WorldWideScience

Sample records for system face wall

  1. Use of flexible facing for soil nail walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Soil nail walls are a widely used technology for retaining vertical and nearly vertical cuts in soil. A : significant portion of the cost of soil nail wall construction is related to the construction of a reinforced : concrete face. The potential for...

  2. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  3. Flaw detection device for plasma facing wall in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Akira.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns plasma facing walls of a thermonuclear device and provides a device for detecting a thickness of amour tiles accurately and efficiently with no manual operation. Namely, the position of the plasma facing surface of the amour tile is measured using a structure to which the amour tiles are to be disposed as a reference. Also in a case of disposing new armor tiles, the position of the plasma facing surface of the armor tiles is measured to thereby measure the wearing amount of the amour tiles based on the difference between the reference and the measured value. If a measuring means capable of measuring a plurality of amour tiles at once is used efficiency of the measurement and the detection can be enhanced. Several ten thousands of amour tiles are disposed to the plasma facing wall in a large scaled thermonuclear device, and a plenty of time was required for the detection. However, the present invention can improve the accuracy for the measurement and detection and provide time and labors-saving. (I.S.)

  4. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  5. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  6. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages. The d....... The different systems are evaluated using 5 different types of existing walls....

  7. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  8. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  9. Progress in the engineering design and assessment of the European DEMO first wall and divertor plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Thomas R., E-mail: tom.barrett@ukaea.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Ellwood, G.; Pérez, G.; Kovari, M.; Fursdon, M.; Domptail, F.; Kirk, S.; McIntosh, S.C.; Roberts, S.; Zheng, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, L.V. [KIT, INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); You, J.-H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion, PPPT, Boltzmann Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Reiser, J.; Rieth, M. [KIT, IAM, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Visca, E.; Mazzone, G. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [KIT, INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Domalapally, P.K. [Research Center Rez, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec – Řež (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The engineering of the plasma facing components for DEMO is an extreme challenge. • PFC overall requirements, methods for assessment and designs status are described. • Viable divertor concepts for 10 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux appear to be within reach. • The first wall PFC concept will need to vary poloidally around the wall. • First wall coolant, structural material and PFC topology are open design choices. - Abstract: The European DEMO power reactor is currently under conceptual design within the EUROfusion Consortium. One of the most critical activities is the engineering of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) covering the plasma chamber wall, which must operate reliably in an extreme environment of neutron irradiation and surface heat and particle flux, while also allowing sufficient neutron transmission to the tritium breeding blankets. A systems approach using advanced numerical analysis is vital to realising viable solutions for these first wall and divertor PFCs. Here, we present the system requirements and describe bespoke thermo-mechanical and thermo-hydraulic assessment procedures which have been used as tools for design. The current first wall and divertor designs are overviewed along with supporting analyses. The PFC solutions employed will necessarily vary around the wall, depending on local conditions, and must be designed in an integrated manner by analysis and physical testing.

  10. Near-Wall Investigation of Backward-Facing Step Flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihon, Jaroslav; Legrand, J.; Legentilhomme, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2001), s. 484-493 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC F2.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : investigation * backward-facing * step flow Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.821, year: 2001

  11. Compressive behavior of energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Wu, Cai

    2018-03-01

    The energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has a broad development prospects due to its merits of thermal insulation, energy conservation, beautiful, and natural. The construction and characteristics of this wall are introduced and analyzed in this paper. Experimental studies of samples are also conducted to investigate its compressive performance. The results show that the energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has high compressive capacity. It has considerable application prospect, the study in this paper provides foundation to further studies.

  12. Conditionings for boron-carbon plasma facing wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Tomoaki; Yamauchi, Yuji; Yamashina, Toshiro

    1994-01-01

    For plasma facing material with components of boron and carbon, the method of conditionings due to He discharge cleaning and baking is considered. The conditioning time required to suppress the hydrogen recycling is discussed. It is shown that the hydrogen trapped by the boron can be relatively easily removed only by the baking at 300degC or only by He discharge cleaning with current density of 0.1 mA/cm 2 . It is not easy to remove the hydrogen trapped by the carbon by the baking since the temperature required becomes 500degC. The current density required also becomes high, 1 mA/cm 2 , for the reduction of the hydrogen trapped by the carbon. (author)

  13. Beryllium plasma-facing components for the ITER-like wall project at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, M J; Sundelin, P [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Association Euratom-VR (Sweden); Bailescu, V [Nuclear Fuel Plant, Pitesti (Romania); Coad, J P; Matthews, G F; Pedrick, L; Riccardo, V; Villedieu, E [Culham Science Centre, Euratom-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Hirai, T; Linke, J [IEF-2, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association Euratom-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); Likonen, J [VTT, Association Euratom-Tekes, 02044 VTT (Finland); Lungu, C P [NILPRP, Association Euratom-MEdC, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: rubel@kth.se

    2008-03-15

    ITER-Like Wall Project has been launched at the JET tokamak in order to study a tokamak operation with beryllium components on the main chamber wall and tungsten in the divertor. To perform this first comprehensive test of both materials in a thermonuclear fusion environment, a broad program has been undertaken to develop plasma-facing components and assess their performance under high power loads. The paper provides a concise report on scientific and technical issues in the development of a beryllium first wall at JET.

  14. Measurement of gross energy consumption in newly constructed buildings corresponding to BR2005 energy requirements. Building system: Face wall cellular concrete panels 2; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Byggesystem: Skalmurede porebetonelementer 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    This report contains measurements of gross energy consumption in a highly insulated 133 m{sup 2} single-family house built of face wall cellular concrete panels. The gross energy measurements include energy consumption for space heating, hot domestic water, coverage of heat loss from heating installations as well as electricity consumption. The objective has been to document and analyse the measurement results and compare these to future gross energy consumption demands. Furthermore, the objective has been to collect operational experiences on electricity consuming appliances in order to illustrate their importance for heat requirements, including evaluation of to what extend the electricity consumption contributes to space heating and how electricity consumption effects heat consumption in general. (BA)

  15. Measurement of gross energy consumption in newly constructed buildings corresponding to BR2005 energy requirements. Building systems: Face wall cellular concrete panels 1; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Byggesystem: Skalmurede porebetonelementer 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    This report contains measurements of gross energy consumption in a highly insulated 135 m{sup 2} single-family house constructed built of face wall cellular concrete panels. The gross energy measurements include energy consumption for space heating, hot domestic water, coverage of heat loss from heating installations as well as electricity consumption. The objective has been to document and analyse the measurement results and compare these to future gross energy consumption demands. Furthermore, the objective has been to collect operational experiences on electricity consuming appliances in order to illustrate their importance for heat requirements, including evaluation of to what extend the electricity consumption contributes to space heating and how electricity consumption effects heat consumption in general. (BA)

  16. Automatic Door Access System Using Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hteik Htar Lwin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most doors are controlled by persons with the use of keys security cards password or pattern to open the door. Theaim of this paper is to help users forimprovement of the door security of sensitive locations by using face detection and recognition. Face is a complex multidimensional structure and needs good computing techniques for detection and recognition. This paper is comprised mainly of three subsystems namely face detection face recognition and automatic door access control. Face detection is the process of detecting the region of face in an image. The face is detected by using the viola jones method and face recognition is implemented by using the Principal Component Analysis PCA. Face Recognition based on PCA is generally referred to as the use of Eigenfaces.If a face is recognized it is known else it is unknown. The door will open automatically for the known person due to the command of the microcontroller. On the other hand alarm will ring for the unknown person. Since PCA reduces the dimensions of face images without losing important features facial images for many persons can be stored in the database. Although many training images are used computational efficiency cannot be decreased significantly. Therefore face recognition using PCA can be more useful for door security system than other face recognition schemes.

  17. Plant Wall Degradative Compounds and Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present invention relates to cell wall degradative systems, in particular to systems containing enzymes that bind to and/or depolymerize cellulose. These systems...

  18. Vacuum system and wall conditioning in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usselmann, E.; Dietz, K.J.; Hemmerich, H.; Schueller, F.C.; Tanga, A.

    1984-01-01

    The JET vacuum system, operation experience and the modifications required for future Tritium operation are described. The techniques and results of the wall conditioning employed will be summarised with respect to plasma performance. Consequences for the choice of limiter and wall material will be discussed. (author)

  19. Effect of truncation of electron velocity distribution on release of dust particle from plasma-facing wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Smirnov, R.; Nakamura, H.; Zhu, S.; Takizuka, T.; Tskhakaya, D.

    2007-01-01

    In modeling of release of a dust particle from a plasma-facing wall it is usually assumed that electron velocity distribution is Maxwellian. However, the absorption of fast electrons by the conducting wall can lead to truncation of fast component of reflecting electrons from the wall. In this work we study the effect of truncation of electron velocity distribution on the release condition of a conducting spherical dust particle from the plasma-facing wall. The truncation increases the electric field at the wall surface compared to that calculated in absence of the truncation. The stronger electric field makes the dust particle hard released when the gravitational force is directed from the wall and applied wall potential is shallower than the floating one

  20. INTOR impurity control and first wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1983-04-01

    The highlights of the recent INTOR effort on examining the key issues of the impurity control/first wall system are summarized. The emphasis of the work was an integrated study of the edge-region physics, plasma-wall interaction, materials, engineering and magnetic considerations associated with the poloidal divertor and pump limiter. The development of limiter and divertor collector plate designs with an acceptable lifetime was a major part of the work

  1. Dynamic Response of Wall Backfill Retaining System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas Alampalli

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ full-scale test is conducted to measure the dynamic response of a long cantilever wall that retains backfill soil. The recorded modal parameters of this retaining wall exhibited significant similarity to those of a clamped cantilever plate (rather than those of a cantilever beam or plane-strain analysis. Such a three-dimensional (3-D response pattern is not accounted for by current analysis procedures. A simple 3-D finite element model is employed to further analyze the observed resonant configurations. The results indicate that such configurations play an important role in the seismic response of wall backfill soil systems of variable height, such as wing walls supporting highway approach ramps.

  2. Strain simulation in face turning of Ti6Al4V thin-walled parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzikiewicz, Grzegorz; Zebala, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    An analysis of the part deformation in the face turning of the grooves was presented. A face-grooving process was performed on the disc-shaped part made of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Investigations were performed in two stages. First, experimental studies were conducted to determine the level of the cutting forces for variable wall thickness and cutting data. In the second step of investigations, a computer simulation of the disc flange deformation was performed using finite element method in the NX Siemens software. Based on the analysis of the research results, the dependence of the direction and value of the cutting force on the deformation value has been determined.

  3. Contiguous Pile Wall as a Deep Excavation Supporting System

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata Ramasubbarao GODAVARTHI; Dineshbabu MALLAVALLI; Ramya PEDDI; Neelesh KATRAGADDA; Prudhvikrishna MULPURU

    2012-01-01

    Providing space for parking, public amenities, etc in multi-storey buildings at town centres has created a need to go deep excavations into ground. Deep excavations are supported by systems like conventional retaining walls, sheet pile walls, braced walls, diaphragm walls and pile walls. This article describes various excavation supporting systems that are in vogue essentially contiguous pile wall and its advantages. A detailed design methodology of an excavation supporting system is furnishe...

  4. Flow Over Backward Facing Step with Inclined Wall Solved by Finite Volume and Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, Petr; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel; Příhoda, Jaromír

    2010-09-01

    The work deals with numerical solution of 2D incompressible flow over backward facing step. The inclination angles of the upper wall of the channel were chosen as in measurements by Driver and Seegmiller [1]. Two numerical methods are considered. One is finite volume method, the other one is finite element method. Turbulence is modeled using two-equation turbulence models of k-ω type. The influence of outlet boundary condition is discussed and do-nothing-like condition found suitable also for finite volume method. The comparison of both methods is presented for laminar as well as turbulent cases, including experimental results. The differences of the results are studied using one turbulence model and both numerical methods or one method and more turbulence models. It is found that sensitivity of the computation to these circumstances increases for higher inclination angles (diffuser flow).

  5. Contiguous Pile Wall as a Deep Excavation Supporting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramasubbarao GODAVARTHI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing space for parking, public amenities, etc in multi-storey buildings at town centres has created a need to go deep excavations into ground. Deep excavations are supported by systems like conventional retaining walls, sheet pile walls, braced walls, diaphragm walls and pile walls. This article describes various excavation supporting systems that are in vogue essentially contiguous pile wall and its advantages. A detailed design methodology of an excavation supporting system is furnished in this study. A case study on the Contiguous pile wall retaining system for supporting a deep excavation at a town centre is presented.

  6. TOWARD TUNGSTEN PLASMA-FACING COMPONENTS IN KSTAR: RESEARCH ON PLASMA-METAL WALL INTERACTION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hong, S.-H.; Kim, K.M.; Song, J.-H.; Bang, E.-N.; Kim, H.-T.; Lee, K.-S.; Litnovsky, A.; Hellwig, M.; Seo, D.C.; Lee, H.H.; Kang, C.S.; Lee, H.-Y.; Hong, J.-H.; Bak, J.-G.; Kim, H.-S.; Juhn, J.-W.; Son, S.-H.; Kim, H.-K.; Douai, D.; Grisolia, C.; Wu, J.; Luo, G.-N.; Choe, W.-H.; Komm, Michael; van den Berg, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Pitts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2015), s. 36-43 ISSN 1536-1055. [International Conference on Open Magnetic Systems for Plasma Confinement (OS 2014)/10./. Daejeon, 26.08.2014-29.08.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma-metal wall interaction * Tungsten technology Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.799, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.13182/FST14-897

  7. The neural representation of personally familiar and unfamiliar faces in the distributed system for face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Gors, Jason D; Gobbini, M Ida

    2017-09-25

    Personally familiar faces are processed more robustly and efficiently than unfamiliar faces. The human face processing system comprises a core system that analyzes the visual appearance of faces and an extended system for the retrieval of person-knowledge and other nonvisual information. We applied multivariate pattern analysis to fMRI data to investigate aspects of familiarity that are shared by all familiar identities and information that distinguishes specific face identities from each other. Both identity-independent familiarity information and face identity could be decoded in an overlapping set of areas in the core and extended systems. Representational similarity analysis revealed a clear distinction between the two systems and a subdivision of the core system into ventral, dorsal and anterior components. This study provides evidence that activity in the extended system carries information about both individual identities and personal familiarity, while clarifying and extending the organization of the core system for face perception.

  8. Development of NRU reflector wall inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, R.H.; Luloff, B.V.; Zahn, N.; Simpson, N., E-mail: lumsdenr@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service. The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism had damaged the reflector vessel led to the development of a system to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage. The inspection region could only be accessed through 64 mm diameter ports, was 10 m below the port, and had to be inspected from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique was designed to produce a closely spaced wall thickness (WT) grid over an area of approximately 5 m2 on the corroded surface using a very small probe holder. This paper describes the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) development project and the system that resulted. (author)

  9. A Massively Parallel Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Paasio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We present methods for processing the LBPs (local binary patterns with a massively parallel hardware, especially with CNN-UM (cellular nonlinear network-universal machine. In particular, we present a framework for implementing a massively parallel face recognition system, including a dedicated highly accurate algorithm suitable for various types of platforms (e.g., CNN-UM and digital FPGA. We study in detail a dedicated mixed-mode implementation of the algorithm and estimate its implementation cost in the view of its performance and accuracy restrictions.

  10. A Massively Parallel Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahdenoja Olli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present methods for processing the LBPs (local binary patterns with a massively parallel hardware, especially with CNN-UM (cellular nonlinear network-universal machine. In particular, we present a framework for implementing a massively parallel face recognition system, including a dedicated highly accurate algorithm suitable for various types of platforms (e.g., CNN-UM and digital FPGA. We study in detail a dedicated mixed-mode implementation of the algorithm and estimate its implementation cost in the view of its performance and accuracy restrictions.

  11. On wiping the interior walls of 37-mm closed-face cassettes: an OSHA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Warren; Stones, Fern; Lillquist, Dean

    2009-12-01

    As early as 1976, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods for analyzing metal samples collected using 37-mm polystyrene closed-face cassettes specified that any loose dust be transferred from the cassette to the digestion vessel, that the cassette be rinsed, and that, if necessary, the cassette be wiped out to help ensure that all particles that enter the cassette are included along with the filter as part of the sample for analysis. OSHA analytical methods for metal analysis were recently revised to explicitly require cassette wiping for all metal samples. This change was based on policy that any material entering the collection device constitutes part of the sample and on OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center research showing that invisible residue on the cassette walls can significantly contribute to the total sample results reported. OSHA procedures are consistent with guidance given in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. This guidance concludes that internal deposits in sampling cassettes should be included in the analysis and that one way to accomplish this would be to wipe or wash the internal surfaces of the cassette and include the material along with the filter for analysis.

  12. Electromagnetic approaches to wall characterization, wall mitigation, and antenna design for through-the-wall radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thajudeen, Christopher

    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a topic of current interest due to its wide range of public safety, law enforcement, and defense applications. Among the various available technologies such as, acoustic, thermal, and optical imaging, which can be employed to sense and image targets of interest, electromagnetic (EM) imaging, in the microwave frequency bands, is the most widely utilized technology and has been at the forefront of research in recent years. The primary objectives for any Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging (TWRI) system are to obtain a layout of the building and/or inner rooms, detect if there are targets of interest including humans or weapons, determine if there are countermeasures being employed to further obscure the contents of a building or room of interest, and finally to classify the detected targets. Unlike conventional radar scenarios, the presence of walls, made of common construction materials such as brick, drywall, plywood, cinder block, and solid concrete, adversely affects the ability of any conventional imaging technique to properly image targets enclosed within building structures as the propagation through the wall can induce shadowing effects on targets of interest which may result in image degradation, errors in target localization, and even complete target masking. For many applications of TWR systems, the wall ringing signals are strong enough to mask the returns from targets not located a sufficient distance behind the wall, beyond the distance of the wall ringing, and thus without proper wall mitigation, target detection becomes extremely difficult. The results presented in this thesis focus on the development of wall parameter estimation, and intra-wall and wall-type characterization techniques for use in both the time and frequency domains as well as analysis of these techniques under various real world scenarios such as reduced system bandwidth scenarios, various wall backing scenarios, the case of inhomogeneous walls, presence

  13. Toward Tungsten Plasma-Facing Components in KSTAR: Research on Plasma-Metal Wall Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S. H.; Kim, K. M.; Song, J. H.; Bang, E. N.; Kim, H. T.; Lee, K. S.; Litnovsky, A.; Hellwig, M.; Seo, D. C.; van den Berg, M. A.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. S.; Lee, H. Y.; Hong, J. H.; Bak, J. G.; Kim, H. S.; Juhn, J. W.; Son, S. H.; Kim, H. K.; Douai, D.; Grisolia, C.; Wu, J.; Luo, G. N.; Choe, W. H.; Komm, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Pitts, R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main missions of KSTAR is to develop long-pulse operation capability relevant to the production of fusion energy. After a full metal wall configuration was decided for ITER, a major upgrade for KSTAR was planned, to a tungsten first wall similar to the JET ITER-like wall (coatings and

  14. Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate how a face is not a singular, invariable object, but may take on a variety of forms, and how new media has especially created new venues for the moldings of faces. We suggest that faces should be viewed in plural in order to emphasize the many different facial disp...

  15. Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe

    2018-01-01

    for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... displays a single person make use of, and how this ‘pool of faces’ carries sociocultural meaning. While the past decades of swift technological development may seem to have diminished the role of face to face contact, the many new media has – on the contrary – established multiple new and innovative arenas...... forward. Especially the teenage girls engage in manipulating their faces into hideous expressions. However, this type of interaction is not random facial displays, but follow an ‘aesthetics of ugliness’. This aesthetics involve specific ways of looking ugly and is primarily performed by girls who have...

  16. Research Advances on Fabricated Shear Wall System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Donghui; Wang, Sheng; Zhai, Yu

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of the construction industry, building energy consumption has been increasing, has become a problem that can not be ignored. It is imperative to develop energy-saving buildings. A new type of prefabricated shear wall is assembled and partially assembled by prefabricated parts, and some concrete is spliced together. The new structure has good integrity, seismic resistance and excellent energy saving and environmental protection performance. It reduces building energy consumption to a great extent. Therefore, the design method, manufacturing process, site assembly process and key technical problems of the system are discussed. For the construction industry gradually entered the energy conservation, environmental protection, safety and durability of sustainable development laid the foundation.

  17. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joongrock Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation.

  18. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  19. 6th Annual Earth System Grid Federation Face to Face Conference Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    The Sixth Annual Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), a global consortium of international government agencies, institutions, and companies dedicated to the creation, management, analysis, and distribution of extreme-scale scientific data, was held December 5–9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  20. Effect of subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Glebov, A.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments were performed to investigate the effects of water subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from a downward-facing curved surface. Experiments used three copper sections of the same diameter (50.8 mm) and surface radius (148 mm), but different thickness (12.8, 20 and 30 mm). Local and average pool boiling curves were obtained at saturation and 5 K, 10 K, and 14 K subcooling. Water subcooling increased the maximum heat flux, but decreased the corresponding wall superheat. The minimum film boiling heat flux and the corresponding wall superheat, however, increased with increased subcooling. The maximum and minimum film boiling heat fluxes were independent of wall thickness above 20 mm and Biot Number > 0.8, indicating that boiling curves for the 20 and 30 thick sections were representative of quasi steady-state, but not those for the 12.8 mm thick section. When compared with that for a flat surface section of the same thickness, the data for the 12.8 mm thick section showed significant increases in both the maximum heat flux (from 0.21 to 0.41 MW/m{sup 2}) and the minimum film boiling heat flux (from 2 to 13 kW/m{sup 2}) and about 11.5 K and 60 K increase in the corresponding wall superheats, respectively.

  1. R and D on tungsten plasma facing components for the JET ITER-like wall project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazza, G. [European Fusion Development Agreement, JET Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: giovanni.piazza@jet.efda.org; Matthews, G.F. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pamela, J. [European Fusion Development Agreement, JET Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Altmann, H. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Coad, J.P. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hirai, T. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Lioure, A. [European Fusion Development Agreement, JET Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maier, H. [Association EURATOM-IPP Garching, P.O. Box 1322, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Mertens, Ph. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Philipps, V. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Riccardo, V. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rubel, M. [Royal Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-VR, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Villedieu, E. [Association EURATOM-CEA, Cadarache, DSM/DRFC, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2007-08-01

    Currently, the primary ITER materials choice is a full beryllium main wall with carbon fibre composite at the divertor strike points and tungsten on the upper vertical targets and dome. The full tungsten divertor option is a possibility for the subsequent D-T phase. Neither of the ITER material combinations of first wall and divertor materials has ever been tested in a tokamak. To collect operational experience at JET with ITER relevant material combination (Be, C and W) would reduce uncertainties and focus the preparation for ITER operations. Therefore, the ITER-like wall project has been launched to install in JET a tungsten divertor and a beryllium main wall. This paper describes the R and D activities carried out for the project to develop an inertially cooled bulk tungsten divertor tile, to fully characterise tungsten coating technologies for CFC divertor tiles and to develop erosion markers for use as diagnostics on beryllium tiles.

  2. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    of the narrow FOV camera. We substantiate these two observations by qualitative results on face reconstruction and quantitative results on face recognition. As a consequence, such a set-up allows to achieve better and much more flexible system for 3D face reconstruction e.g. for recognition or emotion......We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identification....... We argue for two advantages of such a system: First, an extended work range, and second, the possibility to place the narrow FOV camera in a way such that a much better reconstruction quality can be achieved compared to a static camera even if the face had been fully visible in the periphery...

  3. Method for secure electronic voting system: face recognition based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, M. Affan; Baig, Misbah M.; Mehboob, Shahzain; Naseem, Imran

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework for low cost secure electronic voting system based on face recognition. Essentially Local Binary Pattern (LBP) is used for face feature characterization in texture format followed by chi-square distribution is used for image classification. Two parallel systems are developed based on smart phone and web applications for face learning and verification modules. The proposed system has two tire security levels by using person ID followed by face verification. Essentially class specific threshold is associated for controlling the security level of face verification. Our system is evaluated three standard databases and one real home based database and achieve the satisfactory recognition accuracies. Consequently our propose system provides secure, hassle free voting system and less intrusive compare with other biometrics.

  4. An Efficient Implementation of FPGA Based Face Detection and Face Recognition System Using haar Classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    G,Premalatha

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel technique to detect faces similarly recognizes in real-time with very high rate. It is essentially a feature-based approach, in which a classifier is trained for Haar-like rectangular features selected by Ada Boost algorithm and efficient representation method histogram equalization is used for varying illumination in the image. The face detection system generates an integral image window to perform a Haar feature classification during one clock cycle. And then i...

  5. Seismic behavior and design of wall-EDD-frame systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren eLavan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Walls and frames have different deflection lines and, depending on the seismic mass they support, may often poses different natural periods. In many cases, wall-frame structures present an advantageous behavior. In these structures the walls and the frames are rigidly connected. Nevertheless, if the walls and the frames were not rigidly connected, an opportunity for an efficient passive control strategy would arise: Connecting the two systems by energy dissipation devices (EDDs to result in wall-EDD-frame systems. This, depending on the parameters of the system, is expected to lead to an efficient energy dissipation mechanism.This paper studies the seismic behavior of wall-EDD-frame systems in the context of retrofitting existing frame structures. The controlling non-dimensional parameters of such systems are first identified. This is followed by a rigorous and extensive parametric study that reveals the pros and cons of the new system versus wall-frame systems. The effect of the controlling parameters on the behavior of the new system are analyzed and discussed. Finally, tools are given for initial design of such retrofitting schemes. These enable both choosing the most appropriate retrofitting alternative and selecting initial values for its parameters.

  6. Project ME: A Report on the Learning Wall System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Morton L.

    The learning wall system, which consists primarily of a special wall used instead of a screen for a variety of projection purposes, is described, shown diagrammatically, and pictured. Designed to provide visual perceptual motor training on a level that would fall between gross and fine motor performance for perceptually handicapped children, the…

  7. Increased Efficiency of Face Recognition System using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Muraleedharan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was inspired by the need of a flexible and cost effective biometric security system. The flexibility of the wireless sensor network makes it a natural choice for data transmission. Swarm intelligence (SI is used to optimize routing in distributed time varying network. In this paper, SI maintains the required bit error rate (BER for varied channel conditions while consuming minimal energy. A specific biometric, the face recognition system, is discussed as an example. Simulation shows that the wireless sensor network is efficient in energy consumption while keeping the transmission accuracy, and the wireless face recognition system is competitive to the traditional wired face recognition system in classification accuracy.

  8. A Driver Face Monitoring System for Fatigue and Distraction Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad-Hoseyn Sigari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver face monitoring system is a real-time system that can detect driver fatigue and distraction using machine vision approaches. In this paper, a new approach is introduced for driver hypovigilance (fatigue and distraction detection based on the symptoms related to face and eye regions. In this method, face template matching and horizontal projection of top-half segment of face image are used to extract hypovigilance symptoms from face and eye, respectively. Head rotation is a symptom to detect distraction that is extracted from face region. The extracted symptoms from eye region are (1 percentage of eye closure, (2 eyelid distance changes with respect to the normal eyelid distance, and (3 eye closure rate. The first and second symptoms related to eye region are used for fatigue detection; the last one is used for distraction detection. In the proposed system, a fuzzy expert system combines the symptoms to estimate level of driver hypo-vigilance. There are three main contributions in the introduced method: (1 simple and efficient head rotation detection based on face template matching, (2 adaptive symptom extraction from eye region without explicit eye detection, and (3 normalizing and personalizing the extracted symptoms using a short training phase. These three contributions lead to develop an adaptive driver eye/face monitoring. Experiments show that the proposed system is relatively efficient for estimating the driver fatigue and distraction.

  9. Cut-off wall system for subsurface liquid containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.; Khan, F.

    1997-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the use of a Cut-off Wall System (CWS) in conjunction with conventional soil bentonite slurry walls. The system is a vertical subsurface containment solution for isolating contaminated soils and groundwater in situ, thereby enhancing protection of the environment. The CWS is composed of geomembrane panels and specially designed connectors that form an interlocking subsurface vertical barrier wall. This system provides a cost effective, easily installed, positive cut-off for isolation of mixed and hazardous wastes, and wastes from uncontrolled releases. This application will address manufacturing, fabrication, installation, strength, QA/QC, chemical compatibility, and permeability

  10. AN EFFICIENT SELF-UPDATING FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR PLASTIC SURGERY FACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial recognition system is fundamental a computer application for the automatic identification of a person through a digitized image or a video source. The major cause for the overall poor performance is related to the transformations in appearance of the user based on the aspects akin to ageing, beard growth, sun-tan etc. In order to overcome the above drawback, Self-update process has been developed in which, the system learns the biometric attributes of the user every time the user interacts with the system and the information gets updated automatically. The procedures of Plastic surgery yield a skilled and endurable means of enhancing the facial appearance by means of correcting the anomalies in the feature and then treating the facial skin with the aim of getting a youthful look. When plastic surgery is performed on an individual, the features of the face undergo reconstruction either locally or globally. But, the changes which are introduced new by plastic surgery remain hard to get modeled by the available face recognition systems and they deteriorate the performances of the face recognition algorithm. Hence the Facial plastic surgery produces changes in the facial features to larger extent and thereby creates a significant challenge to the face recognition system. This work introduces a fresh Multimodal Biometric approach making use of novel approaches to boost the rate of recognition and security. The proposed method consists of various processes like Face segmentation using Active Appearance Model (AAM, Face Normalization using Kernel Density Estimate/ Point Distribution Model (KDE-PDM, Feature extraction using Local Gabor XOR Patterns (LGXP and Classification using Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Efficient techniques have been used in each phase of the FRAS in order to obtain improved results.

  11. Case history: Vertical barrier wall system for Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, M.A.; Kovac, C.P.; Norris, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Design considerations and construction aspects are presented for the installation of a vertical barrier wall system for the Boeing Company at a Superfund Site near Seattle, WA. The construction was performed during 1996. The vertical barrier wall system included: (1) a soil-bentonite (SB) slurry wall, approximately 670 meters (2200 feet) in length, ranging from 12 to 21 meters (40 to 70 feet) in depth; (2) expansion of a cover system over the area enclosed by the SB wall; and (3) surface drainage improvements. Design and construction of the system addressed requirements of a Consent Decree for the site issued in 1993. The paper discusses the development of the design to meet remedial performance goals of preventing migration of contaminants in the soil/groundwater system and aiding aquifer restoration. Secondly, the paper details installation of the SB wall, highlighting the more significant construction issues, which included excavation of the wall through glacially deposited cobbles/boulders/till as well as addressing the severe elevation changes along the wall alignment. Thirdly, the paper presents Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring and testing performed during the construction phase

  12. Rotating wall vessel system designed for fluorescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayag, Tristan J.; Dimitrijevich, S. Dan; Del Gallego, Lauren C.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescent imaging of cells and tissues cultured within a rotating wall vessel bioreactor offers quantitative assessment of the 3-dimensional aggregation of cells into tissue constructs. We present the design of a rotating wall vessel system optimized for real-time fluorescent analysis. The modulation transfer function of our system is found to be superior to the commercially-available vessel used in previous fluorescence imaging studies. We demonstrate dynamic fluorescent imaging of DAPI-stained porcine pancreatic islets.

  13. Application of robust face recognition in video surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-xin; An, Peng; Zhang, Hao-xiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a video searching system that utilizes face recognition as searching indexing feature. As the applications of video cameras have great increase in recent years, face recognition makes a perfect fit for searching targeted individuals within the vast amount of video data. However, the performance of such searching depends on the quality of face images recorded in the video signals. Since the surveillance video cameras record videos without fixed postures for the object, face occlusion is very common in everyday video. The proposed system builds a model for occluded faces using fuzzy principal component analysis (FPCA), and reconstructs the human faces with the available information. Experimental results show that the system has very high efficiency in processing the real life videos, and it is very robust to various kinds of face occlusions. Hence it can relieve people reviewers from the front of the monitors and greatly enhances the efficiency as well. The proposed system has been installed and applied in various environments and has already demonstrated its power by helping solving real cases.

  14. Numerical study of a modified Trombe wall solar collector system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Snežana M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents numerical analysis of efficiency of the modified Trombe wall with forced convection. The analyzed system comprises a double glass glazing, and a massive wall with opening and central channel in it. In order to increase the efficiency, a fan is provided at the bottom vent of the wall. It is more advanced as compared with simple Trombe solar wall with a relatively low thermal resistance, which is taken as a reference in experimental analysis. The mathematical model, composed for the massive solar wall efficiency, is usually very complicated and assessment of the thermal behavior requires the use of thermal simulation techniques. This paper presents steady-state and one-dimensional mathematical model for simplified analysis of thermal efficiency of modified Trombe solar wall. The results from presented model were analyzed to predict the effects of variations in the operational parameters on the solar wall efficiency: solar radiation intensity, air velocity in the entrance duct, and room air temperature. The results have been compared with the available experimental study, and the comparison has shown satisfactory agreement. The obtained results have be used for simple and fast running design tools that designers can use in the early phases of the design process for approximate calculations of efficiency of the passive solar heating systems.

  15. Plasma-wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinsek, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Schmid, K.; Kirschner, A.; Hakola, A.; Tabares, F. L.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Reinhart, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Ahlgren, T.; Aints, M.; Airila, M.; Almaviva, S.; Alves, E.; Angot, T.; Anita, V.; Arredondo Parra, R.; Aumayr, F.; Balden, M.; Bauer, J.; Ben Yaala, M.; Berger, B. M.; Bisson, R.; Björkas, C.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Borodin, D.; Bucalossi, J.; Butikova, J.; Butoi, B.; Čadež, I.; Caniello, R.; Caneve, L.; Cartry, G.; Catarino, N.; Čekada, M.; Ciraolo, G.; Ciupinski, L.; Colao, F.; Corre, Y.; Costin, C.; Craciunescu, T.; Cremona, A.; De Angeli, M.; de Castro, A.; Dejarnac, R.; Dellasega, D.; Dinca, P.; Dittmar, T.; Dobrea, C.; Hansen, P.; Drenik, A.; Eich, T.; Elgeti, S.; Falie, D.; Fedorczak, N.; Ferro, Y.; Fornal, T.; Fortuna-Zalesna, E.; Gao, L.; Gasior, P.; Gherendi, M.; Ghezzi, F.; Gosar, Ž.; Greuner, H.; Grigore, E.; Grisolia, C.; Groth, M.; Gruca, M.; Grzonka, J.; Gunn, J. P.; Hassouni, K.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Huber, S.; Jacob, W.; Jepu, I.; Jiang, X.; Jogi, I.; Kaiser, A.; Karhunen, J.; Kelemen, M.; Köppen, M.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kreter, A.; Kubkowska, M.; Laan, M.; Laguardia, L.; Lahtinen, A.; Lasa, A.; Lazic, V.; Lemahieu, N.; Likonen, J.; Linke, J.; Litnovsky, A.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Loewenhoff, T.; Lungu, C.; Lungu, M.; Maddaluno, G.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Manhard, A.; Marandet, Y.; Markelj, S.; Marot, L.; Martin, C.; Martin-Rojo, A. B.; Martynova, Y.; Mateus, R.; Matveev, D.; Mayer, M.; Meisl, G.; Mellet, N.; Michau, A.; Miettunen, J.; Möller, S.; Morgan, T. W.; Mougenot, J.; Mozetič, M.; Nemanič, V.; Neu, R.; Nordlund, K.; Oberkofler, M.; Oyarzabal, E.; Panjan, M.; Pardanaud, C.; Paris, P.; Passoni, M.; Pegourie, B.; Pelicon, P.; Petersson, P.; Piip, K.; Pintsuk, G.; Pompilian, G. O.; Popa, G.; Porosnicu, C.; Primc, G.; Probst, M.; Räisänen, J.; Rasinski, M.; Ratynskaia, S.; Reiser, D.; Ricci, D.; Richou, M.; Riesch, J.; Riva, G.; Rosinski, M.; Roubin, P.; Rubel, M.; Ruset, C.; Safi, E.; Sergienko, G.; Siketic, Z.; Sima, A.; Spilker, B.; Stadlmayr, R.; Steudel, I.; Ström, P.; Tadic, T.; Tafalla, D.; Tale, I.; Terentyev, D.; Terra, A.; Tiron, V.; Tiseanu, I.; Tolias, P.; Tskhakaya, D.; Uccello, A.; Unterberg, B.; Uytdenhoven, I.; Vassallo, E.; Vavpetič, P.; Veis, P.; Velicu, I. L.; Vernimmen, J. W. M.; Voitkans, A.; von Toussaint, U.; Weckmann, A.; Wirtz, M.; Založnik, A.; Zaplotnik, R.; PFC contributors, WP

    2017-11-01

    The provision of a particle and power exhaust solution which is compatible with first-wall components and edge-plasma conditions is a key area of present-day fusion research and mandatory for a successful operation of ITER and DEMO. The work package plasma-facing components (WP PFC) within the European fusion programme complements with laboratory experiments, i.e. in linear plasma devices, electron and ion beam loading facilities, the studies performed in toroidally confined magnetic devices, such as JET, ASDEX Upgrade, WEST etc. The connection of both groups is done via common physics and engineering studies, including the qualification and specification of plasma-facing components, and by modelling codes that simulate edge-plasma conditions and the plasma-material interaction as well as the study of fundamental processes. WP PFC addresses these critical points in order to ensure reliable and efficient use of conventional, solid PFCs in ITER (Be and W) and DEMO (W and steel) with respect to heat-load capabilities (transient and steady-state heat and particle loads), lifetime estimates (erosion, material mixing and surface morphology), and safety aspects (fuel retention, fuel removal, material migration and dust formation) particularly for quasi-steady-state conditions. Alternative scenarios and concepts (liquid Sn or Li as PFCs) for DEMO are developed and tested in the event that the conventional solution turns out to not be functional. Here, we present an overview of the activities with an emphasis on a few key results: (i) the observed synergistic effects in particle and heat loading of ITER-grade W with the available set of exposition devices on material properties such as roughness, ductility and microstructure; (ii) the progress in understanding of fuel retention, diffusion and outgassing in different W-based materials, including the impact of damage and impurities like N; and (iii), the preferential sputtering of Fe in EUROFER steel providing an in situ W

  16. Trajectory measurements of a wall jet impinging onto a forward facing step entering a cross-flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, D C; Fleck, B A; Wilson, D J

    2010-04-15

    This study examines a horizontal wall jet impinging onto a forward facing step in a cross-flow. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) experiments in a water channel indicate that the wall-jet flow after impinging onto the step, becomes a vertical jet with an elliptical cross section. Experiments indicate that the jet trajectory scales with the perimeter of the elliptical jet issuing vertically into the cross-flow. The trajectory consists of three regions: the near-field region which is well described by a power law with an exponent of 1/2, the mid-field region where the jet is fully bent over which is described by a power law with an exponent of 1/3, and a far-field region where the jet is dominated by the cross-flow. This paper provides a prediction of the plume behaviour based on the geometric and initial conditions of the jet (diameter, step height, distance from jet to step, and velocity ratio) alone. The Briggs entrainment model for a round jet was also used to predict the trajectories of the jet in the cross-flow. It was found that the entrainment coefficients, alpha and beta, for the elliptical jet case had average values of 0.15 and 0.58 respectively. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multifunctional outer wall systems; Multifunktionale Aussenwandsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahne, E.; Twerdy, C. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Pfluger, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-02-01

    Facades will have a multitude of functions in the future. All of them will be energy-oriented and overall energy balances considering production, utilization and destruction will become an important factor. For a detached house and multiple dwelling, examples of facade constructions and appliances are discussed. A `Solar Wall` facade provides preheating of combustion air in a combined heating/power station. Progressive facade elements are being investigated in so-called `Test Cells` for determining their heat transfer coefficient (k), their heat capacity (C) and their energy transport factor (g). PV modules are investigated in such cells in order to work out European Rules for the testing of PV-hybrid components. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fassaden werden in Zukunft eine Vielzahl von Funktionen zu erfuellen haben. Alle werden letztlich energieorientiert sein; gesamtheitliche Betrachtungen von der Produktion ueber die Nutzung bis zur Entsorgung werden eine wesentliche Rolle spielen. Fuer ein Ein- und Mehrfamilienhaus werden Beispiele fuer die Fassadenkonstruktion und Geraetschaften angefuehrt. In einem Fernheizkraftwerk dient eine `Solarwand` zur Vorwaermung der Verbrennungsluft. Fortschrittliche Fassaden-Elemente werden in sogenannten Testzellen untersucht hinsichtlich ihres Gesamtwaermedurchgangskoeffizienten, ihrer Waermekapazitaet und ihres Gesamtenergie-Durchlassgrads. PV-Module werden gegenwaertig in diesen Zellen untersucht, um Testregeln fuer PV-Hybridkomponenten fuer die Europaeische Union auszuarbeiten. (orig.)

  18. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  19. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  20. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  1. Evaluation of a KeyStone/Tensar geogrid retaining wall system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The KeyStone/Tensar Geogrid retaining wall system is an alternative to conventional reinforced concrete retaining wall structures. KeyStone concrete wall units, Tensar geogrid, and compacted soils are combined to form a reinforced soil mass that toge...

  2. A Multimodal User Authentication System Using Faces and Gestures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsoek Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a novel approach to perform user authentication, we propose a multimodal biometric system that uses faces and gestures obtained from a single vision sensor. Unlike typical multimodal biometric systems using physical information, the proposed system utilizes gesture video signals combined with facial images. Whereas physical information such as face, fingerprints, and iris is fixed and not changeable, behavioral information such as gestures and signatures can be freely changed by the user, similar to a password. Therefore, it can be a countermeasure when the physical information is exposed. We aim to investigate the potential possibility of using gestures as a signal for biometric system and the robustness of the proposed multimodal user authentication system. Through computational experiments on a public database, we confirm that gesture information can help to improve the authentication performance.

  3. Critical plasma-wall interaction issues for plasma-facing materials and components in near-term fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Coad, J.P.; Haasz, A.A.; Janeschitz, G.; Noda, N.; Philipps, V.; Roth, J.; Skinner, C.H.; Tivey, R.; Wu, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The increase in pulse duration and cumulative run-time, together with the increase of the plasma energy content, will represent the largest changes in operation conditions in future fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) compared to today's experimental facilities. These will give rise to important plasma-physics effects and plasma-material interactions (PMIs) which are only partially observed and accessible in present-day experiments and will open new design, operation and safety issues. For the first time in fusion research, erosion and its consequences over many pulses (e.g., co-deposition and dust) may determine the operational schedule of a fusion device. This paper identifies the most critical issues arising from PMIs which represent key elements in the selection of materials, the design, and the optimisation of plasma-facing components (PFCs) for the first-wall and divertor. Significant advances in the knowledge base have been made recently, as part of the R and D supporting the engineering design activities (EDA) of ITER, and some of the most relevant data are reviewed here together with areas where further R and D work is urgently needed

  4. Manufactured Residential Utility Wall System (ResCore),

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, Clark; Lau, Tin Man [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  5. Manufactured residential utility wall system (ResCore), overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, C.; Lau, T.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self-contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the residential kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty and students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the US Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a ``layered`` manufacturing technique that allows each major component group--structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc.--to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  6. The effect of image resolution on the performance of a face recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of image resolution on the error rates of a face verification system. We do not restrict ourselves to the face recognition algorithm only, but we also consider the face registration. In our face recognition system, the face registration is done by finding

  7. Development of ZL400 Mine Cooling Unit Using Semi-Hermetic Screw Compressor and Its Application on Local Air Conditioning in Underground Long-Wall Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxiang; Ji, Jianhu; Zhang, Xijun; Yan, Hongyuan; Dong, Haomin; Liu, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    Aiming at heat injuries occurring in the process of deep coal mining in China, a ZL400 mine-cooling unit employing semi-hermetic screw compressor with a cooling capacity of 400 kW is developed. This paper introduced its operating principle, structural characteristics and technical indexes. By using the self-built testing platform, some parameters for indication of its operation conditions were tested on the ground. The results show that the aforementioned cooling unit is stable in operation: cooling capacity of the unit was 420 kW underground-test conditions, while its COP (coefficient of performance) reached 3.4. To address the issue of heat injuries existing in No. 16305 U-shaped long-wall ventilation face of Jining No. 3 coal mine, a local air conditioning system was developed with ZL400 cooling unit as the system's core. The paper presented an analysis of characteristics of the air current flowing in the air-mixing and cooling mode of ZL400 cooling unit used in air intake way. Through i-d patterns we described the process of the airflow treatment, such as cooling, mixing and heating, etc. The cooling system decreased dry bulb temperature on working face by 3°C on average and 3.8°C at most, while lowered the web bulb temperature by 3.6°C on average and 4.8°C at most. At the same time, it reduced relative humidity by 5% on average and 8.6% at most. The field application of the ZL400 cooling unit had gain certain effects in air conditioning and provided support for the solution of mine heat injuries in China in terms of technology and equipment.

  8. The slow control system of the HADES RPC wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.; Blanco, A.; Castro, E.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J.A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Fouedjio, L.; Kolb, B.W.; Palka, M.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Zumbruch, P.

    2012-01-01

    The control and monitoring system for the new HADES RPC time of flight wall installed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Darmstadt, Germany), is described. The slow control system controls/monitors about 6000 variables from different physical devices via a distributed architecture, which uses intensively the 1-wire ® bus. The software implementation is based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software tool kit providing low cost, reliability and adaptability without requiring large hardware resources. The control and monitoring system attends five different subsystems: front-end electronics, low voltage, high voltage, gases, and detector.

  9. Dynamic modeling and response of soil-wall systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H.

    1993-10-01

    The study reported herein is the third in a series of investigations motivated by need to gain improved understanding of the responses to earthquakes of deeply embedded and underground tanks storing radioactive wastes, and to develop rational but simple methods of analysis and design for such systems. Following a brief review of the errors that may result from the use of a popular model for evaluating the dynamic soil forces induced in a base-excited rigid wall retaining an elastic stratum, the sources of the errors are identified and a modification is proposed which defines correctly the action of the system. In the proposed modification, the stratum is modeled by a series of elastically supported, semi-infinite horizontal bars with distributed mass instead of massless springs. The concepts involved are introduced by reference to a system composed of a fixed-based wall and a homogeneous elastic stratum, and are then applied to the analysis of more complex soil-wall systems. Both harmonic and transient excitations are considered, and comprehensive numerical solutions are presented which elucidate the actions involved and the effects and relative importance of the relevant parameters

  10. Evaluation of corrosion of metallic reinforcements and connections in MSE retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) retaining walls have become the dominant retained wall system on ODOT projects. The permanent MSE walls constructed on ODOT projects, in recent years, use metallic reinforcements and facing connections buried direc...

  11. Face detection for interactive tabletop viewscreen system using olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2009-10-01

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  12. System Analysis of Flat Grinding Process with Wheel Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted system analysis of the flat grinding wheel face, considers the state parameters, input and output variables of subsystems, namely: machine tool, workpiece, grinding wheel, cutting fluids, and the contact area. It reveals the factors influencing the temperature and power conditions for the grinding process.Aim: conducting the system analysis of the flat grinding process with wheel face expects to enable a development of the system of grinding process parameters as a technical system, which will make it possible to evaluate each parameter individually and implement optimization of the entire system.One of the most important criteria in defining the optimal process conditions is the grinding temperature, which, to avoid defects appearance of on the surface of component, should not exceed the critical temperature values to be experimentally determined. The temperature criterion can be useful for choosing the conditions for the maximum defect-free performance of the mechanical face grinding. To define the maximum performance of defect-free grinding can also use other criteria such as a critical power density, indirectly reflecting the allowable thermal stress grinding process; the structure of the ground surface, which reflects the presence or absence of a defect layer, which is determined after the large number of experiments; flow range of the diamond layer.Optimal conditions should not exceed those of defect-free grinding. It is found that a maximum performance depends on the characteristics of circles and grade of processed material, as well as on the contact area and grinding conditions. Optimal performance depends on the diamond value (cost and specific consumption of diamonds in a circle.Above criteria require formalization as a function of the variable parameters of the grinding process. There is an option for the compromise of inter-criteria optimality, thereby providing a set of acceptable solutions, from

  13. Reliable face recognition methods: system design, implementation and evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wechsler, Harry

    2007-01-01

    ... ,.,,,.,.,,, , . , . , , , , , , .. , , .. "", .. " , ,, "" , , .. , ", , , .. , , .. , , , , , , ,... ",.. ,,, ",.. , 1 4 7 8 13 2 The Human Face ... ", ... """.".,." 2.1 Cognitive Neurosciences .. , . , 2.2 Psychophysics 2,3 The Social Face, . , . , , . , , .. , , , , , 2.4...

  14. Design of an independent water cooled plasma facing armor with mechanically attached conduction cooled tiles for net first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipa, M.; Deck, C.; Deschamps, P.; Schlosser, J.

    1990-01-01

    The low temperature ( 0 C) Plasma Facing Component concept which is under development for NET, is an independent structure located on the plasma facing side of the shielding box. The armor consists of carbon based square tiles, mechanically attached by a spring system, to individual water cooled support plates. A compliant conductive layer to enhance heat transfer from the tile to the cooled structure is foreseen. Assemblies of the dipersoid strengthened copper (glidcop) back plates are brazed to two adjacent poloidally directed stainless steel tubes. The main design specifications are: average surface heat flux: 0.6 MW/m 2 , volumetric nuclear heating = 7 MW/m 3 , coolant inlet temperature lower than 100 0 C and nuclear irradiation of the components of the order of 0.2 dpa. In this paper we report 2D and 3D thermohydraulic and global stress analysis of the structure, the optimization of the compliant layer with the elastic attachment mechanism, the component design compatible with in-situ remote maintenance. The manufacture of the first mock-up for heat flux testing is also described

  15. Face Image Quality and its Improvement in a Face Detection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    When a person passes by a surveillance camera a sequence of images is obtained. Most of these images are redundant and usually keeping some of them which have better quality is sufficient. So before performing any analysis on the face of a person, the face at the first step needs to be detected....... In the second step the quality of the different face images needs to be evaluated. Finally, after choosing the best image(s) based on this quality assessment, in the third step, if this image(s) is not satisfying a predefined set of measures for good quality images, its quality should be improved. In this work...

  16. Thermal performance of a vegetated cladding system on facade walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Science Center, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Cheung, Ken K.S. [Housing Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-08-15

    An experimental approach is used to assess the effect of vegetation on the thermal performance of a vertical greening system, which comprised of turf-based vertical planting modules, on an elevated facade wall of a public housing apartment. Despite temperature fluctuations in the various compartments external and internal to a concrete wall, the vegetated cladding reduced interior temperatures and delayed the transfer of solar heat, which consequently reduced power consumption in air-conditioning compared with a building envelope with bare concrete. Vegetation cover led to a different pattern of temperature fluctuations on wall surfaces, which may affect the comfort of occupants even after sunset. The cooling effect which was closely associated with the area covered by living plants and moisture in the growth medium, demonstrated the value of maintaining a healthy vegetation cover beyond visual amenity. Marked variation in moisture distribution along the vertical profile of the growth medium highlighted a concern rarely addressed in planting on ground. Substrate moisture measured at randomly selected locations would underestimate the water stress in some plants and impair their survival. (author)

  17. Study of an active wall solar heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, Talal

    2006-01-01

    An active wall solar heating system was built and tested. In the same time a compatible computer program has been according to set the recommended dimensions for the solar collectors where (F-Chart) method used to set the ratio of monthly solar sharing average for the examined heating system. Some parameters, such as collectors' areas, its tilt angle and near earth reflecting were experimentally investigated, affecting the executed active solar heating system performance. The study explain the ability of using this system which is simple, Low coast and high performance in heating residential and public buildings and heating water with ratio of yearly solar sharing achieves the needed saving of using this system.(Author)

  18. REAL HUMAN FACE DETECTION FOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM USING HETEROGENEOUS SENSORS

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Ki Kim; Doo-Hyun Hwang; Chang-Sung Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Face detection algorithms are used to detect the human in various industry fields. A typical face detection algorithm such as Haar Feature-based Cascade Classifier gives us an easier way to detect human face. It consists of several classifiers which contain complicated arithmetic operations. Several classifiers constitute the cascade which can detect each element of human face. The more cascades are contained in the algorithm to detect elements of human face, the more it takes ...

  19. Image-Based 3D Face Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vezhnevets

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an automatic system for 3D face modeling using frontal and profile images taken by an ordinary digital camera. The system consists of four subsystems including frontal feature detection, profile feature detection, shape deformation, and texture generation modules. The frontal and profile feature detection modules automatically extract the facial parts such as the eye, nose, mouth, and ear. The shape deformation module utilizes the detected features to deform the generic head mesh model such that the deformed model coincides with the detected features. A texture is created by combining the facial textures augmented from the input images and the synthesized texture and mapped onto the deformed generic head model. This paper provides a practical system for 3D face modeling, which is highly automated by aggregating, customizing, and optimizing a bunch of individual computer vision algorithms. The experimental results show a highly automated process of modeling, which is sufficiently robust to various imaging conditions. The whole model creation including all the optional manual corrections takes only 2∼3 minutes.

  20. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  1. DoubleFace: Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Turrin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at designing and prototyping an adjustable translucent modular system featuring thermal insulation and thermal absorption in a calibrated manner, which is adjustable according to different heat loads during summer- and wintertime. The output consists of a proof of concept, a series of performance simulations and measurement and a prototype of an adjustable thermal mass system based on lightweight and translucent materials: phase-changing materials (PCM for latent heat storage and translucent aerogel particles for thermal insulation.

  2. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, J.; Stich, D.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

    2014-05-01

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  3. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, J., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Stich, D., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Heidemeyer, P., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Hochrein, T., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de [SKZ - German Plastics Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  4. A dynamic system analysis of dyadic flexibility and stability across the Face-to-Face Still-Face procedure: application of the State Space Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Borgatti, Renato; Menozzi, Giorgia; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-02-01

    The Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm allows to study the mother-infant dyad as a dynamic system coping with social stress perturbations. The State Space Grid (SSG) method is thought to depict both flexibility and stability of the dyad across perturbations, but previous SSG evidence for the FFSF is limited. The main aims were: (1) to investigate mother-infant dyadic flexibility and stability across the FFSF using the SSG; (2) to evaluate the influence of dyadic functioning during Play on infant Still-Face response and of infant stress response in affecting dyadic functioning during Reunion. Forty 4-month-old infants and their mothers were micro-analytically coded during a FFSF and eight SSG dyadic states were obtained. Dyadic flexibility and attractor states were assessed during Play and Reunion. Infants' stress response was coded as negative engagement during the Still-Face episode. Two dyadic states, "maternal hetero-regulation" and "affective mismatch", showed significant changes in the number of visits from Play to Reunion. During Play "maternal positive support to infant play" emerged as attractor state, whereas during Reunion a second attractor emerged, namely "affective mismatch". Dyadic affective mismatch during Play correlated with infants' negative engagement during Still-Face, whereas infants' response to Still-Face resulted in minor social matching during Reunion. Findings provide new insights into the flexible, yet stable, functioning of the mother-infant dyad as a dynamic system. Evidence of a reciprocal influence between dyadic functioning and infant social stress response are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Face Recognition System in Ship Protection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bača

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of security improvement is a huge problem especiallyin large ships. Terrorist attacks and everyday threatsagainst life and property destroy transport and tourist companies,especially large tourist ships. Every person on a ship can berecognized and identified using something that the personknows or by means of something the person possesses. The bestresults will be obtained by using a combination of the person'sknowledge with one biometric characteristic. Analyzing theproblem of biometrics in ITS security we can conclude that facerecognition process supported by one or two traditional biometriccharacteristics can give very good results regarding ship security.In this paper we will describe a biometric system basedon face recognition. Special focus will be given to crew member'sbiometric security in crisis situation like kidnapping, robbelyor illness.

  6. System identification of timber masonry walls using shaking table test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Timir B.; Guerreiro, Luis; Bagchi, Ashutosh

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic study is important in order to design, repair and rehabilitation of structures. It has played an important role in the behavior characterization of structures; such as: bridges, dams, high rise buildings etc. There had been substantial development in this area over the last few decades, especially in the field of dynamic identification techniques of structural systems. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and Time Domain Decomposition are most commonly used methods to identify modal parameters; such as: natural frequency, modal damping and mode shape. The focus of the present research is to study the dynamic characteristics of typical timber masonry walls commonly used in Portugal. For that purpose, a multi-storey structural prototype of such wall has been tested on a seismic shake table at the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal (LNEC). Signal processing has been performed of the output response, which is collected from the shaking table experiment of the prototype using accelerometers. In the present work signal processing of the output response, based on the input response has been done in two ways: FDD and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI). In order to estimate the values of the modal parameters, algorithms for FDD are formulated and parametric functions for the SSI are computed. Finally, estimated values from both the methods are compared to measure the accuracy of both the techniques.

  7. En face optical coherence tomography investigation of interface fiber posts/adhesive cement/root canal wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negruţiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Rominu, Mihai; Markovic, Dubravka; Pop, Daniela; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes the adaptation and gap width between fiber posts, adhesive luting cement and root canal wall using optical coherence tomography. The results prove the importance of assessing the quality of the interface after each process of fiber post luting.

  8. Water-cooling system of the W7-X plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelevitch, B.; Boscary, J., E-mail: jean.boscary@ipp.mpg.de; Peacock, A.; Smirnow, M.; Stadler, R.

    2015-10-15

    The water-cooling system of the plasma facing components of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator was originally conceived for long pulse plasma operation of up to 30 min duration based on an input plasma power of 10 MW. The cooling circuits have been adapted to the intermediate machine operation phases introduced prior to the completion of the full long pulse capability: a first phase with a plasma operation duration <1 s and 2 MW input power, a second phase with a plasma duration of 5–10 s. and up to 8 MW input power. In the first operation phase, 10 cooling circuits will be water-cooled, and in the second phase, 36 cooling circuits. The circuits which have not been completed are vacuum sealed inside the plasma vessel. During these phases, some of the first wall heat shields will be filled with air and the first wall panels with Neon gas. For the full long pulse operation with all water-cooled in-vessel components, a total of about 430 cooling circuits will need to be put into service.

  9. Proper orthogonal decomposition-based estimations of the flow field from particle image velocimetry wall-gradient measurements in the backward-facing step flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thien Duy; Wells, John Craig; Mokhasi, Paritosh; Rempfer, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, particle image velocimetry (PIV) results from the recirculation zone of a backward-facing step flow, of which the Reynolds number is 2800 based on bulk velocity upstream of the step and step height (h = 16.5 mm), are used to demonstrate the capability of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-based measurement models. Three-component PIV velocity fields are decomposed by POD into a set of spatial basis functions and a set of temporal coefficients. The measurement models are built to relate the low-order POD coefficients, determined from an ensemble of 1050 PIV fields by the 'snapshot' method, to the time-resolved wall gradients, measured by a near-wall measurement technique called stereo interfacial PIV. These models are evaluated in terms of reconstruction and prediction of the low-order temporal POD coefficients of the velocity fields. In order to determine the estimation coefficients of the measurement models, linear stochastic estimation (LSE), quadratic stochastic estimation (QSE), principal component regression (PCR) and kernel ridge regression (KRR) are applied. We denote such approaches as LSE-POD, QSE-POD, PCR-POD and KRR-POD. In addition to comparing the accuracy of measurement models, we introduce multi-time POD-based estimations in which past and future information of the wall-gradient events is used separately or combined. The results show that the multi-time estimation approaches can improve the prediction process. Among these approaches, the proposed multi-time KRR-POD estimation with an optimized window of past wall-gradient information yields the best prediction. Such a multi-time KRR-POD approach offers a useful tool for real-time flow estimation of the velocity field based on wall-gradient data

  10. Selective tungsten deposition in a batch cold wall CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Kang, S.; Harshbarger, W.R.; Susoeff, M.

    1987-01-01

    Selective deposition of tungsten offers many advantages for VLSI technology. The process can be used as a planarization technique for multilevel interconnect technology, it can be used to fill contacts and to provide a barrier layer between Al and Si materials, and the selective W process might be used as a self-aligned technology to provide low resistance layers on source/drain and gate conductors. Recent publications have indicate that cold wall CVD systems provide advantages for development of selective W process. Genus has investigated selective W deposition processing, and we have developed a selective W deposition process for the Genus 8402 multifilm deposition system. This paper describes the Genus 8402 system and the selective W process developed in this reactor. To further develop selective W technology, Genus has signed an agreement with General Electric establishing a joint development program. As a part of this program, the authors characterized the selective W process for encroachment, Si consumption and degrees of selectivity on various dielectrics. The status of this development activity and process characterization is reviewed in this paper

  11. Determination of seismic performance factors for CLT shear wall systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Omar Amini; John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Shiling Pei; Philip Line; Marjan Popovski

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents selected results of connector testing and wall testing which were part of a Forest Products Lab-funded project undertaken at Colorado State University in an effort to determine seismic performance factors for cross laminated timber (CLT) shear walls in the United States. Archetype development, which is required as part of the process, is also...

  12. Modification of antioxidant systems in cell walls of maize roots by different nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović V; Vuletić, M.; Marković, K.; Željko, Vučinić; Kravić, N.

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses than cell walls grown on NO3-. Irrespective of N treatment, the activities of all studied enzymes and protein content were higher in cell walls of lateral compared to primary roots. Phenolic content of cell walls isolated from lateral roots was higher in NO3--grown than in mixed N grown plants. No significant differences could be observed in the isozyme patterns of cell wall peroxidases isolated from plants grown on different nutrient solution. Our results indicate that different N treatments modify the antioxidant systems of root cell walls. Treatment with NO3- resulted in an increase of constitutive phenolic content, while the combination of NO3-+NH4+ elevated the redox enzyme activities in root cell walls.

  13. First results and surface analysis strategy for plasma-facing components after JET operation with the ITER-like wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likonen, J.; Alves, E.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Coad, J. P.; Hakola, A.; Heinola, K.; Koivuranta, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Stan-Sion, C.; Widdowson, A.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2014-04-01

    During the carbon wall operations of JET since 2001, an extensive post-mortem analysis programme has been carried out under the JET Task Force Fusion Technology and a similar analysis programme is underway for the JET-ILW tiles removed during the 2012 shutdown. The first post-mortem results from the JET ITER-like wall tiles have shown that the overall amount of deposition on the divertor tiles and on remote divertor areas has been reduced by more than an order of magnitude with respect to JET-C. In addition, the obtained data indicate a possible interaction between Be and W such as the formation of mixed Be-W layers. This could be due to the surface roughness of the tiles, or could be caused by diffusion or even alloying. Ion-beam analyses and secondary ion mass spectrometry techniques give only elemental information, so other techniques such as x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and nuclear microprobing are required. Since the nature of deposition and erosion has changed during the JET-ILW operations, a change in the post-mortem analysis programme is needed. For example, no cross-sectional samples from the sloping parts of tiles 4 and 6 are required. A strategy for post-mortem analyses of the marker-coated tiles will be presented in this paper.

  14. Conceptual design of the INTOR first-wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.; Jung, J.; Abdou, M.A.; Bowers, D.; Trachsel, C.; Merrill, B.

    1981-10-01

    The design concept and performance characteristics of the first-wall design for the phase-1 INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) study is described. The reference design consists of a water-cooled stainless steel panel. The major uncertainty regarding the performance of the bare stainless steel wall relates to the response of a thin-melt layer predicted to form on limited regions during a plasma disruption. A more-complex backup design, which incorporates radiatively cooled graphite tiles on the inboard wall, is briefly described.

  15. Conceptual design of the INTOR first-wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.; Jung, J.; Abdou, M.A.; Bowers, D.; Trachsel, C.; Merrill, B.

    1981-10-01

    The design concept and performance characteristics of the first-wall design for the phase-1 INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) study is described. The reference design consists of a water-cooled stainless steel panel. The major uncertainty regarding the performance of the bare stainless steel wall relates to the response of a thin-melt layer predicted to form on limited regions during a plasma disruption. A more-complex backup design, which incorporates radiatively cooled graphite tiles on the inboard wall, is briefly described

  16. Activities of HIP joining of plasma-facing armors in the blanket first-wall in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Jeong-Yong; Choi, Byoung-Kwon; Lee, Jung-Suk; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Won; Cho, Seungyon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HIP joints of Be/CuCrZr, Be/FMS, W/FMS were demonstrated. • The process conditions for HIP joining were developed. • For the joining of Be, coating interlayers as well as thick diffusion barrier was developed. • For the joining of W, double-staged HIP was applied for the joint integrity. • No significant defects nor a brittle failure were observed along the joint interface. - Abstract: Joining technology for dissimilar materials was developed for the fabrication of an ITER blanket first-wall, which consisted of Be, CuCrZr, and stainless steel (SS). The Be/CuCrZr/SS joint was fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. Beryllium armor was joined to the CuCrZr/SS block at 580 °C under 100 MPa. The optimal interlayer coatings of Cr/Cu and Ti/Cr/Cu were developed using an ion-beam assisted physical vapor deposition. Beryllium is also a candidate armor material for the TBM first-wall. Successful joining of Be to ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) was accomplished using an HIP method by introducing the thick diffusion barrier. A thick diffusion barrier of a Cu foil(10 μm) limited the excessive diffusion and prevented the formation of brittle phases at the Be/FMS interface. Be and FMS were bonded at 650–850 °C; however, a temperature of lower than 750 °C was recommended to avoid material degradation of FMS. In addition, the joining of W to FMS has been developed. Tungsten is another armor material applicable to more severe plasma conditions. The large difference in the thermal expansion between W and FMS was resolved by introducing the Ti interlayer and Mo separator. Moreover, the double-staged HIP (the first stage at 900 °C and 100 MPa and the second stage at 750 °C and 70 MPa) was applied to suppress the edge delamination of W/FMS joints during thermal history.

  17. Activities of HIP joining of plasma-facing armors in the blanket first-wall in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang-Il, E-mail: yijung@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Yong; Choi, Byoung-Kwon; Lee, Jung-Suk; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • HIP joints of Be/CuCrZr, Be/FMS, W/FMS were demonstrated. • The process conditions for HIP joining were developed. • For the joining of Be, coating interlayers as well as thick diffusion barrier was developed. • For the joining of W, double-staged HIP was applied for the joint integrity. • No significant defects nor a brittle failure were observed along the joint interface. - Abstract: Joining technology for dissimilar materials was developed for the fabrication of an ITER blanket first-wall, which consisted of Be, CuCrZr, and stainless steel (SS). The Be/CuCrZr/SS joint was fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. Beryllium armor was joined to the CuCrZr/SS block at 580 °C under 100 MPa. The optimal interlayer coatings of Cr/Cu and Ti/Cr/Cu were developed using an ion-beam assisted physical vapor deposition. Beryllium is also a candidate armor material for the TBM first-wall. Successful joining of Be to ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) was accomplished using an HIP method by introducing the thick diffusion barrier. A thick diffusion barrier of a Cu foil(10 μm) limited the excessive diffusion and prevented the formation of brittle phases at the Be/FMS interface. Be and FMS were bonded at 650–850 °C; however, a temperature of lower than 750 °C was recommended to avoid material degradation of FMS. In addition, the joining of W to FMS has been developed. Tungsten is another armor material applicable to more severe plasma conditions. The large difference in the thermal expansion between W and FMS was resolved by introducing the Ti interlayer and Mo separator. Moreover, the double-staged HIP (the first stage at 900 °C and 100 MPa and the second stage at 750 °C and 70 MPa) was applied to suppress the edge delamination of W/FMS joints during thermal history.

  18. Ethical aspects of face recognition systems in public places.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2004-01-01

    This essay examines ethical aspects of the use of facial recognition technology for surveillance purposes in public and semipublic areas, focusing particularly on the balance between security and privacy and civil liberties. As a case study, the FaceIt facial recognition engine of Identix

  19. Double face : Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; De Ruiter, P.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Chang Lara, C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Teuffel, P.; Van Bommel, W.

    2015-01-01

    The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at

  20. The Forgotten Tribe in ODL Systems: Challenges Faced by Visually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to evaluate the challenges faced by visually impaired students in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Institutions of Higher Learning. This was a case study of the Zimbabwe Open University. Twenty purposefully selected lecturers in the Faculty of Applied Social Sciences and ten blind and visually impaired ...

  1. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders.

  2. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWaler trademark Blastrac reg-sign shot blast cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools

  3. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, D.F., E-mail: daniel.valcarcel@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, D. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Card, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Carvalho, B.B. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Devaux, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Reux, C. [Ecole Polytechnique, LPP, CNRS UMR 7648, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rimini, F.; Stephen, A. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St., Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented.

  4. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Card, P.; Carvalho, B.B.; Devaux, S.; Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J.; Maviglia, F.; McCullen, P.; Reux, C.; Rimini, F.; Stephen, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented

  5. Experimental and Numerical Analyses of New Massive Wooden Shear-Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pozza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.

  6. Formal Implementation of a Performance Evaluation Model for the Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nyuo Shin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to usability features, practical applications, and its lack of intrusiveness, face recognition technology, based on information, derived from individuals' facial features, has been attracting considerable attention recently. Reported recognition rates of commercialized face recognition systems cannot be admitted as official recognition rates, as they are based on assumptions that are beneficial to the specific system and face database. Therefore, performance evaluation methods and tools are necessary to objectively measure the accuracy and performance of any face recognition system. In this paper, we propose and formalize a performance evaluation model for the biometric recognition system, implementing an evaluation tool for face recognition systems based on the proposed model. Furthermore, we performed evaluations objectively by providing guidelines for the design and implementation of a performance evaluation system, formalizing the performance test process.

  7. Development of full scale testing of an alternate foundation system for post and panel retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The alternate post system offers benefits such as ease of construction, reduced construction time, and : lower wall costs. While this system seems feasible, there are concerns regarding its performance, in : particular the amount of bending in the po...

  8. New model of chlorine-wall reaction for simulating chlorine concentration in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ian; Kastl, George; Sathasivan, Arumugam

    2017-11-15

    Accurate modelling of chlorine concentrations throughout a drinking water system needs sound mathematical descriptions of decay mechanisms in bulk water and at pipe walls. Wall-reaction rates along pipelines in three different systems were calculated from differences between field chlorine profiles and accurately modelled bulk decay. Lined pipes with sufficiently large diameters (>500 mm) and higher chlorine concentrations (>0.5 mg/L) had negligible wall-decay rates, compared with bulk-decay rates. Further downstream, wall-reaction rate consistently increased (peaking around 0.15 mg/dm 2 /h) as chlorine concentration decreased, until mass-transport to the wall was controlling wall reaction. These results contradict wall-reaction models, including those incorporated in the EPANET software, which assume wall decay is of either zero-order (constant decay rate) or first-order (wall-decay rate reduces with chlorine concentration). Instead, results are consistent with facilitation of the wall reaction by biofilm activity, rather than surficial chemical reactions. A new model of wall reaction combines the effect of biofilm activity moderated by chlorine concentration and mass-transport limitation. This wall reaction model, with an accurate bulk chlorine decay model, is essential for sufficiently accurate prediction of chlorine residuals towards the end of distribution systems and therefore control of microbial contamination. Implementing this model in EPANET-MSX (or similar) software enables the accurate chlorine modelling required for improving disinfection strategies in drinking water networks. New insight into the effect of chlorine on biofilm can also assist in controlling biofilm to maintain chlorine residuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressure-induced shift of the plasma in a helical system with ideally conducting wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    The global plasma shift is calculated analytically for a helical system with an ideal wall. The derived expression for the plasma shift, incorporating both the finite-β plasma expansion and the opposing reaction of the nearby ideal wall, can be used for interpreting the observable high-β equilibrium effects in LHD and other helical devices. (author)

  10. Electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhao Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The drum driving system is one of the weakest parts of the long-wall shearer, and some methods are also needed to monitor and control the long-wall shearer to adapt to the important trend of unmanned operation in future mining systems. Therefore, it is essential to conduct an electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer. First, a torsional dynamic model of planetary gears is proposed which is convenient to be connected to the electric motor model for electromechanical dynamic analysis. Next, an electromechanical dynamic model for the drum driving system is constructed including the electric motor, the gear transmission system, and the drum. Then, the electromechanical dynamic characteristics are simulated when the shock loads are acted on the drum driving system. Finally, some advices are proposed for improving the reliability, monitoring the operating state, and choosing the control signals of the long-wall shearer based on the simulation.

  11. Integration of a capacitive pressure sensing system into the outer catheter wall for coronary artery FFR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Frank; Kuisma, Heikki; Gao, Feng; Saarilahti, Jaakko; Gomes Martins, David; Kärkkäinen, Anu; Marrinan, Brendan; Pintal, Sebastian

    2017-05-01

    The deadliest disease in the world is coronary artery disease (CAD), which is related to a narrowing (stenosis) of blood vessels due to fatty deposits, plaque, on the arterial walls. The level of stenosis in the coronary arteries can be assessed by Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) measurements. This involves determining the ratio between the maximum achievable blood flow in a diseased coronary artery and the theoretical maximum flow in a normal coronary artery. The blood flow is represented by a pressure drop, thus a pressure wire or pressure sensor integrated in a catheter can be used to calculate the ratio between the coronary pressure distal to the stenosis and the normal coronary pressure. A 2 Fr (0.67mm) outer diameter catheter was used, which required a high level of microelectronics miniaturisation to fit a pressure sensing system into the outer wall. The catheter has an eccentric guidewire lumen with a diameter of 0.43mm, which implies that the thickest catheter wall section provides less than 210 microns height for flex assembly integration consisting of two dies, a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor and an ASIC. In order to achieve this a very thin circuit flex was used, and the two chips were thinned down to 75 microns and flip chip mounted face down on the flex. Many challenges were involved in obtaining a flex layout that could wrap into a small tube without getting the dies damaged, while still maintaining enough flexibility for the catheter to navigate the arterial system.

  12. Designing a Low-Resolution Face Recognition System for Long-Range Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Most face recognition systems deal well with high-resolution facial images, but perform much worse on low-resolution facial images. In low-resolution face recognition, there is a specific but realistic surveillance scenario: a surveillance camera monitoring a large area. In this scenario, usually

  13. The Development of Attentional Biases for Faces in Infancy: A Developmental Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg D. Reynolds

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present an integrative review of research and theory on major factors involved in the early development of attentional biases to faces. Research utilizing behavioral, eye-tracking, and neuroscience measures with infant participants as well as comparative research with animal subjects are reviewed. We begin with coverage of research demonstrating the presence of an attentional bias for faces shortly after birth, such as newborn infants’ visual preference for face-like over non-face stimuli. The role of experience and the process of perceptual narrowing in face processing are examined as infants begin to demonstrate enhanced behavioral and neural responsiveness to mother over stranger, female over male, own- over other-race, and native over non-native faces. Next, we cover research on developmental change in infants’ neural responsiveness to faces in multimodal contexts, such as audiovisual speech. We also explore the potential influence of arousal and attention on early perceptual preferences for faces. Lastly, the potential influence of the development of attention systems in the brain on social-cognitive processing is discussed. In conclusion, we interpret the findings under the framework of Developmental Systems Theory, emphasizing the combined and distributed influence of several factors, both internal (e.g., arousal, neural development and external (e.g., early social experience to the developing child, in the emergence of attentional biases that lead to enhanced responsiveness and processing of faces commonly encountered in the native environment.

  14. Development of platform to compare different wall heat transfer packages for system analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Won Woong; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Gil [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    System thermal hydraulic (STH) analysis code is used for analyzing and evaluating the safety of a designed nuclear system. The system thermal hydraulic analysis code typically solves mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for multiple phases with sets of selected empirical constitutive equations to close the problem. Several STH codes are utilized in academia, industry and regulators, such as MARS-KS, SPACE, RELAP5, COBRA-TF, TRACE, and so on. Each system thermal hydraulic code consists of different sets of governing equations and correlations. However, the packages and sets of correlations of each code are not compared quantitatively yet. Wall heat transfer mode transition maps of SPACE and MARS-KS have a little difference for the transition from wall nucleate heat transfer mode to wall film heat transfer mode. Both codes have the same heat transfer packages and correlations in most region except for wall film heat transfer mode. Most of heat transfer coefficients calculated for the range of selected variables of SPACE are the same with those of MARS-KS. For the intervals between 500K and 540K of wall temperature, MARS-KS selects the wall film heat transfer mode and Bromley correlation but SPACE select the wall nucleate heat transfer mode and Chen correlation. This is because the transition from nucleate boiling to film boiling of MARS-KS is earlier than SPACE. More detailed analysis of the heat transfer package and flow regime package will be followed in the near future.

  15. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  16. Development of platform to compare different wall heat transfer packages for system analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Won Woong; Lee, Jeong Ik; Shin, Sung Gil

    2016-01-01

    System thermal hydraulic (STH) analysis code is used for analyzing and evaluating the safety of a designed nuclear system. The system thermal hydraulic analysis code typically solves mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for multiple phases with sets of selected empirical constitutive equations to close the problem. Several STH codes are utilized in academia, industry and regulators, such as MARS-KS, SPACE, RELAP5, COBRA-TF, TRACE, and so on. Each system thermal hydraulic code consists of different sets of governing equations and correlations. However, the packages and sets of correlations of each code are not compared quantitatively yet. Wall heat transfer mode transition maps of SPACE and MARS-KS have a little difference for the transition from wall nucleate heat transfer mode to wall film heat transfer mode. Both codes have the same heat transfer packages and correlations in most region except for wall film heat transfer mode. Most of heat transfer coefficients calculated for the range of selected variables of SPACE are the same with those of MARS-KS. For the intervals between 500K and 540K of wall temperature, MARS-KS selects the wall film heat transfer mode and Bromley correlation but SPACE select the wall nucleate heat transfer mode and Chen correlation. This is because the transition from nucleate boiling to film boiling of MARS-KS is earlier than SPACE. More detailed analysis of the heat transfer package and flow regime package will be followed in the near future

  17. Face-Identity Change Activation Outside the Face System: “Release from Adaptation” May Not Always Indicate Neuronal Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Douglas A.; Bodurka, Jerzy; Bandettini, Peter A.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Face recognition is a complex cognitive process that requires distinguishable neuronal representations of individual faces. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the “fMRI-adaptation” technique have suggested the existence of face-identity representations in face-selective regions, including the fusiform face area (FFA). Here, we present face-identity adaptation findings that are not well explained in terms of face-identity representations. We performed blood-oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements, while participants viewed familiar faces that were shown repeatedly throughout the experiment. We found decreased activation for repeated faces in face-selective regions, as expected based on previous studies. However, we found similar effects in regions that are not face-selective, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and early visual cortex (EVC). These effects were present for exact-image (same view and lighting) as well as different-image (different view and/or lighting) repetition, but more widespread for exact-image repetition. Given the known functional properties of PPA and EVC, it appears unlikely that they contain domain-specific face-identity representations. Alternative interpretations include general attentional effects and carryover of activation from connected regions. These results remind us that fMRI stimulus-change effects can have a range of causes and do not provide conclusive evidence for a neuronal representation of the changed stimulus property. PMID:20051364

  18. PHYSICAL BASES OF SYSTEMS CREATION FOR MAGNETIC-IMPULSIVE ATTRACTION OF THIN-WALLED SHEET METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Batygin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the physical base of systems creating for the thin-walled sheet metals magnetic pulse attraction. Some practical realization models of the author’s suggestions are represented.

  19. Operational analysis of the tailings bund wall drainage system at mirny ore mining and processing enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues of environmental safety of tailings of ore mining and processing enterprises are considered; parameters of drainage of bund walls are of great significance for the environmental safety. Description of the bund wall of Mirny ore mining and processing enterprise and the tailings filling layouts are given. Results of field observation and model study of the tailings bund wall drainage system at Mirny ore mining and processing enterprise are presented. The drainage system rebuilding project analysis was performed. Proposals for its improvement were set forward.

  20. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  1. Development of wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.Y., E-mail: brbbebbero@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, J.; Kim, Y.G.; Yang, S.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, K.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Y.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.J.; Na, Y.S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The baking for partial wall heating and H{sub 2}/He GDC systems are developed in VEST. • The RGA and OES systems for monitoring impurities are constructed in VEST. • The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics. • H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms. • After H{sub 2} GDC, the discharge should be conducted within 3 h from treatment. - Abstract: Wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems are developed in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). As a wall conditioning system, a baking system covering the vacuum vessel wall partially and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system using two electrodes with dc and 50 kHz power supplies are installed. The GDC system operates with hydrogen and helium gases for both chemical and physical desorption. The impurity monitoring system with residual gas analyzer (RGA), operating at <10{sup −5} Torr with a differential pumping system, is installed along with the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system to monitor the hydrogen and impurity radiation lines. Effects of these wall conditioning techniques are investigated with the impurity monitoring system for ohmic discharges of VEST. The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics but sufficient H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms within 3 h from the end of treatment.

  2. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  3. A smart technique for attendance system to recognize faces through parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhavathi, B.; Tanuja, V.; Madhu Viswanatham, V.; Rajashekhara Babu, M.

    2017-11-01

    Major part of recognising a person is face with the help of image processing techniques we can exploit the physical features of a person. In the old approach method that is used in schools and colleges it is there that the professor calls the student name and then the attendance for the students marked. Here in paper want to deviate from the old approach and go with the new approach by using techniques that are there in image processing. In this paper we presenting spontaneous presence for students in classroom. At first classroom image has been in use and after that image is kept in data record. For the images that are stored in the database we apply system algorithm which includes steps such as, histogram classification, noise removal, face detection and face recognition methods. So by using these steps we detect the faces and then compare it with the database. The attendance gets marked automatically if the system recognizes the faces.

  4. Overpower transient in the first wall cooling system of NET/ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1993-09-01

    The overpower transient from a plasma power excursion. The overpower transient considered in this report results from a postulated linear increase of the plasma power from the nominal generated power to four times this nominal power in 30 s. The Next European Torus (NET) design or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design will be cooled by a number of separate cooling systems. The most important cooling systems are: The first wall cooling system, the blanket cooling system, the divertor cooling system, and the shield cooling system. In this report, the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the above-mentioned overpower transient will be presented for the first wall cooling system of NET/ITER. During overpower transients, the fusion power will increase to less than four times the nominal power. For this reason, the overpower transient considered in this report is the worst case scenario. The analysis of the thermal-hydraulic system behaviour during the considered overpower transient has been performed for a coolant temperature of 333 K (60 C) in the first wall inlet manifolds and 433 K (160 C) in the first wall outlet manifolds. The analysis has been performed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3. In the analysis, special attention has been paid to the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system and the temperature development in the first wall. (orig.)

  5. Problems facing the use of passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study will analyze the current state of the art in the reliability of passive systems for extensive use in future nuclear power plants. This case study uncovers the insights on the technological issues associated with the reliability of the systems based on thermal-hydraulics, for which, methods are still in developing phase. The paper is organized as follows: at first the current available methodologies are illustrated and compared, the open issues coming out from their analysis are identified. Five open issues have been identified: 1) the assessment of the uncertainties related to passive system performance; 2) the dependencies among parameters in thermo-hydraulics; 3) the integration of the passive systems within an accident sequence in combination with active systems; 4) the development of dynamic event tree to incorporate the evolution upon time of the physical processes; and 5) the comparison between active and passive systems, mainly on a functional viewpoint. For each open issue the state of the art and the outlook is presented; the relative importance of each of them within the evaluation process is presented as well. (authors)

  6. Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a system and method for controlling the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of solar radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

  7. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Thanasarnaksorn, Wilai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Positio...

  8. Two faces of entropy and information in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrokhin, Yuriy

    2014-10-21

    The article attempts to overcome the well-known paradox of contradictions between the emerging biological organization and entropy production in biological systems. It is assumed that quality, speculative correlation between entropy and antientropy processes taking place both in the past and today in the metabolic and genetic cellular systems may be perfectly authorized for adequate description of the evolution of biological organization. So far as thermodynamic entropy itself cannot compensate for the high degree of organization which exists in the cell, we discuss the mode of conjunction of positive entropy events (mutations) in the genetic systems of the past generations and the formation of organized structures of current cells. We argue that only the information which is generated in the conditions of the information entropy production (mutations and other genome reorganization) in genetic systems of the past generations provides the physical conjunction of entropy and antientropy processes separated from each other in time generations. It is readily apparent from the requirements of the Second law of thermodynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extended Plate and Beam Wall System: Concept Investigation and Initial Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A new and innovative High-R wall design, referred to as the Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B), is under development. The EP&B system uniquely integrates foam sheathing insulation with wall framing such that wood structural panels are installed exterior of the foam sheathing, enabling the use of standard practices for installation of drainage plane, windows and doors, claddings, cavity insulation, and the standard exterior foam sheathing installation approach prone to damage of the foam during transportation of prefabricated wall panels. As part of the ongoing work, the EP&B wall system concept has undergone structural verification testing and has been positively vetted by a group of industry stakeholders. Having passed these initial milestone markers, the advanced wall system design has been analyzed to assess cost implications relative to other advanced wall systems, undergone design assessment to develop construction details, and has been evaluated to develop representative prescriptive requirements for the building code. This report summarizes the assessment steps conducted to-date and provides details of the concept development.

  10. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  11. Multimodal Biometric System Based on the Recognition of Face and Both Irises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Gon Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of unimodal biometric systems (based on a single modality such as face or fingerprint has to contend with various problems, such as illumination variation, skin condition and environmental conditions, and device variations. Therefore, multimodal biometric systems have been used to overcome the limitations of unimodal biometrics and provide high accuracy recognition. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on score level fusion of face and both irises' recognition. Our study has the following novel features. First, the device proposed acquires images of the face and both irises simultaneously. The proposed device consists of a face camera, two iris cameras, near-infrared illuminators and cold mirrors. Second, fast and accurate iris detection is based on two circular edge detections, which are accomplished in the iris image on the basis of the size of the iris detected in the face image. Third, the combined accuracy is enhanced by combining each score for the face and both irises using a support vector machine. The experimental results show that the equal error rate for the proposed method is 0.131%, which is lower than that of face or iris recognition and other fusion methods.

  12. The key issues facing the electricity systems of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de

    1991-01-01

    This report covers a common project designed to investigate the major issues and possible future direction in the electricity systems of developing countries in AFRICA, ASIA and LATIN AMERICA. Individual centres each had responsibility for preparing a detailed report on the experiences and issues in their own country plus a regional report, in less detail, to cover neighbouring countries. In this disaggregated way, a picture of the whole of the developing world (with the exception of the Middle East, the problems of which are in some ways distinct from those of other developing countries) has been built up. 30 Refs.; 14 Figs.; 33 Tabs

  13. Distribution functions in systems of hard dumbbells and linear hard triatomics near a hard wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublik, Tomás

    2008-12-04

    An extension of the theoretical approach to determine the distribution function in the inhomogeneous systems of hard spheres near a planar hard wall (based on the evaluation of the background correlation function in terms of the residual chemical potentials of the hard particle, hard wall, and the corresponding combined body) is extended to inhomogeneous systems of hard dumbbells (HD) and hard triatomics (HT). The perpendicular and parallel orientations of both HD and HT with respect to the hard wall are considered, and the way of the evaluation of the residual chemical potentials in terms of the geometric quantities-a volume, surface area, and the mean curvature integral, divided by 4pi-of a particle, hard wall, and the corresponding combined body is outlined. The inhomogeneous systems hard wall + hard dumbbell with the site-site distance L* = 0.6 and reduced density rho* = 0.491 and hard wall + hard triatomics with L* = 1.6 and packing fraction y = 0.409 are studied, and the obtained distribution functions are compared with simulation data. A fair agreement in the most important range of distances was found.

  14. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  15. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  16. Thermal Feature of a Modified Solar Phase Change Material Storage Wall System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is to study a novel solar PCM storage wall technology, that is, a dual-channel and thermal-insulation-in-the-middle type solar PCM storage wall (MSPCMW system. The system has the following four independent functions, passive solar heating, heat preservation, heat insulation, and passive cooling, and it can agilely cope with the requirements of climatization of buildings in different seasons throughout the year and is exactly suitable for building in regions characterized by hot summer and cold winter. The present work experimentally analyzes thermal feature of the system working in summer and winter modes, respectively.

  17. Optimizing the face Paradigm of BCI system by modified Mismatch Negative paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siejie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies have focused on improving the performance of event-related potential (ERP based brain computer interfaces (BCIs. The use of a face pattern has been shown to obtain high classification accuracies and information transfer rates (ITRs by evoking discriminative ERPs (N200 and N400 in addition to P300 potentials. Recently, it has been proved that the performance of traditional P300-based BCIs could be improved through a modification of the mismatch pattern. In this paper, a mismatch inverted face pattern (MIF-pattern was presented to improve the performance of the inverted face pattern (IF-pattern, one of the state of the art patterns used in visual-based BCI systems. Ten subjects attended in this experiment. The result showed that the mismatch inverted face pattern could evoke significantly larger vertex positive potentials (p<0.05 and N400s (p<0.05 compared to the inverted face pattern. The classification accuracy (mean accuracy is 99.58% and ITRs (mean bit rate is 27.88 bit/min of the mismatch inverted face pattern was significantly higher than that of the inverted face pattern (p<0.05.

  18. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  19. Hydrogen retention in lithium on metallic walls from “in vacuo” analysis in LTX and implications for high-Z plasma-facing components in NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R., E-mail: kaita@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lucia, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Allain, J.P.; Bedoya, F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, & Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Bell, R.; Boyle, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Capece, A. [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ (United States); Jaworski, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Koel, B.E. [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Roszell, J. [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Schmitt, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    The application of lithium to plasma-facing components (PFCs) has long been used as a technique for wall conditioning in magnetic confinement devices to improve plasma performance. Determining the characteristics of PFCs at the time of exposure to the plasma, however, is difficult because they can only be analyzed after venting the vacuum vessel and removing them at the end of an operational period. The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) addresses this problem by enabling PFC samples to be exposed to plasmas, and then withdrawn into an analysis chamber without breaking vacuum. The MAPP system was used to introduce samples that matched the metallic PFCs of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX). Lithium that was subsequently evaporated onto the walls also covered the MAPP samples, which were then subject to LTX discharges. In vacuo extraction and analysis of the samples indicated that lithium oxide formed on the PFCs, but improved plasma performance persisted in LTX. The reduced recycling this suggests is consistent with separate surface science experiments that demonstrated deuterium retention in the presence of lithium oxide films. Since oxygen decreases the thermal stability of the deuterium in the film, the release of deuterium was observed below the lithium deuteride dissociation temperature. This may explain what occurred when lithium was applied to the surface of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD). The LLD had segments with individual heaters, and the deuterium-alpha emission was clearly lower in the cooler regions. The plan for NSTX-U is to replace the graphite tiles with high-Z PFCs, and apply lithium to their surfaces with lithium evaporation. Experiments with lithium coatings on such PFCs suggest that deuterium could still be retained if lithium compounds form, but limiting their surface temperatures may be necessary.

  20. The µ-opioid system promotes visual attention to faces and eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelnokova, Olga; Laeng, Bruno; Løseth, Guro; Eikemo, Marie; Willoch, Frode; Leknes, Siri

    2016-12-01

    Paying attention to others' faces and eyes is a cornerstone of human social behavior. The µ-opioid receptor (MOR) system, central to social reward-processing in rodents and primates, has been proposed to mediate the capacity for affiliative reward in humans. We assessed the role of the human MOR system in visual exploration of faces and eyes of conspecifics. Thirty healthy males received a novel, bidirectional battery of psychopharmacological treatment (an MOR agonist, a non-selective opioid antagonist, or placebo, on three separate days). Eye-movements were recorded while participants viewed facial photographs. We predicted that the MOR system would promote visual exploration of faces, and hypothesized that MOR agonism would increase, whereas antagonism decrease overt attention to the information-rich eye region. The expected linear effect of MOR manipulation on visual attention to the stimuli was observed, such that MOR agonism increased while antagonism decreased visual exploration of faces and overt attention to the eyes. The observed effects suggest that the human MOR system promotes overt visual attention to socially significant cues, in line with theories linking reward value to gaze control and target selection. Enhanced attention to others' faces and eyes represents a putative behavioral mechanism through which the human MOR system promotes social interest. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Innovations in rocking wall-frame systems-theory and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, Mark; Tavousi, Shayan

    2017-09-01

    The need to improve the seismic performance of buildings has brought about innovative systems such as rocking wall-moment frame (RWMF) combinations. The behavior of RWMFs can best be visualized by the moment-frame (MF) restraining the wall in place, and the rigid rocking wall (RRW) providing additional damping and imposing uniform drift along the height of the frame. A novel method of analysis followed by the development of a new lateral resisting system is introduced. The proposed concepts lead to an efficient structural configuration with provisions for self-centering, reparability, performance control, damage tolerance and collapse prevention. Exact, unique, closed form formulae have been provided to assess the collapse prevention and self-centering capabilities of the system. The objective is to provide an informative account of RWMF behavior for preliminary design as well as educational purposes. All formulae have been verified by independent computer analysis. Parametric examples have been provided to verify the validity of the proposed solutions.

  2. Evaluation of Strategies to Improve the Thermal Performance of Steel Frames in Curtain Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, metal curtain wall systems have been widely used in high-rise buildings due to many advantages, including being lightweight, rapid construction, and aesthetic features. Since the metal frame may lead to lower energy performance, thermal discomfort, and condensation risk due to the high thermal conductivity, its thermal performance can be important for the improvement of the overall thermal performance of the curtain wall system, as well as the energy efficiency of the building envelope. This study aims to evaluate variety of design strategies to improve the thermal performance of steel curtain wall frames. Five base cases and three further steps were selected for two different head profile shapes based on a state-of-the art technology review, and their thermal transmittances were calculated through simulations according to the ISO 12631 standard which is an international standard for calculating thermal transmittance of curtain wall system. Measured results that were obtained from hot-box tests were compared with the calculated results to validate the simulation method of this study. The shape of the head profile did not strongly influence the overall thermal transmittance, and the choice of strategies for the rabbet space was more important. More effective strategies could be decided according to the steps for variation development. This result can serve as a guideline for the design of high-performance curtain wall frames.

  3. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbary, Lawrence D. [Dow Corning Corporation; Perkins, Laura L. [Dow Corning Corporation; Serino, Roland [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Preston, Bill [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Inc. CSE

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  4. Evaluation of Shielding Wall Optimization in Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Kim, Jeong Dong; Lee, Yong Deok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) system is nondestructive technology for analyzing isotope fissile content in spent fuel and pyro processed material, in real time and directly. The high intensity neutron and gamma ray were generated from a nuclear material (Pyro, Spent nuclear fuel), electron beam-target reaction and fission of fissile material. Therefore, shielding analysis of LSDS system should be carried out. In this study, Borax, B{sub 4}C, Li{sub 2}Co{sub 3}, Resin were chosen for shielding analysis. The radiation dose limit (<0.1 μSv/hr) was adopted conservatively at the outer wall surface. The covering could be able to reduce the concrete wall thickness from 5cm to 15cm. The optimized shielding walls evaluation will be used as an important data for future real LSDS facility design and shielding door assessment.

  5. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. APPLICATION OF BINARY DESCRIPTORS TO MULTIPLE FACE TRACKING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Oleinik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of multiple face tracking in a video stream. The primary application of the implemented tracking system is the automatic video surveillance. The particular operating conditions of surveillance cameras are taken into account in order to increase the efficiency of the system in comparison to existing general-purpose analogs. Method. The developed system is comprised of two subsystems: detector and tracker. The tracking subsystem does not depend on the detector, and thus various face detection methods can be used. Furthermore, only a small portion of frames is processed by the detector in this structure, substantially improving the operation rate. The tracking algorithm is based on BRIEF binary descriptors that are computed very efficiently on modern processor architectures. Main Results. The system is implemented in C++ and the experiments on the processing rate and quality evaluation are carried out. MOTA and MOTP metrics are used for tracking quality measurement. The experiments demonstrated the four-fold processing rate gain in comparison to the baseline implementation that processes every video frame with the detector. The tracking quality is on the adequate level when compared to the baseline. Practical Relevance. The developed system can be used with various face detectors (including slow ones to create a fully functional high-speed multiple face tracking solution. The algorithm is easy to implement and optimize, so it may be applied not only in full-scale video surveillance systems, but also in embedded solutions integrated directly into cameras.

  7. Development and initial evaluation of an Internet-based support system for face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Kristoffer N T; Skagius Ruiz, Erica; Gervind, Elisabet; Dahlin, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-12-10

    Evidence-based psychological treatments, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been found to be effective in treating several anxiety and mood disorders. Nevertheless, issues regarding adherence are common, such as poor patient compliance on homework assignments and therapists' drifting from strictly evidence-based CBT. The development of Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) has been intensive in the past decade and results show that guided ICBT can be as effective as face-to-face CBT but also indicate a need to integrate the two forms of CBT delivery. In this study, we developed and tested a new treatment format in which ICBT and face-to-face therapy were blended. We designed a support system accessible via the Internet (using a computer or an Apple iPad) for patients and therapists delivering CBT face-to-face. The support system included basic CBT components and a library of interventions gathered from existing ICBT manuals. The study involved 15 patients with mild to moderate anxiety or depression (or both). Eight therapists conducted the treatments. All participants were interviewed after the nine-week intervention. Further, patients provided self-reports on clinical measures pre- and post-trial, as well as at a 12-month follow-up. A reduction was found in symptom scores across all measures. The reliable change index ranged from 60% to 87% for depression and anxiety. Large effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranging from 1.62 (CI 95% 0.59-2.66) to 2.43 (CI 95% 1.12-3.74) were found. There were no missing data and no treatment dropouts. In addition, the results had been maintained at the 12-month follow-up. Qualitative interviews revealed that the users perceived the support system as beneficial. The results suggest that modern information technology can effectively blend with face-to-face treatments and be used to facilitate communication and structure in therapy, thus reducing therapist drift.

  8. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-10

    A zero energy ready home was recently completed that features an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system, called the extended plate and beam, is for use above grade in residential buildings. The Building America research team Home Innovation Research Labs featured this system in a new construction test house.

  9. Design of an Active Multispectral SWIR Camera System for Skin Detection and Face Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Steiner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric face recognition is becoming more frequently used in different application scenarios. However, spoofing attacks with facial disguises are still a serious problem for state of the art face recognition algorithms. This work proposes an approach to face verification based on spectral signatures of material surfaces in the short wave infrared (SWIR range. They allow distinguishing authentic human skin reliably from other materials, independent of the skin type. We present the design of an active SWIR imaging system that acquires four-band multispectral image stacks in real-time. The system uses pulsed small band illumination, which allows for fast image acquisition and high spectral resolution and renders it widely independent of ambient light. After extracting the spectral signatures from the acquired images, detected faces can be verified or rejected by classifying the material as “skin” or “no-skin.” The approach is extensively evaluated with respect to both acquisition and classification performance. In addition, we present a database containing RGB and multispectral SWIR face images, as well as spectrometer measurements of a variety of subjects, which is used to evaluate our approach and will be made available to the research community by the time this work is published.

  10. PECULIARITIES OF DESIGN OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS TO ASSURE THERMAL INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golunov Sergej Anatolevich

    2012-10-01

    The results of laboratory tests (given the adjustments for permissible tolerances may be regarded as the principal criteria in the assessment of applicability of a curtain wall system in the course of a major building repair project or a new construction to assure the required reliability and durability.

  11. Multimodal Biometric System- Fusion Of Face And Fingerprint Biometrics At Match Score Fusion Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wangari Mwaura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics has developed to be one of the most relevant technologies used in Information Technology IT security. Unimodal biometric systems have a variety of problems which decreases the performance and accuracy of these system. One way to overcome the limitations of the unimodal biometric systems is through fusion to form a multimodal biometric system. Generally biometric fusion is defined as the use of multiple types of biometric data or ways of processing the data to improve the performance of biometric systems. This paper proposes to develop a model for fusion of the face and fingerprint biometric at the match score fusion level. The face and fingerprint unimodal in the proposed model are built using scale invariant feature transform SIFT algorithm and the hamming distance to measure the distance between key points. To evaluate the performance of the multimodal system the FAR and FRR of the multimodal are compared along those of the individual unimodal systems. It has been established that the multimodal has a higher accuracy of 92.5 compared to the face unimodal system at 90 while the fingerprint unimodal system is at 82.5.

  12. Comparison for the interfacial and wall friction models in thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Park, Jee Won; Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, See Dal

    2007-07-01

    The average equations employed in the current thermal hydraulic analysis codes need to be closed with the appropriate models and correlations to specify the interphase phenomena along with fluid/structure interactions. This includes both thermal and mechanical interactions. Among the closure laws, an interfacial and wall frictions, which are included in the momentum equations, not only affect pressure drops along the fluid flow, but also have great effects for the numerical stability of the codes. In this study, the interfacial and wall frictions are reviewed for the commonly applied thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, i.e. RELAP5-3D, MARS-3D, TRAC-M, and CATHARE

  13. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K. K. Upadhyayula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9×108 and 2×108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  14. Review of Research on Student-Facing Learning Analytics Dashboards and Educational Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodily, Robert; Verbert, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    This article is a comprehensive literature review of student-facing learning analytics reporting systems that track learning analytics data and report it directly to students. This literature review builds on four previously conducted literature reviews in similar domains. Out of the 945 articles retrieved from databases and journals, 93 articles…

  15. Predicting Performance of a Face Recognition System Based on Image Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, we focus on several aspects of models that aim to predict performance of a face recognition system. Performance prediction models are commonly based on the following two types of performance predictor features: a) image quality features; and b) features derived solely from

  16. Accuracy of two face-bow/semi-adjustable articulator systems in transferring the maxillary occlusal cant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The precision of an arbitrary face-bow in accurately transferring the orientation of the maxillary cast to the articulator has been questioned because the maxillary cast is mounted in relation to arbitrary measurements and anatomic landmarks that vary among individuals. Aim: This study was intended to evaluate the sagittal inclination of mounted maxillary casts on two semi-adjustable articulator/face-bow systems in comparison to the occlusal cant on lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts were mounted on the Hanau and Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following face-bow transfer with their respective face-bows. The sagittal inclination of these casts was measured in relation to the fixed horizontal reference plane using physical measurements. Occlusal cant was measured on lateral cephalograms. SPSS software (version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA was used for statistical analysis. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey′s tests were used to evaluate the results (P < 0.05. Results: Comparison of the occlusal cant on the articulators and cephalogram revealed statistically significant differences. Occlusal plane was steeper on Girrbach Artex articulator in comparison to the Hanau articulator. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the sagittal inclination of the mounted maxillary cast achieved with Hanau articulator was closer to the cephalometric occlusal cant as compared to that of the Girrbach articulator. Among the two articulators and face-bow systems, the steepness of sagittal inclination was greater on Girrbach semi-adjustable articulator. Different face-bow/articulator systems could result in different orientation of the maxillary cast, resulting in variation in stability, cuspal inclines and cuspal heights.

  17. Accuracy of two face-bow/semi-adjustable articulator systems in transferring the maxillary occlusal cant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Nazia; Sujesh, M; Kumar, Ravi; Sreenivas, P

    2012-01-01

    The precision of an arbitrary face-bow in accurately transferring the orientation of the maxillary cast to the articulator has been questioned because the maxillary cast is mounted in relation to arbitrary measurements and anatomic landmarks that vary among individuals. This study was intended to evaluate the sagittal inclination of mounted maxillary casts on two semi-adjustable articulator/face-bow systems in comparison to the occlusal cant on lateral cephalograms. Maxillary casts were mounted on the Hanau and Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following face-bow transfer with their respective face-bows. The sagittal inclination of these casts was measured in relation to the fixed horizontal reference plane using physical measurements. Occlusal cant was measured on lateral cephalograms. SPSS software (version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's tests were used to evaluate the results (P occlusal cant on the articulators and cephalogram revealed statistically significant differences. Occlusal plane was steeper on Girrbach Artex articulator in comparison to the Hanau articulator. Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the sagittal inclination of the mounted maxillary cast achieved with Hanau articulator was closer to the cephalometric occlusal cant as compared to that of the Girrbach articulator. Among the two articulators and face-bow systems, the steepness of sagittal inclination was greater on Girrbach semi-adjustable articulator. Different face-bow/articulator systems could result in different orientation of the maxillary cast, resulting in variation in stability, cuspal inclines and cuspal heights.

  18. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIU Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.

  19. Flowing liquid lithium plasma-facing components – Physics, technology and system analysis of the LiMIT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Ruzic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of low atomic number liquid metals has been shown to have the potential to solve many of the prevalent problems like erosion and radiation losses associated with the interaction of fusion plasma with the plasma facing component (PFC structures in tokamaks. Since the first evidence of lithium increasing plasma performance in TFTR [1], the benefits of using lithium in fusion environments have been seen in many devices, including CDX-U [2], NSTX [3], LTX [4], and DIII-D [5]. While both fast flow and slow flow concepts have been studied with regards to liquid lithium first wall alternatives, this report will focus on efforts placed on fast flow research and will mainly focus on advancements in the LiMIT device that help to eliminate concerns over the broad use of liquid lithium. Due to the promising TFTR results along with results obtained at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [6], suitably designed trench structures holding liquid lithium could be an appropriate fast flow candidate for PFC modules in future fusion devices. There are four potential shortcomings of this approach: (1 Droplet ejection, (2 Wetting control, (3 Tritium retention, and (4 Limited heat flux handling. Droplet ejection is discussed in a companion publication [7], while this paper addresses the topics of wetting control and heat flux handling. Limitations in wetting and prevention of lithium creep (i.e. getting and keeping the lithium only where it should be have been solved by laser-texturing the base material with extreme short laser pulses (pico – femto second of high power (several 10s of W. Micro- and nano-structuring results indicate that the textured substrates displayed significant change in their wetting properties, increasing the temperature needed to wet from 310 °C to 390 °C. Lastly, initial designs for the Lithium Metal Infused Trenches (LiMIT [6] showed dryout above 3 MW/m2, but new designs of the trench shaping show potential to be

  20. Financial problems facing the manufacturers of small wind energy conversion systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, T G

    1979-11-01

    The financial barriers faced by the manufacturers of small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) are assessed and found to be similar to those faced by other start up businesses. However, these problems are found to be aggravated by the high expectations for accelerated SWECS industry growth in the face of moderate government support and lack of investment capital. The underlying conditions of limited SWECS entrepreneur business experience, the highly competitive venture capital market, the inability of existing financial institutions to aid infant busineses and public unawareness of SWECS are reviewed. Specific manufacturer-oriented recommendations and federal, state and regulatory policy-oriented recommendations are made. In addition, the dynamics of the SWECS commercialization process are assessed and the variety of financial institutions playing a role in this process is detailed. Issues related to inflation, tax policy, regulation and federal R and D procurement policies are analyzed.

  1. Optimum Design of Gravity Retaining Walls Using Charged System Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the optimum design retaining walls, as one of the familiar types of the retaining walls which may be constructed of stone masonry, unreinforced concrete, or reinforced concrete. The material cost is one of the major factors in the construction of gravity retaining walls therefore, minimizing the weight or volume of these systems can reduce the cost. To obtain an optimal seismic design of such structures, this paper proposes a method based on a novel meta-heuristic algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the Coulomb's and Gauss’s laws of electrostatics in physics, and it is called charged system search (CSS. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this algorithm, an example is utilized. Comparing the results of the retaining wall designs obtained by the other methods illustrates a good performance of the CSS. In this paper, we used the Mononobe-Okabe method which is one of the pseudostatic approaches to determine the dynamic earth pressure.

  2. Do diabetes mellitus and systemic hypertension predispose to left ventricular free wall rupture in acute myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, T; Hildebrant, P; Køber, L

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age <65 years and a history of coronary artery disease offers some protection from protection.......Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age artery disease offers some protection from protection....

  3. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Investigations of a Wall Radiant Cooling System Based on Plastic Capillary Tubes in Thin Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Densely occupied spaces such as classrooms can very often have problems with overheating. It can be difficult to cool such spaces by means of a ventilation system without creating draughts and causing discomfort for occupants. The use of a wall radiant cooling system is a suitable option for spac...... with a high occupant density. Radiant systems can remove most sensible heat loads resulting in a relatively small requirement for supply air for ventilation....

  4. An Inquiry into the Life Cycle of Systems of Inner Walls: Comparison of Masonry and Drywall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Condeixa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment is a methodology that investigates impacts linked to a product or service during its entire life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment studies investigate processes and sub-processes in a fragmented way to ascertain their inputs, outputs and emissions and get an overview of the generating sources of their environmental loads. The lifecycle concept involves all direct and indirect processes of the studied object. This article aims to model the material flows in the masonry and drywall systems and internal walls in a Brazilian scenario, and calculate the climate change impacts generated by the transport of the component materials of the systems. Internal walls of a residential dwelling in Rio de Janeiro are analyzed from a qualitative inventory of all life cycles with an analysis of material flows, based on technical and academic literature. All Life Cycle Impact Assessment of the systems is carried out with international data from the database, and using the IPCC2013 method for climate change impacts. This study disregards the refurbishment and possible extensions within the use phase. Thus, the inventory identifies weaknesses of the systems while the impact assessment validates the results. This study allows us a complete understanding about the inner walls systems in the Brazilian scenario, evidencing its main weaknesses and subsidizes decision-making for the industry and for planning of the new buildings.

  5. Measurements of energy distribution and wall temperature in flowing hydrogen microwave plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R.; Finzel, M.; Hawley, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    An electrothermal propulsion concept utilizing a microwave plasma system as the mechanism to convert electromagnetic energy into translational energy of the flowing gas is being investigated. A calorimetric experimental system has been designed and built enclosing the microwave plasma system to accurately determine the net energy transferred to the flowing gas. For a flow rate of 8900 micromoles/sec, a pressure of 7.4 torr, and an absorbed power level of 80 W, an energy transfer efficiency of 50 percent has been measured. A heat transfer model that characterizes the energy transfer processes in the plasma is developed. A wall temperature for the plasma system is calculated.

  6. Experimental investigations on the performance of a collector–storage wall system using phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guobing; Pang, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of collector–storage wall using PCM was experimentally studied. • PCM surface temperature rises steep–slow–steep successively during charge. • After sharp drops, PCM surface temperature decreases slightly during discharge. • Temperatures of gap air, glazing and room vary with PCM surface temperature. • Air flow rate and heating rate fluctuate during charge but go steady after discharge. - Abstract: Experiments have been performed on the thermal behavior of a collector–storage wall system using PCM (phase change material). PCM slabs were attached on the gap-side wall surface to increase the heat storage. The test was carried out for a whole day with charging period of 6.5 h and discharging period of 17.5 h, respectively. Wall and air temperatures as well as air velocity in the gap were measured for analysis. The results showed that the PCM surface temperature increases first rapidly, then slowly and rapidly again during the charging process, which in turn corresponds with the three storage stages: sensible heat (solid), latent heat (melting) and sensible heat (liquid), respectively; while in the discharging process the PCM surface temperature decreases slightly shortly after the initial sharp drops, which suggests the long time period of solidification for PCM to release latent heat. Subject to the variations of PCM surface temperatures, similar trends were also found for the gap air temperatures, glazing temperature and indoor temperature. Both the air flow rate and heating rate by air circulation have up and down fluctuations during the charging period, and then, shortly after initial sharp drops, they keep at nearly steady values during the discharging period. The indoor temperature was found to be above 22 °C during the whole discharging period (17.5 h) under present conditions, which indicates that the indoor thermal comfort could be kept for a long time by using PCM in collector–storage wall system.

  7. Evaluation of a Thermoplastic Immobilization System for Breast and Chest Wall Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strydhorst, Jared H.; Caudrelier, Jean-Michel; Clark, Brenda G.; Montgomery, Lynn A.; Fox, Greg; MacPherson, Miller S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the impact of a thermoplastic immobilization system on intra- and interfraction motion for patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiation therapy. Patients for this study were treated using helical tomotherapy. All patients were immobilized using a thermoplastic shell extending from the shoulders to the ribcage. Intrafraction motion was assessed by measuring maximum displacement of the skin, heart, and chest wall on a pretreatment 4D computed tomography, while inter-fraction motion was inferred from patient shift data arising from daily image guidance procedures on tomotherapy. Using thermoplastic immobilization, the average maximum motion of the external contour was 1.3 ± 1.6 mm, whereas the chest wall was found to be 1.6 ± 1.9 mm. The day-to-day setup variation was found to be large, with random errors of 4.0, 12.0, and 4.5 mm in the left-right, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively, and the standard deviations of the systematic errors were found to be 2.7, 9.8, and 4.1 mm. These errors would be expected to dominate any respiratory motion but can be mitigated by daily online image guidance. Using thermoplastic immobilization can effectively reduce respiratory motion of the chest wall and external contour, but these gains can only be realized if daily image guidance is used.

  8. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lizhu; Ma, Xiaole; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Weihua; Xu, Lei; Becker, Benjamin; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-01-01

    We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed "Kindchenschema" or "baby schema," and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It then provides details of the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and the neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cuteness in infant faces, with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses. Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention and attraction to infant cues in both sexes.

  9. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhu eLuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed Kindchenschema or baby schema, and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It next reviews the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in both parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and then neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cutenessin infant faces with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses.Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention andattractionto infant cues in both sexes.

  10. E-Learning versus Face-to-Face Learning: An Economic Analysis of Higher Educational Systems in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Fazlollahtabar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional engineering educational system was compared with the e-learning engineering educational system on the economic dimension using hypothesis testing approach. The comparison involved trend analysis and prediction based on costs and benefits of the two systems. Interestingly, the analysis revealed that the traditional system had greater advantage on the economic dimension. Several factors support the e-learning system despite the associated economic disadvantage. The final analysis provided results in favor of a blended system which takes advantage of the traditional and e-learning systems.

  11. E-Learning versus Face-to-Face Learning: An Economic Analysis of Higher Educational Systems in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Fazlollahtabar

    2008-01-01

    Traditional engineering educational system was compared with the e-learning engineering educational system on the economic dimension using hypothesis testing approach. The comparison involved trend analysis and prediction based on costs and benefits of the two systems. Interestingly, the analysis revealed that the traditional system had greater advantage on the economic dimension. Several factors support the e-learning system despite the associated economic disadvantage. The final analysis pr...

  12. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWalker{trademark} and Blastrac{reg_sign} shot blast cleaning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools.

  13. Challenges facing the distribution of an artificial-intelligence-based system for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S

    1985-04-01

    The marketing and successful distribution of artificial-intelligence-based decision-support systems for nursing face special barriers and challenges. Issues that must be confronted arise particularly from the present culture of the nursing profession as well as the typical organizational structures in which nurses predominantly work. Generalizations in the literature based on the limited experience of physician-oriented artificial intelligence applications (predominantly in diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment) must be modified for applicability to other health professions.

  14. Costs and Technology of Public Transit Systems in Italy:Some Insights to Face Inefficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Fraquelli; Massimiliano Piacenza; Graziano Abrate

    2001-01-01

    This study provides fresh evidence about the characteristics of technology and cost structure of public transit systems in Italy. The aim is to suggest useful guidelines for facing detected inefficiencies. The analysis is carried out through the estimation of a translog variable cost function. The sample includes 45 Italian public companies. Firms are observed in the years 1996, 1997 and 1998, and operate both in the urban and extra-urban compartments. Results support previous evidence on the...

  15. Concept of operation and preliminary experimental results of the DRDC through-wall SAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, Pascale; DiFilippo, David J.; Laneve, Tony; Chan, Brigitte; Fournier, Jonathan; Roy, Simon; Ricard, Benoît; Maheux, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Mapping the interior of buildings is of great interest to military forces operating in an urban battlefield. Throughwall radars have the potential of mapping interior room layout, including the location of walls, doors and furniture. They could provide information on the in-wall structure, and detect objects of interest concealed in buildings, such as persons and arms caches. We are proposing to provide further context to the end user by fusing the radar data with LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) images of the building exterior. In this paper, we present our system concept of operation, which involves a vehicle driven along a path in front of a building of interest. The vehicle is equipped with both radar and LIDAR systems, as well as a motion compensation unit. We describe our ultra wideband through-wall L-band radar system which uses stretch processing techniques to obtain high range resolution, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques to achieve good azimuth resolution. We demonstrate its current 2-D capabilities with experimental data, and discuss the current progress in using array processing in elevation to provide a 3-D image. Finally, we show preliminary data fusion of SAR and LIDAR data.

  16. Comparative study of comminuted posterior acetabular wall fracture treated with the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntong; Zhao, Xue; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Chuncai; Xu, Shuogui; Xie, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Posterior wall fractures are one of the most common acetabular fractures. However, only 30% of these fractures involve a single large fragment, and comminuted acetabular posterior wall fractures pose a particular surgical challenge. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between patients who received fixation for comminuted posterior wall fracture using the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System (ATMFS) and patients who underwent fixation with conventional screws and buttress plates (Plates group). Between April 2003 and May 2007, 196 consecutive patients who sustained a comminuted posterior wall fracture of acetabulum were treated with ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plates. Operative time, fluoroscopy time, blood loss, and any intra-operative complications were recorded. Plain AP and lateral radiographs were obtained at all visits (Matta's criteria). Modified Merle d' Aubigne-Postel score, and Mos SF-36 score were compared between groups. Fifty patients were included in the analysis with 26 in the ATMFS group and 24 in the Plates group. The mean follow-up time was 57.5 months, ranging from 31 to 69 months. All patients had fully healed fractures at the final follow-up. There was no difference in clinical outcomes or radiological evaluations between groups. Patients with comminuted posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum treated with the ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plate techniques achieve a good surgical result. Both techniques are safe, reliable, and practical. Use of the ATMFS technique may reduce blood loss and improve rigid support to marginal bone impaction. The use ATMFS may need additional support when fractures involve the superior roof. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-step calibration method for multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems by minimizing discrimination loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanto, N.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Klaassen, C.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for combining multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems, which we call the two-step calibration method. Typically, algorithms for face recognition systems produce dependent scores. The two-step method is based on parametric copulas to handle this dependence. Its

  18. One Country, Two Systems, Multiple Skill Demands: The Dilemmas Facing the Education System in the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Katharine

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that China's education system is facing unprecedented pressures to provide appropriately skilled individuals to meet the demands of the rapidly growing economy. In China this is a uniquely complex situation owing to the coexistence of a diminishing command and control economy and a growing market economy. Within this context we…

  19. Development of small size wall decontamination robot systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tsuneaki; Takahashi, Tsuyosi

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of wall decontamination robot systems for nuclear power plants. In nuclear power plants, it is required to reduce maintenance costs, including annual inspection, repairs and so on. Most of such maintenance activities are actually performed after decontamination processes are completed. In particular, the decontamination process of reactor wells is very important for reducing the radiation exposure of human workers. In the past, decontamination of reactor wells used to be done by extra large machine and tools, which caused long working hours and tiresome works. It was one of the reasons maintenance costs couldn't have been easily reduced. There are narrow spaces in the reactor wells that have to be decontaminated by human workers. In order to minimize the radiation exposure to humans, wall decontamination robot systems have been developed. The decontamination robots have rolled brushes and suction mechanisms and are capable of removing contaminants attached to the wall surface of the reactor wells. By making the robots smaller, it is possible to work in narrower spaces. In this paper, the effectiveness of decontamination by the developed robots is shown through experiments in the actual nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Perterbative O(asa) matching in static heavy and domain-wall light quark system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa,T.

    2008-07-14

    We discuss the perturbative O(a{sub s}a) matching in the static heavy and domain-wall light quark system. The gluon action is the Iwasaki action and the link smearing is performed in the static heavy action. The chiral symmetry of the light quark realized by using the domain-wall fermion formulation does not prohibit the mixing of the operators at O(a). The application of O(a) improvement to the actual data shows that the B meson decay constant f{sub B}, the matrix elements M{sub B} and the B parameter B{sub B} have non-negligible effects, while the effect on the SU(3) breaking ratio {zeta} is small.

  1. [Evaluation of the navigation system for orbital wall reconstruction in unilateral orbital fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Gong, Xi; He, Yang; An, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Yi

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of navigation system for orbital wall reconstruction in unilateral orbital fractures. Fifteen patients (7 male and 8 female) with unilateral orbital fracture underwent orbital reconstruction with the help of intraoperative navigation system. The average age was 34.3 ± 9.5 years. All patients underwent spiral CT scanning preoperatively, and the CT data was imported to the BrainLab navigation system (Germany, BrainLab company). The orbit of the intact side was mirrored to the opposite side as the reference for pre-operative planning. The titanium mesh was mounted on the resin template made by rapid prototyping machine based on the mirrored CT data. When the injury was limited, the hydroxyapatite sheet was used for the orbital wall reconstruction. During the operation, the real-time navigation helped to ensure precise placement. The re-establishing result was assessed based on the postoperative CT data with the following four variables: the volumetric difference between the bilateral orbit, the volume of the herniated soft tissue, the global projection and the discrepancy between the simulated and the achieved position of the reconstructed orbital wall. The reconstructive discrepancy was measured only in the titanium plate grafting cases. There were no serious complications such as infection, graft rejection and optic nerve injury in any case. Preoperatively, the average degree of enophthalmos was (3.5 ± 1.6) mm, the average volumetric difference between the injured and the unaffected orbit was (4.5 ± 1.8) ml, and the average volume of the herniated orbital soft tissue was (2.1 ± 0.7) ml. Postoperatively, the three values were respectively reduced to (1.3 ± 0.6) mm, (1.8 ± 0.9) ml and (0.7 ± 0.3) ml. The discrepancy of the medial and inferior wall were (2.5 ± 0.6) mm and (2.1 ± 0.4) mm. The intraoperative use of navigation system for the orbital wall reconstruction in unilateral orbital fractures can provide reliable accuracy and

  2. Energy loss of the electron system in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavicca, Daniel F; Chudow, Joel D; Prober, Daniel E; Purewal, Meninder S; Kim, Philip

    2010-11-10

    We characterize the energy loss of the nonequilibrium electron system in individual metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperature. Using Johnson noise thermometry, we demonstrate that, for a nanotube with Ohmic contacts, the dc resistance at finite bias current directly reflects the average electron temperature. This enables a straightforward determination of the thermal conductance associated with cooling of the nanotube electron system. In analyzing the temperature- and length-dependence of the thermal conductance, we consider contributions from acoustic phonon emission, optical phonon emission, and hot electron outdiffusion.

  3. A Qualitative Case Study Comparing a Computer-Mediated Delivery System to a Face-to-Face Mediated Delivery System for Teaching Creative Writing Fiction Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Mindy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to compare the pedagogical and affective efficiency and efficacy of creative prose fiction writing workshops taught via asynchronous computer-mediated online distance education with creative prose fiction writing workshops taught face-to-face in order to better understand their operational pedagogy and…

  4. Fast AdaBoost-Based Face Detection System on a Dynamically Coarse Grain Reconfigurable Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Jinguo; Zhu, Min; Yang, Jun; Shi, Longxing

    An AdaBoost-based face detection system is proposed, on a Coarse Grain Reconfigurable Architecture (CGRA) named “REMUS-II”. Our work is quite distinguished from previous ones in three aspects. First, a new hardware-software partition method is proposed and the whole face detection system is divided into several parallel tasks implemented on two Reconfigurable Processing Units (RPU) and one micro Processors Unit (µPU) according to their relationships. These tasks communicate with each other by a mailbox mechanism. Second, a strong classifier is treated as a smallest phase of the detection system, and every phase needs to be executed by these tasks in order. A phase of Haar classifier is dynamically mapped onto a Reconfigurable Cell Array (RCA) only when needed, and it's quite different from traditional Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) methods in which all the classifiers are fabricated statically. Third, optimized data and configuration word pre-fetch mechanisms are employed to improve the whole system performance. Implementation results show that our approach under 200MHz clock rate can process up-to 17 frames per second on VGA size images, and the detection rate is over 95%. Our system consumes 194mW, and the die size of fabricated chip is 23mm2 using TSMC 65nm standard cell based technology. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first implementation of the cascade Haar classifier algorithm on a dynamically CGRA platform presented in the literature.

  5. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 10. Turning a New Leaf H. Y. Mohan Ram talks to Sujata Varadarajan. H Y Mohan Ram Sujata Varadarajan. Face to Face Volume 14 Issue 10 October 2009 pp 1003-1017 ...

  6. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Symmetry and Mathematics: Pioneering Insights into the Structure of Physics. Urjit A Yajnik. Face to Face Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 264-276. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Face to Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungfalk, Michael; Rossen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    Blended learning in education is the combination of face‐to‐face seminars and on‐line work based on the internet. We have investigated which factors that we found were important in designing and conducting face‐to‐face seminars in order to facilitate learning processes in the periods of on...

  8. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 1. Do We Learn to See? Torsten Wiesel Prasanna Venkhatesh Venkataramani. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 1 January 2011 pp 88-99. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Science is Not a Zero-Sum Game. Devendra Mani. Face to Face Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 471-477. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0471-0477. Author Affiliations.

  10. When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierans, Ciara; Padilla-Altamira, Cesar; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Ibarra-Hernandez, Margarita; Mercado, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so constitute an important source of evidence in that effort.

  11. When Health Systems Are Barriers to Health Care: Challenges Faced by Uninsured Mexican Kidney Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierans, Ciara; Padilla-Altamira, Cesar; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Ibarra-Hernandez, Margarita; Mercado, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. Methods The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. Results In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. Conclusions Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so constitute an

  12. Georeferenced Scanning System to Estimate the Leaf Wall Area in Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del-Moral-Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA. Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution, as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.

  13. Georeferenced scanning system to estimate the leaf wall area in tree crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Moral-Martínez, Ignacio; Arnó, Jaume; Escolà, Alexandre; Sanz, Ricardo; Masip-Vilalta, Joan; Company-Messa, Joaquim; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-04-10

    This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA). Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA) is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution), as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU) time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI) can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.

  14. Fusion technology development: first wall/blanket system and component testing in existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-12-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment employing an existing nuclear facility, the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of an existing test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module. The principal reaction considered involves 3 He in the annulus as follows: n + 3 He → p + t + 0.75 MeV. Bulk heating in the test module is accomplished by neutron thermalization, gamma heating, and absorption reactions involving 6 Li in the blanket breeding region. The concept can be extended to modified core configurations that will accommodate test modules of different sizes and types. It makes possible development testing of first wall/blanket systems and other fusion components on a scale and in ways not otherwise available until actual high-power fusion reactors are built

  15. The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisicchia, Paola; Noone, David; Lioliou, Efthimia

    2007-01-01

    Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show...... that YycFG is a regulator of cell wall metabolism. We have identified five new members of the YycFG regulon: YycF activates expression of yvcE, lytE and ydjM and represses expression of yoeB and yjeA. YvcE(CwlO) and LytE encode endopeptidase-type autolysins that participate in peptidoglycan synthesis...... to lysozyme digestion and YdjM is also predicted to have a role in cell wall metabolism. A genetic analysis shows that YycFG essentiality is polygenic in nature, being a manifestation of disrupted cell wall metabolism caused by aberrant expression of a number of YycFG regulon genes....

  16. FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN’S FACE-PROCESSING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haist, Frank; Anzures, Gizelle

    2016-01-01

    In the first 20 years of life, the human brain undergoes tremendous growth in size, weight, and synaptic connectedness. Over the same time period, a person achieves remarkable transformations in perception, thought, and behavior. One important area of development is face processing ability, or the ability to quickly and accurately extract extensive information about a person’s identity, emotional state, attractiveness, intention, and numerous other types of information that are crucial to everyday social interaction and communication. Associating particular brain changes with specific behavioral and intellectual developments has historically been a serious challenge for researchers. Fortunately, modern neuroimaging is dramatically advancing our ability to make associations between morphological and behavioral developments. In this article, we demonstrate how neuroimaging has revolutionized our understanding of the development of face processing ability to show that this essential perceptual and cognitive skill matures consistently yet slowly over the first two decades of life. In this manner, face processing is a model system of many areas of complex cognitive development. PMID:27906518

  17. ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE OF NANOCOMPOSITES FOR SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ENVELOPE WALLS TECHNICAL CONDITION OF NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raising of the problem. Enveloped concrete wall type structures of localizing safety systems for restaint and localization of radioactive decay products or in the case of special natural or man-made impacts on the power unit is one of the most important components to ensure the safety of nuclear power. The promising direction for the development of the NPP technical system monitoring is to use conductive nanocomposites as primary elements of information. The purpose of the article is to review the theoretical background and experience in the conductive nanocomposites creating for diagnostics of localizing nuclear safety systems. Conclusions. A promising area for the development of diagnostic systems of localizing nuclear safety systems is the use of electrically conductive nanocomposites (conductive concrete - bethels, plasters, paint coatings. A mechanism for conductive nanocomposites creating is the use of the filler metal and carbon nanoparticles. As binders is promising to use nanocomposites of the mineral binders (cement and water glass.

  18. Development of remote replacement system for armor tiles of first wall of FER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Junichi; Yoshizawa, Shunji; Nakano, Yasuo; Kuboyama, Takashi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    A remote system has been developed to replace automatically armor tiles of first walls with a single manipulator arm for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). The system is composed of a manipulator arm and an end-effector (a tile replacement hand), which have a gripper of the tiles, a nutrunner to rotate attatching bolts of them and a vision sensor to measure positions of them. The system can replace the tiles by means of a visual feedback system using vision sensor, even if the positions of the tiles would have changed. As a result of tests, it has been proved that the end-effector is useful and the control system is practicable. (author)

  19. Numerical investigations of cooling holes system role in the protection of the walls of a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Sik Ali, Ahlem; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale D' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Bournot, Philippe [IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Marseille (France)

    2012-05-15

    Numerical simulations in a gas turbine Swirl stabilized combustor were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a cooling system in the protection of combustor walls. The studied combustion chamber has a high degree of geometrical complexity related to the injection system as well as the cooling system based on a big distribution of small holes (about 3,390 holes) bored on the flame tube walls. Two cases were considered respectively the flame tube without and with its cooling system. The calculations were carried out using the industrial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. The various simulations made it possible to highlight the role of cooling holes in the protection of the flame tube walls against the high temperatures of the combustion products. In fact, the comparison between the results of the two studied cases demonstrated that the walls temperature can be reduced by about 800 C by the mean of cooling holes technique. (orig.)

  20. User's Guide: Computer Program for Simulation of Construction Sequence for Stiff Wall Systems With Multiple Levels of Anchors (CMULTIANC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawkins, William

    2003-01-01

    .... Top-down construction is assumed in this analysis procedure. The retaining wall system is modeled using beam on inelastic foundation methods with elastoplastic soil- pressure deformation curves (R-y curves...

  1. Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang

    2012-07-28

    In this paper, the cell face velocities in the discretization of the continuity equation, the momentum equation, and the scalar equation of a non-staggered grid system are calculated and discussed. Both the momentum interpolation and the linear interpolation are adopted to evaluate the coefficients in the discretized momentum and scalar equations. Their performances are compared. When the linear interpolation is used to calculate the coefficients, the mass residual term in the coefficients must be dropped to maintain the accuracy and convergence rate of the solution. © Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

  2. Effects of FACE system operation on the micrometeorology of a loblolly pine stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.; Yang, X.; Miller, D.R. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Nagy, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The effect of the gas injection operation on air movement in the loblolly pine stand at the Duke Forest prototype BNL-FACE User Facility were investigated. The micrometeorological conditions were measured using three-dimensional sonic anemometers in the center of the FACE ring at two heights, one just above the canopy (median height of the canopy = 9 m) at 11.6 m and another at 6.8 m above the ground where the canopy was the most dense. While the micrometeorological parameters were sampled continuously at 10 Hz, the gas injection system was turned alternatively on and off every 5 min for about 100 h. The analyses indicated that the system operation had little effect on the micrometeorology processes above the canopy. There were small magnitude but detectable changes in some of the micrometeorological parameters within the canopy, primarily during stable atmospheric conditions, in response to this 5-min alternation. The gas injection operation created a slightly diverging windfield in the top half of the canopy in the enclosed stand. A slight dampening of the vertical wind and air temperature fluctuations was detected. No detectable effects on the mean, or accumulated, heat and momentum fluxes at the measurement locations were found. In general, the system was shown to cause minimal disturbances to the natural environment compared to traditional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enrichment facilities. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Development of the double-wall-tube steam generator. Evaluation of inner tube leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Kisohara, Naoyuki

    1995-01-01

    A double-wall-tube steam generator (DWT-SG) is considered to have possibility of eliminating a secondary heat transport system to realize a reliable and simplified FBR plant. Thus, basic tests for inner/outer tube leak detection and prototypical leak tests by use of the 1MWt DWT-SG model have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of DWT-SG. Their results demonstrated that the inner leak detection system can definitely detect a steam leak from an inner tube flaw. Analyses of the inner tube leak and detection behavior obtained in the 1MWt DWT-SG test enabled to estimate the performance of the inner tube detection system of the commercial DWT-SG system. (author)

  4. Innovative Seismic Response-Controlled System with Shear Wall and Concentrated Dampers in Lower Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Tani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new structural control system using damper-installed shear walls in lower stories with reduced stiffness is proposed for vibration control of high-rise RC buildings. That system has some design variables, i.e., height of shear wall, degree of stiffness reduction at lower stories, and quantity of dampers. In this paper, some parametric studies on the shear-beam model with a stiff beam against two kinds of ground motion, a pulse-type sinusoidal wave and a resonant sinusoidal wave, are conducted to clarify the vibration characteristics of the proposed structural control system. It is shown that the optimal combination of design parameters depends on the input ground motion. It is also shown that it is possible to prevent from increasing the response under the one-cycle sinusoidal input resonant to the lowest mode and reduce the steady-state response under the harmonic input with the resonant fundamental period by reducing the stiffness in the lower structure and increasing the damper deformation.

  5. Heat removal characteristics of a water wall type passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio

    1996-01-01

    A water wall type passive containment cooling system, which has an outer pool (O/P) outside the suppression pool (S/P), is one passive safety system for next generation reactors. The core decay heat during an accident is accumulated in the S/P and then transferred to the O/P through the steel primary containment vessel wall. Thermal hydraulic behavior of this system was experimentally investigated using a 5m high test apparatus. Basic thermal hydraulic characteristics, such as temperature distributions in pools, natural convection heat transfer in pools, condensation and evaporation heat transfer with a noncondensable gas present in the wetwell region, were clarified. Further, for application to a large sized reactor, two procedures were proposed as improvements to the heat removal capability. One is installation of a baffle plate to mitigate thermal stratification and enlarge the effective heat transfer area between pools. The other is employment of a divided wetwell to avoid a noncondensable gas effect and enlarge the temperature difference between pools. The effectiveness of these procedures was experimentally and analytically confirmed. (author)

  6. Collaborative Systems Thinking: A Response to the Problems Faced by Systems Engineering's 'Middle Tier'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phfarr, Barbara B.; So, Maria M.; Lamb, Caroline Twomey; Rhodes, Donna H.

    2009-01-01

    Experienced systems engineers are adept at more than implementing systems engineering processes: they utilize systems thinking to solve complex engineering problems. Within the space industry demographics and economic pressures are reducing the number of experienced systems engineers that will be available in the future. Collaborative systems thinking within systems engineering teams is proposed as a way to integrate systems engineers of various experience levels to handle complex systems engineering challenges. This paper uses the GOES-R Program Systems Engineering team to illustrate the enablers and barriers to team level systems thinking and to identify ways in which performance could be improved. Ways NASA could expand its engineering training to promote team-level systems thinking are proposed.

  7. Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) systems are novel imaging systems that have the potential to simultaneously quantify and characterize the optical and mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. This article presents the construction of bladder wall phantoms for use in ARF-OCE systems. Mechanical, acoustic, and optical properties are reported and compared to published values for the urinary bladder. The phantom consisted of 0.2000 +/- 0.0089 and 6.0000 +/- 0.2830 microm polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., Warrington, PA, Catalog Nos. 07304 and 07312), 7.5 +/- 1.5 microm copolymer microspheres composed of acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride, (Expancel, Duluth, GA, Catalog No. 461 DU 20), and bovine serum albumin within a gelatin matrix. Young's modulus was measured by successive compression of the phantom and obtaining the slope of the resulting force-displacement data. Acoustic measurements were performed using the transmission method. The phantoms were submerged in a water bath and placed between transmitting and receiving 13 mm diameter unfocused transducers operating at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. A MATLAB algorithm to extract the optical scattering coefficient from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the phantom was used. The phantoms possess a Young's modulus of 17.12 +/- 2.72 kPa, a mass density of 1.05 +/- 0.02 g/cm3, an acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 +/- 0.08 dB/cm/MHz, a speed of sound of 1591 +/- 8.76 m/s, and an optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 +/- 0.23 mm(-1). Ultrasound and OCT images of the bladder wall phantom are presented. A material that mimics the mechanical, optical, and acoustic properties of healthy bladder wall has been developed. This tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantom was developed as a control tool to investigate the feasibility of using ARF-OCE to detect the mechanical and optical changes that may be indicative of the onset or development of cancer in the urinary bladder

  8. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  9. Design of in-situ reactive wall systems - a combined hydraulical-geochemical-economical simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, G.; Tolksdorff, J.; Schad, H.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a coupled hydraulical-geochemical-economical simulation model for the design of in-situ reactive wall systems. More specific, the model is used for cost-optimization and sensitivity analysis of a funnel-and-gate system with an in-situ sorption reactor. The groundwater flow and advective transport are simulated under steady-state conditions using a finite-difference numerical model. This model is coupled to an analytical solution describing the sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds within the reactor (gate). The third part of the model system is an economical model which calculates (a) the investment costs for the funnel-and-gate construction and (b) the operation cost based on the number of reactor refills, which depends on the breakthrough time for a given contaminant and the anticipated total operation time. For practical applications a simplified approximation of the cost-function is derived and tested

  10. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid...... is described and provides information on the structural design with its advantages. Experimental and numerical investigations of the BFRP connecting systems were performed. The experimental program included testing of small scale specimens by applying shear (push-off) loading and semi-full scale specimens...... by flexural loading. Numerical investigations were based on 3-D linear elastic finite element analysis. Results from the numerical investigations were compared with experimental results of small and semi-scale specimens for the validation of the design procedure. Experimental and numerical results based...

  11. Two faces of the same coin: Raynaud phenomenon and digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluccio, Felice; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco

    2011-03-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by wide-spread fibrosis, activation of immune system with production of autoantibodies and extensive vascular damage. Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and digital ulcers (DU) represent two faces of the same coin in SSc vasculopathy. RP, the earliest manifestation of the vascular involvement, is due to an excessive vasospasm of digital arteries, precapillary arterioles and cutaneous arteriovenous shunts, usually in response to cold exposure or other stimuli. DU are a severe complication of microvessel involvement and also of the persistent vasospasm of RP. Thus, the management of RP and DU requires a multimodal approach using a combination of pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and surgical treatments. Currently, the treatment of these complications represents a great challenge for all physicians. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-intrusive gesture recognition system combining with face detection based on Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Liujing; Cao, Liqun; Han, Lei; Zhou, Biye; Li, Minggao

    2014-11-01

    A non-intrusive gesture recognition human-machine interaction system is proposed in this paper. In order to solve the hand positioning problem which is a difficulty in current algorithms, face detection is used for the pre-processing to narrow the search area and find user's hand quickly and accurately. Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is used for gesture recognition. A certain number of basic gesture units are trained as HMM models. At the same time, an improved 8-direction feature vector is proposed and used to quantify characteristics in order to improve the detection accuracy. The proposed system can be applied in interaction equipments without special training for users, such as household interactive television

  13. A Biometric Face Recognition System Using an Algorithm Based on the Principal Component Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Gîlcă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a recognition system using an algorithm based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA technique. The recognition system consists only of a PC and an integrated video camera. The algorithm is developed in MATLAB language and calculates the eigenfaces considered as features of the face. The PCA technique is based on the matching between the facial test image and the training prototype vectors. The mathcing score between the facial test image and the training prototype vectors is calculated between their coefficient vectors. If the matching is high, we have the best recognition. The results of the algorithm based on the PCA technique are very good, even if the person looks from one side at the video camera.

  14. An in-vacuum wall current monitor and low cost signal sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y.; Rawnsley, W.R.; Mackenzie, G.H.

    1993-11-01

    The beam bunches extracted from the TRIUMF cyclotron are usually about 4 ns long, contain ∼ 4 x 10 7 protons, and are spaced at 43 ns. A wall current monitor capable of giving the charge distribution within a bunch, on a bunch by bunch basis, has recently been installed together with a sampling system for routine display in the control room. The wall current monitor is enclosed in a vacuum vessel and no ceramic spacer is required. This enhances the response to high frequencies, ferrite rings extend the low frequency response. Bench measurements show a flat response between a few hundred kilohertz and 4.6 GHz. For a permanent display in the control room the oscilloscope will be replaced by a Stanford Research Systems fast sampler module, a scanner module, and an interface module made at TRIUMF. The time to acquire one 10 ns distribution encompassing the beam bunch is 30 ms with a sample width of 100 ps and an average sample spacing of 13 ps. The scan, sample, and retrace signals are buffered carried on 70 m differential lines to the control room. An analog scope in XYZ mode provides a real time display. Signal averaging can be performed by using a digital oscilloscope in YT mode. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  15. Monte Carlo calculations on the magnetization profile and domain wall structure in bulk systems and nanoconstricitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serena, P. A. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Costa-Kraemer, J. L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm suitable to study systems described by an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian is presented. This technique has been tested successfully with 3D and 2D systems, illustrating how magnetic properties depend on the dimensionality and the coordination number. We have found that magnetic properties of constrictions differ from those appearing in bulk. In particular, spin fluctuations are considerable larger than those calculated for bulk materials. In addition, domain walls are strongly modified when a constriction is present, with a decrease of the domain-wall width. This decrease is explained in terms of previous theoretical works. [Spanish] Se presenta un algoritmo de Monte Carlo para estudiar sistemas discritos por un hamiltoniano anisotropico de Heisenburg. Esta tecnica ha sido probada exitosamente con sistemas de dos y tres dimensiones, ilustrado con las propiedades magneticas dependen de la dimensionalidad y el numero de coordinacion. Hemos encontrado que las propiedades magneticas de constricciones difieren de aquellas del bulto. En particular, las fluctuaciones de espin son considerablemente mayores. Ademas, las paredes de dominio son fuertemente modificadas cuando una construccion esta presente, originando un decrecimiento del ancho de la pared de dominio. Damos cuenta de este decrecimiento en terminos de un trabajo teorico previo.

  16. Arabidopsis Regenerating Protoplast: A Powerful Model System for Combining the Proteomics of Cell Wall Proteins and the Visualization of Cell Wall Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Yokoyama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a range of sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall has identified many of the cell wall proteins. However, it remains difficult to elucidate the precise biological role of each protein and the cell wall dynamics driven by their actions. The plant protoplast provides an excellent means not only for characterizing cell wall proteins, but also for visualizing the dynamics of cell wall regeneration, during which cell wall proteins are secreted. It therefore offers a unique opportunity to investigate the de novo construction process of the cell wall. This review deals with sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall through the use of protoplasts, a methodology that will provide the basis for further exploration of cell wall proteins and cell wall dynamics.

  17. Comparisons of Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Learning Systems Based on "Equivalency of Experiences" According to Students' Academic Achievements and Satisfactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Sercin; Simsek, Nurettin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether "equivalent learning experiences" ensure equivalency, in the Internet-based and face-to-face interaction methods on learning results and student satisfaction. In the experimental process of this study, the effect of the Internet-based and face-to-face learning on the equivalency in…

  18. Reliability analysis and optimisation of subsea compression system facing operational covariate stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okaro, Ikenna Anthony; Tao, Longbin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an enhanced Weibull-Corrosion Covariate model for reliability assessment of a system facing operational stresses. The newly developed model is applied to a Subsea Gas Compression System planned for offshore West Africa to predict its reliability index. System technical failure was modelled by developing a Weibull failure model incorporating a physically tested corrosion profile as stress in order to quantify the survival rate of the system under additional operational covariates including marine pH, temperature and pressure. Using Reliability Block Diagrams and enhanced Fusell-Vesely formulations, the whole system was systematically decomposed to sub-systems to analyse the criticality of each component and optimise them. Human reliability was addressed using an enhanced barrier weighting method. A rapid degradation curve is obtained on a subsea system relative to the base case subjected to a time-dependent corrosion stress factor. It reveals that subsea system components failed faster than their Mean time to failure specifications from Offshore Reliability Database as a result of cumulative marine stresses exertion. The case study demonstrated that the reliability of a subsea system can be systematically optimised by modelling the system under higher technical and organisational stresses, prioritising the critical sub-systems and making befitting provisions for redundancy and tolerances. - Highlights: • Novel Weibull Corrosion-Covariate model for reliability analysis of subsea assets. • Predict the accelerated degradation profile of a subsea gas compression. • An enhanced optimisation method based on Fusell-Vesely decomposition process. • New optimisation approach for smoothening of over- and under-designed components. • Demonstrated a significant improvement in producing more realistic failure rate.

  19. Development of carbon steel with superior resistance to wall thinning and fracture for nuclear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju

    2010-07-01

    Carbon steel is usually used for piping for secondary coolant system in nuclear power plant because of low cost and good machinability. However, it is generally reported that carbon steel was failed catastrophically because of its low resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness. Especially, flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of main problems of the wall thinning of piping in the nuclear power plant. Therefore, in this project, fabrication technology of new advanced carbon steel materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide ceramics into the matrix is developed first in order to improve the resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness drastically compared to the conventional one. In order to get highly wettable fine TiC ceramic particles into molten metal, the micro-sized TiC particles were first mechanically milled by Fe (MMed TiC/Fe) in a high energy ball mill machine in Ar gas atmosphere, and then mixed with surfactant metal elements (Sn, Cr, Ni) to obtain better wettability, as this lowered surface tension of the carbon steel melt. According to microscopic images revealed that an addition of MMed TiC/Fe-surfactant mixed powders favorably disperses the fine TiC particles in the carbon steel matrix. It was also found that the grain size refinement of the cast matrix is achieved remarkably when fine TiC particles were added due to the fact that they act as nucleation sites during the solidification process. As a results, a cast carbon steel dispersed with fine TiC particles shows improved mechanical properties such as hardness, tensile strength and cavitation resistance compared to that of without particles. However, the slight decrease of toughness was found

  20. Biomechanical study of posterior wall acetabular fracture fixation using acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-wei, Liu; Shuo-gui, Xu; Chun-cai, Zhang; Qing-ge, Fu; Pan-feng, Wang

    2010-05-01

    We developed the acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS), which is made of NiTi shape memory alloy, according to the specific mechanical properties of biological memory material, nitinol alloy and measured distribution of contact area and pressure between the acetabulum and the femoral head of cadaveric pelvis. Six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvis were used for this investigation. Pressure-sensitive film was used to measure contact area and pressure within the anterior, superior, and posterior regions of the acetabulum. The pelvis were loaded under the following four conditions: (1) intact; (2) following a creation posterior wall fracture defect; (3) following reduction and standard internal fixation with reconstruction plate; (4) following reduction and internal fixation with a new shape memory alloy device named ATMFS. A posterior wall fracture was created along an arc of 40-90 degrees about the acetabular rim. Creation of a posterior wall defect resulted in increased load in the superior acetabulum (1422N) as compared to the intact condition (762N, P=0.007). Following reduction and internal fixation, the load distributed to the superior acetabulum (1486N) was not statistically different from the defect condition. Following the fixation with ATMFS, the load seen at the superior region of the actabulum (936N) was less than fixation with reconstruction plate and was not different from intact state (P=0.4). These data indicate that the use of ATMFS as a fracture internal fixation device resulted a partial restoration of joint loading parameters toward the intact state. ATMFS fixation may result in a clinical benefit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Face Perception System becomes Species-Specific at 3 Months: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Meary, David; Pascalis, Olivier; Simion, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating own- vs. other-species preferences in 3-month-old infants. The infants' eye movements were recorded during a visual preference paradigm to assess whether they show a preference for own-species faces when contrasted with other-species faces. Human and monkey faces, equated for all low-level perceptual…

  2. J-shape ventilation system for controlling high gas emission at fully mechanized sub-level caving face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.; Yu, Q.; Miao, X. (and others) [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). School of Mineral and Safety Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Considering the practical condition of No. 5201 fully mechanized sub-level caving face in Wangzhuang Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, and based on the successfully retaining of small section entry along gob side, a method of J-shape ventilation system and its regulating technology were put forward for controlling high gas emission at fully mechanized sub-level caving face. Essentially, the J-shape ventilation system has one intake and two returns for controlling high gas emission according to different gas sources using ventilation measure. Through practical application it is proved that local gas accumulation at coal face and its upper corner can be eliminated by adopting J-shape ventilation system, thus high-production and high-efficiency of fully mechanized sub-level caving face can be also realized. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. System for temperature and power flux measurements on the RFX first wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, R.; Pugno, R.; Sonato, P.; Valisa, M.; Zaccaria, P.

    1999-01-01

    A thermal imaging system has been installed on the RFX at Consorzio RFX to investigate the phenomenology of the plasma wall interactions. The infrared camera, model Amber AE4128, is based on a 128×128 InSb focal plane array detector and operates in the range of 4.5-5 μm with an acquisition rate of 217 Hz and 12 bit of dynamic range. The system, absolutely calibrated, is sensitive from room temperature up to 3000 °C, with different setups. The experimental data are compared with the numerical results obtained by means of transient thermal analyses carried out on analytical and finite element models of a graphite tile.

  4. Dynamics of Peregrine combs and Peregrine walls in an inhomogeneous Hirota and Maxwell-Bloch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Zi-Qi; Sun, Wen-Rong; Shi, Yu-Ying; Li, Min; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    Under investigation in this paper is an inhomogeneous Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch (IHMB) system which can describe the propagation of optical solitons in an erbium-doped optical fiber. The breather multiple births (BMBs) are derived with periodically varying group velocity dispersion (GVD) coefficients. Under large periodic modulations in the GVD coefficient of IHMB system, the Peregrine comb (PC) solution is produced, which can be viewed as the limiting case of the BMBs. When the amplitude of the modulation satisfies a special condition, the Peregrine wall (PW) that can be regarded as an intermediate state between rogue wave and PC is obtained. The effects of the third-order dispersion on the spatiotemporal characteristics of PCs and PWs are studied. Our results may be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in inhomogeneous erbium-doped optical fiber.

  5. Evaluation of the Lateral Performance of Roof Truss-to-Wall Connections in Light-Frame Wood Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew DeRenzis; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2012-01-01

    This testing program was designed to benchmark the performance of traditional roof systems and incrementally improved roof-to-wall systems with the goal of developing connection solutions that are optimized for performance and constructability. Nine full-size roof systems were constructed and tested with various levels and types of heel detailing to measure the lateral...

  6. Evaluation of a microfocused ultrasound system for improving skin laxity and tightening in the lower face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Georgette; Hoxworth, Ron; Teotia, Sumeet; Brown, Spencer; Kenkel, Jeffrey M

    2014-09-01

    The Ulthera System (Ulthera, Inc, Mesa, Arizona) employs microfocused ultrasound to cause discrete focal heating of the dermis and stimulate neocollagenesis and elastin remodeling. The authors investigated tightening and lifting of cheek tissue, improvement in jawline definition, and reduction in submental skin laxity in patients treated with the Ulthera System. A total of 103 adults were enrolled in this prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. Three-dimensional photographs obtained at baseline and 3 months posttreatment were assessed qualitatively by 3 blinded reviewers and quantitatively with AutoCAD software (Informer Technologies, Redwood City, California). The relationship between outcomes and body mass index (BMI) was examined as well. Patients rated pain during the procedure and provided subjective assessment of their outcome at 90 days. Adverse events were documented. Ninety-three patients were evaluated. Blinded reviewers observed improvement in skin laxity in 58.1% of patients. During quantitative assessments, overall improvement in skin laxity was noted in 63.6% of evaluated patients. No change was detected in 54.5% of patients whose BMI exceeded 30 kg/m2 or in 12.2% of patients whose BMI was ≤30 kg/m2. At day 90, 65.6% of patients perceived improvement in the skin laxity of the lower half of their face/neck. The average procedural pain scores for the cheek, submental, and submandibular regions were 5.68, 6.09, and 6.53, respectively. Wheals, which resolved without intervention or long-term sequelae, were reported for 3 patients. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest clinical study of the effectiveness of the Ulthera System for rejuvenation of the lower face. At day 90, improvements were reported by two-thirds of patients and by nearly 60% of blinded reviewers. Outcomes were better in patients with BMI≤30 kg/m2. 2. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  7. Chapter 3.03 - Multifunctional Enzyme Systems for Plant Cell Wall Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qi; Luo, Yonghua; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E.; Bu, Lintao; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A.

    2011-10-14

    Multifunctional enzymes refer to proteins that consist of two or more catalytic modules. Many microorganisms use multifunctional enzymes to efficiently break down the recalcitrant polymeric networks that constitute plant cell walls. Future applications of multifunctional enzymes may represent a potential solution to the problem of high enzyme cost for processing lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Currently, commercial enzyme mixtures used in simultaneous saccharification fermentation process for biofuel production are derived primarily from free enzyme systems produced by fungi. In this context, we have analyzed the modular structures of 16 937 genes corresponding to 34 glycoside hydrolase families putatively related to the degradation of lignocellulose in the Carbohydrate Active enZyme (CAZy) database. Among these genes, 64 gene sequences have been identified to putatively encode multifunctional enzymes, and up to five catalytic modules have been found in a single polypeptide. Based on their deduced polypeptide sequences, they can be classified into four types, that is, cellulase-cellulase, cellulase-hemicellulase, hemicellulase-hemicellulase, and hemicellulase-carbohydrate esterase. The compositional modules and architectural structures of these enzymes are analyzed here, and their putative activities on breaking down cell walls are discussed. We further discuss the predicted intramolecular synergistic mechanisms between the catalytic modules, including substrate channeling, which is a mechanism often proposed for carbohydrate-binding modules residing in multifunctional enzymes. Furthermore, the potential applications of native and engineered multifunctional enzymes for biomass conversion technology are also reviewed.

  8. Liquid Metals as Plasma-facing Materials for Fusion Energy Systems: From Atoms to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Koel, Bruce E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bernasek, Steven L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Carter, Emily A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The objective of our studies was to advance our fundamental understanding of liquid metals as plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems, with a broad scope: from atoms to tokamaks. The flow of liquid metals offers solutions to significant problems of the plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems. Candidate metals include lithium, tin, gallium, and their eutectic combinations. However, such liquid metal solutions can only be designed efficiently if a range of scientific and engineering issues are resolved that require advances in fundamental fluid dynamics, materials science and surface science. In our research we investigated a range of significant and timely problems relevant to current and proposed engineering designs for fusion reactors, including high-heat flux configurations that are being considered by leading fusion energy groups world-wide. Using experimental and theoretical tools spanning atomistic to continuum descriptions of liquid metals, and bridging surface chemistry, wetting/dewetting and flow, our research has advanced the science and engineering of fusion energy materials and systems. Specifically, we developed a combined experimental and theoretical program to investigate flows of liquid metals in fusion-relevant geometries, including equilibrium and stability of thin-film flows, e.g. wetting and dewetting, effects of electromagnetic and thermocapillary fields on liquid metal thin-film flows, and how chemical interactions and the properties of the surface are influenced by impurities and in turn affect the surface wetting characteristics, the surface tension, and its gradients. Because high-heat flux configurations produce evaporation and sputtering, which forces rearrangement of the liquid, and any dewetting exposes the substrate to damage from the plasma, our studies addressed such evaporatively driven liquid flows and measured and simulated properties of the different bulk phases and material interfaces. The range of our studies

  9. A study of fuzzy logic ensemble system performance on face recognition problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, A.; Lipinskiy, L.

    2017-02-01

    Some problems are difficult to solve by using a single intelligent information technology (IIT). The ensemble of the various data mining (DM) techniques is a set of models which are able to solve the problem by itself, but the combination of which allows increasing the efficiency of the system as a whole. Using the IIT ensembles can improve the reliability and efficiency of the final decision, since it emphasizes on the diversity of its components. The new method of the intellectual informational technology ensemble design is considered in this paper. It is based on the fuzzy logic and is designed to solve the classification and regression problems. The ensemble consists of several data mining algorithms: artificial neural network, support vector machine and decision trees. These algorithms and their ensemble have been tested by solving the face recognition problems. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection.

  10. An orthognathic simulation system integrating teeth, jaw and face data using 3D cephalometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, N; Tsuji, M; Shigematsu, M; Goto, M

    2007-07-01

    A method for simulating the movement of teeth, jaw and face caused by orthognathic surgery is proposed, characterized by the use of 3D cephalometric data for 3D simulation. Computed tomography data are not required. The teeth and facial data are obtained by a laser scanner and the data for the patient's mandible are reconstructed and integrated according to 3D cephalometry using a projection-matching technique. The mandibular form is simulated by transforming a generic model to match the patient's cephalometric data. This system permits analysis of bone movement at each individual part, while also helping in the choice of optimal osteotomy design considering the influences on facial soft-tissue form.

  11. A suitable system of reconstruction with titanium rib prosthesis after chest wall resection for Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billè, Andrea; Gisabella, Mara; Errico, Luca; Borasio, Piero

    2011-02-01

    The recent improvements in chemotherapy and surgical resection in Ewing sarcoma (ES) increased the overall survival as well as the importance of chest wall reconstruction. These improvements are in order to avoid asymmetrical growth, functional and cosmetic compromise after surgery. Chest wall reconstruction still remains a big issue in young patients with ES. We present a case of ES of the left chest wall, arising from a rib, in a 14-year-old patient. He was admitted after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient underwent a chest wall resection of three ribs and a wedge lung resection of the upper lobe followed by chest wall reconstruction with Stratos™ rib titanium prostheses. This new device is suitable for reconstruction after major chest wall resection with good cosmetic and functional results. During the follow-up, there was no evidence of local and distant recurrence, the pain was under control and there were no functional alterations in the chest wall.

  12. An overview of the challenges facing death investigation systems in certain resource limited countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenson, Ken; Enow Orock, George

    2017-08-01

    A properly operated death investigation system (DIS) serves multiple stakeholders. Law enforcement, public health departments and members of the public, benefit in various ways from the information that it provides. This information must be collected systematically and efficiently. The system must also be flexible enough to respond to pressures on its resources such as occurs during mass disasters. These obligations on a DIS require an investment of public money. However even in affluent Western countries the recent world economic crisis has led to a cut in spending on public services that affect both the healthcare system and services associated with death investigation. Although pathologists and other stake holders (judiciary, police, families) would like to see death investigations conducted to international standards, the fact is that policy makers in resource limited countries face additional population health and sociopolitical pressures which generally result in very little funding for the service. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the challenges that impede the proper functioning of a death investigation system in resource limited countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Possible solutions are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  14. A Comparison of the Decision Quality of Group Decisions Made in a Face-to-Face Environment with Decisions Made Using a Distributed Group Decision Support System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cullen, Hope

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force is increasingly turning to a team approach for decision making. When team members are geographically separated it can be expensive for them to meet in a traditional face to face setting...

  15. Systems Level Engineering of Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis to Improve Biofuel Feedstock Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Samuel

    2013-09-27

    Our new regulatory model of cell wall biosynthesis proposes original network architecture with several newly incorporated components. The mapped set of protein-DNA interactions will serve as a foundation for 1) understanding the regulation of a complex and integral plant component and 2) the manipulation of crop species for biofuel and biotechnology purposes. This study revealed interesting and novel aspects of grass growth and development and further enforce the importance of a grass model system. By functionally characterizing a suite of genes, we have begun to improve the sparse model for transcription regulation of biomass accumulation in grasses. In the process, we have advanced methodology and brachy molecular genetic tools that will serve as valuable community resource.

  16. Single walled carbon nanotubes: a model system for excitons in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, J.; Finnie, P.

    2011-03-01

    The semiconducting single walled carbon nanotube (s-SWNTs) with its direct bandgap and its strong 1D character absorbs and emits light efficiently. In contrast with other nanomaterials, the structure of an SWNT is uniquely defined and is set by a discrete number of carbon rings along its tubular section. Experimentally, optical spectroscopy has recently revealed this remarkable quantization. In our group, we focus primarily on the luminescence properties of individual s-SWNTs. Using imaging techniques, we reveal unambiguously that each s-SWNT with its quantized structure is characterized by a specific manifold of excitonic states. With the large diameter tunability achieved in SWNTs, we show that the material represents a model system for 1D photophysics. This proceeding is meant to be a review of past work and includes complementary data that have been presented at conferences but otherwise have never been published. Some emphasis is given on experimental details for luminescence imaging and spectroscopy.

  17. Benchmarking LES with wall-functions and RANS for fatigue problems in thermal–hydraulics systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunstall, R., E-mail: ryan.tunstall@manchester.ac.uk [School of MACE, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Laurence, D.; Prosser, R. [School of MACE, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Skillen, A. [Scientific Computing Department, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We benchmark LES with blended wall-functions and low-Re RANS for a pipe bend and T-Junction. • Blended wall-laws allow the first cell from the wall to be placed anywhere in the boundary layer. • In both cases LES predictions improve as the first cell wall spacing is reduced. • Near-wall temperature fluctuations in the T-Junction are overpredicted by wall-modelled LES. • The EBRSM outperforms other RANS models for the pipe bend. - Abstract: In assessing whether nuclear plant components such as T-Junctions are likely to suffer thermal fatigue problems in service, CFD techniques need to provide accurate predictions for wall temperature fluctuations. Though it has been established that this is within the capabilities of wall-resolved LES, its high computational cost has prevented widespread usage in industry. In the present paper the suitability of LES with blended wall-functions, that allow the first cell to be placed in any part of the boundary layer, is assessed. Numerical results for the flows through a 90° pipe bend and a T-Junction are compared against experimental data. Both test cases contain areas where equilibrium laws are violated in practice. It is shown that reducing the first cell wall spacing improves agreement with experimental data by limiting the extent from the wall in which the solution is constrained to an equilibrium law. The LES with wall-function approach consistently overpredicts the near-wall temperature fluctuations in the T-Junction, suggesting that it can be considered as a conservative approach. We also benchmark a range of low-Re RANS models. EBRSM predictions for the 90° pipe bend are in significantly better agreement with experimental data than those from the other models. There are discrepancies from all RANS models in the case of the T-Junction.

  18. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.J.; Blowes, D.W.; Placek, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO 4 -P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified

  19. Reply to "Domain-growth kinetics of systems with soft walls''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Præstgaard, Eigil

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of computer-simulation results for three different models with soft domain walls it is argued that the zero-temperature domain-growth kinetics falls in a separate universality class characterized by a kinetic growth exponent n≃0.25. However, for finite temperatures there is a distinct...... crossover to Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn kinetics n=0.50, thus suggesting that the soft-wall and hard-wall universality classes become identical at finite temperatures....

  20. Analysis of three loss-of-flow accidents in the first wall cooling system of NET/ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the thermal-hydraulic analysis of three Loss-of-Flow Accidents (LOFAs) in the first wall cooling system of the Next European Torus (NET) design or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design. The LOFAs considered result from a loss of the forced coolant flow caused by a loss of electrical power for the recirculation pump in the primary circuit. The analyses have been performed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3. In the analyses, special attention has been paid to the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system and the temperature development in the first wall. In the LOFA case without plasma shutdown, melting starts in the first wall about 150 s after accident initiation. In the LOFA case with delayed plasma shutdown, melting starts in the first wall when the plasma shutdown is initiated later than about 110 s after accident initiation. Melting does not occur in the first wall during a LOFA with prompt plasma scram. (orig.)

  1. Loss-of-Coolant and Loss-of-Flow Accidents in the SEAFP first wall/blanket cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic analysis of three Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) and three Loss-of-Flow Accidents (LOFAs) in the first wall/blanket cooling system of the SEAFP reactor design. The analyses deal with the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour inside the cooling systems and the temperature development inside the nuclear components. As it appears, the temperature increase in the first wall Be-coating is limited to 30 K when an emergency plasma shutdown is initiated within 10 s following pump trip. (orig.)

  2. A predictive model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Trachtenberg, I.; Edgar, T.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon from thermally activated silane in a cold wall, single-wafer rapid thermal system was studied by experimentation at a variety of low pressure conditions, including very high temperatures. The effect of diluent gas on polysilicon deposition rates was examined using hydrogen, helium, and krypton. A mass-transfer model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system was developed. This model was used to produce an empirical rate expression for silicon deposition from silane by regressing kinetic parameters to fit experimental data. The resulting model provided accurate predictions over widely varying conditions in the experimental data.

  3. Effects of torus wall flexibility on forces in the Mark I Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Suppression System. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-09-01

    The authors investigated the effects of torus wall flexibility in the pressure suppression system of a Mark I boiling water reactor (BWR) when the torus wall is subjected to hydrodynamic loadings. Using hypothetical models, they examined these flexibility effects under two hydrodynamic loading conditions: (1) a steam relief valve (SRV) discharge pulse, and (2) a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) chugging pulse. In the analyses of these events they used a recently developed two-dimensional finite element computer code. Taking the basic geometry and dimensions of the Monticello Mark I BWR nuclear power plant (in Monticello, Minnesota, U.S.A.), they assessed the effects of flexibility in the torus wall by changing values of the inside-diameter-to-wall-thickness ratio. Varying the torus wall thickness (t) with respect to the inside diameter (D) of the torus, they assigned values to the ratio D/t ranging from 0 (infinitely rigid) to 600 (highly flexible). In the case of a modeled steam relief valve (SRV) discharge pulse, they found the peak vertical reaction force on the torus was reduced from that of a rigid wall response by a factor of 3 for the most highly flexible, plant-simulated wall (D/t = 600). The reduction factor for a modeled loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) chugging pulse was shown to be 1.5. The two-dimensional analyses employed overestimate these reduction factors but have provided, as intended, definition of the effect of torus boundary stiffness. In the work planned for FY79, improved modeling of the structure and of the source is expected to result in factors more directly applicable to actual pressure suppression systems

  4. The role of the hemicelluloses in the nanobiology of wood cell walls : a systems theoretic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    The hemicelluloses have not received adequate attention in studies of wood cell walls because the complexity of their structures does not admit easy interpretation within the paradigms of polymer science. Two-phase composite models of the cell wall have led many to view their primary function as one of coupling cellulose and lignin to enhance the mechanical properties...

  5. Resistance of Concrete Masonry Walls With Membrane Catcher Systems Subjected to Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    is the lateral displacement at the height-wise center of the wall, y is the crack depth through the thickness, and α is the degree of fixity at the...unreinforced masonry wall are assumed to be fully fixed. Eq. (4) accounts for partial end fixities ( ) of the top and bottom interfaces of the

  6. Gypsum plasterboard walls: inspection, pathological characterization and statistical survey using an expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaião, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert system to support the inspection and diagnosis of partition walls or wall coverings mounted using the Drywall (DW construction method. This system includes a classification of anomalies in DW and their probable causes. This inspection system was used in a field work that included the observation of 121 DWs. This paper includes a statistical analysis of the anomalies observed during these inspections and their probable causes. The correlation between anomalies and causes in the sample is also thoroughly analyzed. Anomalies are also evaluated for area affected, size, repair urgency and aesthetic value of the affected area. The conclusions of the statistical analysis allowed the creation of an inventory of preventive measures to be implemented in the design, execution and use phases in order to lessen the magnitude or eradicate the occurrence of anomalies in DW. These measures could directly help improve the quality of construction.

    Este trabajo presenta un sistema experto de apoyo a la inspección y diagnóstico de tabiques o revestimientos de yeso laminado. Dicho sistema, que permite la clasificación de las anomalías del yeso laminado y sus causas probables, se empleó en un trabajo de campo en el que se estudiaron 121 elementos construidos con este material. El trabajo incluye el análisis estadístico de las anomalías detectadas durante las inspecciones y sus motivos probables. También se analizó en detalle la correlación entre las anomalías y sus causas, evaluándose aquellas en función de la superficie afectada, la urgencia de las reparaciones y el valor estético de la zona implicada. Las conclusiones del análisis estadístico permitieron la elaboración de un inventario de medidas preventivas que deberían implantarse en las fases de proyecto, ejecución y utilización de estos elementos a fin de erradicar la aparición de anomalías en el yeso laminado o reducir su frecuencia. Dichas

  7. The development of a under-water robot system for inspection of the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Byung Man; Cho, Hyung Suk; Park, Ki Yong; Park, Young Soo; Yoon, Ji Sup; Lee, Byung Jik

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, an under-water robot system is developed in order to inspect the radiation level and decontaminate the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor, TRIGA MARK III. This system is composed of the mobile robot which navigates autonomously under the water and the ground control unit which monitors and commands the motion of mobile robot. The mobile robot can move on the wall surface with five thruster systems and is composed of three parts, i.e., mechanical, control, and sensory parts. The five thruster system is configured such as one main thruster, two wall adhesion thruster, and two turning/buoyancy compensation thruster. The control part has 4 CPU boards and each board is configured such that one is in charge of supervisory control mode which controls the position of mobile robot and communicates with the ground control unit and the other board is designed to have motor control mode which drives two motors simultaneously. In secondary part, the laser scanner and fluorescent reflectors and the incilinometer are designed. The laser scanner with fluorescent reflectors provides the current position of the mobile robot on the wall surface and by incilinometer, the moving direction can be obtained. This paper describes the design and configuration procedures of under-water robot in detail and presents the experimental results for characteristic test of the thruster system. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Different Approaches for Face Authentication as Part of a Multimodal Biometrics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Tovarek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes different approaches for the face authentication from the features and classification abilities point of view. Authors compare two types of features - Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG and Local Binary Patterns (LBP including their combination. These parameters are classified using Multilayer Neural Network (MLNN and Support Vector Machines (SVM. Face authentication consists of several steps. The first step contains Viola-Jones algorithm for face detection. Authors resize the detected face for a fixed vector and afterwards, it is converted into grayscale. Next, feature extraction with a simple Min-Max normalization is applied. Obtained parameters are evaluated by classifiers and for each detected face, authors get posterior probability as the output of the classifier. Different approaches for face authentication are compared with each other using False Acceptance Rate (FAR, False Rejection Rate (FRR, Equal Error Rate (EER, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC and Detection Error Tradeoff (DET curves. The results are verified with AR Face Database and elaborated in a feature extraction and classifier design point of view. Best results were achieved by HOG feature for SVM classifier. Detailed results are listed in the text below.

  9. Design of the PDX Tokamak wall armor and inner limiter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Ulrickson, M.

    1981-08-01

    The inner wall protective plates for the PDX Tokamak are designed to absorb 8 MW of neutral deuterium beam power at maximum power densities of 3 kW/cm 2 for pulse lengths of 0.5 sec. Preliminary studies indicate that the design could survive several pulses of 1 sec duration. The design consists of a tile and mounting plate structure. The mounting plates are water cooled to allow short duty cycles and beam calorimetry. The temperature and flow of the coolant is measured to obtain the injected power. A thermocouple array on the tiles provides beam position and power density profiles. Several material combinations for the tiles were subjected to thermal tests using both electron and neutral beams, and titanium carbide coated graphite was selected as the tile material. The heat transfer coefficient of the tile backing plate structure was measured to determine the maximum pulse rate allowable. The design of the armor system allows the structure to be used as a neutral beam power diagnostic and as an inner plasma limiter. The electrical and cooling systems external to the vacuum vessel are discussed

  10. Abdominal wall injuries occurring after blunt trauma: incidence and grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ryan W; Marshall, Andre; Deshmukh, Harshal; Bender, Jeffrey S; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Lees, Jason S; Albrecht, Roxie M

    2009-03-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall injuries (AWIs) are being increasingly recognized after blunt force injury. All available abdominal/pelvic computed axial tomography (CAT) scans of blunt trauma patients evaluated at our level I trauma center from January 2005 to August 2006 were reviewed for the presence of AWI. AWI was graded using a severity-based numeric system. AWI grade was then compared with variables from a prospectively maintained trauma registry. Of 1,549 reviewed CAT scans, 9% showed AWI (grade I = 53%, grade II = 28%, grade III = 9%, grade IV = 8%, and grade V = 2%). There was no association between AWI and seatbelt use, Injury Severity Score, weight, or need for abdominal surgery. AWI occurs in 9% of blunt trauma patients undergoing abdominal/pelvic CAT scans. The incidence of herniation on CAT at presentation after blunt trauma is .2%, and the incidence of patients at risk of future hernia formation is 1.5%. AWI can be effectively cataloged using a straightforward numeric grading system.

  11. The Functional Architecture for Face-processing Expertise: FMRI Evidence of the Developmental Trajectory of the Core and the Extended Face Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Haist, Frank; Adamo, Maha; Han, Jarnet; Lee, Kang; Stiles, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Expertise in processing faces is a cornerstone of human social interaction. However, the developmental course of many key brain regions supporting face preferential processing in the human brain remains undefined. Here, we present findings from an FMRI study using a simple viewing paradigm of faces and objects in a continuous age sample covering the age range from 6 years through adulthood. These findings are the first to use such a sample paired with whole-brain FMRI analyses to investigate ...

  12. Bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along pipe wall in chlorinated drinking water distribution system of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Ren, Hongxing; Ye, Xianbei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lou, Liping; Cheng, Dongqing; He, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Shangde; Fu, Liusong; Hu, Baolan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms in the pipe wall may lead to water quality deterioration and biological instability in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In this study, bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along the pipe wall in a chlorinated DWDS of East China was investigated. Three pipes of large diameter (300, 600, and 600 mm) were sampled in this DWDS, including a ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP) with pipe age of 11 years and two gray cast iron pipes (GCIP) with pipe ages of 17 and 19 years, and biofilms in the upper, middle, and lower parts of each pipe wall were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture-based method were used to quantify bacteria. 454 pyrosequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that the biofilm density and total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) contents increased gradually from the top to the bottom along the pipe wall. Microorganisms were concentrated in the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, together accounting for more than 80 % of the total biomass in the biofilms. The bacterial communities in biofilms were significantly different in different areas of the pipe wall and had no strong interaction. Compared with the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, the bacterial community in the middle of the pipe wall was distributed evenly and had the highest diversity. The 16S rRNA genes of various possible pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica, were detected in the biofilms, and the abundances of these possible pathogens were highest in the middle of the pipe wall among three areas. The detachment of the biofilms is the main reason for the deterioration of the water quality in DWDSs. The results of this study suggest that the biofilms in the middle of the pipe wall have highly potential risk for drinking water safety, which provides new ideas for the study of the microbial ecology in

  13. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Analyses of a Robotic System for Automated Exterior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 6,677,000 apartment housing units in South Korea. Exterior wall painting for such multi-dwelling apartment housings in South Korea represents a typical area to which construction automation technology can be applied for improvement in safety, productivity, quality, and cost over the conventional method. The conventional exterior wall painting is costly and labor-intensive, and it especially exposes workers to significant health and safety risks. The primary objective of this study is to design a conceptual model of an exterior wall painting robot which is applicable to apartment housing construction and maintenance, and to conduct its technical?economical feasibility analyses. In this study, a design concept using a high ladder truck is proposed as the best alternative for automation of the exterior wall painting. Conclusions made in this study show that the proposed exterior wall painting robot is technically and economically feasible, and can greatly enhance safety, productivity, and quality compared to the conventional method. Finally, it is expected that the conceptual model of the exterior wall painting robot would be efficiently used in various applications in exterior wall finishing and maintenance of other architectural and civil structures such as commercial buildings, towers, and high-rise storage tanks.

  14. Development of serial measurement system for three-dimensional stress determination by over-coring the strains on borehole wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itamoto, Masaharu; Kuwabara, Kazumichi; Tanno, Takeo; Nakayama, Yoshiki; Mizuta, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine the three-dimensional stress state in serial order, the authors developed the serial measurement system for three-dimensional stress determination by over-coring the strains on the borehole wall. The serial stress measurements give the value of the stresses with high accuracy and bring the regional stress variations. In this paper, the authors describe the studies through FEM analysis on the effect of over-coring diameter, the influence of strain gauge length and the behavior of strain on the borehole wall, induced by biaxial external loading. We developed the multi-strain gauge mounted packer and examined it by measuring the strains on the borehole wall through biaxial loading test. The Laboratory tests showed its applicability to practical use. (author)

  15. Intensive care unit without walls: seeking patient safety by improving the efficiency of the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, F; Abella, A

    2014-10-01

    The term "ICU without walls" refers to innovative management in Intensive Care, based on two key elements: (1) collaboration of all medical and nursing staff involved in patient care during hospitalization and (2) technological support for severity early detection protocols by identifying patients at risk of deterioration throughout the hospital, based on the assessment of vital signs and/or laboratory test values, with the clear aim of improving critical patient safety in the hospitalization process. At present, it can be affirmed that there is important work to be done in the detection of severity and early intervention in patients at risk of organ dysfunction. Such work must be adapted to the circumstances of each center and should include training in the detection of severity, multidisciplinary work in the complete patient clinical process, and the use of technological systems allowing intervention on the basis of monitored laboratory and physiological parameters, with effective and efficient use of the information generated. Not only must information be generated, but also efficient management of such information must also be achieved. It is necessary to improve our activity through innovation in management procedures that facilitate the work of the intensivist, in collaboration with other specialists, throughout the hospital environment. Innovation is furthermore required in the efficient management of the information generated in hospitals, through intelligent and directed usage of the new available technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Concrete Open-Wall Systems Wrapped with FRP under Torsional Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino P. Berardi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The static behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams plated with layers of fiber-reinforced composite material (FRP is widely investigated in current literature, which deals with both its numerical modeling as well as experiments. Scientific interest in this topic is explained by the increasing widespread use of composite materials in retrofitting techniques, as well as the consolidation and upgrading of existing reinforced concrete elements to new service conditions. The effectiveness of these techniques is typically influenced by the debonding of the FRP at the interface with concrete, where the transfer of stresses occurs from one element (RC member to the other (FRP strengthening. In fact, the activation of the well-known premature failure modes can be regarded as a consequence of high peak values of the interfacial interactions. Until now, typical applications of FRP structural plating have included cases of flexural or shear-flexural strengthening. Within this context, the present study aims at extending the investigation to the case of wall-systems with open cross-section under torsional loads. It includes the results of some numerical analyses carried out by means of a finite element approximation.

  17. Initial test results of the Omron face cue entry system at the University of Missouri-Rolla Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, Akira T.; Vaughn, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla Reactor facility is testing, in collaboration with Omron Transaction Systems, Inc., the Omron Face Cue facial recognition system for access control to its restricted area. The installation of this system is the first of its kind at a security-relevant facility in the U.S. and within the research reactor community. The Face Cue is an on-demand device based on facial recognition and storage technology. The image processing methodology is as follows: (1) facial position detection, (2) background elimination, (3) facial features discrimination via application of a wavelet transform. The extracted facial feature values are compared to the data archived in its database and access is provided upon meeting the authorization criteria. The current test phase consisted of assessing the functionality of the Face Cue during daily use and in terms of its robustness (flexibility) as a function of the following physical parameters: (1) subject's distance away from the Face Cue, (2) ambient lighting conditions, (3) subject's facial orientation, (4) subject's facial expression and (5) peripheral facial features/modifications. The system has operated at nearly 100% reliability during several test intervals with approximately 7,000 entry attempts to date. (author)

  18. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food......Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  19. Concrete Masonry Unit Walls Retrofitted with Elastomeric Systems for Blast Loads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, C. F; Slawson, T. R; Cummins, T. K; Davis, J. L

    2004-01-01

    Concrete masonry units (CMU), commonly referred to as concrete blocks, are the most common construction material utilized throughout the United States and the world for exterior walls of conventional structures...

  20. Combining Deep and Handcrafted Image Features for Presentation Attack Detection in Face Recognition Systems Using Visible-Light Camera Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although face recognition systems have wide application, they are vulnerable to presentation attack samples (fake samples. Therefore, a presentation attack detection (PAD method is required to enhance the security level of face recognition systems. Most of the previously proposed PAD methods for face recognition systems have focused on using handcrafted image features, which are designed by expert knowledge of designers, such as Gabor filter, local binary pattern (LBP, local ternary pattern (LTP, and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG. As a result, the extracted features reflect limited aspects of the problem, yielding a detection accuracy that is low and varies with the characteristics of presentation attack face images. The deep learning method has been developed in the computer vision research community, which is proven to be suitable for automatically training a feature extractor that can be used to enhance the ability of handcrafted features. To overcome the limitations of previously proposed PAD methods, we propose a new PAD method that uses a combination of deep and handcrafted features extracted from the images by visible-light camera sensor. Our proposed method uses the convolutional neural network (CNN method to extract deep image features and the multi-level local binary pattern (MLBP method to extract skin detail features from face images to discriminate the real and presentation attack face images. By combining the two types of image features, we form a new type of image features, called hybrid features, which has stronger discrimination ability than single image features. Finally, we use the support vector machine (SVM method to classify the image features into real or presentation attack class. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed method outperforms previous PAD methods by yielding the smallest error rates on the same image databases.

  1. Combining Deep and Handcrafted Image Features for Presentation Attack Detection in Face Recognition Systems Using Visible-Light Camera Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Baek, Na Rae; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-01-01

    Although face recognition systems have wide application, they are vulnerable to presentation attack samples (fake samples). Therefore, a presentation attack detection (PAD) method is required to enhance the security level of face recognition systems. Most of the previously proposed PAD methods for face recognition systems have focused on using handcrafted image features, which are designed by expert knowledge of designers, such as Gabor filter, local binary pattern (LBP), local ternary pattern (LTP), and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). As a result, the extracted features reflect limited aspects of the problem, yielding a detection accuracy that is low and varies with the characteristics of presentation attack face images. The deep learning method has been developed in the computer vision research community, which is proven to be suitable for automatically training a feature extractor that can be used to enhance the ability of handcrafted features. To overcome the limitations of previously proposed PAD methods, we propose a new PAD method that uses a combination of deep and handcrafted features extracted from the images by visible-light camera sensor. Our proposed method uses the convolutional neural network (CNN) method to extract deep image features and the multi-level local binary pattern (MLBP) method to extract skin detail features from face images to discriminate the real and presentation attack face images. By combining the two types of image features, we form a new type of image features, called hybrid features, which has stronger discrimination ability than single image features. Finally, we use the support vector machine (SVM) method to classify the image features into real or presentation attack class. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed method outperforms previous PAD methods by yielding the smallest error rates on the same image databases. PMID:29495417

  2. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on various substrates using facing target sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shon, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated on various substrates, such as glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), at room temperature using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system with hetero ZnO and Al2O3 targets, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The AZO film on glass exhibited compressive stress while the films on the plastic substrates showed tensile stress. These stresses negatively affected the crystalline quality of the AZO films, and it is suggested that the poor crystalline quality of the films may be related to the neutral Al-based defect complexes formed in the films; these complexes act as neutral impurity scattering centers. AZO films with good optoelectronic properties could be formed on the glass and plastic substrates by the FTS technique using the hetero targets. The AZO films deposited on the glass, PEN, and PET substrates showed very low resistivities, of 5.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively. Further, the figure merit of the AZO film formed on the PEN substrate in the visible range (400-700 nm) was significantly higher than that of the AZO film on PET and similar to that of the AZO film on glass. Finally, the average transmittances of the films in the visible range (400-700 nm) were 83.16% (on glass), 76.3% (on PEN), and 78.16% (on PET).

  3. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Mixed Element Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RSW Fine Mixed Element Grid with viscous root wind tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 38016 Tria Surface Faces=...

  4. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Tet Only Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW Coarse Tet Only grid with the root viscous tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 0 Tria Surface Faces=...

  5. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  6. Cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differentially modulated innate immunity and glucose metabolism during late systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushansingh Baurhoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella causes acute systemic inflammation by using its virulence factors to invade the intestinal epithelium. But, prolonged inflammation may provoke severe body catabolism and immunological diseases. Salmonella has become more life-threatening due to emergence of multiple-antibiotic resistant strains. Mannose-rich oligosaccharides (MOS from cells walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown to bind mannose-specific lectin of Gram-negative bacteria including Salmonella, and prevent their adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. However, whether MOS may potentially mitigate systemic inflammation is not investigated yet. Moreover, molecular events underlying innate immune responses and metabolic activities during late inflammation, in presence or absence of MOS, are unknown. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a Salmonella LPS-induced systemic inflammation chicken model and microarray analysis, we investigated the effects of MOS and virginiamycin (VIRG, a sub-therapeutic antibiotic on innate immunity and glucose metabolism during late inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that MOS and VIRG modulated innate immunity and metabolic genes differently. Innate immune responses were principally mediated by intestinal IL-3, but not TNF-α, IL-1 or IL-6, whereas glucose mobilization occurred through intestinal gluconeogenesis only. MOS inherently induced IL-3 expression in control hosts. Consequent to LPS challenge, IL-3 induction in VIRG hosts but not differentially expressed in MOS hosts revealed that MOS counteracted LPS's detrimental inflammatory effects. Metabolic pathways are built to elucidate the mechanisms by which VIRG host's higher energy requirements were met: including gene up-regulations for intestinal gluconeogenesis (PEPCK and liver glycolysis (ENO2, and intriguingly liver fatty acid synthesis through ATP citrate synthase (CS down-regulation and ATP citrate lyase (ACLY and malic enzyme (ME up-regulations. However, MOS host

  7. Evaluation of Three Cases Using a Novel Titanium Mesh System-Skull-Fit with Orbital Wall (Skull-Fit WOW)-For Cranial Base Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Noriko; Nakajima, Hideo; Tamada, Ikkei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kawase, Takeshi; Kishi, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Cranial base reconstructions associated with tumor resections around the orbital wall often require that both the upper and lateral orbital walls be reconstructed during a single procedure. Previously, we used titanium mesh plates that were preoperatively fabricated based on three-dimensional models. Although these plates are precise and do not increase the probability of infection, we still had to use autologous bones to reconstruct the orbital walls. Recently, we developed a new titanium mesh plate-called Skull-Fit(®)-with orbital wall (Skull-Fit WOW(®)), enabling us to reconstruct the cranial base and orbital walls without bone grafts. Here, we report on three reconstruction cases in which the novel titanium mesh-orbital wall system was used. In all three cases, the customized titanium mesh system performed satisfactorily with little, if any, complications.

  8. A Real-Time Angle- and Illumination-Aware Face Recognition System Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisateru Kato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic authentication systems, using biometric technology, are becoming increasingly important with the increased need for person verification in our daily life. A few years back, fingerprint verification was done only in criminal investigations. Now fingerprints and face images are widely used in bank tellers, airports, and building entrances. Face images are easy to obtain, but successful recognition depends on proper orientation and illumination of the image, compared to the one taken at registration time. Facial features heavily change with illumination and orientation angle, leading to increased false rejection as well as false acceptance. Registering face images for all possible angles and illumination is impossible. In this work, we proposed a memory efficient way to register (store multiple angle and changing illumination face image data, and a computationally efficient authentication technique, using multilayer perceptron (MLP. Though MLP is trained using a few registered images with different orientation, due to generalization property of MLP, interpolation of features for intermediate orientation angles was possible. The algorithm is further extended to include illumination robust authentication system. Results of extensive experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. An affective circumplex model of neural systems subserving valence, arousal, and cognitive overlay during the appraisal of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Andrew J; Posner, Jonathan; Gorman, Daniel; Colibazzi, Tiziano; Yu, Shan; Wang, Zhishun; Kangarlu, Alayar; Zhu, Hongtu; Russell, James; Peterson, Bradley S

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the existence of distinct neural systems that subserve two dimensions of affect--arousal and valence. Ten adult participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during which they were presented a range of standardized faces and then asked, during the scan, to rate the emotional expressions of the faces along the dimensions of arousal and valence. Lower ratings of arousal accompanied greater activity in the amygdala complex, cerebellum, dorsal pons, and right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). More negative ratings of valence accompanied greater activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and parietal cortices. Extreme ratings of valence (highly positive and highly negative ratings) accompanied greater activity in the temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus. Building on an empirical literature which suggests that the amygdala serves as a salience and ambiguity detector, we interpret our findings as showing that a face rated as having low arousal is more ambiguous and a face rated as having extreme valence is more personally salient. This explains how both low arousal and extreme valence lead to greater activation of an ambiguity/salience system subserved by the amygdala, cerebellum, and dorsal pons. In addition, the right medial prefrontal cortex appears to down-regulate individual ratings of arousal, whereas the fusiform and related temporal cortices seem to up-regulate individual assessments of extreme valence when individual ratings are studied relative to group reference ratings for each stimulus. The simultaneous assessment of the effects of arousal and valence proved essential for the identification of neural systems contributing to the processing of emotional faces.

  10. An Affective Circumplex Model of Neural Systems Subserving Valence, Arousal, & Cognitive Overlay During the Appraisal of Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Andrew J.; Posner, Jonathan; Gorman, Daniel; Colibazzi, Tiziano; Yu, Shan; Wang, Zhishun; Kangarlu, Alayar; Zhu, Hongtu; Russell, James; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the existence of distinct neural systems that subserve two dimensions of affect – arousal and valence. Ten adult participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during which they were presented a range of standardized faces and then asked, during the scan, to rate the emotional expressions of the faces along the dimensions of arousal and valence. Lower ratings of arousal accompanied greater activity in the amygdala complex, cerebellum, dorsal pons, and right medial prefrontal cortex. More negative ratings of valence accompanied greater activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate and parietal cortices. Extreme ratings of valence (highly positive and highly negative ratings) accompanied greater activity in the temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus. Building on an empirical literature which suggests that the amygdala serves as a salience and ambiguity detector, we interpret our findings as showing that a face rated has having low arousal is more ambiguous and a face rated as having extreme valence is more personally salient. This explains how both low arousal and extreme valence lead to greater activation of an ambiguity/salience system subserved by the amygdala, cerebellum, and dorsal pons. In addition, the right medial prefrontal cortex appears to down-regulate individual ratings of arousal, whereas the fusiform and related temporal cortices seem to up-regulate individual assessments of extreme valence when individual ratings are studied relative to group reference ratings for each stimulus. The simultaneous assessment of the effects of arousal and valence proved essential for the identification of neural systems contributing to the processing of emotional faces. PMID:18440572

  11. High-accuracy and robust face recognition system based on optical parallel correlator using a temporal image sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ishikawa, Mami; Ohta, Maiko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2005-09-01

    Face recognition is used in a wide range of security systems, such as monitoring credit card use, searching for individuals with street cameras via Internet and maintaining immigration control. There are still many technical subjects under study. For instance, the number of images that can be stored is limited under the current system, and the rate of recognition must be improved to account for photo shots taken at different angles under various conditions. We implemented a fully automatic Fast Face Recognition Optical Correlator (FARCO) system by using a 1000 frame/s optical parallel correlator designed and assembled by us. Operational speed for the 1: N (i.e. matching a pair of images among N, where N refers to the number of images in the database) identification experiment (4000 face images) amounts to less than 1.5 seconds, including the pre/post processing. From trial 1: N identification experiments using FARCO, we acquired low error rates of 2.6% False Reject Rate and 1.3% False Accept Rate. By making the most of the high-speed data-processing capability of this system, much more robustness can be achieved for various recognition conditions when large-category data are registered for a single person. We propose a face recognition algorithm for the FARCO while employing a temporal image sequence of moving images. Applying this algorithm to a natural posture, a two times higher recognition rate scored compared with our conventional system. The system has high potential for future use in a variety of purposes such as search for criminal suspects by use of street and airport video cameras, registration of babies at hospitals or handling of an immeasurable number of images in a database.

  12. The near infrared imaging system for the real-time protection of the JET ITER-like wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, A.; Kinna, D.; Huber, V.; Arnoux, G.; Balboa, I.; Balorin, C.; Carman, P.; Carvalho, P.; Collins, S.; Conway, N.; McCullen, P.; Jachmich, S.; Jouve, M.; Linsmeier, Ch; Lomanowski, B.; Lomas, P. J.; Lowry, C. G.; Maggi, C. F.; Matthews, G. F.; May-Smith, T.; Meigs, A.; Mertens, Ph; Nunes, I.; Price, M.; Puglia, P.; Riccardo, V.; Rimini, F. G.; Sergienko, G.; Tsalas, M.; Zastrow, K.-D.; contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and operation of the near infrared (NIR) imaging diagnostic system of the JET ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) plasma experiment and its integration into the existing JET protection architecture. The imaging system comprises four wide-angle views, four tangential divertor views, and two top views of the divertor covering 66% of the first wall and up to 43% of the divertor. The operation temperature ranges which must be observed by the NIR protection cameras are, for the materials used on JET: Be 700 °C–1400 °C W coating 700 °C–1370 °C W bulk 700 °C–1400 °C. The Real-Time Protection system operates routinely since 2011 and successfully demonstrated its capability to avoid the overheating of the main chamber beryllium wall as well as of the divertor W and W-coated carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles. During this period, less than 0.5% of the terminated discharges were aborted by a malfunction of the system. About 2%–3% of the discharges were terminated due to the detection of actual hot spots.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (Ni-MWCNT) Repair Patches for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brienne; Caraccio, Anne; Tate, LaNetra; Jackson, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy and nickel-coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (Ni-MWCNT)/epoxy systems were fabricated into carbon fiber composite repair patches via vacuum resin infusion. Two 4 ply patches were manufactured with fiber orientations of [90/ 90/ 4590] and [0/90/ +45/ -45]. Prior to resin infusion, the MWCNT/Epoxy system and NiMWCNT/ epoxy systems were optimized for dispersion quality. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to determine the presence ofcarbon nanotubes and assess dispersion quality. Decomposition temperatures were determined via thermogravametric analysis (TGA). SEM and TGA were also used to evaluate the composite repair patches.

  14. Electrical conduction and photoresponses of gamma-ray-irradiated single-stranded DNA/single-walled carbon nanotube composite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, W.; Lee, E.M.; Kim, D.W.; Lee, Cheol Eui, E-mail: rscel@korea.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite films. •Barrier for thermally activated conduction in the composite systems modified by the gamma-ray irradiation. •Photoresponses reveal photoexcitation and oxygen photodesorption modified by gamma-ray irradiation. -- Abstract: Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity and photoresponse have been studied for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite films. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of the ssDNA/SWNT composite films, well described by a fluctuation-induced tunneling model, indicated modification of the barrier for thermally activated conduction by the gamma-ray irradiation. Besides, the photoresponse measurements indicated modified photoexcited charge carrier generation and oxygen photodesorption in the composite systems due to the gamma-ray irradiation.

  15. Motion control in double-walled carbon nanotube systems using a Stone-Thrower-Wales defect cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Zhang Yongwei

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the motion of a single molecule will have an important impact in nano-mechanical systems. Multi-walled carbon nanotube systems, which have extremely low intertube friction and strong motion confinement, can form the basis for mechanically based motion control. We devise two molecular motion control units based on double-walled carbon nanotubes embedded with a Stone-Thrower-Wales defect cluster, and perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the characteristics of these two control units. We show that one of the molecular control units is able to perform a logic operation on one logic input and produce three logic outputs, while the other is able to produce two logic outputs. Potential applications of the motion control units include molecular switches, shuttles and mechanically based logic devices.

  16. A GPR system for the high-resolution inspection of walls and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manacorda, Guido; Simi, Alessandro; Barsacchi, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays GPR systems are used in a broad range of applications, including the non-destructive inspection of man-made concrete structures such as pillars and bridge decks. Concrete inspection involves several aspects including: location of reinforced bars in walls and floors, concrete condition assessment, concrete cover detection, etc. These surveys are very demanding as far as the system is concerned, because of the strict requirements in terms of resolution and accuracy. Specifically, a key GPR application concerns the condition assessment of a structure that has undergone rehabilitation (e.g. for the removal of architectural barriers or new openings); in this case, the current practice requires to re-check the stability of the entire structure that includes the identification of the number of rebars in reinforced concrete beams location of pre-tensioned cables and early detection of corrosion. This can be done by verification holes (coring) that is costly and intrusive practice or by using a pachometer, but this tool has a limited field of investigation (up to 7-8 cm from the surface). GPR can instead be a useful investigative tool especially when the surface of the beam is not accessible because it is covered by screed or floor. The need of detecting rebars with diameter in the millimeter range as well as the identification of small cavities and cracks, require the development of GPR antennas featuring linear phase and constant polarization, and capable to radiate a very short pulse (i.e. with a duration in the order of few hundreds of picosecond) with no ring-down in order to achieve a high range resolution. A novel 3 GHz center frequency antenna has been recently developed and tested; it has been found capable of providing a very clear image of the concrete internal structure that helps in locating targets and enables an early detection of damages, thus providing a fast and efficient maintenance of the structure itself. The Authors thank COST for funding COST

  17. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...

  18. Semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping vibrations of the wall, wall or panel provided with such semimanufacture, system provided with a semimanufacture and a control unit, wall or panel provided with a control unit and method for damping audible vibrations of a wall or panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeje, Marius; van Overbeek, Michiel Wilbert R.M.; van der Waal, Adri; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nederveen, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    A semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping the vibrations in the wall or the panel with frequencies which are at least partly audible, wherein the semimanufacture is provided with a plate wherein the plate is integrated with: at least one

  19. Use of a highly sensitive immunomarking system to characterize face fly (Diptera: Muscidae) dispersal from cow pats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, George W; Ferguson, Holly J; Jones, Vincent P; O'Neal, Sally D; Walsh, Douglas B

    2014-02-01

    We tested an immunomarking system that used egg white as marker and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a detection assay to characterize face fly (Musca autumnalis DeGeer) dispersal from cow pats in a pastured beef cattle operation. In microcage assays, adult flies acquired marker after contact with cow pats that were treated with marker and field aged up to 11 d. In arena assays on sprayed full-size cow pats, 77% of eclosed face flies acquired the marker. In a field-marking study, four applications of egg white marker were applied on freshly deposited cow pats over a summer at two peripheral paddocks to a main grazing pasture of ≍50 head of beef cattle. Of the 663 face flies captured, 108 were positive for the egg white marker (16.3%). Of the marked flies, ≍ twofold more male than female flies were captured. Sex-specific dispersal distances were roughly equal up to 450 m, with 11% of female flies dispersing >450 m. Dispersal capability of face flies is discussed in relation to efficacy of rotational grazing and other IPM strategies.

  20. Dynamic behavior of radiant cooling system based on capillary tubes in walls made of high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    using cooling water for the radiant cooling system with a temperature only about 4K lower than the temperature of the room air. The relatively high speed reaction of the designed system is a result of the slim construction of the sandwich wall elements made of high performance concrete. (C) 2015...... elements made of high performance concrete. The influence of the radiant cooling system on the indoor climate of the test room in terms of the air, surface and operative temperatures and velocities was investigated.The results show that the temperature of the room air can be kept in a comfortable range...

  1. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  3. Maintenance and Durability of the Concrete External Layer of Curtain Walls in Prefabricated Technological Poznan Large Panel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiczak, Józef; Girus, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The issue of usability and durability of large-panel building constructed several decades ago is a subject of an in-depth analysis of many domestic and foreign investments. When considering the durability of specific large-panel system, one should consider, among others, the process of making external walls. The long-term and direct impact of weather conditions on the external layer of curtain walls is significant for the durability of large-panel buildings. For the needs of the presented paper, in 2016, the survey of cracks and a series of other tests of large-panel façade, residential building constructed in 1986, in Poland, in the PLP process system - Rataje was executed. Several hundred large-size, triple-layer curtain-wall slab with a 6-cm, concrete exterior cladding layer anchored using pins and hangers with the load-bearing layer, a 9-cm insulation layer made of mineral wool, and a 21-cm structural layer were surveyed. Significant deviations in thicknesses of particular wall layers were proven. Other significant damages and defects of external layers were found. At the second stage, many tests, both nondestructive and destructive, were conducted. They involved determining mechanical properties of an external layer. The concrete thickness was measured using with a type N Schmidt sclerometer and core samples were taken from this layer in order to mark concrete’s compressive strength. The range of carbonation (by phenolphthalein method) and the actual location and condition of reinforcement were estimated using a ferromagnetic device to determine the condition of the external layer. The diagnosis conducted in such a manner was the verification of necessary repair of the walls and their thermal efficiency improvement while ensuring safe conditions of their operation and modern functional and utility requirements. It should be also emphasized that the method of diagnosing the external walls presented in this paper may be popularized when evaluating such

  4. [Application of acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system in treatment of old acetabular posterior wall fracture with bone defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liehu; Bao, Guangquan; Zhang, Chuncai; Liu, Xinwei; Niu, Yunfei; Xu, Shuogui; Su, Jiacan

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS) combined with autologous iliac bone in the treatment of old acetabular posterior wall fracture with bone defect. Between January 2002 and February 2009, 17 patients with old acetabular posterior wall fracture and bone defect were treated, including 11 males and 6 females with an average age of 41.7 years (range, 20-60 years). The time from fracture to admission was 14-180 days (mean, 63 days). The displacement of the acetabular articular surface was more than or equal to 3 mm. According to the America Association of Orthopedic Surgeon (AAOS) acetabular fracture and defect classification standard, there were 4 cases of type I, 6 cases of type II, 5 cases of type III, and 2 cases of type IV. After the residual fracture fragments of the acetabular posterior wall and soft tissue hyperplasia were removed, the femoral head was reduced, and posterior wall defect was repaired with autologous iliac bone graft; ATMFS was used to fix acetabular posterior wall and artificial capsular ligament to reconstruct the hip so as to prevent re-dislocation of the femoral head. According to Matta imaging assessment standard, the results were excellent in 8 cases, good in 6 cases, fair in 2 cases, and poor in 1 case with an excellent and good rate of 82.3%. All incisions healed by first intention, and no sciatic nerve injury occurred. All patients were followed up 1-8 years (mean, 3.9 years). The mean time of fracture union was 3.6 months (range, 2-6 months). Avascular necrosis of femoral head occurred in 1 case, heterotopic ossification around the acetabulum in 1 case. According to Merle d'Aubigné-Postel scoring system evaluation, the clinical results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 6 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case with an excellent and good rate of 88.2%. ATMFS combined with autologous iliac bone graft and artificial ligament reconstruction of the hip joint capsule is a good

  5. Modeling of gas-phase chemistry in the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Trachtenberg, I. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    The relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to deposition processes is an important issue both from the standpoint of operation and modeling of these processes. In polysilicon deposition from thermally activated silane in a cold wall rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) system, the relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to the overall deposition rate was examined by a mass-balance model. Evaluating the process at conditions examined experimentally, the model indicated that gas-phase reactions may be neglected to good accuracy in predicting polysilicon deposition rate. The model also provided estimates of the level of gas-phase generated SiH[sub 2] associated with deposition on the cold-process chamber walls.

  6. Web-FACE: a new canopy free-air CO2 enrichment system for tall trees in mature forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Steeve; Körner, Christian

    2002-09-01

    The long-term responses of forests to atmospheric CO2 enrichment have been difficult to determine experimentally given the large scale and complex structure of their canopy. We have developed a CO2 exposure system that uses the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) approach but was designed for tall canopy trees. The system consists of a CO2-release system installed within the crown of adult trees using a 45-m tower crane, a CO2 monitoring system and an automated regulation system. Pure CO2 gas is released from a network of small tubes woven into the forest canopy (web-FACE), and CO2 is emitted from small laser-punched holes. The set point CO2 concentration ([CO2]) of 500 µmol mol(-1) is controlled by a pulse-width modulation routine that adjusts the rate of CO2 injection as a function of measured [CO2] in the canopy. CO2 consumption for the enrichment of 14 tall canopy trees was about 2 tons per day over the whole growing season. The seasonal daytime mean CO2 concentration was 520 µmol mol(-1). One-minute averages of CO2 measurements conducted at canopy height in the center of the CO2-enriched zone were within ±20% and ±10% of the target concentration for 76% and 47% of the exposure time, respectively. Despite the size of the canopy and the windy site conditions, performance values correspond to about 75% of that reported for conventional forest FACE with the added advantage of a much simpler and less intrusive infrastructure. Stable carbon isotope signals captured by 80 Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) seedlings distributed within the canopy of treated and control tree districts showed a clearly delineated area, with some nearby individuals having been exposed to a gradient of [CO2], which is seen as added value. Time-integrated values of [CO2] derived from the C isotope composition of C. dactylon leaves indicated a mean (±SD) concentration of 513±63 µmol mol(-1) in the web-FACE canopy area. In view of the size of the forest and the rough natural canopy

  7. Wall-plug efficiency analysis of semi-active piezoelectric shunt damping systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Kodejška, M.; Mokrý, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, September (2014), 1077546314548910 ISSN 1077-5463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Piezoelectric shunt damping * vibration isolation * negative capacitor * wall-plug efficiency * mechanical power measurement * power supply optimization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 4.355, year: 2013 http://jvc.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/09/17/1077546314548910

  8. Wall-plug efficiency analysis of semi-active piezoelectric shunt damping systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Kodejška, M.; Mokrý, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 11 (2016), s. 2582-2590 ISSN 1077-5463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Piezoelectric shunt damping * vibration isolation * negative capacitor * wall-plug efficiency * mechanical power measurement * power supply optimization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077546314548910

  9. [Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients aged 6-12 by Postnikov appliance, face mask and bracket system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, M A; Trunin, D A; Pankratova, N V; Nesterov, A M; Sadykov, M I; Ostankov, S A

    2018-01-01

    The diagnostics and treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients aged 6-12 is an vital problem in orthodontics. Method of orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients with the help of improved and patented orthodontic construction - 'Postnikov appliance' - and face mask and bracket system is analysed in the article. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III was examined in 24 patients aged 6-12 by the suggested method. All patients were examined clinically and with the help af additional diagnostic methods: head cephalometry in lateral position with further data analysis in Dolphin Imaging (USA). The use of computer technologies in Dolphin Imaging helps to controll the process of correction of dentition correlation in different stages of treatment, to reduce the period of treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients aged 6-12 and to improve face esthetics and life quality ratio.

  10. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  11. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  12. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home ... All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD ...

  13. Detection of heat abduction on the walls by artificial neural network and selection of materials with decision support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Tekkanat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today energy conservation is a very important issue in the world and Turkey. The aim of this study is to minimize the heat abduction, thus to save energy by utilizing the factors to prevent the heat abduction on the walls of buildings. First of all, a back-propagation network model with artificial neural network model was used for the factors that can cause heat loss on the walls. Whether the walls have insulation were considered. After that, Decision Support Systems were used for heat insulation to select the appropriate materials. A Decision Support Model with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was recommended to meet the needs of a customer best and to make better decisions for the selection of the materials. The method was used by construction firms for their decision processes for the best materials and the results were evaluated. After the evaluations were done, the factors that cause heat loss were considered and it became clear which factors were more important for the prevention of heat loss.

  14. Plasma facing components design of KT-2 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Sang Ryul; Yoon, Byung Joo; Song, Woo Soeb; Xu, Chao Yin

    1997-04-01

    The vacuum vessel of KT-2 tokamak is protected from high thermal loads by various kinds of plasma facing components (PFC): outer and inner divertors, neutral baffle, inboard limiter, poloidal limiter, movable limiter and passive plate, installed on the inner wall of the vessel. In this report the pre-engineering design of the plasma facing components, including design requirements and function, structures of PFC assemblies, configuration of cooling systems, calculations of some mechanical and hydraulic parameters, is presented. Pumping systems for the movable limiter and the divertor are also discussed briefly. (author). 49 figs

  15. Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Cellulose Microfibril in Higher Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell walls from maize (Zea mays L.) are imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the sub-nanometer resolution. We found that the size and shape of fundamental cellulose elementary fibril (CEF) is essentially identical in different cell wall types, i.e., primary wall (PW), parenchyma secondary wall (pSW), and sclerenchyma secondary wall (sSW), which is consistent with previously proposed 36-chain model (Ding et al., 2006, J. Agric. Food Chem.). The arrangement of individual CEFs in these wall types exhibits two orientations. In PW, CEFs are horizontally associated through their hydrophilic faces, and the planar faces are exposed, forming ribbon-like macrofibrils. In pSW and sSW, CEFs are vertically oriented, forming layers, in which hemicelluloses are interacted with the hydrophobic faces of the CEF and serve as spacers between CEFs. Lignification occurs between CEF-hemicelluloses layers in secondary walls. Furthermore, we demonstrated quantitative analysis of plant cell wall accessibility to and digestibility by different cellulase systems at real-time using chemical imaging (e.g., stimulated Raman scattering) and fluorescence microscopy of labeled cellulases (Ding et al., 2012, Science, in press).

  16. Analysis of the response of a reinforced concrete shear wall structure during earthquakes using the transfer matrix method of multibody systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although reinforced concrete shear wall structures are widely used in high-rise buildings, the methods used to analyze the seismic response of such a structure during an earthquake generally have low calculation efficiencies. In this article, the transfer matrix method of multibody systems is first established as a mechanical model of a regular reinforced concrete shear wall structure with both bifurcated and closed transfer paths to analyze the seismic responses of structures. By separating the shear wall legs, establishing a state vector relationship between the two endpoints of the coupling beams, and combining all state vectors of the inputs or outputs of each shear wall leg, the total transfer between shear wall legs is realized, and the overall transfer equation and overall transfer matrix of a shear wall structure are obtained. Applying the transfer matrix method of multibody systems, a 15-story shear wall structure is used as an engineering example to analyze seismic responses for frequent and rare earthquakes using MATLAB software. The findings show that the transfer matrix method of multibody systems provides similar results to ANSYS but that the transfer matrix method of multibody systems greatly increases calculation efficiency while maintaining accuracy.

  17. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance; HAPL Team

    2005-12-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  18. Requirement of the CroRS Two-Component System for Resistance to Cell Wall-Targeting Antimicrobials in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Stephanie L; Little, Jaime L; Hoff, Jessica S; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin. As in E. faecalis , exposure to bacitracin and vancomycin stimulates signaling through the CroRS system in E. faecium Moreover, the CroRS system is critical in E. faecium for enhanced beta-lactam resistance mediated by overexpression of Pbp5. Expression of a Pbp5 variant that confers enhanced beta-lactam resistance cannot overcome the requirement for CroRS function. Thus, the CroRS system is a conserved signaling system that responds to cell wall stress to promote intrinsic resistance to important cell wall-targeting antibiotics in clinically relevant enterococci. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Constant-phase descriptions of canine lung, chest wall, and total respiratory system viscoelasticity: effects of distending pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, David W; Smallwood, Jennifer L

    2012-08-15

    The dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system reflect the ensemble behavior of its constituent structural elements. This study assessed the appropriateness of constant-phase descriptions of respiratory tissue viscoelasticity at various distending pressures. We measured the mechanical input impedance (Z) of the lungs, chest wall and total respiratory system in 12 dogs at mean airway pressures from 5 to 30 cm H(2)O. Each Z was fitted with a constant-phase model which provided estimates tissue damping (G), elastance (H), and hysteresivity (η=G/H). Both G and H sharply increased with increasing distending pressure for the lungs and chest wall, while η attained a minimum near 15-20 cm H(2)O. Model fitting errors for the lungs and total respiratory system increased for distending pressures greater than 20 cm H(2)O, indicating that constant-phase descriptions of parenchymal and respiratory system viscoelasticty may be inappropriate at volumes closer to total lung capacity. Such behavior may reflect alterations in load distribution across various parenchymal stress-bearing elements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CONSTANT-PHASE DESCRIPTIONS OF CANINE LUNG, CHEST WALL, AND TOTAL RESPIRATORY SYSTEM VISCOELASTICITY: EFFECTS OF DISTENDING PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, David W.; Smallwood, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system reflect the ensemble behavior of its constituent structural elements. This study assessed the appropriateness of constant-phase descriptions of respiratory tissue viscoelasticity at various distending pressures. We measured the mechanical input impedance (Z) of the lungs, chest wall and total respiratory system in twelve dogs at mean airway pressures from 5 to 30 cmH2O. Each Z was fitted with a constant-phase model which provided estimates tissue damping (G), elastance (H), and hysteresivity (η = G/H). Both G and H sharply increased with increasing distending pressure for the lungs and chest wall, while η attained a minimum near 15-20 cm H2O. Model fitting errors for the lungs and total respiratory system increased for distending pressures greater than 20 cm H2O, indicating that constant-phase descriptions of parenchymal and respiratory system viscoelasticty may be inappropriate at volumes closer to total lung capacity. Such behavior may reflect alterations in load distribution across various parenchymal stress-bearing elements. PMID:22691447

  1. Challenges of Using E-learning Management Systems faced by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OUT) to find out how lecturers use the E-learning Management System (ELMS) and the problems that they encounter when using the ELMS. Based on the general hypothesis of the use of Information Systems, different methodologies were ...

  2. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...... unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients...... performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  3. 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools Face-to-Face Meeting Report December 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-02-21

    The climate and weather data science community gathered December 3–5, 2013, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in Livermore, California, for the third annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Face-to-Face (F2F) Meeting, which was hosted by the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the European Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling, and the Australian Department of Education. Both ESGF and UV-CDAT are global collaborations designed to develop a new generation of open-source software infrastructure that provides distributed access and analysis to observed and simulated data from the climate and weather communities. The tools and infrastructure developed under these international multi-agency collaborations are critical to understanding extreme weather conditions and long-term climate change, while the F2F meetings help to build a stronger climate and weather data science community and stronger federated software infrastructure. The 2013 F2F meeting determined requirements for existing and impending national and international community projects; enhancements needed for data distribution, analysis, and visualization infrastructure; and standards and resources needed for better collaborations.

  4. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...

  5. Strategies for managing complex social-ecological systems in the face of uncertainty: examples from South Africa and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinette (Oonsie Biggs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving our ability to manage complex, rapidly changing social-ecological systems is one of the defining challenges of the 21st century. This is particularly crucial if large-scale poverty alleviation is to be secured without undermining the capacity of the environment to support future generations. To address this challenge, strategies that enable judicious management of social-ecological systems in the face of substantive uncertainty are needed. Several such strategies are emerging from the developing body of work on complexity and resilience. We identify and discuss four strategies, providing practical examples of how each strategy has been applied in innovative ways to manage turbulent social-ecological change in South Africa and the broader region: (1 employ adaptive management or comanagement, (2 engage and integrate different perspectives, (3 facilitate self-organization, and (4 set safe boundaries to avoid system thresholds. Through these examples we aim to contribute a basis for further theoretical development, new teaching examples, and inspiration for developing innovative new management strategies in other regions that can help address the considerable sustainability challenges facing society globally.

  6. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  7. Protecting Accelerator Control Systems in the Face of Sophisticated Cyber Attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber security for industrial control systems has received significant attention in the past two years. The news coverage of the Stuxnet attack, believed to be targeted at the control system for a uranium enrichment plant, brought the issue to the attention of news media and policy makers. This has led to increased scrutiny of control systems for critical infrastructure such as power generation and distribution, and industrial systems such as chemical plants and petroleum refineries. The past two years have also seen targeted network attacks aimed at corporate and government entities including US Department of Energy National Laboratories. Both of these developments have potential repercussions for the control systems of particle accelerators. The need to balance risks from potential attacks with the operational needs of an accelerator present a unique challenge for the system architecture and access model.

  8. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? ... types of therapy that are proven to work. Learn more about Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Cognitive Processing ...

  9. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  10. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  11. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  12. A novel hybrid biometric electronic voting system: integrating finger print face recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najam, S.S.; Shaikh, A.Z.; Naqvi, S.

    2018-01-01

    A novel hybrid design based electronic voting system is proposed, implemented and analyzed. The proposed system uses two voter verification techniques to give better results in comparison to single identification based systems. Finger print and facial recognition based methods are used for voter identification. Cross verification of a voter during an election process provides better accuracy than single parameter identification method. The facial recognition system uses Viola-Jones algorithm along with rectangular Haar feature selection method for detection and extraction of features to develop a biometric template and for feature extraction during the voting process. Cascaded machine learning based classifiers are used for comparing the features for identity verification using GPCA (Generalized Principle Component Analysis) and K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor). It is accomplished through comparing the Eigen-vectors of the extracted features with the biometric template pre-stored in the election regulatory body database. The results of the proposed system show that the proposed cascaded design based system performs better than the systems using other classifiers or separate schemes i.e. facial or finger print based schemes. The proposed system will be highly useful for real time applications due to the reason that it has 91% accuracy under nominal light in terms of facial recognition. (author)

  13. A Novel Hybrid Biometric Electronic Voting System: Integrating Finger Print and Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Najam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid design based electronic voting system is proposed, implemented and analyzed. The proposed system uses two voter verification techniques to give better results in comparison to single identification based systems. Finger print and facial recognition based methods are used for voter identification. Cross verification of a voter during an election process provides better accuracy than single parameter identification method. The facial recognition system uses Viola-Jones algorithm along with rectangular Haar feature selection method for detection and extraction of features to develop a biometric template and for feature extraction during the voting process. Cascaded machine learning based classifiers are used for comparing the features for identity verification using GPCA (Generalized Principle Component Analysis and K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor. It is accomplished through comparing the Eigen-vectors of the extracted features with the biometric template pre-stored in the election regulatory body database. The results of the proposed system show that the proposed cascaded design based system performs better than the systems using other classifiers or separate schemes i.e. facial or finger print based schemes. The proposed system will be highly useful for real time applications due to the reason that it has 91% accuracy under nominal light in terms of facial recognition.

  14. Managing a renewable resource facing the risk of a regime shift in the ecological system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Aart; He, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Resource management has to take account of the possibility of regime shifts in the ecological system that provides the resource. Regime shifts are uncertain and lead to structural changes in the system dynamics, lowering the carrying capacity of the resource. Optimal management is driven by two

  15. GlobePort Faces Global Business Challenges--Assessing the Organizational Side of Information Systems Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Biswadip

    2011-01-01

    Published studies have reported that Information System (IS) projects succeed or fail based on how effectively the organizational issues were understood and addressed in the specification, development and implementation stages of the project. This is particularly true in the design and delivery of Inter-Organizational Systems (IOS) that can affect…

  16. Green walls : an environmental alternative for the city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Ardila, V.; Giraldo Restrepo, M.C.; Echeverri Montoya, L.F.; Cano Sepulveda, O.E.; Restrepo Acosta, A.C. [Univ. Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin (Colombia). Faculty of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    The City of Medellin in Colombia is faced with environmental problems such as air pollution, noise pollution, flooding and urban heat island (UHI) effect. Since many of these problems can be linked to the construction industry, new strategies are needed to lessen the environmental impact of buildings. This paper proposed the use of green walls for the facade of buildings. Similar to green roofs, green walls offer cleaner air and cooler cities. They absorb noise, reduce energy consumption, and result in less untreated storm water running into rivers and streams, and offer more natural habitat for native plants and animals, thus supporting greater biodiversity. A prefabricated piece of green wall was designed for use on building envelopes, interior partitions, facades and landscape enclosures. The green wall can be self-supported, self-irrigated and self-fertilized by an integrated conduit system. Unlike other pre-existing elements, the vegetation in the green wall is integrated within the wall construction instead of being adhered to it. The proposed prefabricated design allows for individual replacement of the vegetation components in the event that a plant dies. The versatile system can be used in any type of building. Testing of some prototypes revealed that the green walls are very efficient in acoustic absorption, and useful in areas exposed to lots of noise. It was concluded that this construction method has the potential to generate well-being and balance between urban dwellers and their environment. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  17. Highly efficient siRNA delivery system into human and murine cells using single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, M. S.; Andrade, V. A.; Gomes, E. R. M.; Aguiar, C. J.; Moraes, E. R.; Soares, J. S.; Silva, E. E.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ladeira, L. O.; Jorio, A.; Lima, P.; Leite, M. Fatima; Resende, R. R.; Guatimosim, S.

    2010-09-01

    Development of RNA interference (RNAi) technology utilizing short interfering RNA sequences (siRNA) has focused on creating methods for delivering siRNAs to cells and for enhancing siRNA stability in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a novel approach for siRNA cellular delivery using siRNA coiling into carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The CNT-siRNA delivery system successfully demonstrates nonspecific toxicity and transfection efficiency greater than 95%. This approach offers the potential for siRNA delivery into different types of cells, including hard-to-transfect cells, such as neuronal cells and cardiomyocytes. We also tested the CNT-siRNA system in a non-metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (SKHep1). In all types of cells used in this work the CNT-siRNA delivery system showed high efficiency and apparent no side effects for various in vitro applications.

  18. Highly efficient siRNA delivery system into human and murine cells using single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeira, M S; Andrade, V A; Gomes, E R M; Aguiar, C J; Moraes, E R; Fatima Leite, M; Guatimosim, S [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Soares, J S; Silva, E E; Lacerda, R G; Ladeira, L O; Jorio, A; Resende, R R [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Lima, P, E-mail: rrresende@hotmail.com, E-mail: guatimosim@icb.ufmg.br [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Federal University of Sao Joao Del Rei, Sao Joao Del Rei, MG, 36307-352 (Brazil)

    2010-09-24

    Development of RNA interference (RNAi) technology utilizing short interfering RNA sequences (siRNA) has focused on creating methods for delivering siRNAs to cells and for enhancing siRNA stability in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a novel approach for siRNA cellular delivery using siRNA coiling into carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The CNT-siRNA delivery system successfully demonstrates nonspecific toxicity and transfection efficiency greater than 95%. This approach offers the potential for siRNA delivery into different types of cells, including hard-to-transfect cells, such as neuronal cells and cardiomyocytes. We also tested the CNT-siRNA system in a non-metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (SKHep1). In all types of cells used in this work the CNT-siRNA delivery system showed high efficiency and apparent no side effects for various in vitro applications.

  19. Fast mean and variance computation of the diffuse sound transmission through finite-sized thick and layered wall and floor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decraene, Carolina; Dijckmans, Arne; Reynders, Edwin P. B.

    2018-05-01

    A method is developed for computing the mean and variance of the diffuse field sound transmission loss of finite-sized layered wall and floor systems that consist of solid, fluid and/or poroelastic layers. This is achieved by coupling a transfer matrix model of the wall or floor to statistical energy analysis subsystem models of the adjacent room volumes. The modal behavior of the wall is approximately accounted for by projecting the wall displacement onto a set of sinusoidal lateral basis functions. This hybrid modal transfer matrix-statistical energy analysis method is validated on multiple wall systems: a thin steel plate, a polymethyl methacrylate panel, a thick brick wall, a sandwich panel, a double-leaf wall with poro-elastic material in the cavity, and a double glazing. The predictions are compared with experimental data and with results obtained using alternative prediction methods such as the transfer matrix method with spatial windowing, the hybrid wave based-transfer matrix method, and the hybrid finite element-statistical energy analysis method. These comparisons confirm the prediction accuracy of the proposed method and the computational efficiency against the conventional hybrid finite element-statistical energy analysis method.

  20. Through-the-Wall Localization of a Moving Target by Two Independent Ultra Wideband (UWB Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rovňáková

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  1. Through-the-wall localization of a moving target by two independent ultra wideband (UWB) radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Dušan; Svecová, Mária; Rovňáková, Jana

    2013-09-09

    In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB) radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  2. Free convection in parallelogram-shaped enclosures with isothermal active walls: viscous shear stress in active systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baieri, A; Zarco-Pernia, E; Laraqi, N [Laboratoire de Thermique Interfaces Environnement, LTIE-GTE EA 4415, Universite Paris Ouest, 50 Rue de Sevres, F-92410 Ville d' Avray (France); Garcia de Maria, J-M, E-mail: abairi@u-paris10.fr, E-mail: e.zarcopernia@yahoo.fr, E-mail: nlaraqi@u-paris10.fr, E-mail: juanmario.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, E-28012 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-01

    Thermocouples are often used for thermoregulation of active thermal systems. When the junctions of these sensors are under a natural convection flow, it is necessary to take into account the viscous stress that can affect the measurement of temperature and therefore the regulation set points. The main objective of this work is to study the viscous shear stress taking place close to the active hot wall in closed air-filled cavities of parallelogrammic shape. The influence of shear stress is examined for different inclination angles of the cavity and large Rayleigh numbers which are usual in thermal applications. The local stress distributions are presented for the steady state for all the geometric configurations considered. The Nusselt number at the hot wall as well as the temperature and stream function distributions in the cavities are also included. The findings obtained from the numerical simulation using the finite volume method are validated by thermal measurements on an experimental cavity. This study confirms the need to properly choose the location of thermocouples in the reference cell used for controlling the active system. (paper)

  3. A Wearable and Wireless Gas-Sensing System Using Flexible Polymer/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chern Chiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated flexible gas sensor was developed based on a polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite film by using Bluetooth wireless communication/interface technology. Polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite films were deposited over a polyimide flexible substrate for building a gas sensor array by using a drop-casting method. Sensor response was acquired through interdigitated electrodes and multi-channel sensor boards, which were linked to a Bluetooth wireless transceiver. Additionally, a double-spiral-shaped heater was built into the backside of the gas sensor array as a thermostat to protect it from the influence of ambient temperature. Multi-channel sensing responses were read on a display screen via a smartphone application (app. The advantages of this system include light weight, low cost, highly integrated sensors, wireless telecommunication, and real-time functioning. Thus, it is a promising candidate for deployment in a wearable gas-sensing system used to study air pollution.

  4. Three faces of entropy for complex systems: Information, thermodynamics, and the maximum entropy principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Stefan; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf

    2017-09-01

    There are at least three distinct ways to conceptualize entropy: entropy as an extensive thermodynamic quantity of physical systems (Clausius, Boltzmann, Gibbs), entropy as a measure for information production of ergodic sources (Shannon), and entropy as a means for statistical inference on multinomial processes (Jaynes maximum entropy principle). Even though these notions represent fundamentally different concepts, the functional form of the entropy for thermodynamic systems in equilibrium, for ergodic sources in information theory, and for independent sampling processes in statistical systems, is degenerate, H(p)=-∑_{i}p_{i}logp_{i}. For many complex systems, which are typically history-dependent, nonergodic, and nonmultinomial, this is no longer the case. Here we show that for such processes, the three entropy concepts lead to different functional forms of entropy, which we will refer to as S_{EXT} for extensive entropy, S_{IT} for the source information rate in information theory, and S_{MEP} for the entropy functional that appears in the so-called maximum entropy principle, which characterizes the most likely observable distribution functions of a system. We explicitly compute these three entropy functionals for three concrete examples: for Pólya urn processes, which are simple self-reinforcing processes, for sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes, which are simple history dependent processes that are associated with power-law statistics, and finally for multinomial mixture processes.

  5. Three faces of entropy for complex systems: Information, thermodynamics, and the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Stefan; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf

    2017-09-01

    There are at least three distinct ways to conceptualize entropy: entropy as an extensive thermodynamic quantity of physical systems (Clausius, Boltzmann, Gibbs), entropy as a measure for information production of ergodic sources (Shannon), and entropy as a means for statistical inference on multinomial processes (Jaynes maximum entropy principle). Even though these notions represent fundamentally different concepts, the functional form of the entropy for thermodynamic systems in equilibrium, for ergodic sources in information theory, and for independent sampling processes in statistical systems, is degenerate, H (p ) =-∑ipilogpi . For many complex systems, which are typically history-dependent, nonergodic, and nonmultinomial, this is no longer the case. Here we show that for such processes, the three entropy concepts lead to different functional forms of entropy, which we will refer to as SEXT for extensive entropy, SIT for the source information rate in information theory, and SMEP for the entropy functional that appears in the so-called maximum entropy principle, which characterizes the most likely observable distribution functions of a system. We explicitly compute these three entropy functionals for three concrete examples: for Pólya urn processes, which are simple self-reinforcing processes, for sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes, which are simple history dependent processes that are associated with power-law statistics, and finally for multinomial mixture processes.

  6. Design and Application of SCADA Based Control System for filling process (Inter facing and Monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung Naing Myint; Maung Maung Latt; Win Khaing Moe; Theingi

    2008-06-01

    In a small SCADA system, using industrial standard components and simulating real world applications, designs and constructs for thesis to interface between automation devices and software. It programs PIC microcontroller that need the information to write the sequence of process that flowchart like the PIC ladder-logic programs that control the equipment in system, software integrators to be required the information for the configuration screens and hardware installers which need the information to install and connect the equipment. It uses the initiating processor's multiplexer to verify that data or signals are being transmitted out of the parallel port and includes auto-coupler to divide different voltages between circuits and computer. Existing SCADA system are divisible into two groups - cheap and inflexible control, and another one is expensive but flexible control. This thesis attempted by means of using other network for SCADA communications and simple for control, both of which maintain flexibility while reducing cost

  7. Challenges facing the finance reform of the health system in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Tania

    2014-05-28

    Financing is one of the key functions of health systems, which includes the processes of revenue collection, fund pooling and acquisitions in order to ensure access to healthcare for the entire population. The article analyzes the financing model of the Chilean health system in terms of the first two processes, confirming low public spending on healthcare and high out-of-pocket expenditure, in addition to an appropriation of public resources by private insurers and providers. Insofar as pooling, there is lack of solidarity and risk sharing leading to segmentation of the population that is not consistent with the concept of social security, undermines equity and reduces system-wide efficiency. There is a pressing need to jumpstart reforms that address these issues. Treatments must be considered together with public health concerns and primary care in order to ensure the right to health of the entire population.

  8. Challenges facing the finance reform of the health system in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Herrera Martínez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Financing is one of the key functions of health systems, which includes the processes of revenue collection, fund pooling and acquisitions in order to ensure access to healthcare for the entire population. The article analyzes the financing model of the Chilean health system in terms of the first two processes, confirming low public spending on healthcare and high out-of-pocket expenditure, in addition to an appropriation of public resources by private insurers and providers. Insofar as pooling, there is lack of solidarity and risk sharing leading to segmentation of the population that is not consistent with the concept of social security, undermines equity and reduces system-wide efficiency. There is a pressing need to jumpstart reforms that address these issues. Treatments must be considered together with public health concerns and primary care in order to ensure the right to health of the entire population.

  9. Welcome to Ireland: Migrants who crossed Med face flawed direct provision system

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam

    2015-01-01

    The McMahon Report, even if the recommendations are implemented, continues the system of degradation and intimate control over other human beings lives, which continues to be the hallmark of direct provision in Ireland. Direct provision will be the céad míle fáilte that awaits Mediterranean and other asylum seekers seeking sanctuary in Ireland.

  10. Facing the challenges of distribution systems operation with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    This paper addresses the challenges associated with the operation of a distribution system with high penetration of wind power. The paper presents some preliminary investigations of an ongoing Danish research work, which has as main objective to reduce the network losses by optimizing the reactive...

  11. Size response of an SMPS-APS system to commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Bok; Lee, Jun-Hyun; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are representative-engineered nanomaterials with unique properties. The safe production of CNTs urgently requires reliable tools to assess inhalation exposure. In this study, on-line aerosol instruments were employed to detect the release of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) in workplace environments. The size responses of aerosol instruments consisting of both a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were examined using five types of commercial MWCNTs. A MWCNT solution and powder were aerosolized using atomizing and shaking methods, respectively. Regardless of the phase and purity, the aerosolized MWCNTs showed consistent size distributions with both SMPS and APS. The SMPS and APS measurements revealed a dominant broad peak at approximately 200-400 nm and a distinct narrow peak at approximately 2 μm, respectively. Comparing with field application of the two aerosol instruments, the APS response could be a fingerprint of the MWCNTs in a real workplace environment. A modification of the atomizing method is recommended for the long-term inhalation toxicity studies.

  12. Modeling European ruminant production systems: facing the challenges of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipling, Richard Philip; Bannink, Andre; Bellocchi, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    changes affect a range of economic and environmental variables at regional, national and European scales. Models at larger scales generally utilise more empirical approaches than those applied at animal, field and farm-scales and include assumptions which may not be valid under climate change conditions......Ruminant production systems are important producers of food, support rural communities and culture, and help to maintain a range of ecosystem services including the sequestering of carbon in grassland soils. However, these systems also contribute significantly to climate change through greenhouse...... gas (GHG) emissions, while intensification of production has driven biodiversity and nutrient loss, and soil degradation. Modeling can offer insights into the complexity underlying the relationships between climate change, management and policy choices, food production, and the maintenance...

  13. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  14. Facing the challenge of a changing system: training child welfare workers in a privatized environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Debora M; Levy, Michelle M

    2002-01-01

    The state of Kansas' implementation of a privatized child welfare system is arguably an ambitious shift in child welfare service delivery. In an attempt to drastically improve services to vulnerable families, privatization resulted in intended and unintended consequences for the child welfare workforce. Some of these consequences, including the influx of inexperienced new workers, high worker turnover, and managing relationships with multiple partners, are issues that affect training needs of child welfare professionals. The following paper offers one approach to addressing these needs as well as identifying the challenges involved in training in a privatized environment.

  15. RESEARCH OF EFFICIENCY OF WALL-MOUNTED BOILERS WITH SEALED CHAMBERS USED AS FLAT HEATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khavanov Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    the heating system analysis and to define the area of application of various systems of heat supply. The principal decision based on the basis of the above analysis is the decision to install an independent or a centralized system of heat supply.

  16. Fission Surface Power Systems (FSPS) Project Final Report for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP): Fission Surface Power, Transition Face to Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palac, Donald T.

    2011-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power Systems Project became part of the ETDP on October 1, 2008. Its goal was to demonstrate fission power system technology readiness in an operationally relevant environment, while providing data on fission system characteristics pertinent to the use of a fission power system on planetary surfaces. During fiscal years 08 to 10, the FSPS project activities were dominated by hardware demonstrations of component technologies, to verify their readiness for inclusion in the fission surface power system. These Pathfinders demonstrated multi-kWe Stirling power conversion operating with heat delivered via liquid metal NaK, composite Ti/H2O heat pipe radiator panel operations at 400 K input water temperature, no-moving-part electromagnetic liquid metal pump operation with NaK at flight-like temperatures, and subscale performance of an electric resistance reactor simulator capable of reproducing characteristics of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of system-level testing, and a longer list of component technologies included in the attached report. Based on the successful conclusion of Pathfinder testing, work began in 2010 on design and development of the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU), a full-scale 1/4 power system-level non-nuclear assembly of a reactor simulator, power conversion, heat rejection, instrumentation and controls, and power management and distribution. The TDU will be developed and fabricated during fiscal years 11 and 12, culminating in initial testing with water cooling replacing the heat rejection system in 2012, and complete testing of the full TDU by the end of 2014. Due to its importance for Mars exploration, potential applicability to missions preceding Mars missions, and readiness for an early system-level demonstration, the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration program is currently planning to continue the project as the Fission Power Systems project, including emphasis on the TDU completion and testing.

  17. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — ... you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is ...

  18. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos ...

  19. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, ...

  20. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traumatic event — like combat, an assault, or a disaster — it's normal to feel scared, keyed up, or sad at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In ...

  1. Contaminant Interactions and Biological Effects of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Benthic Estuarine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Ashley Nicole

    The fate, bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have not been extensively studied to date. Pristine SWNT are highly hydrophobic and have been shown to strongly associate with natural particulate matter in aquatic environments. In light of this, I have focused my research to examine the influence of sediment and food exposure routes on bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of structurally diverse SWNT in several ecologically-important marine invertebrate species. No significant mortality was observed in any organism at concentrations up to 1000 mg/kg. Evidence of biouptake after ingestion was observed for pristine semiconducting SWNT using NIRF spectroscopy and for oxidized 14C-SWNT using liquid scintillation counting. After a 24 hour depuration period, the pristine semiconducting SWNT were eliminated from organisms to below the method detection limit (5 microg/mL), and the 14C-SWNT body burden was decreased by an order of magnitude to a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Trametes versicolor, the natural bacterial communities present in NBH sediment, and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge could degrade or mineralize oxidized 14C-SWNT. Over a six month time period, no significant degradation or mineralization was observed. In all treatments, approximately 99% of the 14C-SWNT remained associated with the solid phase, with only approximately 0.8% of added 14C present as dissolved species and only 0.1% present as 14CO2. These small pools of non-SWNT 14C were likely due to trace impurities, as no differences in production were observed between treatments and abiotic (killed) controls. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Zeeman Spectra of Ti I in Plasma Using a Facing Target Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Nishimiya, Nobuo; Suzuki, Masao

    2017-10-01

    The saturated absorption lines of neutral titanium were measured in the region of 9950-14380 cm-1 using a Ti:sapphire ring laser. A facing target sputtering system was used to obtain the gaseous state of a Ti I atom. The Zeeman splitting of 38 transitions was observed under the condition that the electric field component of a linearly polarized laser beam was parallel to the magnetic field. The gJ factors of the odd parity states were determined for 28 states belonging to 3d24s4p and 3d34p using those of the even parity states reported by Stachowska in 1997. The gJ factors of z5P1,2,3 levels were newly determined. gJ of y3F2, y3D2, z3P2, and z5S2 levels were refined.

  3. Influence of Education on Disease Activity and Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From the 1000 Canadian Faces of Lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Angela; Wong-Pak, Andrew; Peschken, Christine A; Silverman, Earl; Pineau, Christian; Smith, C Douglas; Arbillaga, Hector; Zummer, Michel; Bernatsky, Sasha; Hudson, Marie; Hitchon, Carol; Fortin, Paul R; Nevskaya, Tatiana; Pope, Janet E

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether socioeconomic status assessed by education is associated with disease activity and the risk of organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Data from the 1000 Canadian Faces of Lupus, a multicenter database of adult SLE patients, was used to compare education as either low (did not complete high school) or high (completed high school or further) for disease activity and damage. Education was also studied as a continuous variable. The relationships between education and SLE outcomes (any organ damage defined as a Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI] score ≥1, serious organ damage [SDI score ≥3], and end-stage renal disease) were evaluated using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and disease duration. A total of 562 SLE patients met inclusion criteria (mean age 47 years, 91% female, and mean disease duration of 10 years); 81% had high education. The low education group was twice as likely to be work disabled (30%; P education was significantly associated with higher disease activity at enrollment into the 1000 Canadian Faces of Lupus database, after adjustment for age (at entry and at diagnosis), race/ethnicity, and sex (B 1.255 + 0.507 [SE], β = 0.115, P = 0.014). In our adjusted logistic regression models we were unable to demonstrate significant associations between education and SLE damage. Results did not change when varying the education variable. In this cohort, low education was associated cross-sectionally with higher disease activity and work disability, but not damage. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. HNS-MS : Improving Member States preparedness to face an HNS pollution of the Marine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Sébastien; Le Floch, Stéphane; Aprin, Laurent; Partenay, Valérie; Donnay, Eric; Parmentier, Koen; Ovidio, Fabrice; Schallier, Ronny; Poncet, Florence; Chataing, Sophie; Poupon, Emmanuelle; Hellouvry, Yann-Hervé

    2017-04-01

    When dealing with a HNS pollution incident, one of the priority requirements is the identification of the hazard and an assessment of the risk posed to the public and responder safety, the environment and socioeconomic assets upon which a state or coastal community depend. The primary factors which determine the safety, environmental and socioeconomic impact of the released substance(s) relate to their physico-chemical properties and fate in the environment. Until now, preparedness actions at various levels have primarily aimed at classifying the general environmental or public health hazard of an HNS, or at performing a risk analysis of HNS transported in European marine regions. Operational datasheets have been (MIDSIS-TROCS) or are being (MAR-CIS) developed collating detailed, substance-specific information for responders and covering information needs at the first stage of an incident. However, contrary to oil pollution preparedness and response tools, only few decision-support tools used by Member State authorities (Coastguard agencies or other) integrate 3D models that are able to simulate the drift, fate and behaviour of HNS spills in the marine environment. When they do, they usually consider simplified or steady-state environmental conditions. As a significant step forward, a 'one-stop shop' integrated HNS decision-support system has been developed in the framework of the HNS-MS project. Focussing on the Bonn Agreement area, the system integrates 1. A database containing the physico-chemical parameters needed to compute the behaviour in the marine environment of 120 relevant HNS; 2. A digital atlas of the HNS environmental and socioeconomic vulnerability maps ; 3. A three dimensional HNS spill drift and fate model able to simulate HNS behaviour in the marine environment (including floaters, sinkers, evaporators and dissolvers). 4. A user-friendly web-based interface allowing Coastguard stations to launch a HNS drift simulation and visualize post

  5. Thermomechanical and chemical properties of porous W/liquid Li hybrid systems as plasma-facing self-healing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapat, Aveek; Lang, Eric; Neff, Anton; Allain, Jean Paul

    2017-10-01

    The environmental conditions at the plasma-material interface of a future nuclear fusion reactor interacting will be extreme. The incident plasma will carry heat fluxes of the order of 100's of MWm-2 and particle fluxes that can average 1024 m-2s-1. The fusion reactor wall would need to operate at high temperatures near 800 C and the incident energy of particles will vary from a few eV ions to MeV neutrons. A hybrid system, inspired by self-healing solid-state concepts, combines the ductile phase of liquid Li within a solid phase porous W. The liquid Li serves to control hydrogen retention and provide vapor shielding, within the framework of a tunable porosity to optimize edge plasma conditions [2]. Additionally, the porous interface can also provide for effective defect sinks for high duty cycle neutron damage. The surface chemistry of liquid Li on a porous surface varied with D irradiation is studied and its effect on retention. Prior results with refractory alloys have demonstrated effective wetting properties [3]. These hybrid systems, as well as traditional W samples, are bombarded with 500eV D2+and Ar+ at 230oC and 300oC. The Li, O, and C XPS peaks were examined and compared to controls. Additionally, the porous W is characterized for thermo-mechanical properties. Work supported by USDOE Contract DE- DE-SC0014267.

  6. Experience using an automated fault location system with a time-of-flight wall detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.; Greiman, W.; Hall, D.; Balaban, D.; Day, C.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the architecture of a general purpose monitoring system and give examples of it use with a 300 element detector array in a relativistic heavy ion experiment. The system has a simple and well defined interface between the detector specific parts of the system and those which are independent of any detector specific features. Tracking simple statistics on the fundamental data items (ADC and TDC values) are sufficient to diagnose the higher level components in the system. The monitoring of one-line beam data provides a sensitive monitor of global parameters of the experiment. 5 figs

  7. From Molecular Classification to Targeted Therapeutics: The Changing Face of Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Gastroesophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological classification of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma for esophageal cancer or using the Lauren classification for intestinal and diffuse type gastric cancer has limited clinical utility in the management of advanced disease. Germline mutations in E-cadherin (CDH1 or mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome were identified many years ago but given their rarity, the identification of these molecular alterations does not substantially impact treatment in the advanced setting. Recent molecular profiling studies of upper GI tumors have added to our knowledge of the underlying biology but have not led to an alternative classification system which can guide clinician’s therapeutic decisions. Recently the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has proposed four subtypes of gastric cancer dividing tumors into those positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite unstable tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Unfortunately to date, many phase III clinical trials involving molecularly targeted agents have failed to meet their survival endpoints due to their use in unselected populations. Future clinical trials should utilize molecular profiling of individual tumors in order to determine the optimal use of targeted therapies in preselected patients.

  8. The several faces of fear: ecological consequences of predation risk in a lagoon model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dettogni Guariento

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of predation risk on the occurrence of trophic cascades in a benthic food chain, and detect if the ecological consequences of predation risk can reverberate in patterns observed across different hierarchical scales, such as prey size, prey growth efficiency and nutrient recycling patterns. METHODS: The model system used in the present experiment consisted of a simple linear food chain comprising a predator, a consumer and periphyton as basal resources. For 2 weeks, we manipulated predation risk using caged predators, incapable of killing their prey, across twelve outdoor mesocosms, simulating natural lagoon conditions. RESULTS: Our results showed that predation risk can be responsible for the occurrence of a trophic cascade and the strength of the cascade is proportional to the intensity of risk. Predation risk can also negatively influence prey biomass and growth efficiency as well as affect nutrient recycling patterns by altering prey nutrient excretion rates. Through a simple mathematical formulation, we attempted to show that individual-level experimental results can be generalized to natural populations if evolutionary constraints to prey fitness can be reproduced in experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results corroborate to integrate ecosystem dynamics with animal behavior, highlighting that not only bottom-up but also top-down mechanisms are responsible for determining ecosystem properties. We ultimately claim that prey adaptive foraging may serve to integrate ecosystem and evolutionary ecology, resulting in the development of a more robust and predictive theory of the functioning of aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Bistability in a self-assembling system confined by elastic walls: Exact results in a one-dimensional lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Almarza, N. G. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-01-07

    The impact of confinement on self-assembly of particles interacting with short-range attraction and long-range repulsion potential is studied for thermodynamic states corresponding to local ordering of clusters or layers in the bulk. Exact and asymptotic expressions for the local density and for the effective potential between the confining surfaces are obtained for a one-dimensional lattice model introduced by J. Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 144903 (2013)]. The simple asymptotic formulas are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with exact results for slits containing at least 5 layers. We observe that the incommensurability of the system size and the average distance between the clusters or layers in the bulk leads to structural deformations that are different for different values of the chemical potential μ. The change of the type of defects is reflected in the dependence of density on μ that has a shape characteristic for phase transitions. Our results may help to avoid misinterpretation of the change of the type of defects as a phase transition in simulations of inhomogeneous systems. Finally, we show that a system confined by soft elastic walls may exhibit bistability such that two system sizes that differ approximately by the average distance between the clusters or layers are almost equally probable. This may happen when the equilibrium separation between the soft boundaries of an empty slit corresponds to the largest stress in the confined self-assembling system.

  10. Evaluation of a platelet lysate bilayered system for periodontal regeneration in a rat intrabony three-wall periodontal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Cai, Xinjie; Plachokova, Adelina S; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John; Gomes, Manuela E; Walboomers, X Frank

    2018-02-01

    With currently available therapies, full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues after periodontitis cannot be achieved. In this study, a combined compartmentalized system was tested, composed of (a) a platelet lysate (PL)-based construct, which was placed along the root aiming to regenerate the root cementum and periodontal ligament, and (b) a calcium phosphate cement composite incorporated with hyaluronic acid microspheres loaded with PL, aiming to promote the regeneration of alveolar bone. This bilayered system was assessed in a 3-wall periodontal defect in Wistar rats. The periodontal healing and the inflammatory response of the materials were scored for a period up to 6 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, histomorphometrical measurements were performed to assess the epithelial downgrowth, the formation of alveolar bone, and the formation of new connective tissue attachment. Our data showed that the stabilization of platelet-origin proteins on the root surface increased the overall periodontal healing score and restricted the formation of long epithelial junctions. Nevertheless, the faster degradation of the cement component with incorporated hyaluronic acid microspheres compromised the stability of the system, which hampered the periodontal regeneration. Overall, in this work, we proved the positive therapeutic effect of the immobilization of a PL-based construct over the root surface in a combined compartmentalized system to assist predictable healing of functional periodontium. Therefore, after optimization of the hard tissue analogue, the system should be further elaborated in (pre)clinical validation studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Rapid prototyping of SoC-based real-time vision system: application to image preprocessing and face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Maher; Alfalou, Ayman

    2017-05-01

    By this paper, the major goal is to investigate the Multi-CPU/FPGA SoC (System on Chip) design flow and to transfer a know-how and skills to rapidly design embedded real-time vision system. Our aim is to show how the use of these devices can be benefit for system level integration since they make possible simultaneous hardware and software development. We take the facial detection and pretreatments as case study since they have a great potential to be used in several applications such as video surveillance, building access control and criminal identification. The designed system use the Xilinx Zedboard platform. The last is the central element of the developed vision system. The video acquisition is performed using either standard webcam connected to the Zedboard via USB interface or several camera IP devices. The visualization of video content and intermediate results are possible with HDMI interface connected to HD display. The treatments embedded in the system are as follow: (i) pre-processing such as edge detection implemented in the ARM and in the reconfigurable logic, (ii) software implementation of motion detection and face detection using either ViolaJones or LBP (Local Binary Pattern), and (iii) application layer to select processing application and to display results in a web page. One uniquely interesting feature of the proposed system is that two functions have been developed to transmit data from and to the VDMA port. With the proposed optimization, the hardware implementation of the Sobel filter takes 27 ms and 76 ms for 640x480, and 720p resolutions, respectively. Hence, with the FPGA implementation, an acceleration of 5 times is obtained which allow the processing of 37 fps and 13 fps for 640x480, and 720p resolutions, respectively.

  12. Proton injector acceptance tests for a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA):characterisation of Advanced Injection System of Light Ions (AISLI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H.T.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, T.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, A.L.; Guo, Z.Y.; Chen, J.E.

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the acceleration capability of a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a proton injector has been developed at Peking University (PKU). It is composed of a compact permanent magnet 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (PKU PMECRIS) associated with a LEBT of two electrostatic Einzel lenses [1]. This injector is named as Advanced Injector System of Light Ions (AISLI). The acceptance tests have been performed with a 40 keV–55 mA hydrogen beam successfully passing through a ϕ 10 mm aperture diaphragm. This diaphragm is located 200 mm downstream the plasma emission hole at the location of the future DWA entrance flange. The beam rms emittance reached about 0.10 π mm mrad in pulsed mode. This article describes the AISLI experimental setup, the measurement principle and the obtained beam characteristics.

  13. Amperometric Detection of Sub-ppm Formaldehyde Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Hydroxylamines: A Referenced Chemiresistive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Shinsuke; Labuta, Jan; Nakanishi, Takashi; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2017-10-27

    We report amperometric detection of formaldehyde (HCHO) using hydroxylamine hydrochloride and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with HCHO to emit HCl vapor, which injects a hole carrier into semiconducting SWCNTs. The increase of conductivity in SWCNTs is easily monitored using an ohmmeter. The debundling of SWCNTs with a metallo-supramolecular polymer (MSP) increased the active surface area in the SWCNTs network, leading to excellent sensitivity to HCHO with a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.016 ppm. The response of sensor is reversible, and the sensor is reusable. The selectivity to HCHO is 10 5 -10 6 times higher than interferences with other volatiles such as water, methanol, and toluene. Moreover, false-positive responses caused by a significant variation of humidity and/or temperature are successfully discriminated from true-positive responses by using two sensors, one with and the other without hydroxylamine hydrochloride, in a referenced system.

  14. Smart and Resilient Cities. A Systemic Approach for Developing Cross-sectoral Strategies in the Face of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is considered one of the main environmental issues challenging contemporary cities. Meanwhile, urban development patterns and the growth of urban population represent the main contributors to climate change, affecting the total energy consumptions and the related greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, a breakthrough in current urban development patterns is required to counterbalance the climate-related issues.This study focuses on the Smart City and Resilient City concepts; in detail, based on the review of existing literature, it analyzes the synergies between the two concepts, highlighting how the Smart City concept is more and more widely interpreted as a process addressed to make cities “more livable and resilient and, hence, able to respond quicker to new challenges” (Kunzmann, 2014. Nevertheless, current initiatives to improve cities’ smartness and resilience in the European cities are very fragmented and operational tools capable to support multi-objective strategies are still at an early stage. To fill this gap, embracing a systemic perspective, the main characteristics of a smart and resilient urban system have been identified and arranged into a conceptual model. The latter represents a preliminary step for the development of an operational tool capable to guide planners and decision-makers in carrying out multi-objective strategies addressed to enhance the response capacities of complex urban systems in the face of climate change.

  15. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Fully Tetrahedral Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New Medium Fully Tetrahedral RSW Grid with viscous wind tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Medium Tet: Quad Surface Faces= 0...

  16. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Mixed Element Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Coarse Mixed Element Grid for the RSW with a viscous wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 9728 Tria...

  17. Modified superficial musculoaponeurotic system face-lift: a review of 327 consecutive procedures and a patient satisfaction assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Manuel Francisco; Lazzeri, Davide; Silvestri, Alessandro; Agostini, Tommaso; Gigliotti, Diego; Marcelli, Claudio; D'Aniello, Carlo; Gasparotti, Marco

    2011-04-01

    A conventional superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) face-lift is well established because it allows the skin envelope to be rotated in a bit more lateral direction than the cephalad redirection of the SMAS flap. This ensures an individualization of the treatment plan according to the needs of the patient and avoids a postoperative stretched look. However, this technique has some limitations with respect to its long-term effects on the sagging tissue, inadequate lifting of the malar fat pad, and flattening of the nasolabial fold. The procedure described by the authors consisted of a modified approach to conventional SMAS flap dissection for 327 patients with facial aging signs undergoing a face-lift. A pointing tongue-shaped flap of zygomaticotemporal fascia was dissected and preserved in the posterior half of the upper edge of the SMAS flap and anchored to the deep temporal fascia, enhancing the vertical support of the facial soft tissues. Outcomes were determined by case notes, clinical review, and a questionnaire. The study investigated 327 consecutive modified SMAS face-lifting procedures. Few complications were observed. Only two patients experienced small hematomas needing evacuation. Some patients reported bearable pain in the temporal region and tension during mouth opening. Temporary weakness in the branches of the facial nerve experienced by two patients resolved completely within some months. Two patients presented with dehiscence of the scar, and one patient experienced punctual retroauricular skin necrosis, which healed uneventfully with conservative treatment. Two patients reported that the knot in the temporal region was palpable through the skin. One patient experienced retroauricular infection. Only two patients required additional procedures. One mild hypertrophic scar responding to steroid injection over the mastoid area was observed in the entire series. With the reported technique, the authors achieved pleasing, natural, durable results

  18. The evolution of bat vestibular systems in the face of potential antagonistic selection pressures for flight and echolocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina T J Davies

    Full Text Available The vestibular system maintains the body's sense of balance and, therefore, was probably subject to strong selection during evolutionary transitions in locomotion. Among mammals, bats possess unique traits that place unusual demands on their vestibular systems. First, bats are capable of powered flight, which in birds is associated with enlarged semicircular canals. Second, many bats have enlarged cochleae associated with echolocation, and both cochleae and semicircular canals share a space within the petrosal bone. To determine how bat vestibular systems have evolved in the face of these pressures, we used micro-CT scans to compare canal morphology across species with contrasting flight and echolocation capabilities. We found no increase in canal radius in bats associated with the acquisition of powered flight, but canal radius did correlate with body mass in bat species from the suborder Yangochiroptera, and also in non-echolocating Old World fruit bats from the suborder Yinpterochiroptera. No such trend was seen in members of the Yinpterochiroptera that use laryngeal echolocation, although canal radius was associated with wing-tip roundedness in this group. We also found that the vestibular system scaled with cochlea size, although the relationship differed in species that use constant frequency echolocation. Across all bats, the shape of the anterior and lateral canals was associated with large cochlea size and small body size respectively, suggesting differential spatial constraints on each canal depending on its orientation within the skull. Thus in many echolocating bats, it seems that the combination of small body size and enlarged cochlea together act as a principal force on the vestibular system. The two main groups of echolocating bats displayed different canal morphologies, in terms of size and shape in relation to body mass and cochlear size, thus suggesting independent evolutionary pathways and offering tentative support for

  19. The evolution of bat vestibular systems in the face of potential antagonistic selection pressures for flight and echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bates, Paul J J; Maryanto, Ibnu; Cotton, James A; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    The vestibular system maintains the body's sense of balance and, therefore, was probably subject to strong selection during evolutionary transitions in locomotion. Among mammals, bats possess unique traits that place unusual demands on their vestibular systems. First, bats are capable of powered flight, which in birds is associated with enlarged semicircular canals. Second, many bats have enlarged cochleae associated with echolocation, and both cochleae and semicircular canals share a space within the petrosal bone. To determine how bat vestibular systems have evolved in the face of these pressures, we used micro-CT scans to compare canal morphology across species with contrasting flight and echolocation capabilities. We found no increase in canal radius in bats associated with the acquisition of powered flight, but canal radius did correlate with body mass in bat species from the suborder Yangochiroptera, and also in non-echolocating Old World fruit bats from the suborder Yinpterochiroptera. No such trend was seen in members of the Yinpterochiroptera that use laryngeal echolocation, although canal radius was associated with wing-tip roundedness in this group. We also found that the vestibular system scaled with cochlea size, although the relationship differed in species that use constant frequency echolocation. Across all bats, the shape of the anterior and lateral canals was associated with large cochlea size and small body size respectively, suggesting differential spatial constraints on each canal depending on its orientation within the skull. Thus in many echolocating bats, it seems that the combination of small body size and enlarged cochlea together act as a principal force on the vestibular system. The two main groups of echolocating bats displayed different canal morphologies, in terms of size and shape in relation to body mass and cochlear size, thus suggesting independent evolutionary pathways and offering tentative support for multiple acquisitions of

  20. The Evolution of Bat Vestibular Systems in the Face of Potential Antagonistic Selection Pressures for Flight and Echolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalina T. J.; Bates, Paul J. J.; Maryanto, Ibnu; Cotton, James A.; Rossiter, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The vestibular system maintains the body’s sense of balance and, therefore, was probably subject to strong selection during evolutionary transitions in locomotion. Among mammals, bats possess unique traits that place unusual demands on their vestibular systems. First, bats are capable of powered flight, which in birds is associated with enlarged semicircular canals. Second, many bats have enlarged cochleae associated with echolocation, and both cochleae and semicircular canals share a space within the petrosal bone. To determine how bat vestibular systems have evolved in the face of these pressures, we used micro-CT scans to compare canal morphology across species with contrasting flight and echolocation capabilities. We found no increase in canal radius in bats associated with the acquisition of powered flight, but canal radius did correlate with body mass in bat species from the suborder Yangochiroptera, and also in non-echolocating Old World fruit bats from the suborder Yinpterochiroptera. No such trend was seen in members of the Yinpterochiroptera that use laryngeal echolocation, although canal radius was associated with wing-tip roundedness in this group. We also found that the vestibular system scaled with cochlea size, although the relationship differed in species that use constant frequency echolocation. Across all bats, the shape of the anterior and lateral canals was associated with large cochlea size and small body size respectively, suggesting differential spatial constraints on each canal depending on its orientation within the skull. Thus in many echolocating bats, it seems that the combination of small body size and enlarged cochlea together act as a principal force on the vestibular system. The two main groups of echolocating bats displayed different canal morphologies, in terms of size and shape in relation to body mass and cochlear size, thus suggesting independent evolutionary pathways and offering tentative support for multiple acquisitions of

  1. A tale of two neglected systems-structure and function of the thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes in monocotyledonous leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C E J

    2013-01-01

    There is a large body of information relating to the ontogeny, development and the vasculature of eudicotyledonous leaves. However, there is less information available concerning the vascular anatomy of monocotyledonous leaves. This is surprising, given that there are two uniquely different phloem systems present in large groups such as grasses and sedges. Monocotyledonous leaves contain marginal, large, intermediate, and small longitudinal veins that are interconnected by numerous transverse veins. The longitudinal veins contain two metaphloem sieve tube types, which, based upon their ontogeny and position within the phloem, are termed early (thin-walled) and late (thick-walled) sieve tubes. Early metaphloem comprises sieve tubes, companion cells and vascular parenchyma (VP) cells, whilst the late metaphloem, contains thick-walled sieve tubes (TSTs) that lack companion cells. TSTs are generally adjacent to, or no more than one cell removed from the metaxylem. Unlike thin-walled sieve tube (ST) -companion cell complexes, TSTs are connected to parenchyma by pore-plasmodesma units and are generally symplasmically isolated from the STs. This paper addresses key structural and functional differences between thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes and explores the unique advantages of alternate transport strategies that this 5-7 million years old dual system may offer. It would seem that these two systems may enhance, add to, or play a significant role in increasing the efficiency of solute retrieval as well as of assimilate transfer.

  2. Integrating technical performances within design exploration : The case of an innovative Trombe wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosmatu, T.; Wattez, Y.C.M.; Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; Turrin, Michela; Peters, Brady; O'Brien, William; Stouffs, Rudi; Dogan, Timur

    2017-01-01

    The Double Face 2.0 research project aims at developing a novel type of an adaptive translucent Trombe wall. The novelty of the proposed system is based on the integration of new lightweight and translucent materials, used both for
    latent heat storage and insulation, advanced computational

  3. Numerical study on lateral wall displacement of deep excavation supported by IPS earth retention system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugen Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the 3D behavior characteristics of an excavation supported by an innovative prestressed support (IPS earth retention system. A numerical simulation was conducted in order to provide insight into the IPS system behavior by using the FLAC3D package. Prior to the parametric study, validation work was conducted by means of a comparison of the deformation between the field test data and numerical analysis results, and strong agreement was obtained. The reasonable excavation location, layered excavation thickness, and blocked excavation sequence are presented according to variable parameter analysis. In view of the previous findings, certain measurements are proposed in order to control the foundation pit deformation. The results indicate that prestress compensation has a significant effect on the IPS system behavior, while an optimized excavation sequence slightly improves its behavior. With the conclusion proposed based on the numerical results, the aim is to provide reference data for optimization design and the construction sequence. Keywords: FLAC3D, IPS system, Prestress compensation, Layered excavation, Blocked excavation, Deformation control

  4. Hybrid system of unbonded post-tensioned CLT panels and light-frame wood shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ho; T. Dao; S. Aaleti; J. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer

    2016-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a relatively new type of massive timber system that has shown to possess excellent mechanical properties and structural behavior in building construction. When post-tensioned with high-strength tendons, CLT panels perform well under cyclic loadings because of two key characteristics: their rocking behavior and self-centering capacity....

  5. [Localization of catalysis enzyme systems that degrade higher plants' cell wall polysaccharides. Pectinases (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N A; Bezborodov, A M

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews recent data on the locations and compositions of enzyme systems catalyzing the cleavage of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin polysaccharides in higher plants. The physiological functions and physicochemical properties of certain enzymes degrading pectin polymers in higher plants, fungi, and bacteria are described.

  6. Stope face support systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daehnke, A

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info GAP330_2.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 538 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name GAP330_2.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghua Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For silage production, high bulk density (BD is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC out of the penetration resistance (PR, transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m. The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3 demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  8. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Sun, Yurui; Cheng, Qiang; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Lin, Jianhui; Zhou, Haiyang; Wang, Zhongyi

    2016-07-05

    For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m(-3)) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos.

  9. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  10. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  11. Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-Effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costeux, Stephane [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Bunker, Shanon [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The objective of this project was to explore and potentially develop high performing insulation with increased R/inch and low impact on climate change that would help design highly insulating building envelope systems with more durable performance and lower overall system cost than envelopes with equivalent performance made with materials available today. The proposed technical approach relied on insulation foams with nanoscale pores (about 100 nm in size) in which heat transfer will be decreased. Through the development of new foaming methods, of new polymer formulations and new analytical techniques, and by advancing the understanding of how cells nucleate, expand and stabilize at the nanoscale, Dow successfully invented and developed methods to produce foams with 100 nm cells and 80% porosity by batch foaming at the laboratory scale. Measurements of the gas conductivity on small nanofoam specimen confirmed quantitatively the benefit of nanoscale cells (Knudsen effect) to increase insulation value, which was the key technical hypotheses of the program. In order to bring this technology closer to a viable semi-continuous/continuous process, the project team modified an existing continuous extrusion foaming process as well as designed and built a custom system to produce 6" x 6" foam panels. Dow demonstrated for the first time that nanofoams can be produced in a both processes. However, due to technical delays, foam characteristics achieved so far fall short of the 100 nm target set for optimal insulation foams. In parallel with the technology development, effort was directed to the determination of most promising applications for nanocellular insulation foam. Voice of Customer (VOC) exercise confirmed that demand for high-R value product will rise due to building code increased requirements in the near future, but that acceptance for novel products by building industry may be slow. Partnerships with green builders, initial launches in smaller markets (e.g. EIFS

  12. Responses of retaining wall and surrounding ground to pre-excavation dewatering in an alternated multi-aquifer-aquitard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao-Feng; Xue, Xiu-Li; Zheng, Gang; Xue, Teng-Yun; Mei, Guo-Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Pre-excavation dewatering (PED) is an important construction stage in deep excavation. Field measurements show that retaining walls can develop obvious deflections during PED, which has been rarely considered in the past. The characteristics of PED-induced wall deflection, and the relationship of this deflection to surrounding ground deformation are still unclear. In this study, a PED test is simulated by a numerical model. The model is verified by field observations and used to investigate the responses of retaining wall and surrounding ground to PED. Results indicate that the maximum wall defection (δhm) and surface settlement (δvm) can all reach centimeter level under common conditions of PED. The ratio of δvm to δhm varies at the range of 0.45-0.67. Wall and soil deformations will be more obvious if the soils within the dewatering depth (Hd) have better permeability. The relative positions between Hd and strata (i.e., aquifer or aquitard) have great influence on the PED-induced deformations. If an aquifer appears below Hd, further increasing Hd can induce a rapid growth of wall and soil deformations. If thick aquitard appears below Hd, the deformation increments by further increasing Hd are not apparent. However, once Hd exceeds the center of the thick aquitard and reaches a thick confined aquifer, the wall deflections and soil deformation zones behind the wall will enlarge significantly. Meanwhile, a large bending moment in the retaining wall will arise around the bottom of the confined aquifer. The designers should consider this condition and allocate enough steel rebars there, preventing the appearance of wall cracks in the confined aquifer.

  13. Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness...... and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios...... of small structures. ABS was used as material and different combinations of injection velocity, pressure and mold temperature were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical CMM machine. On the basis of the experimental investigation the efficacy of the embedded induction...

  14. Thermal to visible face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyun; Hu, Shuowen; Young, S. Susan; Davis, Larry S.

    2012-06-01

    In low light conditions, visible light face identification is infeasible due to the lack of illumination. For nighttime surveillance, thermal imaging is commonly used because of the intrinsic emissivity of thermal radiation from the human body. However, matching thermal images of faces acquired at nighttime to the predominantly visible light face imagery in existing government databases and watch lists is a challenging task. The difficulty arises from the significant difference between the face's thermal signature and its visible signature (i.e. the modality gap). To match the thermal face to the visible face acquired by the two different modalities, we applied face recognition algorithms that reduce the modality gap in each step of face identification, from low-level analysis to machine learning techniques. Specifically, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based approaches were used to correlate the thermal face signatures to the visible face signatures, yielding a thermal-to-visible face identification rate of 49.9%. While this work makes progress for thermal-to-visible face recognition, more efforts need to be devoted to solving this difficult task. Successful development of a thermal-to-visible face recognition system would significantly enhance the Nation's nighttime surveillance capabilities.

  15. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  16. The photosynthetic acclimation of Lolium perenne growing in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jonathan B. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Stands of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Bastion) were grown in the field at ambient or elevated (600μmol/mol) CO2 concentration, high (560Kg/ha) or low (140Kg/ha) nitrogen addition and with a frequent (every 4 weeks) or infrequent (every 8 weeks) cutting regime. Plants were in the second year of a 3 year experiment. Exposure to elevated CO2 was carried out with a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) system which provides the most "realistic" system of CO2 fumigation currently available. Elevated CO2 increased diurnal CO2 assimilation by between 34 and 88% whilst reducing rates of stomatal conductance by between 1 and 42%. However, analysis of the A vs. Ci response showed considerable acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to elevated CO2 - Vcmax as an in vivo measure of RubisCO activity, decreased by between 29 and 35% in high CO2, whilst Jmax, as a measure of the RubP regeneration capacity, showed no significant change. Two out of three additional perennial grassland species studied showed similar acclamatory behavior to Ryegrass. Diurnal assimilation rate, Jmax and, in most cases, Vcmax, increased significantly directly after cutting of Ryegrass stands, but nitrogen treatment had little effect on any of these parameters. Neither stomatal density, stomatal index nor stomatal pore length of Ryegrass were significantly altered by growth in elevated CO2. The results are discussed in terms of the limitation imposed on maximizing photosynthetic and growth responses of Ryegrass at elevated CO2, by the ability of perennial species to increase long-term sink capacity under these conditions.

  17. The JET ITER-like wall experiment: First results and lessons for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Lorne, E-mail: Lorne.Horton@jet.efda.org [EFDA-CSU Culham, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► JET has recently completed the installation of an ITER-like wall. ► Important operational aspects have changed with the new wall. ► Initial experiments have confirmed the expected low fuel retention. ► Disruption dynamics have change dramatically. ► Development of wall-compatible, ITER-relevant regimes of operation has begun. -- Abstract: The JET programme is strongly focused on preparations for ITER construction and exploitation. To this end, a major programme of machine enhancements has recently been completed, including a new ITER-like wall, in which the plasma-facing armour in the main vacuum chamber is beryllium while that in the divertor is tungsten—the same combination of plasma-facing materials foreseen for ITER. The goal of the initial experimental campaigns is to fully characterise operation with the new wall, concentrating in particular on plasma-material interactions, and to make direct comparisons of plasma performance with the previous, carbon wall. This is being done in a progressive manner, with the input power and plasma performance being increased in combination with the commissioning of a comprehensive new real-time protection system. Progress achieved during the first set of experimental campaigns with the new wall, which took place from September 2011 to July 2012, is reported.

  18. Effect of hydrogen on the growth and morphology of single wall carbon nanotubes synthesized on a Fe-Mo/MgO catalytic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj Napoca, RO-3400 (Romania)], E-mail: biris@oc1.itim-cj.ro; Li Zhongrui; Dervishi, Enkeleda [Applied Science Department, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Nanotechnology Center, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Lupu, Dan [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj Napoca, RO-3400 (Romania); Xu Yang; Saini, Viney [Applied Science Department, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Nanotechnology Center, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Watanabe, Fumiya [Nanotechnology Center, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Biris, Alexandru S. [Applied Science Department, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Nanotechnology Center, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)], E-mail: asbiris@ualr.edu

    2008-04-21

    Single wall carbon nanotubes were synthesized from thermal pyrolysis of methane on a Fe-Mo/MgO catalyst by radio frequency catalytic chemical vapor deposition (RF-CVD) using argon as a carrier gas. Controlled amounts of hydrogen (H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}=0-1 v/v) were introduced in separate experiments along with the carbon source. The properties and morphology of the synthesized single wall carbon nanotubes were monitored by transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. The nanotubes with the highest crystallinity were obtained with H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}=0.6. By monitoring the Radial Breathing Modes present in the Raman spectra of the single-wall carbon nanotube samples, the variation of the structural and morphological properties of the carbon nanotubes with the flow level of hydrogen, reflect changes of the catalyst systems induced by the presence of hydrogen.

  19. An Efficient Feature Extraction Method with Pseudo-Zernike Moment in RBF Neural Network-Based Human Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Majid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method for the recognition of human faces in digital images using a new feature extraction method that combines the global and local information in frontal view of facial images. Radial basis function (RBF neural network with a hybrid learning algorithm (HLA has been used as a classifier. The proposed feature extraction method includes human face localization derived from the shape information. An efficient distance measure as facial candidate threshold (FCT is defined to distinguish between face and nonface images. Pseudo-Zernike moment invariant (PZMI with an efficient method for selecting moment order has been used. A newly defined parameter named axis correction ratio (ACR of images for disregarding irrelevant information of face images is introduced. In this paper, the effect of these parameters in disregarding irrelevant information in recognition rate improvement is studied. Also we evaluate the effect of orders of PZMI in recognition rate of the proposed technique as well as RBF neural network learning speed. Simulation results on the face database of Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL indicate that the proposed method for human face recognition yielded a recognition rate of 99.3%.

  20. Collective coordinate models of domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized systems under the spin hall effect and longitudinal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, S. Ali, E-mail: ali.nasseri@isi.it [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Politecnico di Torino - Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Moretti, Simone; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca - Cardenal Plá y Deniel, 22, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Serpico, Claudio [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); University of Naples Federico II - Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Durin, Gianfranco [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) - Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Recent studies on heterostructures of ultrathin ferromagnets sandwiched between a heavy metal layer and an oxide have highlighted the importance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and broken inversion symmetry in domain wall (DW) motion. Specifically, chiral DWs are stabilized in these systems due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). SOC can also lead to enhanced current induced DW motion, with the Spin Hall effect (SHE) suggested as the dominant mechanism for this observation. The efficiency of SHE driven DW motion depends on the internal magnetic structure of the DW, which could be controlled using externally applied longitudinal in-plane fields. In this work, micromagnetic simulations and collective coordinate models are used to study current-driven DW motion under longitudinal in-plane fields in perpendicularly magnetized samples with strong DMI. Several extended collective coordinate models are developed to reproduce the micromagnetic results. While these extended models show improvements over traditional models of this kind, there are still discrepancies between them and micromagnetic simulations which require further work. - Highlights: • Moving DWs in PMA material maintain their structure under longitudinal in-plane fields. • As a result of longitudinal fields, magnetization in the domains becomes canted. • A critical longitudinal field was identified and correlated with the DMI strength. • A canted collective coordinate model was developed for DW motion under in-plane fields.

  1. Characterization of storage cell wall polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds and the formation of aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, T T; Rodrigues, N R; Serra, G E; Panegassi, V R; Buckeridge, M S

    1996-05-17

    Cell wall storage polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds of Dimorphandra mollis, Schizolobium parahybum (galactomannans), Copaifera langsdorffii, Hymenaea courbaril (xyloglucans) and the galactan from cotyledons of the Mediterranean species Lupinus angustifolius were extracted and their apparent molecular masses were determined by high-performance size exclusion chromatography analysis. They were, to a large degree, polydisperse, showing molecular masses that varied from 100,000 to 2,000,000. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1500, 4000, 6000 and 8000), sodium citrate and dextran (73,000, 60,000-90,000, 505,000 and 2,000,000) were used for investigating phase formation with the seed polysaccharides. Galactomannans and xyloglucans demonstrated phase formation with sodium citrate concentrations lower than 30%, as well as dextrans and polyethylene glycol, and formed gels in the presence of high concentrations of sodium citrate (above 30%). Galactan did not promote phase formation with any of the reagents used. On the basis of the results obtained, the possibility of using legume seed polysaccharides for the partitioning and purification of polysaccharide enzymes in aqueous two-phase systems is suggested.

  2. From 20th century metabolic wall charts to 21st century systems biology: database of mammalian metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Callan C; Grady, Cameron R; Pisitkun, Trairak; Parulekar, Jaya; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The organization of the mammalian genome into gene subsets corresponding to specific functional classes has provided key tools for systems biology research. Here, we have created a web-accessible resource called the Mammalian Metabolic Enzyme Database ( https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/MetabolicEnzymeDatabase.html) keyed to the biochemical reactions represented on iconic metabolic pathway wall charts created in the previous century. Overall, we have mapped 1,647 genes to these pathways, representing ~7 percent of the protein-coding genome. To illustrate the use of the database, we apply it to the area of kidney physiology. In so doing, we have created an additional database ( Database of Metabolic Enzymes in Kidney Tubule Segments: https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/), mapping mRNA abundance measurements (mined from RNA-Seq studies) for all metabolic enzymes to each of 14 renal tubule segments. We carry out bioinformatics analysis of the enzyme expression pattern among renal tubule segments and mine various data sources to identify vasopressin-regulated metabolic enzymes in the renal collecting duct. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes: biodegradation by gastric agents in vitro and effect on murine intestinal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masyutin, A.; Erokhina, M.; Sychevskaya, K.; Gusev, A.; Vasyukova, I.; Smirnova, E.; Onishchenko, G.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main questions limiting application of fibrous carbon nanomaterials (CNM) in medicine and food industry concerns presumptive degradation of CNM in living organisms. In this study, we have investigated biodegradation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by gastric agents in vitro and influence of ingested MWCNTs on murine intestine. Using scanning, conventional transmission and analytical electron microscopy, we demonstrated that industrial MWCNTs treated in vitro by 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (pH=1) and gastric juice (pH=2-3) isolated from murine stomach, are subjected to incomplete degradation. After 30 days of oral administration to experimental mice, we did find MWCNTs in the cells of small intestine, and it may indicate that agglomerates of MWCNTs do not penetrate into colon epithelia and do not accumulate in enterocytes. However, we observed local areas of necrotic damages of intestinal villi. It seems likely, therefore, that MWCNTs end up leaving gastrointestinal tract by excretion with the feces. Our results suggest that MWCNTs do not undergo complete degradation in gastrointestinal tract of mice, and passing through non-degraded particles may negatively affect intestinal system.

  4. Palaeoceanographic Variability of the Benguela Upwelling System Depending on the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) - Indicated by Organic-Walled Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, M.

    2003-12-01

    The causes and effects of the intensification of growth of the northern Hemisphere ice caps at around 3.2 and 2.74 Ma BP are still unclear. Possible causes are changes in the global ocean circulation and the global carbon cycle, which might have resulted from tectonic processes, solar insolation changes, or the interaction between both processes. The Benguela upwelling area forms a key area within the global ocean system. Here, warm and saline Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlantic Ocean and are transported to the north. Variability of this inflow may thus result in changes in deep-water production in the North Atlantic, thereby influencing the global thermohaline circulation. Furthermore, the Benguela area is characterized by extremely high bioproductivity in surface waters as a result of year-round upwelling. Variations in the upwelling intensity might lead to changes in atmospheric ¤CO2. To study the changes in the circulation and the upwelling intensity, within this region organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from two high-resolution cores (ODP 1084 and1082) covering the time interval from 3.3 to 2.5 Ma BP were investigated. Due to their sensitiveness to ecological parameters, organic-walled dinoflagellates reflect oceanographic characteristics keenly. The analyses discover clear distribution differences of individual species, especially of those that are sensible or resistant against aerobic decay. The sensible species, (Protoperidinium and Echinidinium), have their highest abundance from 2.76 to 2.73 Ma BP, a time interval in which the resistant species show no significant changes in their abundance. This implies that during this time interval the oxygen was reduced in the deep- and porewater suggesting that the global ocean deepwater circulation was weakened. Comparing these results with the known intensification of the NHG at around 2.74 Ma BP leads to the speculation that the increasing of ice caps in the northern hemisphere is highly associated with

  5. Analysis of three ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents in the first wall cooling system of NET/ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1993-01-01

    An ex-vessel LOCA may be caused by a rupture of a cooling pipe located outside the vacuum vessel. No plasma shutdown and no other counteractions have been assumed in order to study the worst case conditions of the accidents. The next three ex-vessel LOCAs in the primary cooling system of the first wall have been analysed: 1. a large break ex-vessel LOCA caused by a rupture of the cold leg (inner diameter 0.314 m) of the main circuit; 2. an intermediate break ex-vessel LOCA caused by a rupture of a sector inlet feeder (inner diameter 0.158 m); 3. an intermediate break ex-vessel LOCA caused by a rupture of the surge line (inner diameter 0.180 m) of the pressurizer. The analyses have been performed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3. In the first two scenarios, melting in the first wall starts about 90 s after break initiation. In the third scenario, melting in the first wall start about 323 s after break initiation. Special emphasis has been paid to the characteristics of the break flows, the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system, and the temperature development in the first wall. (orig.)

  6. eWALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Mihaylov, Mihail; Anggorojati, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    challenge with impact in multiple sectors. In this paper we present an innovative ICT solution, named eWALL, that aims to address these challenges by means of an advanced ICT infrastructure and home sensing environment; thus differentiating from existing eHealth and eCare solutions. The system of e...

  7. Science Education and the Challenges Facing Its Integration into the 21st Century School System in a Globalized World: A Case of Igbo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a study of historical foundations of science education in Igboland, its nature and scope as well as the challenges facing its integration into the 21st century school system in a globalized world. The authors found that there were many scientific activities in Igbo culture, but many problems hinder their integration into the basic…

  8. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T.; Alpers, Georg W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer—conveyed by facial expression and face direction—amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. PMID:28158672

  9. SYSTEMS OF INTERIOR STYLING AND TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS

    OpenAIRE

    samatdinov Marat Orynbaevich; Chkunin Anatoliy Sergeevich; Ivanov Kazbek Kazbekovich; Rumyantsev Georgiy Borisovich

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the quality of construction works and heat insulation efficiency of building envelope as well as providing additional fire proof and acoustic comfort suppose the use of special construction systems provided with the whole complex of components — composite construction systems. Composite interior systems include structural solutions of dividing walls, floors, suspended ceilings, inner facing of walls and fireproof facing, as well as assembling technology of these constructions. The ...

  10. Development of a new test system to determine penetration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes through filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Ziqing

    2013-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently used in numerous industrial and biomedical applications. Recent studies suggest that workers may be at risk of adverse health effects if they are exposed to CNTs. A National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) survey of the carbonaceous nanomaterial industry found that 77% of the companies used respiratory protection. Elastomeric half-mask respirators and filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are commonly used. Although numerous respirator filtration studies have been done with surrogate engineered nanoparticles, such as sodium chloride, penetration data from engineered nanoparticles such as CNTs are lacking. The aims of this study were to develop a new CNT aerosol respirator testing system and to determine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) penetration through FFRs. A custom-designed CNT aerosol respirator testing system (CNT-ARTS) was developed which was capable of producing a sufficient amount of airborne MWCNTs for testing of high efficiency FFRs. The size distribution of airborne MWCNTs was 20-10,000 nm, with 99% of the particles between 25 and 2840 nm. The count median diameter (CMD) was 209 nm with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.98. This particle size range is similar to those found in some work environments (particles ≤6000 nm). The penetration of MWCNTs through six tested FFR models at two constant flow rates of 30 and 85 LPM was determined. Penetration at 85 LPM (0.58-2.04% for N95, 0.15-0.32% for N99, and 0.007-0.009% for P100 FFRs) was greater compared with the values at 30 LPM (0.28-1.79% for N95, 0.10-0.24% for N99, and 0.005-0.006% for P100 FFRs). The most penetrating particle size through all six tested FFR models was found to be in the range of 25-130 nm and 35-200 nm for the 30-LPM and 85-LPM flow rates, respectively.

  11. Forced Transverse Vibration of a Closed Double Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube System Containing a Fluid with Effect of Compressive Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nasirshoaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Rayleigh beam theory, the forced transverse vibrations of a closed double single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT system containing a fluid with a Pasternak layer in-between are investigated. It is assumed that the two single-walled carbon nanotubes of the system are continuously joined by a Pasternak layer and both sides of SWCNTs containing a fluid are closed. The dynamic responses of the system caused by arbitrarily distributed continuous loads are obtained. The effect of compressive axial load on the forced vibrations of the double single-walled carbon nanotube system is discussed for one case of particular excitation loading. The properties of the forced transverse vibrations of the system are found to be significantly dependent on the compressive axial load. The steady-state vibration amplitudes of the SWCNT decrease with increasing of length of SWCNT. Vibrations caused by the harmonic exciting forces are discussed, and conditions of resonance and dynamic vibration absorption are formulated. The SWCNT-type dynamic absorber is a new concept of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which can be applied to suppress excessive vibrations of corresponding SWCNT systems.

  12. Turbine airfoil having near-wall cooling insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jr., Nicholas F.; Wiebe, David J.

    2017-09-12

    A turbine airfoil is provided with at least one insert positioned in a cavity in an airfoil interior. The insert extends along a span-wise extent of the turbine airfoil and includes first and second opposite faces. A first near-wall cooling channel is defined between the first face and a pressure sidewall of an airfoil outer wall. A second near-wall cooling channel is defined between the second face and a suction sidewall of the airfoil outer wall. The insert is configured to occupy an inactive volume in the airfoil interior so as to displace a coolant flow in the cavity toward the first and second near-wall cooling channels. A locating feature engages the insert with the outer wall for supporting the insert in position. The locating feature is configured to control flow of the coolant through the first or second near-wall cooling channel.

  13. Ancient engineering geology projects in China; A canal system in Ganzu province and trenches along the Great Wall in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Hanks, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    Two major construction projects of ancient times in China involved what today would be considered engineering geology. We describe an ancient canal system in Gaotai County, Gansu province that was possibly begun in the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). The canal system heads at the Dasha River and extends northwestward for about 55 km to the City of Camels and Xusanwan village. Four parallel canals are present at the local site we examined. The canals were likely built primarily to transport water but may also have served as defensive military barriers. A second project involves trenches and berms along the north side of the Great Wall, clearly part of the Great Wall defensive system. This site is in Ningxia Autonomous Region near the town of Shizuishan. ?? 1994.

  14. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Domain wall diffusion and domain wall softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W T; Salje, E K H; Bismayer, U

    2003-01-01

    A number of experimental and computational studies of materials have shown that transport rates in domain walls may significantly differ from those in the bulk. One possible explanation for enhanced transport in a domain wall is that the domain wall is elastically soft with respect to the bulk. We investigate the softening of a ferroelastic domain wall in a simple, generic model. We calculate saddle point energies of solute atoms in the bulk and domain wall, using a geometry such that variation in the saddle point energy cannot be attributed to the structural differences of the bulk and the wall, but must instead be attributed to softening of the wall. Our results show a reduction of the saddle point energy in the wall, thus indicating that, in this model at least, domain walls are elastically soft compared with the bulk. A simple analysis based on an Einstein model allows us to explain the observed softening of the wall

  16. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Attend Typically to Faces and Objects Presented within Their Picture Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Smith, K.; Riby, D. M.; Hancock, P. J. B.; Doherty-Sneddon, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require interventions for communication difficulties. One type of intervention is picture communication symbols which are proposed to improve comprehension of linguistic input for children with ASD. However, atypical attention to faces and objects is widely reported across the autism…

  17. Building elements and systems using vacuum insulated panels in external walling; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a research project concerning vacuum-insulated building elements and systems. The advantages of the thin vacuum insulation panels (VIP) are listed and compared with the increasingly thick layers of conventional insulation required for low energy consumption buildings that meet so-called 'passive house' standard. The aims of the research project are discussed which addressed the particular requirements placed on the materials and their protection against external damage. The monitoring of vacuum state using RFID chips is discussed. Various protective elements are examined. Also, facade constructions and the avoidance of thermal short circuits are discussed. Illustrated examples of applications are presented and developments in this fast-moving area are commented on.

  18. Detection of morphological changes in cliff face surrounding a waterfall using terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Waterfall or bedrock knickpoint appears as an erosional front in bedrock rivers forming deep v-shaped valley downstream. Following the rapid fluvial erosion of waterfall, rockfalls and gravita-tional collapses often occur in surrounding steep cliffs. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatio-temporal distribution have been limited due to the difficulties in direct access to such cliffs if with classical measurement methods. However, for the clarification of geomorphological processes oc-curring in the cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution is necessary. Re-mote sensing approaches are therefore suitable for the topographic measurements and detection of changes in such inaccessible cliffs. To achieve accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a wa-terfall, here we perform multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS). The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff, as well as groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock is composed of alternate layers of andesite lava and conglomerates. Minor rockfalls in the cliffs are often ob-served by local people. The latest major rockfall occurred in 1986, causing ca. 8-m upstream propa-gation of the waterfall lip. This provides a good opportunity to examine the changes in the surround-ing cliffs following the waterfall recession. Multi-time point clouds were obtained by TLS measure-ment over years, and the three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected, uncovering the locus of small rockfalls and gully developments. Erosion seems particularly frequent in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls seems to have occurred in the andesite layers. Also, shadows in the

  19. Limiter and first wall of the fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, I.; Skladnov, K.; Kolganov, V.

    1994-01-01

    Previous designing of the first wall and limiter has allowed to determine their possible embodiment depending on the parameters and operation conditions of the blanket. As a rule limiter is a separate structure located on the plasma facing surface of the blanket assembly. Possible versions of the limiter/FW which may be considered: (1) limiters with mechanical attachment of the protective part; (2) limiters with the attachment with brazing; (3) limiters with common/separate cooling system; (4) limiter as a substitute of the FW. Generally the FW/limiter structure includes protective shield and its cooling system which consist of protective coating, heat accumulator, conductive layer and attachment locks

  20. The Charophycean green algae as model systems to study plant cell walls and other evolutionary adaptations that gave rise to land plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Iben; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Doyle, Jeff J.; Domozych, David S.; Willats, William G.T.

    2012-01-01

    The Charophycean green algae (CGA) occupy a key phylogenetic position as the evolutionary grade that includes the sister group of the land plants (embryophytes), and so provide potentially valuable experimental systems to study the development and evolution of traits that were necessary for terrestrial colonization. The nature and molecular bases of such traits are still being determined, but one critical adaptation is thought to have been the evolution of a complex cell wall. Very little is ...

  1. Dismountable wall for radiation shielding and screen realized from this wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomart, P.

    1988-01-01

    The wall for protection against neutrons and gamma radiations is made of bricks with a shoulder on the upper and side faces and the complementary shape on the lower face to provide a barrier to radiations. Bricks are made of a heavy material for gamma absorption and of epoxy resin, boric acid and hydrated alumina [fr

  2. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of a...

  3. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  4. First wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Junji.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite and C/C composite are used recently for the first wall of a thermonuclear device since materials with small atom number have great impurity allowable capacity for plasmas. Among them, those materials having high thermal conduction are generally anisotropic and have an upper limit for the thickness upon production. Then, anisotropic materials are used for a heat receiving plate, such that the surfaces of the heat receiving plate on the side of lower heat conductivity are brought into contact with each other, and the side of higher thermal conductivity is arranged in parallel with small radius direction and the toroidal direction of the thermonuclear device. As a result, the incident heat on an edge portion can be transferred rapidly to the heat receiving plate, which can suppress the temperature elevation at the surface to thereby reduce the amount of abrasion. Since the heat expansion coefficient of the anisotropic materials is great in the direction of the lower heat conductivity and small in the direction of the higher heat conductivity, the gradient of a thermal load distribution in the direction of the higher heat expansion coefficient is small, and occurrence of thermal stresses due to temperature difference is reduced, to improve the reliability. (N.H.)

  5. How does plant cell wall nanoscale architecture correlate with enzymatic digestibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shi-You; Liu, Yu-San; Zeng, Yining; Himmel, Michael E; Baker, John O; Bayer, Edward A

    2012-11-23

    Greater understanding of the mechanisms contributing to chemical and enzymatic solubilization of plant cell walls is critical for enabling cost-effective industrial conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. Here, we report the use of correlative imaging in real time to assess the impact of pretreatment, as well as the resulting nanometer-scale changes in cell wall structure, upon subsequent digestion by two commercially relevant cellulase systems. We demonstrate that the small, noncomplexed fungal cellulases deconstruct cell walls using mechanisms that differ considerably from those of the larger, multienzyme complexes (cellulosomes). Furthermore, high-resolution measurement of the microfibrillar architecture of cell walls suggests that digestion is primarily facilitated by enabling enzyme access to the hydrophobic cellulose face. The data support the conclusion that ideal pretreatments should maximize lignin removal and minimize polysaccharide modification, thereby retaining the essentially native microfibrillar structure.

  6. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) attend typically to faces and objects presented within their picture communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Smith, K; Riby, D M; Hancock, P J B; Doherty-Sneddon, G

    2014-05-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require interventions for communication difficulties. One type of intervention is picture communication symbols which are proposed to improve comprehension of linguistic input for children with ASD. However, atypical attention to faces and objects is widely reported across the autism spectrum for several types of stimuli. In this study we used eye-tracking methodology to explore fixation duration and time taken to fixate on the object and face areas within picture communication symbols. Twenty-one children with ASD were compared with typically developing matched groups. Children with ASD were shown to have similar fixation patterns on face and object areas compared with typically developing matched groups. It is proposed that children with ASD attend to the images in a manner that does not differentiate them from typically developing individuals. Therefore children with and without autism have the same opportunity to encode the available information. We discuss what this may imply for interventions using picture symbols. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  8. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Poulsen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2 and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step

  9. Asymmetric Space Weathering on Lunar Crater Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Chae Kyung; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Lucey, Paul G.; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Choi, Young-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Using new topography-corrected spectral data from the SELENE spacecraft, here we report a new lunar crater property produced by space weathering. We find that the optical properties of north, south, east, and west walls vary systematically across the Moon; pole-facing walls are brighter and less red (i.e., less mature) than their equator-facing counterparts as latitude increases, which we explain by reduced solar wind flux in pole-facing slopes. On the nearside, we find that east-west differences in crater wall brightness and redness vary with longitude, which we explain by solar wind shielding as the Moon passes through the Earth's magnetosphere. Because micrometeoroids are largely unaffected by magnetosphere passage, the longitudinal effect is used to discriminate between micrometeoroid and solar wind effects. Thus, for the first time we quantify how surface optical properties vary with solar wind flux.

  10. Glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes sensor for the quantification of antihistamine drug pheniramine in solubilized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive electroanalytical method for quantification of pheniramine in pharmaceutical formulation has been investigated on the basis of the enhanced electrochemical response at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate. The experimental results suggest that the pheniramine in anionic surfactant solution exhibits electrocatalytic effect resulting in a marked enhancement of the peak current response. Peak current response is linearly dependent on the concentration of pheniramine in the range 200–1500 μg/mL with correlation coefficient 0.9987. The limit of detection is 58.31 μg/mL. The modified electrode shows good sensitivity and repeatability. Keywords: Pheniramine, Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, Glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (GCE-MWCNTs, Solubilized systems, Voltammetric quantification

  11. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  12. Effective indexing for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  13. The influence of insulation of walls of industrial objects on thermal regime at the heating system of gas infrared radiators

    OpenAIRE

    Nagornova Tatiana; Emelenchuk Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The results of a numerical study of the process of heat transfer from the gas infrared emitters in the heated accommodation are represented. Simulation was conducted taking into account the heat withdrawal in the enclosing constructions and of heat exchange with the environment. The estimation of the average values of temperatures of air indoors in the dependence on the different intensity of heat withdrawal into the vertical walls is carried out (when the layer of insulation is present, and ...

  14. Selective Internal Heat Distribution in Modified Trombe Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Jerzy; Kogut, Janusz; Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda

    2017-12-01

    At present, the requirements for thermal insulation of the external walls in buildings are being increased. There is a need to reduce energy consumption for heating rooms during the winter season. This may be achieved by increasing the thermal resistance of the outer partitions, using solutions that utilize either recuperation or solar radiation. The most popular systems include either solar collectors, or heat pump links or ground exchangers. Trombe walls (TW) are a very promising passive heating system, which requires little or no effort to operate, and may be very convenient in different climate conditions. A typical TW consists of a masonry wall painted a dark, heat absorbing paint colour and faced with a single or double layer of glass. The principle of operation is based on the photothermal conversion of solar radiation. There are various modifications of TW. They may improve the energy efficiency in relation to the climate conditions in which they operate. The hybrid solutions are also known. The efficiency of walls is related to the use of proper materials. In TW, the compromise should be sought between the thermal resistance and the ability to distribute heat from the absorbed energy of solar radiation. The paper presents an overview of the most commonly used solutions and discusses its own concept dedicated to the climate conditions of Central Europe.

  15. Amperometric detection of carbohydrates and thiols by using a glassy carbon electrode coated with Co oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes catalytic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Susanna; Brunetti, Barbara; Mannino, Saverio

    2008-07-15

    A glassy carbon electrode coated with cobalt oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) system was used for the detection of carbohydrates and thiols. The modification of the glassy carbon electrode increased the anodic current response of these organic compounds and decreased their overvoltage. The amperometric responses were extremely stable with no loss of sensitivity over many days of storage. Such attractive performance characteristics indicate great promise for using this new catalytic system for monitoring in fast and simple way compounds of great interest for food industry, biotechnology and clinical diagnostics.

  16. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  17. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  18. NET plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veieder, G.; Harrison, M.; Moons, F.

    1989-01-01

    The progress in the design and development of the first wall (FW) and divertor plates (DP) for the Next European Torus (NET) are summarized, highlighting the assumed main operating conditions, material choices, design options and their analysis as well as associated manufacturing studies and the ongoing testing programme. As plasma facing armor on both FW and DP, carbon based materials will be used at least during the initial physics phase due to their good performance in current tokamaks in respect to impurity control and disruption resistance. For the FW structure in water cooled austenitic steel, with radiation cooled armor adequate thermo-mechanical performance is predicted allowing peak heat fluxes of up to 0.8 MW/m 2 at 2 x 10 4 long duration burn pulses. For divertor concepts with the armor attached by brazing to a water cooled heatsink, the peak heat flux is about 10 MW/m 2 . However, the main critical issue for the DP is the lifetime which is critically limited by erosion. The demonstration of the basic feasibility of FW and DP design is in progress via manufacture and thermo-mechanical testing of prototypical mock-ups. (author). 26 refs.; 13 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. NET plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieider, G.; Harrison, M.; Moons, F.

    1989-01-01

    The progress in the design and development of the first wall (FW) and divertor plates (DP) for the Next European Torus (NET) are summarized, highlighting the assumed main operating conditions, material choices, design options and their analysis as well as associated manufacturing studies and the ongoing testing programme. As plasma facing armor on both FW and DP, carbon based materials will be used at least during the initial physics phase due to their good performance in current tokamaks in respect to impurity control and disruption resistance. For the FW structure in water cooled austenitic steel, with radiation cooled armor adequate thermo-mechanical performance is predicted allowing peak heat fluxes of up to 0.8 MW/m 2 at 2x10 4 long duration burn pulses. For divertor concepts with the armor attached by brazing to a water cooled heatsink, the peak heat flux is about 10 MW/m 2 . However, the main critical issue for the DP is the lifetime which is critically limited by erosion. The demonstation of the basic feasibility of FW and DP design is in progress via manufacture and thermo-mechanical testing of prototypical mock-ups. (orig.)

  20. Finding Hope in the Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgoose, Jennifer Y C; Edgoose, Julian M

    2017-05-01

    What does it mean to look into the face of a patient who looks back? Face-to-face encounters are at the heart of the patient-clinician relationship but their singular significance is often lost amid the demands of today's high-tech, metric-driven health care systems. Using the framework provided by the philosopher and Holocaust survivor Emmanuel Levinas, the authors explore the unique responsibility and potential for hope found only in face-to-face encounters. Revisiting this most fundamental attribute of medicine is likely our greatest chance to reclaim who we are as clinicians and why we do what we do. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  1. The influence of insulation of walls of industrial objects on thermal regime at the heating system of gas infrared radiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagornova Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a numerical study of the process of heat transfer from the gas infrared emitters in the heated accommodation are represented. Simulation was conducted taking into account the heat withdrawal in the enclosing constructions and of heat exchange with the environment. The estimation of the average values of temperatures of air indoors in the dependence on the different intensity of heat withdrawal into the vertical walls is carried out (when the layer of insulation is present, and without it.

  2. Duct having oscillatory side wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2018-04-03

    A pump system includes a particulate consolidator pump that has a pump outlet. A duct is coupled to the pump outlet. The duct has a wall that is coupled with an oscillator. The oscillator is operable to oscillate the wall at a controlled frequency. The controlled frequency is selected with respect to breaking static bridging of particulate in the duct due, at least in part, to consolidation of the particulate from a downstream check valve.

  3. New double-walled PH-sensitive hydrogel systems containing nanoparticle drug for colon-specific drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahkam, M.; Ranaei Siadat, S. O.

    2006-01-01

    Double-walled (DW) with a Core of mixture of nano or microparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (CMC) salt and model drug olsalazine [3, 3-azobis (6-hydroxy benzoic acid)] (OSZ) as an azo derivatives of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and an external coat of cross-linked copolymers of (acrylamido methyl) cellulose acetate butyrate (AMCAB) and methacrylic acid (MAA) with various amounts of 1, 6-hexandiol diacrylate (HDD) are considered cross-linking agents (CA). The core with nano composite was prepared by freeze drying method and then used as nuclei for subsequent shell copolymerization. The structure of core was characterized with scanning electron microscopy. The double-walled hydrogels were characterized by differential scanning colorimetry and FT-IR. Studies of drug release were carried out in enzyme-free , simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, respectively). The drug-release profiles indicated that the amount of drug released depended ed on the shell layer composition. The releasing was modulated by the amount of cross-linking in shell layer. Bused on the great difference in hydrolysis rates at pH 1 and 7.4, these pH-sensitive hydrogels appear to be good candidates, for colon-specific drug delivery

  4. U.S. Assessment of advanced limiter-divertor plasma-facing systems (ALPS) design, analysis, and R and D needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R. F.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the ALPS program is to identify and evaluate advanced limiter/diverter systems that will enhance the attractiveness of fusion power. The highest priority goals at present are achieving high power density, up to 50 MW/m 2 , and showing compatibility of plasma-facing surfaces with plasma operation. Personnel representing a wide range of disciplines from a number of institutions are engaged in the program, where an evaluation phase of the program is planned for three years. Successful identification of promising concepts in the evaluation phase should lead to an R and D phase that includes proof-of-principle experiments

  5. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  6. Atomic structure and work function of the metal-film systems: lithium-(011) face of tungsten or molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanash, O.V.; Fedorus, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The atomic structure and phase transitions in lithium films and also the variation of the work function under lithium adsorption on the (011) face of W or Mo are studied by the low electron diffraction and contact potential difference methods in a wide range of submonolayer coverage. In the low coverage range (theta 5/9), identical sets of anisotropic structures are formed on both substrates which are specific for localized adsorption. In the coverage range between 1/4 for W (011) or 1/6 for Mo (011) and 5/9 (for both substrates) the film grows by virtue of two consecutive first order phase transitions. In the remaining theta region the film compression proceeds continuously. A model of mixing of cells of various sizes is used to explain the continuity of the compression process. At low coverage the film atomic structure corresponds to a predominant effect of dipole-dipole interaction betWeen the adatoms, whereas at high coverage it corresponds to an indirect interaction. The temperature stability of the films at different theta is studied. The effect of the film structure on the work function and surface diffusion is discussed

  7. Operation and Analysis on the Monitoring System of Strain at Tunnel Wall and Temperature Variation for KURT using Optical Fiber Sensor Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Young Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Jung Yul

    2010-06-01

    Optical fiber cable, as a sensor, was attached and installed at the tunnel wall of KURT(KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in order to monitor the stability over time. This monitoring system have two types of function to observe and measure including strain and temperature variation based on the distributed sensing techniques for not point sensing where the sensor cable are installed. Based on the results of two years monitoring from Jan. 2008 to Nov. 2009, there is no significant displacement or movement at the tunnel wall of KURT. However, the cumulative volume of total strain level shows the mild increasing pattern as time passes in comparison with the result of reference data, which was firstly measured in Jan. 2008. Especially, the strain level of several points, where have been being affected by saturation and de-saturation phenomena due to groundwater fluctuation, would be increased smoothly in comparison with the other part of the tunnel wall, but not large. By using this system, it could be supported to know a displacement or deformation showing a strain value with the range from 20με to 28,000με, which would be converted with the range from 0.02mm/m to 28mm/m and cover 30km with every 1m interval in minimum. In temperature, it also could be possible to notify a temperature variation for every 0.5m interval with 0.01 .deg, C resolution in minimum within the range of -160∼600.deg. C according to the cable types

  8. Efficient degradation of methylene blue dye over tungsten trioxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube system as a novel photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinari, Mohammad; Momeni, Mohamad Mohsen; Ahangarpour, Marzieh [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Combination of acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube/tungsten trioxide (MWCNT/WO{sub 3}) with different MWCNT's weight percentages as visible light-induced photocatalysts for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye was synthesized. These photocatalysts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Their photocatalytic activities were tested by using MB as a model compound. The results show that the MWCNT/WO{sub 3} hybrid nanostructures exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than pure WO{sub 3} or MWCNTs due to their higher absorption enhancement in visible light region and effective separation of electrons and holes. The stability of the hybrid was characterized through cyclic photocatalytic test. (orig.)

  9. Enhanced biocompatibility of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by surface modification: Future perspectives for drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, C. M. S.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was carried out by introducing mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and nitric acid by ultrasonication process. The pristine and surface modified MWCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. FT-IR spectra revealed that the presence of carboxylic acid functional groups on the surface of MWCNTs. The integrated intensity ratio of pristine and surface modified MWCNTs was calculated by Raman spectroscopic analysis. XRD patterns examines the crystallinity of the surface modified MWCNTs. SEM analysis investigates the change in morphology of the surface modified MWCNTs compared with that of pristine, which is due to the attachment of the carboxylic acid functional groups. Surface modified MWCNTs acts as precursors for further functionalization with various biomolecules, which improves the biocompatibility and initiates the implementation of MWCNTs in the field of nanomedicine and targeted drug delivery.

  10. Material and structural mechanical modelling and reliability of thin-walled bellows at cryogenic temperatures. Application to LHC compensation system

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric; Skoczen, Blazej

    The present thesis is dedicated to the behaviour of austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The plastic strain induced martensitic transformation and ductile damage are taken into account in an elastic-plastic material modelling. The kinetic law of →’ transformation and the evolution laws of kinematic/isotropic mixed hardening are established. Damage issue is analysed by different ways: mesoscopic isotropic or orthotropic model and a microscopic approach. The material parameters are measured from 316L fine gauge sheet at three levels of temperature: 293 K, 77 K and 4.2 K. The model is applied to thin-walled corrugated shell, used in the LHC interconnections. The influence of the material properties on the stability is studied by a modal analysis. The reliability of the components, defined by the Weibull distribution law, is analysed from fatigue tests. The impact on reliability of geometrical imperfections and thermo-mechanical loads is also analysed.

  11. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  12. A Critical Look at the EFL Education and the Challenges Faced by Iranian Teachers in the Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Parvin; Rashidi, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate aim of any EFL program is to promote long life language development in learners and prepare them for the language use in real life communicative situations. However, many educational systems all over the globe might not achieve this end. Actually, a number of factors within or beyond any system can influence the success or the failure…

  13. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi-Taka Matsuda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.

  14. Experimental results of near real-time protection system for plasma facing components in Wendelstein 7-X at GLADIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Moncada, V.; Sitjes, A. Puig; Neu, R.; Pedersen, T. S.; the W7-X Team

    2017-12-01

    One of the aims of stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), is to investigate steady state operation, for which power exhaust is an important issue. The predominant fraction of the energy lost from the confined plasma region will be absorbed by an island divertors, which is designed for 10 {{MWm}}-2 steady state operation. In order to protect the divertor targets from overheating, 10 state-of-the-art infrared endoscopes will be installed at W7-X. In this work, we present the experimental results obtained at the high heat flux test facility GLADIS (Garching LArge DIvertor Sample test facility in IPP Garching) [1] during tests of a new plasma facing components (PFCs) protection algorithm designed for W7-X. The GLADIS device is equipped with two ion beams that can generate a heat load in the range from 3 MWm‑2 to 55 MWm‑2. The algorithms developed at W7-X to detect defects and hot spots are based on the analysis of surface temperature evolution and are adapted to work in near real-time. The aim of this work was to test the near real-time algorithms in conditions close to those expected in W7-X. The experiments were performed on W7-X pre-series tiles to detect CFC/Cu delaminations. For detection of surface layers, carbon fiber composite (CFC) blocks from the divertor of the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator were used to observe temporal behavior of fully developed surface layers. These layers of re-deposited materials, like carbon, boron, oxygen and iron, were formed during the W7-AS operation. A detailed analysis of the composition and their thermal response to high heat fluxes (HHF) are described in [2]. The experiments indicate that the automatic detection of critical events works according to W7-X PFC protection requirements.

  15. Application of Submerged Grouted Anchors in Sheet Pile Quay Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Mollahasani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Sheet pile walls are one of the oldest earth retention systems utilized in civil engineering projects. They are used for various purposes; such as excavation support system, cofferdams, cut-off walls under dams, slope stabilization, waterfront structures, and flood walls. Sheet pile walls are one of the most common types of quay walls used in port construction. The worldwide increases in utilization of large ships for transportation have created an urgent need of deepening the seabed within p...

  16. Face Verification for Mobile Personal Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we presented a detailed study of the face verification problem on the mobile device, covering every component of the system. The study includes face detection, registration, normalization, and verification. Furthermore, the information fusion problem is studied to verify face

  17. Intercity passenger rail : the congress faces critical decisions about the role of and funding for intercity passenger rail systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-25

    With the growth in the nation's highway and aviation systems in the : previous decades, intercity passenger rail service lost its competitive edge. Highways have enabled cars to be competitive with conventional passenger trains (those operating up to...

  18. Face-Lift Satisfaction Using the FACE-Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, Sammy; Schwitzer, Jonathan; Anzai, Lavinia; Thorne, Charles H

    2015-08-01

    Face lifting is one of the most common operative procedures for facial aging and perhaps the procedure most synonymous with plastic surgery in the minds of the lay public, but no verifiable documentation of patient satisfaction exists in the literature. This study is the first to examine face-lift outcomes and patient satisfaction using a validated questionnaire. One hundred five patients undergoing a face lift performed by the senior author (C.H.T.) using a high, extended-superficial musculoaponeurotic system with submental platysma approximation technique were asked to complete anonymously the FACE-Q by e-mail. FACE-Q scores were assessed for each domain (range, 0 to 100), with higher scores indicating greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Fifty-three patients completed the FACE-Q (50.5 percent response rate). Patients demonstrated high satisfaction with facial appearance (mean ± SD, 80.7 ± 22.3), and quality of life, including social confidence (90.4 ± 16.6), psychological well-being (92.8 ± 14.3), and early life impact (92.2 ± 16.4). Patients also reported extremely high satisfaction with their decision to undergo face lifting (90.5 ± 15.9). On average, patients felt they appeared 6.9 years younger than their actual age. Patients were most satisfied with the appearance of their nasolabial folds (86.2 ± 18.5), cheeks (86.1 ± 25.4), and lower face/jawline (86.0 ± 20.6), compared with their necks (78.1 ± 25.6) and area under the chin (67.9 ± 32.3). Patients who responded in this study were extremely satisfied with their decision to undergo face lifting and the outcomes and quality of life following the procedure.

  19. Analysis of longwall face-to-face transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, C.; Topuz, E.

    1992-01-01

    A non-producing longwall costs the mine owner from $45 to over $100 per minute in lost production time. Face-to-face equipment transfers, which involve disassembling longwall equipment in a panel, transporting, and then reassembling it in a new longwall panel, are second only to system availability as a source of longwall non-productive time. This, in addition to a move cost of over $100,000, makes reduction and control of face transfer times essential. This paper will report a segment of on-going VPI research to analyze and model longwall transfers through the use of operations research techniques. The purpose is to reduce overall transfer time and the variation of transfer times among U.S. longwall operations. This research is expected to contribute to the longwall mining industry by offering an objective approach that can be used in the prediction, planning, preparation, and implementation of longwall face equipment transfers

  20. Familiar Face Detection in 180ms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2015-01-01

    The visual system is tuned for rapid detection of faces, with the fastest choice saccade to a face at 100ms. Familiar faces have a more robust representation than do unfamiliar faces, and are detected faster in the absence of awareness and with reduced attentional resources. Faces of family and close friends become familiar over a protracted period involving learning the unique visual appearance, including a view-invariant representation, as well as person knowledge. We investigated the effect of personal familiarity on the earliest stages of face processing by using a saccadic-choice task to measure how fast familiar face detection can happen. Subjects made correct and reliable saccades to familiar faces when unfamiliar faces were distractors at 180ms—very rapid saccades that are 30 to 70ms earlier than the earliest evoked potential modulated by familiarity. By contrast, accuracy of saccades to unfamiliar faces with familiar faces as distractors did not exceed chance. Saccades to faces with object distractors were even faster (110 to 120 ms) and equivalent for familiar and unfamiliar faces, indicating that familiarity does not affect ultra-rapid saccades. We propose that detectors of diagnostic facial features for familiar faces develop in visual cortices through learning and allow rapid detection that precedes explicit recognition of identity. PMID:26305788

  1. Development of an extremely thin-wall straw tracker operational in vacuum – The COMET straw tracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, H.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Hamada, E.; Mihara, S.; Moiseenko, A.; Noguchi, K.; Oishi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tojo, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Tsverava, N.; Ueno, K.; Volkov, A.

    2017-01-01

    The COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for a lepton-flavour violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom, μ-e conversion, with a branching-ratio sensitivity of better than 10 −16 , 4 orders of magnitude better than the present limit, in order to explore the parameter region predicted by most of well-motivated theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. The need for this sensitivity places several stringent requirements on the detector development. The experiment requires to detect the monochromatic electron of 105 MeV, the momentum resolution is primarily limited by the multiple scattering effect for this momentum region. Thus we need the very light material detector in order to achieve an excellent momentum resolution, better than 2%, for 100 MeV region. In order to fulfil such a requirement, the thin-wall straw-tube planar tracker has been developed by an extremely light material which is operational in vacuum. The COMET straw tracker consists of 9.8 mm diameter straw tube, longer than 1 m length, with 20-μm-thick Mylar foil and 70-nm-thick aluminium deposition. Currently even thinner and smaller, 12 μm thick and 5 mm diameter, straw is under development by the ultrasonic welding technique.

  2. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...

  3. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  4. Evolution of the Stability Work from Classic Retaining Walls to Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Stanciu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the consolidation of soil mass and the construction of the stability works for roads infrastructure it was studied the evolution of these kinds of works from classical retaining walls - common concrete retaining walls, to the utilization in our days of the modern and competitive methods - mechanically stabilized earth walls. Like type of execution the variety of the reinforced soil is given by the utilization of different types of reinforcing inclusions (steel strips, geosynthetics, geogrids or facing (precast concrete panels, dry cast modular blocks, metal sheets and plates, gabions, and wrapped sheets of geosynthetics.

  5. The Charophycean green algae as model systems to study plant cell walls and other evolutionary adaptations that gave rise to land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Iben; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Doyle, Jeff J; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    The Charophycean green algae (CGA) occupy a key phylogenetic position as the evolutionary grade that includes the sister group of the land plants (embryophytes), and so provide potentially valuable experimental systems to study the development and evolution of traits that were necessary for terrestrial colonization. The nature and molecular bases of such traits are still being determined, but one critical adaptation is thought to have been the evolution of a complex cell wall. Very little is known about the identity, origins and diversity of the biosynthetic machinery producing the major suites of structural polymers (i. e., cell wall polysaccharides and associated molecules) that must have been in place for land colonization. However, it has been suggested that the success of the earliest land plants was partly based on the frequency of gene duplication, and possibly whole genome duplications, during times of radical habitat changes. Orders of the CGA span early diverging taxa retaining more ancestral characters, through complex multicellular organisms with morphological characteristics resembling those of land plants. Examination of gene diversity and evolution within the CGA could help reveal when and how the molecular pathways required for synthesis of key structural polymers in land plants arose.

  6. Systemic and immunotoxicity of pristine and PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes in an intravenous 28 days repeated dose toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Shanshan; Hu, Yuanyuan; Li, Han; Zhang, Tao; Xue, Yuying; Pu, Yuepu

    2017-01-01

    The numerous increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from nanotechnology has raised concerns about their biosafety and potential toxicity. CNTs cause immunologic dysfunction and limit the application of CNTs in biomedicine. The immunological responses induced by pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs) and PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-PEG) on BALB/c mice via an intravenous administration were investigated. The results reflect that the p-MWCNTs induced significant increases in spleen, thymus, and lung weight. Mice treated with p-MWCNTs showed altered lymphocyte populations (CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + , and CD19 + ) in peripheral blood and increased serum IgM and IgG levels, and splenic macrophage ultrastructure indicated mitochondria swelling. p-MWCNTs inhibited humoral and cellular immunity function and were associated with decreased immune responses against sheep erythrocytes and serum hemolysis level. Natural killer (NK) activity was not modified by two types of MWCNTs. In comparison with two types of MWCNTs, for a same dose, p-MWCNTs caused higher levels of inflammation and immunosuppression than MWCNTs-PEG. The results of immunological function suggested that after intravenous administration with p-MWCNTs caused more damage to systemic immunity than MWCNTs-PEG. Here, we demonstrated that a surface functional modification on MWCNTs reduces their immune perturbations in vivo. The chemistry-modified MWCNTs change their preferred immune response in vivo and reduce the immunotoxicity of p-MWCNTs.

  7. Determination of heat transfer coefficient between a fluid and a wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, D.; Dard, J.; Degiovanni, A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors show the extent to which one can assume the existence of a constant heat transfer coefficient between a fluid and a wall in transient thermal conditions, and the means of estimating it. After reviewing investigations reported in the literature (coefficient assumed constant or not), they present two models based on a pulse method: sudden increase in wall temperature, cooling by fluid flow, temperature recording of the wall face not in contact with the fluid-wether or not the fluid is heated. They present the experimental system, define the tranfer coefficient, and make the calculation from the thermogram obtained. For water and air, they analyze the variations in coefficient as a function of fluid flow rate, initial pulse, temperature detector position, and show that the method proposed yields reproducible results [fr

  8. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002980.htm Head and face reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or ...

  9. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, the report addresses the problem of detecting faces in color images in the presence of various lighting conditions and complex backgrounds as well as recognizing faces under variations...

  10. Curative effects of microneedle fractional radiofrequency system on skin laxity in Asian patients: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled face-split study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenli; Wu, Pinru; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Jinan; Chen, Xiangdong; Ewelina, Biskup

    2017-04-01

    To date, no studies compared curative effects of thermal lesions in deep and superficial dermal layers in the same patient (face-split study). To evaluate skin laxity effects of microneedle fractional radiofrequency induced thermal lesions in different dermal layers. 13 patients underwent three sessions of a randomized face-split microneedle fractional radiofrequency system (MFRS) treatment of deep dermal and superficial dermal layer. Skin laxity changes were evaluated objectively (digital images, 2 independent experts) and subjectively (patients' satisfaction numerical rating). 12 of 13 subjects completed a course of 3 treatments and a 1-year follow-up. Improvement of nasolabial folds in deep dermal approach was significantly better than that in superficial approach at three months (P=.0002) and 12 months (P=.0057) follow-up. Effects on infraorbital rhytides were only slightly better (P=.3531). MFRS is an effective method to improve skin laxity. Thermal lesion approach seems to provide better outcomes when applied to deep dermal layers. It is necessary to consider the skin thickness of different facial regions when choosing the treatment depth.

  11. System-based identification of toxicity pathways associated with multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced pathological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder-Talkington, Brandi N.; Dymacek, Julian; Porter, Dale W.; Wolfarth, Michael G.; Mercer, Robert R.; Pacurari, Maricica; Denvir, James; Castranova, Vincent; Qian, Yong; Guo, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    The fibrous shape and biopersistence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have raised concern over their potential toxicity after pulmonary exposure. As in vivo exposure to MWCNT produced a transient inflammatory and progressive fibrotic response, this study sought to identify significant biological processes associated with lung inflammation and fibrosis pathology data, based upon whole genome mRNA expression, bronchoaveolar lavage scores, and morphometric analysis from C57BL/6J mice exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μg MWCNT at 1, 7, 28, or 56 days post-exposure. Using a novel computational model employing non-negative matrix factorization and Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation, significant biological processes with expression similar to MWCNT-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis pathology data in mice were identified. A subset of genes in these processes was determined to be functionally related to either fibrosis or inflammation by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and was used to determine potential significant signaling cascades. Two genes determined to be functionally related to inflammation and fibrosis, vascular endothelial growth factor A (vegfa) and C-C motif chemokine 2 (ccl2), were confirmed by in vitro studies of mRNA and protein expression in small airway epithelial cells exposed to MWCNT as concordant with in vivo expression. This study identified that the novel computational model was sufficient to determine biological processes strongly associated with the pathology of lung inflammation and fibrosis and could identify potential toxicity signaling pathways and mechanisms of MWCNT exposure which could be used for future animal studies to support human risk assessment and intervention efforts. - Highlights: • A novel computational model identified toxicity pathways matching in vivo pathology. • Systematic identification of MWCNT-induced biological processes in mouse lungs • MWCNT-induced functional networks of lung

  12. System-based identification of toxicity pathways associated with multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced pathological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder-Talkington, Brandi N. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Dymacek, Julian [Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6070 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9300 (United States); Porter, Dale W.; Wolfarth, Michael G.; Mercer, Robert R. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Pacurari, Maricica [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9300 (United States); Denvir, James [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Castranova, Vincent [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Qian, Yong, E-mail: yaq2@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Guo, Nancy L., E-mail: lguo@hsc.wvu.edu [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9300 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The fibrous shape and biopersistence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have raised concern over their potential toxicity after pulmonary exposure. As in vivo exposure to MWCNT produced a transient inflammatory and progressive fibrotic response, this study sought to identify significant biological processes associated with lung inflammation and fibrosis pathology data, based upon whole genome mRNA expression, bronchoaveolar lavage scores, and morphometric analysis from C57BL/6J mice exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μg MWCNT at 1, 7, 28, or 56 days post-exposure. Using a novel computational model employing non-negative matrix factorization and Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation, significant biological processes with expression similar to MWCNT-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis pathology data in mice were identified. A subset of genes in these processes was determined to be functionally related to either fibrosis or inflammation by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and was used to determine potential significant signaling cascades. Two genes determined to be functionally related to inflammation and fibrosis, vascular endothelial growth factor A (vegfa) and C-C motif chemokine 2 (ccl2), were confirmed by in vitro studies of mRNA and protein expression in small airway epithelial cells exposed to MWCNT as concordant with in vivo expression. This study identified that the novel computational model was sufficient to determine biological processes strongly associated with the pathology of lung inflammation and fibrosis and could identify potential toxicity signaling pathways and mechanisms of MWCNT exposure which could be used for future animal studies to support human risk assessment and intervention efforts. - Highlights: • A novel computational model identified toxicity pathways matching in vivo pathology. • Systematic identification of MWCNT-induced biological processes in mouse lungs • MWCNT-induced functional networks of lung

  13. Biodistribution and toxicological study of PEGylated single-wall carbon nanotubes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Gisele E.B.; Dal Bosco, Lidiane [Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS, 96210-900 (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas–Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG, Rio Grande, RS, 96210-900 (Brazil); Gonçalves, Carla O.F.; Santos, Adelina P. [Laboratório de Química de Nanoestruturas, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Fantini, Cristiano [Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Departamento de Física, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Furtado, Clascídia A. [Laboratório de Química de Nanoestruturas, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Parfitt, Gustavo M.; Peixoto, Carolina [Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS, 96210-900 (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas–Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG, Rio Grande, RS, 96210-900 (Brazil); Romano, Luis Alberto [Instituto de Oceanografía, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS, 96210-030 (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-01

    Nanotechnology has been proven to be increasingly compatible with pharmacological and biomedical applications. Therefore, we evaluated the biological interactions of single-wall carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWNT-PEG). For this purpose, we analyzed biochemical, histological, behavioral and biodistribution parameters to understand how this material behaves in vitro and in vivo using the fish Danio rerio (zebrafish) as a biological model. The in vitro results for fish brain homogenates indicated that SWNT-PEG had an effect on lipid peroxidation and GSH (reduced glutathione) content. However, after intraperitoneal exposure, SWNT-PEG proved to be less biocompatible and formed aggregates, suggesting that the PEG used for the nanoparticle functionalization was of an inappropriate size for maintaining product stability in a biological environment. This problem with functionalization may have contributed to the low or practically absent biodistribution of SWNT-PEG in zebrafish tissues, as verified by Raman spectroscopy. There was an accumulation of material in the abdominal cavity that led to inflammation and behavioral disturbances, as evaluated by a histological analysis and an open field test, respectively. These results provide evidence of a lack of biocompatibility of SWNTs modified with short chain PEGs, which leads to the accumulation of the material, tissue damage and behavioral alterations in the tested subjects. - Highlights: • In vitro brain exposure diminished lipid peroxidation. • In vitro brain exposure depletes the GSH content. • SWNT-PEG was not biocompatible and formed aggregates after the exposure. • Practically absent biodistribution of SWNT-PEG was observed by Raman spectroscopy. • SWNT-PEG exposure lead to tissue damage and inflammatory responses.

  14. LA PLATAFORMA ILIAS COMO APOYO A LA DOCENCIA PRESENCIAL EN INGENIERÍA TÉCNICA (INDUSTRIAL LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ILIAS AS A DIDACTIC INSTRUMENT FOR SUPPORTING FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUCTION ON TECHNICAL INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Tejada, María del Mar

    2010-04-01

    University of Jaén. It will also be suggested how to use “ILIAS” as a didactic instrument for supporting the classroom teaching. To illustrate this, we will offer the example of how “ILIAS” is used in the subjects of Electric Physics and Mechanic Physics from the degree of Technical Industrial Engineering at the University of Jaén. Taking such subjects as a specific example, we will discuss which advantages “ILIAS” can offer the classroom teaching, which difficulties we could face when using it, and how do students assess the use of this tool. As the conclusion, we will say that Learning Management Systems can contribute new educative resources to classroom teaching in aspects such as communication, diffusion of didactic materials, and assessment of the students’ evolution. These resources, despite their limitations, enrich the learning process and are favorably valued by the students.

  15. Seismic performance on stiffness and hysteresis loop of interior wall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wall-slab is a system suitable for use in the field of high-rise building where the main load resisting system is in the form rigidly connected wall-slab member. This paper presents the performance of a full-scale wall-slab joint in tunnel form system subjected to lateral cyclic loading. The objectives are to determine seismic ...

  16. Prosopagnosia when all faces look the same

    CERN Document Server

    Rivolta, Davide

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with a simplified and comprehensive account of the cognitive and neural bases of face perception in humans. Faces are ubiquitous in our environment and we rely on them during social interactions. The human face processing system allows us to extract information about the identity, gender, age, mood, race, attractiveness and approachability of other people in about a fraction of a second, just by glancing at their faces.  By introducing readers to the most relevant research on face recognition, this book seeks to answer the questions: “Why are humans so fast at recognizing faces?”, “Why are humans so efficient at recognizing faces?”, “Do faces represent a particular category for the human visual system?”, What makes face perception in humans so special?, “Can our face recognition system fail”?  This book presents the author’s findings on face perception during his research studies on both normal subjects and subjects with prosopagnosia, a neurological disorder cha...

  17. Development of real time system imaging software for the protection of plasma facing components(PFCs) in Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Adnan; Jakubowski, Marcin; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas; Rodatos, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany); Greuner, Henri [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    One of the main aims of Wendelstein 7-X, an advanced stellarator in Greifswald, is the investigation of quasi-steady state operation of magnetic fusion devices, for which power exhaust is a very important issue. The predominant fraction of the energy lost from the confined plasma region will be removed by 10 so-called island divertors, which can sustain up to 10 MW/Sq-m. In order to protect the divertor elements from overheating and to monitor power deposition onto the divertor elements, 10 state-of-the-art infrared endoscopes will be installed at W7-X and software is under development for real-time analysis of automatic detection of the hot spots and other abnormal events. The pre-defined algorithms designed for early detection of defects e.g. hotspots, surface layers and delaminations during the discharge are being implemented into the software acquiring the images from the infrared cameras and broadcast them to the main Discharge Control System(DCS). This allows for automatic control of the scenario of the discharge in order to assure safe operation of W7-X. The first online tests of the software will soon be performed at GLADIS in Garching.

  18. Magnetic charge distribution and stray field landscape of asymmetric néel walls in a magnetically patterned exchange bias layer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingsem, Norbert; Ahrend, Florian; Vock, Silvia; Gottlob, Daniel; Krug, Ingo; Doganay, Hatice; Holzinger, Dennis; Neu, Volker; Ehresmann, Arno

    2017-12-01

    The 3D stray field landscape above an exchange bias layer system with engineered domain walls has been fully characterized by quantitative magnetic force microscopy (qMFM) measurements. This method is based on a complete quantification of the MFM tip’s imaging properties and the subtraction of its contribution from the measured MFM data by deconvolution in Fourier space. The magnetically patterned Ir17Mn83/Co70Fe30-exchange-bias-multilayers have been designed to contain asymmetric head-to-head (hh)/tail-to-tail (tt) Néel walls between domains of different magnetic anisotropies for potential use in guided particle transport. In the current application, qMFM reveals the effective magnetic charge profile on the surface of the sample—with high spatial resolution and in an absolute quantitative manner. These data enable to calculate the magnetostatic potential and the full stray field landscape above the sample surface. It has been successfully tested against: (i) micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization structure of a comparable exchange-bias layer system, (ii) measurements of the magnetization profile across the domain boundary with x-ray photoemission electron microscopy, and (iii) direct stray field measurements obtained by scanning Hall probe microscopy at elevated scan heights. This approach results in a quantitative determination of the stray field landscape at close distances to the sample surface, which will be of importance for remote magnetic particle transport applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. Furthermore, the highly resolving and quantitative MFM approach reveals details of the domain transition across the artificially structured phase boundary, which have to be attributed to a continuous change in the materials parameters across this boundary, rather than an abrupt one.

  19. Towards intelligent video understanding applied to plasma facing component monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, V.; Travere, J.M.; Moncada, V.; Bremond, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we promote intelligent plasma facing component video monitoring for both real-time purposes (machine protection issues) and post event analysis purposes (plasma-wall interaction understanding). We propose a vision-based system able to automatically detect and classify into different pre-defined categories thermal phenomena such as localized hot spots or transient thermal events (e.g. electrical arcing) from infrared imaging data of PFCs. This original computer vision system is made intelligent by endowing it with high level reasoning (i.e. integration of a priori knowledge of thermal event spatio-temporal properties to guide the recognition), self-adaptability to varying conditions (e.g. different thermal scenes and plasma scenarios), and learning capabilities (e.g. statistical modelling of event behaviour based on training samples). (authors)

  20. SM = SM: The Interface of Systems Medicine and Sexual Medicine for Facing Non-Communicable Diseases in a Gender-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2017-07-01

    Complex non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disorders, are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The complexity of NCDs requires innovative, integrated, and interdisciplinary approaches for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention by adopting the new paradigm called systems medicine. A growing body of evidence suggests that sexual dysfunction in general and erectile and lubrication dysfunctions in particular are, in a sex-dependent manner, efficient predictors of overall systemic well-being. However, the relation between systems medicine and sexual medicine is not well defined. To demonstrate that in combating the major NCDs, sexual health can be used as a surrogate marker of systemic health and can facilitate the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of NCDs. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed publications on the topic was performed through a PubMed search. Because there is a strong biological basis for the developmental origins of health and disease not only in the early phases of development but also later in life, the identification of appropriate biomarkers is essential for monitoring these timelines and trajectories for better understanding NCD processes, risk stratification for NCD intervention, and prevention. In this review, I propose a novel approach in which sexual medicine can be used as a new tool to understand and manage NCDs and as a marker of systemic health. Moreover, the multipronged application of systems medicine to pathophysiologic changes leading to sexual dysfunction might sustain the growth of a young science such as sexual medicine. This multilevel approach has the potential to suggest novel avenues for the comprehensive management of NCDs and sexual dysfunction in a sex-dependent manner. Jannini EA. SM = SM: The Interface of Systems Medicine and Sexual Medicine for Facing Non-Communicable Diseases in a Gender-Dependent Manner. Sex Med Rev 2017

  1. ITER plasma facing materials. Some critical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, V.; Dietz, K.J.; Federici, G.; Janeschitz, G.; Matera, R.; Tanaka, S.

    1995-01-01

    The description of current status with the choice of materials for ITER plasma facing components is presented. The main problem with lifetime of divertor elements is the particle and energy-induced erosion of armour materials. A solution for the first operation phase consists in using Be as an armour for the first wall and the divertor, however other possible materials (e.g. W) could be considered. (orig.)

  2. Composite steel panels for tornado missile barrier walls. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    A composite steel panel wall system is defined as a wall system with concrete fill sandwiched between two steel layers such that no concrete surface is exposed on the interior or the exterior wall surface. Three full scale missile tests were conducted on two specific composite wall systems. The results of the full scale tests were in good agreement with the finalized theory. The theory is presented, and the acceptance of the theory for design calculations is discussed

  3. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cabanillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p<0.05. Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  4. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  5. Effects of LATCH versus Available Seatbelt Installation of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on Head Injury Criteria for 6 Month Old Infants in Rear End Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jamie R; O'Donel, Carrie A; Leiss, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The Lower Anchor and Tethers for CHildren (LATCH) system was introduced in vehicles made after September 1, 2002 and intended to make installation of rear and forward-facing child safety seats easier. Due to the lack of rear impact testing of RFCRS required per the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), the purpose of this study was to explore the effects, if any, of installation method of RFCRS on the performance of commonly purchased makes and models of RFCRS. Specifically, we hypothesize that in a 48 km/h (29.8 MPH) rear-end collision, installation of RFCRS using the LATCH system will result in higher Head Injury Criteria (HIC) values when compared to using the available lap/shoulder seatbelt (Emergency Locking Retractor - ELR or Automatic Locking Retractor - ALR). The test matrix included 36 rear impact sled tests conducted using 3 installation methods on 3 models of RFCRS: the Graco SnugRide® with and without the base, the Britax Chaperone with base-mounted anti-rebound bar, and the Evenflo Tribute®, a model of convertible rearward/forward facing restraint system used in the rearward facing mode. The seats were installed using the LATCH system, ELR lap/shoulder belts, or ALR lap/shoulder belts in seating positions 4 and 6 on a vehicle buck mounted to the sled test base. The infant seat and 6 month old CRABI anthropometric test device (ATD) installation methods were in accordance with standards set forth in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) FMVSS No. 213, Child Restraint Systems. All tests were conducted on pneumatic controlled acceleration sled (HYGE, Inc., PA, USA) at 48 km/h. Installation of infant seat type RFCRS using the LATCH system resulted in higher HIC15 values when compared to using the available lap/shoulder seatbelt (ELR or ALR). The mean HIC15 values were most severe when infant seat type RFCRS were installed using LATCH (Graco SnugRide® HIC15 = 394 and Britax Chaperone HIC15 = 133) compared to using either

  6. Retaining Walls Made of Precast Cylindrical Valuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ungureanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retaining walls are large category of engineering structures of multiple uses, having an essential safety ensuring role. The structural systems are varied because the situations and requirements derived from both site conditions and other criteria are varied. The paper enlarges upon retaining walls systems that use an outstanding amount of precast units and multiple cylindrical vault type structural systems supported by abutments [1], [2]. The paper proposes extending the structural system to retaining walls and develops certain specific issues. Some considerations regarding structural design are made.

  7. Face, content, and construct validity of the EndoViS training system for objective assessment of psychomotor skills of laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Flores, Ricardo Manuel Ordorica; García, Ignacio Oropesa; Vidal, Cristian Rubén Zalles; Martínez, Arturo Minor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to present face, content, and constructs validity of the endoscopic orthogonal video system (EndoViS) training system and determines its efficiency as a training and objective assessment tool of the surgeons' psychomotor skills. Thirty-five surgeons and medical students participated in this study: 11 medical students, 19 residents, and 5 experts. All participants performed four basic skill tasks using conventional laparoscopic instruments and EndoViS training system. Subsequently, participants filled out a questionnaire regarding the design, realism, overall functionality, and its capabilities to train hand-eye coordination and depth perception, rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Motion data of the instruments were obtained by means of two webcams built into a laparoscopic physical trainer. To identify the surgical instruments in the images, colored markers were placed in each instrument. Thirteen motion-related metrics were used to assess laparoscopic performance of the participants. Statistical analysis of performance was made between novice, intermediate, and expert groups. Internal consistency of all metrics was analyzed with Cronbach's α test. Overall scores about features of the EndoViS system were positives. Participants agreed with the usefulness of tasks and the training capacities of EndoViS system (score >4). Results presented significant differences in the execution of three skill tasks performed by participants. Seven metrics showed construct validity for assessment of performance with high consistency levels. EndoViS training system has been successfully validated. Results showed that EndoViS was able to differentiate between participants of varying laparoscopic experience. This simulator is a useful and effective tool to objectively assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills of the surgeons.

  8. The Wall-Rock Record of Incremental Emplacement in the Little Cottonwood-Alta Magmatic and Hydrothermal System, Wasatch Mountains, Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Callis, S.; Beno, C.; Bowman, J. R.; Bartley, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Contact aureoles record the cumulative effects on wall rocks of magma emplacement. Like the plutons they surround, contact aureoles have long been regarded to form geologically instantaneously. Protracted incremental emplacement of plutons must be reconciled with the wall-rock record of heat and mass transfer. Fundamental questions include how heat and material move from intrusions into their aureoles and how long that process takes. The Little Cottonwood stock is surrounded by a 2 km-wide contact aureole that contains prograde AFM mineral assemblages in the pelitic layers of the Proterozoic Big Cottonwood Formation. The Alta stock is surrounded by a well characterized 1 km-wide contact aureole containing both prograde AFM and CMS mineral assemblages in Ophir Shale and Mississippian dolostones, respectively. Understanding the petrogenesis of these aureoles requires the timing of magmatism and wall-rock metamorphism to be independently determined. Preliminary petrochronology (U/Th-Pb dates and trace element concentrations collected by LASS-ICP-MS) from the inner aureoles of both intrusions establishes a protracted history of monazite (re)crystallization from 35-25 Ma in the Little Cottonwood aureole and 35 Ma in the Alta aureole. Little Cottonwood aureole monazites are characterized by a positive age correlation with heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and a negative correlation with Eu/Eu*. Alta aureole monazites have a similar range of the HREE concentrations and Eu/Eu* variation. Zircon growth interpreted to record emplacement-level magmatic crystallization of the western Little Cottonwood stock ranges from 33-28 Ma near the contact. Multi-grain U-Pb zircon TIMS dates from the Alta stock range from 35-33 Ma and are interpreted to suggest the full range of emplacement-level magmatism in the Alta stock. Additionally, in situ U-Pb titanite dates from the Alta stock record intermittent high temperature hydrothermal activity in the stock margin from 35-24 Ma. These new

  9. [Application of acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system in treatment of posterior wall acetabular fracture with posterior dislocation of hip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liehu; Zhang, Chuncai; Su, Jiacan; Zhang, Wencai; Liu, Xinwei

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of the acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS) in treatment of posterior wall acetabular fractures with posterior dislocation of hip. From January 2004 to February 2006, 15 cases of posterior wall acetabular fracture with posterior dislocation of hip were treated. There were 11 males and 4 females, aged 21-68 years old with an average of 43.5 years old. Injury was caused by traffic accident in 8 cases, by falling from height in 5 cases and others in 2 cases. The locations were the left hip in 9 cases and the right hip in 6 cases. According to Thompson-Epstein' fracture classification, there were 6 cases of type II, 5 cases of type III, 2 cases of type IV and 2 cases of type V. Imaging showed the acetabular articular surface displacement of 2-5 mm (mean 3 mm). The time from injury to hospitalization was 6 hours to 2 weeks(mean 1.5 days). Skeletal traction on femoral condyle was given, manual reduction was performed in 12 patients and intra-operative reduction in 3 cases. ATMFS was used after 2-7 days of hospitalization, and 4 cases received autologous free ilium because of bone defect. The operative time was 90-390 minutes with an average of 210 minutes. Intraoperative blood loss was 350-2 500 mL with an average of 360 mL. The hospitalization days of the patients ranged from 7 to 21 days(mean 10 days). Epidermal infection occurred and was cured after symptomatic management in 1 case. Other incisions healed by first intention. No deep infections, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis and other complications occurred. The patients were followed up 1 to 3 years with an average of 1.6 years. Ischemic necrosis of femoral head occurred in 1 case. Heterotopic ossification in grade II occurred in 1 case. The hip function was still good without special treatment. According to Matta's X-ray fracture reduction assessment, the results were excellent in 7 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 2 cases, and poor in 1 case

  10. Systemic and immunotoxicity of pristine and PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes in an intravenous 28 days repeated dose toxicity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ting Zhang,1–3 Meng Tang,1–3 Shanshan Zhang,1–3 Yuanyuan Hu,1–3 Han Li,4 Tao Zhang,4 Yuying Xue,1–3 Yuepu Pu1–3 1Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; 2Jiangsu key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; 3Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou, China; 4Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China Abstract: The numerous increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs derived from nanotechnology has raised concerns about their biosafety and potential toxicity. CNTs cause immunologic dysfunction and limit the application of CNTs in biomedicine. The immunological responses induced by pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs and PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-PEG on BALB/c mice via an intravenous administration were investigated. The results reflect that the p-MWCNTs induced significant increases in spleen, thymus, and lung weight. Mice treated with p-MWCNTs showed altered lymphocyte populations (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ in peripheral blood and increased serum IgM and IgG levels, and splenic macrophage ultrastructure indicated mitochondria swelling. p-MWCNTs inhibited humoral and cellular immunity function and were associated with decreased immune responses against sheep erythrocytes and serum hemolysis level. Natural killer (NK activity was not modified by two types of MWCNTs. In comparison with two types of MWCNTs, for a same dose, p-MWCNTs caused higher levels of inflammation and immunosuppression than MWCNTs-PEG. The results of immunological function suggested that after intravenous administration with p-MWCNTs caused more damage to systemic immunity than MWCNTs- PEG. Here, we demonstrated that a surface functional modification on MWCNTs reduces

  11. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  12. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  13. In vivo real-time rectal wall dosimetry for prostate radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Cutajar, Dean L.; Metcalfe, Peter E.; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Perevertaylo, Vladimir L.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2010-07-01

    Rectal balloons are used in external beam prostate radiotherapy to provide reproducible anatomy and rectal dose reductions. This is an investigation into the combination of a MOSFET radiation detector with a rectal balloon for real-time in vivo rectal wall dosimetry. The MOSFET used in the study is a radiation detector that provides a water equivalent depth of measurement of 70 µm. Two MOSFETs were combined in a face-to-face orientation. The reproducibility, sensitivity and angular dependence were measured for the dual MOSFET in a 6 MV photon beam. The dual MOSFET was combined with a rectal balloon and irradiated with hypothetical prostate treatments in a phantom. The anterior rectal wall dose was measured in real time and compared with the planning system calculated dose. The dual MOSFET showed angular dependence within ±2.5% in the azimuth and +2.5%/-4% in the polar axes. When compared with an ion chamber measurement in a phantom, the dual MOSFET agreed within 2.5% for a range of radiation path lengths and incident angles. The dual MOSFET had reproducible sensitivity for fraction sizes of 2-10 Gy. For the hypothetical prostate treatments the measured anterior rectal wall dose was 2.6 and 3.2% lower than the calculated dose for 3DCRT and IMRT plans. This was expected due to limitations of the dose calculation method used at the balloon cavity interface. A dual MOSFET combined with a commercial rectal balloon was shown to provide reproducible measurements of the anterior rectal wall dose in real time. The measured anterior rectal wall dose agreed with the expected dose from the treatment plan for 3DCRT and IMRT plans. The dual MOSFET could be read out in real time during the irradiation, providing the capability for real-time dose monitoring of the rectal wall dose during treatment.

  14. Evaluation of a platelet lysate bilayered system for periodontal regeneration in a rat intrabony three-wall periodontal defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babo, P.S.; Cai, X; Plachokova, A.S.; Reis, R.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Gomes, M.E.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2018-01-01

    With currently available therapies, full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues after periodontitis cannot be achieved. In this study, a combined compartmentalized system was tested, composed of (a) a platelet lysate (PL)-based construct, which was placed along the root aiming to regenerate the

  15. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  16. Dynamic functional brain connectivity for face perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yuan; Qiu, Yihong; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed brain network comprised of the core system at occipito-temporal areas and the extended system at other relevant brain areas involving bilateral hemispheres. In this study we explored how the brain connectivity changes over the time for face-sensitive

  17. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rodriguez-Furlán

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor in plants (SYP, have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR. Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance (SAR in response to bacterial pathogen infection and induced systemic resistance (ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors

  18. Outdoor overall performance of a novel air-gap-lens-walled compound parabolic concentrator (ALCPC) incorporated with photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guiqiang; Pei, Gang; Ji, Jie; Su, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A prototype of an ALCPC-PV/T system was designed and set up. • Good optical agreements were observed between simulation and experiment. • The effects of the temperature on the electrical characteristics were discussed. • The thermal performance for circulating cooling was analyzed. • The system efficiency was calculated to present the overall performance. - Abstract: A novel air-gap-lens-walled compound parabolic concentrator incorporated with photovoltaic/thermal system (ALCPC-PV/T) was proposed. The optical, electrical and thermal performances of the ALCPC-PV/T under the outdoor condition were analyzed for building integrated concentrating photovoltaic/thermal application. The simulation and experiment were carried out to reveal the optical characteristics of ALCPC-PV/T on two typical days. The experiment results verified the optical simulation results that the ALCPC-PV/T system had a half acceptance angle of 35° and an average optical efficiency of 83.0% within the half acceptance angle for direct incidence. Furthermore, the average optical efficiencies on the two typical days were all above 60% under the actual outdoor condition considering direct and diffuse solar radiation. Details of electrical characteristics affected by the temperature of circulating cooling water were also displayed. The electrical and thermal efficiencies of the ALCPC-PV/T system during the test were 6.0% and 35.0% respectively with the final water temperature of 70 °C. In addition, the fitted results indicated that under the zero reduced temperature condition, the thermal efficiency of the ALCPC PV/T system was 52.0%, and the corresponding electrical efficiency was 6.6%

  19. Performance analysis of a small regenerative gas turbine system adopting steam injection and side-wall in finned tube evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Soo Young; Lee, Jong Jun; Kim, Tong Seop

    2009-01-01

    Small gas turbines in power range of several MWs are quite suitable for application in distributed generation as well as Community Energy Systems (CES). Humidification is an effective way to improve gas turbine performance, and steam injection is the most general and practically feasible method. This study intended to examine the effect of steam injection on the performance of several MW class gas turbines. A primary concern is given to the regenerative cycle gas turbine. The steam injection effect on the performance of a system without the regenerator (i.e. a simple cycle) is also examined. In addition, the influence of bypass of some of the exhaust gas on the performance of the gas turbine, especially the regenerative cycle gas turbine, is evaluated.

  20. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  1. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  3. Nanoelectromechanical systems face the future

    OpenAIRE

    Roukes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1950s visionary physicist Richard Feynman issued a public challenge by offering $1000 to the first person to create an electrical motor "smaller than 1/64th of an inch". Much to Feynman's consternation the young man who met this challenge, William McLellan, did so by investing many tedious and painstaking hours building the device by hand using tweezers and a microscope.

  4. Dissociating Face Identity and Facial Expression Processing Via Visual Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Face identity and facial expression are processed in two distinct neural pathways. However, most of the existing face adaptation literature studies them separately, despite the fact that they are two aspects from the same face. The current study conducted a systematic comparison between these two aspects by face adaptation, investigating how top- and bottom-half face parts contribute to the processing of face identity and facial expression. A real face (sad, “Adam” and its two size-equivalent face parts (top- and bottom-half were used as the adaptor in separate conditions. For face identity adaptation, the test stimuli were generated by morphing Adam's sad face with another person's sad face (“Sam”. For facial expression adaptation, the test stimuli were created by morphing Adam's sad face with his neutral face and morphing the neutral face with his happy face. In each trial, after exposure to the adaptor, observers indicated the perceived face identity or facial expression of the following test face via a key press. They were also tested in a baseline condition without adaptation. Results show that the top- and bottom-half face each generated a significant face identity aftereffect. However, the aftereffect by top-half face adaptation is much larger than that by the bottom-half face. On the contrary, only the bottom-half face generated a significant facial expression aftereffect. This dissociation of top- and bottom-half face adaptation suggests that face parts play different roles in face identity and facial expression. It thus provides further evidence for the distributed systems of face perception.

  5. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Furlán, Cecilia; Salinas-Grenet, Hernán; Sandoval, Omar; Recabarren, Camilo; Arraño-Salinas, Paulina; Soto-Alvear, Sylvana; Orellana, Ariel; Blanco-Herrera, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) in plants (SYP), have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment) lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR). Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance in response to bacterial pathogen infection and ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors can affect the number, anatomy and physiology of

  6. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Furlán, Cecilia; Salinas-Grenet, Hernán; Sandoval, Omar; Recabarren, Camilo; Arraño-Salinas, Paulina; Soto-Alvear, Sylvana; Orellana, Ariel; Blanco-Herrera, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) in plants (SYP), have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment) lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR). Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance in response to bacterial pathogen infection and ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors can affect the number, anatomy and physiology of

  7. Systemic distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a novel model: alteration of biochemical parameters, metabolic functions, liver accumulation, and inflammation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Principi E

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Elisa Principi,1,* Rossana Girardello,2,* Antonino Bruno,1,* Isabella Manni,3 Elisabetta Gini,2 Arianna Pagani,1 Annalisa Grimaldi,2 Federico Ivaldi,4 Terenzio Congiu,5 Daniela De Stefano,1 Giulia Piaggio,3 Magda de Eguileor,2 Douglas M Noonan,1,2 Adriana Albini1 1Vascular Biology and Angiogenesis, Scientific and Technology Pole, IRCCS MultiMedica, Milano, 2Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, 3Department of Research, Advanced Diagnosis and Innovation, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, 4Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Genetics, University of Genoa, Genoa, 5Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in several industrial applications raises concerns on their potential toxicity due to factors such as tissue penetrance, small dimensions, and biopersistence. Using an in vivo model for CNT environmental exposure, mimicking CNT exposition at the workplace, we previously found that CNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in the lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidneys via the bloodstream in CD1 mice. Here, we monitored and traced the accumulation of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs, administered systemically in mice, in different organs and the subsequent biological responses. Using the novel in vivo model, MITO-Luc bioluminescence reporter mice, we found that SWCNTs induce systemic cell proliferation, indicating a dynamic response of cells of both bone marrow and the immune system. We then examined metabolic (water/food consumption and dejections, functional (serum enzymes, and morphological (organs and tissues alterations in CD1 mice treated with SWCNTs, using metabolic cages, performing serum analyses, and applying histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural (transmission electron

  8. Biotic diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates at contrasting glacier-fed systems in Patagonia Mountains: The role of environmental heterogeneity facing global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserendino, María Laura; Brand, Cecilia; Epele, Luis B; Di Prinzio, Cecilia Y; Omad, Guillermo H; Archangelsky, Miguel; Martínez, Oscar; Kutschker, Adriana M

    2018-05-01

    Patagonia is by far the largest glacierized area in South America. However, little is known about ecology, functioning and biodiversity of glacier-fed streams facing global warming. We investigated changes in environmental features and macroinvertebrate communities along a longitudinal gradient of glacier influence of two Patagonian systems that differ in glacier cover magnitude and the spatial sequence of lotic and lentic phases. Both glaciers, Torrecillas (~5.5km 2 , Torrecillas system) and Cónico (~0.44km 2 , Baggilt system), are retreating. Longitudinal distribution of benthic invertebrates partially fitted to predictions for glacierized temperate systems, with Diamesinae spp. dominating at closest sites to the Cónico, and Orthocladiinae increasing downstream, but patterns were unclear at Torrecillas. Generalized Linear Model identified chlorophyll a and conductivity as having significant effect on richness and density respectively at Torrecillas; detritus biomass and gravel influenced species richness, and boulder percentage and water temperature affected density, at Baggilt. Canonical Correspondence Analyses integrating benthic biota and environmental variables revealed that a higher environmental heterogeneity at Baggilt, related with spatial dimension (unshaded/shaded reaches, wetland reaches), local resources (detritus, bryophytes) and temperature, probably explained the unexpected high richness in benthic assemblages (67 taxa). Environmental conditions imposed by the lake outlet (proglacial) at Torrecillas resulted in a less diverse community (31 taxa). Finally our results suggest that these isolated, small glacier-fed streams typical of the Patagonian landscape appear highly vulnerable to global warming. Endemic elements could disappear at upper segments being replaced by other species common at rhithral environments, which might increase local diversity (alfa diversity) but decrease regional diversity (gamma diversity). From an ecosystem perspective

  9. Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures. To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH, are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER at a given depth of field (DoF and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones.

  10. Very low resolution face recognition problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wilman W W; Yuen, Pong C

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the very low resolution (VLR) problem in face recognition in which the resolution of the face image to be recognized is lower than 16 × 16. With the increasing demand of surveillance camera-based applications, the VLR problem happens in many face application systems. Existing face recognition algorithms are not able to give satisfactory performance on the VLR face image. While face super-resolution (SR) methods can be employed to enhance the resolution of the images, the existing learning-based face SR methods do not perform well on such a VLR face image. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel approach to learn the relationship between the high-resolution image space and the VLR image space for face SR. Based on this new approach, two constraints, namely, new data and discriminative constraints, are designed for good visuality and face recognition applications under the VLR problem, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed SR algorithm based on relationship learning outperforms the existing algorithms in public face databases.

  11. The Use of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Possible Carrier in Drug Delivery System for Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Alias Mohd.; Buang, Nor Aziah; Yean, Lee Sze; Ibrahim, Mohd. Lokman

    2009-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have raised great interest in a number of applications, including field emission, energy storage, molecular electronics, sensors, biochips and drug delivery systems. This is due to their remarkable mechanical properties, chemical stability and biofunctionalizability. This nanomaterial is low in weight, has high strength and a high aspect ratio (long length compared to a small diameter). This paper will present a brief overview of drugs adsorbed onto the surface of carbon nanotubes via sonication method. The surface area of carbon nanotubes was measured by methylene blue method, Carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method were purified and functionalized in a mixture of concentrated acids (H2SO4:HNO3 = 3:1) at room temperature (25° C) via sonication in water bath, yielding carboxylic acid group on the CNTs' surface. CNT was successfully loaded with 48 %(w/w) aspirin molecules by suspending CNTs in a solution of aspirin in alcohol. Analysis of loaded CNTs by Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FITR) and UV-visible Spectroscopy confirmed the loading of the drug onto the CNTs. The work presented is a prelude to the direction of using carbon nanotubes as a drug delivery system to desired sites in human body.

  12. Faces in places: humans and machines make similar face detection errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius 't Hart

    Full Text Available The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces", false positives ("illusory faces" and correctly rejected locations ("non faces". Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system.

  13. The Plasma-Facing Components Transporter (PFCT) : a Prototype System for PFC Replacement on the new ITER 2001 Cassette Mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micciche, G.; Lorenzelli, L.; Muro, L.; Irving, M.

    2006-01-01

    The remote maintainability of the early ITER divertor cassette (based on the ITER 1998 design) was successfully proved during test campaigns carried out in the Divertor Refurbishment Platform (DRP) at the ENEA research centre at Brasimone over the period 1999-2003. Due to subsequent major modifications in the ITER divertor cassette design, the main focus over the past few years has been on the design and manufacture of the various components, devices and tools needed for refurbishment of the new ITER 2001 Divertor Cassette. The design of this new cassette differs substantially from the earlier version: in particular the shape, weight and attachment system of the Plasma Facing Components (PFC's) has been completely revised, and this also entailed a review of the procedures adopted for its refurbishment. One of the major requirements of the cassette refurbishment process is removal and replacement of the three PFC's. In the old cassette concept, target replacement was performed by means of a purpose-built '' C '' frame slung from a standard bridge crane. The 2001 cassette design precludes such handling methods for a number of reasons, notably because of the extremely tight inter-PFC clearances, and the need for controlled inclination of the target in addition to normal translational movements, both impossible with a simple Cartesian crane. To demonstrate the refurbishment feasibility operations for the new ITER Divertor 2001 cassettes, an experimental machine known as the Plasma-Facing Component Transporter (PFCT) has been designed, fabricated and commissioned in the years 2004-5. This full six degree-of-freedom system has been designed to handle payloads of up to 5 tonnes with good positional accuracy, and axes capable of very low joint velocities, including inclination of the PFC's over the range of ± 10 o in both horizontal axes, and controlled rotation about the vertical axis. Preliminary trials carried out during the commissioning phase have proved its

  14. Integrated straight - through automatic non-destructive examination and data acquisition system for thin-wall tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoessel, A.; Boulanger, G.; Furlan, J.; Mogavero, R.

    1981-09-01

    This non-destructive testing unit inspects the cladding tubes for the SUPER-PHENIX fast neutron reactor. The quality level demanded for these tubes, as well as their number, required designing an installation that combined high performance with a great testing rate and complete automation. The testing is effected under immersion by means of six transducers, focused in line, working at 30 MHz. The tubes are numbered on an automatic rig; marking is by dark rings obtained by superficial electrolysis of the tube and regularly distributed on the abscissa; the quality of the tube is not affected by this. The advantage of this numbering system is that it enables the tubes to be fed to the test set in any order. An acquisition unit, constituted of a microprocessor, a semi-graphical printer and a double floppy disk unit, makes it possible to enter, edit and store the information for each tube [fr

  15. Morphing morphing faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, R.J. van

    2009-01-01

    We have made cyclic morphing animations using two different faces. The morphing animations gradually evolved from one face to the other, and vice versa. When free viewing, the perceived changes were not very large, but the changes could easily be observed. Observers were asked to fixate on a dot

  16. The multiple faces of the human immune system : Modern life causes low-grade inflammation and thereby provokes conflict between the selfish immune system and the selfish brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruimboom, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the multiple ways by which the human immune system can react upon direct and indirect challenges, such as infection and wounds on the one hand, and chronic stress factors, such as smoking, on the other. The human defense system exhibits a type of selfish behaviour during both

  17. The Shaping of the Face Space in Early Infancy: Becoming a Native Face Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Alan; Quinn, Paul C; Kelly, David J; Lee, Kang; Longmore, Christopher A; McDonald, Paula R; Pascalis, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Face perception remains one of the most intensively researched areas in psychology and allied disciplines, and there has been much debate regarding the early origins and experiential determinants of face processing. This article reviews studies, the majority of which have appeared in the past decade, that discuss possible mechanisms underlying face perception at birth and document the prominent role of experience in shaping infants' face-processing abilities. In the first months of life, infants develop a preference for female and own-race faces and become better able to recognize and categorize own-race and own-species faces. This perceptual narrowing and shaping of the "face space" forms a foundation for later face expertise in childhood and adulthood and testifies to the remarkable plasticity of the developing visual system.

  18. The Shaping of the Face Space in Early Infancy: Becoming a Native Face Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Alan; Quinn, Paul C.; Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Longmore, Christopher A.; McDonald, Paula R.; Pascalis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Face perception remains one of the most intensively researched areas in psychology and allied disciplines, and there has been much debate regarding the early origins and experiential determinants of face processing. This article reviews studies, the majority of which have appeared in the past decade, that discuss possible mechanisms underlying face perception at birth and document the prominent role of experience in shaping infants’ face-processing abilities. In the first months of life, infants develop a preference for female and own-race faces and become better able to recognize and categorize own-race and own-species faces. This perceptual narrowing and shaping of the “face space” forms a foundation for later face expertise in childhood and adulthood and testifies to the remarkable plasticity of the developing visual system. PMID:21562620

  19. Illumination robust face recognition using spatial adaptive shadow compensation based on face intensity prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Kae-Horng; Lee, Chang-Hsing; Han, Chin-Chuan; Fan, Kuo-Chin

    2017-12-01

    Robust face recognition under illumination variations is an important and challenging task in a face recognition system, particularly for face recognition in the wild. In this paper, a face image preprocessing approach, called spatial adaptive shadow compensation (SASC), is proposed to eliminate shadows in the face image due to different lighting directions. First, spatial adaptive histogram equalization (SAHE), which uses face intensity prior model, is proposed to enhance the contrast of each local face region without generating visible noises in smooth face areas. Adaptive shadow compensation (ASC), which performs shadow compensation in each local image block, is then used to produce a wellcompensated face image appropriate for face feature extraction and recognition. Finally, null-space linear discriminant analysis (NLDA) is employed to extract discriminant features from SASC compensated images. Experiments performed on the Yale B, Yale B extended, and CMU PIE face databases have shown that the proposed SASC always yields the best face recognition accuracy. That is, SASC is more robust to face recognition under illumination variations than other shadow compensation approaches.

  20. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Grande, Eleonora; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Campostrini, Stefano; Taylor, Anne W

    2016-04-18

    Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually), included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013). Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013) and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB) of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013): directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD) sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Telephone (landline and mobile) coverage in South Australia is very high (97%). Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4%), rising from 89.7% in 2006 to 96.3% in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431% over the eight year period from 5.2% in 2006 to 27.6% in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of -0.077) in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a mental health condition for both telephone samples. Current