equivalent to that generated by conventional linear crossfeed washout. The vestibular models are used to evaluate the motion fidelity of transport category aircraft (Boeing 727) simulation in a pilot performance and simulator acceptability study at the Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. Eighteen airline pilots, currently flying B-727, were given a series of flight scenarios in the simulator under various conditions of simulator motion. The scenarios were chosen to reflect the flight maneuvers that these pilots might expect to be given during a routine pilot proficiency check. Pilot performance and subjective rating of simulator fidelity was relatively insensitive to the motion condition, despite large differences in the amplitude of motion provided. This lack of sensitivity may be explained by means of the vestibular models, which predict little difference in the modeled motion sensations of the pilots when different motion conditions are imposed.

  3. The ALICE Time of Flight Readout System AFRO

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A


    The ALICE Time of Flight Detector system comprises more than 100.000 channels and covers an area of more than 100 m2. The timing resolution should be better than 150 ps. This combination of requirements poses a major challenge to the readout system. All detector timing measurements are referenced to a unique start signal t0. This signal is generated at the time an event occurs. Timing measurements are performed using a multichannel TDC chip which requires a 40 MHz reference clock signal. The general concept of the readout system is based on a modular architecture. Detector cells are combined to modules of 1024 channels. Each of these modules can be read out and calibrated independently from each other. By distributing a reference signal, a timing relationship between the modules is established. This reference signal can either be the start signal t0 or the TDC-reference clock. The readout architecture is divided into three steps; the TDC controller, the module controller, and the time of flight controller. Th...

  4. The interpretation of flying qualities requirements for flight control system design (United States)

    Rynaski, E. G.


    An experimental flight test program was designed for the Total In Flight Simulator (TIFS) directed toward the interface between flying qualities requirements and flight control system design criteria. The eventual goal is to provide an interpretation or translation of flying qualities requirements for use by the flight control system designer. Specifically, an angle of attack and pitch rate command system matrix involving both short term and long term dynamics are specified for evaluation. Flying qualities criteria and flight control system configuration or architecture can be independent was demonstrated. Finally, additional configurations are proposed to evaluate the efficacy of dynamic decoupling.

  5. Simulation of physiological systems in order to evaluate and predict the human condition in a space flight (United States)

    Verigo, V. V.


    Simulation models were used to study theoretical problems of space biology and medicine. The reaction and adaptation of the main physiological systems to the complex effects of space flight were investigated. Mathematical models were discussed in terms of their significance in the selection of the structure and design of biological life support systems.

  6. The time-of-flight system for CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, E S; Distelbrink, J; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Elouadrhiri, L; Ficenec, J; Guidal, M; Hancock, A D; Hersman, F W; Holtrop, M; Jenkins, D A; Kim, W; Loukachine, K; MacArthur, K; Marchand, C; Mecking, B; Mutchler, G S; Schutt, D; Smith, L C; Smith, T P; Taylor, S; Tung, T Y; Weisenberger, A; Welsh, R E


    The time of flight system for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is described. The system, covering an area of 206 m sup 2 , is composed of scintillation counters 5.08 cm thick, 15 and 22 cm wide, and lengths which vary from 32 cm at the most forward angle to 450 cm at larger angles. All of the components of the system have been designed to optimize the time resolution. Event timing, achieved by leading-edge discrimination with time-walk correction, has been measured with cosmic rays, a laser pulser, and known particle interactions. The intrinsic time resolution varies from about 80 ps for the short counters to 160 ps for the longer counters. Reconstruction of interacting particles during the first period of operation yields an average time resolution for electrons of 163 ps. (author)

  7. Fly-by-light flight control system technology development plan (United States)

    Chakravarty, A.; Berwick, J. W.; Griffith, D. M.; Marston, S. E.; Norton, R. L.


    The results of a four-month, phased effort to develop a Fly-by-Light Technology Development Plan are documented. The technical shortfalls for each phase were identified and a development plan to bridge the technical gap was developed. The production configuration was defined for a 757-type airplane, but it is suggested that the demonstration flight be conducted on the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle. The modifications required and verification and validation issues are delineated in this report. A detailed schedule for the phased introduction of fly-by-light system components has been generated. It is concluded that a fiber-optics program would contribute significantly toward developing the required state of readiness that will make a fly-by-light control system not only cost effective but reliable without mitigating the weight and high-energy radio frequency related benefits.

  8. The time-of-flight system for CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.S. E-mail:; Carstens, T.; Distelbrink, J.; Eckhause, M.; Egiyan, H.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Ficenec, J.; Guidal, M.; Hancock, A.D.; Hersman, F.W.; Holtrop, M.; Jenkins, D.A.; Kim, W.; Loukachine, K.; MacArthur, K.; Marchand, C.; Mecking, B.; Mutchler, G.; Schutt, D.; Smith, L.C.; Smith, T.P.; Taylor, S.; Tung, T.Y.; Weisenberger, A.; Welsh, R.E


    The time of flight system for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is described. The system, covering an area of 206 m{sup 2}, is composed of scintillation counters 5.08 cm thick, 15 and 22 cm wide, and lengths which vary from 32 cm at the most forward angle to 450 cm at larger angles. All of the components of the system have been designed to optimize the time resolution. Event timing, achieved by leading-edge discrimination with time-walk correction, has been measured with cosmic rays, a laser pulser, and known particle interactions. The intrinsic time resolution varies from about 80 ps for the short counters to 160 ps for the longer counters. Reconstruction of interacting particles during the first period of operation yields an average time resolution for electrons of 163 ps. (author)

  9. Oscillation Susceptibility Analysis of the ADMIRE Aircraft along the Path of Longitudinal Flight Equilibriums in Two Different Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Ionita


    Full Text Available The oscillation susceptibility of the ADMIRE aircraft along the path of longitudinal flight equilibriums is analyzed numerically in the general and in a simplified flight model. More precisely, the longitudinal flight equilibriums, the stability of these equilibriums, and the existence of bifurcations along the path of these equilibriums are researched in both models. Maneuvers and appropriate piloting tasks for the touch-down moment are simulated in both models. The computed results obtained in the models are compared in order to see if the movement concerning the landing phase computed in the simplified model is similar to that computed in the general model. The similarity we find is not a proof of the structural stability of the simplified system, what as far we know never been made, but can increase the confidence that the simplified system correctly describes the real phenomenon.

  10. Flight Test and Handling Qualities Analysis of a Longitudinal Flight Control System Using Multiobjective Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, John


    ...) and AFIT MXTOOLS toolboxes were used to produce the optimal, multiobjective designs. These designs were implemented for flight test on the Calspan VSS I Learjet, simulating the unstable longitudinal dynamics of an F-16 type aircraft...

  11. Qualification of the flight-critical AFTI/F-16 digital flight control system. [Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (United States)

    Mackall, D. A.; Ishmael, S. D.; Regenie, V. A.


    Qualification considerations for assuring the safety of a life-critical digital flight control system include four major areas: systems interactions, verification, validation, and configuration control. The AFTI/F-16 design, development, and qualification illustrate these considerations. In this paper, qualification concepts, procedures, and methodologies are discussed and illustrated through specific examples.

  12. Integrated modeling and robust control for full-envelope flight of robotic helicopters (United States)

    La Civita, Marco

    Robotic helicopters have attracted a great deal of interest from the university, the industry, and the military world. They are versatile machines and there is a large number of important missions that they could accomplish. Nonetheless, there are only a handful of documented examples of robotic-helicopter applications in real-world scenarios. This situation is mainly due to the poor flight performance that can be achieved and---more important---guaranteed under automatic control. Given the maturity of control theory, and given the large body of knowledge in helicopter dynamics, it seems that the lack of success in flying high-performance controllers for robotic helicopters, especially by academic groups and by small industries, has nothing to do with helicopters or control theory as such. The problem lies instead in the large amount of time and resources needed to synthesize, test, and implement new control systems with the approach normally followed in the aeronautical industry. This thesis attempts to provide a solution by presenting a modeling and control framework that minimizes the time, cost, and both human and physical resources necessary to design high-performance flight controllers. The work is divided in two main parts. The first consists of the development of a modeling technique that allows the designer to obtain a high-fidelity model adequate for both real-time simulation and controller design, with few flight, ground, and wind-tunnel tests and a modest level of complexity in the dynamic equations. The second consists of the exploitation of the predictive capabilities of the model and of the robust stability and performance guarantees of the Hinfinity loop-shaping control theory to reduce the number of iterations of the design/simulated-evaluation/flight-test-evaluation procedure. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated by designing and flight testing a wide-envelope high-performance controller for the Carnegie Mellon University robotic

  13. Flight validated high-order models of UAV helicopter dynamics in hover and forward flight using analytical and parameter identification techniques (United States)

    Bhandari, Subodh

    There has been a significant growth in the use of UAV helicopters for a multitude of military and civilian applications over the last few years. Due to these numerous applications, from crop dusting to remote sensing, UAV helicopters are now a major topic of interest within the aerospace community. The main research focus is on the development of automatic flight control systems (AFCS). The design of AFCS for these vehicles requires a mathematical model representing the dynamics of the vehicle. The mathematical model is developed either from first-principles, using the equations of motion of the vehicle, or from the flight data, using parameter identification techniques. The traditional six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DoF) dynamics model is not suitable for high-bandwidth control system design. Such models are valid only within the low- to mid-frequency range. The agility and high maneuverability of small-scale helicopters require a high-bandwidth control system for full authority autonomous performance. The design of a high-bandwidth control system in turn requires a high-fidelity simulation model that is able to capture the key dynamics of the helicopter. These dynamics include the rotor dynamics. This dissertation presents the development of a 14-degrees-of-freedom (14-DoF) state-space linear model for the KU Thunder Tiger Raptor 50 UAV helicopter from first-principles and from flight test data using a parameter identification technique for the hovering and forward flight conditions. The model includes rigid body, rotor regressive, rotor inflow, stabilizer bar, and rotor coning dynamics. The model is implemented within The MathWork's MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the high-order model is able to predict the helicopter's dynamics up to the frequency of 30 rad/sec. The main contributions of this dissertation are the development of a high-order simulation model for a small UAV helicopter from first-principles and the identification of a

  14. A high-fidelity airbus benchmark for system fault detection and isolation and flight control law clearance (United States)

    Goupil, Ph.; Puyou, G.


    This paper presents a high-fidelity generic twin engine civil aircraft model developed by Airbus for advanced flight control system research. The main features of this benchmark are described to make the reader aware of the model complexity and representativeness. It is a complete representation including the nonlinear rigid-body aircraft model with a full set of control surfaces, actuator models, sensor models, flight control laws (FCL), and pilot inputs. Two applications of this benchmark in the framework of European projects are presented: FCL clearance using optimization and advanced fault detection and diagnosis (FDD).

  15. Nonlinear region of attraction analysis for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification


    Jie Chen; Cun Bao Ma; Dong Song


    The stability analysis method based on region of attraction is proposed for the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification in this article. Current practice for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification is largely dependent on linear theoretical analysis and nonlinear simulation research. This problem can be improved by the nonlinear stability analysis of flight control system. Firstly, the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight dynamic model is simplified and fitted by...

  16. Formulation and validation of high-order linearized models of helicopter flight mechanics (United States)

    Kim, Frederick D.; Celi, Roberto; Tischler, Mark B.


    A high-order linearized model of helicopter flight dynamics is extracted from a nonlinear time domain simulation. The model has 29 states that describe the fuselage rigid body degrees of freedom, the flap and lag dynamics in a nonrotating coordinate system, the inflow dynamics, the delayed entry of the horizontal tail into the main rotor wake, and, approximately, the blade torsion dynamics. The nonlinear simulation is obtained by extensively modifying the GENHEL computer program. The results indicate that the agreement between the linearized and the nonlinear model is good for small perturbations, and deteriorates for large amplitude maneuvers.

  17. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Space Flight Pressurized Systems (United States)


    25 5.8 Pneumatic System Configuration...temperatures, and thermal gradients. [4.2.5-4] Both membrane stress and bending stress resulting from internal pressure and external loads shall be...welding, bonding, forming, joining, machining , drilling, grinding, repair, etc., processes as applied to joining system 14 components and

  18. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology by adopting the flight data with state-of-the-art...

  19. Orion Flight Test 1 Architecture: Observed Benefits of a Model Based Engineering Approach (United States)

    Simpson, Kimberly A.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; McVittie, Thomas I.


    This paper details how a NASA-led team is using a model-based systems engineering approach to capture, analyze and communicate the end-to-end information system architecture supporting the first unmanned orbital flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Exploration Vehicle. Along with a brief overview of the approach and its products, the paper focuses on the observed program-level benefits, challenges, and lessons learned; all of which may be applied to improve system engineering tasks for characteristically similarly challenges

  20. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software (United States)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna


    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  1. Flight Test of ASAC Aircraft Interior Noise Control System (United States)

    Palumbo, Dan; Cabell, Ran; Cline, John; Sullivan, Brenda


    A flight test is described in which an active structural/acoustic control system reduces turboprop induced interior noise on a Raytheon Aircraft Company 1900D airliner. Control inputs to 21 inertial force actuators were computed adaptively using a transform domain version of the multichannel filtered-X LMS algorithm to minimize the mean square response of 32 microphones. A combinatorial search algorithm was employed to optimize placement of the force actuators on the aircraft frame. Both single frequency and multi-frequency results are presented. Reductions of up to 15 dB were obtained at the blade passage frequency (BPF) during single frequency control tests. Simultaneous reductions of the BPF and next 2 harmonics of 10 dB, 2.5 dB and 3.0 dB, were obtained in a multi-frequency test.

  2. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) Flight Configuration Verification and Status (United States)

    Wagar, William


    The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is a precision spaceflight instrument designed to measure and characterize the microgravity environment existing in the US Lab Module of the International Space Station. Both vibratory and quasi-steady triaxial acceleration data are acquired and provided to an Ethernet data link. The MAMS Double Mid-Deck Locker (DMDL) EXPRESS Rack payload meets all the ISS IDD and ICD interface requirements as discussed in the paper which also presents flight configuration illustrations. The overall MAMS sensor and data acquisition performance and verification data are presented in addition to a discussion of the Command and Data Handling features implemented via the ISS, downlink and the GRC Telescience Center displays.

  3. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment (United States)

    Myers, T. T.; Mcruer, D. T.; Johnston, D. E.


    This paper reviews issues, data, and analyses relevant to the longitudinal flying qualities of the Space Shuttle in approach and landing. The manual control of attitude and path are first examined theoretically to demonstrate the unconventional nature of the Shuttle's augmented pitch and path response characteristics. The time domain pitch rate transient response criterion used for design of the Shuttle flight control system is examined in context with data from recent flying qualities experiments and operational aircraft. Questions arising from this examination are addressed through comparisons with MIL-F-8785C and other proposed flying qualities criteria which indicate potential longitudinal flying qualities problems. However, it is shown that these criteria, based largely on data from conventional aircraft, may be inappropriate for assessing the Shuttle.

  4. NASA Radioisotope Power System Program - Technology and Flight Systems (United States)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.


    NASA sometimes conducts robotic science missions to solar system destinations for which the most appropriate power source is derived from thermal-to-electrical energy conversion of nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes. Typically the use of a radioisotope power system (RPS) has been limited to medium and large-scale missions, with 26 U,S, missions having used radioisotope power since 1961. A research portfolio of ten selected technologies selected in 2003 has progressed to a point of maturity, such that one particular technology may he considered for future mission use: the Advanced Stirling Converter. The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator is a new power system in development based on this Stirling cycle dynamic power conversion technology. This system may be made available for smaller, Discovery-class NASA science missions. To assess possible uses of this new capability, NASA solicited and funded nine study teams to investigate unique opportunities for exploration of potential destinations for small Discovery-class missions. The influence of the results of these studies and the ongoing development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator system are discussed in the context of an integrated Radioisotope Power System program. Discussion of other and future technology investments and program opportunities are provided.

  5. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology (ZONA) proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology that utilizes flight data with...

  6. Development of a Flight Information System Using the Structured Method (United States)


    wing-code, wing-order-no, ac- type wwrite wing-code, wing-order-no Table 18. Incomplete Database Tables of Flight-order the entity set cac has only...10 4i. Oracle Facilities .. . .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .... 11 5. Trigger Types ...flight squadron has several types of aircraft and numerous pilots. The pilots of e, I, .,,,. J;on fly often to perform their squadron’s flight-plans. Other

  7. Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume


    For the first time in many years, the NASA budget presented to congress calls for a focused effort on the verification and validation (V&V) of complex systems. This is mostly motivated by the results of the VVFCS (V&V of Flight-Critical Systems) study, which should materialize as a a concrete effort under the Aviation Safety program. This talk will present the results of the study, from requirements coming out of discussions with the FAA and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) to technical plan addressing the issue, and its proposed current and future V&V research agenda, which will be addressed by NASA Ames, Langley, and Dryden as well as external partners through NASA Research Announcements (NRA) calls. This agenda calls for pushing V&V earlier in the life cycle and take advantage of formal methods to increase safety and reduce cost of V&V. I will present the on-going research work (especially the four main technical areas: Safety Assurance, Distributed Systems, Authority and Autonomy, and Software-Intensive Systems), possible extensions, and how VVFCS plans on grounding the research in realistic examples, including an intended V&V test-bench based on an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture and hosted by Dryden.

  8. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism (United States)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David


    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  9. Flight Management System Execution of Idle-Thrust Descents in Operations (United States)

    Stell, Laurel L.


    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its error models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents, and the recorded data includes the target speed profile and FMS intent trajectories. The FMS computes the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and any intervention by the controllers that alters the FMS execution of the descent is recorded so that such flights are discarded from the analysis. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location are extracted from the radar data. Using more than 60 descents in Boeing 777 aircraft, the actual speeds are compared to the intended descent speed profile. In addition, three aspects of the accuracy of the FMS intent trajectory are analyzed: the meter fix crossing time, the TOD location, and the altitude at the meter fix. The actual TOD location is within 5 nmi of the intent location for over 95% of the descents. Roughly 90% of the time, the airspeed is within 0.01 of the target Mach number and within 10 KCAS of the target descent CAS, but the meter fix crossing time is only within 50 sec of the time computed by the FMS. Overall, the aircraft seem to be executing the descents as intended by the designers of the onboard automation.

  10. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics (United States)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  11. Comparison of In-Flight Measured and Computed Aeroelastic Damping: Modal Identification Procedures and Modeling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Cunha Follador


    Full Text Available The Operational Modal Analysis technique is a methodology very often applied for the identification of dynamic systems when the input signal is unknown. The applied methodology is based on a technique to estimate the Frequency Response Functions and extract the modal parameters using only the structural dynamic response data, without assuming the knowledge of the excitation forces. Such approach is an adequate way for measuring the aircraft aeroelastic response due to random input, like atmospheric turbulence. The in-flight structural response has been measured by accelerometers distributed along the aircraft wings, fuselage and empennages. The Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique was chosen to identify the airframe dynamic parameters. This technique is based on the hypothesis that the system is randomly excited with a broadband spectrum with almost constant power spectral density. The system identification procedure is based on the Single Value Decomposition of the power spectral densities of system output signals, estimated by the usual Fast Fourier Transform method. This procedure has been applied to different flight conditions to evaluate the modal parameters and the aeroelastic stability trends of the airframe under investigation. The experimental results obtained by this methodology were compared with the predicted results supplied by aeroelastic numerical models in order to check the consistency of the proposed output-only methodology. The objective of this paper is to compare in-flight measured aeroelastic damping against the corresponding parameters computed from numerical aeroelastic models. Different aerodynamic modeling approaches should be investigated such as the use of source panel body models, cruciform and flat plate projection. As a result of this investigation it is expected the choice of the better aeroelastic modeling and Operational Modal Analysis techniques to be included in a standard aeroelastic

  12. NASA Langley's AirSTAR Testbed: A Subscale Flight Test Capability for Flight Dynamics and Control System Experiments (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.


    As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The

  13. Mathematical modeling of acute and chronic cardiovascular changes during Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights (United States)

    White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini; Charles, John B.

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program aims to extend the capability of the Shuttle orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration. This goal is to be accomplished in steps, partly due to our limited knowledge of the physiological changes resulting from long-term exposure to weightlessness and their likely influence on critical mission operations involved in EDO flights. Answers to questions related to physiologic adaptation to weightlessness are being actively sought at the present time to help implement the EDO program. In the cardiovascular area, the loss of orthostatic tolerance is a medical concern because of its potential adverse effects on crew performance and safety during reentry and following return to earth. Flight and ground-based physiologic studies are being planned to understand the mechanism and time course of spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance and to develop effective countermeasures for improving post-flight cardiovascular performance. Where feasible, these studies are aided by theoretical analyses using mathematical modeling and computer simulation of physiological systems. This paper is concerned with the application of proven models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems in the analysis of chronic cardiovascular changes under weightless conditions.

  14. Gryphon M3 system: integration of MEMS for flight control (United States)

    Huang, Adam; Folk, Chris; Ho, Chih-Ming; Liu, Z.; Chu, Wesley W.; Xu, Yong; Tai, Yu-Chong


    By using distributed arrays of micro-actuators as effectors, micro-sensors to detect the optimal actuation location, and microelectronics to provide close loop feedback decisions, a low power control system has been developed for controlling a UAV. Implementing the Microsensors, Microactuators, and Microelectronics leads to what is known as a M3 (M-cubic) system. This project involves demonstrating the concept of using small actuators (approximately micron-millimeter scale) to provide large control forces for a large-scale system (approximately meter scale) through natural flow amplification phenomenon. This is theorized by using fluid separation phenomenon, vortex evolution, and vortex symmetry on a delta wing aircraft. By using MEMS actuators to control leading edge vortex separation and growth, a desired aerodynamic force can be produced about the aircraft for flight control. Consequently, a MEMS shear stress sensor array was developed for detecting the leading edge separation line where leading edge vortex flow separation occurs. By knowing the leading edge separation line, a closely coupled micro actuation from the effectors can cause the required separation that leads to vortex control. A robust and flexible balloon type actuator was developed using pneumatic pressure as the actuation force. Recently, efforts have started to address the most elusive problem of amplified distributed control (ADC) through data mining algorithms. Preliminary data mining results are promising and this part of the research is ongoing. All wind tunnel data used the baseline 56.5 degree(s) sweepback delta wing with root chord of 31.75 cm.

  15. Real-Time Helicopter Flight Control: Modelling and Control by Linearization and Neural Networks


    Pallett, Tobias J.; Ahmad, Shaheen


    In this report we determine the dynamic model of a miniature helicopter in hovering flight. Identification procedures for the nonlinear terms are also described. The model is then used to design several linearized control laws and a neural network controller. The controllers were then flight tested on a miniature helicopter flight control test bed the details of which are also presented in this report. Experimental performance of the linearized and neural network controllers are discussed. It...

  16. Modeling and emergence of flapping flight of butterfly based on experimental measurements


    Senda, Kei; Obara, Takuya; Kitamura, Masahiko; Nishikata, Tomomi; Hirai, Norio; Iima, Makoto; Yokoyama, Naoto


    The objective of this paper is to clarify the principle of stabilization in flapping-of-wing flight of a butterfly, which is a rhythmic and cyclic motion. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange’s method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. For the aerodynamic forces, a panel method is applied. Validity of the mathematical models is shown by an agreement of the numerical result with the measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flappi...

  17. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2010 Version (United States)

    Leslie, F. W.; Justus, C. G.


    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Global Reference Atmospheric Model was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes), as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. In addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations.

  18. NASA Langley Distributed Propulsion VTOL Tilt-Wing Aircraft Testing, Modeling, Simulation, Control, and Flight Test Development (United States)

    Rothhaar, Paul M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Bacon, Barton J.; Gregory, Irene M.; Grauer, Jared A.; Busan, Ronald C.; Croom, Mark A.


    Control of complex Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft traversing from hovering to wing born flight mode and back poses notoriously difficult modeling, simulation, control, and flight-testing challenges. This paper provides an overview of the techniques and advances required to develop the GL-10 tilt-wing, tilt-tail, long endurance, VTOL aircraft control system. The GL-10 prototype's unusual and complex configuration requires application of state-of-the-art techniques and some significant advances in wind tunnel infrastructure automation, efficient Design Of Experiments (DOE) tunnel test techniques, modeling, multi-body equations of motion, multi-body actuator models, simulation, control algorithm design, and flight test avionics, testing, and analysis. The following compendium surveys key disciplines required to develop an effective control system for this challenging vehicle in this on-going effort.

  19. Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems (United States)

    Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

    The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

  20. Verification and Validation of Adaptive and Intelligent Systems with Flight Test Results (United States)

    Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.


    F-15 IFCS project goals are: a) Demonstrate Control Approaches that can Efficiently Optimize Aircraft Performance in both Normal and Failure Conditions [A] & [B] failures. b) Advance Neural Network-Based Flight Control Technology for New Aerospace Systems Designs with a Pilot in the Loop. Gen II objectives include; a) Implement and Fly a Direct Adaptive Neural Network Based Flight Controller; b) Demonstrate the Ability of the System to Adapt to Simulated System Failures: 1) Suppress Transients Associated with Failure; 2) Re-Establish Sufficient Control and Handling of Vehicle for Safe Recovery. c) Provide Flight Experience for Development of Verification and Validation Processes for Flight Critical Neural Network Software.

  1. Advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)/F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System final flight test results (United States)

    Dowden, Donald J.; Bessette, Denis E.


    The AFTI F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System has undergone developmental and demonstration flight testing over a total of 347.3 flying hours in 237 sorties. The emphasis of this phase of the flight test program was on the development of automated guidance and control systems for air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons delivery, using a digital flight control system, dual avionics multiplex buses, an advanced FLIR sensor with laser ranger, integrated flight/fire-control software, advanced cockpit display and controls, and modified core Multinational Stage Improvement Program avionics.

  2. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Flight Test 3 Data Analysis of JADEM-Autoresolver Detect and Avoid System (United States)

    Gong, Chester; Wu, Minghong G.; Santiago, Confesor


    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System project, or UAS Integration in the NAS, aims to reduce technical barriers related to safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS. The UAS Integration in the NAS Project conducted a flight test activity, referred to as Flight Test 3 (FT3), involving several Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) research prototype systems between June 15, 2015 and August 12, 2015 at the Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC). This report documents the flight testing and analysis results for the NASA Ames-developed JADEM-Autoresolver DAA system, referred to as 'Autoresolver' herein. Four flight test days (June 17, 18, 22, and July 22) were dedicated to Autoresolver testing. The objectives of this test were as follows: 1. Validate CPA prediction accuracy and detect-and-avoid (DAA, formerly known as self-separation) alerting logic in realistic flight conditions. 2. Validate DAA trajectory model including maneuvers. 3. Evaluate TCAS/DAA interoperability. 4. Inform final Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS). Flight test scenarios were designed to collect data to directly address the objectives 1-3. Objective 4, inform final MOPS, was a general objective applicable to the UAS in the NAS project as a whole, of which flight test is a subset. This report presents analysis results completed in support of the UAS in the NAS project FT3 data review conducted on October 20, 2015. Due to time constraints and, to a lesser extent, TCAS data collection issues, objective 3 was not evaluated in this analysis.

  3. Hindlimb unloading of growing rats: a model for predicting skeletal changes during space flight (United States)

    Morey-Holton, E. R.; Globus, R. K.


    A model that uses hindlimb unloading of rats was developed to study the consequences of skeletal unloading and reloading as occurs during and following space flight. Studies using the model were initiated two decades ago and further developed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Ames Research Center. The model mimics some aspects of exposure to microgravity by removing weightbearing loads from the hindquarters and producing a cephalic fluid shift. Unlike space flight, the forelimbs remain loaded in the model, providing a useful internal control to distinguish between the local and systemic effects of hindlimb unloading. Rats that are hindlimb unloaded by tail traction gain weight at the same rate as pairfed controls, and glucocorticoid levels are not different from controls, suggesting that systemic stress is minimal. Unloaded bones display reductions in cancellous osteoblast number, cancellous mineral apposition rate, trabecular bone volume, cortical periosteal mineralization rate, total bone mass, calcium content, and maturation of bone mineral relative to controls. Subsequent studies reveal that these changes also occur in rats exposed to space flight. In hindlimb unloaded rats, bone formation rates and masses of unloaded bones decline relative to controls, while loaded bones do not change despite a transient reduction in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) concentrations. Studies using the model to evaluate potential countermeasures show that 1,25D, growth hormone, dietary calcium, alendronate, and muscle stimulation modify, but do not completely correct, the suppression of bone growth caused by unloading, whereas continuous infusion of transforming growth factor-beta2 or insulin-like growth factor-1 appears to protect against some of the bone changes caused by unloading. These results emphasize the importance of local as opposed to systemic factors in the skeletal response to unloading, and reveal the pivotal role that osteoblasts play in

  4. Structure Detection of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Systems with Application to Aeroelastic Flight Test Data. Part 2 (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Brenner, martin J.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the 1. Motivation for the study 2. Nonlinear Model Form 3. Structure Detection 4. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) 5. Objectives 6. Results 7. Assess LASSO as a Structure Detection Tool: Simulated Nonlinear Models 8. Applicability to Complex Systems: F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Flight Test Data. The authors conclude that 1. this is a novel approach for detecting the structure of highly over-parameterised nonlinear models in situations where other methods may be inadequate 2. that it is a practical significance in the analysis of aircraft dynamics during envelope expansion and could lead to more efficient control strategies and 3. this could allow greater insight into the functionality of various systems dynamics, by providing a quantitative model which is easily interpretable

  5. A model for studying molecular plant-bacteria interactions in the flight experimet (United States)

    Kovtunovych, G.; Lar, O.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negrutska, V.; Rogutski, I.; Kozyrovska, N.; Kordyum, V.

    The ability to grow plants in space self-perpetuating gardens is actual for providing an advanced life support system for humans during extended missions. Nevertheless, studies of molecular mechanisms of plant-bacteria interactions in the flight experiments are still in their infancy. Space factors affect cell microenvironment and signal transduction through membranes, and it may result in induction in bacteria of some genes regulated by the systems, sensing environmental signals. In space a risk of genetic rearrangements is increased, and some changes in bacterial DNA expected. As a consequence, bacteria may exhibit novel characters, e.g., pathogenicity. During the previous our experience we have determined an increase of internal colonisation of the rice roots with bacteria in space flight. It is important to characterise molecular-genetic plant-bacteria interactions influenced with physical factors. Genes coding for bacterial pectinases provide a suitable model for studies of well integrated objectives, concerning plant-bacteria interactions. From examining a mode of expression of pectinases encoding genes of a plant-associated bacterium and nucleotide polymorphism within pectate lyase- and polygalacturonase encoding genes in microcosm experiments in earth and space flight we get new knowledges about understanding some physical factors as the environmental signals and the possible risk of changes in interactions of bacteria with the plant.

  6. Runtime Assurance Framework Development for Highly Adaptive Flight Control Systems (United States)


    general, power management systems will adjust the fuel flow rate (up or down) to maintain steady, stable combustion when certain critical parameters...traffic jams” as well. 4. Other examples include: Sand pile or avalanche model, genetic algorithms, chaos/fractals, lattice gas model, and epidemic

  7. Flight control and stability of a multiple kites tethered system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podgaets, A.R.; Ockels, W.J.


    One of novel concepts to use the energy of high altitude winds is by launching a series of kite on a long rope and let them pull the rope thus driving the generator. A mathematical model of tethered kites system has been developed consisting of models of kites and of the cable that links them

  8. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 417 - Flight Termination Systems, Components, Installation, and Monitoring (United States)


    ..., transistor, or diode must satisfy all its performance specifications when subjected to: (i) The sum of ten... single fault tolerant against inadvertent transmission of a safing command under § 417.303(d). D417... each flight termination system battery; (6) Current for each flight termination system battery; (7...

  9. Design and evaluation of a Flight Envelope Protection haptic feedback system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Rodriguez Martin, M.J.M.; Lombaerts, T; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.


    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a shared control, haptic feedback system to communicate Flight Envelope Protection System intent. The concept uses a combination of stiffness feedback and vibration to communicate proximity of the aircraft state to flight envelope boundaries. In

  10. Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Autonomous Nonlinear Flight Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larsen, Michael; Beard, Randal W; McLain, Timothy W


    ... to mobile threats such as radar, jammers, and unfriendly aircraft. In Phase 1 of this STTR project, real-time path planning and trajectory generation techniques for two dimensional flight were developed and demonstrated in software simulation...

  11. Modeling of a 3D CMOS sensor for time-of-flight measurements (United States)

    Kuhla, Rico; Hosticka, Bedrich J.; Mengel, Peter; Listl, Ludwig


    A solid state 3D-CMOS camera system for direct time-of-flight image acquisition consisting of a CMOS imaging sensor, a laser diode module for active laser pulse illumination and all optics for image forming is presented, including MDSI & CDS algorithms for time-of-flight evaluation from intensity imaging. The investigation is carried out using ideal and real signals. For real signals the narrow infrared laser pulse of the laser diode module and the shutter function of the sensors column circuit were sampled by a new sampling procedure. A discrete sampled shutter function was recorded by using the impulse response of a narrow pulse of FWHM=50ps and an additional delay block with step size of Δτ = 0.25ns. A deterministic system model based on LTI transfer functions was developed. The visual shutter windows give a good understanding of differences between ideal and real output functions of measurement system. Simulations of shutter and laser pulse brought out an extended linear delay domain from MDSI. A stochastic model for the transfer function and photon noise in time domain was developed. We used the model to investigate noise in variation the laser pulse shutter configuration.

  12. Analysis of modeling cumulative noise from simultaneous flights volume 1 : analysis at four national parks (United States)


    This is the first of two volumes of the report on modeling cumulative noise from simultaneous flights. This volume includes: an overview of the time compression algorithms used to model simultaneous aircraft; revised summary of a preliminary study (w...

  13. Using Lunar Observations to Validate In-Flight Calibrations of Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System Instruments (United States)

    Daniels, Janet L.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan


    The validation of in-orbit instrument performance requires stability in both instrument and calibration source. This paper describes a method of validation using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Unlike internal calibrations, the Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models-1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. Instrument performance parameters which can be gleaned are detector gain, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function validation. Lunar observations are used to examine the stability of all three detectors on each of these instruments from 2006 to present. This validation method has yielded results showing trends per CERES data channel of 1.2% per decade or less.

  14. 78 FR 63902 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Normal... (United States)


    ... primary structure is metal with composite empennage and control surfaces. The Model EMB-550 airplane is...: Joe Jacobsen, FAA, Airplane and Flight Crew Interface Branch, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft... displacement maneuvers because of the following: Knowledge that the limit system will protect the structure...

  15. A study of key features of random atmospheric disturbance models for the approach flight phase (United States)

    Heffley, R. K.


    An analysis and brief simulator experiment were performed to identify and classify important features of random turbulence for the landing approach flight phase. The analysis of various wind models was carried out within the context of the longitudinal closed-loop pilot/vehicle system. The analysis demonstrated the relative importance of atmospheric disturbance scale lengths, horizontal versus vertical gust components, decreasing altitude, and spectral forms of disturbances versus the pilot/vehicle system. Among certain competing wind models, the analysis predicted no significant difference in pilot performance. This was confirmed by a moving base simulator experiment which evaluated the two most extreme models. A number of conclusions were reached: attitude constrained equations do provide a simple but effective approach to describing the closed-loop pilot/vehicle. At low altitudes the horizontal gust component dominates pilot/vehicle performance.

  16. Flight Model Development of Tokyo Tech Nano-Satellite Cute-1.7 + APD II (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroki; Nishida, Junichi; Omagari, Kuniyuki; Fujiwara, Ken; Konda, Yasumi; Yamanaka, Tomio; Tanaka, Yohei; Maeno, Masaki; Fujihashi, Kota; Inagawa, Shinichi; Miura, Yoshiyuki; Matunaga, Saburo

    The Laboratory for Space Systems at the Tokyo Institute of Technology has developed the nano-satellite Cute-1.7+APD. The satellite was launched by JAXA M-V-8 rocket on February 22, 2006 and operated for about a month. A successor to the Cute-1.7+APD was developed and is named Cute-1.7+APD II. This new satellite is based on its predecessor but has some modifications. In this paper an overview of the Cute-1.7 series and flight model development of Cute-1.7+APD II are introduced.

  17. Design of a Mission Data Storage and Retrieval System for NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (United States)

    Lux, Jessica; Downing, Bob; Sheldon, Jack


    The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) employs the WATR Integrated Next Generation System (WINGS) for the processing and display of aeronautical flight data. This report discusses the post-mission segment of the WINGS architecture. A team designed and implemented a system for the near- and long-term storage and distribution of mission data for flight projects at DFRC, providing the user with intelligent access to data. Discussed are the legacy system, an industry survey, system operational concept, high-level system features, and initial design efforts.

  18. System for synthetic vision and augmented reality in future flight decks (United States)

    Behringer, Reinhold; Tam, Clement K.; McGee, Joshua H.; Sundareswaran, Venkataraman; Vassiliou, Marius S.


    Rockwell Science Center is investigating novel human-computer interface techniques for enhancing the situational awareness in future flight decks. One aspect is to provide intuitive displays which provide the vital information and the spatial awareness by augmenting the real world with an overlay of relevant information registered to the real world. Such Augmented Reality (AR) techniques can be employed during bad weather scenarios to permit flying in Visual Flight Rules (VFR) in conditions which would normally require Instrumental Flight Rules (IFR). These systems could easily be implemented on heads-up displays (HUD). The advantage of AR systems vs. purely synthetic vision (SV) systems is that the pilot can relate the information overlay to real objects in the world, whereas SV systems provide a constant virtual view, where inconsistencies can hardly be detected. The development of components for such a system led to a demonstrator implemented on a PC. A camera grabs video images which are overlaid with registered information, Orientation of the camera is obtained from an inclinometer and a magnetometer, position is acquired from GPS. In a possible implementation in an airplane, the on-board attitude information can be used for obtaining correct registration. If visibility is sufficient, computer vision modules can be used to fine-tune the registration by matching visual clues with database features. Such technology would be especially useful for landing approaches. The current demonstrator provides a frame-rate of 15 fps, using a live video feed as background and an overlay of avionics symbology in the foreground. In addition, terrain rendering from a 1 arc sec. digital elevation model database can be overlaid to provide synthetic vision in case of limited visibility. For true outdoor testing (on ground level), the system has been implemented on a wearable computer.

  19. Validation of a mathematical model for Bell 427 Helicopter using parameter estimation techniques and flight test data (United States)

    Crisan, Emil Gabriel

    Certification requirements, optimization and minimum project costs, design of flight control laws and the implementation of flight simulators are among the principal applications of system identification in the aeronautical industry. This document examines the practical application of parameter estimation techniques to the problem of estimating helicopter stability and control derivatives from flight test data provided by Bell Helicopter Textron Canada. The purpose of this work is twofold: a time-domain application of the Output Error method using the Gauss-Newton algorithm and a frequency-domain identification method to obtain the aerodynamic and control derivatives of a helicopter. The adopted model for this study is a fully coupled, 6 degree of freedom (DoF) state space model. The technique used for rotorcraft identification in time-domain was the Maximum Likelihood Estimation method, embodied in a modified version of NASA's Maximum Likelihood Estimator program (MMLE3) obtained from the National Research Council (NRC). The frequency-domain system identification procedure is incorporated in a comprehensive package of user-oriented programs referred to as CIFERRTM. The coupled, 6 DoF model does not include the high frequency main rotor modes (flapping, lead-lag, twisting), yet it is capable of modeling rotorcraft dynamics fairly accurately as resulted from the model verification. The identification results demonstrate that MMLE3 is a powerful and effective tool for extracting reliable helicopter models from flight test data. The results obtained in frequency-domain approach demonstrated that CIFERRTM could achieve good results even on limited data.

  20. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V


    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  1. Real-time flight conflict detection and release based on Multi-Agent system (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Jue


    This paper defines two-aircrafts, multi-aircrafts and fleet conflict mode, sets up space-time conflict reservation on the basis of safety interval and conflict warning time in three-dimension. Detect real-time flight conflicts combined with predicted flight trajectory of other aircrafts in the same airspace, and put forward rescue resolutions for the three modes respectively. When accorded with the flight conflict conditions, determine the conflict situation, and enter the corresponding conflict resolution procedures, so as to avoid the conflict independently, as well as ensure the flight safety of aimed aircraft. Lastly, the correctness of model is verified with numerical simulation comparison.

  2. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system (United States)

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.


    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  3. Toward intelligent flight control (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.


    Flight control systems can benefit by being designed to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories: declarative, procedural, and reflexive. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are more-or-less spontaneous and are similar to inner-loop control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems will contain a hierarchy of expert systems, procedural algorithms, and computational neural networks, each expanding on prior functions to improve mission capability to increase the reliability and safety of flight and to ease pilot workload.

  4. Design of a flight director/configuration management system for piloted STOL approaches (United States)

    Hoh, R. H.; Klein, R. H.; Johnson, W. A.


    The design and characteristics of a flight director for V/STOL aircraft are discussed. A configuration management system for piloted STOL approaches is described. The individual components of the overall system designed to reduce pilot workload to an acceptable level during curved, decelerating, and descending STOL approaches are defined. The application of the system to augmentor wing aircraft is analyzed. System performance checks and piloted evaluations were conducted on a flight simulator and the results are summarized.

  5. Dynamical Modeling of Collective Behavior from Pigeon Flight Data: Flock Cohesion and Dispersion (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael


    Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional) Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals) may be inferred. PMID:22479176

  6. Dynamical modeling of collective behavior from pigeon flight data: flock cohesion and dispersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciano Dieck Kattas

    Full Text Available Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals may be inferred.

  7. Flight Testing of Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems on the Mighty Eagle Robotic Lander Testbed (United States)

    Hannan, Mike; Rickman, Doug; Chavers, Greg; Adam, Jason; Becker, Chris; Eliser, Joshua; Gunter, Dan; Kennedy, Logan; O'Leary, Patrick


    During 2011 a series of progressively more challenging flight tests of the Mighty Eagle autonomous terrestrial lander testbed were conducted primarily to validate the GNC system for a proposed lunar lander. With the successful completion of this GNC validation objective the opportunity existed to utilize the Mighty Eagle as a flying testbed for a variety of technologies. In 2012 an Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) algorithm was implemented in flight software and demonstrated in a series of flight tests. In 2012 a hazard avoidance system was developed and flight tested on the Mighty Eagle. Additionally, GNC algorithms from Moon Express and a MEMs IMU were tested in 2012. All of the testing described herein was above and beyond the original charter for the Mighty Eagle. In addition to being an excellent testbed for a wide variety of systems the Mighty Eagle also provided a great learning opportunity for many engineers and technicians to work a flight program.

  8. HTML 5 Displays for On-Board Flight Systems (United States)

    Silva, Chandika


    During my Internship at NASA in the summer of 2016, I was assigned to a project which dealt with developing a web-server that would display telemetry and other system data using HTML 5, JavaScript, and CSS. By doing this, it would be possible to view the data across a variety of screen sizes, and establish a standard that could be used to simplify communication and software development between NASA and other countries. Utilizing a web- approach allowed us to add in more functionality, as well as make the displays more aesthetically pleasing for the users. When I was assigned to this project my main task was to first establish communication with the current display server. This display server would output data from the on-board systems in XML format. Once communication was established I was then asked to create a dynamic telemetry table web page that would update its header and change as new information came in. After this was completed, certain minor functionalities were added to the table such as a hide column and filter by system option. This was more for the purpose of making the table more useful for the users, as they can now filter and view relevant data. Finally my last task was to create a graphical system display for all the systems on the space craft. This was by far the most challenging part of my internship as finding a JavaScript library that was both free and contained useful functions to assist me in my task was difficult. In the end I was able to use the JointJs library and accomplish the task. With the help of my mentor and the HIVE lab team, we were able to establish stable communication with the display server. We also succeeded in creating a fully dynamic telemetry table and in developing a graphical system display for the advanced modular power system. Working in JSC for this internship has taught me a lot about coding in JavaScript and HTML 5. I was also introduced to the concept of developing software as a team, and exposed to the different

  9. An American knowledge base in England - Alternate implementations of an expert system flight status monitor (United States)

    Butler, G. F.; Graves, A. T.; Disbrow, J. D.; Duke, E. L.


    A joint activity between the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on knowledge-based systems has been agreed. Under the agreement, a flight status monitor knowledge base developed at Ames-Dryden has been implemented using the real-time AI (artificial intelligence) toolkit MUSE, which was developed in the UK. Here, the background to the cooperation is described and the details of the flight status monitor and a prototype MUSE implementation are presented. It is noted that the capabilities of the expert-system flight status monitor to monitor data downlinked from the flight test aircraft and to generate information on the state and health of the system for the test engineers provides increased safety during flight testing of new systems. Furthermore, the expert-system flight status monitor provides the systems engineers with ready access to the large amount of information required to describe a complex aircraft system.

  10. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng


    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  11. Hierarchical flight control system synthesis for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles (United States)

    Shim, Hyunchul

    the identification, control and general operation. A high-fidelity helicopter model is established with the lumped-parameter approach. With the lift and torque aerodynamic model of the main and tail rotors, a nonlinear simulation model is first constructed. The control models of the RUAVs used in our research are derived by the application of a time-domain parametric identification method to the flight data of target RUAVs. Two distinct control theories, namely classical control theory and modern linear robust control theory, are applied to the identified model. The proposed controllers are validated in a nonlinear simulation environment and tested in a series of test flights. With the successful implementation of the low-level vehicle controller, the guidance layer is designed. The waypoint navigator, which decides the adequate flight mode and the associated reference trajectory, serves as an intermediary between the low-level vehicle control layer and the high-level mission-planning layer. In order to interpret the abstract mission planning to commands that are compatible with the low-level structure, a novel framework called Vehicle Control Language (VCL) is developed. The key idea of VCL is to provide a mission-independent methodology to describe given flight patterns. The VCL processor and vehicle control layer are integrated into the hierarchical control structure, which is the backbone of our intelligent UAV system. The proposed idea is validated in the simulation environment and then fully tested in a series of flight tests.

  12. Modelling of a Hybrid UAV Using Test Flight Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeur, E.J.J.; Chu, Q.P.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Remes, B.; De Wagter, C.; Van der Horst, E


    The concept of an aircraft capable of both hover as well as fast forward flight (hybrid) has recently been implemented on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Hybrid UAVs combine hover capability with long range and endurance. As UAVs are often required to operate without human intervention, there is a

  13. Design of a quadrotor flight test stand for system identification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beharie, MM


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, development and construction of a flight test stand for a quadrotor UAV. As opposed to alternate forms of UAV, the power plant in the case of the quadrotor serves a dual purpose of control and propulsion. Since...

  14. Porting the Core Flight System to the Dellingr Cubesat (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan


    Dellingr is a 6U Cubesat developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It was delivered to the International Space Station in August 2017, and is scheduled to be deployed in November 2017. Compared to a typical NASA satellite, the Dellingr Cubesat had an extremely low budget and short schedule. Although the Dellingr Cubesat has minimal hardware resources, the cFS was ultimately chosen for the flight software. Using the cFS on the Dellingr Cubesat presented a few challenges, but also offered opportunities to help speed up development and verify the ACS flight software. This presentation will cover the lessons learned in porting the cFS to the Dellingr Cubesat, including working with the limited hardware resources, porting the cFS to FreeRTOS, and overcoming limitations related to data storage and file transfer. This presentation will also cover how hardware abstraction was used to run the flight software on multiple platforms and interface with the 42 dynamic simulator.

  15. Highly segmented, high resolution time-of-flight system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, T.K.; Nagamiya, S.; Vossnack, O.; Wu, Y.D.; Zajc, W.A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Miake, Y.; Ueno, S.; Kitayama, H.; Nagasaka, Y.; Tomizawa, K.; Arai, I.; Yagi, K [Univ. of Tsukuba, (Japan)


    The light attenuation and timing characteristics of time-of-flight counters constructed of 3m long scintillating fiber bundles of different shapes and sizes are presented. Fiber bundles made of 5mm diameter fibers showed good timing characteristics and less light attenuation. The results for a 1.5m long scintillator rod are also presented.

  16. Flight test of a VTOL digital autoland system along complex trajectories (United States)

    Downing, D. R.; Bryant, W. H.; Ostroff, A. J.


    The objective of this research is the development and flight test of a digital multi-rate VTOL autoland system. This autoland system provided the NASA/Army Fly-by-Wire CH-47 helicopter with an automatic 4-D trajectory following and landing capability. Flight tests were conducted along complex trajectories with descending, turning, and decelerating segments. The flight software consists of a trajectory generator and guidance algorithm operating at two iterations per second and a set of sensor filters and an advanced controller operating at 10 iterations per second. This low iteration rate digital controller has a proportional-integral structure that provides an autotrim function. The control gains, scheduled as a function of flight condition, are updated every two seconds. All flight software, except input/output routines, are coded in FORTRAN using floating point arithmetic and are exercised in a ROLM 1664 flight computer. The flight software, the ground and flight hardware, the autoland system's position tracking performance, and the controller's velocity and heading tracking performance are presented.

  17. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.


    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  18. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.


    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA-High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high order characteristics of the system. In this paper, only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles at attack : 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  19. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.


    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  20. Computational Models of the Eye and their Applications in Long Duration Space Flight (United States)

    Chen, Richard; Best, Lauren; Mason, Kyle; Mulugeta, Lealem


    Astronauts are exposed to cephalad fluid shift, increased carbon dioxide levels and other environmental factors during space flight. As a result of these conditions, it is believed that they are at risk of developing increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and intraocular pressure (IOP), which in turn may cause papilledema and other disorders of the eye that can lead to temporary or permanent changes in vision. However, the mechanisms behind this risk are not fully understood. Ground analog and flight studies pose challenges because there are limited non-invasive methods that can be used to study the eye and intracranial space. Therefore it is proposed that computational models can be applied to help address this gap by providing a low cost method for studying the effects of IOP, ICP and various properties of the eye on these diseases. The information presented by the authors provides a summary of several models found in literature that could potentially be augmented and applied to inform research. Specifically, finite element models of the optic nerve head, sclera and other structures of the eye can be readily adapted as potential building blocks. These models may also be integrated with a brain/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) model which will take into account the interaction between the CSF fluid and its pressure on the optic nerve. This integration can enable the study of the effects of microgravity on the interaction between the vasculature system and CSF system and can determine the effects of these changes on the optic nerve, and in turn the eye. Ultimately, it can help pinpoint the influences of long-term exposure to microgravity on vision and inform the future research into countermeasure development. In addition to spaceflight, these models can provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms of glaucoma, papilledema and other eye disorders observed in terrestrial conditions.

  1. A manned maneuvering unit proximity operations planning and flight guidance display and control system (United States)

    Gershzohn, Gary R.; Sirko, Robert J.; Zimmerman, K.; Jones, A. D.


    This task concerns the design, development, testing, and evaluation of a new proximity operations planning and flight guidance display and control system for manned space operations. A forecast, derivative manned maneuvering unit (MMU) was identified as a candidate for the application of a color, highway-in-the-sky display format for the presentation of flight guidance information. A silicon graphics 4D/20-based simulation is being developed to design and test display formats and operations concepts. The simulation includes the following: (1) real-time color graphics generation to provide realistic, dynamic flight guidance displays and control characteristics; (2) real-time graphics generation of spacecraft trajectories; (3) MMU flight dynamics and control characteristics; (4) control algorithms for rotational and translational hand controllers; (5) orbital mechanics effects for rendezvous and chase spacecraft; (6) inclusion of appropriate navigation aids; and (7) measurement of subject performance. The flight planning system under development provides for: (1) selection of appropriate operational modes, including minimum cost, optimum cost, minimum time, and specified ETA; (2) automatic calculation of rendezvous trajectories, en route times, and fuel requirements; (3) and provisions for manual override. Man/machine function allocations in planning and en route flight segments are being evaluated. Planning and en route data are presented on one screen composed of two windows: (1) a map display presenting a view perpendicular to the orbital plane, depicting flight planning trajectory and time data attitude display presenting attitude and course data for use en route; and (2) an attitude display presenting local vertical-local horizontal attitude data superimposed on a highway-in-the-sky or flight channel representation of the flight planned course. Both display formats are presented while the MMU is en route. In addition to these displays, several original display

  2. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems Using Ascent Vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark


    A launch vehicle represents a complicated flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. The Ascent-vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) is developed to address the complicity in design and analysis of a launch vehicle. The design objective for the flight control system of a launch vehicle is to best follow guidance commands while robustly maintaining system stability. A constrained optimization approach takes the advantage of modern computational control techniques to simultaneously design multiple control systems in compliance with required design specs. "Tower Clearance" and "Load Relief" designs have been achieved for liftoff and max dynamic pressure flight regions, respectively, in the presence of large wind disturbances. The robustness of the flight control system designs has been verified in the frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis using ASAT.

  3. Future Standardization of Space Telecommunications Radio System with Core Flight System (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Hickey, Joseph P.; Roche, Rigoberto; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Charles S.


    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is integrating the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Standard with the Core Flight System (cFS), an avionics software operating environment. The STRS standard provides a common, consistent framework to develop, qualify, operate and maintain complex, reconfigurable and reprogrammable radio systems. The cFS is a flexible, open architecture that features a plugand- play software executive called the Core Flight Executive (cFE), a reusable library of software components for flight and space missions and an integrated tool suite. Together, STRS and cFS create a development environment that allows for STRS compliant applications to reference the STRS application programmer interfaces (APIs) that use the cFS infrastructure. These APIs are used to standardize the communication protocols on NASAs space SDRs. The cFS-STRS Operating Environment (OE) is a portable cFS library, which adds the ability to run STRS applications on existing cFS platforms. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cFS-STRS OE prototype, preliminary experimental results performed using the Advanced Space Radio Platform (ASRP), the GRC S- band Ground Station and the SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Testbed currently flying onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Additionally, this paper presents a demonstration of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Spacecraft Onboard Interface Services (SOIS) using electronic data sheets (EDS) inside cFE. This configuration allows for the data sheets to specify binary formats for data exchange between STRS applications. The integration of STRS with cFS leverages mission-proven platform functions and mitigates barriers to integration with future missions. This reduces flight software development time and the costs of software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Furthermore, the combined benefits of STRS standardization with the flexibility of cFS provide an effective, reliable and

  4. The Integrated Medical Model: A Decision Support Tool for In-flight Crew Health Care (United States)

    Butler, Doug


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of an Integrated Medical Model (IMM) decision support tool for in-flight crew health care safety. Clinical methods, resources, and case scenarios are also addressed.

  5. Scaled Model Technology for Flight Research of General Aviation Aircraft, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed future Phase II activities are aimed at developing a scientifically based "tool box" for flight research using scaled models. These tools will be of...

  6. Stability and control modelling. [helicopters in near hovering flight (United States)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.


    This paper discusses the influence of rotor dynamics and dynamic inflow on the stability and control characteristics of single rotor helicopters in near hovering flight. Body attitude and rate feedback gain limitations which arise due to rotor dynamics and dynamic inflow are discussed. It is shown that attitude feedback gain is limited primarily by body-flap coupling and rate gain is limited by the lag degrees of freedom. Dynamic inflow is shown to produce significant changes in the modes of motion.

  7. Development of a Model Following Control Law for Inflight Simulation and Flight Controls Research (United States)

    Takahashi, Mark; Fletcher, Jay; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)


    The U.S. Army and NASA are currently developing the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) at the Ames Research Center. RASCAL, shown in Figure 1, is a UH-60, which is being modified in a phased development program to have a research fly-by-wire flight control system, and an advanced navigation research platform. An important part of the flight controls and handling qualities research on RASCAL will be an FCS design for the aircraft to achieve high bandwidth control responses and disturbance rejection characteristics. Initially, body states will be used as feedbacks, but research into the use of rotor states will also be considered in later stages to maximize agility and maneuverability. In addition to supporting flight controls research, this FCS design will serve as the inflight simulation control law to support basic handling qualities, guidance, and displays research. Research in high bandwidth controls laws is motivated by the desire to improve the handling qualities in aggressive maneuvering and in severely degraded weather conditions. Naturally, these advantages will also improve the quality of the model following, thereby improving the inflight simulation capabilities of the research vehicle. High bandwidth in the control laws provides tighter tracking allowing for higher response bandwidths which can meet handling qualities requirements for aggressive maneuvering. System sensitivity is also reduced preventing variations in the response from the vehicle due to changing flight conditions. In addition, improved gust rejection will result from this reduced sensitivity. The gust rejection coupled with a highly stable system will make more precise maneuvering and pointing possible in severely degraded weather conditions. The difficulty in achieving higher bandwidths from the control laws in the feedback and in the responses arises from the complexity of the models that are needed to produce a satisfactory design. In this case, high

  8. Method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system such as a flight vehicle (United States)

    Miller, Robert H. (Inventor); Ribbens, William B. (Inventor)


    A method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system having sensors for measuring state variables and providing corresponding output signals in response to one or more system input signals are provided. The method includes calculating estimated gains of a filter and selecting an appropriate linear model for processing the output signals based on the input signals. The step of calculating utilizes one or more models of the dynamic system to obtain estimated signals. The method further includes calculating output error residuals based on the output signals and the estimated signals. The method also includes detecting one or more hypothesized failures or performance degradations of a component or subsystem of the dynamic system based on the error residuals. The step of calculating the estimated values is performed optimally with respect to one or more of: noise, uncertainty of parameters of the models and un-modeled dynamics of the dynamic system which may be a flight vehicle or financial market or modeled financial system.

  9. A Reusable and Adaptable Software Architecture for Embedded Space Flight System: The Core Flight Software System (CFS) (United States)

    Wilmot, Jonathan


    The contents include the following: High availability. Hardware is in harsh environment. Flight processor (constraints) very widely due to power and weight constraints. Software must be remotely modifiable and still operate while changes are being made. Many custom one of kind interfaces for one of a kind missions. Sustaining engineering. Price of failure is high, tens to hundreds of millions of dollars.

  10. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) software system definition (United States)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.


    The Propulsion Flight Control Integration Technology (PROFIT) program is designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The control software for PROFIT is defined. Maximum flexibility, needed for long term use of the flight facility, is achieved through a modular design. The Host program, processes inputs from the telemetry uplink, aircraft central computer, cockpit computer control and plant sensors to form an input data base for use by the control algorithms. The control algorithms, programmed as application modules, process the input data to generate an output data base. The Host program formats the data for output to the telemetry downlink, the cockpit computer control, and the control effectors. Two applications modules are defined - the bill of materials F-100 engine control and the bill of materials F-15 inlet control.

  11. Knowledge Capture and Management for Space Flight Systems (United States)

    Goodman, John L.


    The incorporation of knowledge capture and knowledge management strategies early in the development phase of an exploration program is necessary for safe and successful missions of human and robotic exploration vehicles over the life of a program. Following the transition from the development to the flight phase, loss of underlying theory and rationale governing design and requirements occur through a number of mechanisms. This degrades the quality of engineering work resulting in increased life cycle costs and risk to mission success and safety of flight. Due to budget constraints, concerned personnel in legacy programs often have to improvise methods for knowledge capture and management using existing, but often sub-optimal, information technology and archival resources. Application of advanced information technology to perform knowledge capture and management would be most effective if program wide requirements are defined at the beginning of a program.

  12. Time of flight mass spectrometry of pharmaceutical systems


    Armitage Nolan, Jennifer Claire


    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a widely used surface chemical analysis technique that is traditionally employed to characterise the first few molecular layers of a material interface. The ability of this technique to accurately reflect the surface chemistry of polymers, biomaterials and many other solid materials is well documented. However, the majority of research that utilises this technique is based upon a qualitative rather than quantitative assessment of th...

  13. Bifurcation Tools for Flight Dynamics Analysis and Control System Design, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern bifurcation analysis methods have been proposed for investigating flight dynamics and control system design in highly nonlinear regimes and also for the...

  14. An All Electronic, Adaptive, Focusing Schlieren System for Flight Research, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a proposal to develop an electronic, focusing schlieren system for flight research based on electronic cameras and spatial light modulators as dynamic...

  15. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...

  16. Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Substantial progress has been made by NASA in integrating flight avionics and ISHM with well-defined caution and warning system, however, the scope of ACAW alerting...

  17. A Scalable Semantics-Based Verification System for Flight Critical Software, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern flight-critical systems include hundreds of thousands to millions of lines of code. The Boeing 777, for instance, includes over 2 million lines of code....

  18. Intelligent Flight Support System (IFSS): A Real-time Intelligent Decision Support Prototype, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The integration of the analysis tools with the advanced visualization capabilities in The Intelligent Flight Support System (IFSS) can provide a unique method for...

  19. Voice Activated Cockpit Management Systems: Voice-Flight NexGen Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Speaking to the cockpit as a method of system management in flight can become an effective interaction method, since voice communication is very efficient. Automated...

  20. A Scalable Semantics-Based Verification System for Flight Critical Software, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight-critical systems rely on an ever increasing amount of software—the Boe- ing 777 contains over 2 million lines of code. Most of this code is written in the C...

  1. Reduction of Flight Control System/Structural Mode Interaction, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel approach is proposed for reducing the degree of interaction of a high gain flight control system with the airframe structural vibration modes, representing a...

  2. Self-Repairing Flight Control System for Online Health Monitoring and Recovery, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a reliable self-repairing Flight Control System (FCS) will be developed. To achieve this goal, an artificial Neural Network based Sensor...

  3. Modelling of XCO2 Surfaces Based on Flight Tests of TanSat Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Zhang


    Full Text Available The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km2 and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2 surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm. However, it is difficult to directly analyze the spatial distribution of XCO2 in the flight area using the limited flight test data and the approximate surface of XCO2, which was obtained by regression modeling, which is not very accurate either. We therefore used the high accuracy surface modeling (HASM platform to fill the gaps where there is no information on XCO2 in the flight test area, which takes the approximate surface of XCO2 as its driving field and the XCO2 observations retrieved from the flight test as its optimum control constraints. High accuracy surfaces of XCO2 were constructed with HASM based on the flight’s observations. The results showed that the mean XCO2 in the flight test area is about 400 ppm and that XCO2 over urban areas is much higher than in other places. Compared with OCO-2’s XCO2, the mean difference is 0.7 ppm and the standard deviation is 0.95 ppm. Therefore, the modelling of the XCO2 surface based on the flight test of the TanSat instruments fell within an expected and acceptable range.

  4. Advanced nonlinear control: Robustness and stability with applications to aircraft flight control systems (United States)

    Frye, Michael Takaichi

    This dissertation examines the problem of global decentralized control by output feedback for large-scale uncertain nonlinear systems whose subsystems are interconnected not only by their outputs but also by their unmeasurable states. Several innovative techniques will be developed to create decentralized output feedback controllers rendering the closed-loop systems globally asymptotically stable. This is accomplished by extending an output feedback domination design that requires only limited information about the nonlinear system. We will apply our design to lower, upper, and non-triangular nonlinear systems. A time-varying output feedback controller is also constructed for use with large-scale systems that have unknown parameters. Furthermore, a mixed large-scale system consisting of both lower and upper triangular systems is shown to be stabilizable by employing a combined high and low gain domination technique. The significance of our results is that we do not need to have prior information about the nonlinearities of the system. In addition, a new design technique was developed using homogeneous system theory, which allows for the design of nonsmooth controllers and observers to stabilize a class of feedforward system with uncontrollable and unobservable linearization. An example of a large-scale system is a group of autonomous airships performing the function of a temporary mobile cell phone network. An airship mobile cell phone network is a novel solution to the problem of maintaining communication during the advent of extensive damage to the communication infrastructure; be it from a flood, earthquake, hurricane, or terrorist attack. A first principle force-based dynamic model for the Tri-Turbofan Airship was developed and will be discussed in detail. The mathematical model was based on actual flight test data that has been collected at the Gait Analysis and Innovative Technologies Laboratory. This model was developed to research autonomous airship

  5. Small UAV Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System Design Considerations and Flight Test Results (United States)

    Sorokowski, Paul; Skoog, Mark; Burrows, Scott; Thomas, SaraKatie


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) project demonstrated several important collision avoidance technologies. First, the SUAV Auto GCAS design included capabilities to take advantage of terrain avoidance maneuvers flying turns to either side as well as straight over terrain. Second, the design also included innovative digital elevation model (DEM) scanning methods. The combination of multi-trajectory options and new scanning methods demonstrated the ability to reduce the nuisance potential of the SUAV while maintaining robust terrain avoidance. Third, the Auto GCAS algorithms were hosted on the processor inside a smartphone, providing a lightweight hardware configuration for use in either the ground control station or on board the test aircraft. Finally, compression of DEM data for the entire Earth and successful hosting of that data on the smartphone was demonstrated. The SUAV Auto GCAS project demonstrated that together these methods and technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce the number of controlled flight into terrain mishaps across a wide range of aviation platforms with similar capabilities including UAVs, general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and model aircraft.

  6. Flight-induced inhibition of the cerebral median peptidergic neurosecretory system in Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederen, J.H.; van Etten, E.W.; Biegstraaten, A.I.; Terlou, M.; Vullings, H.G.; Jansen, W.F.


    This study discusses the effects of a 1-hr period of flight on the peptidergic pars intercerebralis (PI)-corpus cardiacum storage part (CCS) system in male Locusta migratoria, particularly the effect on material in this system stained by a histochemical method for peptidergic neurosecretory material (NSM) or labeled by in vivo incorporation of radioactive amino acid molecules. By use of an automatic image analysis system a number of parameters of the stained or radioactively labeled substances were measured to quantify the flight-induced effects and to get information on the manner in which the neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI and their axonal endings in the CCS accommodate changing amounts of NSM. The CCS of flown locusts contained distinctly more stained and radioactively labeled substances than the CCS of unflown locusts. A tendency to similar differences was observed in the cluster of neurosecretory cell bodies in the PI. The results indicate that 1 hr flight inhibited the release of NSM by the PI-CCS system. After the onset of reduced release activity by flight, some NSM continued to be synthesized and transported from the PI to the CCS, gradually filling up and expanding the entire PI-CCS system, the NSM at the same time becoming more and more densely packed. It is concluded that the peptidergic PI-CCS system is not actively involved in the control of flight metabolism or flight behavior

  7. Supersonic Combustion in Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems for Hypersonic Flight (United States)

    Urzay, Javier


    Great efforts have been dedicated during the last decades to the research and development of hypersonic aircrafts that can fly at several times the speed of sound. These aerospace vehicles have revolutionary applications in national security as advanced hypersonic weapons, in space exploration as reusable stages for access to low Earth orbit, and in commercial aviation as fast long-range methods for air transportation of passengers around the globe. This review addresses the topic of supersonic combustion, which represents the central physical process that enables scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems to accelerate aircrafts to ultra-high speeds. The description focuses on recent experimental flights and ground-based research programs and highlights associated fundamental flow physics, subgrid-scale model development, and full-system numerical simulations.

  8. 78 FR 31838 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General... (United States)


    ...) occurs in the control laws of the electronic flight control system as the limit is approached or exceeded... regulatory adequacy under Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues... new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides flight envelope...

  9. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General... (United States)


    ... the control laws of the electronic flight control system as the limit is approached or exceeded. When... regulatory adequacy under Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues...), specifically new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides flight envelope...

  10. [Micron]ADS-B Detect and Avoid Flight Tests on Phantom 4 Unmanned Aircraft System (United States)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Dandachy, Mike; Truong, Hong; Aruljothi, Arun; Vedantam, Mihir; Epperson, Kraettli; McCartney, Reed


    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California and Vigilant Aerospace Systems collaborated for the flight-test demonstration of an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast based collision avoidance technology on a small unmanned aircraft system equipped with the uAvionix Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast transponder. The purpose of the testing was to demonstrate that National Aeronautics and Space Administration / Vigilant software and algorithms, commercialized as the FlightHorizon UAS"TM", are compatible with uAvionix hardware systems and the DJI Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The testing and demonstrations were necessary for both parties to further develop and certify the technology in three key areas: flights beyond visual line of sight, collision avoidance, and autonomous operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Vigilant Aerospace Systems have developed and successfully flight-tested an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system on the Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system architecture is especially suited for small unmanned aircraft systems because it integrates: 1) miniaturized Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast hardware; 2) radio data-link communications; 3) software algorithms for real-time Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast data integration, conflict detection, and alerting; and 4) a synthetic vision display using a fully-integrated National Aeronautics and Space Administration geobrowser for three dimensional graphical representations for ownship and air traffic situational awareness. The flight-test objectives were to evaluate the performance of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid collision avoidance technology as installed on two small unmanned aircraft systems. In December 2016, four flight tests

  11. Design and implementation of the flight dynamics system for COMS satellite mission operations (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Hwang, Yoola; Kim, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Jaehoon


    The first Korean multi-mission geostationary Earth orbit satellite, Communications, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) was launched by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle in June 26, 2010. The COMS satellite has three payloads including Ka-band communications, Geostationary Ocean Color Imager, and Meteorological Imager. Although the COMS spacecraft bus is based on the Astrium Eurostar 3000 series, it has only one solar array to the south panel because all of the imaging sensors are located on the north panel. In order to maintain the spacecraft attitude with 5 wheels and 7 thrusters, COMS should perform twice a day wheel off-loading thruster firing operations, which affect on the satellite orbit. COMS flight dynamics system provides the general on-station functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, station-keeping maneuver planning, station-relocation maneuver planning, and fuel accounting. All orbit related functions in flight dynamics system consider the orbital perturbations due to wheel off-loading operations. There are some specific flight dynamics functions to operate the spacecraft bus such as wheel off-loading management, oscillator updating management, and on-station attitude reacquisition management. In this paper, the design and implementation of the COMS flight dynamics system is presented. An object oriented analysis and design methodology is applied to the flight dynamics system design. Programming language C# within Microsoft .NET framework is used for the implementation of COMS flight dynamics system on Windows based personal computer.

  12. The scanning mechanism for ROSETTA/MIDAS: from an engineering model to the flight model (United States)

    Le Letty, R.; Barillot, F.; Lhermet, N.; Claeyssen, F.; Yorck, M.; Gavira Izquierdo, J.; Arends, H.


    The MIDAS (Micro Imaging Dust Analysis System) instrument jointly developed by IWF Graz (AT) and the Solar Space Division of ESA/ESTEC (NL) will flow on ROSETTA and will analyse the dust of the 46P/Wirtanen comet using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). A piezoelectric XYZ stage, used to scan the sample in 3 axis, is part of the instrument and has been fully designed and qualified under the ESA/ESTEC contract no13090/98/NL/MV. Two qualification models (EQM/QM) and two flight models (FM/FSM) have been integrated and fully tested within 18 months. The basic principle of the stage has been described in a previous paper. The XY stage includes a latch mechanism based on two Shape Memory actuators. This paper focuses on the lessons learned during the qualification campaign, especially on the testing activities and on the latch mechanism. The XYZ stage has followed a full qualification campaign including Thermal Vacuum cycles, Random Vibrations tests and lifetime tests. The latch mechanism has been designed and tested with the following features: easiness of locking and refurbishment operations, compatibility with the parallel two degrees of freedom mechanism, low shock device. It has been tested more than 20 times, including 4 tests in the worst case conditions (eg the most demanding power case at -20°C) and 2 times after a vibration test. The results and the parameters influencing the reproducibility are discussed. The functional performances have been assessed using a dedicated test bench. Comments are made on the measurements techniques used to get results independent from the drift effect displayed by the piezo components. The calibration work (static and gain of the position sensors) have played an important role during the testing activities. Several parameters (temperature, piezo drift effect and external forces acting on the stage and coming from the coarse approach mechanism) affects the static position. Because of the limited stroke range of reading of the

  13. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh


    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  14. Fiber-Optic Sensing System: Overview, Development and Deployment in Flight at NASA (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Richards, W. Lance


    An overview of the research and technological development of the fiber-optic sensing system (FOSS) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (NASA AFRC) is presented. Theory behind fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, as well as interrogation technique based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) is discussed. Assessment and validation of FOSS as an accurate measurement tool for structural health monitoring is realized in the laboratory environment as well as large-scale flight deployment.

  15. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.


    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  16. Flight Test Results from Real-Time Relative Global Positioning System Flight Experiment on STS-69 (United States)

    Park, Young W.; Brazzel, Jack P., Jr.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Hinkel, Heather D.; Newman, James H.


    A real-time global positioning system (GPS) Kalman filter has been developed to support automated rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). The filter is integrated with existing Shuttle rendezvous software running on a 486 laptop computer under Windows. In this work, we present real-time and postflight results achieved with the filter on STS-69. The experiment used GPS data from an Osborne/Jet propulsion Laboratory TurboRouge receiver carried on the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) free flyer and a Rockwell Collins 3M receiver carried on the Orbiter. Real time filter results, processed onboard the Shuttle and replayed in near-time on the ground, are based on single vehicle mode operation and on 5 to 20 minute snapshots of telemetry provided by WSF for dual-vehicle mode operation. The Orbiter and WSF state vectors calculated using our filter compare favorably with precise reference orbits determined by the University of Texas Center for Space Research. The lessons learned from this experiment will be used in conjunction with future experiments to mitigate the technology risk posed by automated rendezvous and docking to the ISS.

  17. Description, validation, and modification of the Guyton model for space-flight applications. Part A. Guyton model of circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control. Part B. Modification of the Guyton model for circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.


    The mathematical model that has been a cornerstone for the systems analysis of space-flight physiological studies is the Guyton model describing circulatory, fluid and electrolyte regulation. The model and the modifications that are made to permit simulation and analysis of the stress of weightlessness are described.

  18. Changes in gravity influence rat postnatal motor system development: from simulation to space flight (United States)

    Walton, K.; Heffernan, C.; Sulica, D.; Benavides, L.


    Our research examines the role of the environment in postnatal nervous system development. Recently we have been studying the effects of changes in gravity on the motor system of rats from postnatal day (P) 2 to 31 using kinematic analysis of swimming, walking, and righting reflexes. Using the tail suspension model of weightlessness we identified sensitive and critical periods of motor system development corresponding to the time during which a motor skill is first achieved. Motor performance in suspended animals was marked by slow swimming, walking, and air-righting, all of which were characterized by hindlimb extension. (Walton et al, Neurosci. 52,763,1992). The critical periods identified in these studies contributed to determining the age of animals for a small payload, NIH.R3. This 9-day mission (STS-72) included 2 litters at P5, P7, or P15 at launch. The P7-16 and P15-24 groups were studied post-flight. On the landing day (R+0) surface righting, swimming and walking were slower in flight compared to control animals. Differences were more marked in the younger animals and the hindlimbs were more affected than the forelimbs with marked, prolonged extension of, at least, the ankle joint angle. Readaptation to 1G was slower in the P7-16 group with righting reflexes adapting first, walking last. We have shown that gravity is an important factor in postnatal nervous system development and that its affect depends on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation, and the motor function studied.

  19. Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Aerothermostructural Model Applicable to Hypersonic Flight (United States)

    Kostyk, Chris; Risch, Tim


    The harsh and complex hypersonic flight environment has driven design and analysis improvements for many years. One of the defining characteristics of hypersonic flight is the coupled, multi-disciplinary nature of the dominant physics. In an effect to examine some of the multi-disciplinary problems associated with hypersonic flight engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center developed a non-linear 6 degrees-of-freedom, full vehicle simulation that includes the necessary model capabilities: aerothermal heating, ablation, and thermal stress solutions. Development of the tool and results for some investigations will be presented. Requirements and improvements for future work will also be reviewed. The results of the work emphasize the need for a coupled, multi-disciplinary analysis to provide accurate

  20. NASA-FAA helicopter Microwave Landing System curved path flight test (United States)

    Swenson, H. N.; Hamlin, J. R.; Wilson, G. W.


    An ongoing series of joint NASA/FAA helicopter Microwave Landing System (MLS) flight tests was conducted at Ames Research Center. This paper deals with tests done from the spring through the fall of 1983. This flight test investigated and developed solutions to the problem of manually flying curved-path and steep glide slope approaches into the terminal area using the MLS and flight director guidance. An MLS-equipped Bell UH-1H helicopter flown by NASA test pilots was used to develop approaches and procedures for flying these approaches. The approaches took the form of Straight-in, U-turn, and S-turn flightpaths with glide slopes of 6 deg, 9 deg, and 12 deg. These procedures were evaluated by 18 pilots from various elements of the helicopter community, flying a total of 221 hooded instrument approaches. Flying these curved path and steep glide slopes was found to be operationally acceptable with flight director guidance using the MLS.

  1. Immune System Dysregulation, Viral Reactivation and Stress During Short-Duration Space Flight (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence


    This slide presentation reviews a study that was conducted to ascertain if the immune system dysregulation, viral reactivation and stress from short duration space flight were a result of the stress of landing and readjustment to gravity. The objectives of the study were to replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; address lack of in-flight data: (i.e., determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation); determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  2. Towards a characterization of information automation systems on the flight deck (United States)

    Dudley, Rachel Feddersen

    This thesis summarizes research to investigate the characteristics that define information automation systems used on aircraft flight decks and the significant impacts that these characteristics have on pilot performance. Major accomplishments of the work include the development of a set of characteristics that describe information automation systems on the flight deck and an experiment designed to study a subset of these characteristics. Information automation systems on the flight deck are responsible for the collection, processing, analysis, and presentation of data to the flightcrew. These systems pose human factors issues and challenges that must be considered by designers of these systems. Based on a previously developed formal definition of information automation for aircraft flight deck systems, an analysis process was developed and conducted to reach a refined set of information automation characteristics. In this work, characteristics are defined as a set of properties or attributes that describe an information automation system's operation or behavior, which can be used to identify and assess potential human factors issues. Hypotheses were formed for a subset of the characteristics: Automation Visibility, Information Quality, and Display Complexity. An experimental investigation was developed to measure performance impacts related to these characteristics, which showed mixed results of expected and surprising findings, with many interactions. A set of recommendations were then developed based on the experimental observations. Ensuring that the right information is presented to pilots at the right time and in the appropriate manner is the job of flight deck system designers. This work provides a foundation for developing recommendations and guidelines specific to information automation on the flight deck with the goal of improving the design and evaluation of information automation systems before they are implemented.

  3. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  4. Marshall Space Flight Center Ground Systems Development and Integration (United States)

    Wade, Gina


    Ground Systems Development and Integration performs a variety of tasks in support of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) and other Center and Agency projects. These tasks include various systems engineering processes such as performing system requirements development, system architecture design, integration, verification and validation, software development, and sustaining engineering of mission operations systems that has evolved the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) into a leader in remote operations for current and future NASA space projects. The group is also responsible for developing and managing telemetry and command configuration and calibration databases. Personnel are responsible for maintaining and enhancing their disciplinary skills in the areas of project management, software engineering, software development, software process improvement, telecommunications, networking, and systems management. Domain expertise in the ground systems area is also maintained and includes detailed proficiency in the areas of real-time telemetry systems, command systems, voice, video, data networks, and mission planning systems.

  5. A queueing model of pilot decision making in a multi-task flight management situation (United States)

    Walden, R. S.; Rouse, W. B.


    Allocation of decision making responsibility between pilot and computer is considered and a flight management task, designed for the study of pilot-computer interaction, is discussed. A queueing theory model of pilot decision making in this multi-task, control and monitoring situation is presented. An experimental investigation of pilot decision making and the resulting model parameters are discussed.

  6. UAV using the open-source flight-control-system in the application of aerial survey (United States)

    Huang, Ji-chen; Ru, Chen


    The aerial survey as one of the branches of the Space Information Technology system, has an important application in data acquisition of the earth's surface. In recent years, the trend of UVA (unmanned aerial vehicle) to replace traditional survey aircraft has become increasingly obvious with the progress of science and technology. At present, the price of the commercial UAV Flight Control System is higher, limiting the application of UVA. This paper mainly discusses the possibility that the open-source's flight-control-system take the place of the commercial one. Result is that the costs of UVA are reduced, and make the application more widely.

  7. Planned flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. Part 2: Integration with host spacecraft (United States)

    Knight, R. M.


    The objectives of the flight test and a description on how those objectives are in support of an overall program goal of attaining user application were described. The approach to accomplishment was presented as it applies to integrating the propulsion system with the host spacecraft. A number of known interface design considerations which affect the propulsion system and the spacecraft were discussed. Analogies were drawn comparing the relationship of the organizations involved with this flight test with those anticipated for future operational missions. The paper also expanded upon objectives, system description, mission operations, and measurement of plume effects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available It remains urgent problem of damping of elastic vibrations occurring aircraft structure means the automatic control systems on board. In solving this problem the aircraft elastic model is the basis for the synthesis of control laws and analysis of closed-loop system "control object - the regulator." In general, the problem of mathematical modeling of flight dynamics of the elastic aircraft breaks for at least another two objectives, one of which - direct simulation of the behavior of elastic aircraft defined interacting forces, and the other - the account of the changes operating aerogidrodynamic forces and moments caused by the deformation elastic aircraft and work control systems. This paper discusses the theoretical basis of the approach to the solution of this problem, based on the replacement of the actual design of aircraft by equivalent circuit and its implementation for the missiles, the most simple in terms of schematic, class of aircraft. At the same time accounting for changes in aerodynamic forces and moments caused by the elastic deformation of the aircraft, it was performed by help of stationary hypothesis

  9. Integrated Health Management for Space Flight Digital Systems, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for a real-time Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system to identify anomalous states in digital electronic systems used in...

  10. Optical System Critical Design Review (CDR) Flight Software Summary (United States)

    Khorrami, Mori


    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI FSW presentation covers: (1) Optical System FSW only and Cooling System FSW is covered at its CDR (2) Requirements & Interfaces (3) Relationship with the ISIM FSW (4) FSW Design Drivers & Solutions.

  11. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis. (United States)


    ... the lowest output power provided by the transmitter system; (iii) Worst-case power loss due to antenna... automatic or inadvertent destruct system; (2) An engine hard-over nozzle induced tumble during each phase of...

  12. Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick


    The objective of this task is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost swept lasing light source for NASA DFRC's fiber optics sensing system (FOSS) to perform structural health monitoring on current and future aerospace vehicles. This is the regular update of the Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems website.

  13. [Application prospect of human-artificial intelligence system in future manned space flight]. (United States)

    Wei, Jin-he


    To make the manned space flight more efficient and safer, a concept of human-artificial (AI) system is proposed in the present paper. The task of future manned space flight and the technique requirement with respect to the human-AI system development were analyzed. The main points are as follows: 1)Astronaut and AI are complementary to each other functionally; 2) Both symbol AI and connectionist AI should be included in the human-AI system, but expert system and Soar-like system are used mainly inside the cabin, the COG-like robots are mainly assigned for EVA either in LEO flight or on the surface of Moon or Mars; 3) The human-AI system is hierarchical in nature with astronaut at the top level; 4) The complex interfaces between astronaut and AI are the key points for running the system reliably and efficiently. As the importance of human-AI system in future manned space flight and the complexity of related technology, it is suggested that the R/D should be planned as early as possible.

  14. Development, test and flight results of the rf systems for the yes2 tether experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucarella, Guillermina Castillejo; Cichocki, Andrzej; Burla, M.


    This paper highlights design, realization, testing and flight results of the Radio Frequency developments (RF) for ESA's second Young Engineers' Satellite (YES2), that included GPS systems, an intersatellite UHF link and a re-entry capsule telemetry and recovery system. The YES2 piggybacked on the

  15. Track structure model of cell damage in space flight (United States)

    Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Ngo, Duc M.


    The phenomenological track-structure model of cell damage is discussed. A description of the application of the track-structure model with the NASA Langley transport code for laboratory and space radiation is given. Comparisons to experimental results for cell survival during exposure to monoenergetic, heavy-ion beams are made. The model is also applied to predict cell damage rates and relative biological effectiveness for deep-space exposures.

  16. A Time-of-Flight System for Low Energy Charged Particles (United States)

    Giordano, Micheal; Sadwick, Krystalyn; Fletcher, Kurt; Padalino, Stephen


    A time-of-flight system has been developed to measure the energy of charged particles in the keV range. Positively charged ions passing through very thin carbon films mounted on grids generate secondary electrons. These electrons are accelerated by a -2000 V grid bias towards a grounded channeltron electron multiplier (CEM) which amplifies the signal. Two CEM detector assemblies are mounted 23.1 cm apart along the path of the ions. An ion generates a start signal by passing through the first CEM and a stop signal by passing through the second. The start and stop signals generate a time-of-flight spectrum via conventional electronics. Higher energy alpha particles from radioactive sources have been used to test the system. This time-of-flight system will be deployed to measure the energies of 15 to 30 keV ions produced by a duoplasmatron ion source that is used to characterize ICF detectors.

  17. A computational model for estimating the mechanics of horizontal flapping flight in bats: model description and validation. (United States)

    Watts, P; Mitchell, E J; Swartz, S M


    We combine three-dimensional descriptions of the movement patterns of the shoulder, elbow, carpus, third metacarpophalangeal joint and wingtip with a constant-circulation estimation of aerodynamic force to model the wing mechanics of the grey-headed flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) in level flight. Once rigorously validated, this computer model can be used to study diverse aspects of flight. In the model, we partitioned the wing into a series of chordwise segments and calculated the magnitude of segmental aerodynamic forces assuming an elliptical, spanwise distribution of circulation at the middle of the downstroke. The lift component of the aerodynamic force is typically an order of magnitude greater than the thrust component. The largest source of drag is induced drag, which is approximately an order of magnitude greater than body form and skin friction drag. Using this model and standard engineering beam theory, we calculate internal reaction forces, moments and stresses at the humeral and radial midshaft during flight. To assess the validity of our model, we compare the model-derived stresses with our previous in vivo empirical measurements of bone strain from P. poliocephalus in free flapping flight. Agreement between bone stresses from the simulation and those calculated from empirical strain measurements is excellent and suggests that the computer model captures a significant portion of the mechanics and aerodynamics of flight in this species.

  18. Development of a Flush Airdata Sensing System on a Sharp-Nosed Vehicle for Flight at Mach 3 to 8 (United States)

    Davis, Mark C.; Pahle, Joseph W.; White, John Terry; Marshall, Laurie A.; Mashburn, Michael J.; Franks, Rick


    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a flush airdata sensing (FADS) system on a sharp-nosed, wedge-shaped vehicle. This paper details the design and calibration of a real-time angle-of-attack estimation scheme developed to meet the onboard airdata measurement requirements for a research vehicle equipped with a supersonic-combustion ramjet engine. The FADS system has been designed to perform in flights at Mach 3-8 and at -6 deg - 12 deg angle of attack. The description of the FADS architecture includes port layout, pneumatic design, and hardware integration. Predictive models of static and dynamic performance are compared with wind-tunnel results across the Mach and angle-of-attack range. Results indicate that static angle-of-attack accuracy and pneumatic lag can be adequately characterized and incorporated into a real-time algorithm.

  19. A Reconfiguration Scheme for Accommodating Actuator Failures in Multi-Input, Multi-Output Flight Control Systems (United States)

    Siwakosit, W.; Hess, R. A.; Bacon, Bart (Technical Monitor); Burken, John (Technical Monitor)


    A multi-input, multi-output reconfigurable flight control system design utilizing a robust controller and an adaptive filter is presented. The robust control design consists of a reduced-order, linear dynamic inversion controller with an outer-loop compensation matrix derived from Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). A principle feature of the scheme is placement of the adaptive filter in series with the QFT compensator thus exploiting the inherent robustness of the nominal flight control system in the presence of plant uncertainties. An example of the scheme is presented in a pilot-in-the-loop computer simulation using a simplified model of the lateral-directional dynamics of the NASA F18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) that included nonlinear anti-wind up logic and actuator limitations. Prediction of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillation tendencies in the presence of these nonlinearities is included in the example.

  20. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology by adopting the flight data with state-of-the-art...

  1. Verification and Validation of Flight Critical Systems, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Verification and Validation is a multi-disciplinary activity that encompasses elements of systems engineering, safety, software engineering and test. The elements...

  2. Storage Information Management System (SIMS) Spaceflight Hardware Warehousing at Goddard Space Flight Center (United States)

    Kubicko, Richard M.; Bingham, Lindy


    Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on site and leased warehouses contain thousands of items of ground support equipment (GSE) and flight hardware including spacecraft, scaffolding, computer racks, stands, holding fixtures, test equipment, spares, etc. The control of these warehouses, and the management, accountability, and control of the items within them, is accomplished by the Logistics Management Division. To facilitate this management and tracking effort, the Logistics and Transportation Management Branch, is developing a system to provide warehouse personnel, property owners, and managers with storage and inventory information. This paper will describe that PC-based system and address how it will improve GSFC warehouse and storage management.

  3. Evolution of the Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States)

    Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.; Heller, Stuart


    The Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center develops systems engineers from existing discipline engineers. The program has evolved significantly since the report to INCOSE in 2003. This paper describes the SEED Program as it is now, outlines the changes over the last year, discusses current status and results, and shows the value of human systems and leadership skills for practicing systems engineers.

  4. Design and Test Requirements for Space Flight Pressurized Systems (United States)


    25 5.8 Pneumatic System Configuration...temperatures, and thermal gradients. [4.2.5-4] Both membrane stress and bending stress resulting from internal pressure and external loads shall be calculated...bonding, forming, joining, machining , drilling, grinding, repair, etc., processes as applied to joining system 14 components and hardware and

  5. Flight prototype CO2 and humidity control system (United States)

    Rudy, K. M.


    A regenerable CO2 and humidity control system is presently being developed for potential use on shuttle as an alternative to the baseline lithium hydroxide system. The system utilizes a sorbent material (designated HS-C) to adsorb CO2 and the latent heat load from the cabin atmosphere and desorb the CO2 and water vapor overboard when exposed to a space vacuum, thus reducing the overall vehicle heat rejection load. Continuous operation is achieved by utilizing two beds which are alternatively cycled between adsorption and desorption. The HS-C material process was verified. Design concepts for the auxiliary components for the HS-C prototype system were generated. Performance testing verified system effectiveness in controlling CO2 partial pressure and humidity.

  6. The FAA/NASA flight loads monitoring program - The prototype system and its benefits for the aviation community (United States)

    Whitehead, Julia H.; Thomas, Mitchel E.; Carrelli, David J.; Crabill, Norman L.


    The FAA established the flight load monitoring program to collect a data base of typical flight operational loads experienced by commercial transports. This system will provide a comprehensive monitoring of aircraft loading conditions with over 20 flight parameters being recorded simultaneously. NASA is designing and testing a prototype data collection and analysis system which will be implemented into an FAA operational program. This paper presents the program's objectives and the proposed development testing on a commercial Boeing 737-400. The prototype system, its data processing schemes, and reports are described. The searching criteria or flight attributes generated for each flight are listed. The data processing system will provide the aviation community with a powerful tool for the study of transport flight loading conditions and the system's flexibility will accommodate individual studies and specialized concerns.

  7. Development of U.S. Government General Technical Requirements for UAS Flight Safety Systems Utilizing the Iridium Satellite Constellation (United States)

    Murray, Jennifer; Birr, Richard


    This slide presentation reviews the development of technical requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) utilization of the Iridium Satellite Constellation to provide flight safety. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) required an over-the-horizon communication standard to guarantee flight safety before permitting widespread UAS flights in the National Air Space (NAS). This is important to ensure reliable control of UASs during loss-link and over-the-horizon scenarios. The core requirement was to utilize a satellite system to send GPS tracking data and other telemetry from a flight vehicle down to the ground. Iridium was chosen as the system because it is one of the only true satellite systems that has world wide coverage, and the service has a highly reliable link margin. The Iridium system, the flight modems, and the test flight are described.

  8. Preliminary Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the conceptual Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.


    A failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) was made of the Brayton Isotope Power System Flight System (BIPS-FS) as presently conceived. The components analyzed include: Mini-BRU; Heat Source Assembly (HSA); Mini-Brayton Recuperator (MBR); Space Radiator; Ducts and Bellows, Insulation System; Controls; and Isotope Heat Source (IHS)

  9. A Fuzzy Heater Control System Stimulating Thermal Cycling of Flight Hardware for a Thermal Environmental Test (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Li; Chen, Yow-Hwa; Pan, Hsu-Pin; Cheng, Robert; Hsiao, Chiuder


    The flight hardware suffers thermal cycling in space environment. The temperature range of the hardware is controlled between -45 C and 85 C for the space-flight test environment in a thermal vacuum chamber on ground. A Heater Control System (HCS) provides thirty heating points to simulate the thermal status of flight hardware. The control is configured in traditional PD algorithm and implemented in a workstation of a control room. Since the thermal mass is different for the different articles, the pre-determined parameters of PD control cannot fit all articles. The fuzzy logics are then proposed to be adaptive to the different articles. The fuzzy control is implemented with LabVIEW in a PXI industrial computer. The remote GPIB instruments of hibay are interfaced to PXI computer via Ethernet communication. In summary, the overall system takes advantages of GPIB standardized component, increasing capabilities, adaptive control with a fuzzy algorithm, and distributed control architecture.

  10. Application of GIS-based models for delineating the UAV flight region to support Search and Rescue activities (United States)

    Jurecka, Miroslawa; Niedzielski, Tomasz


    The objective of the approach presented in this paper is to demonstrate a potential of using the combination of two GIS-based models - mobility model and ring model - for delineating a region above which an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) should fly to support the Search and Rescue (SAR) activities. The procedure is based on two concepts, both describing a possible distance/path that lost person could travel from the initial planning point (being either the point last seen, or point last known). The first approach (the ring model) takes into account the crow's flight distance traveled by a lost person and its probability distribution. The second concept (the mobility model) is based on the estimated travel speed and the associated features of the geographical environment of the search area. In contrast to the ring model covering global (hence more general) SAR perspective, the mobility model represents regional viewpoint by taking into consideration local impedance. Both models working together can serve well as a starting point for the UAV flight planning to strengthen the SAR procedures. We present the method of combining the two above-mentioned models in order to delineate UAVs flight region and increase the Probability of Success for future SAR missions. The procedure is a part of a larger Search and Rescue (SAR) system which is being developed at the University of Wrocław, Poland (research project no. IP2014 032773 financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland). The mobility and ring models have been applied to the Polish territory, and they act in concert to provide the UAV operator with the optimal search region. This is attained in real time so that the UAV-based SAR mission can be initiated quickly.

  11. Core Flight Software for Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) is increasing worldwide, but multiple technical barriers restrict the greater use of UASs. The safe operation of UASs in the...

  12. Integration of Predictive Display and Aircraft Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov A.V.


    Full Text Available The synthesis of predictive display information and direct lift control system are considered for the path control tracking tasks (in particular landing task. The both solutions are based on pilot-vehicle system analysis and requirements to provide the highest accuracy and lowest pilot workload. The investigation was carried out for cases with and without time delay in aircraft dynamics. The efficiency of the both ways for the flying qualities improvement and their integration is tested by ground based simulation.

  13. Application of SAE ARP4754A to Flight Critical Systems (United States)

    Peterson, Eric M.


    This report documents applications of ARP4754A to the development of modern computer-based (i.e., digital electronics, software and network-based) aircraft systems. This study is to offer insight and provide educational value relative to the guidelines in ARP4754A and provide an assessment of the current state-of-the- practice within industry and regulatory bodies relative to development assurance for complex and safety-critical computer-based aircraft systems.

  14. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Lung; Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Teng, Yao-Jen; Hao, Shu-Sheng


    The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft's nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft's nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path.

  15. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Lung Huang


    Full Text Available The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft’s nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft’s nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path.

  16. X-37 Flight Demonstrator: X-40A Flight Test Approach (United States)

    Mitchell, Dan


    The flight test objectives are: Evaluate calculated air data system (CADS) experiment. Evaluate Honeywell SIGI (GPS/INS) under flight conditions. Flight operation control center (FOCC) site integration and flight test operations. Flight test and tune GN&C algorithms. Conduct PID maneuvers to improve the X-37 aero database. Develop computer air date system (CADS) flight data to support X-37 system design.

  17. Design of the TORCH detector: A Cherenkov based Time-of-Flight system for particle identification

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078663; Rademacker, Jonas

    The LHCb detector at the LHC collider has been very successfully operated over the past years, providing new and profound insights into the Standard Model, in particular through study of $b$-hadrons to achieve a better understanding of CP violation. One of the key components of LHCb is its particle identification system, comprised of two RICH detectors, which allow for high precision separation of particle species over a large momentum range. In order to retain and improve the performance of the particle identification system in light of the LHCb upgrade, the TORCH detector has been proposed to supplement the RICH system at low momentum (2-10 GeV/c). The TORCH detector provides (charged) particle identification through precision timing of particles passing through it. Assuming a known momentum from the tracking, it is possible to derive the species of a particle from the time of flight from its primary vertex. This measurement is achieved by timing and combining photons generated in a solid radiator. The geom...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training... (United States)


    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and...—Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices Begin... NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program as described in this appendix. The NSPM will...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo


    Full Text Available Purpose: Development of mathematical and experimental models of polikopter UAV NAU PKF "Aurora" of oktakopter scheme for experimental flights in manual, semi-automatic and unmanned mode.                  Methods: 14/03/2016 - 21/03/2016 held a serіe of experiental flights (10 flights of 10 rats on altitude 700 meters on polіkopter (oktakopter NAU PKF "Aurora" in germetic kabіn with the study of his somatic,  nevrologіcal status after the flight. Flights also carried out with experimental animals on board for such a safety assessment. Results: The obtained logs of 'black box' of the autopilot indicate very small (almost invisible fluctuations in pitch, roll and yaw during the flight, minor variations on altitude during almost stationary hovering of polikopter at different altitudes, and fully adequate to movements and maneuvers of aircraft vibrations and parameters of these sensors. Discussion: In the course of these studies demonstrated experimentally the possibility of completely safe flight of the mammals (rats on polikopter vehicle, even in the open cockpit. With appropriate refinement possible in the future to raise the issue of the development and construction of passenger polikopter flyers for totally safe air transportation of people [6,7,8]. In terms of adverse mechanical effects on the human body (acceleration overload fluctuations, vibrations polikopter transport is safer and less harmful to the passengers than road transport, which is particularly important in the delivery of patient of neurosurgical, politravmatological, cardiologycal and critical care profile at critical condition in intensive care units and operating hospitals and medical centers.

  20. Flight Evaluation of the Army/NASA Variable Stability Fly-by-Wire Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concept Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A (United States)

    Arterburn, Dave


    NASA Ames Research Center and the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) have performed initial flight evaluations of the Research Flight Control System (RFCS) integrated into the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A. The highly modified JUH-6OA Black Hawk helicopter is a full authority, high bandwidth, variable stability, in-flight simulator designed to support development of advanced flight control, sensor, and integrated display and control technologies in a fail safe environment. Preparation for flight test required an extensive hazard analysis and ground testing to ensure proper system operation. A hardware in the loop development facility was utilized to evaluate control law stability following software changes, assess servo hardover upset conditions during manual and monitor disengagements and provide pilot familiarization of test techniques and software changes prior to flight. First engagement of the RFCS was conducted on 31 Aug 2001. RFCS transfer system operation, envelope expansion and a limited rate monitor evaluation have been completed with low bandwidth and model following control laws.

  1. Fault Tolerant Flight Control : A Physical Model Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.


    Safety is of paramount importance in all transportation systems, but especially in civil aviation. Therefore, in civil aviation, a lot of developments focus on the improvement of safety levels and reducing the risks that critical failures occur. When one analyses recent aircraft accident statistics,

  2. Case Study: Test Results of a Tool and Method for In-Flight, Adaptive Control System Verification on a NASA F-15 Flight Research Aircraft (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Schumann, Johann; Guenther, Kurt; Bosworth, John


    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable autonomous flight control and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments [1-2]. At the present time, however, it is unknown how adaptive algorithms can be routinely verified, validated, and certified for use in safety-critical applications. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification end validation must be developed to ensure that. the control software functions as required and is highly safe and reliable. A large gap appears to exist between the point at which control system designers feel the verification process is complete, and when FAA certification officials agree it is complete. Certification of adaptive flight control software verification is complicated by the use of learning algorithms (e.g., neural networks) and degrees of system non-determinism. Of course, analytical efforts must be made in the verification process to place guarantees on learning algorithm stability, rate of convergence, and convergence accuracy. However, to satisfy FAA certification requirements, it must be demonstrated that the adaptive flight control system is also able to fail and still allow the aircraft to be flown safely or to land, while at the same time providing a means of crew notification of the (impending) failure. It was for this purpose that the NASA Ames Confidence Tool was developed [3]. This paper presents the Confidence Tool as a means of providing in-flight software assurance monitoring of an adaptive flight control system. The paper will present the data obtained from flight testing the tool on a specially modified F-15 aircraft designed to simulate loss of flight control faces.

  3. Dealing with unexpected events on the flight deck : A conceptual model of startle and surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, H.M.; Groen, E.L.; Paassen, M.M. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Mulder, M.


    Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of

  4. Dealing With Unexpected Events on the Flight Deck : A Conceptual Model of Startle and Surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, H.M.; Groen, Eric L.; van Paassen, M.M.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.; Mulder, M.


    Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of

  5. A high fidelity video delivery system for real-time flight simulation research (United States)

    Wilkins, Daniel A.; Roach, Carl C.

    The Flight Systems and Simulation Research Laboratory (Simlab) at the NASA Ames Research Center, utilizes an extensive network of video image generation, delivery, processing, and display systems coupled with a large amplitude Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to provide a high fidelity visual environment for flight simulation research. This paper will explore the capabilities of the current Simlab video distribution system architecture with a view toward technical solutions implemented to resolve a variety of video interface, switching, and distribution issues common to many simulation facilities. Technical discussions include a modular approach to a video switching and distribution system capable of supporting both coax and fiber optic video signal transmission, video scan conversion and processing techniques for lab observation and recording, adaptation of image generation and display system video interfaces to industry standards, an all raster solution for 'glass cockpit' configurations encompassing Head up, Head-down, and Out-the-Window display systems.

  6. Flight-systems safety program, September 1982. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronisz, S.E.


    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Space Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues

  7. Flight Simulator: Evaluation of SODERN Visualization System SVS-14. (United States)


    no visible raster line structure and was virtually flicker-free. the SODERN projector presented a bright picture through a Pancake Window display , roughly... Window display . Remarks. Following successful testing of SODERN in France and at AFHRL, the SVS-14 was accepted without waiver. The projector system

  8. 14 CFR 25.1329 - Flight guidance system. (United States)


    ... levers. Quick disengagement controls must be readily accessible to each pilot while operating the control wheel (or equivalent) and thrust control levers. (b) The effects of a failure of the system to disengage... the flightcrew to move the thrust levers without requiring excessive force. The autothrust may not...

  9. Task 2: Flight prototype system design report, pulsed plasma solid propellant microthruster for the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (United States)

    Guman, W. J. (Editor)


    Design details are presented of the solid propellant pulsed plasma microthruster which was analyzed during the Task 1 effort. The design details presented show that the inherent functional simplicity underlying the flight proven LES-6 design can be maintained in the SMS systems design even with minimum weight constraints imposed. A 1293 hour uninterrupted vacuum test with the engineering thermal model, simulating an 18.8 to 33 g environment of the propellant, its feed system and electrode assembly, revealed that program thruster performance requirements could be met. This latter g environment is a more severe environment than will be ever encountered in the SMS spacecraft.

  10. Impact of new computing systems on computational mechanics and flight-vehicle structures technology (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Storaasli, O. O.; Fulton, R. E.


    Advances in computer technology which may have an impact on computational mechanics and flight vehicle structures technology were reviewed. The characteristics of supersystems, highly parallel systems, and small systems are summarized. The interrelations of numerical algorithms and software with parallel architectures are discussed. A scenario for future hardware/software environment and engineering analysis systems is presented. Research areas with potential for improving the effectiveness of analysis methods in the new environment are identified.

  11. Artificial Immune System for Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection (United States)


    Specifications Simulation setting Model Dell XPS L501X N of simulations 1000 Processor Intel Core i5 @ 2.67GHz Solver Discrete, fixed step Ram... 15 . SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b...Methodology 15 4. Technical Results 16 5. Important Findings and Conclusions 16 6. Significant Hardware

  12. Design and Flight Performance of the Orion Pre-Launch Navigation System (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato


    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to test the prelaunch and entry components of the system. Orion's pre-launch absolute navigation design is presented, together with its EFT-1 performance.

  13. failure analysis of a uav flight control system using markov analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure analysis of a flight control system proposed for Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was studied using Markov Analysis (MA). It was perceived that understanding of the number of failure states and the probability of being in those state are of paramount importance in order to ...

  14. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.


    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  15. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging (United States)


    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  16. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle (United States)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  17. Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan


    Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.

  18. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the ARES Atmospheric Flight Vehicle Thermal Control System (United States)

    Gasbarre, J. F.; Dillman, R. A.


    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a proposed 2007 Mars Scout Mission that will be the first mission to deploy an atmospheric flight vehicle (AFV) on another planet. This paper will describe the preliminary design and analysis of the AFV thermal control system for its flight through the Martian atmosphere and also present other analyses broadening the scope of that design to include other phases of the ARES mission. Initial analyses are discussed and results of trade studies are presented which detail the design process for AFV thermal control. Finally, results of the most recent AFV thermal analysis are shown and the plans for future work are discussed.

  19. Description and Flight Test Results of the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire Control System (United States)


    A NASA program to develop digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) technology for aircraft applications is discussed. Phase I of the program demonstrated the feasibility of using a digital fly-by-wire system for aircraft control through developing and flight testing a single channel system, which used Apollo hardware, in an F-8C airplane. The objective of Phase II of the program is to establish a technology base for designing practical DFBW systems. It will involve developing and flight testing a triplex digital fly-by-wire system using state-of-the-art airborne computers, system hardware, software, and redundancy concepts. The papers included in this report describe the Phase I system and its development and present results from the flight program. Man-rated flight software and the effects of lightning on digital flight control systems are also discussed.

  20. A simple model to estimate radiation doses to aircrew during air flights in Brazil and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando; Pérez Guerrero, Jesus Salvador; Lavalle Heilbron, Rafael Cabidolusso; Amaral, Mario Luth Gonçalves Henriques do


    The objective of this article is to present the results obtained from the development of a simple model used to estimate cosmic radiation doses from crew members taking into consideration the variation of the dose rates with the altitude and the latitude, airplane cruise velocity and other important parameters such as, cruise height, takeoff time, landing time, takeoff angle, landing angle. The model was incorporated into a Brazilian computer program developed using the “mathematica” symbolic software. The data used to calculate the dose rates with altitude and latitude by the authors takes into consideration the mean solar activity from January 1958 to December 2008 (51 years). Twenty two data including international and national American flights were used to test the program and the results between them compared, showing good agreement. The program also gives excellent results for the doses expected for the crew members of three Brazilian national flights (between capitals cities in Brazil) when compared with the doses values measured for these flights using a radiation detector. According to the results the doses expected for the Brazilian crews of domestic flights can, in some cases, depending on the number of annual flights, overcome the limit of 1 mSv/year established by the Brazilian competent authority in Brazil (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission- CNEN) for public annual exposure. In the case of the simulated international flights the results shows a good agreement with the results found in literature especially when considered the different database series used by the authors and by the other references for the solar activity. (authors)

  1. Computational modeling of aerodynamics in the fast forward flight of hummingbirds (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Tobalske, Bret; Hedrick, Tyson


    Computational models of the hummingbird at flight speed 8.3 m/s is built based on high-speed imaging of the real bird flight in the wind tunnel. The goal is to understand the lift and thrust production of the wings at the high advance ratio (flight speed to the average wingtip speed) around 1. Both the full 3D CFD model based on an immersed-boundary method and the blade-element model based on quasi-steady flow assumption were adopted to analyze the aerodynamics. The result shows that while the weight support is generated during downstroke, little negative weight support is produced during upstroke. On the other hand, thrust is generated during both downstroke and upstroke, which allows the bird to overcome drag induced at fast flight. The lift and thrust characteristics are closely related to the instantaneous wing position and motion. In addition, the flow visualization shows that the leading-edge vortex is stable during most of the wing-beat, which may have contributed to the lift and thrust enhancement. NSF CBET-0954381.

  2. Design considerations and practical results with long duration systems for manned world flights (United States)

    Nott, Julian


    This paper describes development of three balloon types by the author, all proposed for piloted flights around the world. The first was a superpressure pumpkin used to cross Australia. However, the balloon took up an incorrect shape when inflated. Because of this and other problems, the pumpkin was abandoned and the author built a combined helium-hot air balloon. This in turn was abandoned because it was cumbersome and costly. The author then developed an entirely new system, carrying cryogenic liquid helium to create lift in flight. Two very successful 24-h flights were made. In addition several inventions were developed for crew safety. Perhaps the most important is an entirely new way to protect pilots against sudden cabin pressure loss, with potentially broad use.

  3. Development and flight test of a helicopter compact, portable, precision landing system concept (United States)

    Bull, J. S.; Clary, G. R.; Davis, T. J.; Chisholm, J. P.


    An airborne, radar based, precision approach concept is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. A transponder based beacon landing system (BLS) applying state of the art X band radar technology and digital processing techniques, has been built and is being flight tested to demonstrate the concept feasibility. The BLS airborne hardware consists of an add on microprocessor, installed in conjunction with the aircraft weather/mapping radar, which analyzes the radar beacon receiver returns and determines range, localizer deviation, and glide slope derivation. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit which can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that the BLS concept has a significant potential for providing rotorcraft with low cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.

  4. Hybrid Decompositional Verification for Discovering Failures in Adaptive Flight Control Systems (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah; Davies, Misty D.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen


    Adaptive flight control systems hold tremendous promise for maintaining the safety of a damaged aircraft and its passengers. However, most currently proposed adaptive control methodologies rely on online learning neural networks (OLNNs), which necessarily have the property that the controller is changing during the flight. These changes tend to be highly nonlinear, and difficult or impossible to analyze using standard techniques. In this paper, we approach the problem with a variant of compositional verification. The overall system is broken into components. Undesirable behavior is fed backwards through the system. Components which can be solved using formal methods techniques explicitly for the ranges of safe and unsafe input bounds are treated as white box components. The remaining black box components are analyzed with heuristic techniques that try to predict a range of component inputs that may lead to unsafe behavior. The composition of these component inputs throughout the system leads to overall system test vectors that may elucidate the undesirable behavior

  5. Plotting the Flight Envelope of an Unmanned Aircraft System Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glīzde Nikolajs


    Full Text Available The research is focused on the development of an Unmanned Aircraft System. One of the design process steps in the preliminary design phase is the calculation of the flight envelope for the Unmanned Aircraft System air vehicle. The results obtained will be used in the further design process. A flight envelope determines the minimum requirements for the object in Certification Specifications. The present situation does not impose any Certification Specification requirements for the class of the Unmanned Aircraft System under the development of the general European Union trend defined in the road map for the implementation of the Unmanned Aircraft System. However, operation in common European Aerospace imposes the necessity for regulations for micro class systems as well.

  6. Unfalsified Control; Application to automatic flight control system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Mihail STOICA


    Full Text Available Unfalsified Control Theory has been developed to provide a way for avoiding modeling uncertainties in controller design. It belongs to the class of control methods called Adaptive Supervisory Switching Control, which work by introducing in the control scheme a supervisory unit which chooses, from a set of candidate controllers the one most suited for the current plant. Unfalsified Control works by using a switching logic that dispenses with the need for a-priori knowledge of the dynamic model. At discrete moments of time, using the input/output data recorded up to that point, the supervisory calculates for each candidate controller a performance index, and compares it to a given threshold. Controllers surpassing that threshold are removed from the candidate controller set. This process is called falsification. If the controller in the loop is one such falsified controller it is replaced. In this paper we investigate the suitability of this method for aeronautical control applications. We review the theory behind this control scheme and adapt it to the case of controlling a fighter aircraft. We also provide a case study, where we test this control scheme on a simulated fighter aircraft.

  7. Modelling and simulation of flight control electromechanical actuators with special focus on model architecting, multidisciplinary effects and power flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Fu


    Full Text Available In the aerospace field, electromechanical actuators are increasingly being implemented in place of conventional hydraulic actuators. For safety-critical embedded actuation applications like flight controls, the use of electromechanical actuators introduces specific issues related to thermal balance, reflected inertia, parasitic motion due to compliance and response to failure. Unfortunately, the physical effects governing the actuator behaviour are multidisciplinary, coupled and nonlinear. Although numerous multi-domain and system-level simulation packages are now available on the market, these effects are rarely addressed as a whole because of a lack of scientific approaches for model architecting, multi-purpose incremental modelling and judicious model implementation. In this publication, virtual prototyping of electromechanical actuators is addressed using the Bond-Graph formalism. New approaches are proposed to enable incremental modelling, thermal balance analysis, response to free-run or jamming faults, impact of compliance on parasitic motion, and influence of temperature. A special focus is placed on friction and compliance of the mechanical transmission with fault injection and temperature dependence. Aileron actuation is used to highlight the proposals for control design, energy consumption and thermal analysis, power network pollution analysis and fault response.

  8. Measurement of bullet impact conditions using automated in-flight photography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Decker


    Full Text Available Knowledge of impact conditions is critical to evaluating the terminal impact performance of a projectile. For a small caliber bullet, in-flight velocity has been precisely measured for decades using detection screens, but accurately quantifying the orientation of the bullet on a target has been more challenging. This report introduces the Automated Small-Arms Photogrammetry (ASAP analysis method used to measure, model, and predict the orientation of a small caliber bullet before reaching an impact surface. ASAP uses advanced hardware developed by Sydor Technologies to record a series of infrared digital photographs. Individual images (four orthogonal pairs are processed using computer vision algorithms to quantify the orientation of the projectile and re-project its precise position and orientation into a three-dimensional muzzle-fixed coordinate system. An epicyclic motion model is fit to the measured data, and the epicyclic motion is extrapolated to the target location. Analysis results are fairly immediate and may be reviewed during testing. Prove-out demonstrations have shown that the impact-angle prediction capability is less than six hundredths of a degree for the 5.56 mm ball round tested. Keywords: Yaw, Terminal ballistics, Exterior ballistics, Test & evaluation, Computer vision, Image processing, Angle of attack

  9. Experimental flights using a small unmanned aircraft system for mapping emergent sandbars (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher; Preston, Todd


    The US Geological Survey and Parallel Inc. conducted experimental flights with the Tarantula Hawk (T-Hawk) unmanned aircraft system (UAS ) at the Dyer and Cottonwood Ranch properties located along reaches of the Platte River near Overton, Nebraska, in July 2013. We equipped the T-Hawk UAS platform with a consumer-grade digital camera to collect imagery of emergent sandbars in the reaches and used photogrammetric software and surveyed control points to generate orthophotographs and digital elevation models (DEMS ) of the reaches. To optimize the image alignment process, we retained and/or eliminated tie points based on their relative errors and spatial resolution, whereby minimizing the total error in the project. Additionally, we collected seven transects that traversed emergent sandbars concurrently with global positioning system location data to evaluate the accuracy of the UAS survey methodology. The root mean square errors for the elevation of emergent points along each transect across the DEMS ranged from 0.04 to 0.12 m. If adequate survey control is established, a UAS combined with photogrammetry software shows promise for accurate monitoring of emergent sandbar morphology and river management activities in short (1–2 km) river reaches.

  10. [On-board medical support system (MSS) of flights of promising aerospace sets (design)]. (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S


    It was suggested as the main compositive fractions MSS to consider the base system of automated evaluation of blood redistribution (BR) in body means of crew members protection and prophylaxis (CMPP) of unfavourable effects of flight factors to organism and also the automated circuit of CMPP' control. The advanced MSS includes 4 original measuring channels for registration of the base physiologic indices (electrocardiogram, venous-arterial pulsegram of neck vessels, reogram of head, earlap vessels pulsegram) the dynamic of which allows to determine with the help of computer the BR-integral parameter. The CMPP automated control circuit unites the separate protecting means in common system and executes the individual selection of regimes and CM PP-composition in accord with, first of all, body reactions manifestation and, secondly, individual physiologic status of spaceman. As CMPP was selected the negative pressure production around lower body part. Approlation of constructed active laboratory engineering mock-up MSS has performed investigations with participation of 29 subjects (Volunteers) under the modeling of hemodynamic shifts, developing in human body in short-term antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), as well as, in combined effect of antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), Coriolis acceleration and optokinetic stimulation. Results of investigations have showed, that the use of advanced MSS gives the indices of operator professional activity on the average of 17-32% under the decrease of hemodynamic stressful.

  11. On the Transition and Migration of Flight Functions in the Airspace System (United States)

    Morris, Allan Terry; Young, Steve D.


    Since 400 BC, when man first replicated flying behavior with kites, up until the turn of the 20th century, when the Wright brothers performed the first successful powered human flight, flight functions have become available to man via significant support from man-made structures and devices. Over the past 100 years or so, technology has enabled several flight functions to migrate to automation and/or decision support systems. This migration continues with the United States NextGen and Europe s Single European Sky (a.k.a. SESAR) initiatives. These overhauls of the airspace system will be accomplished by accommodating the functional capabilities, benefits, and limitations of technology and automation together with the unique and sometimes overlapping functional capabilities, benefits, and limitations of humans. This paper will discuss how a safe and effective migration of any flight function must consider several interrelated issues, including, for example, shared situation awareness, and automation addiction, or over-reliance on automation. A long-term philosophical perspective is presented that considers all of these issues by primarily asking the following questions: How does one find an acceptable level of risk tolerance when allocating functions to automation versus humans? How does one measure or predict with confidence what the risks will be? These two questions and others will be considered from the two most-discussed paradigms involving the use of increasingly complex systems in the future: humans as operators and humans as monitors.

  12. Self-Contained Avionics Sensing and Flight Control System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Logan, Michael J. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor); Ingham, John C. (Inventor); Laughter, Sean A. (Inventor); Kuhn, III, Theodore R. (Inventor); Adams, James K. (Inventor); Babel, III, Walter C. (Inventor)


    A self-contained avionics sensing and flight control system is provided for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system includes sensors for sensing flight control parameters and surveillance parameters, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Flight control parameters and location signals are processed to generate flight control signals. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is configured to provide a look-up table storing sets of values with each set being associated with a servo mechanism mounted on the UAV and with each value in each set indicating a unique duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. Each value in each set is further indexed to a bit position indicative of a unique percentage of a maximum duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. The FPGA is further configured to provide a plurality of pulse width modulation (PWM) generators coupled to the look-up table. Each PWM generator is associated with and adapted to be coupled to one of the servo mechanisms.

  13. Color Helmet-Mounted Display System for In-Flight Simulation on the RASCAL Research Helicopter (United States)

    Edwards, Tim; Barnhart, Warren; Sawyer, Kevin; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)


    A high performance color helmet mounted display (HMD) system for in-flight simulation and research has been developed for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Laboratory (RASCAL). The display system consists of a programmable display generator, a display electronics unit, a head tracker, and the helmet with display optics. The system provides a maximum of 1024 x 1280 resolution, a 4:1 contrast ratio, and a brightness of 1100fL utilizing currently available technologies. This paper describes the major features and components of the system. Also discussed are the measured performance of the system and the design techniques that allowed the development of a full color HMD.

  14. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory (United States)

    Gorder, Peter James


    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  15. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Preliminary Design (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.


    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. Its rotating cascading distiller operates similarly to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD), but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be straightforward and simpler to implement into a successful design. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). The key objectives for the CDS 2.0 design task is to provide a flight forward ground prototype that demonstrates improvements over the SOA system in the areas of increased reliability and robustness, and reduced mass, power and volume. It will also incorporate exploration-class automation. The products of this task are a preliminary flight system design and a high fidelity prototype of an exploration class CDS. These products will inform the design and development of the third generation CDS which is targeted for on-orbit DTO. This paper details the preliminary design of the CDS 2.0.

  16. A design of fault tolerant flight control systems for sensor and actuator failures using on-line learning neural networks (United States)

    An, Younghwan

    The research in this document focuses on the performance of a neural network-based fault tolerant system within a flight control system. This fault tolerant flight control system integrates sensor and actuator failure detection, identification, and accommodation (SFDIA and AFDIA). The SFDIA task is achieved by incorporating a main neural network (MNN) and a set of n decentralized neural networks (DNNs) for a system with n sensors assumed to be without physical redundancy. Particularly, the purpose of the MNN is to detect a wide variety of sensor failures while the purpose of the DNNs is to identify the particular sensor that has failed and accommodate for the failure. The AFDIA scheme also implements a MNN with three neural network controllers (NNCs). The function of NNCs is to regain equilibrium and to compensate for the pitching, rolling, and yawing moments induced by the failure. The NNs are trained on-line using the Extended Back-Propagation Algorithm (EBPA). Because of the on-line learning, neural estimators and controllers have the capability of adapting to changes in the aircraft dynamics and/or modeling discrepancies between the actual aircraft and its mathematical model. This factor makes neural estimators and controllers an attractive option for fault tolerant flight control system. Particular emphasis is placed in this study toward improving the performance of the SFDIA scheme in the presence of ramp-type soft failures which are hard to detect as well as achieving an efficient integration between SFDIA and AFDIA without degradation of performance in terms of false alarm rates and incorrect failure identification.

  17. Development of an integrated configuration management/flight director system for piloted STOL approaches (United States)

    Hoh, R. H.; Klein, R. H.; Johnson, W. A.


    A system analysis method for the development of an integrated configuration management/flight director system for IFR STOL approaches is presented. Curved descending decelerating approach trajectories are considered. Considerable emphasis is placed on satisfying the pilot centered requirements (acceptable workload) as well as the usual guidance and control requirements (acceptable performance). The Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft was utilized to allow illustration by example, and to validate the analysis procedure via manned simulation.

  18. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrocchi, Matteo; Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G.; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres; Del Guerra, Alberto


    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm 2 of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  19. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrocchi, Matteo, E-mail: [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G. [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Collazuol, Gianmaria [University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Ambrosi, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Perugia, I 06100 Perugia (Italy); Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito [Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, I 70100 Bari (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy)


    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm{sup 2} of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  20. Modeling and Closed Loop Flight Testing of a Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar Kandath


    Full Text Available This paper presents the nonlinear six degrees of freedom dynamic modeling of a fixed wing micro air vehicle. The static derivatives of the micro air vehicle are obtained through the wind tunnel testing. The propeller effects on the lift, drag, pitching moment and side force are quantified through wind tunnel testing. The dynamic derivatives are obtained through empirical relations available in the literature. The trim conditions are computed for a straight and constant altitude flight condition. The linearized longitudinal and lateral state space models are obtained about trim conditions. The variations in short period mode, phugoid mode, Dutch roll mode, roll subsidence mode and spiral mode with respect to different trim operating conditions is presented. A stabilizing static output feedback controller is designed using the obtained model. Successful closed loop flight trials are conducted with the static output feedback controller.

  1. Design of a perspective flight guidance display for a synthetic vision system (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Mayer, Udo; Kaufhold, Rainer


    Adverse weather conditions affect flight safety as well as productivity of the air traffic industry. The problem becomes evident in the airport area (Taxiing, takeoff, approach and landing). The productivity of the air traffic industry goes down because the resources of the airport can not be used optimally. Canceled and delayed flights lead directly to additional costs for the airlines. Against the background of aggravated problems due to a predicted increasing air traffic the European Union launched the project AWARD (All Weather ARrival and Departure) in June 1996. Eleven European aerospace companies and research institutions are participating. The project will be finished by the end of 1999. Subject of AWARD is the development of a Synthetic Vision System (based on database and navigation) and an Enhanced Vision System (based on sensors like FLIR and MMWR). Darmstadt University of Technology is responsible for the development of the SVS prototype. The SVS application is depending on precise navigation, databases for terrain and flight relevant information, and a flight guidance display. The objective is to allow landings under CAT III a/b conditions independently from CAT III ILS airport installations. One goal of SVS is to enhance the situation awareness of pilots during all airport area operations by designing an appropriate man-machine- interface for the display. This paper describes the current state of the research and development of the Synthetic Vision System being developed in AWARD. The paper describes which methodology was used to identify the information that should be displayed. Human factors which influenced the basic design of the SVS are portrayed and some of the planned activities for the flight simulation tests are summarized.

  2. SHINE Virtual Machine Model for In-flight Updates of Critical Mission Software (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian


    This software is a new target for the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) knowledge base that compiles a knowledge base to a language called Tiny C - an interpreted version of C that can be embedded on flight processors. This new target allows portions of a running SHINE knowledge base to be updated on a "live" system without needing to halt and restart the containing SHINE application. This enhancement will directly provide this capability without the risk of software validation problems and can also enable complete integration of BEAM and SHINE into a single application. This innovation enables SHINE deployment in domains where autonomy is used during flight-critical applications that require updates. This capability eliminates the need for halting the application and performing potentially serious total system uploads before resuming the application with the loss of system integrity. This software enables additional applications at JPL (microsensors, embedded mission hardware) and increases the marketability of these applications outside of JPL.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Flight-Test Results for the Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed F/A-18 Airplane (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.


    A model reference nonlinear dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline controller for research into simple adaptive elements for advanced flight control laws. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and in flight. The flight results agree well with the simulation predictions and show good handling qualities throughout the tested flight envelope with some noteworthy deficiencies highlighted both by handling qualities metrics and pilot comments. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as simple as possible to easily allow the addition of the adaptive elements. The flight-test results and how they compare to the simulation predictions are discussed, along with a discussion about how each element affected pilot opinions. Additionally, aspects of the design that performed better than expected are presented, as well as some simple improvements that will be suggested for follow-on work.

  4. Simulator validation results and proposed reporting format from flight testing a software model of a complex, high-performance airplane. (United States)


    Computer simulations are often used in aviation studies. These simulation tools may require complex, high-fidelity aircraft models. Since many of the flight models used are third-party developed products, independent validation is desired prior to im...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Dashkov


    Full Text Available The article discusses issues related to determining the technical states of aircraft functional systems (FS. Mathematical formulas are given for expressing the relationship between the main parameters characterizing the model.

  6. Position sensitivty with the St. George time of flight vs energy detection system (United States)

    Morales, Luis; Kalkal, Sunil; Jung, Hyo Soon; Laurence, J.; Meisel, Zachary; Feltman, William; Hanner, A.; Thornton, E.-Lexis; Wiggins, B. B.; Desouza, Romualdo; Hinnefeld, Jerry; Couder, Manoel; Wiescher, Michael


    At the University of Notre Dame the St. George recoil mass separator will be used to study (α , γ) reactions of astrophysical interest. The particle identification system developed for the St. George recoil mass separator at the University of Notre Dame, in collaboration with Indiana University South Bend, utilizes time-of-flight and energy to separate reaction products from residual unreacted beam particles. The detection system uses two microchannel plate (MCP) detectors for time-of-flight, and a silicon strip detector to measure the particles kinetic energy. A position sensitive anode was designed in collaboration with Indiana University Bloomington to enhance particle identification (PID). The performance of the PID system will be presented. NSF PHY-1419765 & PHY-0959816.

  7. Computational imaging with multi-camera time-of-flight systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shrestha, Shikhar


    Depth cameras are a ubiquitous technology used in a wide range of applications, including robotic and machine vision, human computer interaction, autonomous vehicles as well as augmented and virtual reality. In this paper, we explore the design and applications of phased multi-camera time-of-flight (ToF) systems. We develop a reproducible hardware system that allows for the exposure times and waveforms of up to three cameras to be synchronized. Using this system, we analyze waveform interference between multiple light sources in ToF applications and propose simple solutions to this problem. Building on the concept of orthogonal frequency design, we demonstrate state-of-the-art results for instantaneous radial velocity capture via Doppler time-of-flight imaging and we explore new directions for optically probing global illumination, for example by de-scattering dynamic scenes and by non-line-of-sight motion detection via frequency gating. © 2016 ACM.

  8. General Relationships Between the Various Systems of Reference Axes Employed in Flight Mechanics (United States)

    Rautenberg, H J


    The different possibilities of orientation of the systems of axes currently employed in flight mechanics are compiled and described. Of the three possible couplings between the wind and aircraft axes, the most suitable coupling is that in which the y axis is made the principal axis of rotation for one of the two coupling angles (angles of attack). In connection with this coupling, an experimental system of axes is introduced, whose axes x(sub e) and z(sub e) are situated in the plane of symmetry of the airplane and rotate about the airplane lateral axis y = y(sub e). This system of axes enables the utilization of the coefficients obtained in the wind tunnel in the flight-mechanic equations by a simple transformation, with the aid of the angle of attack, measured in the plane of symmetry of the airplane.

  9. Development and flight test of a helicopter, X-band, portable precision landing system concept (United States)

    Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Chisholm, J. P.; Macdonald, S. L.


    A beacon landing system (BLS) is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques. The bLS airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small micropreocessor, installed in conjunction wht the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, BLS pulses and outputs ILS-compatible localizer and glide slope signals. Range information is obtained using an on-board weather/mapping radar in conjunction with the BLS. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit; it weighs less than 70 lb and can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight-test program show that the BLS has a significant potential for providing rotorcaraft with low-cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.

  10. In-flight calibration system for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Barbanera, L.


    to detect very small variations on most x-ray sources, but only if accurately calibrated. The in- flight calibration system of the JEM-X experiment is devoted to measure the response of the detection chain (detector plus electronics) in a small set of positions and energies. The data from this system......, together with on ground calibrations and simulations, must provide the capability to deconvolve pulse height spectra of celestial sources. The baseline for the in-flight calibration system foresees a set of four radioactive sources, maybe by Fe(superscript 55) and Cd(superscript 109) nuclides, and a pair...... of Amptek Cool-X15 X-ray generators. The latter is a novel product, based on a pyroelectric crystal used to generate energetic electrons that produce fluorescence lines by hitting a metallic target. We plan to use the four low intensity radioactive sources for monitoring the four independent anode chains...

  11. The Integrated Medical Model: A Probabilistic Simulation Model for Predicting In-Flight Medical Risks (United States)

    Keenan, Alexandra; Young, Millennia; Saile, Lynn; Boley, Lynn; Walton, Marlei; Kerstman, Eric; Shah, Ronak; Goodenow, Debra A.; Myers, Jerry G.


    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that uses simulation to predict mission medical risk. Given a specific mission and crew scenario, medical events are simulated using Monte Carlo methodology to provide estimates of resource utilization, probability of evacuation, probability of loss of crew, and the amount of mission time lost due to illness. Mission and crew scenarios are defined by mission length, extravehicular activity (EVA) schedule, and crew characteristics including: sex, coronary artery calcium score, contacts, dental crowns, history of abdominal surgery, and EVA eligibility. The Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) houses the model inputs for one hundred medical conditions using in-flight, analog, and terrestrial medical data. Inputs include incidence, event durations, resource utilization, and crew functional impairment. Severity of conditions is addressed by defining statistical distributions on the dichotomized best and worst-case scenarios for each condition. The outcome distributions for conditions are bounded by the treatment extremes of the fully treated scenario in which all required resources are available and the untreated scenario in which no required resources are available. Upon occurrence of a simulated medical event, treatment availability is assessed, and outcomes are generated depending on the status of the affected crewmember at the time of onset, including any pre-existing functional impairments or ongoing treatment of concurrent conditions. The main IMM outcomes, including probability of evacuation and loss of crew life, time lost due to medical events, and resource utilization, are useful in informing mission planning decisions. To date, the IMM has been used to assess mission-specific risks with and without certain crewmember characteristics, to determine the impact of eliminating certain resources from the mission medical kit, and to design medical kits that maximally benefit crew health while meeting

  12. The Integrated Medical Model: A Probabilistic Simulation Model Predicting In-Flight Medical Risks (United States)

    Keenan, Alexandra; Young, Millennia; Saile, Lynn; Boley, Lynn; Walton, Marlei; Kerstman, Eric; Shah, Ronak; Goodenow, Debra A.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.


    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that uses simulation to predict mission medical risk. Given a specific mission and crew scenario, medical events are simulated using Monte Carlo methodology to provide estimates of resource utilization, probability of evacuation, probability of loss of crew, and the amount of mission time lost due to illness. Mission and crew scenarios are defined by mission length, extravehicular activity (EVA) schedule, and crew characteristics including: sex, coronary artery calcium score, contacts, dental crowns, history of abdominal surgery, and EVA eligibility. The Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) houses the model inputs for one hundred medical conditions using in-flight, analog, and terrestrial medical data. Inputs include incidence, event durations, resource utilization, and crew functional impairment. Severity of conditions is addressed by defining statistical distributions on the dichotomized best and worst-case scenarios for each condition. The outcome distributions for conditions are bounded by the treatment extremes of the fully treated scenario in which all required resources are available and the untreated scenario in which no required resources are available. Upon occurrence of a simulated medical event, treatment availability is assessed, and outcomes are generated depending on the status of the affected crewmember at the time of onset, including any pre-existing functional impairments or ongoing treatment of concurrent conditions. The main IMM outcomes, including probability of evacuation and loss of crew life, time lost due to medical events, and resource utilization, are useful in informing mission planning decisions. To date, the IMM has been used to assess mission-specific risks with and without certain crewmember characteristics, to determine the impact of eliminating certain resources from the mission medical kit, and to design medical kits that maximally benefit crew health while meeting

  13. Math modeling for helicopter simulation of low speed, low altitude and steeply descending flight (United States)

    Sheridan, P. F.; Robinson, C.; Shaw, J.; White, F.


    A math model was formulated to represent some of the aerodynamic effects of low speed, low altitude, and steeply descending flight. The formulation is intended to be consistent with the single rotor real time simulation model at NASA Ames Research Center. The effect of low speed, low altitude flight on main rotor downwash was obtained by assuming a uniform plus first harmonic inflow model and then by using wind tunnel data in the form of hub loads to solve for the inflow coefficients. The result was a set of tables for steady and first harmonic inflow coefficients as functions of ground proximity, angle of attack, and airspeed. The aerodynamics associated with steep descending flight in the vortex ring state were modeled by replacing the steady induced downwash derived from momentum theory with an experimentally derived value and by including a thrust fluctuations effect due to vortex shedding. Tables of the induced downwash and the magnitude of the thrust fluctuations were created as functions of angle of attack and airspeed.

  14. Aerodynamic efficiency of flapping flight: analysis of a two-stroke model. (United States)

    Wang, Z Jane


    To seek the simplest efficient flapping wing motions and understand their relation to steady flight, a two-stroke model in the quasi-steady limit was analyzed. It was found that a family of two-stroke flapping motions have aerodynamic efficiency close to, but slightly lower than, the optimal steady flight. These two-stroke motions share two common features: the downstroke is a gliding motion and the upstroke has an angle of attack close to the optimal of the steady flight of the same wing. With the reduced number of parameters, the aerodynamic cost function in the parameter space can be visualized. This was examined for wings of different lift and drag characteristics at Reynolds numbers between 10(2) and 10(6). The iso-surfaces of the cost function have a tube-like structure, implying that the solution is insensitive to a specific direction in the parameter space. Related questions in insect flight that motivated this work are discussed.

  15. Multiple Conceptual Modelling of Perceived Quality of In-flight Airline Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Šebjan


    Full Text Available Despite growing literature on the different aspects of airline service quality in relation to behavioural intentions, less attention has been paid to some specific aspects of in-flight services. The focus of the present research is, therefore, on a multiple conceptual model of the quality of in-flight services in relation to passengers’ perception of value, followed by recommendations (word of mouth - WOM of airlines, as well as the quality and comfort of airline seats. The study is performed using two databases of reviewers’/passengers’ opinions regarding the quality of in-flight airline services and airline seat comfort. Our research results reveal that the perceived comfort of the airplane seat is the most important factor of passengers’ perceived quality of in-flight airline services, which also considerably affects the passengers’ perception of value, and consequently moderates behavioural intentions (in our research, expressed through positive WOM. The analysis of the relative importance of the components of perceived airline seats’ comfort shows that seat width is the most significant factor that contributes to the overall perceived comfort of the airline seat.

  16. Quarter-scale Model of Solar-powered Centurion Ultra-high-altitude Flying Wing in Flight during Firs (United States)


    Framed by wispy contrails left by passing jets high above, a quarter-scale model of the Centurion solar-electric flying wing shows off its graceful lines during a March 1997 test flight at El Mirage Dry Lake in California's Mojave Desert. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate

  17. An overview of the V&V of Flight-Critical Systems effort at NASA (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume P.


    As the US is getting ready for the Next Generation (NextGen) of Air Traffic System, there is a growing concern that the current techniques for verification and validation will not be adequate for the changes to come. The JPDO (in charge of implementing NextGen) has given NASA a mandate to address the problem and it resulted in the formulation of the V&V of Flight-Critical Systems effort. This research effort is divided into four themes: argument-based safety assurance, distributed systems, authority and autonomy, and, software intensive systems. This paper presents an overview of the technologies that will address the problem.

  18. The development of an airborne information management system for flight test (United States)

    Bever, Glenn A.


    An airborne information management system is being developed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This system will improve the state of the art in management data acquisition on-board research aircraft. The design centers around highly distributable, high-speed microprocessors that allow data compression, digital filtering, and real-time analysis. This paper describes the areas of applicability, approach to developing the system, potential for trouble areas, and reasons for this development activity. System architecture (including the salient points of what makes it unique), design philosophy, and tradeoff issues are also discussed.

  19. A time-of-flight system for the external target facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xueheng; Yu Yuhong; Sun Zhiyu; Mao Ruishi; Wang Shitao; Zhou Yong; Yan Duo; Liu Longxiang


    A time-of-flight system with a plastic scintillator coupled to photomultipliers is developed for the external target facility (ETF). This system can satisfy the requirement of an ultrahigh vacuum (∼10 -9 mbar), a high counting rate (∼10 6 particles per second) and a magnetic field environment. In the beam test experiment, a total time resolution of 580 ps FWHM was obtained for the whole system, and nuclei with a mass of up to 80 could be identified using this system. (authors)

  20. Verification and Validation Challenges for Adaptive Flight Control of Complex Autonomous Systems (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.


    Autonomy of aerospace systems requires the ability for flight control systems to be able to adapt to complex uncertain dynamic environment. In spite of the five decades of research in adaptive control, the fact still remains that currently no adaptive control system has ever been deployed on any safety-critical or human-rated production systems such as passenger transport aircraft. The problem lies in the difficulty with the certification of adaptive control systems since existing certification methods cannot readily be used for nonlinear adaptive control systems. Research to address the notion of metrics for adaptive control began to appear in the recent years. These metrics, if accepted, could pave a path towards certification that would potentially lead to the adoption of adaptive control as a future control technology for safety-critical and human-rated production systems. Development of certifiable adaptive control systems represents a major challenge to overcome. Adaptive control systems with learning algorithms will never become part of the future unless it can be proven that they are highly safe and reliable. Rigorous methods for adaptive control software verification and validation must therefore be developed to ensure that adaptive control system software failures will not occur, to verify that the adaptive control system functions as required, to eliminate unintended functionality, and to demonstrate that certification requirements imposed by regulatory bodies such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) can be satisfied. This presentation will discuss some of the technical issues with adaptive flight control and related V&V challenges.

  1. Flight Testing and Real-Time System Identification Analysis of a UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter with an Instrumented External Sling Load (United States)

    McCoy, Allen H.


    Helicopter external air transportation plays an important role in today's world. For both military and civilian helicopters, external sling load operations offer an efficient and expedient method of handling heavy, oversized cargo. With the ability to reach areas otherwise inaccessible by ground transportation, helicopter external load operations are conducted in industries such as logging, construction, and fire fighting, as well as in support of military tactical transport missions. Historically, helicopter and load combinations have been qualified through flight testing, requiring considerable time and cost. With advancements in simulation and flight test techniques there is potential to substantially reduce costs and increase the safety of helicopter sling load certification. Validated simulation tools make possible accurate prediction of operational flight characteristics before initial flight tests. Real time analysis of test data improves the safety and efficiency of the testing programs. To advance these concepts, the U.S. Army and NASA, in cooperation with the Israeli Air Force and Technion, under a Memorandum of Agreement, seek to develop and validate a numerical model of the UH-60 with sling load and demonstrate a method of near real time flight test analysis. This thesis presents results from flight tests of a U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopter with various external loads. Tests were conducted as the U.S. first phase of this MOA task. The primary load was a container express box (CONEX) which contained a compact instrumentation package. The flights covered the airspeed range from hover to 70 knots. Primary maneuvers were pitch and roll frequency sweeps, steps, and doublets. Results of the test determined the effect of the suspended load on both the aircraft's handling qualities and its control system's stability margins. Included were calculations of the stability characteristics of the load's pendular motion. Utilizing CIFER(R) software, a method for near

  2. Computer-Aided Systems Engineering for Flight Research Projects Using a Workgroup Database (United States)

    Mizukami, Masahi


    An online systems engineering tool for flight research projects has been developed through the use of a workgroup database. Capabilities are implemented for typical flight research systems engineering needs in document library, configuration control, hazard analysis, hardware database, requirements management, action item tracking, project team information, and technical performance metrics. Repetitive tasks are automated to reduce workload and errors. Current data and documents are instantly available online and can be worked on collaboratively. Existing forms and conventional processes are used, rather than inventing or changing processes to fit the tool. An integrated tool set offers advantages by automatically cross-referencing data, minimizing redundant data entry, and reducing the number of programs that must be learned. With a simplified approach, significant improvements are attained over existing capabilities for minimal cost. By using a workgroup-level database platform, personnel most directly involved in the project can develop, modify, and maintain the system, thereby saving time and money. As a pilot project, the system has been used to support an in-house flight experiment. Options are proposed for developing and deploying this type of tool on a more extensive basis.

  3. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors (United States)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  4. Time-of-flight system for a heavy ion magnetic spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catford, W.N.; Fifield, L.K.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Ophel, T.R.; Orr, N.A.; Weisser, D.C.; Woods, C.L.


    A system to measure the time of flight for heavy ions around an Enge split-pole magnetic spectrometer has been developed. The system consists of a parallel plate avalanche counter at the focal plane and either a microchannel plate detector or a silicon recoil detector in the target chamber. In-beam tests under experimental conditions have demonstrated a typical resolution of 1.0 to 1.5 ns, compared to a total flight time of ∼ 100 ns. Resolution figures approaching these have been recovered, when using the 4.5 deg angular acceptance of the spectrometer, by applying calculated corrections to the raw data according to the angle and focal plane position. A description of the detectors is followed by the results of the in-beam tests. An example of an application to the study of a heavy ion reaction is also described

  5. Beam derived trigger system for multibunch time-of-flight measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.; Pellegrin, J.L.


    Particle time-of-flight measurement requires accurate triggers in synchronism with each bunch, and occurring in a sequence which depends on the position of the observer around the storage ring. A system has been devised for tagging the colliding bunches at each interaction point; it allows one to record which pair of bunches is colliding at any time and any location around the machine. Besides bunch identification, the time-of-flight triggers are also expected to have a time stability better than the bunch length itself. A system is presented here which exhibits time variations of less than 80 psec over a 20 to 1 range of beam current, while the jitter is at least an order of magnitude smaller. 4 refs., 4 figs

  6. Modeling of System Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feiler, Peter


    .... The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL) is an industry-standard, architecture-modeling notation specifically designed to support a component- based approach to modeling embedded systems...

  7. Modelling Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter; Viuf, P.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth


    In this report we present a model of interlocking systems, and describe how the model may be validated by simulation. Station topologies are modelled by graphs in which the nodes denote track segments, and the edges denote connectivity for train traÆc. Points and signals are modelled by annotatio...

  8. New methodologies for calculation of flight parameters on reduced scale wings models in wind tunnel = (United States)

    Ben Mosbah, Abdallah

    In order to improve the qualities of wind tunnel tests, and the tools used to perform aerodynamic tests on aircraft wings in the wind tunnel, new methodologies were developed and tested on rigid and flexible wings models. A flexible wing concept is consists in replacing a portion (lower and/or upper) of the skin with another flexible portion whose shape can be changed using an actuation system installed inside of the wing. The main purpose of this concept is to improve the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft, and especially to reduce the fuel consumption of the airplane. Numerical and experimental analyses were conducted to develop and test the methodologies proposed in this thesis. To control the flow inside the test sections of the Price-Paidoussis wind tunnel of LARCASE, numerical and experimental analyses were performed. Computational fluid dynamics calculations have been made in order to obtain a database used to develop a new hybrid methodology for wind tunnel calibration. This approach allows controlling the flow in the test section of the Price-Paidoussis wind tunnel. For the fast determination of aerodynamic parameters, new hybrid methodologies were proposed. These methodologies were used to control flight parameters by the calculation of the drag, lift and pitching moment coefficients and by the calculation of the pressure distribution around an airfoil. These aerodynamic coefficients were calculated from the known airflow conditions such as angles of attack, the mach and the Reynolds numbers. In order to modify the shape of the wing skin, electric actuators were installed inside the wing to get the desired shape. These deformations provide optimal profiles according to different flight conditions in order to reduce the fuel consumption. A controller based on neural networks was implemented to obtain desired displacement actuators. A metaheuristic algorithm was used in hybridization with neural networks, and support vector machine approaches and their

  9. A Risk Assessment Model for Reduced Aircraft Separation: A Quantitative Method to Evaluate the Safety of Free Flight (United States)

    Cassell, Rick; Smith, Alex; Connors, Mary; Wojciech, Jack; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)


    As new technologies and procedures are introduced into the National Airspace System, whether they are intended to improve efficiency, capacity, or safety level, the quantification of potential changes in safety levels is of vital concern. Applications of technology can improve safety levels and allow the reduction of separation standards. An excellent example is the Precision Runway Monitor (PRM). By taking advantage of the surveillance and display advances of PRM, airports can run instrument parallel approaches to runways separated by 3400 feet with the same level of safety as parallel approaches to runways separated by 4300 feet using the standard technology. Despite a wealth of information from flight operations and testing programs, there is no readily quantifiable relationship between numerical safety levels and the separation standards that apply to aircraft on final approach. This paper presents a modeling approach to quantify the risk associated with reducing separation on final approach. Reducing aircraft separation, both laterally and longitudinally, has been the goal of several aviation R&D programs over the past several years. Many of these programs have focused on technological solutions to improve navigation accuracy, surveillance accuracy, aircraft situational awareness, controller situational awareness, and other technical and operational factors that are vital to maintaining flight safety. The risk assessment model relates different types of potential aircraft accidents and incidents and their contribution to overall accident risk. The framework links accident risks to a hierarchy of failsafe mechanisms characterized by procedures and interventions. The model will be used to assess the overall level of safety associated with reducing separation standards and the introduction of new technology and procedures, as envisaged under the Free Flight concept. The model framework can be applied to various aircraft scenarios, including parallel and in

  10. Verification of the Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System based on Parabolic Flight (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Dong, Wen-bo; Liu, Wei; Li, Zong-feng; Lv, Shi-meng; Sang, Xiao-ru; Yang, Yang


    The Microgravity active vibration isolation system (MAIS) is a device to reduce on-orbit vibration and to provide a lower gravity level for certain scientific experiments. MAIS system is made up of a stator and a floater, the stator is fixed on the spacecraft, and the floater is suspended by electromagnetic force so as to reduce the vibration from the stator. The system has 3 position sensors, 3 accelerometers, 8 Lorentz actuators, signal processing circuits and a central controller embedded in the operating software and control algorithms. For the experiments on parabolic flights, a laptop is added to MAIS for monitoring and operation, and a power module is for electric power converting. The principle of MAIS is as follows: the system samples the vibration acceleration of the floater from accelerometers, measures the displacement between stator and floater from position sensitive detectors, and computes Lorentz force current for each actuator so as to eliminate the vibration of the scientific payload, and meanwhile to avoid crashing between the stator and the floater. This is a motion control technic in 6 degrees of freedom (6-DOF) and its function could only be verified in a microgravity environment. Thanks for DLR and Novespace, we get a chance to take the DLR 27th parabolic flight campaign to make experiments to verify the 6-DOF control technic. The experiment results validate that the 6-DOF motion control technique is effective, and vibration isolation performance perfectly matches what we expected based on theoretical analysis and simulation. The MAIS has been planned on Chinese manned spacecraft for many microgravity scientific experiments, and the verification on parabolic flights is very important for its following mission. Additionally, we also test some additional function by microgravity electromagnetic suspension, such as automatic catching and locking and working in fault mode. The parabolic flight produces much useful data for these experiments.

  11. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 7: Literature review. Part 1: Literature search and evaluation (United States)


    A review of the literature used in conducting the manned space flight nuclear system safety study is presented. The objectives of the presentation are to identify and evaluate for potential application to study the existing related literature and to provide the information required to include the related literature in the NASA Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute. More than 15,000 documents were evaluated and identification forms were prepared for 850 reports.

  12. Evaluation of Management System Effectiveness in the Preparation of the Aircraft for Flight in Faulty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdane Ruta


    Full Text Available Most flight delays in aviation enterprises are related to air traffic management and technical centers. This can happen for various reasons: untimely removal of defects, lack of spare parts, deficiencies in maintenance scheduling, etc. Another reason may be inefficient management in the system of preparing the aircraft for departure. The article suggests a possible option of such an assessment as well as the results obtained from the use of this methodology applied to a specific airline.

  13. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  14. Survivability design guidelines for Fly-By-Wire Flight Control Systems development.


    Hogan, Daniel Timothy.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Survivability of military combat aircraft has received increased emphasis by the U.S. Armed Services in recent years. The primary objective of the U.S. Military Survivability Policy is to ensure that effective survivability enhancement features are incorporated in current and all future U.S. combat aircraft. Technology advances in Fly-By-Wire Flight Control Systems have significantly enhanced the performance capabilities...

  15. High-Resolution Mesoscale Model Setup for the Eastern Range and Wallops Flight Facility (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.


    Mesoscale weather conditions can have an adverse effect on space launch, landing, ground processing, and weather advisories, watches, and warnings at the Eastern Range (ER) in Florida and Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. During summer, land-sea interactions across Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) lead to sea breeze front formation, which can spawn deep convection that can hinder operations and endanger personnel and resources. Many other weak locally-driven low-level boundaries and their interactions with the sea breeze front and each other can also initiate deep convection in the KSC/CCAFS area. These convective processes often last 60 minutes or less and pose a significant challenge to the local forecasters. Surface winds during the transition seasons (spring and fall) pose the most difficulties for the forecasters at WFF. They also encounter problems forecasting convective activity and temperature during those seasons. Therefore, accurate mesoscale model forecasts are needed to better forecast a variety of unique weather phenomena. Global and national scale models cannot properly resolve important local-scale weather features at each location due to their horizontal resolutions being much too coarse. Therefore, a properly tuned local data assimilation (DA) and forecast model at a high resolution is needed to provide improved capability. To accomplish this, a number of sensitivity tests were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in order to determine the best DA/model configuration for operational use at each of the space launch ranges to best predict winds, precipitation, and temperature. A set of Perl scripts to run the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI)/WRF in real-time were provided by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT). The GSI can analyze many types of observational data including satellite, radar, and conventional data. The GSI/WRF scripts

  16. Ground Data System Analysis Tools to Track Flight System State Parameters for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and Beyond (United States)

    Allard, Dan; Deforrest, Lloyd


    Flight software parameters enable space mission operators fine-tuned control over flight system configurations, enabling rapid and dynamic changes to ongoing science activities in a much more flexible manner than can be accomplished with (otherwise broadly used) configuration file based approaches. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), Curiosity, makes extensive use of parameters to support complex, daily activities via commanded changes to said parameters in memory. However, as the loss of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in 2006 demonstrated, flight system management by parameters brings with it risks, including the possibility of losing track of the flight system configuration and the threat of invalid command executions. To mitigate this risk a growing number of missions have funded efforts to implement parameter tracking parameter state software tools and services including MSL and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. This paper will discuss the engineering challenges and resulting software architecture of MSL's onboard parameter state tracking software and discuss the road forward to make parameter management tools suitable for use on multiple missions.

  17. Flight test evaluation of a digital controller used in a VTOL automatic approach and landing system (United States)

    Downing, D. R.; Bryant, W. H.


    As part of the NASA Langley Research Center's effort to develop technology for VTOL operation in the air transportation system in the late 1980's and beyond, research has been conducted aimed at developing digital controller design procedures. This paper describes the verification of one design procedure by the flight evaluation of an advanced digital control algorithm. The control algorithm, operating at 10 iterations per second, follows step guidance commands with zero steady state error and thus provides an autotrim capability for the nonlinear vehicle. Changes in vehicle dynamics are accounted for using a gain scheduling technique. This control algorithm is combined with sensor filters, a trajectory generator, and a closed loop guidance algorithm to form a VTOL autoland system. A CH-47 tandem rotor helicopter which contains a set of sensors, onboard digital flight computers and electro-hydraulic actuators is used in the evaluation. All software, except input-output routines, is coded in FORTRAN using floating point arithmetic and executed in the flight computer. This autoland system is exercised by automatically flying straight-in descending decelerating trajectories typical of VFR manual approaches to a predetermined landing pad.

  18. Weighted Time-Band Approximation Model for Flight Operations Recovery considering Simplex Group Cycle Approaches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Xu


    Full Text Available The time-band approximation model for flight operations recovery following disruption (Bard, Yu, Arguello, IIE Transactions, 33, 931–947, 2001 is constructed by partitioning the recovery period into time bands and by approximating the delay costs associated with the possible flight connections. However, for disruptions occurring in a hub-and-spoke network, a large number of possible flight connections are constructed throughout the entire flight schedule, so as to obtain the approximate optimal. In this paper, we show the application of the simplex group cycle approach to hub-and-spoke airlines in China, along with the related weighted threshold necessary for controlling the computation time and the flight disruption scope and depth. Subsequently, we present the weighted time-band approximation model for flight operations recovery, which incorporates the simplex group cycle approach. Simple numerical experiments using actual data from Air China show that the weighted time-band approximation model is feasible, and the results of stochastic experiments using actual data from Sichuan Airlines show that the flight disruption and computation time are controlled by the airline operations control center, which aims to achieve a balance between the flight disruption scope and depth, computation time, and recovery value.

  19. HIRDLS proto-flight model radiometric calibration from pre-launch calibration data (United States)

    Eden, T. D., Jr.; Gille, J. C.; Barnett, J. J.; Hepplewhite, C. L.; Palmer, C. W. P.; Whitney, J. G.


    The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) flight instrument, which is currently in orbit on the NASA Aura Satellite, went through a pre-launch calibration at Oxford University during Autumn 2002. One of the calibration exercises was to characterize the radiometric signals of the HIRDLS proto-flight model (PFM). It was discovered during the data-analysis phase, that the radiometric data required special treatment. Because of the stringent radiometric requirements imposed on HIRDLS, these additional analyses were necessary. This manuscript will detail these specific analysis techniques that were used on the data and present results based on a full analysis of the data, including a complete accounting of the statistical error analysis.

  20. An Advanced Fly-By-Wire Flight Control System for the RASCAL Research Rotorcraft: Concept to Reality (United States)

    Rediess, Nicholas A.; Dones, Fernando; McManus, Bruce L.; Ulmer, Lon; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)


    Design features of a new fly-by-wire flight control system for the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these pro-rams and the design implementation of the research flight control system (RFCS), with emphasis on safety-of-flight, adaptability to multiple requirements and performance considerations.

  1. X-38: Parachute Canister Fired from Plywood Mockup during Flight Termination System Test (United States)


    The canister containing a seven-foot-diameter X-38 Flight Termination System (FTS) parachute is launched safely away from a plywood mockup of the X-38 by a pyrotechnic firing system on December 19, 1996, at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The test was economically accomplished by mounting the mockup of the X-38's aft end, minus vertical stabilizers, on a truck prior to installation in the X-38. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally

  2. X-38: Close-up of Pyrotechnic Firing during Test of Flight Termination System Parachute Deployment (United States)


    In these close-ups, the canister containing the seven-foot-diameter X-38 Flight Termination System (FTS) parachute can be seen launching safely away from an aft-end mockup of the X-38 by a pyrotechnic firing system in December 19, 1996, at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The test was economically accomplished by mounting the mockup of the X-38's aft-end, minus vertical stabilizers, on a truck prior to installation in the X-38. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research

  3. X-38: Plywood Mockup of Aft End Used for Flight Termination System Parachute Test (United States)


    This photo shows a plywood mockup of the X-38's aft end, minus vertical stabilizers, mounted on a truck for an economical test of the X-38's Flight Termination System (FTS) on December 19, 1996, at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The FTS seven-foot diameter parachute was launched safely away from the mockup by a pyrotechnic firing system. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be

  4. The study on space-flight induced DNA damage in Arabidopsis thaliana using the related homologous recombination reporter system (United States)

    Sun, Qiao; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Li, Huasheng

    Usually, phenotype changes of plants were used to analayze the responding genetic damages. However, this method is time-consuming, laborious and needs a long period. Here, we developed an Arabidopsis thaliana homologous recombination reporter system, in which HR frequency and HR-related AtRAD54 gene expression level were used as mutagenic end points. Based on the system, effect of DNA damage by space-flight during the Shenzhou-9 mission was investigated. In this study, an Arabidopsis thaliana-line transgenic for GUS recombination substrates (R3L66, AtRAD54promoter:: GFP + GUS) was used to study the mutagenicity of space-flight, and the results showed that 13 days space-flight exposure of seedlings induced a significant increase in HRF compared with its ground-base three-dimensional clinostat (generally called a random positioning machine or RPM, an effective simulator of microgravity) controls and ground 1g controls. We also observed three-dimensional clinostat induced a significant increase in HRF and HR-related AtRAD54 gene expression level compared with ground 1g controls. Treatment with the ROS scavenger DMSO dramatically reduced the effects of simulated microgravity on the induction of HR and expression of the AtRAD54 gene, suggesting that ROS play a critical role in mediating the simulated microgravity mutagenic effects in plants. In order to understand the combined effects of radiation and microgravity (the main factors in space environment) on DNA damage, we further investigated the effects of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) n vivo in A. thaliana plants using the expression level of the HR-related AtRAD54 gene as mutagenic end points. The results showed that the modeled microgravity significantly inhibited the up-regulated expression of the AtRAD54 gene in bystander aerial plants after root irradiation, suggesting a repressive effect of microgravity on RIBE.

  5. Steps Towards Scalable and Modularized Flight Software for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C. Dauer


    Full Text Available Unmanned aircraft (UA applications impose a variety of computing tasks on the on-board computer system. From a research perspective, it is often more convenient to evaluate algorithms on bigger aircraft as they are capable of lifting heavier loads and thus more powerful computational units. On the other hand, smaller systems are often less expensive and operation is less restricted in many countries. This paper thus presents a conceptual design for flight software that can be evaluated on the UA of convenient size. The integration effort required to transfer the algorithm to different sized UA is significantly reduced. This scalability is achieved by using exchangeable payload modules and a flexible process distribution on different processing units. The presented approach is discussed using the example of the flight software of a 14 kg unmanned helicopter and an equivalent of 1.5 kg. The proof of concept is shown by means of flight performance in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation.

  6. Self-contained high-authority control for miniature flight systems (United States)

    Knowles, Gareth J.; Bird, Ross W.; Barrett, Ron


    UAV's, UCAV's, miniaturized munitions and smart bombs have a variety of objectives clamoring for easement of weight/volume restrictions. These include anti-jam, explosive, servo control, electronics packaging, GPS and other required functions. The possibility of freeing up valuable real estate in the missile itself is most attractive for such applications. QorTek has developed the first self-contained high authority control surface to replace externally activated steering fins or canards. These flight actuation systems require only external control signal and power. Moreover, the technology easily scales to micro munitions. Because of their unique composite structure, these powerful solid-state devices offer exceptional performance in a durable package suitable for miniature munitions. The purpose of this paper is to discuss new breakthroughs in piezo-actuated technology that minimize vol./weight enabling a self-contained flight control actuation system that eliminates the need for servo controls. The presentation will focus on the new design that enables integration into high angular displacement actuation into a graphite epoxy fabricated RALA flight control actuator that can handle the aerodynamic loading conditions.

  7. Flight demonstration of aircraft fuselage and bulkhead monitoring using optical fiber distributed sensing system (United States)

    Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka; Tamayama, Masato; Kasai, Tokio; Arizono, Hitoshi; Murayama, Hideaki; Shiotsubo, Katsuya


    We have developed an optical fiber distributed sensing system based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) that uses long-length fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). This technique obtains strain data not as a point data from an FBG but as a distributed profile within the FBG. This system can measure the strain distribution profile with an adjustable high spatial resolution of the mm or sub-mm order in real-time. In this study, we applied this OFDR-FBG technique to a flying test bed that is a mid-sized jet passenger aircraft. We conducted flight tests and monitored the structural responses of a fuselage stringer and the bulkhead of the flying test bed during flights. The strain distribution variations were successfully monitored for various events including taxiing, takeoff, landing and several other maneuvers. The monitoring was effective not only for measuring the strain amplitude applied to the individual structural parts but also for understanding the characteristics of the structural responses in accordance with the flight maneuvers. We studied the correlations between various maneuvers and strains to explore the relationship between the operation and condition of aircraft.

  8. Calibration and adjustment of the EGRET coincidence/time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.D.


    The coincidence/time-of-flight system of the energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) on NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) consists of two layers of sixteen scintillator tiles. These tiles are paired into 96 coincidence telescopes. Valid coincidence and time-of-flight values (indicating downward moving particles) from one of these telescopes are two of the requirements for an EGRET event trigger. To maximize up-down discrimination, variations in the mean timing value of the telescopes must be minimized. The timing values of the 96 telescopes are not independent, hence they cannot be individually adjusted to calibrate the system. An iterative approach was devised to determine adjustments to the length of the photomultiplier signal cables. These adjustments were made directly in units of time using a time domain reflectometry technique, by timing the reflection of a fast pulse from the unterminated end of eable, and observing the charge in signal propagation time as the length of the cable was shortened. Two constant fraction discriminators, a time-to-amplitude converter and a pulse height analyzer were used for these measurements. Using this direct time measuring approach, the timing values for the 96 EGRET coincidence/time-of-flight telescopes were adjusted with an FWHM variation of less than 450 ps (± 1 TOF timing channel). (orig.)

  9. Analytical Predictor-Corrector Guidance Algorithm Based on Drag Modulation Flight Control System for Mars Aerocapture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ming Peng


    Full Text Available Aerocapture is one of the essential technologies for future large-scale space exploration missions, as it can significantly reduce the Δv and fuel requirement. The performance and robustness of two different aerocapture control methods are analyzed around Mars exploration, and then an analytic predictor-corrector guidance algorithm for drag modulation flight control system is proposed. A piecewise linear function between velocity and flight path angle is established by appropriate approximations and assumptions, and then the state at atmosphere interface can be predicted by an analytical method; therefore, aerocapture guidance can be realized by feedback control. Numerical simulation is used to evaluate performance and robustness of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the guidance algorithm is accurate and robust, which can effectively overcome the influence of atmospheric density error, aerodynamic parameter error, and initial state uncertainty.

  10. Detection system for high-resolution gamma radiation spectroscopy with neutron time-of-flight filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dioszegi, Istvan; Salwen, Cynthia; Vanier, Peter


    A .gamma.-radiation detection system that includes at least one semiconductor detector such as HPGe-Detector, a position-sensitive .alpha.-Detector, a TOF Controller, and a Digitizer/Integrator. The Digitizer/Integrator starts to process the energy signals of a .gamma.-radiation sent from the HPGe-Detector instantly when the HPGe-Detector detects the .gamma.-radiation. Subsequently, it is determined whether a coincidence exists between the .alpha.-particles and .gamma.-radiation signal, based on a determination of the time-of-flight of neutrons obtained from the .alpha.-Detector and the HPGe-Detector. If it is determined that the time-of-flight falls within a predetermined coincidence window, the Digitizer/Integrator is allowed to continue and complete the energy signal processing. If, however, there is no coincidence, the Digitizer/Integrator is instructed to be clear and reset its operation instantly.

  11. Flight Experience from Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Arrays and its Implication on Terrestrial Concentrator Systems (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.


    Nearly all photovoltaic solar arrays flown in space have used a planar (non- concentrating) design. However, there have been a few notable exceptions where photovoltaic concentrators have been tested and used as the mission s primary power source. Among these are the success experienced by the SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology) concept used to power NASA's Deep Space 1 mission and the problems encountered by the original Boeing 702 reflective trough concentrator design. This presentation will give a brief overview of past photovoltaic concentrator systems that have flown in space, specifically addressing the valuable lessons learned from flight experience, and other viable concentrator concepts that are being proposed for the future. The general trends of this flight experience will be noted and discussed with regard to its implications on terrestrial photovoltaic concentrator designs.

  12. X-37 Flight Demonstrator Project: Capabilities for Future Space Transportation System Development (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.


    The X-37 Approach and Landing Vehicle (ALTV) is an automated (unmanned) spacecraft designed to reduce technical risk in the descent and landing phases of flight. ALTV mission requirements and Orbital Vehicle (OV) technology research and development (R&D) goals are formulated to validate and mature high-payoff ground and flight technologies such as Thermal Protection Systems (TPS). It has been more than three decades since the Space Shuttle was designed and built. Real-world hardware experience gained through the multitude of X-37 Project activities has expanded both Government and industry knowledge of the challenges involved in developing new generations of spacecraft that can fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration.

  13. Sprint: The first flight demonstration of the external work system robots (United States)

    Price, Charles R.; Grimm, Keith


    The External Works Systems (EWS) 'X Program' is a new NASA initiative that will, in the next ten years, develop a new generation of space robots for active and participative support of zero g external operations. The robotic development will center on three areas: the assistant robot, the associate robot, and the surrogate robot that will support external vehicular activities (EVA) prior to and after, during, and instead of space-suited human external activities respectively. The EWS robotics program will be a combination of technology developments and flight demonstrations for operational proof of concept. The first EWS flight will be a flying camera called 'Sprint' that will seek to demonstrate operationally flexible, remote viewing capability for EVA operations, inspections, and contingencies for the space shuttle and space station. This paper describes the need for Sprint and its characteristics.

  14. Context-dependent flight speed: evidence for energetically optimal flight speed in the bat Pipistrellus kuhlii? (United States)

    Grodzinski, Uri; Spiegel, Orr; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W


    1. Understanding the causes and consequences of animal flight speed has long been a challenge in biology. Aerodynamic theory is used to predict the most economical flight speeds, minimizing energy expenditure either per distance (maximal range speed, Vmr) or per time (minimal power speed, Vmp). When foraging in flight, flight speed also affects prey encounter and energy intake rates. According to optimal flight speed theory, such effects may shift the energetically optimal foraging speed to above Vmp. 2. Therefore, we predicted that if energetic considerations indeed have a substantial effect on flight speed of aerial-hawking bats, they will use high speed (close to Vmr) to commute from their daily roost to the foraging sites, while a slower speed (but still above Vmp) will be preferred during foraging. To test these predictions, echolocation calls of commuting and foraging Pipistrellus kuhlii were recorded and their flight tracks were reconstructed using an acoustic flight path tracking system. 3. Confirming our qualitative prediction, commuting flight was found to be significantly faster than foraging flight (9.3 vs. 6.7 m s(-1)), even when controlling for its lower tortuosity. 4. In order to examine our quantitative prediction, we compared observed flight speeds with Vmp and Vmr values generated for the study population using two alternative aerodynamic models, based on mass and wing morphology variables measured from bats we captured while commuting. The Vmp and Vmr values generated by one of the models were much lower than our measured flight speed. According to the other model used, however, measured foraging flight was faster than Vmp and commuting flight slightly slower than Vmr, which is in agreement with the predictions of optimal flight speed theory. 5. Thus, the second aerodynamic model we used seems to be a reasonable predictor of the different flight speeds used by the bats while foraging and while commuting. This supports the hypothesis that bats fly

  15. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems. (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Naithani, Kusum J; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A


    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  16. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi


    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  17. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke


    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  18. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle. (United States)

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo


    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  19. Development of a flight data acquisition system for small unmanned aircraft (United States)

    Hood, Scott

    Current developments surrounding the use of unmanned aerial vehicles have produced a need for a high quality data acquisition platform developed specifically a research environment. This work was undertaken to produce such a system that is low cost, extensible, and better supports fixed wing research through the inclusion of a custom vane based air data probe capable of measuring airspeed, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This was accomplished by starting with the open source Pixhawk system as the core and then modifying the device firmware and adding sensors to suit the needs of current aerospace research at OSU. An overview of each component of the system is presented, as well as a description of various firmware modifications to the stock Pixhawk system. Tests were then performed on all of the major sensors using bench testing, wind tunnel analysis, and flight maneuvers to determine the final performance of each part of the system. This research shows that all of the critical sensors on the data acquisition platform produce data acceptable for flight research. The accelerometer has been shown to have an overall tolerance of +/-0.0545 m/s², with +/-0.223 deg/s for the gyroscopic sensor, +/-1.32 hPa for the barometric sensor, +/-0.318 m/s for the airspeed sensor, +/-1.65 °C for the outside air temperature sensor, and +/-0.00115 V for the analog to digital converter. The stock calibration curve for the airspeed sensor was determined to be correct to within +/-0.5 in H2O through wind tunnel testing, and an experimental step input analysis on the flow direction vanes showed that worst case steady state error and time to damp are acceptable for the system. Power spectral density and spectral coherence analysis of flight data was used to show that the custom air data probe is capable of following the flight dynamics of a given aircraft to within a 10 percent tolerance across a range of frequencies. Finally, general performance of the system was proven using

  20. Assessment team report on flight-critical systems research at NASA Langley Research Center (United States)

    Siewiorek, Daniel P. (Compiler); Dunham, Janet R. (Compiler)


    The quality, coverage, and distribution of effort of the flight-critical systems research program at NASA Langley Research Center was assessed. Within the scope of the Assessment Team's review, the research program was found to be very sound. All tasks under the current research program were at least partially addressing the industry needs. General recommendations made were to expand the program resources to provide additional coverage of high priority industry needs, including operations and maintenance, and to focus the program on an actual hardware and software system that is under development.

  1. Study for HDR cross-link for formation flight satellite systems (United States)

    Nishinaga, Nozomu; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Takashi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Kubooka, Toshihiro; Umehara, Hiroaki


    In this paper we studied about optical and millimeter radio wave cross-link for formation flight communication satellite system in a geostationary orbit. In formation flight system, since the distance among the satellites becomes short compared with the conventional inter satellite comunication link, the size and the weight of the communication system can be reduced. If the high data rate cross-link among the satellites which is equal to the whole transponder bandwidth can be established, the functionally distributed communications satellite system can be constructed. Then, by exchanging a part of the satellite system without the physical contact, in other words, by exchange some old satellites and new ones, the fully reconfigurable and long lifetime (from the point of the function) satellite communication system which can follow the paradigm shift in the terrestrial communications technology can be realize. On the other hand, however, since the maximum of relative angle error among two satellites is enlarged, the tracking becomes difficult. In this study, it turns the electric power which is gotten from the shortening the distance to making beam width large. Here, we examine communication among two satellites (10Km distance) where the data rate is 1Gbps.

  2. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Flight System Design and Operations Overview (United States)

    Shen, Yuhsyen; Shaffer, Scott J.; Jordan, Rolando L.


    This paper provides an overview of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), with emphasis on flight system implementation and mission operations from systems engineering perspective. Successfully flown in February, 2000, the SRTM's primary payload consists of several subsystems to form the first spaceborne dual-frequency (C-band and X-band) fixed baseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) system, with the mission objective to acquire data sets over 80% of Earth's landmass for height reconstruction. The paper provides system architecture, unique design features, engineering budgets, design verification, in-flight checkout and data acquisition of the SRTM payload, in particular for the C-band system. Mission operation and post-mission data processing activities are also presented. The complexity of the SRTM as a system, the ambitious mission objective, the demanding requirements and the high interdependency between multi-disciplined subsystems posed many challenges. The engineering experience and the insight thus gained have important implications for future spaceborne interferometric SAR mission design and implementation.

  3. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua


    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  4. Use of the Long Duration Exposure Facility's thermal measurement system for the verification of thermal models (United States)

    Berrios, William M.


    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) postflight thermal model predicted temperatures were matched to flight temperature data recorded by the Thermal Measurement System (THERM), LDEF experiment P0003. Flight temperatures, recorded at intervals of approximately 112 minutes for the first 390 days of LDEF's 2105 day mission were compared with predictions using the thermal mathematical model (TMM). This model was unverified prior to flight. The postflight analysis has reduced the thermal model uncertainty at the temperature sensor locations from +/- 40 F to +/- 18 F. The improved temperature predictions will be used by the LDEF's principal investigators to calculate improved flight temperatures experienced by 57 experiments located on 86 trays of the facility.

  5. Combined Raman/LIBS spectrometer elegant breadboard: built and tested - and flight model spectrometer unit (United States)

    Ahlers, B.; Hutchinson, I.; Ingley, R.


    A spectrometer for combined Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is amongst the different instruments that have been pre-selected for the Pasteur payload of the ExoMars rover. It is regarded as a fundamental, next-generation instrument for organic, mineralogical and elemental characterisation of Martian soil, rock samples and organic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities [1]. The combined Raman / LIBS instrument has been recommended as the highest priority mineralogy instrument to be included in the rover's analytical laboratory for the following tasks: Analyse surface and sub-surface soil and rocks on Mars, identify organics in the search for life and determine soil origin & toxicity. The synergy of the system is evident: the Raman spectrometer is dedicated to molecular analysis of organics and minerals; the LIBS provides information on the sample's elemental composition. An international team, under ESA contract and with the leadership of TNO Science and Industry, has built and tested an Elegant Bread Board (EBB) of the combined Raman / LIBS instrument. The EBB comprises a specifically designed, extremely compact, spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. The EBB also includes lasers, illumination and imaging optics as well as fibre optics for light transfer. A summary of the functional and environmental requirements together with a description of the optical design and its expected performance are described in [2]. The EBB was developed and constructed to verify the instruments' end-to-end functional performance with natural samples. The combined Raman / LIBS EBB realisation and test results of natural samples will be presented. For the Flight Model (FM) instrument, currently in the design phase, the Netherlands will be responsible for the design, development and verification of the

  6. RSMASS system model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Gallup, D.R.


    RSMASS system mass models have been used for more than a decade to make rapid estimates of space reactor power system masses. This paper reviews the evolution of the RSMASS models and summarizes present capabilities. RSMASS has evolved from a simple model used to make rough estimates of space reactor and shield masses to a versatile space reactor power system model. RSMASS uses unique reactor and shield models that permit rapid mass optimization calculations for a variety of space reactor power and propulsion systems. The RSMASS-D upgrade of the original model includes algorithms for the balance of the power system, a number of reactor and shield modeling improvements, and an automatic mass optimization scheme. The RSMASS-D suite of codes cover a very broad range of reactor and power conversion system options as well as propulsion and bimodal reactor systems. Reactor choices include in-core and ex-core thermionic reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors, particle bed reactors, and prismatic configuration reactors. Power conversion options include thermoelectric, thermionic, Stirling, Brayton, and Rankine approaches. Program output includes all major component masses and dimensions, efficiencies, and a description of the design parameters for a mass optimized system. In the past, RSMASS has been used as an aid to identify and select promising concepts for space power applications. The RSMASS modeling approach has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for guiding optimization of the power system design; consequently, the model is useful during system design and development as well as during the selection process. An improved in-core thermionic reactor system model RSMASS-T is now under development. The current development of the RSMASS-T code represents the next evolutionary stage of the RSMASS models. RSMASS-T includes many modeling improvements and is planned to be more user-friendly. RSMASS-T will be released as a fully documented, certified code at the end of

  7. Lateral dynamic flight stability of a model hoverfly in normal and inclined stroke-plane hovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Na; Sun, Mao


    Many insects hover with their wings beating in a horizontal plane (‘normal hovering’), while some insects, e.g., hoverflies and dragonflies, hover with inclined stroke-planes. Here, we investigate the lateral dynamic flight stability of a hovering model hoverfly. The aerodynamic derivatives are computed using the method of computational fluid dynamics, and the equations of motion are solved by the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis. The following is shown: The flight of the insect is unstable at normal hovering (stroke-plane angle equals 0) and the instability becomes weaker as the stroke-plane angle increases; the flight becomes stable at a relatively large stroke-plane angle (larger than about 24°). As previously shown, the instability at normal hovering is due to a positive roll-moment/side-velocity derivative produced by the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect. When the stroke-plane angle increases, the wings bend toward the back of the body, and the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect decreases; in addition, another effect, called the ‘changing-relative-velocity’ effect (the ‘lateral wind’, which is due to the side motion of the insect, changes the relative velocity of its wings), becomes increasingly stronger. This causes the roll-moment/side-velocity derivative to first decrease and then become negative, resulting in the above change in stability as a function of the stroke-plane angle. (paper)

  8. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  9. Design and flight experience with a digital fly-by-wire control system in an F-8 airplane (United States)

    Deets, D. A.; Szalai, K. J.


    A digital fly-by-wire flight control system was designed, built, and for the first time flown in an airplane. The system, which uses components from the Apollo guidance system, is installed in an F-8 airplane as the primary control system. A lunar module guidance computer is the central element in the three-axis, single-channel, multimode, digital control system. A triplex electrical analog system which provides unaugmented control of the airplane is the only backup to the digital system. Flight results showed highly successful system operation, although the trim update rate was inadequate for precise trim changes, causing minor concern. The use of a digital system to implement conventional control laws proved to be practical for flight. Logic functions coded as an integral part of the control laws were found to be advantageous. Although software verification required extensive effort, confidence in the software was achieved.

  10. Development of neuronal and sensorimotor systems in the absence of gravity: Neurobiological research on four soyuz taxi flights to the international space station (United States)

    Horn, Eberhard R.; Dournon, Christian; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Marco, Roberto; Böser, Sybille; Kirschnick, Uta


    Neurobiological experiments on 4 animal species (Xenopus laevis, Pleurodeles waltl, Drosophila melanogaster, Acheta domesticus) were performed to study effects of microgravity on development and aging of neuronal, sensory and motor systems. Animal models were selected according to their suitability to answer questions concerning μg-effects on neuroanatomy, neuronal activity, and behaviour. The studies were performed on the Soyuz Taxi flights Andromède, Cervantes, Eneide and LDM-TMA8/TMA7. Observations from these flights include: (1) In tadpoles and cricket larvae, morphological features of sensory cells and neurons are rarely affected by microgravity. (2) In crickets, in-flight fertilization was successful; after landing, flight larvae hatched earlier than ground reared siblings. (3) In crickets, proliferation of peptidergic neurons and their projection patterns within the nervous system were not affected by microgravity. (4) During aging, the impact of microgravity on peptidergic neurons of male Drosophila was limited to the size of cell body. (5) In Xenopus, neurophysiological features of the spinal motor system during fictive swimming were partially modified. (6) In Xenopus tadpoles, the vestibuloocular reflex was affected in an age-related manner. Modifications were also related to the occurrence of a tail lordosis induced by microgravity. It is concluded that adaptation to microgravity during development and aging is mainly based on physiological mechanisms within the central nervous system while structural modifications of the sensory and neuronal system contribute less.

  11. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE


    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  12. An Analytical Explanation for the X-43A Flush Air Data Sensing System Pressure Mismatch Between Flight and Theory (United States)

    Ellsworth, Joel C.


    Following the successful Mach 7 flight test of the X-43A, unexpectedly low pressures were measured by the aft set of the onboard Flush Air Data Sensing System s pressure ports. These in-flight aft port readings were significantly lower below Mach 3.5 than was predicted by theory. The same lower readings were also seen in the Mach 10 flight of the X-43A and in wind-tunnel data. The pre-flight predictions were developed based on 2-dimensional wedge flow, which fails to predict some of the significant 3-dimensional flow features in this geometry at lower Mach numbers. Using Volterra s solution to the wave equation as a starting point, a three-dimensional finite wedge approximation to flow over the X-43A forebody is presented. The surface pressures from this approximation compare favorably with the measured wind tunnel and flight data at speeds of Mach 2.5 and 3.

  13. Selected System Models (United States)

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, F.; Puñal, O.; Klagges, K.; Kirsche, M.

    Apart from the general issue of modeling the channel, the PHY and the MAC of wireless networks, there are specific modeling assumptions that are considered for different systems. In this chapter we consider three specific wireless standards and highlight modeling options for them. These are IEEE 802.11 (as example for wireless local area networks), IEEE 802.16 (as example for wireless metropolitan networks) and IEEE 802.15 (as example for body area networks). Each section on these three systems discusses also at the end a set of model implementations that are available today.

  14. A 10 Kelvin 3 Tesla Magnet for Space Flight ADR Systems (United States)

    Tuttle, Jim; Shirron, Peter; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael; Riall, Sara; Pourrahimi, Shahin


    Many future space flight missions are expected to use adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs) to reach detector operating temperatures well below one Kelvin. The goal is to operate each ADR with a mechanical cooler as its heat sink, thus avoiding the use of liquid cryogens. Although mechanical coolers are being developed to operate at temperatures of 6 Kelvin and below, there is a large efficiency cost associated with operating them at the bottom of their temperature range. For the multi-stage ADR system being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, the goal is to operate with a 10 Kelvin mechanical cooler heat sink. With currently available paramagnetic materials, the highest temperature ADR stage in such a system will require a magnetic field of approximately three Tesla. Thus the goal is to develop a small, lightweight three Tesla superconducting magnet for operation at 10 Kelvin. It is important that this magnet have a low current/field ratio. Because traditional NbTi magnets do not operate safely above about six Kelvin, a magnet with a higher Tc is required. The primary focus has been on Nb3Sn magnets. Since standard Nb3Sn wire must be coated with thick insulation, wound on a magnet mandrel and then reacted, standard Nb,Sn magnets are quite heavy and require high currents Superconducting Systems developed a Nb3Sn wire which can be drawn down to small diameter, reacted, coated with thin insulation and then wound on a small diameter coil form. By using this smaller wire and operating closer to the wire s critical current, it should be possible to reduce the mass and operating current of 10 Kelvin magnets. Using this "react-then-wind" technology, Superconducting Systems has produced prototype 10 Kelvin magnets. This paper describes the development and testing of these magnets and discusses the outlook for including 10 Kelvin magnets on space-flight missions.

  15. Statistical model uncertainty and OPERA-like time-of-flight measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Oliver


    Time-of-flight measurements such as the OPERA and MINOS experiments rely crucially on statistical analysis (as well as many other ingredients) for their conclusions. The nature of these experiments leads to a simple class of statistical models for the results; however, which model in the class is appropriate is not known exactly, as this depends on information obtained experimentally, which is subject to noise and other errors. To obtain robust conclusions, this problem, known as "model uncertainty," needs to be addressed, with quantitative bounds on the effect such uncertainty may have on the final result. The OPERA (and MINOS) analysis appears to take steps to mitigate the effects of model uncertainty, though without quantifying any remaining effect. We describe one of the strategies used (averaging individual probability distributions), and point out a potential source of error if this is not carried out correctly. We then argue that the correct version of this strategy is not the most effective, and sugge...

  16. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.


    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this report provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  17. Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST): Capabilities and Recent Flight Research (United States)

    Miller, Christopher


    At the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center research is being conducted into flight control technologies that will enable the next generation of air and space vehicles. The Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) aircraft provides a laboratory for flight exploration of these technologies. In recent years novel but simple adaptive architectures for aircraft and rockets have been researched along with control technologies for improving aircraft fuel efficiency and control structural interaction. This presentation outlines the FAST capabilities and provides a snapshot of the research accomplishments to date. Flight experimentation allows a researcher to substantiate or invalidate their assumptions and intuition about a new technology or innovative approach Data early in a development cycle is invaluable for determining which technology barriers are real and which ones are imagined Data for a technology at a low TRL can be used to steer and focus the exploration and fuel rapid advances based on real world lessons learned It is important to identify technologies that are mature enough to benefit from flight research data and not be tempted to wait until we have solved all the potential issues prior to getting some data Sometimes a stagnated technology just needs a little real world data to get it going One trick to getting data for low TRL technologies is finding an environment where it is okay to take risks, where occasional failure is an expected outcome Learning how things fail is often as valuable as showing that they work FAST has been architected to facilitate this type of testing for control system technologies, specifically novel algorithms and sensors Rapid prototyping with a quick turnaround in a fly-fix-fly paradigm Sometimes it's easier and cheaper to just go fly it than to analyze the problem to death The goal is to find and test control technologies that would benefit from flight data and find solutions to the real barriers to innovation. The FAST

  18. Bone Density and High Salt Diets in a Space Flight Model (United States)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Navidi, M.; Liang, M. T. C.; Wolinsky, I.


    High salt diets accelerate bone loss with aging in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis except when calcium supplementation is provided. We have observed that the decrease in mineral content of growing femurs in juvenile rats, exposed to a space flight model which unloads the hind limbs , is substantially less in animals fed excess salt. To determine whether excess dietary salt has the same effect on the skeleton of the mature animal whose response to unloading is increased resorption and bone loss rather than impaired growth, we carried out a metabolic study in mature rats with hindlimbs unloaded by tailsuspension.

  19. Higher Dimensional Spacetimes for Visualizing and Modeling Subluminal, Luminal and Superluminal Flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froning, H. David; Meholic, Gregory V.


    This paper briefly explores higher dimensional spacetimes that extend Meholic's visualizable, fluidic views of: subluminal-luminal-superluminal flight; gravity, inertia, light quanta, and electromagnetism from 2-D to 3-D representations. Although 3-D representations have the potential to better model features of Meholic's most fundamental entities (Transluminal Energy Quantum) and of the zero-point quantum vacuum that pervades all space, the more complex 3-D representations loose some of the clarity of Meholic's 2-D representations of subluminal and superlumimal realms. So, much new work would be needed to replace Meholic's 2-D views of reality with 3-D ones.

  20. The linearity response of the Planck-LFI flight model receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M; Villa, F; Terenzi, L; Cuttaia, F; Butler, R C; Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C; Lapolla, P M; D'Arcangelo, O; Artal, E; Davis, R; Kettle, D; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; Gregorio, A; Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kilpiae, V-H; Laaninen, M


    In this paper we discuss the linearity response of the Planck-LFI receivers, with particular reference to signal compression measured on the 30 and 44 GHz channels. In the article we discuss the various sources of compression and present a model that accurately describes data measured during tests performed with individual radiomeric chains. After discussing test results we present the best parameter set representing the receiver response and discuss the impact of non linearity on in-flight calibration, which is shown to be negligible.