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Sample records for system even-odd effect

  1. Studies on fractionation of ytterbium isotopes in Yb(III)-acetate/Yb-amalgam system. Even-odd effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, W.; Poninski, M.; Fiedler, R.

    1997-12-31

    The fractionation of ytterbium isotopes with the even and odd numbers of neutrons was investigated in a Yb(III)-acetate/Yb-amalgam exchange systems. The light isotope was preferentially fractionated to the amalgam phase. The values of the unit separation gain per mass difference,{epsilon}, were found to be -0.00054 for {sup 176/171}Yb and -0.00069 for {sup 176/174}Yb The difference which amounted to 0.00015 is an evidence for the occurrence of the so called `even-odd` effect. It was also found that the chemical isotope shift of ytterbium was monitored by optical isotope shift its atomic spectra. (author). 23 refs, 7 figs, 4 tabs.

  2. Local and global even-odd effects in prompt emission in fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giubega Georgiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the proton even-odd effects in prompt emission in fission for even-Z actinides revealed basic features of the global even-odd effect in prompt emission similar with those in fission fragment yields and some particular aspects, such as: (1 the even-odd effects in prompt emission are the result of two contributions: a dominant intrinsic even-odd effect due to the even-odd nuclear character of fragments reflected in their properties and a weak even-odd effect caused by the fragment distributions (over which the multi-parametric matrices are averaged; (2 oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units are present in different prompt emission quantities corresponding to even-Z and odd-Z fragmentations independent on the size of the even-odd effect in the charge yield Y(Z. These oscillations are due to the periodicity of nuclear properties of fragments; (3 a local even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities has been recently investigated. Similarities between prompt emission quantities and fragment yields were found in the case of the local even-odd effect, too. The local even-odd effect in both fragment charge yields and prompt emission quantities exhibit a pronounced increase at asymmetry values corresponding to fragmentations in which the heavy fragment (Z = 50 and/or N = 82 or the light one (Z = 28 is magic.

  3. Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudora Anabella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A, of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in (TKE is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f, the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.

  4. Coulomb and even-odd effects in cold and super-asymmetric fragmentation for thermal neutron induced fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modesto, Montoya

    2014-01-01

    The Coulomb effects hypothesis is used to interpret even-odd effects of maximum total kinetic energy as a function of mass and charge of fragments from thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U. Assuming spherical fragments at scission, the Coulomb interaction energy between fragments (C sph ) is higher than the Q-value, the available energy. Therefore at scission the fragments must be deformed, so that the Coulomb interaction energy does not exceed the Q-value. The fact that the even-odd effects in the maximum total kinetic energy as a function of the charge and mass, respectively, are lower than the even-odd effects of Q is consistent with the assumption that odd mass fragments are softer than the even-even fragments. Even-odd effects of charge distribution in super asymmetric fragmentation also are interpreted with the Coulomb effect hypothesis. Because the difference between C sph and Q increases with asymmetry, fragmentations require higher total deformation energy to occur. Higher deformation energy of the fragments implies lower free energy to break pairs of nucleons. This explains why in the asymmetric fragmentation region, the even-odd effects of the distribution of proton number and neutron number increases with asymmetry. (author).

  5. Coulomb and even-odd effects in cold and super-asymmetric fragmentation for thermal neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, M. [Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Av. Túpac Amaru 210, Rímac, Lima (Peru)

    2016-07-07

    Even-odd effects of the maximal total kinetic energy (K{sub max}) as a function of charge (Z) and mass (A) of fragments from thermal neutron induced fission of actinides are questioned by other authors. In this work, visiting old results on thermal neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U, those even-odd effects are reconfirmed. The cases seeming to contradict even-odd effects are interpreted with the Coulomb effect hypothesis. According to Coulomb effect hypothesis, K{sub max} is equal to the Coulomb interaction energy of the most compact scission configuration. As a consequence, between two isobaric charge splits with similar Q-values, the more asymmetrical one will get the more compact scission configuration and then it will reach the higher K{sub max}-value. In some cases, the more asymmetrical charge split corresponds, by coincidence, to an odd charge split; consequently its higher K{sub max}-value may be misinterpreted as anti-even-odd effect. Another experimental result reported in the literature is the increasing of even-odd effects on charge distribution on the more asymmetrical fragmentations region. In this region, the difference between K{sub max} and Q-values increases with asymmetry, which means that the corresponding scission configuration needs higher total deformation energy to occur. Higher deformation energy of the fragments implies lower free energy to break nucleon pairs. Consequently, in the asymmetric fragmentation region, the even-odd effects of the distribution of proton number and neutron number must increase with asymmetry.

  6. Assessment of long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan effects on urban air quality and its implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Qin, Dahe; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    To solve traffic congestion and to improve urban air quality, long-lasting and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan was implemented by local government during 20 November to 26 December 2016 in urban Lanzhou, a semi-arid valley city of northwest China. The traffic control measures provided an invaluable opportunity to evaluate its effects on urban air quality in less developed cities of northwest China. Based on measured simultaneously air pollutants and meteorological parameters, the abatement of traffic-related pollutants induced by the implemented control measures such as CO, PM2.5 and PM10 (the particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm) concentrations were firstly quantified by comparing the air quality data in urban areas with those in rural areas (uncontrolled zones). The concentrations of CO, NO2 from motor vehicles and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were shown to have significant decreases of 15%-23% during traffic control period from those measured before control period with hourly maximum CO, PM2.5, and NO2/SO2 reduction of 43%, 35% and 141.4%, respectively. The influence of the control measures on AQI (air quality index) and ozone was less as compared to its effect on other air pollutants. Therefore, to alleviate serious winter haze pollution in China and to protect human health, the stringent long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan should be implemented aperiodically in urban areas, especially for the periods with poor diffusion conditions.

  7. Even-odd effects in magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzero, M.; Gor'kov, L. P.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Zvezdin, K. A.

    2003-03-01

    The difference in the density of states for the spin’s majority and minority bands in a ferromagnet changes the electrostatic potential along the domains, introducing discontinuities of the potential at domain boundaries. The value of the discontinuity oscillates with the number of domains. Discontinuity depends on the positions of domain walls, their motion, or the collapse of domain walls in applied magnetic field. Large values of the magnetoresistance are explained in terms of spin accumulation. We suggest a type of domain wall in nanowires made of itinerant ferromagnets, in which the magnetization vector changes without rotation. The absence of transverse magnetization components allows considerable spin accumulation, assuming the spin relaxation length LS is large enough.

  8. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2012-11-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  9. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    even/odd coherent states, ((ˆa†)m |α±〉), in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner function corresponding to the mentioned states in the framework of standard master ...

  10. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    even/odd coherent states, ((\\^a)m|α±⟩), in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner function ...

  11. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    added) even/odd coherent states, ((ˆa†)m |α±〉), in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner ...

  12. Nonclassicality Generated by Applying Hermite-Polynomials Photon-Added Operator on the Even/Odd Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Du, Jian-ming; Zhang, Wen-hai; Yu, Hai-jun

    2017-05-01

    We examine nonclassical properties of the quantum state generated by applying Hermite polynomials photon-added operator on the even/odd coherent state (HPECS/HPOCS). Explicit expressions for its nonclassical properties, such as quantum statistical properties and squeezing phenomenon, are obtained. It is interesting to find that the HPECS/HPOCS exhibits sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effects and negative values of the Wigner function. Thus, we confirm the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a new nonclassical state. Finally, we reveal that the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a novel intelligent state by its squeezing effects in position distribution and quadrature squeezing.

  13. Canonic FFT flow graphs for real-valued even/odd symmetric inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yingjie; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2017-12-01

    Canonic real-valued fast Fourier transform (RFFT) has been proposed to reduce the arithmetic complexity by eliminating redundancies. In a canonic N-point RFFT, the number of signal values at each stage is canonic with respect to the number of signal values, i.e., N. The major advantage of the canonic RFFTs is that these require the least number of butterfly operations and only real datapaths when mapped to architectures. In this paper, we consider the FFT computation whose inputs are not only real but also even/odd symmetric, which indeed lead to the well-known discrete cosine and sine transforms (DCTs and DSTs). Novel algorithms for generating the flow graphs of canonic RFFTs with even/odd symmetric inputs are proposed. It is shown that the proposed algorithms lead to canonic structures with N/2 +1 signal values at each stage for an N-point real even symmetric FFT (REFFT) or N/2 -1 signal values at each stage for an N-point RFFT real odd symmetric FFT (ROFFT). In order to remove butterfly operations, several twiddle factor transformations are proposed in this paper. We also discuss the design of canonic REFFT for any composite length. Performances of the canonic REFFT/ROFFT are also discussed. It is shown that the flow graph of canonic REFFT/ROFFT has less number of interconnections, less butterfly operations, and less twiddle factor operations, compared to prior works.

  14. Even-odd alternation of near-infrared spectra of alkane-α,ω-diols in their solid states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yuta; Murakami, Kohei; Yoshimura, Norio; Takayanagi, Masao

    2018-05-15

    Even-odd alternation of the melting points of α,ω-disubstituted linear alkanes such as alkane-α,ω-diols, alkane-α,ω-dinitriles and α,ω-diaminoalkanes is well known. Melting points for compounds with an even number of carbons in their alkyl chains are systematically higher than those for compounds with an odd number of carbons. In order to clarify the origin of this alternation, near-infrared absorption spectra of linear alkane-α,ω-diols with 3 to 9 carbon atoms in their alkyl chains were measured in the liquid and solid states. The band due to the first overtone of the OH stretching mode was investigated. The temperature-dependent spectra of all alkane-α,ω-diols in their liquid states were found to be similar; no even-odd alternation was observed. In the solid state, however, spectra of alkane-α,ω-diols with even and odd numbers of carbon atoms differed greatly. Spectra of alkane-α,ω-diols with an odd number of carbon atoms in their solid states were similar to those in the liquid states, although the variation of spectra observed upon lowering the temperature of liquid seemed to continue when the liquids were frozen. In contrast, spectra of alkane-α,ω-diols with an even number of carbon atoms in their liquid and solid states were found to be quite different. New bands appeared upon freezing. The observed even-odd alternation of the spectra observed for alkane-α,ω-diols in their solid states is presumably caused by their even-odd alternation of crystal structures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Level structure of 141Ba and 139Xe and the level systematics of N=85 even-odd isotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.X.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Beyer, C.J.; Zhu, S.J.; Kormicki, J.; Zhang, X.Q.; Jones, E.F.; Gore, P.M.; Ginter, T.N.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, I-Yang; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Zielinski, P.; Folden III, C.M.; Fallon, P.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Daniel, A.V.; Stoyer, M.A.; Cole, J.D.; Donangelo, R.; Wu, S.C.; Asztalos, S.J.

    2002-01-31

    New level schemes of {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}Xe are proposed from the analyses of spontaneous-fission gamma data from our {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission Gammasphere runs of 1995 and 2000. By analogy with the N = 85 even-odd isotones {sup 149}Gd, {sup 147}Sm, and {sup 145}Nd, spins and parities were assigned to the observed excited states in {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}Xe. It appears that spherical shell model neutron excitations plus octupolephonons are an appropriate basis at the lower end of the bands. Going to higher spins it is clear that the soft rotor involving valence protons as well as neutrons becomes increasingly important in the configurations. Level systematics in the N = 85 even-odd isotones from Gd(Z=64) through Te(Z=52), are discussed. The excitation systematics and smooth trends of the analogous levels support the spin and parity assignment for excited levels observed in {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}Xe. The level systematics and the comparison with neighboring even-even isotopes indicate that quadrupole and octupole collectivity play roles in {sup 141}Ba and {sup 139}$Xe. From Gd(Z=64) through Te(Z=52), increasing excitation energies of the 13/2{sup +} states and lowering relative intensities of the positive parity bands in the N = 85 even-odd isotones may indicate that the octupole strength is becoming weaker for the isotones when approaching the Z = 50 closed shell.

  16. Level structure of 141Ba and 139Xe and the level systematics of N=85 even-odd isotones

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Y X; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V; Hwang, J K; Beyer, C J; Zhu, S J; Kormicki, J; Zhang, X Q; Jones, E F; Gore, P M; Ginter, T N; Gregorich, K E; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; Zielinski, P M; Folden, C M; Fallon, P; Ter-Akopian, G M; Oganessian, Yu T; Daniel, A V; Stoyer, M A; Cole, J D; Donangelo, R; Wu, S C; Asztalos, S J

    2002-01-01

    New level schemes of sup 1 sup 4 sup 1 Ba and sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Xe are proposed from the analyses of spontaneous-fission gamma data from our sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf spontaneous fission Gammasphere runs of 1995 and 2000. By analogy with the N = 85 even-odd isotones sup 1 sup 4 sup 9 Gd, sup 1 sup 4 sup 7 Sm, and sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 Nd, spins and parities were assigned to the observed excited states in sup 1 sup 4 sup 1 Ba and sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Xe. It appears that spherical shell model neutron excitations plus octupolephonons are an appropriate basis at the lower end of the bands. Going to higher spins it is clear that the soft rotor involving valence protons as well as neutrons becomes increasingly important in the configurations. Level systematics in the N = 85 even-odd isotones from Gd(Z=64) through Te(Z=52), are discussed. The excitation systematics and smooth trends of the analogous levels support the spin and parity assignment for excited levels observed in sup 1 sup 4 sup 1 Ba and sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Xe. The le...

  17. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  18. Analytic study of transverse shunt resistance and even-odd mode coupling of a rod type RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    1994-06-01

    To minimize the ohmic power losses, it is necessary to maximize the transverse shunt resistance, R shunt . The cell of a rod-type RFQ is modelled by a parallel two-rod transmission line supported above a parallel ground conductor by two legs. Due to coupling between neighboring supports, the loading impedance is modified depending on the leg spacing. The shunt resistance is improved by reducing the cell length and increasing the leg spacing, and maximized when the legs are equally spaced. However, this is also the condition for strong excitation of the unwanted 'even-mode' in which a potential difference exists between the ends of the rods mid-plane and the grounding conductor or tank, Once the legs of the support are longitudinally separated, some even-mode excitation of the structure is inevitable because some current must be injected into the ground conductor; the even-mode excitation rises as leg separation increases. Further, when the desired odd-mode voltage is symmetric about the cell centre, the even-mode voltage is anti-symmetric This paper is a very much abridged version of two internal design notes[3], [4]. (author). 4 refs.,1 fig

  19. Even-odd alternation of the formation of dimer isomers in irradiated polycrystalline alkanes: evidence from product analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudson, T.; Tilquin, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent ESR studies on n-alkanes from n-C 11 to n-C 25 have shown that a prominent chain end (-CH 2 -CH 2 ) alkyl radical is formed in odd members of the series. In this preliminary discussion of our study, we shall report the capillary chromatogram in the dimer isomers range for n-alkanes ranging from n-C 11 to n-C 17 irradiated at 80 kGy. Dimer isomers, produced in part by the combination of chain end radicals, are eluted at the end chromatogram. The combination of two chain end radicals gives the dimer (D 11 ) isomer eluted at the last place. It is shown that dimers produced by the combination of chain end alkyl radicals are more important for the odd members of the series than for the even members. (author)

  20. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. The overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  1. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. In this paper, the overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  2. Systemic effects in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, E.F.M.; Creutzberg, E.C.; Schols, A.M.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic effects in COPD. Wouters EF, Creutzberg EC, Schols AM. Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Maastricht, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, the Netherlands. ewo@ms-azm-3.azm.nl The pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of COPD are not restricted to pulmonary inflammation

  3. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1980-10-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. (auth)

  4. Structure of even-odd spherical nuclei using the BCS approximations and the ACQPV model: application to isotones with N=82 and Ni, Zn and Cs'' isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losano, L.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations of the (E,J Π ) spectra and the electromagnetic properties (fe,Q,BEZ,BM1) are made for Ni odd isotopes, and odd isotones with N=82, using the Shell Model (SM), the usual BCS approximation (one and three quasiparticles), blocking BCS (BBCS) and projected BCS (PBCS). The importance of the five quasiparticle correlations and of the correlation introduced in BCS are examined in detail. The collective degrees of freedom of the core are introduced through the quasiparticle-cluster-vibrator coupling (QPCVC), so that this formalism permits as well the inclusion of blocking as the projection in number of particles in the cluster of one and three quasiparticles. Comparative calculations are made between the version with blocking (BQPCV) and with projection (PQPCV) for spectra and electromagnetic properties of Zn old isotopes. The projected version is applied to the cesium isotopes in the description of the 5/2 + states generated by the anomalous coupling. In all examined cases, the comparison with the available experimental data is also shown. (L.C.) [pt

  5. SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF UNIVERSITY COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Vaganova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to reveal system effects of the university complexes including the organizations of professional education on different levels.Methodology and research methods. Theoretical methods: receipt of scientific information on systems, collection of data on university complexes; empirical: comparison and correlation of the obtained data.Results and scientific novelty. A university complex is designated as a system. The system effects being the results of integration of the organizations of professional education of different levels are educed: effect of instability of the hierarchical relations when preserving a certain structure of a university complex; effect of a single educational purpose, effect of influence of the external environment. These effects cause emergence of new quality of the integrated pedagogical system which is designated as «ability to self-regulating updating».Practical significance. The materials and results of the study can be used for further development of university complexes as organizations that integrate the establishments of vocational education on different levels.

  6. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1984-04-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. It is intended that the bibliography will be updated regularly

  7. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  8. Dissipative effects in Multilevel Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, A I [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Schirmer, S G [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Dissipation is sometimes regarded as an inevitable and regrettable presence in the real evolution of a quantum system. However, the effects may not always be malign, although often non-intuitive and may even be beneficial. In this note we we display some of these effects for N-level systems, where N = 2,3,4. We start with an elementary introduction to dissipative effects on the Bloch Sphere, and its interior, the Bloch Ball, for a two-level system. We describe explicitly the hamiltonian evolution as well as the purely dissipative dynamics, in the latter case giving the t {yields} {infinity} limits of the motion. This discussion enables us to provide an intuitive feeling for the measures of control-reachable states. For the three-level case we discuss the impossibility of isolating a two-level (qubit) subsystem; this is a Bohm-Aharonov type consequence of dissipation. We finally exemplify the four-level case by giving constraints on the decay of two-qubit entanglement.

  9. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Medical News Effects of Aging on the Digestive System By Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD, Consultant, Section ... Digestive System (See also Overview of the Digestive System .) Because the digestive system has a lot of reserve built into ...

  10. Chitosan Effects on Plant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Malerba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CHT is a natural, safe, and cheap product of chitin deacetylation, widely used by several industries because of its interesting features. The availability of industrial quantities of CHT in the late 1980s enabled it to be tested in agriculture. CHT has been proven to stimulate plant growth, to protect the safety of edible products, and to induce abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in various horticultural commodities. The stimulating effect of different enzyme activities to detoxify reactive oxygen species suggests the involvement of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in CHT signaling. CHT could also interact with chromatin and directly affect gene expression. Recent innovative uses of CHT include synthesis of CHT nanoparticles as a valuable delivery system for fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and micronutrients for crop growth promotion by a balanced and sustained nutrition. In addition, CHT nanoparticles can safely deliver genetic material for plant transformation. This review presents an overview on the status of the use of CHT in plant systems. Attention was given to the research that suggested the use of CHT for sustainable crop productivity.

  11. Environmental effects of cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1974 Thermal Discharges at Nuclear Power Stations (Technical Reports Series No.155), much progress has been made in the understanding of phenomena related to thermal discharges. Many studies have been performed in Member States and from 1973 to 1978 the IAEA sponsored a co-ordinated research programme on 'Physical and Biological Effects on the Environment of Cooling Systems and Thermal Discharges from Nuclear Power Stations'. Seven laboratories from Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, India and the United States of America were involved in this programme, and a lot of new information has been obtained during the five years' collaboration. The progress of the work was discussed at annual co-ordination meetings and the results are presented in the present report. It complements the previous report mentioned above as it deals with several questions that were not answered in 1974. With the conclusion of this co-ordinated programme, it is obvious that some problems have not yet been resolved and that more work is necessary to assess completely the impact of cooling systems on the environment. It is felt, however, that the data gathered here will bring a substantial contribution to the understanding of the subject

  12. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Additional Content Medical News Effects of Aging on the Digestive System By Atenodoro ... and Biliary Tract Large Intestine Rectum and Anus Effects of Aging on the Digestive System (See also ...

  13. Parity effect of bipolar quantum Hall edge transport around graphene antidots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Sadashige; Nakaharai, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2015-06-30

    Parity effect, which means that even-odd property of an integer physical parameter results in an essential difference, ubiquitously appears and enables us to grasp its physical essence as the microscopic mechanism is less significant in coarse graining. Here we report a new parity effect of quantum Hall edge transport in graphene antidot devices with pn junctions (PNJs). We found and experimentally verified that the bipolar quantum Hall edge transport is drastically affected by the parity of the number of PNJs. This parity effect is universal in bipolar quantum Hall edge transport of not only graphene but also massless Dirac electron systems. These results offer a promising way to design electron interferometers in graphene.

  14. Failure Effects Evaluation for ATC Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ATC (air traffic control automation system is a complex system, which helps maintain the air traffic order, guarantee the flight interval, and prevent aircraft collision. It is essential to ensure the safety of air traffic. Failure effects evaluation is an important part of ATC automation system reliability engineering. The failure effects evaluation of ATC automation system is aimed at the effects of modules or components which affect the performance and functionality of the system. By analyzing and evaluating the failure modes and their causes and effects, some reasonable improvement measures and preventive maintenance plans can be established. In this paper, the failure effects evaluation framework considering performance and functionality of the system is established on the basis of reliability theory. Some algorithms for the quantitative evaluation of failure effects on performance of ATC automation system are proposed. According to the algorithms, the quantitative evaluation of reliability, availability, maintainability, and other assessment indicators can be calculated.

  15. Competent Systems: Effective, Efficient, Deliverable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Bruce

    Recent developments in artificial intelligence and decision analysis suggest reassessing the approaches commonly taken to the design of knowledge-based systems. Competent systems are based on models known as influence diagrams, which graphically capture a domain's basic objects and their interrelationships. Among the benefits offered by influence…

  16. Effective operator formalism for open quantum systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2012-01-01

    We present an effective operator formalism for open quantum systems. Employing perturbation theory and adiabatic elimination of excited states for a weakly driven system, we derive an effective master equation which reduces the evolution to the ground-state dynamics. The effective evolution...

  17. Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patterson, Wayne L

    2001-01-01

    ...), the world's first electromagnetic prediction system for shipboard use. Advances in research and technology have led to the replacement of IREPS with the Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS...

  18. Quantization Effects in OFDM Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2008-01-01

    The advantage of using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) over the single-carrier modulation is its ability to mitigate interference and fading without complex equalization filters in the receiver. OFDM systems have a high peak-to-average ratio (PAPR) which results in a high

  19. Traffic safety effects of navigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.J.; Hogema, J.H.; Vonk, T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract— To investigate effects of navigation systems on traffic safety, a literature search, a damages database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented car study were conducted. This paper presents the instrumented car study to investigate the effects of a navigation system on driving behavior

  20. Using session types as an effect system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Orchard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Side effects are a core part of practical programming. However, they are often hard to reason about, particularly in a concurrent setting. We propose a foundation for reasoning about concurrent side effects using sessions. Primarily, we show that session types are expressive enough to encode an effect system for stateful processes. This is formalised via an effect-preserving encoding of a simple imperative language with an effect system into the pi-calculus with session primitives and session types (into which we encode effect specifications. This result goes towards showing a connection between the expressivity of session types and effect systems. We briefly discuss how the encoding could be extended and applied to reason about and control concurrent side effects.

  1. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    includes such items as machine tools, micromanipulators, sheet metal fabricating tools, TOP 01-2-511A 20 November 2013 4 microscopes, Hazards of...Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO) sensors, pneumatic switching, and those equipments associated with fiber optic technology. c. Test...and current flow. These effects include puncture, tearing, bending , burning, vaporization, or blasting of hardware. TOP 01-2-511A 20

  2. Systemic side-effects of topical corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Dhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of topical corticosteroids, a milestone has been achieved in dermatologic therapy; owing to its potent anti-inflammatory and ant proliferative effects, it became possible to treat some hitherto resistant dermatoses. But this magic drug can cause enough mischief if used inappropriately. Children are more susceptible to the systemic adverse effects because of enhanced percutaneous absorption through their tender skin. So, systemic side effects should be kept in mind while prescribing this therapeutically valuable topical medicament.

  3. Radiation effects on biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, G.M.

    2000-04-01

    Xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine and a wide range of carbonyl compounds. The enzyme exists as an oxidase and a dehydrogenase; both catalyze the oxidation of the same substrates. Steady state radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to generate oxidative and reductive free radicals. Their effects on the enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidase were determined. Initially inactivation studies were carried out to evaluate the extent to which radiolysis in aqueous solution affects the enzyme activity. Values of D 37 and G inactivation were calculated following irradiation in the presence of free radical scavengers and in the presence of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The kinetic constants Vmax and Km were also determined following radiolysis. The effect of ionising radiation on the iron content of xanthine oxidase was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Native gel electrophoresis and iso-electric focussing were performed in an attempt to demonstrate changes in the overall structure of the enzyme. The binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin was carried out by measuring, (1) the displacement of methylene blue (MB + ) from a heparin-MB + complex, (2) affinity chromatography and, (3) pulse radiolysis. The effect of irradiation on the binding process was investigated using techniques (1) and (2). Finally the radiation-induced conversion of xanthine oxidase to dehydrogenase was established. The results indicate that xanthine oxidase is inactivated greatest in the presence of air and irradiation causes Vmax to he reduced and Km to increase. The iron content of irradiated xanthine oxidase is unaffected. Electrophoresis shows the enzyme becomes fragmented and the isoelectric points of the fragments vary over a wide range of pH. Binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin as measured by displacement of MB + from a heparin-MB + complex suggests that irradiation increases the affinity of the enzyme for the polyanion, whereas

  4. Ginsenoside Re: pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu; Sun, Shi; Xie, Lai-Hua; Wicks, Sheila M; Xie, Jing-Tian

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides are the bioactive constituents of ginseng, a key herb in traditional Chinese medicine. As a single component of ginseng, ginsenoside Re (G-Re) belongs to the panaxatriol group. Many reports demonstrated that G-Re possesses the multifaceted beneficial pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system. G-Re has negative effect on cardiac contractility and autorhythmicity. It causes alternations in cardiac electrophysiological properties, which may account for its antiarrhythmic effect. In addition, G-Re also exerts antiischemic effect and induces angiogenic regeneration. In this review, we first outline the chemistry and the pharmacological effects of G-Re on the cardiovascular system. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Radiation effects on biochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddon, G.M

    2000-04-01

    Xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine and a wide range of carbonyl compounds. The enzyme exists as an oxidase and a dehydrogenase; both catalyze the oxidation of the same substrates. Steady state radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to generate oxidative and reductive free radicals. Their effects on the enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidase were determined. Initially inactivation studies were carried out to evaluate the extent to which radiolysis in aqueous solution affects the enzyme activity. Values of D{sub 37} and G{sub inactivation} were calculated following irradiation in the presence of free radical scavengers and in the presence of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The kinetic constants Vmax and Km were also determined following radiolysis. The effect of ionising radiation on the iron content of xanthine oxidase was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Native gel electrophoresis and iso-electric focussing were performed in an attempt to demonstrate changes in the overall structure of the enzyme. The binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin was carried out by measuring, (1) the displacement of methylene blue (MB{sup +}) from a heparin-MB{sup +} complex, (2) affinity chromatography and, (3) pulse radiolysis. The effect of irradiation on the binding process was investigated using techniques (1) and (2). Finally the radiation-induced conversion of xanthine oxidase to dehydrogenase was established. The results indicate that xanthine oxidase is inactivated greatest in the presence of air and irradiation causes Vmax to he reduced and Km to increase. The iron content of irradiated xanthine oxidase is unaffected. Electrophoresis shows the enzyme becomes fragmented and the isoelectric points of the fragments vary over a wide range of pH. Binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin as measured by displacement of MB{sup +} from a heparin-MB{sup +} complex suggests that irradiation increases the affinity of the enzyme

  6. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockie, Alan; Bjorkelo, Kenneth

    A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence of maintenance programs on addressing the system and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. Four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management were identified: (1) the selection of critical systems and components; (2) the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; (3) the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; and (4) the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations.

  7. Stress Effects on Multiple Memory System Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ness

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive behavioural, pharmacological, and neurological research reports stress effects on mammalian memory processes. While stress effects on memory quantity have been known for decades, the influence of stress on multiple memory systems and their distinct contributions to the learning process have only recently been described. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental biological aspects of stress/emotional arousal and recapitulating functionally and anatomically distinct memory systems, we review recent animal and human studies exploring the effects of stress on multiple memory systems. Apart from discussing the interaction between distinct memory systems in stressful situations, we will also outline the fundamental role of the amygdala in mediating such stress effects. Additionally, based on the methods applied in the herein discussed studies, we will discuss how memory translates into behaviour.

  8. Stress Effects on Multiple Memory System Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Deborah; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Extensive behavioural, pharmacological, and neurological research reports stress effects on mammalian memory processes. While stress effects on memory quantity have been known for decades, the influence of stress on multiple memory systems and their distinct contributions to the learning process have only recently been described. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental biological aspects of stress/emotional arousal and recapitulating functionally and anatomically distinct memory systems, we review recent animal and human studies exploring the effects of stress on multiple memory systems. Apart from discussing the interaction between distinct memory systems in stressful situations, we will also outline the fundamental role of the amygdala in mediating such stress effects. Additionally, based on the methods applied in the herein discussed studies, we will discuss how memory translates into behaviour.

  9. Reflection effect in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlandingham, F.G.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation studies the effects of the irradiation of the hotter component in a close binary system on the atmosphere of the secondary and on the observed flux distribution of the binary system. An existing model atmospheres computer program is modified to include the effects of non-zero incident radiation. Computations reveal that the irradiation can significantly raise the temperature in the upper layers of the atmosphere. (U.S.)

  10. Interaction effects in magnetic oxide nanoparticle systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interaction effects in magnetic nanoparticle system were studied through a Monte Carlo simulation. The results of simulations were compared with two different magnetic systems, namely, iron oxide polymer nanocomposites prepared by polymerization over core and nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite thin films prepared by ...

  11. Fire Effects, Education, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin

    1987-01-01

    Predicting the effects of fires in the year 2000 and beyond will be enhanced by the use of expert systems. Although our predictions may have broad confidence limits, expert systems should help us to improve the predictions and to focus on the areas where improved knowledge is most needed. The knowledge of experts can be incorporated into previously existing knowledge...

  12. River System Behaviour Effects on Flood Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Van Mierlo, M.C.L.M.; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular

  13. River system behaviour effects on flood risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Mierlo, M.C.L.M. van; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular

  14. Financial Effectiveness of Negotiation Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian NĂSULEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementing negotiation support systems requires the commitment of significant amounts of resources within the host organization. This paper looks at the effectiveness of investments in these systems, looking at some standard indicators for economic efficiency and the impact of these systems on an organization’s overall activities. This article is part of a research project spanning over a period of 3 years, aimed at developing a successful model for computer assisted negotiations.

  15. Cascading effects of overfishing marine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Carpenter, S.; Young, de B.

    2005-01-01

    Profound indirect ecosystem effects of overfishing have been shown for coastal systems such as coral reefs and kelp forests. A new study from the ecosystem off the Canadian east coast now reveals that the elimination of large predatory fish can also cause marked cascading effects on the pelagic food

  16. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.; Bjorkelo, K.

    1992-01-01

    For a variety of economic and technical reasons, there has been a growing concern with the aging of complex systems and components and the role that maintenance can play in reducing this degradation. A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence that their maintenance programs have on their ability to address the systems and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. The four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management program were identified. These are: the selection of critical systems and components; the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations. In examining how the four organizations have structured their maintenance programs to include these key elements provides valuable lessons not only for the nuclear power industry, but also for any industrial organization that is concerned with the management of system and component aging degradation. This document provides detail, of these studies

  17. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, A.; Bjorkelo, K.

    1992-01-01

    For a variety of economic and technical reasons, there has been a growing concern with the aging of complex systems and components and the role that maintenance can play in reducing this degradation. A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence that their maintenance programs have on their ability to address the systems and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. The four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management program were identified. These are: the selection of critical systems and components; the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations. In examining how the four organizations have structured their maintenance programs to include these key elements provides valuable lessons not only for the nuclear power industry, but also for any industrial organization that is concerned with the management of system and component aging degradation. This document provides detail, of these studies.

  18. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  19. Systemic Design for Second-Order Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Barba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Second-order effects refer to changes within a system that are the result of changes made somewhere else in the system (the first-order effects. Second-order effects can occur at different spatial, temporal, or organizational scales from the original interventions, and are difficult to control. Some organizational theorists suggest that careful management of feedback processes can facilitate controlled change from one organizational configuration to another. Recognizing that skill in managing feedback processes is a core competency of design suggests that design skills are potentially useful tools in achieving organizational change. This paper describes a case study in which a co-design methodology was used to control the second-order effects resulting from a classroom intervention to create organizational change. This approach is then theorized as the Instigator Systems approach.

  20. Strong coupling effects in hybrid plexitonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikau, Dzmitry; Esteban, Ruben; Govyadinov, Alexander A.; Savateeva, Diana; Simon, Thomas; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Grzelczak, Marek; Schmidt, Mikolaj K.; Urban, Alexander S.; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Feldmann, Jochen; Aizpurua, Javier; Rakovich, Yury P.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the interactions between localized plasmons in gold nanorods and excitons in J-aggregates and were able to track an anticrossing behavior of the hybridized modes both in the extinction and in the photoluminescence spectra of this hybrid system. We identified the nonlinear optical behavior of this system by transient absorption spectroscopy. Finally using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy we showed that nonmagnetic organic molecules exhibit magnetooptical response due to binding to a plasmonic nanoparticles. In our experiments we also studied the effect of detuning as well as the effect of off- and on resonance excitation on the hybrid states

  1. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 215-228

  2. Cost effective robust rule calibration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeff P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main calibration services of African NMIs (National Metrology Institutes is the measurement of tapes and rules. This is mainly regulated by legal metrology and OIML (International Organisation of Legal Metrology specifications are therefore referenced. Specifically, OIML R-35 is the standard to which rules or line scales must conform. The accuracy of most African NMIs systems however, cannot prove conformance to this specification. This article will detail the development of a new, cost effective, line scale calibration system, which will have accuracy better than the specification prescribed. The system was locally developed and its design is based on off-the-shelf components and open source software. It is also ready-for-upgrade to an absolute system. The system and details of the line detection algorithm will be presented.

  3. Stress Effects on Multiple Memory System Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ness, Deborah; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Extensive behavioural, pharmacological, and neurological research reports stress effects on mammalian memory processes. While stress effects on memory quantity have been known for decades, the influence of stress on multiple memory systems and their distinct contributions to the learning process have only recently been described. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental biological aspects of stress/emotional arousal and recapitulating functionally and anatomically distinct memory syst...

  4. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldat, J.K.; Napier, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The program for Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) is managed through Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Water and Land Resources Department and is funded through the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI). The Ecological Sciences Department was involved in two subtasks under AEGIS: Dose Methodology Development and Reference Site Initial Analysis (RSIA) for a Salt Dome

  5. From Autonomous Systems to Sociotechnical Systems: Designing Effective Collaborations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Behymer

    Full Text Available Effectiveness in sociotechnical systems often depends on coordination among multiple agents (including both humans and autonomous technologies. This means that autonomous technologies must be designed to function as collaborative systems, or team players. In many complex work domains, success is beyond the capabilities of humans unaided by technologies. However, at the same time, human capabilities are often critical to ultimate success, as all automated control systems will eventually face problems their designers did not anticipate. Unfortunately, there is often an either/or attitude with respect to humans and technology that tends to focus on optimizing the separate human and autonomous components, with the design of interfaces and team processes as an afterthought. The current paper discusses the limitations of this approach and proposes an alternative where the goal of design is a seamless integration of human and technological capabilities into a well-functioning sociotechnical system. Drawing lessons from both the academic (SRK Framework and commercial (IBM’s Watson, video games worlds, suggestions for enriching the coupling between the human and automated systems by considering both technical and social aspects are discussed.

  6. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantum Zeno effect for exponentially decaying systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshino, Kazuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The quantum Zeno effect - suppression of decay by frequent measurements - was believed to occur only when the response of the detector is so quick that the initial tiny deviation from the exponential decay law is detectable. However, we show that it can occur even for exactly exponentially decaying systems, for which this condition is never satisfied, by considering a realistic case where the detector has a finite energy band of detection. The conventional theories correspond to the limit of an infinite bandwidth. This implies that the Zeno effect occurs more widely than expected thus far

  8. Realistic effective interactions for nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Jensen, M.; Osnes, E.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1994-09-01

    A review of perturbative many-body descriptions of several nuclear systems is presented. Symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and finite nuclei with few valence particles are examples of systems considered. The many-body description starts with the most recent meson-exchange potential models for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, an interaction which in turn is used in perturbative schemes to evaluate the effective interaction for finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter. A unified perturbative approach based on time-dependent perturbation theory is elaborated. For finite nuclei new results are presented for the effective interaction and the energy spectra in the mass areas of oxygen, calcium and tin. 166 refs., 83 refs., 21 tabs

  9. Effects of microgravity on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Taylor, Gerald R.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in resistance to bacterial and viral infections in Apollo crew members has stimulated interest in the study of immunity and space flight. Results of studies from several laboratories in both humans and rodents have indicated alterations after space flight that include the following immunological parameters: thymus size, lymphocyte blastogenesis, interferon and interleukin production, natural killer cell activity, cytotoxic T-cell activity, leukocyte subset population distribution, response of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factors, and delayed hypersensitivity skin test reactivity. The interactions of the immune system with other physiological systems, including muscle, bone, and the nervous system, may play a major role in the development of these immunological parameters during and after flight. There may also be direct effects of space flight on immune responses.

  10. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  11. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  12. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets

  13. INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS SYSTEMS DESIGN AND EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Khalipova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper the question of the development of a methodological approach to the determination of logistics systems’ performance and grounding of the most effective goods’ delivery schemes, based on the theory of functions and sets of multiple objects, vector optimization approaches and discrete maximum principle for multi-stage processes (phase method is considered. Methodology. To achieve the goals of the research, the model of logistic system represented by multiple object that defined by the structure and content. The object is represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and inhomogeneous sets (sequences, corteges, which at each stage of cargo delivery present sets of technological operations of their processing, choices and decisions algorithms. Multiple structure of objects is constructive three, consisting of the carrier, signatures and axiomatic. To determine the effective scheme of delivery, applied discrete maximum principle using vector optimization criterion. Findings. In this article, logistics system of delivery is presented in the form of a multi-stage (phase of the process. Each stage reviews a plurality of discrete activities sets, which includes the possible technology cycles of operations in goods handling. At each stage of a multi-phase delivery process from the supplier to the consumer, these sets are different. Considered a model example solving the problem of vector optimization options for delivery of goods by the road in the international logistics system for the five-step process. Optimization performed on the basis of three indicators. Originality. In this paper, the choice of the most effective way of delivery goods produced using the theory of functions and sets of multiple objects, using the discrete maximum principle for multi-stage processes, based on the vector optimization criterion. At each of its stages are formed a plurality of valid solutions as

  14. Systemic side effects of locally used oxymetazoline

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Sahan, Mustafa; Sefil, Fatih; Tas, Zeynel Abidin; Tutuk, Okan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tumer, Cemil; Cevik, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The object of the study is to experimentally investigate the possible systemic side effects of Oxymetazoline including its nasal spray which has been in use for a long time both by the physicians and patients. There is no study in the literature to address the damages of oxymetazoline on the end organ. Materials and methods: The study conducted on 2 groups of rat. Group 1 (n = 8): Control; and Group 2 (n = 8): Oxymetazoline. During 4 week, the control group was applied with 2 drop...

  15. The Effects of Terrain on a System of Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ong, Cher H

    2008-01-01

    Modern combat operations are predominantly joint or combined arms, in which different forces and weapon systems come together to fight as a single entity as a system composed of many different systems...

  16. Modeling of interaction effects in granular systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hilo, M; Al-Rsheed, A

    2000-01-01

    Interaction effects on the magnetic behavior of granular solid systems are examined using a numerical model which is capable of predicting the field, temperature and time dependence of magnetization. In this work, interaction effects on the temperature dependence of time viscosity coefficient S(T) and formation of minor hysteresis loops have been studied. The results for the time- and temperature dependence of remanence ratio have showed that the distribution of energy barriers f(DELTA E) obtained depend critically on the strength and nature of interactions. These interactions-based changes in f(DELTA E) can easily give a temperature-independent behavior of S(T) when these changes give a 1/DELTA E behavior to the distribution of energy barriers. Thus, conclusions about macroscopic quantum tunneling must be carefully drawn when the temperature dependence of S(T) is used to probe for MQT effects. For minor hysteresis effects, the result shows that for the non-interacting case, no minor hysteresis loops occur an...

  17. Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-01

    Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Mixed Systems on Crop Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.

  19. Effects of triterpenes on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, José-Luis

    2010-03-02

    Triterpenes, which comprise a broad chemical group of active principles, are implicated in the mechanisms of action and pharmacological effects of many medicinal plants used in folk medicine against diseases in which the immune system is implicated. They have been described as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, and antitumoral agents, as well as being immunomodulator compounds. Several of them are implicated in the resolution of immune diseases, although their effects have not always been clearly correlated. The aim of this review is to compile relevant data on the mechanisms of action of triterpenes isolated from active ethnomedicinal plants and their role in the resolution of diseases in which the immune system is implicated to examine the mechanism by which they are useful as ethnopharmacological medicines. The selection of papers was made using the most relevant databases for the biomedical sciences on the basis of their ethnopharmacological use. We principally chose those studies that examined the resolution of allergic responses in vivo and those that studied the effects of the more relevant mediators implicated in the immune response in vitro. The number of compounds actually studied is limited compared with the high number of principles that have been isolated and identified. Many studies focus on specific pathologies such cancer or inflammation, but in many cases they are clearly correlated with the immune response. Lanostanes, cucurbitanes, and oleananes are probably the most interesting groups; however, other compounds are also of potential importance. Studies of specific mechanisms against mediators or transcription factors could be the objective for future research on ethnomedicinal plants used to combat immune diseases since the results obtained with cucurbitacins or derivatives of oleanolic acid support the use of different medicinal plants, thereby opening up a new frontier for future studies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  20. A Cost Effective System Design Approach for Critical Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Larry Wayne; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    NASA-JSC required an avionics platform capable of serving a wide range of applications in a cost-effective manner. In part, making the avionics platform cost effective means adhering to open standards and supporting the integration of COTS products with custom products. Inherently, operation in space requires low power, mass, and volume while retaining high performance, reconfigurability, scalability, and upgradability. The Universal Mini-Controller project is based on a modified PC/104-Plus architecture while maintaining full compatibility with standard COTS PC/104 products. The architecture consists of a library of building block modules, which can be mixed and matched to meet a specific application. A set of NASA developed core building blocks, processor card, analog input/output card, and a Mil-Std-1553 card, have been constructed to meet critical functions and unique interfaces. The design for the processor card is based on the PowerPC architecture. This architecture provides an excellent balance between power consumption and performance, and has an upgrade path to the forthcoming radiation hardened PowerPC processor. The processor card, which makes extensive use of surface mount technology, has a 166 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 32 Mbytes of error detected and corrected RAM, 8 Mbytes of Flash, and I Mbytes of EPROM, on a single PC/104-Plus card. Similar densities have been achieved with the quad channel Mil-Std-1553 card and the analog input/output cards. The power management built into the processor and its peripheral chip allows the power and performance of the system to be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application, allowing another dimension to the flexibility of the Universal Mini-Controller. Unique mechanical packaging allows the Universal Mini-Controller to accommodate standard COTS and custom oversized PC/104-Plus cards. This mechanical packaging also provides thermal management via conductive cooling of COTS boards, which are typically

  1. Ratchet Effects in Active Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2017-03-01

    Ratchet effects can arise for single or collectively interacting Brownian particles on an asymmetric substrate when a net dc transport is produced by an externally applied ac driving force or by periodically flashing the substrate. Recently, a new class of active ratchet systems that do not require the application of external driving has been realized through the use of active matter; they are self-propelled units that can be biological or nonbiological in nature. When active materials such as swimming bacteria interact with an asymmetric substrate, a net dc directed motion can arise even without external driving, opening a wealth of possibilities such as sorting, cargo transport, or micromachine construction. We review the current status of active matter ratchets for swimming bacteria, cells, active colloids, and swarming models, focusing on the role of particle-substrate interactions. We describe ratchet reversals produced by collective effects and the use of active ratchets to transport passive particles. We discuss future directions including deformable substrates or particles, the role of different swimming modes, varied particle-particle interactions, and nondissipative effects.

  2. Reversible Vector Ratchet Effect in Skyrmion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyu; Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia

    Magnetic skyrmions are topological non-trivial spin textures found in several magnetic materials. Since their motion can be controlled using ultralow current densities, skyrmions are appealing for potential applications in spintronics as information carriers and processing devices. In this work, we studied the collective transport properties of driven skyrmions based on a particle-like model with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our results show that ac driven skyrmions interacting with an asymmetric substrate provide a realization of a new class of ratchet system, which we call a vector ratchet, that arises due to the effect of the Magnus term on the skyrmion dynamics. In a vector ratchet, the dc motion induced by the ac drive can be described as a vector that can be rotated up to 360 degrees relative to the substrate asymmetry direction. This could represent a new method for controlling skyrmion motion for spintronic applications.

  3. Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Central Nervous System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  4. Increase in Organization Effectiveness Using Voice Analysis: The System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bartkienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze literature related to the system theory and to present the system of increase in organization effectiveness using voice analysis. The concepts of the system approach were analyzed, the definition of the system, its components and classification were discussed. Following the principles of the system theory, the system of increase in organization effectiveness using voice analysis was designed. Each element was briefly discussed, i.e. processes influencing the employee, the environment, voice analysis system, expert system, prime and final organizational effectiveness. In addition, the relations between these elements were indentified. Article in Lithuanian

  5. Moessbauer effect: Study of disordered magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xiao Sha.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation describes Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of two chemically disordered binary, crystalline alloys having the composition A 1-x B x . Both systems are random 3d Heisenberg ferromagnets. In each case both A and B atoms carry a magnetic moment. The first study concerns a Moessbauer absorber experiment on Fe 1-x V x , in which the disorder in the critical region is of the annealed random exchange type. To eliminate the effect of concentration inhomogeneity, the measurement of the critical exponent β was done on the alloy with x = 0.125, where dT C /dx = 0, yielding β = 0.362(8) over the reduced temperature range 1.4 x 10 -3 -1 . This result confirms the theoretical prediction that the annealed disorder is irrelevant to critical behavior in this case. As expected the critical exponent β is consistent with the expectation for the 3d Heisenberg model as well as the measured exponent of pure Fe. The second study involves a Moessbauer source experiment on 57 CoPd 0.80 Co 0.20 , in which disorder is of the quenched random exchange type perturbed by a very weak random anisotropy interaction. The critical exponent β deduced over the range 1 x 10 -2 -1 is 0.385(20), and is consistent with the theoretical prediction for quenched disordered 3d Heisenberg systems: the disorder is irrelevant to the critical behavior. However, because of the restricted range of reduced temperature, the result is insufficiently asymptotic to serve as a conclusive test of the theory. Outside the critical region the distribution of Fe 57 hyperfine field in Pd 0.80 Co 0.20 is observed to have an anomalous temperature dependence characterized by a linear increase in the width of the field distribution for T/T C ≥ 0.6

  6. Systemic side effects of locally used oxymetazoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Sahan, Mustafa; Sefil, Fatih; Tas, Zeynel Abidin; Tutuk, Okan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tumer, Cemil; Cevik, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The object of the study is to experimentally investigate the possible systemic side effects of Oxymetazoline including its nasal spray which has been in use for a long time both by the physicians and patients. There is no study in the literature to address the damages of oxymetazoline on the end organ. The study conducted on 2 groups of rat. Group 1 (n = 8): Control; and Group 2 (n = 8): Oxymetazoline. During 4 week, the control group was applied with 2 drops of saline water on each nasal cavity 3 times a day and the other group was applied with 2 drops of oxymetazoline HCl 3 times a day. At the end of experiment, samples from mandible, parotid and tails of the rats were taken in 10% formalin for histopathological investigations. In histopathological experiments, when compared with the control group, the oxymetazoline group showed significant increase in many of the histopathological parameters (ischemic changes: P = 0.0001; congestion: P = 0.0006; arterial thrombosis: P = Ns; PNL accumulations: P = 0.001; necrosis: P = 0.0001; and ulceration: P = 0.014). The results of histopathologic tests on the samples taken from mandible and parotid gland, in comparison with the control group, showed no significant increase (focal inflammation: P = Ns; and lymphocyte aggregation: P = Ns). Due to the damage that the long-term use of nasal spray including oxymetazoline, it may cause injury on the end organ, which we revealed in our histopathological experiments. We believe that it's essential for the physicians to provide information on the side effects of the medicine to their patients who use for a long term.

  7. The effects of cryotherapy on proprioception system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmanek, Mariusz Paweł; Słomka, Kajetan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Proprioception plays an important role in the complex mechanism of joint control. Contemporary sport activities impose extremely high physical demands on athletes. Winter sports are played in areas with excessively low temperatures. Moreover, many athletes are subjected to treatments that involve local lowering of the body temperature before, during, and after physical activity. This work reviews the current knowledge regarding the influence of local cryotherapy on the proprioception system. The reviewed literature identified several tests that evaluate different aspects of proprioception. There is no universally agreed protocol, or clear set of criteria for test conditions. The outcomes of different tests and assessments of cryotherapy procedures using different cold modalities are poorly correlated. In general, the published results on the mechanism of cryotherapy effects on proprioception are not uniquely conclusive and are frequently contradictory. Additional high-quality research is required to explicitly answer the following questions: (1) whether local cryotherapy influences all aspects of proprioception; (2) whether the current methods of evaluation are adequate for the exploration of the relationship between cryotherapy and proprioception; and (3) whether the application of local cryotherapy is safe for athletes regarding proprioception. The review clearly showed that there is no comprehensive model relating cryotherapy and proprioception.

  8. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  9. Glass effect in a prescribed marriage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Itoh, Yoshiaki

    1994-04-01

    By computer simulation, the spatial pattern formation in a marriage system is studied. Depending on the interaction range between persons, this system shows a phase transition which resembles the glass transition. It is found that the life style of Australian aborigines can be fitted quite well with such a marriage system. Moreover, we can roughly estimate the population size of tribes of Australian aborigines.

  10. System reliability effects in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    from reliability point of view. The present paper discusses the specifics of system reliability behavior of laminated composite sandwich panels, and solves an example system reliability problem for a glass fiber-reinforced composite sandwich structure subjected to in-plane compression.......Laminated composite sandwich panels have a layered structure, where individual layers have randomly varying stiffness and strength properties. The presence of multiple failure modes and load redistribution following partial failures are the reason for laminated composites to exhibit system behavior...

  11. FIREMON: Fire effects monitoring and inventory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane; John F. Caratti; Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson; Steve Sutherland; Larry J. Gangi

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring and inventory to assess the effects of wildland fire is critical for 1) documenting fire effects, 2) assessing ecosystem damage and benefit, 3) evaluating the success or failure of a burn, and 4) appraising the potential for future treatments. However, monitoring fire effects is often difficult because data collection requires abundant funds, resources, and...

  12. Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This extensive review discusses the topic under the following headings: ultraviolet climatology, molecular and cellular ultraviolet photobiology (absorption, photoproducts, repair), effects of solar UVR on aquatic life (phyto and zooplankton), plants and humans. The section on human effects includes tanning, photo-aging, non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers and the effects of solar UVR on the eye. (UK)

  13. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  14. Linking Health Information Systems for Effective Decision Making ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking Health Information Systems for Effective Decision Making (East Africa). Researchers have suggested that collaborative health systems research can improve the performance of a district health system (DHS). This collaborative research project will test an integrated community-based health information system ...

  15. Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating pump and treat (P&T) systems based on lessons learned from conducting optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund-financed P&T systems.

  16. Effective Hamiltonian approach to periodically perturbed quantum optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, I.; Klimov, A.B.; Saavedra, C.

    2006-01-01

    We apply the method of Lie-type transformations to Floquet Hamiltonians for periodically perturbed quantum systems. Some typical examples of driven quantum systems are considered in the framework of this approach and corresponding effective time dependent Hamiltonians are found

  17. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ergul Belge Kurutas; Metin Kilinc

    2003-01-01

    The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In ...

  18. The Effect of a Controlled Perimeter Security System on Crime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rothrock, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The proliferation of gated residential communities in the United States has generated social criticism, but research to assess the expected crime prevention effect of the perimeter security systems...

  19. Magnetic effects in cellular and molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Brief discussions are presented of six aspects of the phenomenon. Individual topics discussed include: (1) mechanisms of magnetic field interactions with retinal rods; (2) orientation of biological membranes and cells in magnetic fields; (3) enzyme-substrate reactions in high magnetic fields; (4) effects on cell function resulting from exposure to strong magnetic fields at 4 0 K; (5) effects of a transverse magnetic field on the dose distribution of high energy electrons and in the responses of mammalian cells in vitro to x rays; and (6) effect of magnetic fields on the drug-induced contractility of the ciliate Spirostomum

  20. Learning and Organizational Effectiveness: A Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The challenge for leaders today is to create and develop the capability of their organization. Leaders must perceive and manage their organization as a dynamic, open system where learning is the core competence underlying innovation, growth, and sustainability. Creating a culture of learning is the first work of leadership. This article presents a…

  1. An Effective Aquaculture Extension System from Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Government and projects extension professionals should support the system through technical training, study tours, publications and networking. Likewise, since educated and well-off farmers in peri-urban areas can access information, government offices should be equipped with well-trained extension personnel and ...

  2. An Effective System of Sports Competition Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Szostek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovatory system of managing sports competitions has been presented. Its advantages with regard to other currently used systems are discussed. A theorem connected with such a system has been presented in the last section of the paper. Sports competitions aim to establish a ranking of the participating teams. This consists of sorting teams according to a quality which can be thought of as the ability to win matches. Direct measurement of this quality is not possible, since the ability to win matches depends on a great variety of factors being difficult to determine. Nevertheless, it is possible to compare any two teams if they play a match. These matches are played under normal rules. In turn, all the rules valid during sports competitions, outside the matches, make a system of sport competition. Sorting sports teams differs from typical problems of sorting. The result of a comparison of teams is sometimes misleading. It happens that a team with a greater ability to win matches loses a match to a team with a smaller ability to win matches. Thus, the problem of sorting teams is a probabilistic problem. Due to this reason, traditional sorting methods are ineffective in terms of managing sports competitions. (original abstract

  3. Effectiveness-weighted control method for a cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Simons, Robert E.

    2015-12-15

    Energy efficient control of cooling system cooling of an electronic system is provided based, in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components. The control includes automatically determining speed control settings for multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components of the cooling system, and the determining operates to limit power consumption of at least the cooling system, while ensuring that a target temperature associated with at least one of the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range by provisioning, based on the weighted cooling effectiveness, a desired target temperature change among the multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The provisioning includes provisioning applied power to the multiple adjustable cooling components via, at least in part, the determined control settings.

  4. Effects of Glucocorticoids in the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Emmanuel; Cato, Andrew C B

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones with widespread effects. They control intermediate metabolism by stimulating gluconeogenesis in the liver, mobilize amino acids from extra hepatic tissues, inhibit glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue, and stimulate fat breakdown in adipose tissue. They also mediate stress response. They exert potent immune-suppressive and anti-inflammatory effects particularly when administered pharmacologically. Understanding these diverse effects of glucocorticoids requires a detailed knowledge of their mode of action. Research over the years has uncovered several details on the molecular action of this hormone, especially in immune cells. In this chapter, we have summarized the latest findings on the action of glucocorticoids in immune cells with a view of identifying important control points that may be relevant in glucocorticoid therapy.

  5. A Simple and Effective Remedial Learning System with a Fuzzy Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-C.; Guo, K.-H.; Lin, Y.-C.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at implementing a simple and effective remedial learning system. Based on fuzzy inference, a remedial learning material selection system is proposed for a digital logic course. Two learning concepts of the course have been used in the proposed system: number systems and combinational logic. We conducted an experiment to validate…

  6. Lens refracting cost effective photovoltaic solar energy concentrating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilawjian, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The overall cost reduction task is studied for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems. For that purpose, a new, cost effective lens refracting system is developed. The concentrating system consists of Fresnel lenses placed under different facet angles refracting the sun light onto the solar cells placed along a line. The developed photovoltaic concentrating system uses the mathematical model of Fresnel lens concentrating optics for photovoltaic systems used to optimize the system by cost. A computer program FLCPVSys2.1 for the new concentrating system is developed allowing to design a photovoltaic system of the required power with the minimum cost. The program can be used for designing a cost effective photovoltaic solar concentrating system

  7. Analysis of crystallization risk in double effect absorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garousi Farshi, L.; Seyed Mahmoudi, S.M.; Rosen, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Absorption refrigeration systems are an alternative to vapor compression ones in cooling and refrigeration applications. In comparison with single effect absorption units, double effect systems have improved performance. Also, they are more available commercially than the other multi effect absorption cycles. An important challenge in the operation of such systems is the possibility of crystallization within them. This is especially true in developing air-cooled absorption systems, which are attractive because cooling tower and associated installation and maintenance issues can be avoided. Therefore, distinguishing the working conditions that may cause crystallization can be useful in the design and control of these systems. In this paper a computational model has been developed to study and compare the effects of operating parameters on crystallization phenomena in three classes of double effect lithium bromide-water absorption refrigeration systems (series, parallel and reverse parallel) with identical refrigeration capacities. It is shown that the range of operating conditions without crystallization risks in the parallel and the reverse parallel configurations is wider than those of the series flow system. - Highlights: → We study crystallization of double effect absorption refrigeration systems. → We consider series, parallel and reverse parallel cycles. → We study the effect of operating conditions on crystallization. → We choose optimum distribution ratio for parallel and reverse parallel systems. → Crystallization possibility is low in parallel and reverse parallel cycles.

  8. Effects of estrogen on the vascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Tostes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular protective actions of estrogen are partially mediated by a direct effect on the vessel wall. Estrogen is active both on vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells where functionally competent estrogen receptors have been identified. Estrogen administration promotes vasodilation in humans and in experimental animals, in part by stimulating prostacyclin and nitric oxide synthesis, as well as by decreasing the production of vasoconstrictor agents such as cyclooxygenase-derived products, reactive oxygen species, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1. In vitro, estrogen exerts a direct inhibitory effect on smooth muscle by activating potassium efflux and by inhibiting calcium influx. In addition, estrogen inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. In vivo, 17ß-estradiol prevents neointimal thickening after balloon injury and also ameliorates the lesions occurring in atherosclerotic conditions. As is the case for other steroids, the effect of estrogen on the vessel wall has a rapid non-genomic component involving membrane phenomena, such as alteration of membrane ionic permeability and activation of membrane-bound enzymes, as well as the classical genomic effect involving estrogen receptor activation and gene expression.

  9. The Effects of the Application of Production Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusanka Lecic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors show you in this paper definition and functions of information systems, information systems development methodologies and stages of development. Also, the authors will show the effects of the application of production information systems. Authors also include SWOT analysis in which show the influence of the external and internal environment on the implementation of IS in business.

  10. Thermal Effects in Gravitational Hartree Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Aki, Gonca L.

    2011-04-06

    We consider the non-relativistic Hartree model in the gravitational case, i. e. with attractive Coulomb-Newton interaction. For a given mass M > 0, we construct stationary states with non-zero temperature T by minimizing the corresponding free energy functional. It is proved that minimizers exist if and only if the temperature of the system is below a certain threshold T* > 0 (possibly infinite), which itself depends on the specific choice of the entropy functional. We also investigate whether the corresponding minimizers are mixed or pure quantum states and characterize a critical temperature Tc ∈ (0,T*) above which mixed states appear. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

  11. Thermal effects in gravitational Hartree systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, Gonca L. [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Dolbeault, Jean [Paris-Dauphine Univ. (FR). Ceremade (UMR CNRS 7534); Sparber, Christof [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science

    2010-07-01

    We consider the non-relativistic Hartree model in the gravitational case, i.e. with attractive Coulomb-Newton interaction. For a given mass M>0, we construct stationary states with non-zero temperature T by minimizing the corresponding free energy functional. It is proved that minimizers exist if and only if the temperature of the system is below a certain threshold T*>0 (possibly infinite), which itself depends on the specific choice of the entropy functional. We also investigate whether the corresponding minimizers are mixed or pure quantum states and characterize a critical temperature T{sub c} element of (0,T*) above which mixed states appear. (orig.)

  12. Effect of dependency in systems for multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Systems for multivariate on-line surveillance (e.g. outbreak detection), are investigated. Optimal systems for statistical surveillance are based on likelihood ratios. Three systems are compared; based on each marginal density, based on the joint density and based on the Hotelling?s T2. The effect of dependency between the monitored processes is investigated, and the effect of correlation between the change times. When the first change occurs immediately, the three methods...

  13. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of System Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    determine the most desirable smog control device for automobiles. Similarly, the agency might also want to evaluate the comparative merits of expending funds...best allocation of available resoruces among the alternative opportunities. Conducting a cost-effectiveness evaluation to determine the best smog ...evaluation. Admittedly, not all complex problems can be solved by simple techni- ques , but disallusion to the mathematical sophistica- tion of the analytical

  14. Skeletal effects of systemic and topical corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Oral corticosteroids are associated with an increased risk of fractures from negative effects on sex steroids and vitamin D with a negative calcium balance, together with negative effects on the bone cells and the bone matrix. However, the increase in fracture risk with oral corticosteroids seems more linked to daily than to cumulative dose. A small daily dose may consequently be more detrimental than a large cumulative dose given as intermittent doses. Topical corticosteroids administered locally in the eyes, ears, in the mouth, on the skin, and rectally are not associated with an increased risk of fractures. Inhaled corticosteroids are not associated with an increased risk of fractures, except at very high doses that are much higher than the doses usually administered. With regard to the prevention of fractures, the use of topical corticosteroids may be preferred over oral administration where feasible. More research is needed to determine practically applicable intermittent dosing regimens for corticosteroids, replacing daily administration, to assess if this can have the same beneficial clinical effect but avoid, or at least reduce, the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.

  15. Effective Coulomb interaction in multiorbital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hase, Izumi; Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Transition metal atom generally takes various valences, and sometimes there are some 'missing valences', for example Fe usually takes 2+, 3+ and 5+, but does not take other valences so often. We have calculated the atomic multiplet energies for the high-spin and lowspin configurations within the ligand-field theory and the Hartree-Fock approximation, and found that the Coulomb interaction energy (U eff ) becomes small when the valence is 'missing'. In case U eff B /Fe only when U eff increased in most cases, but in some special cases U eff decreases and falls below the value U − 3J, which is the least value of the undistorted system.

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation on cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliat, F.; Benderitter, M.; Gaugler, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatment for cancer of the chest, mediastinal area or the neck area is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. With the increasing number of cancer patients and the increased treatment efficiency, the number of cancer survivors is increasing exponentially. The cancer survivors live longer and their long-term follow-up must be considered. The cardiovascular toxicity is mainly associated with the treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and head and neck cancer. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects are insidious and chronic. Their occurrence is linked to numerous factors including the age of the patient at the beginning of the radiotherapy schedule, the number of years following radiotherapy, the doses (and volume) to the heart and the large vessels (coronary and carotid arteries), and the association with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear and, even if similarities with age-related atherosclerosis were established, the specificities of the radiation-induced atherosclerosis for high doses remain to be discovered. For low/moderate doses of ionising radiation, recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. A better knowledge of the mechanisms associated with the radiation-induced cardiovascular pathologies and the more precise identification of the populations at risk in the future should allow a more effective care of these patients with cardiovascular risk. (authors)

  17. Modelling of Failure Effect to Integrity of System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The interlocking systems are typically resisting against hazardous faults. Failure effect on the system can be determined directly by monitoring the original system installation, by simulation of the system operation using its model, or by computing or theoretical reasoning. The process of system ageing can be described with the help of the random failure time. Essential majorities of computer-based interlocking system elements are electronic elements that are not exposed to mechanical wear. The failure distribution of these elements is assumed to be exponential.   

  18. Humidity effects on hydrophilic film dosimeter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.; Proksch, E.

    1979-11-01

    At dose-rates typical for 60 Co-gamma irradiation sources the radiation response of hexahydroxyethyl pararosanilin cyanide/50μm nylon radachromic films is dependent upon dose-rate as well as upon the moisture content of the film. Under equilibrium moisture conditions, the response measured at 606 nm 24 hours after end of irradiation shows its highest dose-rate dependence at about 32 % r.h. A decrease in dose-rate from 2.8 to 0.039 Gy.s -1 results in decrease in response by 17%. At higher humidities, the sensitivity of the film as well as the rate dependence decreases and at 86% r.h. no discernible dose-rate effect could be found. At nominal 0 % r.h. a second absorption band at 412 nm appears which is converted completely to an additional 606 nm absorption by exposure to a humid atmosphere. After that procedure the resultant response is somewhat lower but shows almost the same dose-rate dependence as at 32% r.h. Preliminary results concerning the influence of humidity on the response of Blue Cellophane are given, too. (author)

  19. The Effectiveness of Seismic Isolation System for Nuclear Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2005-04-15

    In this study, the Emergency Diesel Generator and Off-site Transformer were selected for isolation. For the selection of the most suitable base isolation system, the literature review and the numerical analysis were performed. For the decision of the parameter of isolation system, the sensitivity analysis was performed. Finally the conceptual design of each equipment was performed. In case of EDG, the Coil Spring and Viscous Damper system was selected for isolation system and 45% isolation effect was determined. For the OST, the FPS was selected and 69% isolation effect was determined.

  20. Relevant Costs for Decision in an Effective Controlling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Controlling is considered a leading concept in the sense of coordination, planning, control and automation, in order to produce the synthesis necessary in decision making. The purpose of article is to highlight the link between a dynamic accounting system and an effective controlling system. The research method used is based on the idea that the cost analysis in an efficient controlling system involves obtaining accounting information from within the entity which management then uses in decision making. In conclusion, we emphasize that an effective controlling system must provide managers the tools to meet their informational needs.

  1. Confluence and convergence: team effectiveness in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems require nursing leadership to rethink organizational work and the viability and effectiveness of teams. Much of emergent thinking about complexity and systems and organizations alter the understanding of the nature and function of teamwork and the configuration and leadership of team effort. Reflecting on basic concepts of complexity and their application to team formation, dynamics, and outcomes lays an important foundation for effectively guiding the strategic activity of systems through the focused tactical action of teams. Basic principles of complexity, their impact on teams, and the fundamental elements of team effectiveness are explored.

  2. Effect of Vibrations on Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Önder Cem

    In overly populated cities people living in suburban areas have to endure long journeys in order to reach their job sites. Whether they go by train, bus or by car they are inevitably exposed to vibrations, of considerable magnitude, in vertical (z) and lateral (x, y) directions. The immediate effect of vibration exposure is the fatigue of ones' muscles. This is verified by the blood and saliva analysis of the volunteers travelling in a train. Their lactic acid levels were increased by 34% at the end of a 5 hr journey. The most affected people by vibration were, without doubt, the train operators and bus drivers. 42% of the suburban train operators had pain complaints at their waists. az(floor) in the machinist cabin of a suburban train was measured to be, on the average, 0.23 m/s2. Max peak was 1.34 m/s2. The bus and car drivers were exposed to lower vibrations but they were exposed to multiple shocks originating from the non-standardized humps placed on the roads. Peak az(seat) = 0.054 m/s2 (f = 5.25 Hz) (vcar = 30 km/hr) on an asphalt road increased considerably while crossing over a hump. This value was 1.27 m/s2 (f = 4.5 Hz) in case of bus drivers (vbus = 20 km/hr). Studies have been done to provide practical measures for the reduction of the vibrations transmitted to the drivers. The waist belts filled with fluids of different viscosities prepared for this purpose seemed to be promising. The cushions filled with glycerin and gel were observed to be the best alternatives.

  3. The use and effectiveness of information system development methodologies in health information systems / Pieter Wynand Conradie.

    OpenAIRE

    Conradie, Pieter Wynand

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The main focus of this study is the identification of factors influencing the use and effectiveness of information system development methodologies (Le., systems development methodologies) in health information systems. In essence, it can be viewed as exploratory research, utilizing a conceptual research model to investigate the relationships among the hypothesised factors. More specifically, classified as behavioural science, it combines two theoretical models, namely...

  4. Near-equilibrium measurement of quantum size effects using Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späth, Thomas; Popp, Matthias; Pérez León, Carmen; Marz, Michael; Hoffmann-Vogel, Regina

    2017-06-14

    In nano-structures such as thin films electron confinement results in the quantization of energy levels in the direction perpendicular to the film. The discretization of the energy levels leads to the oscillatory dependence of many properties on the film thickness due to quantum size effects. Pb on Si(111) is a specially interesting system because a particular relationship between the Pb atomic layer thickness and its Fermi wavelength leads to a periodicity of the oscillation of two atomic layers. Here, we demonstrate how the combination of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) provides a reliable method to monitor the quantum oscillations in the work function of Pb ultra-thin film nano-structures on Si(111). Unlike other techniques, with SFM/KPFM we directly address single Pb islands, determine their height while suppressing the influence of electrostatic forces, and, in addition, simultaneously evaluate their local work function by measurements close to equilibrium, without current-dependent and non-equilibrium effects. Our results evidence even-odd oscillations in the work function as a function of the film thickness that decay linearly with the film thickness, proving that this method provides direct and precise information on the quantum states.

  5. Effect of attenuation models on communication system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Fred I.

    1995-01-01

    The atmosphere has a significant impact on the design of a global communication system operating at 20 GHz. The system under consideration has a total atmospheric link attenuation budget that is less than 6 dB. For this relatively small link margin, rain, cloud, and molecular attenuation have to be taken into account. For an assessment of system performance on a global basis, attenuation models are utilized. There is concern whether current models can adequately describe the atmospheric effects such that a system planner can properly allocate his resources for superior overall system performance. The atmospheric attenuation as predicted by models will be examined.

  6. Attributes of system testing which promote cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    A brief overview of conventional EMP testing activity examines attributes of overall systems tests which promote cost-effectiveness. The general framework represents an EMP-oriented systems test as a portion of a planned program to design, produce, and field system elements. As such, all so-called system tests should play appropriate cost-effective roles in this program, and the objective here is to disclose such roles. The intrinsic worth of such tests depends not only upon placing proper values on the outcomes, but also upon the possible eventual consequences of not doing tests. A relative worth measure is required. Attributes of EMP system testing over the range of potential activity which encompasses research and development, production, field handling, verification, evaluation, and others are reviewed and examined. Thus, the relative worth, in a cost-effective sense, is provided by relating such attributes to the overall program objectives so that values can be placed on the outcomes for tradeoff purposes

  7. Effect of Rearing Systems on Reproductive Performance of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M AnnaAnandh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing systems on reproductive performance of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. A total of 180 Beltsville Small White and Board Breasted Bronze turkeys were taken for the study and reared under three different rearing system viz. intensive system (full confinement, semi-intensive system (partial confinement and partial day scavenging and free range system (all-day scavenging. Average egg weight (g, percentage of infertile eggs, embryonic mortalities, total egg hatchability, fertile egg hatchability, fertility and poults survivability values were significantly (P>0.01 higher in turkeys reared under intensive system of management followed by semi intensive system and free range system of management. The highest percentage of dead in shell was found in intensive system and was did not differ significantly from semi intensive and free range system. Hatched weight of poults (g between semi intensive and intensive system did not differ significantly between them, but both groups found statistically significant (P>0.01 from free range system. From the study, it is concluded that higher reproductive performance was obtained in intensive system of management followed by semi intensive and free range system of management. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 226-229

  8. Predicting_Systemic_Toxicity_Effects_ArchTox_2017_Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In an effort to address a major challenge in chemical safety assessment, alternative approaches for characterizing systemic effect levels, a predictive model was...

  9. Designing Effective Collaboration, Learning and Innovation Systems for Education Professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angehrn, Albert; Maxwell, Katrina; Luccini, Angelo; Rajola, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Angehrn, A. A., Maxwell, K., Luccini, A. M., & Rajola, F. (2009). Designing Effective Collaboration, Learning and Innovation Systems for Education Professionals. International Journal of Knowledge and Learning (IJKL), 5(3).

  10. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effects that solar particle events can have on operational electronic systems is a significant concern for all missions, but especially for those beyond Low...

  11. Microwave system for research biological effects on laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Alexei; Kruglik, Olga; Khlebopros, Rem

    2014-01-01

    This research is concerned with development of the microwave system for research the radiophysical microwave radiation effects on laboratory animals. The frequency was 1 GHz. The results obtained demonstrate the metabolic changes in mice under the electromagnetic field influence.

  12. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Cheng

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  13. The Effect of Sound on the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Shaygan

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The immune system protects body against disturbing factors such as pathogens and tumor cells by means of its special cell and biological structures. It has been divided based on its components and soluble factors into two groups of specific and non-specific immune system. Since sound is considered as a stressor it can affect dramatically on the immune system. Stress caused by noise can reduce the immune system response to chemical stimulators have decreased. In Stead, deep relaxation has consistently been proven to be very effective at increasing T-Cells and strengthening the immune system. In the current article, we want to have a look on the adverse effects of sound on the immune system.

  14. Systems Analysis for Program Planning and Cost Effectiveness. (An Application).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gigch, John P.; Hill, Richard E.

    This paper describes an effort to implement a cost-effectiveness program using systems analysis in an elementary school district, the Rio Linda Union School District in California. The systems design cycle employed has three phases, policy-making evaluation, and action-implementation. During the first phase, the general philosophy or mission of…

  15. Bicycle sharing system : role, effects and application to Plymouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Bouke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This thesis investigates the role and effects of a bicycle sharing system, and studies the feasi-bility of such a system in Plymouth. The research consists of a literature review, policy dis-cussion, case studies, and a detailed assessment of t

  16. Maintenance Effectiveness and Target Observation System and its ERP Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, Han Seong; Kim, Gi Yong; Seo, Mi Ro; Jeong, Hun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Sung Yull

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance effectiveness and target observation system (MENTOS) is a maintenance rule (MR) implementation software for plant personnel to collect, edit, store, and analyze all information required for the MR implementation. Potential users and the developers of MENTOS have decided that MENTOS is implemented in the ERP system of KHNP. This article describes MENTOS briefly and introduces the ERP interface of MENTOS

  17. Experimental investigation of system effects in stressed-skin elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.; Isaksson, T.; Hansson, M.

    What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity...... issue in studies of system effects....

  18. Effect of lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the preservative effect of the LP-system on raw camel milk. Camel milk samples were obtained from Kajiado, Isiolo and Nanyuki districts, Kenya and LP-system was activated by the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to a concentration of 8.5ppm Changes in total viable bacterial ...

  19. Effect of management system and dietary yeast autolysate on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of management system (a floor housing (FH) versus a free-range housing (FRH) system) and dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (1% versus 2% dietary supplement) on the performance, slaughter and carcass characteristics of partridges (Alectoris chukar).

  20. Effects of ridge and furrow rainfall harvesting system on Elymus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted during the growth seasons in 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the effects of the RFRH system on soil temperature, soil water content and the yield of E. sibiricus. Specifically, the following three systems were investigated: ridge width 60 cm and furrow width 30 cm (MR60), ridge width 30 cm and ...

  1. The effect of production system and management practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of production system and management practices on the environmental impact, quality and safety of milk and dairy products. LJ Erasmus, EC Webb. Abstract. There is an increasing trend to label milk and dairy products according to production system, absence of certain feed additives and non-use of specific ...

  2. Effect of production system on welfare traits, growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2015-06-06

    Jun 6, 2015 ... Therefore to meet the requirements for animal welfare and food safety, appropriate production systems must be developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three production systems on welfare traits, growth performance and meat quality of ducks. These welfare traits consisted of daily ...

  3. Effects of different housing systems on growth performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last few decades, a rapid increase in poultry production is experienced due largely to improvements in the management systems. This study thereby investigated the effects of different housing systems on growth performance and carcass yield of exotic and locally-adapted breeds of turkey. A total of 192 unsexed ...

  4. Coaching as Professional Learning: Guidance for Implementing Effective Coaching Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermont Agency of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    To build collective capacity within organizations, schools and districts across the world have implemented coaching as an effective method for systemic reform. Vermont in particular has a wide variety of coaches, including instructional coaches and systems coaches, as well as a variety of interpretations of the coaching practice. Many schools…

  5. Effects of culture systems on growth and economic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of culture system on growth and economics performance of Orechromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) in concrete tanks was investigated. Four outdoor concrete tanks measuring 2.5 x 2 m was used for the study for 24 weeks culture period. The culture systems included the use of algae only at the stocking rates of 4 ...

  6. Cost-effective treatment of existing guardrail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    A cost-effective means for upgrading existing guardrail systems with deviations from current practice (i.e., low-rail heights, antiquated end : treatments, and improper installation) does not exist. As a result these systems remain on U.S. highways. ...

  7. Quantifying NUMA and Contention Effects in Multi-GPU Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spafford, Kyle L [ORNL; Meredith, Jeremy S [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    As system architects strive for increased density and power efficiency, the traditional compute node is being augmented with an increasing number of graphics processing units (GPUs). The integration of multiple GPUs per node introduces complex performance phenomena including non-uniform memory access (NUMA) and contention for shared system resources. Utilizing the Keeneland system, this paper quantifies these effects and presents some guidance on programming strategies to maximize performance in multi-GPU environments.

  8. The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Ashok, Abhishekh H; Volkow, Nora D; Howes, Oliver D

    2016-11-17

    The effects of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, are a pressing concern for global mental health. Patterns of cannabis use are changing drastically owing to legalization, the availability of synthetic analogues (commonly termed spice), cannavaping and an emphasis on the purported therapeutic effects of cannabis. Many of the reinforcing effects of THC are mediated by the dopamine system. Owing to the complexity of the cannabinoid-dopamine interactions that take place, there is conflicting evidence from human and animal studies concerning the effects of THC on the dopamine system. Acute THC administration causes increased dopamine release and neuron activity, whereas long-term use is associated with blunting of the dopamine system. Future research must examine the long-term and developmental dopaminergic effects of THC.

  9. Analyzing Effect of System Inertia on Grid Frequency Forecasting Usnig Two Stage Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourey, Divyansh R.; Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Jitesh; Kumar, Anand; Mishra, Anup

    2018-04-01

    Frequency forecasting is an important aspect of power system operation. The system frequency varies with load-generation imbalance. Frequency variation depends upon various parameters including system inertia. System inertia determines the rate of fall of frequency after the disturbance in the grid. Though, inertia of the system is not considered while forecasting the frequency of power system during planning and operation. This leads to significant errors in forecasting. In this paper, the effect of inertia on frequency forecasting is analysed for a particular grid system. In this paper, a parameter equivalent to system inertia is introduced. This parameter is used to forecast the frequency of a typical power grid for any instant of time. The system gives appreciable result with reduced error.

  10. Analyzing Effect of System Inertia on Grid Frequency Forecasting Usnig Two Stage Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourey, Divyansh R.; Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Jitesh; Kumar, Anand; Mishra, Anup

    2017-12-01

    Frequency forecasting is an important aspect of power system operation. The system frequency varies with load-generation imbalance. Frequency variation depends upon various parameters including system inertia. System inertia determines the rate of fall of frequency after the disturbance in the grid. Though, inertia of the system is not considered while forecasting the frequency of power system during planning and operation. This leads to significant errors in forecasting. In this paper, the effect of inertia on frequency forecasting is analysed for a particular grid system. In this paper, a parameter equivalent to system inertia is introduced. This parameter is used to forecast the frequency of a typical power grid for any instant of time. The system gives appreciable result with reduced error.

  11. Actinide and Xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, M. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Olson, K.; Henderson, D.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides.

  12. Actinide and xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, M.; Olson, K.; Henderson, D. L.; Sailor, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides

  13. Actinide and Xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, M.; Olson, K.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides

  14. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  15. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  16. Motional dispersions and ratchet effect in inertial systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    without the application of any time-averaged external field is termed as ratchet effect [1]. This is necessarily a ... The effect can also be obtained if the system is driven periodically but time asymmetrically in such a way that the ..... Govt. of India for financial assistance (SR/FTP/PS-33/2004). References. [1] P Reimann, Phys.

  17. Effects of Integrating Peace Education in the Nigeria Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowo, Oluwatoyin Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempted to investigate the effects of integrating Peace Education into Nigeria educational system. Four research questions were designed for the study. The researcher designed an instrument tagged: Questionnaire on effect of Integrating Peace Education (QEIPE). The entire population of two hundred respondents spread across Secondary…

  18. Effects of symmetry breaking in finite quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, J.L. [Department of Physics, City College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Nazmitdinov, R.G. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca 07122 (Spain); Bogolubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Yukalov, V.I., E-mail: yukalov@theor.jinr.ru [Bogolubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The review considers the peculiarities of symmetry breaking and symmetry transformations and the related physical effects in finite quantum systems. Some types of symmetry in finite systems can be broken only asymptotically. However, with a sufficiently large number of particles, crossover transitions become sharp, so that symmetry breaking happens similarly to that in macroscopic systems. This concerns, in particular, global gauge symmetry breaking, related to Bose–Einstein condensation and superconductivity, or isotropy breaking, related to the generation of quantum vortices, and the stratification in multicomponent mixtures. A special type of symmetry transformation, characteristic only for finite systems, is the change of shape symmetry. These phenomena are illustrated by the examples of several typical mesoscopic systems, such as trapped atoms, quantum dots, atomic nuclei, and metallic grains. The specific features of the review are: (i) the emphasis on the peculiarities of the symmetry breaking in finite mesoscopic systems; (ii) the analysis of common properties of physically different finite quantum systems; (iii) the manifestations of symmetry breaking in the spectra of collective excitations in finite quantum systems. The analysis of these features allows for the better understanding of the intimate relation between the type of symmetry and other physical properties of quantum systems. This also makes it possible to predict new effects by employing the analogies between finite quantum systems of different physical nature.

  19. Organization Effectiveness and Business Intelligence Systems. Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Tunowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To better understand the impact of Business Intelligence systems on organizations’ effectiveness. Methodology: Critical and descriptive literature review. Findings: On the basis of numerous case studies described in literature and pertaining to various types of enterprises, different industries and countries, the paper confirms the positive impact of the implementation of Business Intelligence systems on organizations’ effectiveness. Research implications: The paper provides insights that can fuel future in-depth research aimed at the development of objective methods for measuring the impact of the implementation of Business Intelligence systems on organizational effectiveness, as well as further quantitative research. Practical implications: Results of the majority of studies indicate that the implementation of Business Intelligence systems brings tangible benefits to organizations. The implementation should, however, be appropriate and adequate, adjusted to each organization’s resources. Originality: The paper organizes and systematizes knowledge about the impact of BI implementation on organisation’s efficiency.

  20. The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomfield, Michael A. P.; Ashok, Abhishekh H.; Volkow, Nora D.; Howes, Oliver D.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, are a pressing concern for global mental health. Patterns of cannabis use are changing drastically owing to legalization, the availability of synthetic analogues (commonly termed spice), cannavaping and an emphasis on the purported therapeutic effects of cannabis. Many of the reinforcing effects of THC are mediated by the dopamine system. Owing to the complexity of the cannabinoid–dopamine interactions...

  1. Fast and effective embedded systems design applying the ARM mbed

    CERN Document Server

    Toulson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the field of embedded systems; A focus on fast prototyping of embedded systems; All key embedded system concepts covered through simple and effective experimentation; An understanding of ARM technology, one of the world's leaders; A practical introduction to embedded C; Applies possibly the most accessible set of tools available in the embedded world.  This book is an introduction to embedded systems design, using the ARM mbed and C programming language as development tools. The mbed provides a compact, self-contained and low-cost hardware core, and the

  2. The effects of information systems quality on nurses' acceptance of the electronic learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Ming

    2012-03-01

    To ensure the quality of healthcare provision, nurses must continuously enhance their professional knowledge and competencies via continuing education. As compared with traditional learning, electronic learning (e-learning) is a more flexible method for nurses' in-service learning. Hence, e-learning is expected to play a key role in providing continuing education for nurses. The main purpose of this study was to examine whether system quality, information quality, service quality, and user-interface design quality as the antecedents to nurse beliefs can affect nurses' intention to use the e-learning system. A cross-sectional design was used to investigate the effects of information systems quality on nurses' acceptance of the e-learning system. This study gathered sample data from nurses at 3 hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed, and 320 effective questionnaires were analyzed in this study, indicating an effective response rate of 71.1%. Collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. System quality, information quality, and user-interface design quality had significant effects on perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), and perceived enjoyment (PE), and service quality had significant effects on PU and PEOU. Moreover, PEOU had significant effects on PU and PE, and the effects of PU, PEOU, and PE on intention to use were significant. User-interface design quality is the most key antecedent that can make significant impacts on nurses' PU and PE, and more efforts should be made to develop a friendlier user interface via designing useful and enjoyable features to induce nurses to use the e-learning system. Moreover, system quality can make the greatest impact on nurses' PEOU; thus, medical institutions should effectively enhance system quality to deliver benefits and pleasure to boost nurses' usage intention of the e-learning system via reducing the complexity.

  3. Terrestrial radiation effects in ULSI devices and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Eishi H

    2014-01-01

    A practical guide on how mathematical approaches can be used to analyze and control radiation effects in semiconductor devices within various environments Covers faults in ULSI devices to failures in electronic systems caused by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha -rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn the environmental radiation features at the ground or avionics altitude. Readers will also learn how to make numerical models from physical insight and what kind of mathematical approaches should be implemented to analyze the radiation effects. A wide variety of mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them. The book provides the reader with the knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. It explains how electronic systems including servers and rout...

  4. A system for quantifying the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Wang, E L

    2000-08-01

    This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998.

  5. EFFECT OF THE ROTOR CRANK SYSTEM ON CYCLING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Jobson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel crank system on laboratory time-trial cycling performance. The Rotor system makes each pedal independent from the other so that the cranks are no longer fixed at 180°. Twelve male competitive but non-elite cyclists (mean ± s: 35 ± 7 yr, Wmax = 363 ± 38 W, VO2peak = 4.5 ± 0.3 L·min-1 completed 6-weeks of their normal training using either a conventional (CON or the novel Rotor (ROT pedal system. All participants then completed two 40.23-km time-trials on an air-braked ergometer, one using CON and one using ROT. Mean performance speeds were not different between trials (CON = 41.7 km·h-1 vs. ROT = 41.6 km·h-1, P > 0.05. Indeed, the pedal system used during the time-trials had no impact on any of the measured variables (power output, cadence, heart rate, VO2, RER, gross efficiency. Furthermore, the ANOVA identified no significant interaction effect between main effects (Time-trial crank system*Training crank system, P > 0.05. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effects of the Rotor system on endurance performance rather than endurance capacity. These results suggest that the Rotor system has no measurable impact on time-trial performance. However, further studies should examine the importance of the Rotor 'regulation point' and the suggestion that the Rotor system has acute ergogenic effects if used infrequently

  6. The relationship between cost system complexity, purposes of use, and cost system effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoute, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses survey data from 133 Dutch, medium-sized manufacturing firms to examine the associations between cost system complexity (in terms of the applied overhead absorption procedures), purposes of use, and cost system effectiveness. First, factor analysis identifies two underlying

  7. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dawei [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Han, Baoqin, E-mail: baoqinh@ouc.edu.cn [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Dong, Wen; Yang, Zhao; Lv, You; Liu, Wanshun [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  8. Study of the effects of radon in three biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Brena, M.; Rosa, M.E. De la; Villalobos P, R.

    2002-01-01

    The radon and its decay products are responsible of the 3/4 parts of the exposure of the persons to the environmental radiation. The discovery at the end of XIX Century of the illnesses, mainly of cancer, which appeared in the presence of radon, lead to an accelerated growing of the radon studies: monitoring, dosimetry, effects on the persons, etc. Several epidemiological studies of radon in miners and population in general have been realized; advancing in the knowledge about the concentration-lung cancer risk relationship, but with discrepancies in the results depending on the concentration levels. Therefor, studies which consuming time, efforts and money go on doing. The research of the radon effects in biological systems different to human, allows to realize studies in less time, in controlled conditions and generally at lower cost, generating information about the alpha radiation effects in the cellular field. Therefor it was decided to study the response of three biological systems exposed to radon: an unicellular bacteria Escherichia Coli which was exposed directly to alpha particles from an electrodeposited source for determining the sensitivity limit of the chose technique. A plant, Tradescantia, for studying the cytogenetic effect of the system exposed to controlled concentrations of radon. An insect, Drosophila Melanogaster, for studying the genetic effects and the accumulated effects in several generations exposed to radon. In this work the experimental settlements are presented for the expositions of the systems and the biological results commenting the importance of these. (Author)

  9. Diaphragm Effect of Steel Space Roof Systems in Hall Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FENKLİ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hall structures have been used widely for different purposes. They have are reinforced concrete frames and shear wall with steel space roof systems. Earthquake response of hall structures is different from building type structures. One of the most critical nodes is diaphragm effect of steel space roof on earthquake response of hall structures. Diaphragm effect is depending on lateral stiffness capacity of steel space roof system. Lateral stiffness of steel space roof system is related to modulation geometry, support conditions, selected sections and system geometry. In current paper, three representative models which are commonly used in Turkey were taken in to account for investigation. Results of numerical tests were present comparatively

  10. How large are nonadiabatic effects in atomic and diatomic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubo; Kylänpää, Ilkka; Tubman, Norm M; Krogel, Jaron T; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Ceperley, David M

    2015-09-28

    With recent developments in simulating nonadiabatic systems to high accuracy, it has become possible to determine how much energy is attributed to nuclear quantum effects beyond zero-point energy. In this work, we calculate the non-relativistic ground-state energies of atomic and molecular systems without the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For this purpose, we utilize the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method, in which the nodes depend on both the electronic and ionic positions. We report ground-state energies for all systems studied, ionization energies for the first-row atoms and atomization energies for the first-row hydrides. We find the ionization energies of the atoms to be nearly independent of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, within the accuracy of our results. The atomization energies of molecular systems, however, show small effects of the nonadiabatic coupling between electrons and nuclei.

  11. Size effects in finite systems with long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscar, E. S.; Horowitz, C. M.

    2018-03-01

    Small systems consisting of particles interacting with long-range potentials exhibit enormous size effects. The Tsallis conjecture [Tsallis, Fractals 3, 541 (1995), 10.1142/S0218348X95000473], valid for translationally invariant systems with long-range interactions, states a well-known scaling relating different sizes. Here we propose to generalize this conjecture to systems with this symmetry broken, by adjusting one parameter that determines an effective distance to compute the strength of the interaction. We apply this proposal to the one-dimensional Ising model with ferromagnetic interactions that decay as 1 /r1 +σ in the region where the model has a finite critical temperature. We demonstrate the convenience of using this generalization to study finite-size effects, and we compare this approach with the finite-size scaling theory.

  12. Effective Methodology for Security Risk Assessment of Computer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. García; Adrián Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Today, computer systems are more and more complex and support growing security risks. The security managers need to find effective security risk assessment methodologies that allow modeling well the increasing complexity of current computer systems but also maintaining low the complexity of the assessment procedure. This paper provides a brief analysis of common security risk assessment methodologies leading to the selection of a proper methodology to fulfill these requirements. Then, a detai...

  13. Effects of System Characteristics on Adopting Web-Based Advanced Traveller Information System: Evidence from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Wei Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a behavioural intention model that integrates information quality, response time, and system accessibility into the original technology acceptance model (TAM to investigate whether system characteristics affect the adoption of Web-based advanced traveller information systems (ATIS. This study empirically tests the proposed model using data collected from an online survey of Web-based advanced traveller information system users. Con­firmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model, and structural equation modelling (SEM was used to evaluate the structural model. The results indicate that three system characteristics had indirect effects on the intention to use through perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude toward using. Information quality was the most im­portant system characteristic factor, followed by response time and system accessibility. This study presents implica­tions for practitioners and researchers, and suggests direc­tions for future research.

  14. The effect of system aesthetics on trust, cooperation, satisfaction and annoyance in an imperfect automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Alona; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Parmet, Yisrael

    2012-01-01

    Lack of system reliability has been repeatedly identified as a factor that decreases trust. However, aesthetics has an important role in the development of trust. Most of the research concerning the connection between aesthetics and trust focused on mobile commerce and websites while very little has been done in examining aesthetics in automated systems. This study integrated aesthetics manipulations into an imperfect in-vehicle automation system and focused on the power of aesthetics to decrease the negative effects of errors on trust, satisfaction, annoyance, and human-automation cooperation perceptions. Participants used the navigation system in either 100% or 85% accuracy levels with an aesthetic or non aesthetic system (4 conditions). In both aesthetic and non aesthetic systems, perceptions of trust, satisfaction and human automation cooperation were decreased in the imperfect system compared to the perfect one. However, in the annoyance rating, this trend was found only in the aesthetic system while in the non-aesthetic system no difference was found between the two levels of accuracy. This single effect may indicate upon the possibility that in automated systems aesthetics affects trust and satisfaction more moderately compared to mobile commerce applications and websites. However, more research is needed to assess this assumption.

  15. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eZanettini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  16. Conference on Radiation and its Effects on Components and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The aim of RADECS conferences is to provide an annual European forum for the presentation and discussion of the latest advances in the field of radiation effects on electronic and photonic materials, devices, circuits, sensors, and systems. The scope of the conference encompasses technological processes and design techniques for producing radiation tolerant systems for space, aeronautical or terrestrial applications, as well as relevant methodologies for their characterization and qualification. The conference features a technical program, an Industrial Exhibit, and one day tutorial or ‘short course’ on radiation effects. The technical program includes oral and poster sessions and round tables.

  17. The effect of liver disease on the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2007-01-01

    THE encyclopedic guide to hepatology - for consultation by clinicians and basic scientistsPreviously the Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology, this two-volume textbook is now with Blackwell Publishing. It covers basic, clinical and translational science (converting basic science discoveries...... and clinical practice discussed by the best authors.It includes unique sections on: Symptoms and signs in liver diseaseIndustrial diseases affecting the liverThe effects of diseases of other systems on the liverThe effects of liver diseases on other systemsIt 's bigger and more extensive than other books...

  18. A mathematical model of radiation effect on the immunity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O.A.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model, simulating the effect of ionizing radiation on the dynamics of humoral immune reaction is suggested. It represents the system of nonlinear differential equations and is realized in the form of program in Fortran computer language. The model describes the primary immune reaction of nonirradiated organism on T-independent antigen, reflects the postradiation lymphopoiesis dynamics in nonimmunized mammals, simulates the processes of injury and recovery of the humoral immunity system under the combined effect of ionizing radiation and antigenic stimulation. The model can be used for forecasting imminity state in irradiated mammals

  19. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring the effects of heterogeneity on distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Toweissy, Mohamed; Zeineldine, Osman; Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Distributed computer systems in daily use are becoming more and more heterogeneous. Currently, much of the design and analysis studies of such systems assume homogeneity. This assumption of homogeneity has been mainly driven by the resulting simplicity in modeling and analysis. A simulation study is presented which investigated the effects of heterogeneity on scheduling algorithms for hard real time distributed systems. In contrast to previous results which indicate that random scheduling may be as good as a more complex scheduler, this algorithm is shown to be consistently better than a random scheduler. This conclusion is more prevalent at high workloads as well as at high levels of heterogeneity.

  1. Identifying the effects of Enterprise System implementation and use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    case writing. The main results show that the effects of ERP implementation and use are seldom fully predictable by management. The ERP system can be seen as an organisational actor in its own right as it to a large extent influences values, culture, behaviour, processes and procedures of other actors...... in the organisation. Given the complexity, size and organisational embeddedness of ERP systems, it can be said that the implementation project never ends and the ERP system becomes a significant variable in the future direction of the organisation....

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on graphite - PTFE dry lubrication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sachin; Tyagi, Mukti; Seshadri, Geetha; Tyagi, Ajay Kumar; Varshney, Lalit

    2017-12-01

    An effect of gamma radiation on lubrication behavior of graphite -PTFE dry lubrication system has been studied using (TR-TW-30L) tribometer with thrust washer attachment in plane contact. Different compositions of graphite and PTFE were prepared and irradiated by gamma rays. Gamma radiation exposure significantly improves the tribological properties indicated by decrease in coefficient of friction and wear properties of graphite -PTFE dry lubrication system. SEM and XRD analysis confirm the physico-chemical modification of graphite-PTFE on gamma radiation exposure leading to a novel dry lubrication system with good slip and anti friction properties.

  3. Small collision systems: Theory overview on cold nuclear matter effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armesto Néstor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many observables measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider show a smooth transition between proton-proton and protonnucleus collisions (small systems, and nucleus-nucleus collisions (large systems, when represented versus some variable like the multiplicity in the event. In this contribution I review some of the physics mechanisms, named cold nuclear matter effects, that may lead to a collective-like behaviour in small systems beyond the macroscopic description provided by relativistic hydrodynamics. I focus on the nuclear modification of parton densities, single inclusive particle production and correlations.

  4. Small collision systems: Theory overview on cold nuclear matter effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, Néstor

    2018-02-01

    Many observables measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider show a smooth transition between proton-proton and protonnucleus collisions (small systems), and nucleus-nucleus collisions (large systems), when represented versus some variable like the multiplicity in the event. In this contribution I review some of the physics mechanisms, named cold nuclear matter effects, that may lead to a collective-like behaviour in small systems beyond the macroscopic description provided by relativistic hydrodynamics. I focus on the nuclear modification of parton densities, single inclusive particle production and correlations.

  5. Physical security system effectiveness evaluation, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L. Jr.; Nickell, W.C.

    1975-07-01

    A method to permit objective comparisons of physical security is under development and is expected to be useful in the optimization of system design and in cost benefit analysis. The procedure involves identifying the possible or potential characteristics of a postulated adversary, the countermeasures to deny or diminish adversary success, and the response capabilities of the defender. These, in conjunction with system definition information, are evaluated by the use of analytical models which provide a means of ranking systems against threats. This paper describes the status of this effort and includes an overview of the methodology with a brief description of various models being considered for use in effectiveness evaluation. (U.S.)

  6. Comparison of Power Generating Systems Using Feedback Effect Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon

    2005-01-01

    Comparative assessment of various power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there is interdependence among decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique, a comprehensive assessment framework for national power systems has been developed. It was assumed in the AHP modeling that there is no interdependence among decision elements. In the present work, one of interdependence phenomena, feedback effect, is investigated in the context of network structures instead of one-way directional tree structures. Moreover, attitudes of decision-makers can be incorporated into the feedback effect modeling. The main objectives of this work are to develop a feedback effect modeling using an analytic network process (ANP) technique and to demonstrate the feedback effect using a numerical example in comparison to the hierarchy model

  7. Comparison of Power Generating Systems Using Feedback Effect Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Comparative assessment of various power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there is interdependence among decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives). In our previous work, using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique, a comprehensive assessment framework for national power systems has been developed. It was assumed in the AHP modeling that there is no interdependence among decision elements. In the present work, one of interdependence phenomena, feedback effect, is investigated in the context of network structures instead of one-way directional tree structures. Moreover, attitudes of decision-makers can be incorporated into the feedback effect modeling. The main objectives of this work are to develop a feedback effect modeling using an analytic network process (ANP) technique and to demonstrate the feedback effect using a numerical example in comparison to the hierarchy model.

  8. Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, D P; Whiteway, J A; Carswell, A I

    1993-11-20

    A useful analytic model describing the response of a photon-counting (PC) system has been developed. The model describes the nonlinear count loss and apparent count gain arising from the overlap of photomultiplier tube (PMT) pulses, taking into account the distribution in amplitude of the PMT output pulses and the effect of the pulse-height discrimination threshold. Comparisons between the model and Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement. The model has been applied to a PC lidar system with favorable results. Application of the model has permitted us to extend the linear operating range of the PC system and to quantify accurately the response of the system in its nonlinear operating regime, thus increasing the useful dynamic range of the system by 1 order of magnitude.

  9. Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

  10. EFFECTIVE USE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS IN POLISH CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Niechaj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems form two groups: grid-connected ones and stand-alone ones. The first group can be divided into: centralised systems with large power (PV farms, and decentralised systems with low-power (especially prosumer ones. The second group includes systems with electric buffer sources (especially with electrochemical batteries, and those without electric buffer sources (possibly with non-electric buffer sources. Due to significant decline in price of PV modules, both of these groups are becoming increasingly common in Poland, especially grid-connected ones. Additional factor for prosumer systems is economic and legal support in a form of exemption from fees for connection to grid, lack of additional required licenses for such connection, and possible support in a form of guaranteed sale prices to grid (feed-in tariffs of electrical energy generated in system. However, in case of systems not covered by economic benefits, increasing, or even ensuring, their cost-effectiveness, requires the number of ventures regarding areas of proper installation and operation rules of PV generator from installer/user/owner of system, as well as selection of suitable tariff and rational restructuring of energy demands. Detailed analysis and conclusions of these ventures, especially for prosumer systems, is discussed in paper.

  11. Effect of intersubsystem couplings on the evolution of composite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, X.X.; Cui, H.T.; Lin, Y.H.; Song, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intersubsystem coupling on the adiabaticity of composite systems and that of its subsystems is investigated. Similar to the adiabatic evolution defined for pure states, nontransitional evolution for mixed states is introduced; conditions for the nontransitional evolution are derived and discussed. An example that describes two coupled qubits is presented to detail the general presentation. The effects due to nonadiabatic evolution on the geometric phase are also presented and discussed

  12. Adverse effects of corticosteroids on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholter, D E; Armstrong, P W

    2000-04-01

    To review the potential adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy on the cardiovascular system and to provide insight into the mechanisms of these effects. Case reports and studies demonstrating adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy on the cardiovascular system were examined from a MEDLINE search. Animal data and in vitro studies were identified to provide insight on the mechanisms of these effects. Undesirable effects identified were dyslipidemia, hypertension and left ventricular free wall rupture after myocardial infarction. Elevations of total plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol are often reported. The elevation of various lipid subfractions is likely mediated by increased plasma insulin levels, impaired lipid catabolism and increased lipid production in the liver. Hypertension was shown to be more prevalent in patients treated with high doses of glucocorticoid. The mechanisms are complex, but final pathways include increased systemic vascular resistance, increased extracellular volume and increased cardiac contractility. Glucocorticoids were demonstrated to increase the incidence of left ventricular free wall rupture by delaying myocardial scar formation in the postmyocardial infarction period. The major adverse effects of glucocorticoids on the cardiovascular system include dyslipidemia and hypertension. These effects may predispose treated patients to coronary artery disease if high doses and prolonged courses are used. Accordingly, corticosteroids should be employed judiciously in patients with other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and attention should be paid to risk modification. Low dose and alternate day therapy may reduce the incidence of complications in corticosteroid therapy. The mechanisms of these adverse effects are complex and have not yet been fully explained.

  13. EFFECT OF SMART GRID ON ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    CAKAR, Fahri; YILMAZ, Musa; KILIC, Hibetullah

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThe first stage to ensure effective energy efficiency is basically to use energy wisely. It is difficult to provide this, for all sub-scribers, in a network where everyone consumes energy. Therefore, it is necessary to manage this situation. All over the world, the smart grids appear to be the prominent management system about such situations. Effective management of the energy flow can be assured by monitoring and controlling the energy consumption and production plants. One of...

  14. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  15. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  16. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  17. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  18. Methamphetamine: Effects on the brain, gut and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Monica D; Tangalakis, Kathy; Antonipillai, Juliana; Stojanovska, Lily; Nurgali, Kulmira; Apostolopoulos, Vasso

    2017-06-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant which elevates mood, alertness, energy levels and concentration in the short-term. However, chronic use and/or at higher doses METH use often results in psychosis, depression, delusions and violent behavior. METH was formerly used to treat conditions such as obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but now is primarily used recreationally. Its addictive nature has led to METH abuse becoming a global problem. At a cellular level, METH exerts a myriad of effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, immune system and the gastrointestinal system. Here we present how these effects might be linked and their potential contribution to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the long term, this pathway could be targeted therapeutically to protect people from the ill effects of METH use. This model of METH use may also provide insight into how gut, nervous and immune systems might break down in other conditions that may also benefit from therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical modeling of coanda effect in a novel propulsive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Das

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coanda effect (adhesion of jet flow over curved surface is fundamental characteristics of jet flow. In the present paper, we carried out numerical simulations to investigate Coanda flow over a curved surface and its application in a newly proposed Propulsive system "A.C.H.E.O.N" (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting jet Nozzle which supports thrust vectoring. The ACHEON system is presently being proposed for propelling a new V/STOL airplane in European Union. This system is based on cumulative effects of three physical effects such as (1 High speed jet mixing speeds (2 Coanda effect control by electrostatic fields (3 Coanda effect adhesion of an high speed jet to a convex surface. The performance of this nozzle can be enhanced by increasing the jet deflection angle of synthetic jet over the Coanda surface. This newly proposed nozzle has wide range of applications. It can be used in industrial sector such as plasma spray gun and for direct injection in combustion chamber to enhance the efficiency of the combustion chamber. Also, we studied the effect of Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators on A.C.H.E.O.N system. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators are active control devices for controlling boundary layer and to delay the flow separation over any convex surfaces. Computations were performed under subsonic condition. Two dimensional CFD calculations were carried out using Reynolds averaged Navier stokes equations (RANS. A numerical method based on finite volume formulation (FVM was used. SST k-ω model was considered to model turbulent flow inside nozzle. DBD model was used to model the plasma. Moreover, a body force treatment was devised to model the effect of plasma and its coupling with the fluid. This preliminary result shows that, the presence of plasma near Coanda surface accelerates the flow and delays the separation and enhances the efficiency of the nozzle.

  20. Effects of ridge and furrow rainfall harvesting system on Elymus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... A ridge-furrow rainfall harvesting system (RFRHS) was designed to increase the available soil water for .... The solar energy passed through the plastic-film and heated up the air and the surface soil of ridge and then the heat was trapped by the greenhouse effect (Zhou et al., 2009). Meanwhile, the.

  1. Effects of Quality Improvement System for Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…

  2. Effect and mode of action of some systemic nematicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    In this study, nematicidal effects, mode of action and specific characters of some systemic nematicides were studied, in search of substitutes for the widely used soil fumigants that require high dosages. The thesis comprises:

    - a review of literature,
    - development of

  3. Toxic effect of naphta exposure on respiratory system among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    The animal tests showed that exposure to these organic solvents can cause serious problem to the respiratory system. (Cakmak et al., 2004).There are several organic solvents that can cause the effects and one of .... The measurements were classified according to the standard percentage as carried out by (Miller et al., ...

  4. Effective vibration isolation system for perfect-crystal neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, J.

    1985-01-01

    Perfect-crystal neutron interferometers are subject to degradation of their performance caused by vibrational accelerations. It is shown that the most seriously offending accelerations are rotational, and an effective and simple vibration isolation system that has been developed at the MIT Neutron Diffraction Laboratory is described

  5. Effect of Ethics and Integrity on Good Public Procurement System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at exposing the effect of ethics and integrity on good public procurement system in Nigeria. Data for the study were collected through a structured questionnaire administered on eighty-two (82) officers of the Bureau for Public Procurement in Abuja, Nigeria. The data generated were analysed with the ...

  6. The effect of tillage systems and mulching on soil microclimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effect of tillage systems and mulching on soil microclimatic conditions, growth and yield of yellow yam. To generate the needed data, the physiological approach was employed. An experimental farm that measured 35 x 47 m was established at Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria, for two planting seasons ...

  7. The effects of an organic rearing system and dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of an organic rearing system and dietary supplementation of an essential oil mixture on performance and meat yield of slow-growing broilers in two ... Organically reared slow-growing chickens consumed less feed mixture per unit of body weight gain, but attained a higher final weight compared with those kept ...

  8. Effect Of Kombucha On The Cardiovascular System Of Mammals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kombucha, a traditional beverage mushroom containing a symbiotic bacteria, is prepared with sweetened tea of (Theaceae) and is often drank in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this beverage on cardiovascular system of rodents, rat and rabbit. Therefore, we measured the blood ...

  9. Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of finishing system on carcass characteristics and composition of Mubende goats and their Boer goat crossbreds. ... Dissectible lean and fat percentages varied in an ascending order of 66%, 72%, 72.6% and 8%, 14% and 16.5% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A reverse trend was observed for bone percentages with ...

  10. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Polak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  11. Effect of the lactoperoxidase system on proteolysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indirect semi-skimmed ultra high temperature (UHT) milk was made from refrigerated milk preserved by the lactoperoxidase system (LPS). The effect of the LPS on the physicochemical and biochemical properties of UHT milk during storage period of 6 months at 30°C was assessed. The levels of soluble nitrogen at pH 4.6 ...

  12. Vertical interventions and system effects; have we learned anything ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent Ebola Virus Outbreak had a devastating effect on West Africa's already feeble national health systems. We suggest that such an impact turned out to be catastrophic because it hit particularly hard human resources for health and the delivery of primary healthcare services, which are cross-sectional to any health ...

  13. Effects of system parameters and inorganic salts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The photodecolourisation of textile dye Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19), an anionic anthraquinone dye of the reactive class, was investigated using UV radiation in the presence of H2O2 in a batch photo-reactor with low-pressure mercury lamps. The effects of the system parameters: initial pH, initial dye concentration, ...

  14. Effect of Dual Blockade of Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Effect of Dual Blockade of Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone. System on Proteinuria in Patients with Diabetic. Nephropathy and Advanced Azotemia. Hatice Odabas1, İlyas Capoglu2, Ramazan Cetinkaya3, Ali Riza Odabas3,. Abdullah Uyanik3 and Mustafa Keles3*. 1Department of Internal Medicine, ...

  15. Using a Mnemonic to Develop Effective Incentive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbringer, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    Special educators frequently provide consultation for parents and general education teachers who are struggling to manage student behavior. One intervention often discussed is the use of rewards to increase student motivation. While research has shown that well-designed incentive systems can provide an effective intervention, poorly designed…

  16. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Agnieszka; Harasim, Ewa; Chabowski, Adrian

    2016-05-21

    Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  17. Microscreen effects on water quality in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three microscreen mesh sizes (100, 60 and 20 μm) on water quality and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance compared to a control group without microscreens, in triplicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Operational conditions were kept...

  18. A beamforming system based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Beamforming techniques are usually based on microphone arrays. The present work uses a beam of light as a sensor element, and describes a beamforming system that locates sound sources based on the acousto-optic effect, this is, the interaction between sound and light. The use of light as a sensin...

  19. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  20. A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T) application for traffic congestion analyses in the Developing World. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like ...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effect of Jimma University Libraries System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WJH

    This study was initiated with the main aim of finding out the effect of Jimma University. Libraries System usage and contributions to quality education. ... a vital role in economic and social developments. In Ethiopia, the numbers of higher education ... students, lack of information networks where by the learning institutions are.

  2. Color Recovery Effect of Different Bleaching Systems on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Purpose: Discoloration of resin‑based composites is a commonly encountered problem, and bleaching agents may be used for the therapy of the existing discoloration. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on the heavily discolored composite ...

  3. Effect of Jimma University Libraries System Usage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was initiated with the main aim of finding out the effect of Jimma University Libraries System usage and contributions to quality education. It used a cross-sectional research method with both qualitative and quantitative data collection approaches. The result of this study showed that the available library materials, ...

  4. Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, James A.; Fletcher, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes a meta-analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent computer tutoring systems. The median effect of intelligent tutoring in the 50 evaluations was to raise test scores 0.66 standard deviations over conventional levels, or from the 50th to the 75th percentile. However, the amount of improvement found in…

  5. Development as an effective management system construction and investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloborodov Roman S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the material of the application of the conception «Development» as the effective methodology of the investment-construction project management within the framework the systems approach. Theoretical principles of the application of this conception are generalized and systematized based on the example of the creation of the low habitable complex.

  6. Effectiveness of Systemic Text Analysis in EFL Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Tovar, Ender

    2016-01-01

    This action research study investigates the effectiveness of a model based on the theory of systemic text analysis for the teaching of EFL writing. Employing students' pieces of writing and a teachers' survey as data collection instruments, the writing performance of a group of monolingual intermediate level adult students enrolled on a private…

  7. Letter report seismic shutdown system failure mode and effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KECK, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Supply Ventilation System Seismic Shutdown ensures that the 234-52 building supply fans, the dry air process fans and vertical development calciner are shutdown following a seismic event. This evaluates the failure modes and determines the effects of the failure modes

  8. Effect of generational differences, housing systems and seasonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive data from 24 does (Chinchilla X New Zealand White) of twenty weeks, were analyzed to determine the effect of generation, housing systems and season on the reproductive performance of rabbits raised in the humid tropics. The experiment was carried out during four seasons namely: early dry season ...

  9. Effective thermal conductivity of real two-phase systems using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The resistor model has been applied to determine the effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of the unit cell. To take account of random packing of the phases, non-uniform shape of the particles and non-linear flow of heat flux lines in real systems, incorporating an empirical correction factor in place of physical porosity modifies ...

  10. Fire Effects Information System: New engine, remodeled interior, added options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith

    2010-01-01

    Some of today's firefighters weren't even born when the Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) (Web site ) "hit the streets" in 1986. Managers might remember using a dial-up connection in the early 1990s to access information on biology, ecology, and fire offered by FEIS.

  11. The effect of information systems on supply chain and performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of information systems on supply chain and performance of National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC) ... Sample population of this research is made up of nisoc's managers and experts that are more than 2043 persons.By applying the cochrane's formula,the sample population of this research determined as ...

  12. Earthquake effects on groundwater systems: an introductory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents an introductory review of the potential effects of earthquakes on groundwater systems with respect to the performance of underground repositories for radioactive waste in Britain. An approach to modelling these effects within the scope of general environmental simulation codes is presented. The relevant literature is reviewed and it is concluded that, although pertinent information exists, no clear relationship between seismic intensity and the degree of fracturing has been established. Recommendations are made for further work on fracture development to complement existing research into the effects of long-term changes on the integrity of radioactive waste disposal facilities. (author)

  13. Artificial immune system for effective properties optimization of magnetoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteralski, Arkadiusz; Dziatkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The optimization problem of the effective properties for magnetoelectric composites is considered. The effective properties are determined by the semi-analytical Mori-Tanaka approach. The generalized Eshelby tensor components are calculated numerically by using the Gauss quadrature method for the integral representation of the inclusion problem. The linear magnetoelectric constitutive equation is used. The effect of orientation of the electromagnetic materials components is taken into account. The optimization problem of the design is formulated and the artificial immune system is applied to solve it.

  14. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, Daniel [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  15. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  16. The effects of dissipation on topological mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ye; Wang, Tianxiang; Tong, Peiqing

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically study the effects of isotropic dissipation in a topological mechanical system which is an analogue of Chern insulator in mechanical vibrational lattice. The global gauge invariance is still conserved in this system albeit it is destroyed by the dissipation in the quantum counterpart. The chiral edge states in this system are therefore robust against strong dissipation. The dissipation also causes a dispersion of damping for the eigenstates. It will modify the equation of motion of a wave packet by an extra effective force. After taking into account the Berry curvature in the wave vector space, the trace of a free wave packet in the real space should be curved, feinting to break the Newton’s first law.

  17. Development of a Cost Effective Power Generation System: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Prakash Bihari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on development of cost effective power generation system and motivates for development of a model for hybrid system with wind to investigate the combined operation of wind with different sources to cater to wind’s stochastic nature for imbalance minimization and optimal operation. Development of model for trading power in competitive electricity market and development of strategies for trading in electricity markets (wind energy and reserves markets to investigate the effects of real time pricing tariffs on electricity market operation has been illustrated in this paper. Dynamic modelling related studies to investigate the wind generator’s kinetic energy for primary frequency support using simulink and simulation studies on doubly fed induction generator to study its capability during small disturbances / fluctuations on power system have been described.

  18. Radiation effects in IFMIF Li target diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Vila, R.; Shikama, T.; Horiike, H.; Simakov, S.; Ciotti, M.; Ibarra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostics for the lithium target will be crucial for the operation of IFMIF. Several parameters as the lithium temperature, target thickness or wave pattern must be monitored during operation. Radiation effects may produce malfunctioning in any of these diagnostics due to the exposure to high radiation fields. The main diagnostic systems proposed for the operation of IFMIF are reviewed in this paper from the point of view of radiation damage. The main tools for the assessment of the performance of these diagnostics are the neutronics calculations by using specialised codes and the information accumulated during the last decades on the radiation effects in functional materials, components and diagnostics for ITER. This analysis allows to conclude that the design of some of the diagnostic systems must be revised to assure the high availability required for the target system.

  19. Effects of dietary vitamin E on male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is known as important antioxidant to protect the reproductive system. The free radicals are continuously produced in last few years due to metabolic and nutritional deficiencies. These free radicals are responsible for the production of oxidative stress in animal bodies. This production of extensive amount of oxidative stress caused the detrimental effects on the sperm and various other male parameters. This imbalance between the antioxidants and oxidative stress, leads to the condition of infertility in male. Antioxidants play an important role for eliminating of these free radicals. Vitamin E is one of the best antioxidants for the removal of oxidative stress in male reproductive system. Its use increases the reproductive functions and efficiency of male reproductive system. The deficiency of this vitamin leads to degeneration of germinal epithelium and Leydig cells in seminiferous tubules. The use of selenium and vitamin E has the synergistic effects on the male reproductive system. The objective of this review was to collect the beneficial roles of this vitamin along selenium on reproductive system of birds and different animals. This review will also collect the different doses along the beneficial roles on different parameters of male reproductive system.

  20. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  1. Synthetic Cannabinoids and Their Effects on the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Der Haar, Jonathan; Talebi, Soheila; Ghobadi, Farzaneh; Singh, Shailinder; Chirurgi, Roger; Rajeswari, Pingle; Kalantari, Hossein; Hassen, Getaw Worku

    2016-02-01

    In the past couple of years, there has been an outbreak of synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use in major cities in the United States. Patients can present with various symptoms affecting the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. The effects of endocannabinoid on contractility and Ca(2+) signaling have been shown through both cannabinoid receptors and a direct effect on ion channels. These effects result in abnormalities in ionotropy, chronotropy, and conduction. Here we report on two cases of SC abuse and abnormalities in the cardiovascular system. These cases raise concerns about the adverse effects of SCs and the possibility of QTc prolongation and subsequent complications when using antipsychotic medication in the presence of SC abuse. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Given the rise in SC use and the potential effect on the cardiovascular system, physicians need to be mindful of potential cardiac complications, such as QTc prolongation and torsade de pointe, especially when administering medications that have the potential to cause QTc prolongation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  3. A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2008-10-01

    System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.

  4. TRANSIENT BEAM LOADING EFFECTS IN RF SYSTEMS IN JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Guo, Jiquan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Shaoheng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed electron bunch trains generated from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) linac to inject into the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) e-ring will produce transient beam loading effects in the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) systems that, if not mitigated, could cause unacceptably large beam energy deviation in the injection capture, or exceed the energy acceptance of CEBAF’s recirculating arcs. In the electron storage ring, the beam abort or ion clearing gaps or uneven bucket filling can cause large beam phase transients in the (S)RF cavity control systems and even beam loss due to Robinson instability. We have first analysed the beam stability criteria in steady state and estimated the transient effect in Feedforward and Feedback RF controls. Initial analytical models for these effects are shown for the design of the JLEIC e-ring from 3GeV to 12GeV.

  5. Effects of industrial chemicals and radioactive materials in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; Chatterjee, S.

    1987-01-01

    Much has been written on the effects of radiation and toxic chemicals on biological systems. In this communication general considerations regarding these topics will be discussed very briefly; the major emphasis will be focused on the effects of chemicals, namely ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) on Amoeba, Advantages to the use of amoeba for studying the effects of radiation and chemicals include the following: large mononucleate unicellular organisms having a long generation time; opportunity to study cellular organelles and biochemical and genetic alterations in a single cell system; and a long cell cycle, the stages of which can be synchronized without resorting to chemical treatment or temperature shock and thereby readily permitting study at defined stages of the cell's life cycle. This, in turn, is discussed in light of current disposal methods for this type of waste and how it might be safely disposed of

  6. Effective Presentation Speech Support System for Representing Emphasis-Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kojiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A research presentation integrates slides and speech. If these two aspects do not represent the same intention, the presentation will probably fail to effectively explain the presenter’s intention. This paper focuses on the representation of the critical contents in a presentation. In an effective speech, the speaker adds more intonation and stress to emphasize the importance of the slide contents. Audiences recognize that important contents are those that are explained in a stronger voice or that are said after a short pause. However, in ineffective speeches, such voice effects do not always correspond to the important contents that are indicated by slides. On slides, the important contents are represented by levels of text indentation and size, color, and animation. This research develops a presentation speech support system that estimates important contents from slides and voices that might be recognized by audiences and extracts numerical differences. In addition, the system provides comments and feedback to improve speeches.

  7. The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Ashok, Abhishekh H; Volkow, Nora D; Howes, Oliver D

    2016-01-01

    Preface Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, is a pressing concern to global mental health. Patterns of use are changing drastically due to legalisation, availability of synthetic analogues (‘spice’), cannavaping and aggrandizements in the purported therapeutic effects of cannabis. Many of THC’s reinforcing effects are mediated by the dopamine system. Due to complex cannabinoid-dopamine interactions there is conflicting evidence from human and animal research fields. Acute THC causes increased dopamine release and neuron activity, whilst long-term use is associated with blunting of the dopamine system. Future research must examine the long-term and developmental dopaminergic effects of the drug. PMID:27853201

  8. Designing effective questions for classroom response system teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Ian D.; Gerace, William J.; Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom response systems can be powerful tools for teaching physics. Their efficacy depends strongly on the quality of the questions. Creating effective questions is difficult and differs from creating exam and homework problems. Each classroom response system question should have an explicit pedagogic purpose consisting of a content goal, a process goal, and a metacognitive goal. Questions can be designed to fulfill their purpose through four complementary mechanisms: directing students' attention, stimulating specific cognitive processes, communicating information to the instructor and students via classroom response system-tabulated answer counts, and facilitating the articulation and confrontation of ideas. We identify several tactics that are useful for designing potent questions and present four "makeovers" to show how these tactics can be used to convert traditional physics questions into more powerful questions for a classroom response system.

  9. Physical security system effectiveness evaluation: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Nickell, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    A method to permit objective comparisons of physical security systems is under development and is expected to be useful in the optimization of system design and in cost benefit analysis. The procedure involves identifying the possible or potential characteristics of a postulated adversary, the counter-measures to deny or diminish adversary success and the response capabilities of the defender. These, in conjunction with system definition information, are evaluated by the use of analytical models which provide a menas of ranking systems against threats. The status of this effort and an overview of the methodology with a brief description of various models being considered for use in effective evaluation are discussed. (U.S.)

  10. Effect of pumping head on solar water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K.O.; Alamri, S.N.; Joraid, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pumping head affect the performances of PV water pumping systems. • The best system efficiency has been obtained for a deep head. • System efficiency increases with decreasing pumping head during low solar radiation. • System efficiency increases with increasing solar radiation. • Increasing PV array size increases flow rate and system efficiency. - Abstract: The photovoltaic water pumping systems (PVWPS) is considered as one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The aim of this work is to determine the effect of pumping head on PVWPS using the optimum PV array configuration, adequate to supply a DC Helical pump with an optimum energy amount, under the outdoor conditions of Madinah site. Four different pumping head have been tested (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m). The tests have been carried for a different heads, under sunny daylight hours, in a real well at a farm in Madinah site. The best system efficiency has been obtained for the head of 80 m which is recommended for SQF submersible pump for a deep head. Also, the flow rate Q depends basically on two factors: the pumping head H and the global solar irradiation Hg. The model developed should be able to predict the flow rate Q for any head chosen with a best accuracy

  11. Mobile liquid VR system: a cost effective alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R.; Harkins, R.; HPD, Inc., Naperville, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The need for cost effective alternatives to treat large volumes of liquid radwaste has never been more evident. As part of a continuing effort to introduce such alternatives, HPD, Inc., and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., have integrated two proven state-of-the-art technologies to offer a mobile liquid volume reduction system that satisfies nuclear industry requirements, with respect to liquid radwaste handling. This system optimizes proven technology by employing a crystallizer unit to concentrate the waste liquids to 50 weight percent solids, thereby reducing the volume to be solidified by factors of 40, while using only 20 percent of the energy required by conventional evaporative systems. In addition, the system employs a field proven cement solidification process which has been accepted in a Topical Report by the US NRC and which offers the highest waste to container volume ratios for stable waste forms in the industry. This volume reduction-solidification system is able to reduce over 7000 gallons of liquid waste per day to less than 30 cubic feet of 10CFR61 certified stable solidified waste for ultimate disposal or on-site storage. This document describes the GEODE System; its applicability; economics; volume reduction; scope of responsibility and experience. Major benefits include higher VR factors; assurance of continual regulatory compliance; and no capital investment

  12. Criteria for Determination of Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Wright

    2008-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a test bed for implementation of the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based approach to Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) requirements. The Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Strategies (COMPASS) model is used to determine the effectiveness of MC and A systems under SFPI. Under this model, MC and A is divided into nine primary elements. Each element is divided into sub-elements. Then each sub-element is assigned two values, effectiveness and contribution, that are used to calculate the rating. Effectiveness is a measure of subelement implementation and how well it meets requirements. Contribution is a relative measure of the importance, and functions as a weighting factor. The COMPASS model provides the methodology for calculation of sub-element and element ratings, but not the actual criteria. Each site must develop its own criteria. For the rating to be meaningful, the effectiveness criteria must be objective and based on explicit, measurable criteria. Contribution (weights) must reflect the importance within the MC and A program. This paper details the NTS approach to system effectiveness and contribution values, and will cover the following: the basis for the ratings, an explanation of the contribution 'weights', and the objective, performance based effectiveness criteria. Finally, the evaluation process will be described

  13. Criteria for Determination of MC and A System Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Geneva; Long, DeAnn; Albright, Ross; Wright, John

    2008-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a test bed for implementation of the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based approach to Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) requirements. The Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Strategies (COMPASS) model is used to determine the effectiveness of safeguards systems under SFPI. Under this model, MC and A is divided into nine primary elements. Each element is divided into sub-elements. Then, each sub-element is assigned two values, effectiveness and contribution, that are used to calculate the rating. Effectiveness is a measure of sub-element implementation and how well it meets requirements. Contribution is a relative measure of the importance, and functions as a weighting factor. The COMPASS model provides the methodology for calculation of element and subelement, but not the actual criteria. Each site must develop its own criteria. For the rating to be meaningful, the effectiveness criteria must be objective and based on explicit, measurable criteria. Contribution (weights) must reflect the importance within the MC and A program. This paper details the NTS approach to system effectiveness and contribution values, and will cover the following: the basis for the ratings, an explanation of the contribution weights, and the objective, performance-based effectiveness criteria. Finally, the evaluation process will be described

  14. Effects of globalization on state budgeting system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobukh S.О.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When writing the scientific article the scientific approaches of scientists concerning the essence of budgeting have been described. The paper deals with the principles of budgeting on the basis of which three main methodological components are singled out. It also analyzes the budgeting goals. The author investigates the impact of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine, its positive and negative effects. Despite significant achievements it is necessary to explore the effects of globalization on the system of state budgeting in Ukraine. Budgeting is the management technology that provides the formation of budgets for the selected objects and their use to ensure optimal structure and correlation of profits and expenses, income and expenditure, assets and liabilities of the organization or its components to achieve the set goals taking into account the influence of the environment. It should be emphasized that budgeting in no way replaces the control system, but only creates a new approach to management from the standpoint of the balance of incomes and expenditures, profits and expenses, assets and liabilities of the organization as a whole or its components. The state budgeting of the country as the part of the financial system is the channel through which economic globalization, namely financial globalization, affects economic development of the state. Favorable global effect occurs, in particular, in terms of the impact on financial development. Therefore, it is necessary to + the nature of the relationship between these two processes.

  15. Systemic effects of the occlusal destruction in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Y; Maehara, K; Tokunaga, T; Hashimoto, M; Ieoka, K; Sakagami, H

    1999-01-01

    Although there is an increasing amount of information pertaining to the systemic effects of malocclusion, its mechanisms still remain unclear in many ways. This study was conducted to find out the systemic effects of the occlusal destruction in guinea pigs. The animals showed an abnormality in posture and a reversal of the T wave in electrocardiogram (ECG) about 6 days after the grinding of all molar teeth. All the animals died about 7 days after the occlusal destruction. We established the optimal condition of occlusal destruction for the induction of the above symptoms in guinea pigs: at least 6 molars, both side premolar, 1st and 2nd molar of upper jaw, because of the ease for repair. The following results were obtained: 1. The experimental group died about 5 days earlier than the fasting group. 2. The animals could not hold their head positions and dropped the head to the earth. 3. The animals died about 12 hours after the onset of postural abnormality. 4. Ninety percent of the animals with postural abnormalities showed T wave inversion on ECG. 5. None of the above symptoms occurred with bite rising. These results indicate that occlusal destruction affects head position, preventing the animals to hold their head positions and causing the head to drop to the ground. Occlusal destruction may also cause abnormality of the masticatory muscles, which control posture and modulate cardiac function via the trigeminal system. This experimental model is suitable for the analysis of the systemic effects of occlusal destruction.

  16. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  17. Repairable system analysis in presence of covariates and random effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio, M.; Guida, M.; Pulcini, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to model the failure pattern of repairable systems in presence of explained and unexplained heterogeneity. The failure pattern of each system is described by a Power Law Process. Part of the heterogeneity among the patterns is explained through the use of a covariate, and the residual unexplained heterogeneity (random effects) is modeled via a joint probability distribution on the PLP parameters. The proposed approach is applied to a real set of failure time data of powertrain systems mounted on 33 buses employed in urban and suburban routes. Moreover, the joint probability distribution on the PLP parameters estimated from the data is used as an informative prior to make Bayesian inference on the future failure process of a generic system belonging to the same population and employed in an urban or suburban route under randomly chosen working conditions. - Highlights: • We describe the failure process of buses powertrain system subject to heterogeneity. • Heterogeneity due to different service types is explained by a covariate. • Random effect is modeled through a joint pdf on failure process parameters. • The powertrain reliability under new future operating conditions is estimated

  18. ARIES: System for Health effects Assessment in industrial risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabago, I.; Vidania, R. de; Inmaculada, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this work we present a general description of ARIES*, a tool designed in order to support the assessment of expected health effects derived from an accidental release of toxic compounds. ARIES includes two sequential and complementary steps. The first one (a quantitative phase) is being developed. for inhalation exposures, using numerical models, empirical correlations, physiological parameters and toxicological index, to estimate short term consequences over the exposed population. Next it will be published a new report were It will be described with detail the procedure designed to the quantitative assessment of the exposure. The system starts the assessment process with values of external concentrations which are processed, together with different exposure values (existing for humans and scaled up irom animals), as inputs for different kinds of models. From these, and other physiological values ARIES calculates the inhaled equivalent doses and the expected associated effects as a function of the exposure limes. Once overcome this first step, ARIES is complemented with an additional system that executes the selection of relevant information from toxicological data bases (qualitative phase). The system works , applying a string of filters and searches that displays selected Information, giving an additional support to the assessment. Both steps, just referred, are integrated into a logical informatics support. The informatics code is developed in dbase language even for the design of the procedure as for the mathematical models linked to the system ( extrapolation, dose inhaled models, etc.) to execute the numerical analysis of the assessment. The system has been designed in order to include progressively new chemicals and the improvements obtained in the development of mathematical models related with dose-effect relationships. At this moment, is programmed a first prototype of ARIES that can be executed in PC's and it can run for several products

  19. Effect of evaporator temperature on vapor compression refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A.A.A. Al-Rashed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparable evaluation of R600a (isobutane, R290 (propane, R134a, R22, for R410A, and R32 an optimized finned-tube evaporator, and analyzes the evaporator effect on the system coefficient of performance (COP. Results concerning the response of a refrigeration system simulation software to an increase in the amount of oil flowing with the refrigerant are presented. It is shown that there is optima of the apparent overheat value, for which either the exchanged heat or the refrigeration coefficient of performance (COP is maximized: consequently, it is not possible to optimize both the refrigeration COP and the evaporator effect. The obtained evaporator optimization results were incorporated in a conventional analysis of the vapor compression system. For a theoretical cycle analysis without accounting for evaporator effects, the COP spread for the studied refrigerants was as high as 11.7%. For cycle simulations including evaporator effects, the COP of R290 was better than that of R22 by up to 3.5%, while the remaining refrigerants performed approximately within a 2% COP band of the R22 baseline for the two condensing temperatures considered.

  20. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Sezgin; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to discuss the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. A systematic review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2014. Aging is a natural process comprising of irreversible changes due to a myriad of endogenous and environmental factors at the level of all organs and systems. In modern life, as more couples choose to postpone having a child due to various socioeconomic reasons, research for understanding the effects of aging on the reproductive system has gained an increased importance. Paternal aging also causes genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa, which impair male reproductive functions through their adverse effects on sperm quality and count as, well as, on sexual organs and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hormone production, spermatogenesis, and testes undergo changes as a man ages. These small changes lead to decrease in both the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. The offspring of older fathers show high prevalence of genetic abnormalities, childhood cancers, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the latest advances in assisted reproductive techniques give older men a chance to have a child even with poor semen parameters. Further studies should investigate the onset of gonadal senesce and its effects on aging men.

  1. Introduction of Effective Education System for Engineers in TOTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Akiyoshi; Shinohara, Kuniaki

    When the sewer system in Japan was still poor, TOTO has produced plumbing products, such as toilets, to provide people a healthy and cultural life. The genuine spirit of “High quality” and “Customer satisfaction” made it possible for us to do so. But nowadays, in terms of problems of quality, globalization, aging, we should enhance training engineers to continue making “High quality” and “Customer satisfying” products, in this speed of globalization. We would introduce the effective education system for engineers in TOTO, including our future vision.

  2. [Effect of fillers on the strength of silicone systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snejdrová, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M

    2002-07-01

    The present paper examines the strength behaviour of addition silicone systems composed of Lukopren A 6200 and three inorganic fillers (Skron SF 600, Cab-O-Sil LM 150, sodium chloride) in different concentrations and particle sizes. The tensile strength sigma (MPa) and the relative lengthening of samples on rupture epsilon (%) were measured. With increasing concentration of the filler in the system relative lengthening of matrices is decreased. This trend corresponds with the theoretical hypotheses and it is understandable also with regard to the fact that the filler, in comparison with silicone rubber, possesses very low ductility. An addition of Sikron increases tensile strength of samples. Dependence of tensile strength on the amount of Sikron in the system is linear. This behaviour is typical of fibrous composites and the composites with high adhesion between the filler and matrix. Concentrations of Cab-O-Sil up to 5% did not exert an effect on tensile strength. An important increase in strength was shown only by the systems containing 10% of Cab-O-Sil. Experimental dependence of tensile strength on the amount of Cab-O-Sil in the system can be described by the equation for composites with Hookean behaviour till destruction. The effect of sodium chloride on tensile strength is more complicated. In the systems with NaCl particles of 20 microns, strength is not practically changed up to a content of 40% of NaCl in the system. In larger size fractions, tensile strength is decreased, and with a change in particle size, shape is probably changed as well.

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol

    2017-03-01

    Advanced vehicle safety systems have been widely introduced in transportation systems and are expected to enhance traffic safety. However, these technologies mainly focus on assisting individual vehicles that are equipped with them, and less effort has been made to identify the effect of vehicular technologies on the traffic stream. This study proposed a methodology to assess the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems (AVSSs), which represent a promising technology to prevent traffic crashes and mitigate injury severity. The proposed AVSS consists of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control systems, which corresponds to the Level 2 vehicle automation presented by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA). The effectiveness evaluation for the proposed technology was conducted in terms of crash potential reduction and congestion mitigation. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to simulate freeway traffic stream and collect vehicle-maneuvering data. In addition, an external application program interface, VISSIM's COM-interface, was used to implement the AVSS. A surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) was used to derive indirect safety measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the AVSS. A 16.7-km freeway stretch between the Nakdong and Seonsan interchanges on Korean freeway 45 was selected for the simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of AVSS. A total of five simulation runs for each evaluation scenario were conducted. For the non-incident conditions, the rear-end and lane-change conflicts were reduced by 78.8% and 17.3%, respectively, under the level of service (LOS) D traffic conditions. In addition, the average delay was reduced by 55.5%. However, the system's effectiveness was weakened in the LOS A-C categories. Under incident traffic conditions, the number of rear-end conflicts was reduced by approximately 9.7%. Vehicle delays were reduced by approximately 43.9% with 100% of market penetration rate (MPR). These results

  4. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  5. An effectiveness analysis of healthcare systems using a systems theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Kerry

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of accreditation and quality measurement and reporting to improve healthcare quality and patient safety has been widespread across many countries. A review of the literature reveals no association between the accreditation system and the quality measurement and reporting systems, even when hospital compliance with these systems is satisfactory. Improvement of health care outcomes needs to be based on an appreciation of the whole system that contributes to those outcomes. The research literature currently lacks an appropriate analysis and is fragmented among activities. This paper aims to propose an integrated research model of these two systems and to demonstrate the usefulness of the resulting model for strategic research planning. Methods/design To achieve these aims, a systematic integration of the healthcare accreditation and quality measurement/reporting systems is structured hierarchically. A holistic systems relationship model of the administration segment is developed to act as an investigation framework. A literature-based empirical study is used to validate the proposed relationships derived from the model. Australian experiences are used as evidence for the system effectiveness analysis and design base for an adaptive-control study proposal to show the usefulness of the system model for guiding strategic research. Results Three basic relationships were revealed and validated from the research literature. The systemic weaknesses of the accreditation system and quality measurement/reporting system from a system flow perspective were examined. The approach provides a system thinking structure to assist the design of quality improvement strategies. The proposed model discovers a fourth implicit relationship, a feedback between quality performance reporting components and choice of accreditation components that is likely to play an important role in health care outcomes. An example involving accreditation

  6. Effect of component aging on PWR control rod drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, E.; Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1992-01-01

    An aging assessment of PWR control rod drive (CRD) systems has been completed as part of the US NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W), Combustion Engineering (CE), and Westinghouse (W) systems were evaluated to determine the potential for degradation as each system ages. Operating experience data were evaluated to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. This, coupled with an assessment of the materials of construction and operating environment, demonstrate that each design is subject to degradation, which if left unchecked, could affect its safety function as the plant ages. An industry survey, conducted with the assistance of EPRI and NUMARC, identified current CRD system maintenance and inspection practices. The results of this survey indicate that some plants have performed system modifications, replaced components, or augmented existing preventive maintenance practices in response to system aging. The survey results also supported the operating experience data, which concluded that the timely replacement of degraded components, prior to failure, was not always possible using existing condition monitoring techniques. The recommendations presented in this study also include a discussion of more advanced monitoring techniques, which provide trendable results capable of detecting aging

  7. User effects on the transient system code calculations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, S.N.; D'Auria, F.

    1995-01-01

    Large thermal-hydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants to optimize operational procedures and the plant design itself. Evaluation of the capabilities of these codes are accomplished by comparing the code predictions with the measured experimental data obtained from various types of separate effects and integral test facilities. In recent years, some attempts have been made to establish methodologies to evaluate the accuracy and the uncertainty of the code predictions and consequently judgement on the acceptability of the codes. In none of the methodologies has the influence of the code user on the calculated results been directly addressed. In this paper, the results of the investigations on the user effects for the thermal-hydraulic transient system codes is presented and discussed on the basis of some case studies. The general findings of the investigations show that in addition to user effects, there are other reasons that affect the results of the calculations and which are hidden under user effects. Both the hidden factors and the direct user effects are discussed in detail and general recommendations and conclusions are presented to control and limit them

  8. Effects of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyu; Yan, Yang; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-06-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties. There were five treatments: maize continuous cropping, maize and peanuts rotation, peanuts continuous cropping, peanuts continuous cropping with low level of amendment and peanuts continuous cropping with high level of amendment. The results showed that maize continuous cropping increased total root length by 118.95%, projected area by 204.86%, projected area by 150.70%, total root volume by 20.66%, and average root diameter by184.53%. The amendments also improved root properties and the high level of amendment had much more better effect.

  9. Conversion to biofuel based heating systems - local environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Anna

    2003-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems today is the global warming, i.e.climate changes caused by emissions of greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases originate from combustion of fossil fuels and changes the atmospheric composition. As a result of the climate change, the Swedish government has decided to make a changeover of the Swedish energy system. This involves an increase of the supply of electricity and heating from renewable energy sources and a decrease in the amount electricity used for heating, as well as a more efficient use of the existing electricity system. Today, a rather large amount electricity is used for heating in Sweden. Furthermore, nuclear power will be phased out by the year 2010 in Sweden. Bio fuels are a renewable energy source and a conceivable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Therefore, an increase of bio fuels will be seen the coming years. Bio fuels have a lot of environmental advantages, mainly for the global environment, but might also cause negative impacts such as depletion of the soils where the biomass is grown and local deterioration of the air quality where the bio fuels are combusted. These negative impacts are a result of the use of wrong techniques and a lack of knowledge and these factors have to be improved if the increase of the use of bio fuels is to be made effectively. The aim of this master thesis is to evaluate the possibilities for heating with bio fuel based systems in housing areas in the municipalities of Trollhaettan, Ulricehamn and Goetene in Vaestra Goetalands County in the South West of Sweden and to investigate which environmental and health effects are caused by the conversion of heating systems. The objective is to use the case studies as examples on preferable bio fuel based heating systems in different areas, and to what environmental impact this conversion of heating systems might cause. The housing areas for this study have been chosen on the basis of present heating system, one area

  10. Side effects of cancer therapies. International classification and documentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The publication presents and explains verified, international classification and documentation systems for side effects induced by cancer treatments, applicable in general and clinical practice and clinical research, and covers in a clearly arranged manner the whole range of treatments, including acute and chronic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery, or combined therapies. The book fills a long-felt need in tumor documentation and is a major contribution to quality assurance in clinical oncology in German-speaking countries. As most parts of the book are bilingual, presenting German and English texts and terminology, it satisfies the principles of interdisciplinarity and internationality. The tabulated form chosen for presentation of classification systems and criteria facilitate the user's approach as well as application in daily work. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work is aimed at the study of Artea (a systemic fungicide) effects on durum wheat (Triticum durum L. CV. Hard GTA). Seeds were grown in a medium containing 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea under controlled conditions. Roots of eight day old were used to determine the enzymatic activities of catalase, ...

  12. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed at the study of the effects of Artea, a systemic azole fungicide, on durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. cv. GTA dur). Seeds were grown in a medium containing respectively 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea under controlled conditions. Roots of eight-day-old plants were used to determine catalase, ...

  13. The Relative Effectiveness of Human Tutoring, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and Other Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of experiments comparing the effectiveness of human tutoring, computer tutoring, and no tutoring. "No tutoring" refers to instruction that teaches the same content without tutoring. The computer tutoring systems were divided by their granularity of the user interface interaction into answer-based, step-based, and…

  14. Peltier Effect Based Temperature Controlled System for Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukda, T.; Jantaratana, P.

    2017-09-01

    The temperature control system was designed and built for application in dielectric spectroscopy. It is based on the dual-stage Peltier element that decreases electrical power and no cryogenic fluids are required. A proportional integral derivative controller was used to keep the temperature stability of the system. A Pt100 temperature sensor was used to measure temperature of the sample mounting stage. Effect of vacuum isolation and water-cooling on accuracy and stability of the system were also studied. With the incorporation of vacuum isolation and water-cooling at 18 °C, the temperature of the sample under test can be controlled in the range of -40 °C to 150 °C with temperature stability ± 0.025 °C.

  15. Dealing with the Hidden Effects of Global Business Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Gubi, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    Companies are actively seeking competitive advantage through their choice of location and ownership of manufacturing processes. This has, however, increased the distance between the headquarters and the increasingly dispersed operations network. The purpose of this paper is to identify how...... companies may reduce this distance through reorganization and development of adequate global business systems solutions. The paper draws on a case study of a Danish industrial equipment firm. The paper describes and analyzes the company’s operations network configurations, which lay at the foundations...... of the company’s global business system. It is demonstrated how the operations configurations have been changing over time and affecting the overall business system. The paper identifies the key determinants and outcomes of this change and hidden effects of this change. Moreover, it proposes how the design...

  16. The effect of organic farming systems on species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksono, Amin Setyo

    2017-11-01

    Organic farming systems have been well known to support the diversity of a wide range of taxa, including microorganisms, arable flora, invertebrates, birds, and mammals, which benefit from organic management leading to increases in abundance and/or species richness. The objective of this paper is to review the effect of organic farming on species diversity reported in several articles and compare this with the current study in Gondanglegi, Malang. A review of several studies showed that organic farming systems have been reported to increase species diversity, including that of mammals, birds, arthropods, vascular plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The researchers about arthropod groups consisted of carabid beetles, butterflies, wasps, predators, and bees. Agricultural landscape, habitat type, farming system, landscape composition and connectivity all contribute to explaining species biodiversity and richness. Moreover, based on current and relevant studies, the results showed that the application of refugia blocks has increased arthropod diversity and composition.

  17. Asymmetric Effects on Escape Rates of Bistable System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Mei Dongcheng; Dai Zucheng

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric effects on the escape rates from the stable states x ± in the bistable system are analyzed. The results indicate that the multiplicative noise and the additive noise always enhance the particle escape from stable states x ± of bistable. However, the asymmetric parameter r enhances the particle escape from stable state x + , and holds back the particle escape from stable state x - . (general)

  18. The effect of space radiation of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Grant E.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Yang, Tracy; Whitney, Monroe

    The long-term effects of irradiation by accelerated heavy ions on the structure and function of the nervous system have not been studied extensively. Although the adult brain is relatively resistant to low LET radiation, cellular studies indicate that individual heavy ions can produce serious membrane lesions and multiple chromatin breaks. Capillary hemorrhages may follow high LET particle irradiation of the developing brain as high RBE effects. Evidence has been accumulating that the glial system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are relatively sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. While DNA repair is active in neural systems, it may be assumed that a significant portion of this molecular process is misrepair. Since the expression of cell lethality usually requires cell division, and nerve cells have an extremely low rate of division, it is possible that some of the characteristic changes of premature aging may represent a delayed effect of chromatin misrepair in brain. Altered microcirculation, decreased local metabolism, entanglement and reduction in synaptic density, premature loss of neurons, myelin degeneration, and glial proliferation are late signs of such injuries. HZE particles are very efficient in producing carcinogenic cell transformation, reaching a peak for iron particles. The promotion of viral transformation is also efficient up to an energy transfer of approximately 300 keV/micron. The RBE for carcinogenesis in nerve tissues remains unknown. On the basis of available information concerning HZE particle flux in interplanetary space, only general estimates of the magnitude of the effects of long-term spaceflight on some nervous system parameters may be constructed.

  19. Cost-effective geophysical survey systems for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    When planning a uranium exploration survey the question always arises as to how to take advantage of the different exploration methods and equipment for maximum probability of success. Discussed here are the choice of radiometric geophysical equipment, its effectiveness in identifying targets, its limitations, and the criteria for selection. Particular attention is given to systems that are suitable for the exploration programmes of small size and on a small budget, that are common in Latin America. (author)

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS BASED ON SYSTEM ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij Vasilkov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of analyzing the effectiveness and efficiency of management systems that are relevant, especially in the implementation at the enterprise requirements of ISO 9001, 14001 and others. Research management system based on a systematic approach focused on the disclosure of its integrative qualities (i.e. systemic, on identifying the variety of relationships and mechanisms for these qualities. It allows to identify the causes of the real state of affairs, to explain the successes and failures. An important aspect of a systematic approach to the analysis of the effectiveness and efficiency of production control management is the multiplicity of "stakeholders" interests involved in the production process in the formation of operational goals and ways to achieve them.

  1. Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-12-20

    The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder-structural and energetic-and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.

  2. Effect of health system reforms in Turkey on user satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Stokes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, the Turkish government introduced major health system changes, the Health Transformation Programme (HTP, to achieve universal health coverage (UHC. The HTP leveraged changes in all parts of the health system, organization, financing, resource management and service delivery, with a new family medicine model introducing primary care at the heart of the system. This article examines the effect of these health system changes on user satisfaction, a key goal of a responsive health system. Utilizing the results of a nationally representative yearly survey introduced at the baseline of the health system transformation, multivariate logistic regression analysis is used to examine the yearly effect on satisfaction with health services. During the 9–year period analyzed (2004–2012, there was a nearly 20% rise in reported health service use, coinciding with increased access, measured by insurance coverage. Controlling for factors known to contribute to user satisfaction in the literature, there is a significant (P < 0.001 increase in user satisfaction with health services in almost every year (bar 2006 from the baseline measure, with the odds of being satisfied with health services in 2012, 2.56 (95% Confidence Interval (CI of 2.01–3.24 times that in 2004, having peaked at 3.58 (CI, 2.82–4.55 times the baseline odds in 2011. Additionally, those who used public primary care services were slightly, but significantly (P < 0.05 more satisfied than those who used any other services, and increasingly patients are choosing primary care services rather than secondary care services as the provider of first contact. A number of quality indicators can probably help account for the increased satisfaction with public primary care services, and the increase in seeking first–contact with these providers. The implementation of primary care focused UHC as part of the HTP has improved user satisfaction in Turkey.

  3. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON SINR IN LONG TERM EVOLUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Parikh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ongoing demands for high speed broadband communications, network providers are opting for the next generation of mobile technologies like LTE and LTE-Advanced. Standardized by 3GPP, these technologies aim to meet the requirements of higher data rates, low latency, and wider mobility, in varying environments without affecting the quality of service of a network. With higher mobility, the various network performance parameters like signal to interference to noise ratio, throughput, received signal strength indicator etc. get affected. This paper highlights the effect of mobility on signal to interference to noise ratio (SINR characteristics of an IMT-A system in various test environments like In-house (INH, Urban Micro (UMi, Urban Macro (UMa, Rural Macro (RMa, and Suburban Macro (SMa. Simulations have been carried out to obtain spatial plots and SINR vs CDF plots in various test environments, at different user equipment speeds, emphasizing the effects of user equipment speed on the fast fading channel gainsand SINR of the system. By varying the UE speeds from 0 km/hr to 360 km/hr there was an increase in the minimum SINR value required for acceptable performance in a system. It was observed that for given system parameters, the minimum SINR required in RMa environment increased from -5dB to 1dB, in SMa environment it increased from -6dB to -2dB, and in case of UMa environment it increased from -4dB to 1dB, when the UE speed was increased from 0km/hr to 360km/hr. To address the problem of poor SINR in high mobility systems, 3GPP has introduced the technique of Moving Relays. It is used to improve the SINR and hence the channel quality for UEs moving at high speeds in LTE systems.

  4. Thermal effects in the dynamics of disordered elastic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustingorry, S.; Kolton, A.B. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Rosso, A. [CNRS, LPTMS, Univ. Paris-Sud, UMR 8626, Orsay Cedex F-91405 (France); Krauth, W. [CNRS-Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Giamarchi, T. [DPMC-MaNEP, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Thierry.Giamarchi@physics.unige.ch

    2009-03-01

    Many seemingly different macroscopic systems (magnets, ferroelectrics, CDW, vortices, etc.) can be described as generic disordered elastic systems. Understanding their static and dynamics thus poses challenging problems both from the point of view of fundamental physics and of practical applications. Despite important progress many questions remain open. In particular the temperature has drastic effects on the way these systems respond to an external force. We address here the important question of the thermal effect close to depinning, and whether these effects can be understood in the analogy with standard critical phenomena, analogy so useful to understand the zero temperature case. We show that close to the depinning force temperature leads to a rounding of the depinning transition and compute the corresponding exponent. In addition, using a novel algorithm it is possible to study precisely the behavior close to depinning, and to show that the commonly accepted analogy of the depinning with a critical phenomenon does not fully hold, since no divergent lengthscale exists in the steady state properties of the line below the depinning threshold.

  5. AN EFFECTIVE SPAM FILTERING FOR DYNAMIC MAIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arun Mozhi Selvi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spam is commonly defined as unsolicited email messages and the goal of spam categorization is to distinguish between spam and legitimate email messages. The economics of spam details that the spammer has to target several recipients with identical and similar email messages. As a result a dynamic knowledge sharing effective defense against a substantial fraction of spam has to be designed which can alternate the burdens of frequent training stand alone spam filter. A weighted email attribute based classification is proposed to mainly focus to encounter the issues in normal email system. These type of classification helps to formulate an effective utilization of our email system by combining the concepts of Bayesian Spam Filtering Algorithm, Iterative Dichotmiser 3(ID3 Algorithm and Bloom Filter. The details captured by the system are processed to track the original sender causing disturbances and prefer them to block further mails from them. We have tested the effectiveness of our scheme by collecting offline data from Yahoo mail & Gmail dumps. This proposal is implemented using .net and sample user-Id for knowledge base.

  6. The effects of cocoa on the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a food relatively rich in polyphenols, which makes it a potent antioxidant. Due to its activity as an antioxidant, as well as through other mechanisms, cocoa consumption has been reported to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, brain functions, and cancer prevention. Furthermore, cocoa influences the immune system, in particular the inflammatory innate response and the systemic and intestinal adaptive immune response. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that a cocoa-enriched diet modifies T-cell functions that conduce to a modulation of the synthesis of systemic and gut antibodies. In this regard, it seems that a cocoa diet in rats produces changes in the lymphocyte composition of secondary lymphoid tissues and the cytokines secreted by T cells. These results suggest that it is possible that cocoa could inhibit the function of Th2 cells, and in line with this, the preventive effect of cocoa on IgE synthesis in a rat allergy model has been reported, which opens up new perspectives when considering the beneficial effects of cocoa compounds. On the other hand, cocoa intake modifies the functionality of gut-associated lymphoid tissue by means of modulating IgA secretion and intestinal microbiota. The mechanisms involved in these influences are discussed here. Further research may elucidate the cocoa compounds involved in such an effect and also the possible medical approaches to these repercussions.

  7. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, John

    project schedule, resulting in greater success during system deployment and operational testing. This dissertation will discuss the data and findings from participant studies, present a literature review of systems engineering and design processes, and test the hypothesis that the prioritization process had no effect on stakeholder sentiment related to the conceptual design. In addition, the "Requirements Rationalization" process will be discussed in detail. Avionics, like many other systems, has transitioned from a discrete electronics engineering, hard engineering discipline to incorporate software engineering as a core process of the technology development cycle. As with other software-based systems, avionics now has significant soft system attributes that must be considered in the design process. The boundless opportunities that exist in software design demand prioritization to focus effort onto the critical functions that the software must provide. This has been a well documented and understood phenomenon in the software development community for many years. This dissertation will attempt to link the effect of software integrated avionics to the benefits of prioritization of requirements in the problem space and demonstrate the sociological and technical benefits of early prioritization practices.

  8. H/D Isotope Effects in Hydrogen Bonded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Filarowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An extremely strong H/D isotope effect observed in hydrogen bonded A-H…B systems is connected with a reach diversity of the potential shape for the proton/deuteron motion. It is connected with the anharmonicity of the proton/deuteron vibrations and of the tunneling effect, particularly in cases of short bridges with low barrier for protonic and deuteronic jumping. Six extreme shapes of the proton motion are presented starting from the state without possibility of the proton transfer up to the state with a full ionization. The manifestations of the H/D isotope effect are best reflected in the infra-red absorption spectra. A most characteristic is the run of the relationship between the isotopic ratio nH/nD and position of the absorption band shown by using the example of NHN hydrogen bonds. One can distinguish a critical range of correlation when the isotopic ratio reaches the value of ca. 1 and then increases up to unusual values higher than . The critical range of the isotope effect is also visible in NQR and NMR spectra. In the critical region one observes a stepwise change of the NQR frequency reaching 1.1 MHz. In the case of NMR, the maximal isotope effect is reflected on the curve presenting the dependence of Δd (1H,2H on d (1H. This effect corresponds to the range of maximum on the correlation curve between dH and ΔpKa that is observed in various systems. There is a lack in the literature of quantitative information about the influence of isotopic substitution on the dielectric properties of hydrogen bond except the isotope effect on the ferroelectric phase transition in some hydrogen bonded crystals.

  9. Effects of interdisciplinary training on MCH professionals, organizations and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lewis H; Rosenberg, Angela; Umble, Karl; Chewning, Linda

    2013-07-01

    We studied the effects of the Interdisciplinary Leadership Development Program (ILDP) on MCH trainees from five MCHB-funded training programs at the UNC-Chapel Hill from the years 2001-2008. Specifically, we examined attitudes/beliefs about interdisciplinary practice and the frequency of use of interdisciplinary skills; identified effects of interdisciplinary training on career choices; and, examined the ways in which graduates used their interdisciplinary skills to effect change in MCH organizations and systems, up to 8 years after completion of training. Using a post-test design, participants in the ILDP were contacted to complete a web-based survey. Non-participating LEND and public health graduates were recruited for comparison. Guided by EvaluLEAD, we designed questions that asked graduates to rate the influence of their programs on their attitudes/beliefs and skills (on 5-point Likert scales), and to describe those influences in some detail in open-ended questions. The 208 respondents represented 59.6 % of the graduates from 2001 through 2008. Model-predicted mean levels of frequency of use of interdisciplinary skilIs was associated with ILDP participation (p = 0.008) and nearly so for interdisciplinary attitudes/beliefs (p = 0.067). There is an association between four domains of systems changes and frequency of skill use: develop/improve a program (3.24 vs. 2.74, p organization works (3.31 vs. 2.88, p training to improve outcomes for families and to effect change in MCH systems. MCH leaders should disseminate, more broadly, rigorous assessments of the training intended to develop leadership competencies that underpin effective interdisciplinary practice.

  10. Dust Effect on The Performance of Optical Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel Abdul-Zahra Murad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper wireless optical communication system (FSO is designed through the use of software (Optisystem . The paper also study  the effect of atmospheric dust on the performance of communication system (FSO, the effect of dust concentration on the visibility by taking a different concentrations of dust (9, 20, 40, 60, 80 100, 120 gm / month / m2 . The effect of the visibility on the attenuation of dust concentration on each of these concentrations , and calculate attenuation of dust for the  wavelengths  (784 nm, 1550 nm. The Paper also deals with effect of the transmitted laser  power on the transmitter range (propagation distance where five different values of transmitted laser power (10mw, 20mw, 30mw, 40mw, 50mw are taken  and the study calculates the maximum transmitter range of  each value of the transmitted power under the influence of attenuation atmospheric dust concentrations for each concentration of dust used and also for the two wavelengths (1550nm, 784nm.

  11. An approach to the instanton effect in B system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Noriaki; Sakai, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the constraint on the size of QCD instanton effects in low-energy effective theory. Among various instanton effects in meson mass spectrum and dynamics, we concentrate on the instanton-induced masses of light quarks. The famous instanton-induced six-quark interaction, so-called ’t Hooft vertex, could give nonperturbative quantum corrections to light quark masses. Many works have already been achieved to constrain the mass corrections in light meson system, or the system of π, K, η and η‧, and now we know for a fact that the instanton-induced mass of up-quark is too small to realize the solution of the strong CP problem by vanishing current mass of up-quark. In this work, we give a constraint on the instanton-induced mass correction to light quarks from the mass spectrum of heavy mesons, B+, B0, Bs and their antiparticles. To accomplish this, the complete second-order chiral symmetry breaking terms are identified in heavy meson effective theory. We find that the strength of the constraint from heavy meson masses is at the same level of that from light mesons, and it would be made even stronger by more precise data from future B factories and lattice calculations.

  12. Correction for nonlinear photon counting effects in lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, D. P.; Whiteway, J. A.; Carswell, A. I.

    1992-07-01

    Photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) employed in the photon counting (PC) mode of operation are widely used as detectors in lidar systems. In our laboratory, we have developed a versatile Nd:YAG lidar which is used for measurement of both the middle atmosphere and the troposphere. With this system, we encounter a very wide range of signal levels ranging from the extremely weak signals from the top of the mesosphere to the very strong returns from low level clouds. Although the system is capable of operating the PMT's in either the analog detection or photon counting mode, we find that often when we use photon counting we have portions of our lidar return which contain very useful information but are not within the linear operating regime of the PC system. We report the results of our efforts to explore the extent to which such high intensity PC signals can be quantitatively analyzed. In particular, a useful model relating the mean 'true' count rate and the observed count rate is presented and it's application to our system demonstrated. This model takes into account the variation in height of the PMT output pulses and the effect of the pulse height discrimination threshold.

  13. Water cycles in closed ecological systems: effects of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Metz, Joannah M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems that use plants to generate food and oxygen, the largest mass flux between the plants and their surrounding environment will be water. This water cycle is a consequence of the continuous change of state (evaporation-condensation) from liquid to gas through the process of transpiration and the need to transfer heat (cool) and dehumidify the plant growth chamber. Evapotranspiration rates for full plant canopies can range from 1 to 10 L m-2 d-1 (1 to 10 mm m-2 d-1), with the rates depending primarily on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaves and the air inside the plant growth chamber. VPD in turn is dependent on the air temperature, leaf temperature, and current value of relative humidity (RH). Concepts for developing closed plant growth systems, such as greenhouses for Mars, have been discussed for many years and the feasibility of such systems will depend on the overall system costs and reliability. One approach for reducing system costs would be to reduce the operating pressure within the greenhouse to reduce structural mass and gas leakage. But managing plant growth environments at low pressures (e.g., controlling humidity and heat exchange) may be difficult, and the effects of low-pressure environments on plant growth and system water cycling need further study. We present experimental evidence to show that water saturation pressures in air under isothermal conditions are only slightly affected by total pressure, but the overall water flux from evaporating surfaces can increase as pressure decreases. Mathematical models describing these observations are presented, along with discussion of the importance for considering "water cycles" in closed bioregenerative life support systems.

  14. Effective diagnostic DAQ systems to reduce unnecessary data in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taegu, E-mail: glory@nfri.re.kr; Lee, Woongryol; Hong, Jaesic; Park, Kaprai

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • When plasma shots do not successfully perform during the intended target time, the diagnostics systems continue to record these unusable data, contributing to increasing data size. • To overcome this problem, some KSTAR’s library were upgraded to monitor the plasma status in real-time. • With the real-time information of plasma status, some of the KSTAR diagnostic systems stop the acquisition process of unnecessary data. • We were able to reduce the refuse data of approximately 698 GByte in the KSTAR 7th campaign. • It was a very effective way to store useful data, and it was helpful to analysts after shot. - Abstract: The plasma status of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is measured by various diagnostics systems. The measured data size has been increasing every year due to increasing plasma pulse lengths, higher diagnostics operating frequencies, the additions of new diagnostic systems, and an increasing number of diagnostics channels. At times, when plasma shots do not successfully perform during the intended target time, the diagnostics systems continue to record these unusable data, contributing to increasing data size. In addition, the analysis time was affected, as these data need to be separated from the relevant data set. To overcome this problem, KSTAR’s Standard Framework (SFW), Real Time Monitoring (RTMON), and Pulse Automation and Scheduling System (PASS) were upgraded to monitor the plasma status in real-time. When the plasma current is less than 200kA, RTMON sends the plasma status information every second to the SFW via EPICS Channel Access. With the real-time information on plasma status, some of the KSTAR diagnostic systems stop the acquisition process of unnecessary data. This paper describes a method for reducing the storage of unnecessary data and its results in the KSTAR 7th campaign.

  15. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  16. Effects of Probiotics on the Immune System and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Shimojo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play a crucial role in the development of mucosal tolerance and adaptation. Perturbations in microbiota composition are strongly associated with allergies and asthma in westernized countries. There has been accumulating evidence that the administration of probiotics, “live microbial supplements that exert a beneficial effect on human health,” may be effective in the treatment and/or prevention of allergic diseases. Although it has been shown that part of the effect of probiotics arises from its interaction with the host immune system, the precise mechanisms remain to be determined. In addition, future studies are necessary to define appropriate species and strains, optimum dose, frequency, and duration for the treatment of allergic diseases.

  17. Systemic Effects of Testosterone: Hormonal and Behavioral Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skaya, K A; Kondashevskaya, M V; Serkova, V V; Diatropov, M E

    2016-03-01

    We studied the effects of food deprivation, spatial complexity of environment, and cognitive strain on blood level of testosterone in male (C57Bl/6×DBA/2)F1 mice. Hormone concentration decreased after exposure to any factor and this decrease depended on combined impact to the factors. Testosterone concentration was most sensitive to cognitive strain against the background of food deprivation. The total response of testosterone under conditions of enriched environment and activation of social interactions in the form of neurotic and aggressive behavior provoked by food deprivation was not equal to the sum of individual effects of these factors. Testosterone response to combined exposure to external and internal factors reflected systemic effect.

  18. Role of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in effective contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia AM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdelhamid M Attia,1 Magdy M Ibrahim,1 Ahmed M Abou-Setta21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2George and Fay Yee Centre for Healthcare Innovation, University of Manitoba/Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: Norgestrel, a synthetic progestin chemically derived from 19-nortestosterone, is six times more potent than progesterone, with variable binding affinity to various steroid receptors. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS provides a long-acting, highly effective, and reversible form of contraception, with a pearl index of 0.18 per 100 women-years. The locally released hormone leads to endometrial concentrations that are 200–800 times those found after daily oral use and a plasma level that is lower than that with other forms of levonorgestrel-containing contraception. The contraceptive effect of the LNG IUS is achieved mainly through its local suppressive effect on the endometrium, leading to endometrial thinning, glandular atrophy, and stromal decidualization without affecting ovulation. The LNG IUS is generally well tolerated. The main side effects are related to its androgenic activity, which is usually mild and transient, resolving after the first few months. Menstrual abnormalities are also common but well tolerated, and even become desirable (eg, amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea with proper counseling of the patient during the choice of the method of contraception. The satisfaction rates after 3 years of insertion are high, reaching between 77% and 94%. The local effect of the LNG IUS on the endometrium and low rates of systemic adverse effects have led to its use in other conditions rather than contraception, as for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, benign menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and uterine fibroids.Keywords: levonorgestrel, intrauterine device, contraception, family planning, Mirena, Skyla

  19. Aries: system for health effects assessment in industrial Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabago, I.; Vidania, R. de; Sierra, I.

    1992-01-01

    In this word we present a general description of ARIES*, a tool designed in order to support the assessment of expected heath derived from an accidental release of toxic compounds. ARIES includes two secuential and complementary steps. the first one (a quantitative phase) is being developed, for inhalation exposures, using numerical models, empirical correlations, physiological parameters and toxicological index, to estimate short term consequences over the exposed population. Next it will be published a new report were it will be described with detail the procedure designed for the quantitative published a new report were it will be described with detail the procedure designed for the quantitative assessment of the exposure. the system starts the assessment process with values of external concentrations which are processed, together with different exposure values (existing for humans and scaled up from animals), as inputs for different kinds of models. from these, and other physilogical values ARIES calculates the inhaled equivalent doses and the expected associated effects as a function of the exposure times. Once overcome this first step, ARIES is complemented with an additional system that executes the selection of relevant information from toxicological data bases (qualitative phase). The system works applying a string of filters and searches that displays selected information, giving and additional support to the assessment. Both steps, just refered, are integrated into a logical informatic support. The informatic code is developed in dbase languaje even for the design of the procedure as for the mathematical models linked to the system (extrapolation, dose inhaled models, etc) to execute the numerical analisys of the assessment. The system has been designed in order to include progressively new chemicals and the improvements obtained in the development of mathematical models related with dose-effect relationships. At this moment, is programmed a first

  20. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  1. The effects of Curcuma longa and curcumin on reproductive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbati, R; Anaeigoudari, A; Khazdair, M R

    2017-10-26

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) was used in some countries such as China and India for various medicinal purposes. Curcumin, the active component of C. longa, is commonly used as a coloring agent in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. C. longa and curcumin have been known to act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagen, and anti-carcinogenic agents. Th e attempt of the present review was to give an effort on a detailed literature survey concentrated on the protective effects of C. longa and curcumin on the reproductive organs activity. The databases such as, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Iran- Medex, were considered. The search terms were "testis" or "ovary" and "Curcuma longa", "curcumin", "antioxidant effect", "anti-inflammatory effect" and "anti-cancer effect". C. longa and curcumin inhibited the production of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and increased the caspases (3, 8 and 9) activities in HL-60 prostate cancer. Furthermore, C. longa and curcumin suppressed the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (STAT) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in ovarian cancer cell line. C. longa and curcumin might decrease the risk of cancer and other malignant diseases in the reproductive system. C. longa and curcumin have a protective effect on the reproductive organs activity such as, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant effects in normal cells but showed pro-apoptotic effects in the malignant cells. Therefore, different effects of C. longa and curcumin are dependent on the doses and the type of cells used in various models studied.

  2. An improved system of detecting single event effect in SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Teng; Wang Xiaohui; Zhang Zhangang; Liu Tianqi; Gu Song; Yang Zhenlei; Su Hong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    The material research center in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS) have made a fruitful achievements in the research of single event effects (SEEs) occurring in static random access memory (SRAM). However, there are some drawbacks exist in the two systems of detecting SEE owning by the material research center. Therefore, an improved method of detecting SEE is proposed, and the method functionality is implemented in a circuit. Further, a sequence of experiments are carried out in the beam radiation terminal of the Heavy Ion Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), and a bunch of experimental data are collected. The irradiation tests were carried out using 129 Xe for the SEE research of 65 nm SRAMs; Using 12 C for the SEE research of the 65, 130 and 150 nm SRAMs with ECC module; Using 129 Xe for the SEL research of the common commercial SRAMs and so on. These experiments provide a statistical evidence of the effectiveness and robustness of the improved system. It is believed that the proposed system will be beneficial for detecting SEE in diverse settings, and it could be taken advantage of as a platform for future research on SEE tests in more intricate devices. (authors)

  3. Effects of snake venom polypeptides on central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Alexey; Utkin, Yuri

    2012-12-01

    The nervous system is a primary target for animal venoms as the impairment of its function results in the fast and efficient immobilization or death of a prey. There are numerous evidences about effects of crude snake venoms or isolated toxins on peripheral nervous system. However, the data on their interactions with the central nervous system (CNS) are not abundant, as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes penetration of these compounds into brain. This updated review presents the data about interaction of snake venom polypeptides with CNS. Such data will be described according to three main modes of interactions: - Direct in vivo interaction of CNS with venom polypeptides either capable to penetrate BBB or injected into the brain. - In vitro interactions of cell or sub-cellular fractions of CNS with crude venoms or purified toxins. - Indirect effects of snake venoms or their components on functioning of CNS under different conditions. Although the venom components penetrating BBB are not numerous, they seem to be the most suitable candidates for the leads in drug design. The compounds with other modes of action are more abundant and better studied, but the lack of the data about their ability to penetrate BBB may substantially aggravate the potentials for their medical perspectives. Nevertheless, many such compounds are used for research of CNS in vitro. These investigations may give invaluable information for understanding the molecular basis of CNS diseases and thus lay the basis for targeted drug design. This aspect also will be outlined in the review.

  4. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  5. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del

    1997-01-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  6. Effects of Interleukin 17 on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Marie; Miossec, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death worldwide and account for most of the premature mortality observed in chronic inflammatory diseases. Common mechanisms underlie these two types of disorders, where the contribution of Interleukin (IL)-17A, the founding member of the IL-17 family, is highly suspected. While the local effects of IL-17A in inflammatory disorders have been well described, those on the cardiovascular system remain less studied. This review focuses on the effects of IL-17 on the cardiovascular system both on isolated cells and in vivo. IL-17A acts on vessel and cardiac cells, leading to inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis. In vivo and clinical studies have shown its involvement in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction that occur prematurely in chronic inflammatory disorders. As new therapeutic approaches are targeting the IL-17 pathway, this review should help to better understand their positive and negative outcomes on the cardio-vascular system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diesel exhaust exposure, its multi-system effects, and the effect of new technology diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Haley; Reis, Cesar; Sharip, Akbar; Reis, Wenes; Zhao, Yong; Sinclair, Ryan; Beeson, Lawrence

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure. Additionally, this review includes a summary of studies that used biomarkers as an indication of biological plausibility, and also studies evaluating new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) and its systemic effects. Lastly, this review includes new approaches to improving DE emissions, and emphasizes the importance of ongoing study in this field of environmental health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of nonlinearity and disorder in communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.

    In this dissertation we present theoretical and experimental investigation of the performance quality of fiber optical communication systems, and find new and inexpansive ways of increasing the rate of the information transmission. The first part of this work discuss the two major factors limiting the quality of information channels in the fiber optical communication systems. Using methods of large deviation theory from statistical physics, we carry out analytical and numerical study of error statistics in optical communication systems in the presence of the temporal noise from optical amplifiers and the structural disorder of optical fibers. In the slowly varying envelope approximation light propagation through optical fiber is described by Schrodinger's equation. Signal transmission is impeded by the additive (amplifiers) and multiplicative (birefringence) noise This results in signal distortion that may lead to erroneous interpretation of the signal. System performance is characterized by the probability of error occurrence. Fluctuation of spacial disorder due to changing external factors (temperature, vibrations, etc.) leads to fluctuations of error rates. Commonly the distribution of error rates is assumed to be Gaussian. Using the optimal fluctuation method we show that this distribution is in fact lognormal. Such a distribution has "fat" tails implying that the likelihood of system outages is much higher than it would be in the Gaussian approximation. We present experimental results that provide excellent confirmation of our theoretical predictions. In the second part of this dissertation we present some published work on bisolitons in the dispersion managed systems. Modern communication systems use light pulses to transmit tremendous amounts of information. These systems can be modeled using variations of the Nonlinear Shrodinger Equation where chromatic dispersion and nonlinear effects in the glass fiber are taken into account. The best system performance

  9. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  10. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Tediosi, Fabrizio; de Savigny, Don; Smith, Thomas; Tanner, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and intervening to tackle

  11. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 1. Initialization, operation, and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the first of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System

  12. Effects of burstiness on the air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The effects of burstiness in complex networks have received considerable attention. In particular, the effects on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system are significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, the temporal distance of empirical U.S. flight schedule data is compared with that of regularized data without burstiness to analyze the effects of burstiness. The temporal distance is calculated by a graph analysis method considering flight delays, missed connections, flight cancellations, and congestion. In addition, we propose two temporal distance indexes based on passengers' behavior to quantify the effects. As a result, we find that burstiness reduces both the scheduled and the actual temporal distances for business travelers, while delays caused by missed connections and congestion are increased. We also find that the decrease of the scheduled temporal distance by burstiness is offset by an increase of the delays for leisure passengers. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules are overcrowded.

  13. The effects of aging on BWR core isolation cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-10-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The failure data from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failures causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

  14. The effects of aging on BWR core isolation cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.S.

    1994-10-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The failure data from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failures causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed

  15. Department of Energy security program needs effective information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Although security is an important, nearly billion-dollar-a-year function in the Department of Energy (DOE), key information systems that hold important data about security weaknesses and incidents have limited analytical capabilities and contain unreliable information. The resultant difficulty in identifying patterns and trends reduces managers' ability to ensure the effectiveness of the security program. Resources are also wasted because DOE has deployed incompatible systems that are unable to electronically share or transfer data, often forcing employees to manually re-enter data that are already stored in computers elsewhere. Finally, continuing data problems with other important security information systems, such as those used to track security clearances and classified documents, indicate that information system deficiencies are extensive. A major reason for these problems is that DOE has not done a comprehensive, strategic assessment of its information and information technology needs of the security program. DOE's efforts are fragmented because it has not assigned to any organization the leadership responsibility to determine security information needs and to plan and manage security information resources Department-wide. This paper reports that a number of changes are needed to correct these problems and take advantage of information technology to help strengthen the security program

  16. Effects of thermal blooming on systems comprised of tiled subapertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakeas, Charles L.; Bartell, Richard J.; Krizo, Matthew J.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.; Whiteley, Matthew R.

    2010-04-01

    Laser weapon systems comprise of tiled subapertures are rapidly emerging in the directed energy community. The Air Force Institute of Technology Center for Directed Energy (AFIT/CDE), under sponsorship of the HEL Joint Technology Office has developed performance models of such laser weapon system configurations consisting of tiled arrays of both slab and fiber subapertures. These performance models are based on results of detailed waveoptics analyses conducted using WaveTrain. Previous performance model versions developed in this effort represent system characteristics such as subaperture shape, aperture fill factor, subaperture intensity profile, subaperture placement in the primary aperture, subaperture mutual coherence (piston), subaperture differential jitter (tilt), and beam quality wave-front error associated with each subaperture. The current work is a prerequisite for the development of robust performance models for turbulence and thermal blooming effects for tiled systems. Emphasis is placed on low altitude tactical scenarios. The enhanced performance model developed will be added to AFIT/CDE's HELEEOS parametric one-on-one engagement level model via the Scaling for High Energy Laser and Relay Engagement (SHaRE) toolbox.

  17. Effects of Data Scrubbing on Reliability in Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Junkil; Park, Chanik

    Silent data corruptions, which are induced by latent sector errors, phantom writes, DMA parity errors and so on, can be detected by explicitly issuing a read command to a disk controller and comparing the corresponding data with their checksums. Because some of the data stored in a storage system may not be accessed for a long time, there is a high chance of silent data corruption occurring undetected, resulting in data loss. Therefore, periodic checking of the entire data in a storage system, known as data scrubbing, is essential to detect such silent data corruptions in time. The errors detected by data scrubbing will be recovered by the replica or the redundant information maintained to protect against permanent data loss. The longer the period between data scrubbings, the higher the probability of a permanent data loss. This paper proposes a Markov failure and repair model to conservatively analyze the effect of data scrubbing on the reliability of a storage system. We show the relationship between the period of a data scrubbing operation and the number of data replicas to manage the reliability of a storage system by using the proposed model.

  18. Use of computer programs to evaluate effectiveness of security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, L. Jr.; Goldman, L.A.; Mc Daniel, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty or more computer programs for security vulnerability analysis were developed from 1975 through 1980. Most of these programs are intended for evaluating security system effectiveness against outsider threats, but at least six programs are primarily oriented to insider threats. Some strengths and weaknesses of these programs are described. Six of these programs, four for outsider threats and two for insider threats, have been revised and adapted for use with IBM personal computers. The vulnerability analysis process is discussed with emphasis on data collection. The difference between design data and operational data is described. For performance-type operational data, such as detection probabilities and barrier delay times, the difference between unstressed and stressed performance data is discussed. Stressed performance data correspond to situations where an adversary attempts to weaken a security system by mitigating certain security measures. Suggestions are made on the combined use of manual analysis and computer analysis

  19. Use of computer programs to evaluate effectiveness of security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. Jr.; Goldman, L.A.; Mc Daniel, T.L.

    1987-07-01

    Thirty or more computer programs for security vulnerability analysis were developed from 1975 through 1980. Most of these programs are intended for evaluating security system effectiveness against outsider threats, but at least six programs are primarily oriented to insider threats. Some strengths and weaknesses of these programs are described. Six of these programs, four for outsider threats and two for insider threats, have been revised and adapted for use with IBM personal computers. The vulnerability analysis process is discussed with emphasis on data collection. The difference between design data and operational data is described. For performance-type operational data, such as detection probabilities and barrier delay times, the difference between unstressed and stressed performance data is discussed. Stressed performance data correspond to situations where an adversary attempts to weaken a security system by mitigating certain security measures. Suggestions are made on the combined use of manual analysis and computer analysis.

  20. Intermolecular thermoelectric-like effects in molecular nano electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzyan, H.; Safari, R.

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients are introduced and computed of a single molecule nano electronic system. Values of the electronic Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients are calculated based on the density and energy transfers between different parts of the molecule using quantum theory of atoms in molecule. Since, Joule and Peltier heating are even (symmetrical) and odd (antisymmetric) functions of the external bias, it is possible to divide Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients into two components, symmetrical and antisymmetrical Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients, which describe the intramolecular Joule-like and Peltier-like effects, respectively. In addition, a semiclassical temperature model is presented to describe intramolecular temperature mapping (intramolecular energy distributions) in molecular nano electronic systems.

  1. System size effect on the critical behavior in nuclear multifragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, B., E-mail: bb_22@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014 (India); Talukdar, R. [Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014 (India)

    2011-08-01

    Attempt has been made to examine the role of system size on the traditional signatures of critical behavior from a comparative study of Mg-Em at 4.5 A GeV and Kr-Em at 0.95 A GeV interactions. A number of relevant observables such as fluctuation in the sizes of the largest cluster, reduced variance and the mean value of second moment of charge distribution were estimated with the experimental data. From a comparison of our results with that of EOS collaboration for Au, La and Kr on carbon at 1 A GeV, a definite systematic variation in the heights and positions of the peaks could be observed with the change of fragmenting nuclei thereby confirming the effect of system size on MF mechanism.

  2. Improving nuclear plant management effectiveness: Aligning strategy, systems, and people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of any organization requires alignment of the appropriate financial, physical, and human resources. The manager's role is to efficiently utilize the right combination of these resources to achieve organizational objectives. In-depth studies of the nuclear programs of three major investor-owned utilities using a culture assessment process called the communication, values, and rewards (CVR) assessment have shown significant misalignments in those organizations' strategies, systems and people management. The CVR assessment related employees' perceptions of what drives their company's culture with the stated company strategic direction and management philosophies. Specifically, CVR provides a comparison of employee-held work-related values with those desired by management. Data obtained by a CVR assessment can be used to understand organizational misalignment and make changes to bring systems into alignment with corporate strategy and culture

  3. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    , penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K...... benefit of using a combination of cover crops and direct drilling to produce a better soil friability. The usefulness of the VESS method for soil structural evaluation was supported by the high positive correlation of MWD with VESS scores.......Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H...

  4. Evaluation of clamp effects on LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Loop-type liquid metal breeder reactor plants utilize thin-wall piping to mitigate through-wall thermal gradients due to rapid thermal transients. These piping loops require a support system to carry the combined weight of the pipe, coolant and insulation and to provide attachments for seismic restraints. The support system examined here utilizes an insulated pipe clamp designed to minimize the stresses induced in the piping. To determine the effect of these clamps on the pipe wall a non-linear, two-dimensional, finite element model of the clamp, insulation and pipe wall was used to determine the clamp/pipe interface load distributions which were then applied to a three-dimensional, finite element model of the pipe. The two-dimensional interaction model was also utilized to estimate the combined clamp/pipe stiffness

  5. The Effects O Artificial Intelligence And Robotic Systems On Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müslüm Yıldız

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With Industry 4.0, smart robots will be involved in all areas of our lives, and systems using technology control instead of work force will dominate. In this way, there will be a more qualified workforce with a high level of education, rather than workers with low-skilled jobs. According to recent studies, librarianship has been identified as one of the professions that could disappear in the near future due to this rapidly advancing technology. In this study, the possible effects of artificial intelligence and robotic systems on the profession of librarianship/information and document management were evaluated considering the findings of research conducted at Oxford University in 2017 and it was emphasized that in the near future, the only way to continue in this profession would be to keep the professional knowledge up to date as well as to follow the technological developments in areas such as computers, communication, and the internet.

  6. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  7. Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL): Effective Visualization of Earth System Data and Process Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. D.; Larour, E. Y.; Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL) is a Web-based tool, under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, for the visualization of Earth System data and process simulations. It contains features geared toward a range of applications, spanning research and outreach. It offers an intuitive user interface, in which model inputs are changed using sliders and other interactive components. Current capabilities include simulation of polar ice sheet responses to climate forcing, based on NASA's Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We believe that the visualization of data is most effective when tailored to the target audience, and that many of the best practices for modern Web design/development can be applied directly to the visualization of data: use of negative space, color schemes, typography, accessibility standards, tooltips, etc cetera. We present our prototype website, and invite input from potential users, including researchers, educators, and students.

  8. Performance evaluation of single effect and double effect absorption heat transformer systems used for seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomri, R. [Constantine Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Dept. of Genie Climatique

    2009-07-01

    Desalination of sea or brackish water can be used to produce potable water. The distillation process is the most developed and widely used technique for seawater desalination. The distillation of sea or brackish water can be achieved by using a thermal energy source. Among the many options to improve the energy efficiency of desalination plants is the absorption heat transformer, which is a device that can deliver heat at a higher temperature than the temperature of the fluid by which it is fed. Absorption heat transformer systems are attractive for using waste heat from industrial processes and renewable energy such as solar energy and geothermal energy. This paper presented a comparative study between single effect and double effect absorption heat transformer systems used for seawater desalination. In order to simulate the performance of these combination systems, mathematical models were developed for a single absorption heat transformer and a double absorption heat transformer operating with the water/lithium bromide solution. A model was also developed for the overall desalination system. For the two systems, an identical heat source temperature was used to simulate the heat input to an absorption heat transformer. Energy and exergy analysis of the two systems were performed. Simulation results were used to examine and to compare the influence of the absorber temperature on the energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, and water production of the two systems. 19 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  9. Effects of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Bishoy; Kohansieh, Michelle; Makaryus, Amgad N

    2017-11-26

    Throughout the last decade, the use of energy drinks has been increasingly looked upon with caution as potentially dangerous due to their perceived strong concentration of caffeine aside from other substances such as taurine, guarana, and L-carnitine that are largely unknown to the general public. In addition, a large number of energy drink intoxications have been reported all over the world including cases of seizures and arrhythmias. In this paper, we focus on the effect of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system and whether the current ongoing call for the products' sales and regulation of their contents should continue.

  10. Effect of sub-loops in SMA ear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Andrzej; Rusinek, Rafał

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is modelling the hysteresis effect in shape memory alloys. The stress versus strain relation is approximated by idealized curves. The adopted characteristics is modelled using the piecewise linear model. Transmission between individual line segments is dependent on the proposed conditions if(…). Performed numerical research allows to evaluate the possibilities of hysteresis sub-loops modelling. Finally, this model is used in a specific system - the biomechanical model of the middle ear to find the reconstructed ear response.

  11. Effects of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Bishoy; Kohansieh, Michelle; Makaryus, Amgad N

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the last decade, the use of energy drinks has been increasingly looked upon with caution as potentially dangerous due to their perceived strong concentration of caffeine aside from other substances such as taurine, guarana, and L-carnitine that are largely unknown to the general public. In addition, a large number of energy drink intoxications have been reported all over the world including cases of seizures and arrhythmias. In this paper, we focus on the effect of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system and whether the current ongoing call for the products’ sales and regulation of their contents should continue. PMID:29225735

  12. Effective programming of energy consuming industrial robot systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnka, K.; Pinter, T.; Knazik, M.; Bozek, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of effective motion planning for industrial robots. The first part dealt with current method for off-line motion planning. In the second part is presented the work done with one of the simulation system with automatic trajectory generation and off-line programming capability [4]. An spot welding process is involved. The practical application of this step strongly depends on the method for robot path optimization with high accuracy, thus, transform the path into a time and energy optimal robot program for the real world, which is discussed in the third step. (Authors)

  13. Effects of an Automated Maintenance Management System on organizational communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, M.B.; VanCott, H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The primary purpose of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of two techniques for improving organizational communication: (1) an Automated Maintenance Management System (AMMS) and (2) Interdepartmental Coordination Meetings. Additional objectives concerned the preparation of functional requirements for an AMMS, and training modules to improve group communication skills. Four nuclear power plants participated in the evaluation. Two plants installed AMMSs, one plant instituted interdepartmental job coordination meetings, and the fourth plant served as a control for the evaluation. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect evaluative data. The evaluation focused on five communication or information criteria: timeliness, redundancy, withholding or gatekeeping, feedback, and accuracy/amount

  14. Effect of haemopoietic system activation on radiosensitivity of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitny-Szlachto, S.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of these investigations was to study the influence of activation of erythropoiesis by carbon monoxide, blood letting and blood transfuzing, hypobaric hypoxia, fenylohydrazine induced hemolysis, pertussis vaccine and also sublethal irradiation and later polycythemia on the blood-forming system's ability to postirradiation regeneration after lethal and sublethal X ray irradiation on the whole body of mouse. Results were positive except pertusis vaccine which caused considerable decrease in survival of irradiated mice. Ionizing radiation and fenylohydrazine were the most effective. 21 refs.,5 tabs. (author)

  15. Local and effective temperatures of quantum driven systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Alvaro; Arrachea, Liliana; Lozano, Gustavo S.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce thermometers to define the local temperature of an electronic system driven out of equilibrium by local ac fields. We also define the effective temperature in terms of a local fluctuation-dissipation relation. We show that within the weak driving regime these two temperatures coincide. We also discuss the behavior of the local temperature along the sample. We show that it exhibits spatial fluctuations following an oscillatory pattern. For weak driving, regions of the sample become heated, while others become cooled as a consequence of the driving.

  16. Nuclear Energy and Renewables. System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems - Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a 'generator pays' principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly de-carbonised electricity systems. (authors)

  17. Nuclear Energy and Renewables. System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a 'generator pays' principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly de-carbonised electricity systems

  18. Effects of terlipressin on the aquaretic system. Evidence of antidiuretic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander Ahm; Bendtsen, Flemming; Pedersen, Erling B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims: The vasopressin analogue terlipressin is believed selectively to cause vasoconstriction by a V1-receptor stimulation. However, a possible antidiuretic effect by V2-receptors stimulation has never been ruled out. Patients and methods: 22 patients with ascites, including 7 with...... is a clear indication of activation of the antidiuretic system (V2 receptor effect). Key words: aquaporine-2, vasopressin, hepatorenal syndrome, cirrhosis....

  19. Supramolecular effects in dendritic systems containing photoactive groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANLUCA CAMILLO AZZELLINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article are described dendritic structures containing photoactive groups at the surface or in the core. The observed supramolecular effects can be attributed to the nature of the photoactive group and their location in the dendritic architecture. The peripheric azobenzene groups in these dendrimeric compounds can be regarded as single residues that retain the spectroscopic and photochemical properties of free azobenzene moiety. The E and Z forms of higher generation dendrimer, functionalized with azobenzene groups, show different host ability towards eosin dye, suggesting the possibility of using such dendrimer in photocontrolled host-guest systems. The photophysical properties of many dendritic-bipyridine ruthenium complexes have been investigated. Particularly in aerated medium more intense emission and a longer excited-state lifetime are observed as compared to the parent unsubstituted bipyridine ruthenium complexes. These differences can be attributed to a shielding effect towards dioxygen quenching originated by the dendritic branches.

  20. Towards the Development of Effective and Flexible Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphrodite Tsalgatidou

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Information Systems which are effective (i.e. satisfy users' needs and flexible enough to incorporate future changes of user requirements basically depends on the importance given to the requirements analysis stage and to the techniques employed for their development This paper presents a new approach to requirements analysis through an environment called VENUS. The VENUS environment provides a set of tools to support the requirements capture and analysis process so that design and development is more effective and flexible. The construction of user requirements starts by first constructing an Entity-Relationship Model which is then transformed to an Object-oriented Rule-based Model (ORM where rules are used for the definition of the behaviour of each object class. ORM is then mapped to a graphical Petri-net based model and is validated by employing graphical animation and exploiting formal properties of the underlying Petri-net formalism.

  1. A Measure of Systems Engineering Effectiveness in Government Acquisition of Complex Information Systems: A Bayesian Belief Network-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskey, Steven Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research presents an innovative means of gauging Systems Engineering effectiveness through a Systems Engineering Relative Effectiveness Index (SE REI) model. The SE REI model uses a Bayesian Belief Network to map causal relationships in government acquisitions of Complex Information Systems (CIS), enabling practitioners to identify and…

  2. Effects of radiation on development, especially of the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, S.P.; D'Amato, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Humans and other organisms are exposed to ionizing radiations from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Radiation may cause mutations and chromosome abnormalities, cell-killing, alterations and transformations in cell growth, and carcinogenetic changes. This paper considers principally the cell-killing and nonlethal cell alterations in developing laboratory mammals and humans, especially the nervous system, that follow irradiation and often lead to malformation and disturbed function, but at certain stages to restitution of the injury. Most of what researchers know about the mechanisms of these radiation effects in man is derived from animal experiments, especially with rats. The few observations in humans have corresponded closely to them. Researchers illustrate the cellular effects and malformative results with an example of cell-killing in the developing cortex of a human fetus exposed to therapeutic radiation in utero; a current timetable of the malformative and other effects of radiation on rats during development from which expectations of human effects might be extrapolated; examples of hydrocephalus produced in rats; low-dose alterations of nerve cells in rats; and a microcephalic Japanese boy exposed in utero to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima in 1945

  3. Systemic ozone effects on root hydraulic properties in pima cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grantz, D.A.; Yang, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)]|[Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ambient ozone concentrations have become problematic even in rural, agricultural areas such as the San Joaquin Valley of California. Pima cotton (cv. S6) has been shown to be relatively sensitive to ozone air pollution, at levels occurring in this production area. In this semi-arid area acquisition of water and nutrients may limit yield and biological productivity. Therefore maximal proliferation, exploration, and efficiency of root systems is desirable. Hydraulic conductance provides a parameter to characterize the efficiency of roots and shoots and their interaction. The authors have used a variety of transpiration and pressure vessel techniques to document ozone-induced reduction of root hydraulic conductance in cotton. They hypothesized that these effects are caused by reduced carbohydrate supply due to reduction of photosynthetic capacity of the shoot associated with direct oxidant damage to foliage. However, the authors simulated this reduced photosynthetic capacity by continuously removing leaf area to match that of ozone treated plants. This resulted in a reduction of whole plant biomass similar to ozone-treated plants, but a root/shoot biomass ratio and root hydraulic properties similar to control plants and contrasting with ozone-treated plants. Thus leaf removal did not simulate effects of ozone on root hydraulic properties. A systematic effect of ozone on whole plant function is indicated, perhaps mediated by direct effects on carbohydrate translocation throughout the plant.

  4. Modeling the prediction of business intelligence system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Sung-Shun; Yang, Ming-Hsien; Koo, Tian-Lih; Hsiao, Pei-I

    2016-01-01

    Although business intelligence (BI) technologies are continually evolving, the capability to apply BI technologies has become an indispensable resource for enterprises running in today's complex, uncertain and dynamic business environment. This study performed pioneering work by constructing models and rules for the prediction of business intelligence system effectiveness (BISE) in relation to the implementation of BI solutions. For enterprises, effectively managing critical attributes that determine BISE to develop prediction models with a set of rules for self-evaluation of the effectiveness of BI solutions is necessary to improve BI implementation and ensure its success. The main study findings identified the critical prediction indicators of BISE that are important to forecasting BI performance and highlighted five classification and prediction rules of BISE derived from decision tree structures, as well as a refined regression prediction model with four critical prediction indicators constructed by logistic regression analysis that can enable enterprises to improve BISE while effectively managing BI solution implementation and catering to academics to whom theory is important.

  5. The effect of ionizing radiation on immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyuleva, I.

    1999-01-01

    Delayed radiation effects of irradiation at relatively high doses - 0.52- 2 Gy in result of severe accidents are discussed. The immune response of lymphocyte populations manifested in formation of different kind of mutant cells at Hiroshima-A-bombing and Chernobyl accident are presented. It is of great interest the hypothesis presented launched by RERF (Japanese Foundation for Radiation Effect Research, Hiroshima) for radiation induced predominant of T H2 -lymphocytes in comparison to T H1 as delayed immune response at the Hiroshima-A-bomb survivors. The aspect of immune status is quite different at low doses irradiation (0.02 - 0.2 Gy). There is some stimulation in immune response known as hormesis effect. It is suggested that T-cell activation has key role in immune system stimulation at doses under 0.2 Gy. There is also activation of DNA-reparation mechanisms. Suppression of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-suprarenal axis brings to enhancing of immune potential. Chinese people living in a region with three-times higher background radiation, X-ray examined patients as well as occupationally exposed personnel have been investigated. Radioprotective effect of some cytokines and their influence on the individual radiosensitivity are also discussed.The investigations have to be continued because of some inconsistent results

  6. A Fusion of Multiagent Functionalities for Effective Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanalakshmi Krishnan Sadhasivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of high security is one of the active research areas in the network applications. The failure in the centralized system based on the attacks provides less protection. Besides, the lack of update of new attacks arrival leads to the minimum accuracy of detection. The major focus of this paper is to improve the detection performance through the adaptive update of attacking information to the database. We propose an Adaptive Rule-Based Multiagent Intrusion Detection System (ARMA-IDS to detect the anomalies in the real-time datasets such as KDD and SCADA. Besides, the feedback loop provides the necessary update of attacks in the database that leads to the improvement in the detection accuracy. The combination of the rules and responsibilities for multiagents effectively detects the anomaly behavior, misuse of response, or relay reports of gas/water pipeline data in KDD and SCADA, respectively. The comparative analysis of the proposed ARMA-IDS with the various existing path mining methods, namely, random forest, JRip, a combination of AdaBoost/JRip, and common path mining on the SCADA dataset conveys that the effectiveness of the proposed ARMA-IDS in the real-time fault monitoring. Moreover, the proposed ARMA-IDS offers the higher detection rate in the SCADA and KDD cup 1999 datasets.

  7. Model study of radiation effects on the gastrointestinal cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicherer, G.

    1983-03-01

    Since it is now possible to calculate the radiation fields used for medicinal purposes by means of radiation transport programs it was started to determine with mathematical models of radioeffects not only the physical effects or irradiation, but also the resulting biological radioresponses. This supplementary biologic information is not only of large general importance, but particularly valuable for the medicinal application of the biologically highly effective neutron radiation. With support by the Institute for Medicinal Radiophysics and Radiobiology of Essen University Hospital, and of two biomathematical working groups of Ulm University and Cologne University Hospital, who are experienced in the field of establishing mathematical models of the hematogenic cellular system, we developed out of experimental fundamental findings a cellkinetic, kybernetic model of the intestinal mucosa, which is highly sensitive to radiation. With this newly established model we succeeded for the first time in simulating comprehensively and quantitatively the time-dependent acute radioresponse of such a radiosensitive cellular system. For the first time we successfully used the computer simulation languages DARE-P and GASP, which are principally employed for solving problems in automatic control technology, and set up a radioresponse model. (orig.) [de

  8. Effective approach toward Intrusion Detection System using data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Nadiammai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of the usage of computers over network and development in application running on various platform captures the attention toward network security. This paradigm exploits security vulnerabilities on all computer systems that are technically difficult and expensive to solve. Hence intrusion is used as a key to compromise the integrity, availability and confidentiality of a computer resource. The Intrusion Detection System (IDS plays a vital role in detecting anomalies and attacks in the network. In this work, data mining concept is integrated with an IDS to identify the relevant, hidden data of interest for the user effectively and with less execution time. Four issues such as Classification of Data, High Level of Human Interaction, Lack of Labeled Data, and Effectiveness of Distributed Denial of Service Attack are being solved using the proposed algorithms like EDADT algorithm, Hybrid IDS model, Semi-Supervised Approach and Varying HOPERAA Algorithm respectively. Our proposed algorithm has been tested using KDD Cup dataset. All the proposed algorithm shows better accuracy and reduced false alarm rate when compared with existing algorithms.

  9. Colossal magnetocaloric effect in magneto-auxetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, M. R.; Wojciechowski, K. W.; Grima, J. N.; Caruana-Gauci, R.; Dudek, K. K.

    2015-08-01

    We show that a mechanically driven magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in magneto-auxetic systems (MASs) in the vicinity of room temperature is possible and the effect can be colossal. Even at zero external magnetic field, the magnetic entropy change in this reversible process can be a few times larger in magnitude than in the case of the giant MCE discovered by Pecharsky and Gschneidner in Gd5(Si2Ge2). MAS represent a novel class of metamaterials having magnetic insertions embedded within a non-magnetic matrix which exhibits a negative Poisson’s ratio. The auxetic behaviour of the non-magnetic matrix may either enhance the magnetic ordering process or it may result in a transition to the disordered phase. In the MAS under consideration, a spin 1/2 system is chosen for the magnetic component and the well-known Onsager solution for the two-dimensional square lattice Ising model at zero external magnetic field is used to show that the isothermal change in magnetic entropy accompanying the auxetic behaviour can take a large value at room temperature. The practical importance of our findings is that MCE materials used in present engineering applications may be further enhanced by changing their geometry such that they exhibit auxetic behaviour.

  10. Colossal magnetocaloric effect in magneto-auxetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, M R; Dudek, K K; Wojciechowski, K W; Grima, J N; Caruana-Gauci, R

    2015-01-01

    We show that a mechanically driven magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in magneto-auxetic systems (MASs) in the vicinity of room temperature is possible and the effect can be colossal. Even at zero external magnetic field, the magnetic entropy change in this reversible process can be a few times larger in magnitude than in the case of the giant MCE discovered by Pecharsky and Gschneidner in Gd 5 (Si 2 Ge 2 ). MAS represent a novel class of metamaterials having magnetic insertions embedded within a non-magnetic matrix which exhibits a negative Poisson’s ratio. The auxetic behaviour of the non-magnetic matrix may either enhance the magnetic ordering process or it may result in a transition to the disordered phase. In the MAS under consideration, a spin 1/2 system is chosen for the magnetic component and the well-known Onsager solution for the two-dimensional square lattice Ising model at zero external magnetic field is used to show that the isothermal change in magnetic entropy accompanying the auxetic behaviour can take a large value at room temperature. The practical importance of our findings is that MCE materials used in present engineering applications may be further enhanced by changing their geometry such that they exhibit auxetic behaviour. (paper)

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    After reviewing the different lymphoid organs and the essential phases of the immune response, we studied the morphological and functional effects of ionizing radiation on the immunological system. Histologic changes in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and different lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in relation with the radiation dose and irradiated volume (whole body irradiation, localized irradiation). Functional changes in the immune system induced by ionizing radiation were also investigated by a study of humoral-mediated immunity (antibody formation) and cell-mediated immunity (behavior of macrophages, B-cells, T suppressor cells, T helper cells, T effector cells, and natural killer cells). A study into the mechanisms of action of ionizing radiation and the immune processes it interferes with suggests several likely hypotheses (direct action on the immune cells, on their precursors, on seric mediators or on cell mediators). The effects on cancer patients' immune reactions of low radiation doses delivered to the various lymphoid organs are discussed, as well as the relationships between the host and the evolution of the tumor [fr

  12. Conditioned effects of ethanol on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gano, Anny; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Deak, Terrence

    2017-04-01

    Several studies indicate that the immune system can be subjected to classical conditioning. Acute ethanol intoxication significantly modulates several pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukins-1 and 6 [IL-1β and IL-6, respectively] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα])) in several brain areas, including amygdala (AMG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and hippocampus (HPC). It is unknown, however, whether cues associated with ethanol can elicit conditioned alterations in cytokine expression. The present study analyzed, in male Sprague-Dawley rats, whether ethanol-induced changes in the central cytokine response may be amenable to conditioning. In Experiments 1 and 2, the rats were given one or two pairings between a distinctive odor (conditional stimulus, CS) and the post-absorptive effects of a high (3.0 or 4.0 g/kg, Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) ethanol dose. Neither of these experiments revealed conditioning of IL-6, IL-1β, or TNFα, as measured via mRNA levels. Yet, re-exposure to the lemon-odor CS in Experiment 1 significantly increased C-Fos levels in the PVN. In Experiment 3, the rats were given four pairings between an odor CS and a moderate ethanol dose (2.0 g/kg), delivered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intragastrically (i.g.). Re-exposure to the odor CS significantly increased IL-6 levels in HPC and AMG, an effect only evident in paired rats administered ethanol i.p. Overall, this study suggests that ethanol exposure can regulate the levels of IL-6 at HPC and AMG via classical conditioning mechanisms. These ethanol-induced, conditioned alterations in cytokine levels may ultimately affect the intake and motivational effects of ethanol. Impact statement This study examines, across three experiments, whether odor cues associated with ethanol exposure can condition changes in cytokine expression. The analysis of ethanol-induced conditioning of immune responses is a novel niche that can help understand the transition from social drinking to

  13. Environmental effect of constructed wetland as biofuel production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Being as a renewable energy, biofuel has attracted worldwide attention. Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Biofuel may offer a promising alternative to fossil fuels, but serious concerns arise about the adverse greenhouse gas consequences from using nitrogen fertilizers. Waste-nitrogen recycling is an attractive idea. Here we advocate a win-win approach to biofuel production which takes advantage of excessive nitrogen in domestic wastewater treated via constructed wetland (CW) in China. This study will carry on environmental effect analysis of CW as a biomass generation system through field surveys and controllable simulated experiments. This study intends to evaluate net energy balance, net greenhouse effect potential and ecosystem service of CW as biomass generation system, and make comparation with traditional wastewater treatment plant and other biofuel production systems. This study can provide a innovation mode in order to solve the dilemma between energy crops competed crops on production land and excessive nitrogen fertilizer of our traditional energy plant production. Data both from our experimental CWs in China and other researches on comparable CWs worldwide showed that the biomass energy yield of CWs can reach 182.3 GJ ha-1 yr-1, which was two to eight times higher than current biofuel-production systems. Energy output from CW was ˜137% greater than energy input for biofuel production. If CWs are designed with specific goal of biofuel production, biofuel production can be greatly enhanced through the optimization of N supply, hydraulic structures, and species selection in CWs. Assuming that 2.0 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) waste nitrogen contained in domestic wastewater is treated by CWs, biofuel production can account for 1.2% of national gasoline consumption in China. The proportion would increase to 6.7% if extra nitrogen (9.5 Tg) from industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff was included

  14. Engineering approach for cost effective operation of industrial pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krickis, O.; Oleksijs, R.

    2017-10-01

    Power plants operators are persuaded to operate the main equipment such as centrifugal pumps in economically effective way. The operation of pump sets of district heating network at power plants should be done according to prescriptions of the original equipment manufacturer with further implementation of these requirements to distributed control system of the plant. In order to operate industrial pump sets with a small number of malfunctions is necessary to control the duty point of pump sets in H-Q coordinates, which could be complex task in some installations. Alternatively, pump operation control could be organized in H-n (head vs rpm) coordinates, utilizing pressure transmitters in pressure pipeline and value of rpm from variable speed driver. Safe operation range of the pump has to be limited with system parabolas, which prevents the duty point location outside of the predefined operation area. The particular study demonstrates the engineering approach for pump’s safe operation control development in MATLAB/Simulink environment, which allows to simulate the operation of the pump at different capacities in hydraulic system with variable characteristic and to predefine the conditions for efficient simultaneous pump operation in parallel connection.

  15. Remote photoplethysmography system for unsupervised monitoring regional anesthesia effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubins, U.; Miscuks, A.; Marcinkevics, Z.; Lange, M.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the level of regional anesthesia (RA) is vitally important to both an anesthesiologist and surgeon, also knowing the RA level can protect the patient and reduce the time of surgery. Normally to detect the level of RA, usually a simple subjective (sensitivity test) and complicated quantitative methods (thermography, neuromyography, etc.) are used, but there is not yet a standardized method for objective RA detection and evaluation. In this study, the advanced remote photoplethysmography imaging (rPPG) system for unsupervised monitoring of human palm RA is demonstrated. The rPPG system comprises compact video camera with green optical filter, surgical lamp as a light source and a computer with custom-developed software. The algorithm implemented in Matlab software recognizes the palm and two dermatomes (Medial and Ulnar innervation), calculates the perfusion map and perfusion changes in real-time to detect effect of RA. Seven patients (aged 18-80 years) undergoing hand surgery received peripheral nerve brachial plexus blocks during the measurements. Clinical experiments showed that our rPPG system is able to perform unsupervised monitoring of RA.

  16. Alignment Effectiveness for Value Creation with Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina MITAMBO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises often face problems while executing business strategies to exploit opportunities or solve problems. Within enterprises, strategy blindness could be affected by mistranslation of strategic intent, flexibility of the information system, or cognitive entrenchment. The alignment between business strategy and business processes is a critical factor in the ability of enterprises to overcome the phenomenon. Opportunities for value creation include magnifying the positive spread in cash flow or pursuing growth opportunities. Information systems could greatly simplify the processes involved in business strategy by integrating process-related decision-making with the business strategy. Decision support tools such as knowledge management, decision strategy, decision content, and expert groups, customised for organisational information systems can help enterprises optimise operations in a variety of ways such as becoming more responsive to changing market conditions in hypercompetitive markets. Greatest opportunities for decision support are incorporating external sources of data such as economic data and user behaviour analytics. Benefits are more effective utilisation of resources, larger product portfolio, better product or service quality, and shorter delivery times.

  17. Dispersion and nonlinear effects in OFDM-RoF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasson, Bader H.; Bloul, Albe M.; Matin, M.

    2010-08-01

    The radio-over-fiber (RoF) network has been a proven technology to be the best candidate for the wireless-access technology, and the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique has been established as the core technology in the physical layer of next generation wireless communication system, as a result OFDM-RoF has drawn attentions worldwide and raised many new research topics recently. At the present time, the trend of information industry is towards mobile, wireless, digital and broadband. The next generation network (NGN) has motivated researchers to study higher-speed wider-band multimedia communication to transmit (voice, data, and all sorts of media such as video) at a higher speed. The NGN would offer services that would necessitate broadband networks with bandwidth higher than 2Mbit/s per radio channel. Many new services emerged, such as Internet Protocol TV (IPTV), High Definition TV (HDTV), mobile multimedia and video stream media. Both speed and capacity have been the key objectives in transmission. In the meantime, the demand for transmission bandwidth increased at a very quick pace. The coming of 4G and 5G era will provide faster data transmission and higher bit rate and bandwidth. Taking advantages of both optical communication and wireless communication, OFDM Radio over Fiber (OFDM-RoF) system is characterized by its high speed, large capacity and high spectral efficiency. However, up to the present there are some problems to be solved, such as dispersion and nonlinearity effects. In this paper we will study the dispersion and nonlinearity effects and their elimination in OFDM-radio-over-fiber system.

  18. Effects of x-irradiation on lens reducing systems. [Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, F.J.; Chakrapani, B.; Reddy, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of x ray on various lens reducing systems including the levels of NADPH and glutathione (GSH), the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS), and the activities of certain enzymes including glutathion reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). It was found that during several weeks following x irradiation but prior to cataract formation there was very little change in the number of reduced -SH groups per unit weight of lens protein but that, with the appearance of cataract, there was a sudden loss of protein -SH groups. In contrast, the concentration of GSH in the x-rayed lens decreased throughout the experimental period. Similarly, the concentration of NADPH in the x-rayed lens was found to decrease significantly relative to controls one week prior to cataract formation and the ratio of NADPH to NADP/sup +/ in the lens shifted at this time period from a value greater than 1.0 in the control lens to less than 1.0 in the x-rayed lens. A corresponding decrease occurred in the activity of the HMS in x-rayed lenses as measured by culture in the presence of 1-/sup 14/C-labelled glucose. G-6-PD was partially inactivated in the x-rayed lens. Of the eight enzymes studied, G-6-PD appeared to be the most sensitive to x-irradiation. The data indicate that x-irradiation results in a steady decrease in the effectiveness of lens reducing systems and that, when these systems reach a critically low point, sudden oxidation of protein -SH groups and formation of high molecular weight protein aggregates may be initiated.

  19. Effects of x-irradiation on lens reducing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, F.J.; Chakrapani, B.; Reddy, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of x ray on various lens reducing systems including the levels of NADPH and glutathione (GSH), the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS), and the activities of certain enzymes including glutathion reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). It was found that during several weeks following x irradiation but prior to cataract formation there was very little change in the number of reduced -SH groups per unit weight of lens protein but that, with the appearance of cataract, there was a sudden loss of protein -SH groups. In contrast, the concentration of GSH in the x-rayed lens decreased throughout the experimental period. Similarly, the concentration of NADPH in the x-rayed lens was found to decrease significantly relative to controls one week prior to cataract formation and the ratio of NADPH to NADP + in the lens shifted at this time period from a value greater than 1.0 in the control lens to less than 1.0 in the x-rayed lens. A corresponding decrease occurred in the activity of the HMS in x-rayed lenses as measured by culture in the presence of 1- 14 C-labelled glucose. G-6-PD was partially inactivated in the x-rayed lens. Of the eight enzymes studied, G-6-PD appeared to be the most sensitive to x-irradiation. The data indicate that x-irradiation results in a steady decrease in the effectiveness of lens reducing systems and that, when these systems reach a critically low point, sudden oxidation of protein -SH groups and formation of high molecular weight protein aggregates may be initiated

  20. Effect of repetitive mckenzie lumbar spine exercises on cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: McKenzie exercises for the lumbar spine, which are done repeatedly, such as flexion in standing (FIS, extension in standing flexion in lying (FIL & extension in lying (EIL have been used in the management of low back pain for over three decades. The cardiovascular effects of exercises that involve postural stabilization, arm exercises and of exercises performed in lying are well known, but there are seldom studies performed to assess the cardiovascular effects of these commonly used McKenzie exercises. Therefore the study focused on evaluating the effects of 4 commonly used McKenzie exercises on the cardiovascular system. Methods: 80 subjects in the age group of 20-59 years were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to their age, such that such that each group comprised of an equal number of subjects & equal number of males & females. Each subject performed all the 4 exercises (FIS, EIS, FIL & EIL for 10, 15 & 20 repetitions respectively. Heart rate, blood pressure & rate pressure product were recorded before & after each set of repetitions & after each type of exercise. Results: Repetitive McKenzie lumbar spine exercises had cardiovascular effects in apparently healthy subjects (both male & female. Exercises performed in lying were hemodynamically more demanding than that performed in standing, also exercises involving flexion of the lumbar spine elicited greater cardiovascular demand as compared to extension exercises i.e. FIL>EIL>FIS>EIS irrespective of the number of repetitions, 10, 15 or 20. The cardiovascular demand for a given subject increased as the number of repetitions increased, for all the 4 exercises. Conclusion: McKenzie exercises when done repetitively have cardiovascular effects in healthy subjects.

  1. E-health: effect on health system efficiency of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Afshan; Rashid, Audil; Kureshi, Nadeem Ishaq

    2014-01-01

    The health system in Pakistan is spraining because of increasing cost and demand gravities. The shortage of skilled health care workers is one of the main factors of health issues. There is a need to move away from the dependency of tools such as pen, paper, and human memory to a milieu where patients and health care providers can reliably access and share health information in real time across geographic and health sector boundaries. The purpose of this research is to observe the effect of e-health on the physician-patient relationship and to analyze the capacity of health professionals by noting information and communication technologies usage as indicators. Structured questionnaire was used to gather data from physicians to judge the success and effect of existing e-health policy. Both categorical and Likert scale variables were used. The analysis of data was per.formed using chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Specialist doctors comprised the major proportion of health care professionals in both male and female categories with good knowledge about Internet usage. E-health-based communication does not seem to be gender specific. Logistic regression revealed that busy doctors whose patients are more than 100 per week believe that e-health would significantly strengthen their communication with patients (OR=3.06; 95% CI=1.05- 8.87). Among other significant impacts of e-health include reduced consultation period and time of diagnosis. E-health technology can play a crucial role in controlling many epidemic diseases through effective surveillance. E-health implementation will result in improving the efficiency, better access of general public to the health care system, and eradication of diseases in Pakistan.

  2. Effect of yogic education system and modern education system on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, R; Nagendra, H R; Bhatt, Ramachandra

    2009-01-01

    Sustained attention is a vital function mediated by the right frontoparietal cortex. The Six Letter Cancellation Task (SLCT) measures sustained attention. Development of sustained attention in a yoga-based education system compared to a modern one is the theme of the present study. To compare the effectiveness of the Modern Education System (MES) and the Gurukula Education System (GES) in developing sustained attention. Forty nine boys (11-13 years) were selected from two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Sustained attention was assessed using the SLCT at the start and end of an academic year. Within groups, the pre-post test differences were significant for both groups. However, the between groups result showed improvement in the GES group compared to the MES group at a P < 0.001 significance level. The study suggests that both MES and GES improve sustained attention in school boys, but GES is more effective.

  3. Mode Selection Rules for a Two-Delay System with Positive and Negative Feedback Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kin'ya; Kobayashi, Taizo

    2018-04-01

    The mode selection rules for a two-delay system, which has negative feedback with a short delay time t1 and positive feedback with a long delay time t2, are studied numerically and theoretically. We find two types of mode selection rules depending on the strength of the negative feedback. When the strength of the negative feedback |α1| (α1 0), 2m + 1-th harmonic oscillation is well sustained in a neighborhood of t1/t2 = even/odd, i.e., relevant condition. In a neighborhood of the irrelevant condition given by t1/t2 = odd/even or t1/t2 = odd/odd, higher harmonic oscillations are observed. However, if |α1| is slightly less than α2, a different mode selection rule works, where the condition t1/t2 = odd/even is relevant and the conditions t1/t2 = odd/odd and t1/t2 = even/odd are irrelevant. These mode selection rules are different from the mode selection rule of the normal two-delay system with two positive feedback loops, where t1/t2 = odd/odd is relevant and the others are irrelevant. The two types of mode selection rules are induced by individually different mechanisms controlling the Hopf bifurcation, i.e., the Hopf bifurcation controlled by the "boosted bifurcation process" and by the "anomalous bifurcation process", which occur for |α1| below and above the threshold value αth, respectively.

  4. Developmental Programming and Endocrine Disruptor Effects on Reproductive Neuroendocrine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a species to reproduce successfully requires the careful orchestration of developmental processes during critical time points, particularly the late embryonic and early postnatal periods. This article begins with a brief presentation of the evidence for how gonadal steroid hormones exert these imprinting effects upon the morphology of sexually differentiated hypothalamic brain regions, the mechanisms underlying these effects, and their implications in adulthood. Then, I review the evidence that aberrant exposure to hormonally-active substances such as exogenous endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may result in improper hypothalamic programming, thereby decreasing reproductive success in adulthood. The field of endocrine disruption has shed new light on the discipline of basic reproductive neuroendocrinology through studies on how early life exposures to EDCs may alter gene expression via non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Importantly, these effects may be transmitted to future generations if the germline is affected via transgenerational, epigenetic actions. By understanding the mechanisms by which natural hormones and xenobiotics affect reproductive neuroendocrine systems, we will gain a better understanding of normal developmental processes, as well as to develop the potential ability to intervene when development is disrupted. PMID:18394690

  5. Effective vulnerability assessments for physical security devices, systems, and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The efficacy of devices, systems, and programs used for physical security depend critically on having periodic and effective vulnerability assessments. Effective vulnerability assessments, in turn, require certain conditions and attributes. These include: a proper understanding of their purpose; not confusing vulnerability assessments with other kinds of metrics, analyses, tests, and security exercises; the view that vulnerabilities are inevitable, and that finding them is good news (since they can then be mitigated), not bad news; rejection of findings of no vulnerabilities; avoidance of mere 'compliance mode' rubber stamping; the use of the proper outside, independent, imaginative personnel; psychologically predisposed to finding and demonstrating problems; the absence of conflicts of interest; no unrealistic constraints on the possible attack tools, procedures, personnel, or strategies; efforts to not just find and demonstrate vulnerabilities, but also to suggest possible countermeasures; proper context; input and buy-in from ALL facility security personnel, especially low-level personnel; emphasis on the simplest, most relevant attacks first; no underestimation of potential adversaries; consideration of fault analysis attacks; awareness of Rohrbach's Maxim and Shannon's Maxim. In addition to these factors, we will cover some of the complex issues and problems associated with the design of vulnerability assessments. There will also be suggestions on how to conduct effective vulnerability assessments on a severely limited budget. We will conclude with a discussion of both conventional and unconventional ways of reporting results. (author)

  6. Effect of yogic education system and modern education system on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangan R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Memory is more associated with the temporal cortex than other cortical areas. The two main components of memory are spatial and verbal which relate to right and left hemispheres of the brain, respectively. Many investigations have shown the beneficial effects of yoga on memory and temporal functions of the brain. This study was aimed at comparing the effect of one Gurukula Education System (GES school based on a yoga way of life with a school using the Modern Education System (MES on memory. Materials and Methods: Forty nine boys of ages ranging from 11-13 years were selected from each of two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Memory was assessed by means of standard spatial and verbal memory tests applicable to Indian conditions before and after an academic year. Results: Between groups there was matching at start of the academic year, while after it the GES boys showed significant enhancement in both verbal and visual memory scores than MES boys (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test. Conclusions: The present study showed that the GES meant for total personality development adopting yoga way of life is more effective in enhancing visual and verbal memory scores than the MES.

  7. Effect of yogic education system and modern education system on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, R; Nagendra, Hr; Bhat, G Ramachandra

    2009-07-01

    Memory is more associated with the temporal cortex than other cortical areas. The two main components of memory are spatial and verbal which relate to right and left hemispheres of the brain, respectively. Many investigations have shown the beneficial effects of yoga on memory and temporal functions of the brain. This study was aimed at comparing the effect of one Gurukula Education System (GES) school based on a yoga way of life with a school using the Modern Education System (MES) on memory. Forty nine boys of ages ranging from 11-13 years were selected from each of two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Memory was assessed by means of standard spatial and verbal memory tests applicable to Indian conditions before and after an academic year. Between groups there was matching at start of the academic year, while after it the GES boys showed significant enhancement in both verbal and visual memory scores than MES boys (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). The present study showed that the GES meant for total personality development adopting yoga way of life is more effective in enhancing visual and verbal memory scores than the MES.

  8. Broad Learning System: An Effective and Efficient Incremental Learning System Without the Need for Deep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Zhulin

    2018-01-01

    Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes." The incremental learning algorithms are developed for fast remodeling in broad expansion without a retraining process if the network deems to be expanded. Two incremental learning algorithms are given for both the increment of the feature nodes (or filters in deep structure) and the increment of the enhancement nodes. The designed model and algorithms are very versatile for selecting a model rapidly. In addition, another incremental learning is developed for a system that has been modeled encounters a new incoming input. Specifically, the system can be remodeled in an incremental way without the entire retraining from the beginning. Satisfactory result for model reduction using singular value decomposition is conducted to simplify the final structure. Compared with existing deep neural networks, experimental results on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database and NYU NORB object recognition dataset benchmark data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BLS.

  9. Hypertension guidelines and their effects on the health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension guidelines, which have existed for many years and primarily used in the USA, Canada and Great Britain, are now becoming an issue in Germany. Strong efforts are presently underway for a German version comparable to the guidelines developed for the mentioned countries. The development of guidelines is a part of the implementation system of guidelines in Germany. It covers the mode of operation of the AWMF (work community of the scientific medical subject companies with the clearinghouse for guidelines (CLA and the cooperation with the centre for medical quality (ÄZQ. In the HTA report the real use of the hypertension guidelines shall be investigated for Germany from the development trends and further possibilities of use according to a medical applicability. Economic issues and an optimisation of use are also discussed. Question: The following questions shall be answered in particular: 1. How much are the guidelines used concerning hypertension? 2. Can effects (or their influence be established on the medical procedures? 3. Are there statements available about costs and cost effectiveness? 4. Are there recommendations for further use? Methodology: To answer these questions, a comprehensive literature search was done. No empirical investigation was carried out. From this enquiry 206 articles were checked in detail but not all of them were available in full text. Only those publications which directly dealt with high blood pressure guidelines or articles with a direct reference to the topic have been considered in the HTA report. Publications concerning screening or methods of prevention, medical studies of the hypertension syndrome without a direct reference to guidelines and publications concerned with putting guidelines into action were excluded. Results: After an analysis of the selected literature addressing the topic of hypertension guidelines, it was evident that the use of these guidelines cannot be gathered from

  10. Physical Activities, Exercises, and Their Effects to the Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmasitoh, Titis

    2015-01-01

    Every systems in human body correlate to maintain homeostasis. One of those systems which contribute to maintain homeostasis is the immune system. The immune system defends physiological functions against foreign substances and cancer cells through a complex and multilayered mechanism. The ability to defend against foreign substances and abnormal cells is done by two types of immune system, which are Innate immune system and adaptive/acquired immune system. There are also certain factors that...

  11. Effects of different international fiscal systems on reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of international fiscal systems on oil and gas reserves evaluation and reporting, was reviewed. The movement in reserves estimates with changing technical, political and economic conditions, was described. Difficulties associated with the evaluation and booking of reserves is largely due to the confusing duplication of terms. For example, explorationists refer to reserves as an undrilled prospect, while engineers refer to them as producing property. The financial analyst refers to reserves of a company, while governments refer to the reserves of the country. The importance of defining reserves with full knowledge of the specific regulations that govern the reporting of reserves externally, and the internal reporting requirements for business planning purposes, was stressed. 2 refs

  12. Dynamic behavior of a multi-effect sugar concentrator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, N.H.; Marwan, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A transient mathematical model is developed to simulate the dynamic response of multi effect evaporator for sugar distiller concentrators at delta company, Egypt. Based on the mass and energy balance equations, a non linear mathematical model relating the system variables is obtained. This model allows to investigate the response of the unit parameters in both steady state and transient operating condition. Also, the response of the unit to perturbations in feed syrup, flow rate, concentration and heating steam temperature is studied. The predicted response based on the solution of the mathematical model is illustrated. The developed model proved to be efficient and capable to predict different operating conditions at steady state or transients variations. The study shows that an increase in heating steam temperature can be a critical factor due to caramelization of the syrup. 1 tab., 10 fig

  13. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    , Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community......The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual...

  14. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced Talbot effect (EITE) resulting from the repeated self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field is experimentally demonstrated in a three-level atomic configuration. The probe beam is launched into an optically induced lattice (established by the interference of two coupling fields) inside a rubidium vapor cell and is diffracted by the electromagnetically induced grating that was formed. The diffraction pattern repeats itself at the planes of integer multiple Talbot lengths. In addition, a fractional EITE is also investigated. The experimental observations agree well with the theoretical predictions. This investigation may potentially pave the way for studying the nonlinear and quantum dynamical features that have been predicted for established periodic optical systems.

  15. Numerical Diffusion Effect in Dynamic Simulation of Thermohydraulic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanocco, Pablo; Gimenez, Marcelo; Delmastro, Dario

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the behavior of the explicit - up-wind method is studied in two phase natural convection circuit, near the instabilities boundaries.The effect of the numerical diffusion of the scheme upon the system stability is evaluated by means of linearization by small perturbations.The results are compared with a non-diffusive method, in the frequency domain, that solves analytically the linearized equations around a steady state condition.Moreover, a conservation equation transport model using the method of characteristics is implemented and studied.This method is compared with the explicit - up-wind scheme and it is found that it significantly reduces numerical diffusion in the equations solution. Several advantages are visualized for particular cases

  16. Prevalence of type III secretion system in effective biocontrol pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Juliana; Gobbin, Davide; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Functional type III secretion system (T3SS) genes are needed for effective biocontrol of Pythium damping-off of cucumber by Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, but whether biocontrol Pseudomonas strains with T3SS genes display overall a higher plant-protecting activity is unknown. The assessment of 198 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads originating from 60 soils worldwide indicated that 32% harbour the ATPase-encoding T3SS gene hrcN, which was most often found in tomato isolates. The hrcN(+) biocontrol strains (and especially those also producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and displaying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity) displayed higher plant-protecting ability in comparison with hrcN(-) biocontrol strains, both in the Pythium/cucumber and Fusarium/cucumber pathosystems. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  18. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using human embryonal carcinoma (Ntera2=NT2) and Human neuroblastoma cell (NB1). They exposed to heavy ions and X ray 80% confluent cells in culture bottles. The cells were different type about growth and differentiation in the neuron. The apoptosis profile was measured by AnnexinV-EGFP, PI stained and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after carbon- or iron-ion irradiation. Memory functions were rapidly decreased after irradiation both ions. Iron -ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation C-ion group were recovered 25 weeks after irradiation. Tier memory were still keep at over 100 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  19. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    . Moreover, due to vehicle-to-grid capability, EVs can reduce the need for new coal/natural gas power capacities. Wind power can be expected to provide a large share of the electricity for EVs in several of the countries. However, if EVs are not followed up by economic support for renewable energy...... technologies, coal based power will in several cases, particularly in the short term, likely provide a large part of this electricity. The effects of EVs vary significantly from country to country and are sensitive to fuel and CO2 price variations. The EVs bring CO2 reductions of 1e6% in 2025 and 3e28% in 2030......In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles...

  20. Effects of locomotion extend throughout the mouse early visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisken, Sinem; Vaiceliunaite, Agne; Jurjut, Ovidiu; Fiorini, Matilde; Katzner, Steffen; Busse, Laura

    2014-12-15

    Neural responses in visual cortex depend not only on sensory input but also on behavioral context. One such context is locomotion, which modulates single-neuron activity in primary visual cortex (V1). How locomotion affects neuronal populations across cortical layers and in precortical structures is not well understood. We performed extracellular multielectrode recordings in the visual system of mice during locomotion and stationary periods. We found that locomotion influenced activity of V1 neurons with a characteristic laminar profile and shaped the population response by reducing pairwise correlations. Although the reduction of pairwise correlations was restricted to cortex, locomotion slightly but consistently increased firing rates and controlled tuning selectivity already in the dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus. At the level of the eye, increases in locomotion speed were associated with pupil dilation. These findings document further, nonmultiplicative effects of locomotion, reaching earlier processing stages than cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Noise-induced transitions and resonant effects in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Alexei

    2003-02-01

    Our every-day experience is connected with different acoustical noise or music. Usually noise plays the role of nuisance in any communication and destroys any order in a system. Similar optical effects are known: strong snowing or raining decreases quality of a vision. In contrast to these situations noisy stimuli can also play a positive constructive role, e.g. a driver can be more concentrated in a presence of quiet music. Transmission processes in neural systems are of especial interest from this point of view: excitation or information will be transmitted only in the case if a signal overcomes a threshold. Dr. Alexei Zaikin from the Potsdam University studies noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear systems from a theoretical point of view. Especially he is interested in the processes, in which noise influences the behaviour of a system twice: if the intensity of noise is over a threshold, it induces some regular structure that will be synchronized with the behaviour of neighbour elements. To obtain such a system with a threshold one needs one more noise source. Dr. Zaikin has analyzed further examples of such doubly stochastic effects and developed a concept of these new phenomena. These theoretical findings are important, because such processes can play a crucial role in neurophysics, technical communication devices and living sciences. Unsere alltägliche Erfahrung ist mit verschiedenen akustischen Einfluessen wie Lärm, aber auch Musik verbunden. Jeder weiss, wie Lärm stören kann und Kommunikation behindert oder gar unterbindet. Ähnliche optische Effekte sind bekannt: starkes Schneetreiben oder Regengüsse verschlechtern die Sicht und lassen uns Umrisse nur noch schemenhaft erkennen. Jedoch koennen ähnliche Stimuli auch sehr positive Auswirkungen haben: Autofahrer fahren bei leiser Musik konzentrierter -- die Behauptung von Schulkindern, nur bei dröhnenden Bässen die Mathehausaufgaben richtig rechnen zu können, ist allerdings nicht wissenschaftlich

  2. Systemic and neurotoxic effects of epidural meloxicam in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracineide da Costa Felipe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess systemic and neurotoxic changes following an epidural administration of meloxicamin to rabbits. Twelve adult rabbits four males and eight females; average mass, 1.9 ± 0.1kg were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (GC, which received a single dose of 0.9% NaCl epidurally in a volume of 0.3mL kg-1and a meloxicam group (GM, which received 0.2mg kg-1 meloxicam epidurally along with 0.9% NaCl in a total volume of 0.3mL kg-1. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, and neurological abnormalities were assessed prior to administration of anesthesia (H0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24h following epidural puncture (H1, H2, H3, H6, H12, and H24, respectively, and every 24h afterward for 10 days after epidural puncture (D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, and D10. The surface temperature of lumbosacral region was also measured at H0, H1, H6, H12, H24, D5 and D10. Three animals from each group were euthanized on days 15 and 30 after epidural puncture to assess possible spinal injuries. Variances observed in physiological parameters were not suggestive of adverse effects of meloxicam, as all were within the reference standards, and there were no physical or behavioral changes observed. Neurological function was similar between groups, with only difference between baseline values and values 1h after epidural administration in both groups. There were no histopathological changes in the GM group, and only one animal showed discrete lymphocytic infiltrate. Epidural lumbosacral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 0.2mg kg-1 caused no significant systemic or neurotoxic effects in rabbits.

  3. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments.

  4. Quantum revivals and magnetization tunneling in effective spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizanac, M.; Altwein, D.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum mechanical objects or nano-objects have been proposed as bits for information storage. While time-averaged properties of magnetic, quantum-mechanical particles have been extensively studied experimentally and theoretically, experimental investigations of the real time evolution of magnetization in the quantum regime were not possible until recent developments in pump-probe techniques. Here we investigate the quantum dynamics of effective spin systems by means of analytical and numerical treatments. Particular attention is paid to the quantum revival time and its relation to the magnetization tunneling. The quantum revival time has been initially defined as the recurrence time of a total wave-function. Here we show that the quantum revivals of wave-functions and expectation values in spin systems may be quite different which gives rise to a more sophisticated definition of the quantum revival within the realm of experimental research. Particularly, the revival times for integer spins coincide which is not the case for half-integer spins. Furthermore, the quantum revival is found to be shortest for integer ratios between the on-site anisotropy and an external magnetic field paving the way to novel methods of anisotropy measurements. We show that the quantum tunneling of magnetization at avoided level crossing is coherent to the quantum revival time of expectation values, leading to a connection between these two fundamental properties of quantum mechanical spins.

  5. Occupational exposure and effects on the male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kaltenecker Retto de Queiroz

    Full Text Available A significant increase in the incidence of male infertility has been described in the international literature, raising questions about its causes. Part of this effect may result from synthetic toxic substances acting on the endocrine system (endocrine disruptors, many of which are routinely used in work processes. We provide a critical review of the specialized literature on work-related chemical substances capable of causing male infertility. Pesticides such as DDT, linuron, and others, heavy metals like mercury, lead, cadmium, and copper, and substances from various industrial uses and residues such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ethylene dibromide (EDB, phthalates, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and ethanol are among the main endocrine disruptors that can cause male infertility. Based on the literature, gonadal dysfunction and congenital malformation are the main alterations caused by these substances in the male reproductive system. We conclude that despite the relative lack of studies on this issue, the relevance of such risk calls for further studies as well as measures to prevent workers' exposure to the various substances.

  6. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT.

  7. Research on effectiveness assessment programs for physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik; Ham, Taekyu

    2015-01-01

    PPS (Physical Protection System) is an integrated set of procedures, installation and human resources to protect valuable assets from physical attack of potential adversaries. Since nuclear facilities or radioactive materials can be attractive targets for terrorists, PPS should be installed and maintained throughout the entire lifecycle of nuclear energy systems. One of key ingredients for effective protection is a reliable assessment procedure of the PPS capability. Due to complexity of possible threat categories and pathways, several pathway analysis programs have been developed to ease analysis or visualization. ASSESS using ASD approach runs fast and adopts a relatively simple modeling process for facility elements. But uncertainty due to assumptions used in modeling might complicate the interpretation of results. On the other hand, 2D pathway program such as TESS can utilize more self-consistent detection probability and delay time since actual pathway on 2D map is available. Also, this pathway visualization helps users understand analysis result more intuitively. But, in general, 2D pathway programs require strong computational power and careful optimization. Another possible difference between two approaches is response force deployment and RFT

  8. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  9. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  10. The effect of head injury upon the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrcka, M; Mrlian, A; Karlsson-Valik, J; Klabusay, M

    2007-01-01

    Severe head injuries are characterized by high mortality and morbidity. In spite of guidelines based therapy the treatment is frequently unsuccessful. Extracranial infectious complications are considered to be an important problem during the course of recovery, and possibly immunological changes could explain their occurrence. Head injuries cause an imbalance within the helper cell community, resulting in a T(H)2 dominance. This development is influenced by the soluable agents of the sympathic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The crucial research of damaged cellular immunity concluded Quattrocchi in 1991. Both the activation of microglial cells and the accumulation of T-cells after crossing the BBB indicate production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the CNS after injury. The leaking of pro-inflammatory mediators to the circulation develops to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). On the contrary, an overwhelming of anti-inflammatory substances leads to an anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). It is suggested that an imbalance between these two immune responses is responsible for organ dysfunction and increased susceptibility to infections in polytrauma victims. Concerning mediators, IL-6 draws attention because of its high marker ability. Finally, post-traumatic infections have also been correlated with an altered function of antigenpresenting cells (APC). Concerning the quantity, the humoral part of immune system seems to be stimulated, but its function and phagocyte activity shows several defects. Finally, T(H)2 dominance induces IgE levels accumulation. All these changes are strongly under effect of stress based release of endogenous glucocorticoids and catecholamine, which influence the complex network of cytokines and cell mediators (Fig. 3, Ref 18).

  11. Magnetic proximity effects in nanoparticle composite systems and macrocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbs, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    concerning their electrical transport properties, whereby several nanoparticle phenomena could be observed. Another highlight of this work is the successful preparation of three-dimensional iron oxide nanoparticle assemblies on length scales of >1000 μm by carefully adjusting the parameters of a newly developed centrifuge assisted sedimentation method. Extensive SEM studies combined with magnetometry and sophisticated SAXS experiments resulted in a comprehensive overview on the morphology and magnetism of these so-called 'macrocrystals', as well as on the nanoparticle arrangement inside them. Like this, highly correlated systems with a macroscopic expansion could be manufactured. Finally, a nanoparticle/palladium multilayer was prepared. It demonstrates that the polarization and magnetoresistance effects found in the two-dimensional systems can only partially be transfered to three dimensional assemblies. In conclusion, this work shows how two- and three-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies can be prepared, how their properties are modified at different stages of preparation and how a polarizable matrix material influences the particles and vice versa.

  12. The effects of sleep deprivation on dissociable prototype learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W Todd; Glass, Brian D; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Savarie, Zachary R; Bowen, Christopher; Matthews, Michael D; Schnyer, David M

    2011-03-01

    The cognitive neural underpinnings of prototype learning are becoming clear. Evidence points to 2 different neural systems, depending on the learning parameters. A/not-A (AN) prototype learning is mediated by posterior brain regions that are involved in early perceptual learning, whereas A/B (AB) is mediated by frontal and medial temporal lobe regions. To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on AN and AB prototype learning and to use established prototype models to provide insights into the cognitive-processing locus of sleep-deprivation deficits. Participants performed an AN and an AB prototype learning task twice, separated by a 24-hour period, with or without sleep between testing sessions. Eighteen West Point cadets participated in the sleep-deprivation group, and 17 West Point cadets participated in a control group. Sleep deprivation led to an AN, but not an AB, performance deficit. Prototype model analyses indicated that the AN deficit was due to changes in attentional focus and a decrease in confidence that is reflected in an increased bias to respond non-A. The findings suggest that AN, but not AB, prototype learning is affected by sleep deprivation. Prototype model analyses support the notion that the effect of sleep deprivation on AN is consistent with lapses in attentional focus that are more detrimental to AN than to AB. This finding adds to a growing body of work that suggests that different performance changes associated with sleep deprivation can be attributed to a common mechanism of changes in simple attention and vigilance.

  13. Landauer's blow-torch effect in systems with entropic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moupriya; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2015-11-01

    We consider local heating of a part of a two-dimensional bilobal enclosure of a varying cross section confining a system of overdamped Brownian particles. Since varying cross section in higher dimension results in an entropic potential in lower dimension, local heating alters the relative stability of the entropic states. We show that this blow-torch effect modifies the entropic potential in a significant way so that the resultant effective entropic potential carries both the features of variation of width of the confinement and variation of temperature along the direction of transport. The reduced probability distribution along the direction of transport calculated by full numerical simulations in two dimensions agrees well with our analytical findings. The extent of population transfer in the steady state quantified in terms of the integrated probability of residence of the particles in either of the two lobes exhibits interesting variation with the mean position of the heated region. Our study reveals that heating around two particular zones of a given lobe maximizes population transfer to the other.

  14. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Liu Cuihua; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2003-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), B6 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. (author)

  15. A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Gastrodiae (also known as Tian ma, the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume, is a famous Chinese herb that has been traditionally used for the treatment of headache, dizziness, spasm, epilepsy, stoke, amnesia and other disorders for centuries. Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the main bioactive constituent of Rhizoma Gastrodiae. Since identified in 1978, gastrodin has been extensively investigated on its pharmacological properties. In this article, we reviewed the central nervous system (CNS effects of gastrodin in preclinical models of CNS disorders including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, affective disorders, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cognitive impairment as well as the underlying mechanisms involved and, where possible, clinical data that support the pharmacological activities. The sources and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin were also reviewed here. As a result, gastrodin possesses a broad range of beneficial effects on the above-mentioned CNS diseases, and the mechanisms of actions include modulating neurotransmitters, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, suppressing microglial activation, regulating mitochondrial cascades, up-regulating neurotrophins, etc. However, more detailed clinical trials are still in need for positioning it in the treatment of neurological disorders.

  16. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, SCID, B6, B6C3F1 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive. Radiation sensitivity of these cells ware SCID>B6>B6C3F1>C3H to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. Memory function were rapidly decrease after irradiation both ions. C-ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation, but Iron group were different. (author)

  17. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  18. Electronic isotope effects in the palladium-hydrogen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppeneer, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the determination of the physical origin of the isotope effects measured in the de Haas-van Alphen quantities of dilute Pd(H), Pd(D) and Pd(T) alloys. A computational method for the numerical evaluation of interstitial Green functions, which are indispensable for the descriptions of interactions of conducting electrons with interstitial atoms, is presented. The Green functions are tested in ab initio calculations of the dHvA quantities for the frozen interstitial impurities H, B and C in Pd using a KKR-Green function formulation for interstitial effects. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data and it is concluded that the interstitial Green functions, in combination with the KKR-Green function approach, are applicable for the description of electron scattering by interstitial defects. The influence of zero-point motion of a light interstitial on the electron scattering is evaluated in a computational model. Computations show that the influence on the dHvA quantities is quite small. The anharmonicity of the octahedral potential well in a Pd lattice is considered because it can cause differences in the vibrational properties of hydrogen isotopes. The influence of resonant vibrations on the electron-defect scattering is investigated. It is shown that the occurrence of a resonant mode depends sensitively on the isotope's mass and force constants. It is concluded that the isotope effect in dHvA quantities can be explained by the occurrence of a low-frequency resonant vibration in the Pd(D) system. 264 refs.; 9 figs.; 10 tabs

  19. Phenolphthalein exposure causes multiple carcinogenic effects in experimental model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, J K; Hailey, J R

    1996-11-01

    Phenolphthalein (a triphenylmethane derivative) has been commonly used as a laxative for most of the twentieth century, but little is known about its long-term carcinogenic potential in experimental studies. In our studies, phenolphthalein administered continuously in the feed for 2 years to F344 rats at doses of 0, 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm and to C57BL/6 x CH3 F1 (hereafter called B6C3F1) mice at doses of 0, 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm caused multiple carcinogenic effects. Treatment-related neoplasms occurred in the kidney and adrenal medulla in male rats, adrenal medulla in female rats, hematopoietic system in male and female mice (histiocytic sarcomas and malignant lymphomas), and ovary of female mice. Phenolphthalein has been shown to have estrogenic and clastogenic properties. Previous studies of other estrogenic chemicals (e.g., zearalenone) in the F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse have not shown the same spectrum of carcinogenic activity as that found with phenolphthalein, suggesting that phenolphthalein estrogenic activity alone is not responsible for the spectrum of tumors observed. It is more likely that the multiple biological properties of phenolphthalein, including its ability to form free radicals, its clastogenic activity, and its estrogenic activity, contributed to the carcinogenic effects observed. These studies show that phenolphthalein is a multisite/multispecies carcinogen. One of the sites for neoplasm that is of particular concern is the ovary, and epidemiology studies are under way to identify any potential effects of phenolphthalein exposure at this site in humans.

  20. Ternary particles for effective vaccine delivery to the pulmonary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Treniece La'shay

    Progress in the fields of molecular biology and genomics has provided great insight into the pathogenesis of disease and the defense mechanisms of the immune system. This knowledge has lead to the classification of an array of abnormal genes, for which, treatment relies on cellular expression of proteins. The utility of DNA-based vaccines hold great promise for the treatment of genetically based and infectious diseases, which ranges from hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and HIV. Synthetic delivery systems consisting of cationic polymers, such as polyethylenimine (PEI), are capable of condensing DNA into compact structures, maximizing cellular uptake of DNA and yielding high levels of protein expression. To date, short term expression is a major obstacle in the development of gene therapies and has halted their expansion in clinical applications. This study intends to develop a sustained release vaccine delivery system using PLA-PEG block copolymers encapsulating PEI:DNA polyplexes. To enhance the effectiveness of such DNA-based vaccines, resident antigen presenting cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, will be targeted within the alveoli regions of the lungs. Porous microspheres will be engineered with aerodynamic properties capable of achieving deep lung deposition. A fabrication technique using concentric nozzles will be developed to produce porous microspheres. It was observed that modifications in the dispersed to continuous phase ratios have the largest influence on particle size distributions, release rates and encapsulation efficiency which ranged form 80--95% with fourteen days of release. Amphiphilic block copolymers were also used to fabricate porous microspheres. The confirmation of PEG within the biodegradable polymer backbone was found to have a tremendous impact on the microsphere morphology and encapsulation efficiency which varied from 50--90%. Porous microspheres were capable of providing sustained gene expression when tested in vitro using the

  1. The reliability and effectiveness of an electromagnetic animal detection and driver warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    "This report contains data on the reliability and effectiveness of an animal detection system project along US Hwy 160 : between Durango and Bayfield, Colorado. The system that was first installed was a Perimitrax system from Senstar : Corporation....

  2. Preliminary Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the conceptual Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    A failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) was made of the Brayton Isotope Power System Flight System (BIPS-FS) as presently conceived. The components analyzed include: Mini-BRU; Heat Source Assembly (HSA); Mini-Brayton Recuperator (MBR); Space Radiator; Ducts and Bellows, Insulation System; Controls; and Isotope Heat Source (IHS)

  3. Effect of Production System on Welfare Traits, Growth Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duck feather quality was greater and gait defects were reduced in NRS system compared with FRS and WRS systems. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was not affected by the production system. Growth performance was not significantly different between FRS and WRS systems. Average daily weight gain of FRS ducks was ...

  4. Space Weather Effects on Current and Future Electric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, D.; Dutta, O.; Tandoi, C.; Brandauer, W.; Mohamed, A.; Damas, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    This work addresses the effects of Geomagnetic Disturbances (GMDs) on the present bulk power system as well as the future smart grid, and discusses the mitigation of these geomagnetic impacts, so as to reduce the vulnerabilities of the electric power network to large space weather events. Solar storm characterized by electromagnetic radiation generates geo-electric fields that result in the flow of Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) through the transmission lines, followed by transformers and the ground. As the ground conductivity and the power network topology significantly vary with the region, it becomes imperative to estimate of the magnitude of GICs for different places. In this paper, the magnitude of GIC has been calculated for New York State (NYS) with the help of extensive modelling of the whole NYS electricity transmission network using real data. Although GIC affects only high voltage levels, e.g. above 300 kV, the presence of coastline in NYS makes the low voltage transmission lines also susceptible to GIC. Besides this, the encroachment of technologies pertaining to smart grid implementation, such as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), Microgrids, Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have been analyzed for GMD impacts. Inaccurate PMU results due to scintillation of GPS signals that are affected by electromagnetic interference of solar storm, presence of renewable energy resources in coastal areas that are more vulnerable to GMD, the ability of FACTS devices to either block or pave new path for GICs and so on, shed some light on impacts of GMD on smart grid technologies.

  5. Ultrasound effects on the antioxidative defense systems of Porphyridium cruentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bilian; Huang, Jian; Wang, Juan; Huang, Lingling

    2008-01-15

    Ultrasound is a special physical stimulus that has a variety of biological effects. This study provides a first systemic investigation on the ultrasound-induced oxidation and protection actions of the antioxidant defense system in Porphyridium cruentum. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of the cells and the electrolyte leakage of the cell membrane were examined. The change of glutathione and carotenoids produced with/without ultrasonic processing were measured; the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and membrane bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase) were evaluated for either ultrasound-treated or untreated P. cruentum. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of ultrasound-treated P. cruentum increase 49.8 and 76.0%, respectively, of which the electrolyte leakage and malonyldialdehyde accumulation are also found increased 48.6 and 48.0%, respectively, indicating a state of oxidative stress. A significant enhancement of the activities of superoxide dismutase by 53.5%, catalase, membrane bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase increased by 67.7 and 69.3%, respectively), and the increment of glutathione and carotenoids production are also observed. These results suggested that oxidative stress manifested by elevated reactive oxygen species levels and malonyldialdehyde contents might be resulted from the biophysical responses of P. cruentum to the physical stimuli, and most likely the enhanced antioxidation ability of the algal cells stimuli by ultrasonic comes from the enhancement of enzymatic and nonenzymatic preventive substances as observed in this work.

  6. Differential effects of defibrillation on systemic and cardiac sympathetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, F; Wiegand, U; Raasch, W; Richardt, G; Potratz, J

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess the effect of defibrillation shocks on cardiac and circulating catecholamines.
Design—Prospective examination of myocardial catecholamine balance during dc shock by simultaneous determination of arterial and coronary sinus plasma concentrations. Internal countershocks (10-34 J) were applied in 30 patients after initiation of ventricular fibrillation for a routine implantable cardioverter defibrillator test. Another 10 patients were externally cardioverted (50-360 J) for atrial fibrillation.
Main outcome measures—Transcardiac noradrenaline, adrenaline, and lactate gradients immediately after the shock.
Results—After internal shock, arterial noradrenaline increased from a mean (SD) of 263 (128) pg/ml at baseline to 370 (148) pg/ml (p = 0.001), while coronary sinus noradrenaline fell from 448 (292) to 363 (216) pg/ml (p = 0.01), reflecting a shift from cardiac net release to net uptake. After external shock delivery, there was a similar increase in arterial noradrenaline, from 260 (112) to 459 (200) pg/ml (p = 0.03), while coronary sinus noradrenaline remained unchanged. Systemic adrenaline increased 11-fold after external shock (p = 0.01), outlasting the threefold rise following internal shock (p = 0.001). In both groups, a negative transmyocardial adrenaline gradient at baseline decreased further, indicating enhanced myocardial uptake. Cardiac lactate production occurred after ventricular fibrillation and internal shock, but not after external cardioversion, so the neurohumoral changes resulted from the defibrillation process and not from alterations in oxidative metabolism.
Conclusions—A dc shock induces marked systemic sympathoadrenal and sympathoneuronal activation, but attenuates cardiac sympathetic activity. This might promote the transient myocardial depression observed after electrical discharge to the heart.

 Keywords: defibrillation;  autonomic cardiac function;  catecholamines;  lactate

  7. Longitudinal effects of systemic inflammation markers on periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Christiane; Kocher, Thomas; Meisel, Peter; Dörr, Marcus; Markus, Marcello R P; Jablonowski, Lukasz; Grotevendt, Anne; Nauck, Matthias; Holtfreter, Birte

    2015-11-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation represents a central hallmark of chronic diseases and has been proposed as the underlying mechanism linking factors like obesity or diabetes with periodontitis. However, the impact of inflammatory markers on periodontitis has not yet been investigated. The study population comprised 1784 subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania with complete 11-year follow-up. Fibrinogen and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Periodontitis was assessed by probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and the CDC/AAP case definition. Multilevel regression analyses revealed significant coefficients for the impact of both inflammation markers on the percentage of sites with PD/CAL ≥ 3 mm. Increases in fibrinogen about 1 g/l were associated with 3.0% and 2.7% more sites with PD/CAL ≥ 3 mm respectively. Consistent associations were found using mean values of PD/CAL but not using missing teeth or caries. Regarding the CDC/AAP case definition, 11-year changes in fibrinogen and WBC counts were significantly associated with ≥1 category progression (OR: 1.36 and 1.11). Fibrinogen levels and WBC counts showed consistent long-term associations with PD, CAL and the CDC/AAP case definition. Results indicate that systemic low-grade inflammation might indeed represent one possible pathway for effects of obesity, diabetes or other chronic inflammatory conditions on periodontitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Is the Annual Confidential Report system effective? A study of the government appraisal system in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Martineau, Tim

    2016-06-02

    Effective performance appraisal systems can not only motivate employees to improve performance but also be important for the performance of organizations. However, the appraisal systems in civil services called the Annual Confidential Report (ACR) systems can be ineffective and do not contribute to employees' learning and development. With this background, the current study aimed at understanding the ACR system and assessing its effectiveness. The research aims to contribute in filling the knowledge gap in the existing literature on the need as to why the ACR system in civil services is an important human resource management (HRM) function. The analysis is based on policy review to understand the extant appraisal-related rules and policies. Nineteen in-depth interviews with medical officers (MOs) working with the government health department of Gujarat, India, were conducted. The main objective of the research was to assess the effectiveness of the actual appraisal system called or referred to as the ACR as perceived by MOs. Thematic framework approach was used to analyze qualitative data using NVIVO 9. Themes were built around five features of an effective appraisal system, i.e., purpose, source, feedback quality, link of the ACR system with other human resource functions, and administrative effectiveness. The five features of the effective appraisal system studied in the current research (purpose, source, feedback quality, link of ACR system with other HRM functions, and administrative effectiveness) indicate that the overall appraisal system is ineffective. The overall appraisal system was perceived to be subjective and one directional in character by the study respondents. Furthermore, respondents perceived the appraisal system to be a ritual and where MOs hardly got to know about their performance, especially good performance. Hence, the feedback loop, an important feature for an effective appraisal system, was absent. The overall ACR system functions in

  9. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  10. Effect of temperature on the Bulinus globosus - Schistosoma haematobium system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinda, Chester; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-05-01

    Given that increase in temperature may alter host-parasite relationships, the anticipated rise in temperature due to global warming might change transmission patterns of certain diseases. However, the extent to which this will happen is not well understood. Using a host-parasite system involving Bulinus globosus and Schistosoma haematobium, we assessed the effect of temperature on snail fecundity, growth, survival and parasite development under laboratory conditions. Our results show that temperature may have a non-linear effect on snail fecundity and snail growth. Snails maintained at 15.5 °C and 36.0 °C did not produce egg masses while those maintained at 25.8 °C laid 344 and 105 more egg masses than snails at 31.0 °C and 21.2 °C, respectively. Attainment of patency led to a reduction in egg mass production among the snails. However, the reduction in fecundity for snails maintained at 21.2 °C occurred before snails started shedding cercariae. Parasite development was accelerated at high temperatures with snails maintained at 31.0 °C reaching patency after three weeks. Furthermore, snail growth rate was highest at 25.8 °C while it was inhibited at 15.5 °C and reduced at 31.0 °C. Increase in temperature increased snail mortality rates. Snails maintained at 36.0 °C had the shortest survival time while those maintained at 15.5 °C had the longest survival time. We concluded that temperature influences fecunxdity, growth, survival and parasite development in the snail and thus dictates the time it takes the parasite to complete the life cycle. This has implications on transmission of schistosomiasis in the context of global warming.

  11. Effects on biological systems of reflected light from a satellite power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M.

    1981-01-01

    Light reflection produced by the satellite power system and the possible effects of that light on the human eye, plants, and animals were studied. For the human eye, two cases of reflected light, might cause eye damage if viewed for too long. These cases are: (1) if, while in low Earth orbit, the orbital transfer vehicle is misaligned to reflect the Sun to Earth there exists a maximum safe fixation time for the naked eye of 42.4 secs; (2) reflection from the aluminum paint on the back of the orbital transfer vehicle, while in or near low Earth orbit, can be safely viewed by the naked eye for 129 sec. For plants and animals the intensity and timing of light are not a major problem. Ways for reducing and/or eliminating the irradiances are proposed.

  12. Effects of cocaine hydrochloride on the male reproductive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berul, C.I.; Harclerode, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The reproductive system effects of cocaine were studied in male rats. The analysis included measurements of circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The weights of the testes and sex accessory organs were also assessed and compared with control animals. Dosage level, duration of treatment, and interval between injection and sacrifice were the parameters examined. Following a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection, LH levels decreased over a 3-hour period. At a high dosage, cocaine caused a significant elevation in serum T followed by a significant depression of T for at least 2 hours. When administered chronically for 15 days, the low dose group did not vary significantly from the vehicle controls. However, the high dose group had lower LH and T levels, as well as correspondingly lighter weight seminal vesicles and epididymus. No changes were noted in the weights of the ventral prostate or testes. This research suggests that cocaine acts primarily at the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis with a possible secondary action at the gonadal level

  13. Interplay between electric and magnetic effect in adiabatic polaritonic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We report on the possibility of realizing adiabatic compression of polaritonic wave on a metallic conical nano-structure through an oscillating electric potential (quasi dynamic regime). By comparing this result with an electromagnetic wave excitation, we were able to relate the classical lighting-rod effect to adiabatic compression. Furthermore, we show that while the magnetic contribution plays a marginal role in the formation of adiabatic compression, it provides a blue shift in the spectral region. In particular, magnetic permeability can be used as a free parameter for tuning the polaritonic resonances. The peculiar form of adiabatic compression is instead dictated by both the source and the metal permittivity. The analysis is performed by starting from a simple electrostatic system to end with the complete electromagnetic one through intermediate situations such as the quasi-electrostatic and quasi-dynamic regimes. Each configuration is defined by a particular set of equations which allows to clearly determine the individual role played by the electric and magnetic contribution in the generation of adiabatic compression. We notice that these findings can be applied for the realization of a THz nano-metric generator. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  14. Nitrogen input effectiveness on carbon sequestration in rainfed cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Poma, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The combined effect of total N and C/N ratio had a large influence on the decomposition rate and consequently on potential soil organic carbon sequestration. The aim of the work was to evaluate Carbon sequestration potentiality under three mineral N fertilization levels in interaction with two cropping systems characterized by addition of N input due to leguminous species in the rotation. The study was carried out in the semiarid Mediterranean environment in a 18years long-term experiment. Is well know that in the semiarid environment the excess of N fertilization reduces biomass yield and the consequent C input. On the contrary, both N and C input determine high difference in C/N input ratio and faster organic matter mineralization. Results showed no influence of N fertilization on SOC sequestration and a reduction of SOC stock due to crop rotation due to lower C input. Crop residue quality of durum wheat-pea crop rotation characterized by a faster decomposition rate could explain the lower ability of crop rotation to sequester C in the semiarid environment.

  15. Effects of chalcone derivatives on players of the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jian Sian; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Fauzi, Norsyahida Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is the defense mechanism in living organisms that protects against the invasion of foreign materials, microorganisms, and pathogens. It involves multiple organs and tissues in human body, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. However, the execution of immune activities depends on a number of specific cell types, such as B cells, T cells, macrophages, and granulocytes, which provide various immune responses against pathogens. In addition to normal physiological functions, abnormal proliferation, migration, and differentiation of these cells (in response to various chemical stimuli produced by invading pathogens) have been associated with several pathological disorders. The unwanted conditions related to these cells have made them prominent targets in the development of new therapeutic interventions against various pathological implications, such as atherosclerosis and autoimmune diseases. Chalcone derivatives exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, as well as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties. Many studies have been conducted to determine their inhibitory or stimulatory activities in immune cells, and the findings are of significance to provide a new direction for subsequent research. This review highlights the effects of chalcone derivatives in different types of immune cells. PMID:26316713

  16. Solar proton events and their effect on space systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquille, C.

    1994-01-01

    Solar protons present a major problem to space systems because of the ionisation and displacement effects which arise from their interaction with matter. This is likely to become a greater problem in the future due to the use of more sensitive electronic components and the proposed expansion of manned activities in space. An outline is provided of the physical processes associated with individual solar events, the solar activity cycle and the transport of solar particles between the Sun and the Earth. The problems of predicting solar event fluences, both over short- and long-term periods, are discussed. The currently available solar proton event models used for long-term forecasting are briefly reviewed, and the advantages and deficiencies of each model are investigated. Predictions using the models are compared to measurements made by the GOES-7 satellite during the rising phase of the current solar cycle. These measurements are also used to illustrate the sensitivity of the models to the choice of confidence level and to the spectral form used for extrapolation over the solar proton energy range. (author)

  17. Effects of hyperthermia on the hamster immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangavalli, R.; Cain, C.A.; Tompkins, W.A.F.

    1984-01-01

    In previous studies, the authors have shown that hyperthermia can enhance antibody-complement chytotoxicity of hamster and human tumor cells. Moreover, whole body microwave exposure of hamsters resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages to a viricidal state and transient suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity. In this study, the authors compare the effects of whole body heating by microwaves or by an environmental chamber (hot air) on the hamster immune system. Microwave exposure (25mW/cm/sup 2/; 1 hr) caused viricidal activation of peritoneal macrophages which resulted in restriction of vaccinia and vesicular stomatitis virs (VSV) growth. However, heating in an environmental chamber (41 0 C; 1 hr) did not activate macrophages to a viricidal state. Both microwave and hot air hyperthermia caused significant augmentation of antibody producing spleen cell response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), using the Jerne hymolytic plaque assay, four days post exposure and immunization with SRBC. Natural killer spleen cell cytotoxicity was suppressed by microwave and hot air hyperthermia showing that NK lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature. These alterations in cellular immune response due to hyperthermia could be of significance in treatment of tumors and viral infections

  18. Eliminating the Effect of Rating Bias on Reputation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rapid development of the e-commercial and interest-base websites makes it more pressing to evaluate objects’ accurate quality before recommendation. The objects’ quality is often calculated based on their historical information, such as selected records or rating scores. Usually high quality products obtain higher average ratings than low quality products regardless of rating biases or errors. However, many empirical cases demonstrate that consumers may be misled by rating scores added by unreliable users or deliberate tampering. In this case, users’ reputation, that is, the ability to rate trustily and precisely, makes a big difference during the evaluation process. Thus, one of the main challenges in designing reputation systems is eliminating the effects of users’ rating bias. To give an objective evaluation of each user’s reputation and uncover an object’s intrinsic quality, we propose an iterative balance (IB method to correct users’ rating biases. Experiments on two datasets show that the IB method is a highly self-consistent and robust algorithm and it can accurately quantify movies’ actual quality and users’ stability of rating. Compared with existing methods, the IB method has higher ability to find the “dark horses,” that is, not so popular yet good movies, in the Academy Awards.

  19. Coherent interference effects and squeezed light generation in optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kenan

    My Ph.D. dissertation is on the fundamental effects in optomechanical systems (OMS) and their important applications. The OMS are based on the possibility of the mechanical motion produced by few photons incident on the mechanical device. This dissertation presents several applications of the OMS in the area of storage of light in long-lived phonons, single mode optomechanical Ramsey interferometry, and generation of large amount of squeezing in the output radiation. The long-lived phonons can be monitored and controlled via optical means as was experimentally demonstrated. To show this, I develop the theory of transient electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). For further applications like state transfer, especially over very different frequency regimes, I consider double-cavity OMS, where the two cavities can correspond to different spectral domains, yet the state transfer is possible via phonons. The state transfer is based on a new effect, electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), where one uses a second control field from the other cavity to produce an absorption peak inside the EIT window. All these involve the interference of various path ways via which a final state is reached. The following chapter shows how Fano-like interference can arise in OMS. A Fano asymmetry parameter for OMS was defined. The last two chapters deal with the question if OMS can be efficient generators of squeezed light. I show by blue and red tuning the two cavities in a double-cavity OMS, one can generate effectively a two-mode parametric interaction which yields two-mode squeezed output with the squeezing magnitude of the order of 10dB. This requires a bath temperature of 10mK. Such temperatures obtained by using Helium dilution refrigerator are routinely used with superconducting OMS. The major part of this dissertation is devoted to the dispersive optomechanical interaction. However, the interaction can also be dissipative, where the mechanical displacement modulates

  20. Soybean cultivation for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs): The effect of hydroponic system and nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the plant species selected within the European Space Agency (ESA) Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project for hydroponic cultivation in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSSs), because of the high nutritional value of seeds. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate (as Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2), on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT8914', inoculated with B. japonicum strain BUS-2, were grown in a growth chamber, under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT. Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated. Urea can be included in the nutrient formulation for soybean in order to promote bacterial activity, however a proper ammonium/nitrate ratio should be maintained.

  1. Effect of Electrical Properties of Materials on Effectiveness of Heating Their Systems in Microwave Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper presented are results of a research on influence of electrical and physico-chemical properties of materials being parts of multicomponent and multimaterial systems used in foundry practice on efficiency and effectiveness of microwave heating. Effectiveness of the process was evaluated on the grounds of analysis of interaction between selected parameters of permittivity and loss factor, as well as collective index of energy absorbed, reflected and transmitted by these materials. In the examinations used was a stand of waveguide resonance cavity for determining electrical properties and a stand of microwave slot line for determining balance of microwave power emitted into selected materials. The examinations have brought closer the possibility of forecasting the behaviour of multimaterial systems like e.g. model, moulding sand or moulding box in microwave field on the grounds of various electrical and physico-chemical properties. On the grounds of analysis of the results, possible was selecting a group of materials designed for building foundry instrumentation to be effectively used in electromagnetic field.

  2. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Barry T. [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-02-02

    for both. Some societal benefits associated with financial benefits to the utility of having a distributed generation capacity that is not fossil-fuel based have been included into the economic models. Also included and quantified in the models are several benefits to society more generally: job creation and some estimates of benefits from avoiding greenhouse emissions. PV system failures result in a lowering of the economic values of a grid-connected system, but this turned out to be a surprisingly small effect on the overall economics. The most significant benefit noted resulted from including the societal benefits accrued to the utility. This provided a marked increase in the valuations of the array and made the overall value proposition a financially attractive one, in that net present values exceeded installation costs. These results indicate that the Department of Energy and state regulatory bodies should consider focusing on societal benefits that create economic value for the utility, confirm these quantitative values, and work to have them accepted by the utilities and reflected in the rate structures for power obtained from grid-connected arrays. Understanding and applying the economic benefits evident in this work can significantly improve the business case for grid-connected PV installations. This work also indicates that the societal benefits to the population are real and defensible, but not nearly as easy to justify in a business case as are the benefits that accrue directly to the utility.

  3. The System Effect: Scaling High-Impact Practices across Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Jonathan S.; Martin, Rebecca R.; Wise, Kathleen; Blaich, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the role of systems and consortia in scaling and implementing undergraduate research through a study of the efforts of six systems and consortia working together with the Council on Undergraduate Research.

  4. Corporate Average Fuel Economy Compliance and Effects Modeling System Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) of the United States Department of Transportation's Research and Innovative Technology Administration has developed a modeling system to assist the National Highway Traffic Safety Admini...

  5. Effect of Computer Systems and Electronic Communication of Asthma Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmidt, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    .... The development and testing of the system progressed to the point of having potential patients test the system by entering baseline data, however, this progress was immediately stopped under guidance...

  6. The effect of production system and management practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are also concerned about the environmental impact of modern technologies and intensification of production systems. Various combinations of pasture-based and intensive systems are employed to raise ruminant livestock, depending on resources and climate. The quality of animal products from production systems ...

  7. 50-57 Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Centra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  8. Effective early warning systems for new and emerging health technologies: developing an evaluation framework and an assessment of current systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kieran; Packer, Claire; Stevens, Andrew; Simpson, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define an effective early warning system, to identify and rank the characteristics of an effective early warning system for emerging health technologies, and to evaluate current early warning systems against these characteristics. An iterative Delphi-type process with the thirteen members of the International Information Network on New and Changing Health Technologies (EuroScan). We synthesized key characteristics that network members had graded. Members were then asked whether these characteristics were present or fulfilled in their system. The definition of an effective early warning system developed was the following: a system that identifies innovations in the field of health technology likely to have a significant impact; and disseminates information relevant to the needs of the customer which is timely, so as to enable appropriate decision making (such as resource allocation), facilitate appropriate adoption, and identify further research requirements. Five primary and eleven secondary components of effective early warning systems were identified. The five primary characteristics concerned relevance, independence, resourcing, a clear pathway for the outputs to reach decision makers, and defined customers. Although the primary characteristics were present or fulfilled to some extent in the majority of evaluated early warning systems, there was considerable variability in the presence of the secondary characteristics in the evaluated systems. Our study provides a definition for an effective early warning system and a shared understanding of the important characteristics and components of such systems. This work should provide guidance to those setting up new early warning systems as well as for those managing and reviewing current systems.

  9. Proximity effect and charging in mesoscopic normal metal-superconductor junction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruder, C.; Fazio, R.; Schoen, G.

    1994-01-01

    The proximity effect influences the transport properties of normal metal-superconductor heterostructures. If these systems are small they exhibit pronounced charging effects. We show that charging suppresses the proximity effect. The effect can be made visible since the charging energy and hence the proximity effect can be modulated by gate voltages. We derive these results in a unified formulation which also describes single electron tunneling, Andreev reflection and the supercurrent through normal-superconductor systems in the presence of charging effects. (orig.)

  10. An Effective Distributed Model for Power System Transient Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUTHU, B. M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern power systems consist of many interconnected synchronous generators having different inertia constants, connected with large transmission network and ever increasing demand for power exchange. The size of the power system grows exponentially due to increase in power demand. The data required for various power system applications have been stored in different formats in a heterogeneous environment. The power system applications themselves have been developed and deployed in different platforms and language paradigms. Interoperability between power system applications becomes a major issue because of the heterogeneous nature. The main aim of the paper is to develop a generalized distributed model for carrying out power system stability analysis. The more flexible and loosely coupled JAX-RPC model has been developed for representing transient stability analysis in large interconnected power systems. The proposed model includes Pre-Fault, During-Fault, Post-Fault and Swing Curve services which are accessible to the remote power system clients when the system is subjected to large disturbances. A generalized XML based model for data representation has also been proposed for exchanging data in order to enhance the interoperability between legacy power system applications. The performance measure, Round Trip Time (RTT is estimated for different power systems using the proposed JAX-RPC model and compared with the results obtained using traditional client-server and Java RMI models.

  11. Effects of Helminth Eradication on the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Weisman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helminth infection has a profound effect on the immune system. However, the precise nature of the immune changes that are elicited by helminth infection have not been sufficiently characterized. Furthermore, the reversibility of these changes after treatment has not been documented sufficiently. We studied the immune profiles of Ethiopian immigrants to Israel at baseline, that is on arrival and at one-year follow-up and compared individuals who received antihelminthic treatment during the study period with those who missed the treatment. Methods: A longitudinal follow up study involving different groups of subjects was conducted. Baseline data was recorded from the newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants for a series of peripheral blood tests, including: IgE and Eosinophil levels, T-cell populations, T-cell receptor phenotypes, and cytokine measurement. These tests were all repeated after a 1-year interval. Results were compared between the newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants (NEW-Eth-Il, long term Ethiopian immigrants (LT-Eth-Il, and non Ethiopian Israeli controls (NON-Imm-Il. Results: Of the 184 individuals, 111 were NEW-Eth-Il, who had a high prevalence of helminth infection, the immunological changes were elevated IgE levels and eosinophil counts, decreased CD4/CD8 ratio, increased proportion of HLA-DR+CD3+, HLA-DR+CD4+ and HLA-DR+CD8+ cells, decreased proportion of CD45RA+CD4+ (naive and CD28+CD8+ cells, increased proportion of CD45RO+CD4+ (memory cells, and increased secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 (Th2 type cytokines. In the 42 LT-Eth-Il participants, who all had negative tests for helminth infection, we did not observe these immune changes and their immune profile did not differ markedly from that of the NON-Imm-Il controls. The follow-up immune profiles of 33 NEW-Eth-Il who received succesful antihelminth treatment, showed a significant normalization in the above-mentioned variables that was not observed in the 19 NEW-Eth-Il who

  12. Effect on adhesion of a nanocapsules-loaded adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Genari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in situ degree of conversion, contact angle, and immediate and long-term bond strengths of a commercial primer and an experimental adhesive containing indomethacin- and triclosan-loaded nanocapsules (NCs. The indomethacin- and triclosan-loaded NCs, which promote anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects through controlled release, were incorporated into the primer at a concentration of 2% and in the adhesive at concentrations of 1, 2, 5, and 10%. The in situ degree of conversion (DC, n=3 was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The contact angle of the primer and adhesive on the dentin surface (n = 3 was determined by an optical tensiometer. For the microtensile bond strength µTBS test (12 teeth per group, stick-shaped specimens were tested under tensile stress immediately after preparation and after storage in water for 1 year. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests with α=0.05. The use of the NC-loaded adhesive resulted in a higher in situ degree of conversion. The DC values varied from 75.07 ± 8.83% to 96.18 ± 0.87%. The use of NCs in only the adhesive up to a concentration of 5% had no influence on the bond strength. The contact angle of the primer remained the same with and without NCs. The use of both the primer and adhesive with NCs (for all concentrations resulted in a higher contact angle of the adhesive. The longitudinal μTBS was inversely proportional to the concentration of NCs in the adhesive system, exhibiting decreasing values for the groups with primer containing NCs and adhesives with increasing concentrations of NCs. Adhesives containing up to 5% of nanocapsules and primer with no NCs maintained the in situ degree of conversion, contact angle, and immediate and long-term bond strengths. Therefore, the NC-loaded adhesive can be an alternative method for combining the bond performance and therapeutic effects. The use of an

  13. Cadmium: toxic effects on the reproductive system and the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer; Bannigan, John

    2008-04-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is a pollutant associated with several modern industrial processes. Cd is absorbed in significant quantities from cigarette smoke, and is known to have numerous undesirable effects on health in both experimental animals and humans, targeting the kidneys, liver and vascular systems in particular. However, a wide spectrum of deleterious effects on the reproductive tissues and the developing embryo has also been described. In the testis, changes due to disruption of the blood-testis barrier and oxidative stress have been noted, with onset of widespread necrosis at higher dosage exposures. Incorporation of Cd into the chromatin of the developing gamete has also been demonstrated. Ovarian Cd concentration increases with age, and has been associated with failure of progression of oocyte development from primary to secondary stage, and failure to ovulate. A further mechanism by which ovulation could be rendered ineffective is by failure of pick-up of the oocyte by the tubal cilia due to suboptimal expansion of the oocyte-cumulus complex and mis-expression of cell adhesion molecules. Retardation of trophoblastic outgrowth and development, placental necrosis and suppression of steroid biosynthesis, and altered handling of nutrient metals by the placenta all contribute to implantation delay and possible early pregnancy loss. Cd has been shown to accumulate in embryos from the four-cell stage onwards, and higher dosage exposure inhibits progression to the blastocyst stage, and can cause degeneration and decompaction in blastocysts following formation, with apoptosis and breakdown in cell adhesion. Following implantation, exposure of experimental animals to oral or parenteral Cd causes a wide range of abnormalities in the embryo, depending on the stage of exposure and dose given. Craniofacial, neurological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and limb anomalies have all been described in placentates, with axial abnormalities and

  14. INVESTIGATION WITH MODAL ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF HIGH PV PENETRATION ON POWER SYSTEM VOLTAGE STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, Burak

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the effects of high PVintegration on the power system voltage stability. PV power plant was appliedto the IEEE 30 bus test system. Modal analysis method is used to show theeffect of PV integration on power system voltage stability. The power rate ofsynchronous generator in the IEEE 30 bus system is increased to show the powersystem stability effect of high PV penetration and then the PV generation withthe same power rate is connected appropriate bus in power system. The modal...

  15. Phlebotomine mortality effect of systemic insecticides administered to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Sonia Ares; Curdi, Javier Lucientes; Hernandez, Juan Antonio Castillo; Peris, Paz Peris; Gil, Adriana Esteban; Velasquez, Ronald Vladimir Oropeza; Hernandez, Paula Ortega; Picado, Albert

    2018-04-05

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is an important disease in humans and dogs. Different mammal species are reservoirs but dogs are considered to be the main one. Phlebotomine sand flies are the proven vector. Four systemic insecticides approved for their use in dogs were previously selected based on their potential to be used in endemic countries as part of the control programs of ZVL. These insecticides are proved to be safe and effective against the on-label insects and parasites, but there is no information about their activity against phlebotomine sand flies. The phlebotomine mortality of four systemic insecticides in dogs was evaluated using two randomized clinical trials. For the first trial, thirty dogs were randomly allocated into five groups: four treatments and one control, of equal size. The treatments evaluated were: Guardian®SR, Elanco (moxidectin); Comfortis®, Elanco (spinosad); Bravecto®, Merck Animal Health (fluralaner); and NexGard®, Merial (afoxolaner). Blood from dogs was taken at days 2, 4, 21 and 31 post-treatment (trial 1). The compound that showed the highest efficacy was selected for a second trial (trial 2) with 20 dogs sampled at days 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 18, 32, 39, 51 and 84 post-treatment. Membrane feeding bioassays with Phlebotomus papatasi were used to evaluate the phlebotomine mortality efficacy of the different treatments. Phlebotomine mortality was observed every 24 h following the membrane feeding during 5 days. A mixed model for a negative binomial logistic regression, and a Cox proportional hazard mixed model were used to estimate phlebotomine mortality due to different treatments. Fluralaner was the only compound that showed significant phlebotomine mortality. Fluralaner maintained the phlebotomine mortality between 60-80% for 30 days after treatment. In trial 1 we found that fluralaner increased the risk of death by 1.9 times (95% CI: 1.02-3.6) and 1.7 times (95% CI: 1.09-2.6) at

  16. Effect of systemic insulin treatment on diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Nasibeh; Jahangiri, Younes; Landry, Gregory J; Moneta, Gregory L; Azarbal, Amir F

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates if different diabetic treatment regimens affect diabetic foot ulcer healing. From January 2013 to December 2014, 107 diabetic foot ulcers in 85 patients were followed until wound healing, amputation or development of a nonhealing ulcer at the last follow-up visit. Demographic data, diabetic treatment regimens, presence of peripheral vascular disease, wound characteristics, and outcome were collected. Nonhealing wound was defined as major or minor amputation or those who did not have complete healing until the last observation. Median age was 60.0 years (range: 31.1-90.1 years) and 58 cases (68.2%) were males. Twenty-four cases reached a complete healing (healing rate: 22.4%). The median follow-up period in subjects with classified as having chronic wounds was 6.0 months (range: 0.7-21.8 months). Insulin treatment was a part of diabetes management in 52 (61.2%) cases. Insulin therapy significantly increased the wound healing rate (30.3% [20/66 ulcers] vs. 9.8% [4/41 ulcers]) (p = 0.013). In multivariate random-effect logistic regression model, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, type of diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease, oral hypoglycemic use, wound infection, involved side, presence of Charcot's deformity, gangrene, osteomyelitis on x-ray, and serum hemoglobin A1C levels, insulin treatment was associated with a higher chance of complete healing (beta ± SE: 15.2 ± 6.1, p = 0.013). Systemic insulin treatment can improve wound healing in diabetic ulcers after adjusting for multiple confounding covariates. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  17. Effect of different winter pruning systems on grapes produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Caprara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these trials was to evaluate possible effects on properties of grapes, particularly the physical and mechanical features, depending on the winter pruning system. The following pruning techniques were carried out: manual pruning (m; mechanical pruning (M; mechanical pre-pruning and subsequent manual finishing (Mm; mechanical pre-pruning and contemporary fast manual finishing, using a wagon facility with two operators equipped with pneumatic scissors (Mw. The trials were carried out on Sangiovese trained to spurred cordon. During the trials were measured: time and cost of pruning, quality of pruning and the vegetative-productive response of vines. During grape harvesting a consolidated analytical method of texture analysis was applied to evaluate the physical parameters of grapevine cultivar: pedicel detachment, skin perforation, skin thickness, grape features as hardness, cohesiveness, springiness. Analysis of working time showed that the manual pruning (m determined a greater commitment of time, while the mechanized pruning (M presented a time reduction of 95%. The two mechanized pruning associated with manual finishing reduced the time of 21% (Mm and 69% (Mw. The lowering cost is less evident but important anyway. Regarding the quality of pruning, the increase in the level of mechanization has produced an increase of spurs and buds density. It was also detected a higher percentage of damaged spurs and in wrong position. The increasing of mechanization levels of pruning also has produced smaller and sparser bunches with smaller berries. The study of mechanical properties of berries showed significant differences in the mechanical behaviours of the different pruning tests. The mechanized pruning presented higher values for the pedicel detachment, skin perforation and cohesiveness, while it gave lower values for thickness of skin and springiness. The results showed that mechanical pruning can modify properties of the berries which

  18. Acute effects of Surya Namaskar on the cardiovascular & metabolic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Bhavesh Surendra

    2011-07-01

    With the recent rise in obesity awareness and the increased understanding of the importance of physical activity in promoting overall health, greater emphasis has been placed on improving physical fitness to enhance quality of life. Surya Namaskar, a component of Hatha Yoga, has been practiced by Asian Indians for hundreds of years and is often used in place of a typical fitness program. It consists of a series of postures (asanas) that are repeated 12 times per round. Only one published study has looked specifically at Surya Namaskar, measuring the energy cost of individual asanas (Sinha et al., 2004). However, practitioners typically perform several rounds of the asanas during a session. To assess the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of four rounds of Surya Namaskar, a typical amount performed by practitioners, to determine its potential as a training and weight loss tool. Six healthy Asian Indian men and women (18-22 years) who had trained in Surya Namaskar for over two years participated in the study. Testing was completed in a single session lasting about 30 min. To measure heart rate and oxygen consumption while performing the four rounds, participants were connected to a heart rate monitor and the Oxycon Mobile Metabolic System. Participants exercised at 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) during Round 2, 84% during Round 3, and 90% during Round 4. Average intensity during the four rounds was 80% HRmax, sufficient to elicit a cardiorespiratory training effect. Oxygen consumption averaged 26 ml/kg/min during each round, resulting in an energy expenditure of 230 kcals during a 30 min session for a 60 kg individual. Regular practice of Surya Namaskar may maintain or improve cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as promote weight management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of radiation and serotonin treatment on serotoninergic system of mouse fetal mesencephalon and diencophalon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronova, A.Ya.; Proshlyakova, E.V.; Konstantinova, M.M.; Panaeva, S.V.; Podmareva, O.N.; Voronova, S.N.; Ugryumov, M.V.; Turpaev, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Effect of radiation and introduction of serotonin before and after irradiation in the critical period of nervous system development on functional state of serotoninergic system of the mice marrow by the moment of their birth was determined. The revealed radioprotective effect of serotonin and its therapeutic effect after irradiation show that these effects are not conditioned by changes in the functional state of the serotoninergic system of the average and intermediate marrow of the mice fetus

  20. Marketing Management Support Systems: evolution, adoption and effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Wierenga, Berend; Bruggen, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA Marketing Management Support Systems can be defined as any device combining (i) information technology, (ii) marketing data and/ or knowledge, and (iii) analytical capabilities, made available to one or more marketing decision-makers with the objective to improve the quality of marketing decision-making. In this paper we present a categorization scheme for marketing management support systems. Three types of MMSS, developed so far, can be identified: marketing information system...

  1. THE EFFECTS OF AUTOMATIC ENROLLMENT SYSTEM ON INDIVIDUAL PENSION SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    AKIN, Faruk

    2018-01-01

    When compared to its worldwide applications, the Individual Pension System hasshown a significant growth since its launch year of 2003. Among the funds collectedwithin the Individual Pension System, lets the realization of several importantgoals such as the increasing the country's savings volume, providing a long-termfund inflow to the markets and increasing the welfare levels of the participantsduring their retirement period. Starting with January 1st , 2017, Individual PensionSystem w...

  2. Evaluation of video detection systems, volume 1 : effects of configuration changes in the performance of video detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The effects of modifying the configuration of three video detection (VD) systems (Iteris, Autoscope, and Peek) : are evaluated in daytime and nighttime conditions. Four types of errors were used: false, missed, stuck-on, and : dropped calls. The thre...

  3. Radiation 101: Effects on Hardware and Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    We present basic information on different types of radiation effects, including total ionizing dose, displacement damage, and single-event effects. The content is designed to educate space weather professionals, space operations professionals, and other science and engineering stakeholders.

  4. Cost effectiveness methodology for evaluating Korean international communication system alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Tae Kyun.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Cost and Effectiveness models are developed by using of cost-effectiveness technique for fiber optic cable and satellite communication media. The models are applied to the Korean international communication problem. Alternative selection is required since the two medias different in cost and effectiveness. The major difficulties encountered were data gathering and measuring the effectiveness of the Korean international ...

  5. A review of effective flood forecasting, warning and response system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Last mentioned are the reason for absence in South Africa of a formal flood forecast, warning and response system (FFWRS). In most cases where a flood warning system exists, there is evidence that it is insufficient, mainly because of a lack of knowledge and understanding of a well-functioning, appropriate FFWRS.

  6. Some effects of system information in instructions for use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Joyce; Steehouder, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate whether it is useful to add system information to procedural information in instructional text. It was assumed that readers of instructions construct both a procedural and a system mental model, and that the latter enables the readers to infer possible

  7. The effectiveness of workflow management systems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, H.A.; Vanderfeesten, I.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Workflow management systems coordinate and allocate work through the various stages of executing business processes. The benefits of such systems appear pervasive, but no hard data is available that confirms that their implementation improves organizational performance. In part, this is due to the

  8. Design and implementation of an effective information system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generation Universities like the University of Port Harcourt has brought its own attendant ... system various data object models were used such as the Data Access Object ... ActiveX Data Object. The implementation is done using Microsoft Visual Basic With the developed system, it is possible to add, delete, update or edit

  9. An effective collaborative movie recommender system with cuckoo search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Katarya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems are information filtering tools that aspire to predict the rating for users and items, predominantly from big data to recommend their likes. Movie recommendation systems provide a mechanism to assist users in classifying users with similar interests. This makes recommender systems essentially a central part of websites and e-commerce applications. This article focuses on the movie recommendation systems whose primary objective is to suggest a recommender system through data clustering and computational intelligence. In this research article, a novel recommender system has been discussed which makes use of k-means clustering by adopting cuckoo search optimization algorithm applied on the Movielens dataset. Our approach has been explained systematically, and the subsequent results have been discussed. It is also compared with existing approaches, and the results have been analyzed and interpreted. Evaluation metrics such as mean absolute error (MAE, standard deviation (SD, root mean square error (RMSE and t-value for the movie recommender system delivers better results as our approach offers lesser value of the mean absolute error, standard deviation, and root mean square error. The experiment results obtained on Movielens dataset stipulate that the proposed approach may provide high performance regarding reliability, efficiency and delivers accurate personalized movie recommendations when compared with existing methods. Our proposed system (K-mean Cuckoo has 0.68 MAE, which is superior to existing work (0.78 MAE [1] and also has improvement of our previous work (0.75 MAE [2].

  10. Technical report for effective estimation and improvement of quality system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the methods on how to improve the Quality System, in R and D part. This report applies on the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in nuclear projects. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of improvement of QA systems

  11. STATCOM's Effects on Stability Improvement of Induction Generator based Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    Large number of wind turbines are being installed and connected to power systems. In some countries or networks, the penetration level of wind power is significant high so as to affect the power system operation and control. Consequently, the stable operation of wind turbine systems is very impor...... important for power system stability. This paper studies the effect of STATCOM on stability improvement of a wind turbine system. The function of the STATCOM in improving the system stability has been demonstrated....

  12. Many-body effects in coupled light-matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordyuh, Mykola

    Interaction between light and matter is one of the most basic processes in nature and represents a cornerstone in our understanding of a broad range of physical phenom- ena. The increasing level of control over light-matter interactions with atomic and solid-state systems has brought forth a new class of quantum many-body systems realized on photon lattices where light and matter play equally important roles in emergent phenomena. Systems of strongly interacting atoms and photons, that can be realized by wiring up individual cavity QED systems into lattices, are perceived as a new platform for engineering synthetic hybrid light-matter systems. While sharing important properties with other systems of interacting quantum particles, here we argue that the nature of light-matter interaction gives rise to unique features with no analogs in condensed matter or atomic physics setups. The central topic of the thesis is a lattice of cavity QED systems described by the Rabi-Hubbard model. We de- scribe the most prominent features of the model associated with quantum criticality. We consider a realistic case of the system open to the environment and investigate thermal radiation from a lattice of cavity QED systems. Next, we demonstrate that the output radiation displays unique features associated with collective excitations of light and matter. Further, we consider a non-equilibrium lattice of cavity QED systems and demonstrate exotic attractors in the phase diagram, associated with the action of the environment, not present in the equilibrium analogs. We conclude the discussions with a theory of measurement applied to the non-equilibrium Dicke model and compare our findings to a recent experiment.

  13. Exoplanetary System Dynamics: Planetary Multiplicity and Mass Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoe, Mari; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Turner, Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Recently numerous systems consisting of multiple exoplanets have been discovered. Using a dataset of 375 systems (500 planets) discovered by the radial velocity method and 365 systems (899 planets) containing planet candidates found by the Kepler Mission, we investigate the dependence of the dynamical structure of planetary systems on their multiplicity and the masses of the member planets. We classify the planetary system by three parameters: planetary multiplicity, planetary mass, and the evolutionary stage of the central star. We normalize planetary masses by the mass of the central star and divide the planets into small and large categories by a cut at $10^{-4}$. The central star is classified into main-sequence or giant according to its evolutionary stage. We focus on the angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the systems and the orbital separation between adjacent planets normalized by their Hill radii. We find that in all categories the system AMD decreases with increasing multiplicity. This suggests that in order for multiple systems to be stable, each planet's orbit must be relatively circular. In addition, we find that the distribution of orbital eccentricities of the massive planets and low-mass planets differs. In particular, only high-mass planets have eccentricities larger than 0.4. In the low-mass systems around main sequence stars, we find that the orbital separation decreases with increasing multiplicity. In addition, the orbital separation around main-sequence stars is wider than that around giants. Furthermore, the minimum orbital separation is about 6.4 for non-resonant pairs. This paper presents the statistical properties of the dynamical structure of multiple planetary systems and discusses their formation.

  14. The effect of reminder systems on patients' adherence to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenerty SD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah D Fenerty1, Cameron West1, Scott A Davis1, Sebastian G Kaplan3, Steven R Feldman1,2,41Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, 4Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USABackground: Patient adherence is an important component of the treatment of chronic disease. An understanding of patient adherence and its modulating factors is necessary to correctly interpret treatment efficacy and barriers to therapeutic success.Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to systematically review published randomized controlled trials of reminder interventions to assist patient adherence to prescribed medications.Methods: A Medline search was performed for randomized controlled trials published between 1968 and June 2011, which studied the effect of reminder-based interventions on adherence to self-administered daily medications.Results: Eleven published randomized controlled trials were found between 1999 and 2009 which measured adherence to a daily medication in a group receiving reminder interventions compared to controls receiving no reminders. Medication adherence was measured as the number of doses taken compared to the number prescribed within a set period of time. Meta-analysis showed a statistically significant increase in adherence in groups receiving a reminder intervention compared to controls (66.61% versus 54.71%, 95% CI for mean: 0.8% to 22.4%. Self-reported and electronically monitored adherence rates did not significantly differ (68.04% versus 63.67%, P = 1.0. Eight of eleven studies showed a statistically significant increase in adherence for at least one of the reminder group arms compared to the control groups receiving no reminder intervention.Limitations: The data are limited by imperfect measures of adherence due to variability in data collection methods. It is also likely

  15. Effects of wireless packet loss in industrial process control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkang; Candell, Richard; Moayeri, Nader

    2017-05-01

    Timely and reliable sensing and actuation control are essential in networked control. This depends on not only the precision/quality of the sensors and actuators used but also on how well the communications links between the field instruments and the controller have been designed. Wireless networking offers simple deployment, reconfigurability, scalability, and reduced operational expenditure, and is easier to upgrade than wired solutions. However, the adoption of wireless networking has been slow in industrial process control due to the stochastic and less than 100% reliable nature of wireless communications and lack of a model to evaluate the effects of such communications imperfections on the overall control performance. In this paper, we study how control performance is affected by wireless link quality, which in turn is adversely affected by severe propagation loss in harsh industrial environments, co-channel interference, and unintended interference from other devices. We select the Tennessee Eastman Challenge Model (TE) for our study. A decentralized process control system, first proposed by N. Ricker, is adopted that employs 41 sensors and 12 actuators to manage the production process in the TE plant. We consider the scenario where wireless links are used to periodically transmit essential sensor measurement data, such as pressure, temperature and chemical composition to the controller as well as control commands to manipulate the actuators according to predetermined setpoints. We consider two models for packet loss in the wireless links, namely, an independent and identically distributed (IID) packet loss model and the two-state Gilbert-Elliot (GE) channel model. While the former is a random loss model, the latter can model bursty losses. With each channel model, the performance of the simulated decentralized controller using wireless links is compared with the one using wired links providing instant and 100% reliable communications. The sensitivity of the

  16. The effects of steel fibre reinforced concrete on system ductility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz, U. S.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel fibre-reinforced concrete is being used extensively today in both field applications and experimental studies on concrete strength and ductility. The state of passive confinement generated by the fibre delays cracking and enhances ductility. The present paper reports on both experimental and analytical studies. In the former, a series of 16 steel-fibre reinforced concrete prismatic specimens were subjected to axial loads and the respective axial load-unit strain diagrams were subsequently plotted to determine the effect of steel fibres on reinforced concrete column ductility. Secondly, an analytical study was run to determine the additional ductility accruing to a frame system when steel fibres are included in the concrete. Analytical models were generated for 16 two-storey, single-span reinforced concrete frames. The columns in these frames were designed to the same characteristics as the specimens used in the experimental tests. Non-linear static (pushover analyses were performed for each frame to obtain load-displacement curves and determine the effect of steel fibres on reinforced concrete column ductility.El hormigón reforzado con fibra de acero se emplea actualmente tanto en obra como en los trabajos experimentales para estudiar la resistencia mecánica y ductilidad del hormigón. El estado de confinamiento pasivo producido por la fibra retrasa la fisuración y aumenta la ductilidad. El presente trabajo es de índole tanto experimental como analítica. En primer lugar, en la parte experimental se aplica una fuerza axial a 16 probetas prismáticas (160 x 160 x 840 mm de hormigón reforzado con fibra de acero para determinar su comportamiento, obteniéndose las curvas de fuerza axial-deformación unitaria correspondientes a partir de los resultados observados. A partir de una evaluación de dichos resultados experimentales, se determina el efecto que ejercen las fibras de acero sobre la ductilidad de las probetas de hormigón armado

  17. Integrated systems understanding using bayesian networks: measuring the effectiveness of a weapon system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Waal, A

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Self-Guided weapon system. The results indicate that the method integrates and quantifies links between sub-systems to an extent where questions asked by the end-user can be answered in a quantitative manner...

  18. Effect of farming system on colour components of wheat noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lacko-Bartosova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colour of noodles is definitely a key element of a consumer's buying decisions. It can be influenced by many factors. Conditions, under which is winter wheat grown, can be considered as one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate colour of noodles that were prepared from winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated arable farming systems, after different forecrops with two levels of fertilization (fertilized and unfertilized during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Winter wheat noodles were prepared from white flour and wholegrain flour and its colour was evaluated using the spectro-colorimeter. Colour was measured by three coordinates: lightness L*, red/ green value a* and yellow/ blue value b*. Wholegrain noodles had lower L* value, so they were darker than white flour noodles, with higher redness and higher yellowness. Colour of white flour noodles and wholegrain noodles was significantly influenced by crop nutrition (fertilized and unfertilized variants, farming system and meteorological conditions during experimental years. Wholegrain noodles from ecological system were darker, with lower lightness and higher redness compared to noodles from integrated system. White flour noodles from ecological system were also darker compared to noodles from integrated system. Fertilization decreased lightness of white flour noodles, on the contrary, fertilization increased the lightness and decreased the redness of wholegrain noodles. In non-fertilized treatment, ecological wheat noodles were darker, with higher redness and yellowness than noodles prepared from winter wheat grown in integrated arable farming system.

  19. Effective Consultants: A Conceptual Framework for Helping School Systems Achieve Systemic Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazle Bussey, Leslie; Welch, Jennie C.; Mohammed, Meca B.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of organisations--universities, non-profits, independent consultants--are emerging as partners to school systems pursuing systemic improvement. This proliferation invites questions probing the interaction between school systems and their consulting partners. Drawing on a cross-disciplinary review of literature, this theoretical…

  20. Engineering Value-Effective Healthcare Solutions: A Systems Design Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Our modern healthcare systems commonly face an important dilemma. While they depend on innovation to provide continuously greater healthcare value, they also struggle financially with the burden of adopting a continuous flow of new products and services. Although several disruptive healthcare...... of Design for Evolvability and by elaborating on two examples: MRI systems and Point-of-Care in-vitro diagnostics solutions. We specifically argue that Design for Evolvability can realign the agendas of various healthcare stakeholders, serving both individual and national interests. We finally acknowledge...... the limitations of current engineering design practices and call for new theoretical and empirical research initiatives taking a systems perspective on healthcare product and service design....

  1. Analysis of dynamic effects in solar thermal energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines a study the purpose of which is to assess the performance of solar thermal power systems insofar as it depends on the dynamic character of system components and the solar radiation which drives them. Using a dynamic model, the daily operation of two conceptual solar conversion systems was simulated under varying operating strategies and several different time-dependent radiation intensity functions. These curves ranged from smoothly varying input of several magnitudes to input of constant total energy whose intensity oscillated with periods from 1/4 hour to 6 hours.

  2. Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors' analyses are based on a suite of approaches: physiological information, historical analogs, simulation and statistical analyses, and expert judgment. Because of the great complexity of ecosystems across the global landscape and the temporal and spatial complexity of potential nuclear-war induced climatic disturbances, it is not possible uniquely to characterize the effects on ecosystems. A biome approach has been chosen as an appropriate level for generalization of potential effects. Northern Hemisphere temperate terrestrial ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems, tropical ecosystems, and Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical ecosystems are addressed. The ecosystem discussions emphasize effects on the primary producers, in large part because those components are fundamental to the total ecosystem and are often especially vulnerable to the types of perturbations considered here. Estimates of effects on fauna are largely based on those mediated through changes in food supplies. Further study of effects on trophic structures and of indirect effects on species propagated through the complex interactions of ecosystems is required

  3. Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

    2011-12-01

    Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

  4. Informatization tools (means of study effectiveness checking based on hierarchy system of tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Викторович Криволапов

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Study effectiveness checking system, based on tasks hierarchy system is considered in this article. Introduced performance score model, can not only helps along time saving and teacher's work facilitation but gives more objective appraisal of student's knowledge.

  5. Finite-temperature effective potential of a system with spontaneously broken symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E.P. [Yaroslavl State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    A quantum-mechanical system with spontaneously broken symmetry is considered the effective potential is determined, and it is shown that with reduction of temperature the system undergoes a phase transition of the first kind.

  6. K-intercalated carbon systems: Effects of dimensionality and substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2012-06-01

    Density functional theory is employed to investigate the electronic properties of K-intercalated carbon systems. Young\\'s modulus indicates that the intercalation increases the intrinsic stiffness. For K-intercalated bilayer graphene on SiC(0001) the Dirac cone is maintained, whereas a trilayer configuration exhibits a small splitting at the Dirac point. Interestingly, in contrast to many other intercalated carbon systems, the presence of the SiC(0001) substrate does not suppress but rather enhances the charge carrier density. Reasonably high values are found for all systems, the highest carrier density for the bilayer. The band structure and electron-phonon coupling of free-standing K-intercalated bilayer graphene points to a high probability for superconductivity in this system. © 2012 Europhysics Letters Association.

  7. Training Effectiveness Evaluation of the VESUB Technology Demonstration System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hays, Robert

    1998-01-01

    ...) technology demonstration system. A two-phase TEE was conducted at the Submarine Training Facility, Norfolk, VA and the Naval Submarine School, Groton, CT using Navy trainees ranging in experience from Junior Officers to qualified...

  8. Effects of engineered nanoparticles on the innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanchang; Hardie, Joseph; Zhang, Xianzhi; Rotello, Vincent M

    2017-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have broad applications in industry and nanomedicine. When NPs enter the body, interactions with the immune system are unavoidable. The innate immune system, a non-specific first line of defense against potential threats to the host, immediately interacts with introduced NPs and generates complicated immune responses. Depending on their physicochemical properties, NPs can interact with cells and proteins to stimulate or suppress the innate immune response, and similarly activate or avoid the complement system. NPs size, shape, hydrophobicity and surface modification are the main factors that influence the interactions between NPs and the innate immune system. In this review, we will focus on recent reports about the relationship between the physicochemical properties of NPs and their innate immune response, and their applications in immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wind Farms’ Spatial Distribution Effect on Power System Reserves Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The wind power development during last millennium was typically based on small wind turbines dispersed over large areas, leading to a significant smoothing of the wind power fluctuations in a power system balancing area. The present development goes towards much larger wind farms, concentrated...... in smaller areas, which causes the total wind power fluctuations in power system areas to increase significantly. The impact of future large wind farms spatial distribution with respect to the power system reserve requirements is analyzed in this paper. For this purpose, Correlated Wind (CorWind) power time...... series simulation model developed to simulate wind power variability over a large area is used. As a study case, two scenarios for short term offshore wind power development in the West Danish power system region are used. The first scenario assumes that all the wind farms are built in the region...

  10. Perinatal Environmental Effects on the Neonatal Immune System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2014-01-01

    are thought to be programmed in utero supporting a role of the early environment. The aim of the present PhD thesis was to study if known risk factors are imprinted in the immune system of newborns. The hypotheses were that cesarean section and season of birth would influence the immune signature in early...... that the seasonal-related maternal exposome is reflected in the newborn immune system. These data supports the notion that environmental factors imprints immunological variation already in the perinatal life. In conclusion, studies on early immunological priming may be critical in order to understanding early...... disease programming and subsequent to be able to direct future research on disease preventative strategies. We identified mode of delivery and birth season as important risk factors acting on the perinatal immune system. Collectively, our results suggest that the neonatal immune system may be imprinted...

  11. A Fusion of Multiagent Functionalities for Effective Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Sadhasivan, Dhanalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Kannapiran

    2017-01-01

    Provision of high security is one of the active research areas in the network applications. The failure in the centralized system based on the attacks provides less protection. Besides, the lack of update of new attacks arrival leads to the minimum accuracy of detection. The major focus of this paper is to improve the detection performance through the adaptive update of attacking information to the database. We propose an Adaptive Rule-Based Multiagent Intrusion Detection System (ARMA-IDS) to...

  12. Failure modes and effects analysis of fusion magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, M.; Kazimi, M.S.; Siu, N.O.; Thome, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    A failure modes and consequence analysis of fusion magnet system is an important contributor towards enhancing the design by improving the reliability and reducing the risk associated with the operation of magnet systems. In the first part of this study, a failure mode analysis of a superconducting magnet system is performed. Building on the functional breakdown and the fault tree analysis of the Toroidal Field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET), several subsystem levels are added and an overview of potential sources of failures in a magnet system is provided. The failure analysis is extended to the Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of interactions within the fusion device caused by the operation of the PF magnets is presented in the form of an Interaction Matrix. A number of these interactions may have significant consequences for the TF magnet system particularly interactions triggered by electrical failures in the PF magnet system. In the second part of this study, two basic categories of electrical failures in the PF magnet system are examined: short circuits between the terminals of external PF coils, and faults with a constant voltage applied at external PF coil terminals. An electromagnetic model of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is used to examine the mechanical load conditions for the PF and the TF coils resulting from these fault scenarios. It is found that shorts do not pose large threats to the PF coils. Also, the type of plasma disruption has little impact on the net forces on the PF and the TF coils. 39 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs

  13. Effective Acquisition Strategies for Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    which, in its original form, altogether banned contractors from developing a system and providing SETA services for that system. Defense...even though it is not delivering the estimated savings ( Erwin , 2010). He went on to say that reducing costs was never the primary purpose of...insourcing; rather, he stated that it was to bring inherently governmental positions back into the government ( Erwin , 2010). Inherently Governmental

  14. Tank Weapon System Management. A Program for Maximum Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-19

    series of processes directed toward the procurement, training, utilization, separatior., development and DEFINITIOC motivation ot military personnel...Vehicle Mechanic) is substitutable with MOS 638 (Wheel Vehiclu Mechanic), MOS 630 (Fuel and Electrical Systems Repairman), and MOS 63H (Auto- motive ...potential of the tank force are presentee in subsequent paragraphs along with recommendations for system inprovement. 111-9 fit r EllI FIXING Findings 1

  15. Latent effectiveness of desiccant wheel: A silica gels- water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, A. A.; Mohamed, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    A latent heat effectiveness model in term of dimensionless groups? =f (NTU, m * ,Crm * ) for energy wheel has been analytically derived. The energy wheel is divided into humidification and dehumidification sections. For each section macroscopic mass differential equations for gas and the matrix were applied. In this process local latent effectiveness (? c ,? h ) for the humidification and dehumidification section of the wheel were obtained. The Latent effectiveness of the wheel is then derived form local effectiveness [? =f (? c ,? h)]. The model is compared with the existing experimental investigation and manufacturer data for energy wheel. More than 90% of the experimental data within a confidence limit of 95%. (Author)

  16. Lithium isotope effect in the extraction systems of polyethers: effect of salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shengqiang; Fu Lian

    1991-01-01

    Separation factors of lithium isotopes at 20 deg C were determined in the extraction systems of B15C5-CHCl 3 /LiBr-H 2 O. The initial concentration of LiBr was controlled in the extent of more than 2 mol/l. It may be established that the increase of LiBr concentration causes a remarkable increase of the separation factor. The essence of this effect due to the change in salt concentration was discussed in connection with examination of relevant phenomena in literature. It can be concluded that the relationship between α and Cm, the concentration of lithium salt, is dependent on K Q and K P express respectively, lithium isotope exchange equilibrium constants between Li-crownether complex and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration less than 1-2 mol/l, and between lithium salt ion pair and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration more than 2 mol/l in aqueous phase

  17. Analysis of the Effect of Information System Quality to Intention to Reuse of Employee Management Information System (Simpeg Based on Information Systems Success Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto Tri Lathif Mardi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of Information Quality, Systems Quality and Service Quality on the user intention to reuse Employee Management Information System (SIMPEG in University in the city of Surabaya, based on the theoretical foundation of DeLone and McLane Information Systems Success (ISS Model. The distribution of questionnaire was conducted to 120 employees of different universities by means of stratified random sampling. The results showed that: (1 there is a significant positive effect of the System Quality on the Quality of Information, (2 there is a significant positive effect of the Information Quality on the Intention to Reuse, information related to the fulfillment of the user’s needs; (3 there is a significant positive effect of the Quality of the Intention on system re-use, the system related to the fulfillment of the needs of users; (4 there is no effect of the Quality of Service to the Intention to Reuse. In the end, the results of this study provide an analysis and advice to The University officials that can be used as a consideration for Information Technology/Information System investment and development in accordance with the Success of Information System and Intention to Reuse model.

  18. Systemic Effect of Angipars on Regulation of Wound Healing is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    having angiogenesis properties might be effective in the treatment of diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) complications. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore the regulatory effects of AP on DFS via expression of some CXC chemokines including CXCL1, CXCL10, and. CXCL12 in streptozocin-induced DM in the rat model of ...

  19. A Data Base System To Enhance Exploitation Effectiveness And Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisman, Lee

    1989-02-01

    The ever expanding uses of remote sensing continue to drive requirements in industry, Government, and the military for an imagery data base and processing system that provides timely, flexible support to imagery analysts and yet is simple to use. This paper describes a system called the Digital Enhancement Data Base System (DEDS) that allows real-time image processing, storage, display, and enhancement of multisensor imagery, charts, and textual data. It is an imagery analyst's interactive "shoe box" that can replace hundreds of pounds of hardcopy imagery and collateral information by storing that data in digital, video, and analog forms. The system contains a graphics package that allows annotation of the data to be stored. A split-screen display feature allows side-by-side comparison of new imagery or data with collateral information retrieved from the data base. Futhermore, information in the data base can be recalled and distributed via local wide-area communications networks. The complete system is designed to operate within ruggedized, transportable cases.

  20. Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150 0 C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables

  1. The effect of effective microorganisms (EM on EBPR in modified contact stabilization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M. Rashed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive phosphorus can cause eutrophication in water bodies and needs to be reduced in most wastewaters before discharge to receiving waters. The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process has been shown to be an economical and environmentally compatible method for reducing phosphorus from wastewaters. The experiment has been performed in order to investigate the effect of using effective microorganisms (EM as an application of Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (EBPR in modified contact stabilization activated sludge system by using contact tank as a phosphorus uptake zone and using thickener tank as a phosphorus release zone. The study involved the construction of a pilot plant which was setup in the Quhafa Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP, Al Fayoum, Egypt. Then the uptake and release of total phosphorus were determined through two batch tests using sludge samples from thickener and stabilization tanks. Results showed the removal efficiencies of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and total phosphorus (TP of this pilot plant were 93%, 93% and 90%, respectively. On the other hand the results of batch tests showed that the reason for high ability of phosphorus removal by this pilot plant is related to the high performance of microorganisms for phosphorus accumulation. Finally providing activated EM to the anaerobic zone was to improve fermentation by achieving the enhancement of the performance of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs and then increase phosphorous release resulting in the decrease of the average effluent phosphorus concentration.

  2. Effects of Qigong on Depression: A Systemic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongsang Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and PsycInfo till October 2011. Key words “Qigong,” “depression,” and “mood” were used. Ten studies were identified as original randomized controlled trial (RCT studies investigating the effect of Qigong on depression as primary (n=2 or secondary outcome (n=8. Four studies reported positive results of the Qigong treatment on depression; two reported that Qigong effect on depression was as effective as physical exercise. One study reported that Qigong was comparable to a conventional rehabilitation program, but the remaining three studies found no benefits of Qigong on depression. While the evidence suggests the potential effects of Qigong in the treatment of depression, the review of the literature shows inconclusive results. Further research using rigorous study designs is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong in depression.

  3. Effects of qigong on depression: a systemic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byeongsang; Choi, Sun Mi; Inamori, Aya; Rosenthal, David; Yeung, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and PsycInfo) till October 2011. Key words "Qigong," "depression," and "mood" were used. Ten studies were identified as original randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies investigating the effect of Qigong on depression as primary (n = 2) or secondary outcome (n = 8). Four studies reported positive results of the Qigong treatment on depression; two reported that Qigong effect on depression was as effective as physical exercise. One study reported that Qigong was comparable to a conventional rehabilitation program, but the remaining three studies found no benefits of Qigong on depression. While the evidence suggests the potential effects of Qigong in the treatment of depression, the review of the literature shows inconclusive results. Further research using rigorous study designs is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong in depression.

  4. Effects of radiographic contrast media on the serum complement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirone, P.; Boldrini, E.

    1983-01-01

    The authors explored the activation of the complement system produced by a nonionic organic iodine compound, namely iopamidol, which is proposed as a contrast medium for radiographic examination by intravenous and intra-arterial injection. The study was conducted in vitro versus established ionic contrasts (diatrizoate, iothalamate, acetrizoate) and a nonionic compound (metrizamide). The adopted experimental model was the immunohemolytic detector system, in which the immune complex consisted of goat erythrocytes sensitized with the corresponding antibody (hemolysin), and complement (C') was supplied by guinea pig serum. All the products caused complement activation. The results show that nonionic contrast media produce less activation of the complement system than the traditional ionic contrast. Thus the use of nonionic contrast for radiological procedures necessitating the introduction of contrast material into the blood compartment would imply a reduced risk of anaphylactoid reactions. (orig.)

  5. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  6. Quantum confinement effects in low-dimensional systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /s12043-015-0999-3; ePublication: 3 June 2015. Abstract. The confinement effects of electrons in ultrathin films and nanowires grown on metal- lic and semiconducting substrates investigated using band mapping of their electronic structures.

  7. Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2015-07-16

    We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.

  8. Scientific evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooventhan, A; Nivethitha, L

    2014-05-01

    The use of water for various treatments (hydrotherapy) is probably as old as mankind. Hydrotherapy is one of the basic methods of treatment widely used in the system of natural medicine, which is also called as water therapy, aquatic therapy, pool therapy, and balneotherapy. Use of water in various forms and in various temperatures can produce different effects on different system of the body. Many studies/reviews reported the effects of hydrotherapy only on very few systems and there is lack of studies/reviews in reporting the evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems. We performed PubMed and PubMed central search to review relevant articles in English literature based on "effects of hydrotherapy/balneotherapy" on various systems of the body. Based on the available literature this review suggests that the hydrotherapy has a scientific evidence-based effect on various systems of the body.

  9. A Study of the Social Effects in a Comparative Assessment among the Electricity Generating Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon

    2007-01-01

    A comparative assessment among 7 electricity generating systems by considering their environmental impacts, risks, health effects, and social effects was studied last year. The compared electricity generating systems are nuclear, coal, LNG, hydro, oil, wind, photovoltaic (=solar) ones. In last year's work, the social effects were handled by a public acceptance based on an aversion. However, in this paper, the social effects were also studied by a preference in view of the 'willingness to pay' (WTP). With the new social effects study, a comparative analysis of the 7 electricity generation systems was performed in this paper

  10. Effects of Qigong on Depression: A Systemic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Byeongsang; Choi, Sun Mi; Inamori, Aya; Rosenthal, David; Yeung, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and ...

  11. Is Transformational Leadership Effective in a System Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Management , 31: 12-16 (March-April 1988). 12. Fiedler, Fred E. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1967. 13. Fulghum, David... management and leadership . It was my hope to profit personally from this research by becoming a better leader and manager in the future. I am indebted...centers around the situational theory of lec;Iership, which suggests that the most effective style of leadership depends on the individual situation the

  12. Environmental effects of bio energy systems in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Nour, Salah Eldin Ali

    1999-01-01

    Biomass plays a vital role in Sudan and constitutes about 87% of the total energy consumption. Firewood and charcoal are the main sources of fuel representing more than 90% of household energy. The utilization of the bio energy i.e fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural residues and animal wastes has negative and positive effects on the environment. This paper summarize the environmental impacts and health effects resulting from energy production, supply and consumption

  13. Effective Presentation Speech Support System for Representing Emphasis-Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Kojiri; Takaya Kaji

    2015-01-01

    A research presentation integrates slides and speech. If these two aspects do not represent the same intention, the presentation will probably fail to effectively explain the presenter’s intention. This paper focuses on the representation of the critical contents in a presentation. In an effective speech, the speaker adds more intonation and stress to emphasize the importance of the slide contents. Audiences recognize that important contents are those that are explained in a stronger voice or...

  14. Effective heart disease prediction system using data mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Singh,Poornima; Singh,Sanjay; Pandi-Jain,Gayatri S

    2018-01-01

    Poornima Singh,1 Sanjay Singh,2 Gayatri S Pandi-Jain1 1L. J. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gujarat Technological University, 2Institute of Life Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Ahmedabad University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Abstract: The health care industries collect huge amounts of data that contain some hidden information, which is useful for making effective decisions. For providing appropriate results and making effective decisions on data, some advanced data min...

  15. Can we infer external effects from a study of the Irish indirect tax system?

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David (David Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates implied external effects for the Irish indirect tax system for the year 1987. The study uses the inverse optimum technique of Christiansen and Jansen (1978) which estimates implied external effects, given the assumption that the economy is at an optimum with regard to the indirect tax system. External effects are estimated for three goods: tobacco, alcohol and petrol and in all cases the estimated external effects are of the expected sign. The paper also estimates the imp...

  16. Evaluating the Measure of Effectiveness of Using a Deployed Command and Control System on Land Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    SOA Service-Oriented Architecture SOTM Satellite Communications-on-the-Move SoS System of Systems SwCIs Software Criticality Indices TPM Technical...into the C2 system. To manage stakeholders’ expectations, there is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of the deployed C2 system having implemented ...the C2 system. However, there is a need to recognize the limitations and constraints on the land battlefield to implement these requirements. There

  17. A Socio-technical Analysis of Information Systems Security Assurance : A Case Study for Effective Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Chaula, Job Asheri

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the concepts of Information System (IS) security assurance using a socio-technical framework. IS security assurance deals with the problem of estimating how well a particular security system will function efficiently and effectively in a specific operational environment. In such environments, the IS interact with other systems such as ethical, legal, operational and administrative. Security failure in any of these systems may result in security failure of the whole system...

  18. System Performance of an Inertially Stabilized Gimbal Platform with Friction, Resonance, and Vibration Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Ruting; Nandikolla, Vidya K.; Haggart, Gary; Volk, Charles; Tazartes, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The research work evaluates the quality of the sensor to perform measurements and documents its effects on the performance of the system. It also evaluates if this performance changes due to the environments and other system parameters. These environments and parameters include vibration, system friction, structural resonance, and dynamic system input. The analysis is done by modeling a gimbal camera system that requires angular measurements from inertial sensors and gyros for stabilization. ...

  19. Kondo effect in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Fritz, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic impurities in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems are shown to exhibit a fascinatingly diverse range of Kondo physics, with distinctive experimental spectroscopic signatures. When the Fermi level is precisely at the Dirac point, Dirac semimetals are in fact unlikely candidates for a

  20. Effects of Different Raising Systems on Colour and Some Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    standart

    After standard dissection of carcasses, pectoralis muscles were obtained on which pH, colour (L*, a*, b*, C and H), total aerobic mesophilic, total aerobic psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, yeast-mould and Enterobacteriaceae counts were determined. The different raising systems of the ducks ...