WorldWideScience

Sample records for system environmental assessment

  1. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH...

  2. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, J.M.; Lindeijer, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  3. Conference on Environmental Assessment of Socioeconomic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ittelson, William

    1978-01-01

    Neglect of the relation between the socio-economic system and its natural environment has had detrimental consequences in the past, for example - the pollution of the natural environment (water, air and soil) by producing, using and consuming the products of our industrialized economy, - the forseeable exhaustion of natural resources by continuing the increase of industrial production. Most of the recent activities, both in research and in adminis­ tration, against these impacts have been technically oriented, with the aim of stimulating and introducing new technologies of produc­ tion and new products to diminish the environmental pollution. But these efforts, which are of course necessary, cannot be successful in approaching the aim - which should and must in the long-term view be defined as the development of society in balance with the natural environment. Therefore, in addition to an assess­ ment of technologies, emphasis should be put on an assessment of socio-economic systems. On di~~erent levels, i...

  4. Environmental information system for visualizing environmental impact assessment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserny, Angelika; Kovács, Zsófia; Domokos, Endre; Rédey, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Engineering at the University of Pannonia has undertaken the challenge to develop an online environmental information system. This system is able to receive and process the collected environmental data via Internet. The authors have attached importance to the presentation of the data and have included other comprehensible information for laymen as well in order to work out visualisation techniques that are expressive and attract attention for environmental questions through the developed information system. The ways of visualizing physical and chemical parameters of surface water and the effects of motorway construction were examined.

  5. Power Systems Development Facility. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the PSDF would be to provide a modular facility which would support the development of advanced, pilot-scale, coal-based power systems and hot gas clean-up components. These pilot-scale components would be designed to be large enough so that the results can be related and projected to commercial systems. The facility would use a modular approach to enhance the flexibility and capability for testing; consequently, overall capital and operating costs when compared with stand-alone facilities would be reduced by sharing resources common to different modules. The facility would identify and resolve technical barrier, as well as-provide a structure for long-term testing and performance assessment. It is also intended that the facility would evaluate the operational and performance characteristics of the advanced power systems with both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Five technology-based experimental modules are proposed for the PSDF: (1) an advanced gasifier module, (2) a fuel cell test module, (3) a PFBC module, (4) a combustion gas turbine module, and (5) a module comprised of five hot gas cleanup particulate control devices. The final module, the PCD, would capture coal-derived ash and particles from both the PFBC and advanced gasifier gas streams to provide for overall particulate emission control, as well as to protect the combustion turbine and the fuel cell.

  6. Indicator system for the environmental assessment of energy transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to define a consistent set of indicators for the environmental assessment of different energy transport systems: high-voltage alternating and direct current transmission lines, electric cables, pipelines for gas and oil, inland waterway, road and rail transportation, according to state-of-the-art technologies. The indicator system is used for comparative analysis and identification of environmental hot-spots of the different systems. The environmental performance of power plants close to production or unloading terminals with subsequent power transmission and the transport of fossil fuels with power production close to the end-users is compared. Quantitative indicators are defined for different impact categories: fossil energy depletion, impacts from emissions, land use, noise impacts and visibility. A further aggregation of the different indicators to obtain a universal environmental score was not envisaged. It was not possible to define a quantitative indicator for possible electric and magnetic field effects because of insufficient knowledge of the involved dose-response metrics. The proposed indicators quantify dose-response relationships also below emission or immission limits imposed by law, which was one of the main requirements in this work. By reducing all information to an equivalent impacted area, a high level of consistency was achieved for land use, noise impacts and visibility indicators. Other indicators refer to the energy content of fossil resources and to equivalent emissions of reference substances. The calculation of an equivalent impacted area was not considered an efficient approach in these cases. The performance of the proposed indicator system and its applicability to infrastructure and regional planning is tested in two practical examples. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... may not always be the most environmentally friendly. The EASEWASTE model can identify the most environmentally sustainable solution, which may differ among waste materials and regions and can add valuable information about environmental achievements from each process in a solid waste management system....... to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches...

  8. A Study on improvement of environmental assessment system in social, economic, and environmental sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Young Sook; Koo, Doh Wan; Keum, Kee Yong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental assessment system is assessed as a mechanism that can achieve the goal for environmental policy in 21st century. As it can evaluate social and economic feasibility of large-scale development program, this system can achieve a sustainable society by mitigating social conflicts arising from environmental problems. For making the environmental assessment system substantial, this study was implemented by the need of improvement of the system, by analyzing problems of social, economic, and environmental evaluation, which is implemented under the present system. 44 refs., 1 fig., 25 tabs.

  9. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  10. Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  11. An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Campanhola, Clayton; Kitamura, Paulo Choji

    2003-01-01

    A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation

  12. Overview of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Droppo, J.G.; Hoopes, B.L.; Aiken, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a physics-based risk computation code that integrates source-term, transport, and exposure models. Developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for screening and ranking of environmental problems, MEPAS is designed for site-specific assessments using readily available information to estimate potential health impacts. Risk values are computed for chemical and radioactive carcinogens; while hazard quotients, based on reference doses, are computed for noncarcinogens. This system has wide applicability to a range of environmental problems using air, groundwater, surface-water, overland, and exposure models. Whenever available and appropriate, EPA guidance and models were used to facilitate compatibility and acceptance. Although based on relatively standard transport and exposure computation approaches, the unique feature of MEPAS is that these approaches are integrated into a single system. The use of a single system provides a consistent basis for evaluating health impacts for a large number of problems and sites. Implemented on a desktop computer, a user-friendly shell allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models. The MEPAS guidance documents include sources of information. MEPAS can be used for both screening and assessment applications for the remedial investigation/risk assessment/feasibility study and environment restoration processes

  13. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  14. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) on the environment is presented. Information that has appeared in documents referenced herein is integrated and assimilated. The state-of-knowledge as perceived from recently completed DOE-sponsored studies is disclosed, and prospective research and study programs that can advance the state-of-knowledge and provide an expanded data base for use in an assessment planned for 1980 are defined. Alternatives for research that may be implemented in order to achieve this advancement are also discussed in order that a plan can be selected which will be consistent with the fiscal and time constraints on the SPS Environmental Assessment Program. Health and ecological effects of microwave radiation, nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment (terrestrial operations and space operations), effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are examined in detail. (WHK)

  15. Environmental sustainability assessment of urban systems applying coupled urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of assessing and addressing the environmental sustainability of urban systems is becoming increasingly relevant due to growing urbanization across the globe, higher consumption in urban systems and related competition for finite resource stocks. In this study we present how fused...... urban metabolism (UM) and life cycle assessment (LCA) can be applied to assess the sustainability of urban system, taking into account up- and downstream activities directly or indirectly linked to the metabolism of urban systems. Further we apply the fused UM-LCA approach to assess the absolute...... environmental sustainability of large urban systems by relating the environmental sustainability performance of urban systems with global environmental burden boundaries quantifying pollution thresholds beyond which performance of global ecosystems services may be detrimentally affected....

  16. An overview of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, K.L.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) computer model designed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use in evaluating the health risks associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. This report has been prepared to provide DOE Oak Ridge Field Office personnel with a simplified explanation of MEPAS and an understanding of how MEPAS is used to quantify potential risks to human health. The scope and limitations of the MEPAS model are presented, and the possible contaminant release media and transport pathways are outlined. The two main types of health indexes generated -- the hazard potential index (HPI) and the maximum individual index are described; and calculations used to obtain these indexes are presented. Guidance on interpretation of the HPI is also included. Finally, the HPI calculations for 3 contaminants in a hypothetical environmental problem are demonstrated

  17. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient system of decision making for sustainable socioeconomic development, with an effective environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and effects of such impacts, need to be put in place in order to implement the government policy of environmental protection and safety at the regional ...

  18. Development of 'health and environmental safety assessment network system (HESANS)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1994-01-01

    With the recent advance of the utilization of nuclear energy in a large scale, social interest is being focussed in the potential risk which the nuclear technology will accompany. Especially after the accidents in Chernobyl and other nuclear facilities, serious anxiety to the utilization of nuclear energy is prevailing among the general public. In order to meet the anxiety and distrust of the population in the use of the nuclear power, the health effect or risk which radioactive materials released into the environment will bring about should be comprehensively and properly evaluated, and then should be widely reported to the population. The development of HESANS code system (Health and Environmental Safety Assessment Network System) was planned to set up such a comprehensive computer code that covers a whole pathway of radioactive material from its release to estimates of derived health effects in the population, including the countermeasures for intervention as well. Though the whole system is not totally completed yet so far, the framework of the system has been concreted together with many sub-systems which compose the main part of the code. This report puts main stress on the objective of the development project and the main frame or the structure of the code system. (author)

  19. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment for Combat Survivor/Evader Locator System Testing and Deployment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental issues associated with the Developmental Testing and Operational Assessment of 35 production CSEL radios by DoD personnel at various existing DoD facilities...

  20. LCA for assessing the environmental performance of a company with the environmental management system ISO 14000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigamonti, L.; Perotto, E.

    2008-01-01

    The environmental management system is an ordered pattern to treat and manage environmental issues and to improve the environmental performance of companies. It is proposed an example of application of LCA to a manufacturing company with ISO 14000. [it

  1. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  2. Study on environmental impact assessment index system of uranium production base construction plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochao; Song Liquan

    2008-01-01

    The index system on planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction is discussed by using the hiberarchy method according to characteristics of uranium production and environmental protection object of planning assessment. The suggested index system is in favor of persistent exploitation of uranium resource and environmental protection in the uranium mining area, and can provide a reference for planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction in China. (authors)

  3. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  4. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    . However, the waste hierarchy does not consider the local needs/conditions of each geographical area, and it cannot be used to identify sustainable SWM options by itself. Environmental impact assessment can help with this task as holistic decision-support tool. Nevertheless, waste authorities need economic...... waste prevention (due to avoided food production) could be overtaken by the environmental loads associated with the alternative consumptions purchased with the savings generated from the prevented (unpurchased) food. This could be avoided if prevention campaigns were accompanied by other policies aiming......The Solid Waste Management (SWM) sector has evolved from a simple control of emissions towards a resource recovery sector while still being constrained by strict emission regulations. For that waste authorities are paying increased attention to the waste hierarchy as a set of priorities for solid...

  5. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    According to information collected by United Nations. Environmental Programme (UNEP), EIA provisions now exist in the framework environmental legislation of 55 developing countries (Hartley and Wood, 2005). Public participation in environmental impact assessment— implementing the Aarhus Convention.

  6. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO 2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO 2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO 2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  7. Environmental assessment of 9 European public bus transportation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanaki, Eva; Koroneos, Christophis; Roset, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    The transportation sector is one of the largest sources of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2011, transportation represented approximately 25 percent of total EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. Urban mobility accounts for 40% of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70% of other pollutants...... that affect the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as of air pollutants, in 9 major European cities, aiming to provide a comprehensive overview of the actual knowledge on the atmospheric pollution from public transportation systems. CO2 emissions as well as air pollutants, such as CO, HC, PM, NOx...... are calculated for the diesel and CNG bus fleets of the European cities under study. Finally the environmental benefits, in terms of CO2 and CO, HC, PM, NOx emissions reductions, from the penetration of different biodiesel blends (from B10 to B100) to the bus fleets are estimated....

  8. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  9. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 4(9), pp. 586-594 ... environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and effects of such impacts, need to be put in place in ... the lowest (3%) is in each of the hotel and tourism development, irrigation and apartment buildings, respectively.

  10. Assessment of the Environmental Tax System in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurušs Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental taxes should play an important part in environmental policy as they help to internalize externalities, reduce damage, and increase the quality of life; besides they allow raising revenue for national and local governments. The aim of this paper is to evaluate environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, equity impact, administrative feasibility and cost, and political acceptability of environmental (energy, transport, and natural-resource taxes in Latvia. The study is based on desk research. The results demonstrate little evidence that existing environmental taxes lead to a significant reduction in environmental pollution and waste flows, but they have a significant fiscal effect. Most of the environmental taxes in Latvia apply direct and indirect subsidies, but most of the revenue comes from taxes on energy and transport. Environmental tax rates in Latvia are the result of political compromise and are not backed by the research on environmental costs of the particular activity. This paper fills the gap in environmental policy evaluation by looking at the performance and effectiveness of environmental taxes in Latvia.

  11. Evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, F.; Pediaditi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Syria is a country experiencing rapid change, undergoing a process of political and governance decentralisation, opening its markets to the private sector, and experiencing a rise in infrastructure development. In light of these economic growth targeted changes, knowledge of the status and capacity of the Syrian EIA system to ensure environmental protection becomes of paramount importance. Syria first introduced EIA as a Draft Decree in 1995, which was not formally adopted until 2008. To date, no structured evaluation of Syria's EIA system has been conducted, a knowledge gap addressed through this paper. The research presented herein comprises a review and comparative evaluation of Syrian legislation and procedures, to the EU EIA Directive and World Bank Operational Directive, as well as a series of interviews with Syrian stakeholders involved in EIA implementation. The investigation concluded that the new EIA provisions provide a sound legal basis. From interviews however, it was ascertained that EIA implementation faces a number of barriers such as, a lack of EIA integration into existing decision making and licensing processes and persistent exclusion of public projects from EIA. A number of recommendations are proposed, perceived necessary for the enhancement of EIA implementation in Syria.

  12. The combination of an Environmental Management System and Life Cycle Assessment at the territorial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzi, Anna; Toniolo, Sara; Catto, Stella; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Scipioni, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    A framework to include a Life Cycle Assessment in the significance evaluation of the environmental aspects of an Environmental Management System has been studied for some industrial sectors, but there is a literature gap at the territorial level, where the indirect impact assessment is crucial. To overcome this criticality, our research proposes the Life Cycle Assessment as a framework to assess environmental aspects of public administration within an Environmental Management System applied at the territorial level. This research is structured in two parts: the design of a new methodological framework and the pilot application for an Italian municipality. The methodological framework designed supports Initial Environmental Analysis at the territorial level thanks to the results derived from the impact assessment phase. The pilot application in an Italian municipality EMAS registered demonstrates the applicability of the framework and its effectiveness in evaluating the environmental impact assessment for direct and indirect aspects. Through the discussion of the results, we underline the growing knowledge derived by this research in terms of the reproducibility and consistency of the criteria to define the significance of the direct and indirect environmental aspects for a local public administration. - Highlights: • The combination between Environmental Management System and LCA is studied. • A methodological framework is elaborated and tested at the territorial level. • Life Cycle Impact Assessment supports the evaluation of aspects significance. • The framework assures consistency of evaluation criteria on the studied territory.

  13. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  14. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  15. Life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impact of seven contemporary food waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2018-01-01

    Municipal food waste (FW) represents 35-45% of household residual waste in Australia, with the nation generating 1.6Tg annually. It is estimated that 91% of this FW ends up in landfill. This study used life cycle assessment to determine and compare the environmental impact of seven contemporary FW management systems for two real-life jurisdictions; incorporating the complete waste service and expanding the system to include inert and garden waste. Although, no system exhibited a best ranking across all impact categories, FW digestion based systems were all revealed to have a lower global warming potential than composting and landfilling systems. Mechanical biological treatment, anaerobic co-digestion, and home composting all demonstrated the lowest environmental impacts for two or more of the environmental impact categories assessed. The assessment included market and technological specific variables and uncertainties providing a framework for robust decision making at a municipality level. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental Assessment of Sewage Sludge Management – Focusing on Sludge Treatment Reed Bed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam

    ; however, in the late 1980s, sludge treatment reed bed (STRB) systems were intro-duced in Denmark and in 2016, more than 100 STRB systems were operating in the country. Sludge treatment in STRB systems is often considered more environmentally friendly compared to mechanical sludge treatment technologies......, albeit only a few life cycle assess-ments (LCAs) comparing the environmental performances of sludge treatment technologies include STRB systems. Furthermore, as data on the STRB system technology suitable for LCA are scarce, the results of these LCAs are unreliable. The project aimed at generating data...... in treated sludge when applied to the land. The overall goal of the project was to perform an LCA comparing the environmental performance of the STRB system technology with a conventional technology based on mechanical dewatering of sludge on a decanter centrifuge and subsequent storage. Geographically...

  17. Application of environmental decision support systems for the assessment of health effects due to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.

    2004-01-01

    The RESTORE Environmental Decision Support System (restoration of radioactive contaminated ecosystems) was developed within the 4th framework programme of the European Commission containing a Geographical Information System combined with radioecological data and models. In order to explore its full potential, different applications of such support system are possible: i) the identification of radioecological sensitive areas, ii) its application to other than radioactive pollution by using the necessary transfer models and parameters e.g. for heavy metals, both for the derivation of remediation strategies, and iii) the combination of information on pollution with epidemiological data on recorded health effects. For this purpose a data base containing spatial and temporal information on radioactive and conventional pollution can be combined with ethnic composition, living habits, education, income, age/sex structure, general sanitary situation, production, import and export overlaid with health data e.g. including congenital malformations, cancer, mental retardation, immunological situation, birth certificates and death certificates. Since a spatial but also temporal resolution of data can be achieved, time trends and spatial trends of a potential impact to human health can be demonstrated. (author)

  18. Guidelines for comparative assessment of the environmental impacts of wastes from electricity generation systems. A framework for the assessment and comparison of environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The report describes the initial phase of a project intended to provide guidance to those concerned with environmental aspects of solid and hazardous waste management in electrical energy production systems. The focus is on describing a methodology for assessing and comparing the environmental impact arising from these wastes, and thereby to provide an input to overall electrical generation comparison projects, such as DECADES. The structure of the report is as follows: after considering a range of electrical energy production systems with an outline discussion of the waste streams produced in each case, the relevant treatment technologies and disposal options are reviewed. Then the elements of the framework for comparative assessment proposed in this report are described. The types of environmental impact, environmental protection criteria and indicators or end-points to measure the impact, the way in which such impacts can be quantitatively assessed and compared are discussed. 59 refs, figs and tabs

  19. Performance assessment of hybrid power generation systems: Economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sharafi, Abdullah; Yilbas, Bekir S.; Sahin, Ahmet Z.; Ayar, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A double-step optimization tool for hybrid power generation systems is introduced. • Economical aspects and the impact of the system on the environment are considered. • A hybrid system comprises PV array-wind turbine-battery-diesel engine is considered. • Real time analysis of the system for full year simulation is carried out. • System optimum configuration at point where total performance index is maximized. - Abstract: This article aims to introduce a double-step performance assessment tool for the hybrid power generation systems. As a case study, a hybrid system comprising PV array, wind-turbine, battery bank and diesel engine is incorporated in hourly based simulations to meet power demand of a residence unit at Dhahran area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Different indicators related to economical and environmental performance assessments of the hybrid system have been considered. In the economic related assessment case, cost of electricity, energy excess percentage, and operating life cycle indicators have been considered and combined to develop the first overall performance index. Renewable contribution, renewable source availability and environmental impact indicators have been considered for the environmental assessment case and they are combined in the second performance index. For either economical or environmental cases, the optimum configuration of the system is achieved by maximizing the first and second overall performance indicators. This innovative optimization tools gives the designer the freedom to assign suitable weights associated with economical aspect, environmental impact, governmental regulations and social impact, for the first and second overall performance indicators, and combine them in the total performance index. The optimum system configuration is at the point where the total performance index is maximized.

  20. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: environmental assessment of alternative systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report provides a basis for the comparative assessment of the potential performance capability, technological development, and economic and environmental impact associated with the operation of integrated low-Btu coal-gasification/combined-cycle power systems. Characterization of the integrated power system in terms of fuel processing, power production, and auxiliary systems is followed up with comparisons of alternative integrated-plant-design/fuel combinations with reference to the conventional coal-fired power plant, taking into account both economic and environmental factors. The report includes an assessment of the effects of recent regulatory changes on the prospects for integrated power systems and establishes a timetable for the probable commercial development of such systems by the utilities.

  1. Supplemental mathematical formulations, Atmospheric pathway: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ''multimedia'' model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations

  2. Life cycle assessment of radiorelay systems : A comparative study on the environmental effectsof different transmission media

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroth, Mikael

    1999-01-01

    This degree project, Life cycle assessment of radio relay systems, was conducted at Telia AB, Telia Network Services AB, Farsta, and the section of Industrial Ecology of the Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool with which it is possible to calculate the environmental load from a product, material or service during all the phases in its life cycle. The results presented in this study are based on such...

  3. Planning Support Systems (PSS-Based Spatial Plan Alternatives and Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning is at the core of national land and urban development. Many countries and cities seek sustainable development through various means such as coordinated environmental planning, environmental assessment, and internalization of environmental analysis and planning. A Planning Support System (PSS is a GIS (Geographic Information System-based, spatial decision-making support system that incorporates a variety of theories and pertinent models. This study adopted the “What if?” model to design an alternative spatial plan that includes generation of predictive scenarios and is relatively easy to use. In the cities studied, we identified a total of six scenarios based on the main drivers of development—namely, population and spatial policies. Subsequently, we assessed the alternatives for their environmental impact, preparing sensitivity maps for each major environmental issue in the target area (natural ecosystem, air and microclimate, natural disasters. One projected advantage of the “What if?” model is that its digital visualization of proposed plans may improve public awareness and involvement. Furthermore, the tool is expected to be highly useful in ensuring the objectivity of quantitative analyses. However, it is necessary to develop a PSS that is both standardized and tailored to the particular needs of each area. Finally, the development of an e-governance system will be beneficial in ensuring public access to the decision making process.

  4. Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems: A Case Study in a Plastic Manufacturing Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Comunello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental issue has been discussed sharply in the organizational environment, as consumers, and society in general, have been increasingly concerned about the environment. In this sense, the companies, especially the factories, seek to minimize the environmental impact caused by its production processes through actions that combine the organization's economic interests with environmental concerns. Thus, this article aims to analyze how environmental management of the productive sector is being carried out at Industria Beta Chapecó/SC. Therefore, we developed a qualitative and descriptive research in order to apply the Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems (MAASPI in the production of Industria Beta sector. The results showed the main environmental interventions caused by the production process of the organization, particularly the interventions for the consumption of electricity, plant location and chip storage. As main proposals to minimize negative environmental impacts, we have the installation of translucent tiles in the production environment, a study on energy efficiency, construction of water and soil testing, construction of waste storage terminals and implementation of the pre-selection of the raw material. The realization of the suggested adjustments enables Industria Beta to foresee the legal environmental requirements, to aim for enviromental certifications and seals and to strengthen its image as environment-friendly with collaborators and society in general.

  5. European Monitoring Systems and Data for Assessing Environmental and Climate Impacts on Human Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L. Nichols

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden.

  6. Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Support System and Strategic Environmental Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Torrieri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA as an important tool to ensure sustainable development and reach a high level of environmental protection. More specifically, this paper provides an evaluation method based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS and Multi-criteria Analysis—named Integrated Spatial Multi-criteria Decision Support System (ISMDSS—to support the preparation of environmental assessment reports and the construction of scenarios for the adoption of urban plans, as an innovative tool that integrates objectives and multidimensional (economic, environmental, and social components, as well as different approaches and models for the construction of a long-term shared vision. In particular, considerations are made by presenting a thought-provoking case study on the SEA of the urban plan of the municipality of Marzano di Nola, located in the province of Avellino in the Campania region. The experiment carried out showed the potentiality of the ISMDSS to evaluate the impacts of different scenarios with the aim of developing a sustainable urban municipal plan. The spatial dimension is useful in understanding the dynamics that characterize each environmental topic in a specific area, by considering not only the components of the natural and developed environment, but also the interactions with social and economic components.

  7. Environmental assessment for the electric utility system distribution, replacements and upgrades at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the environmental effects resulting from the distribution of new electrical service, replacement of inadequate or aging equipment, and upgrade of the existing electrical utility system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The projects assessed herein do not impact cultural or historic resources, sensitive habitats or wetlands and are not a source of air emissions. The potential environmental effects that do result from the action are fugitive dust and noise from construction and the disposal of potentially contaminated soil removed from certain limited areas of the LLNL site as a result of trenching for underground transmission lines. The actions described in this assessment represent an improved safety and reliability to the existing utility system. Inherent in the increased reliability and upgrades is a net increase in electrical capacity, with future expansion reserve. As with any electrical device, the electrical utility system has associated electric and magnetic fields that present a potential source of personnel exposure. The potential is not increased, however, beyond that which already exists for the present electrical utility system

  8. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  9. Environmental Assessment for Alternate Water Supply System, Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Newport News, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Pick-up truck 83-94 Dump truck 83-94 Environmental Assessment for Alternate Water Supply System , Joint Base Langley-Eustis FINAL – May 2013 18...scheduled maintenance on the Newport News system . Hydraulic modeling was used to evaluate pressures in an elevated storage tank for four different... System , Joint Base Langley-Eustis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  10. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part I: Monitoring system and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Li, H; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    To comprehensively assess conventional vs. some alternative laying-hen housing systems under U.S. production conditions, a multi-institute and multi-disciplinary project, known as the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) study, was carried out at a commercial egg production farm in the Midwestern United States over two single-cycle production flocks. The housing systems studied include a conventional cage house (200,000 hen capacity), an aviary house (50,000 hen capacity), and an enriched colony house (50,000 hen capacity). As an integral part of the CSES project, continual environmental monitoring over a 27-month period described in this paper quantifies indoor gaseous and particulate matter concentrations, thermal environment, and building ventilation rate of each house. Results showed that similar indoor thermal environments in all three houses were maintained through ventilation management and environmental control. Gaseous and particulate matter concentrations of the enriched colony house were comparable with those of the conventional cage house. In comparison, the aviary house had poorer indoor air quality, especially in wintertime, resulting from the presence of floor litter (higher ammonia levels) and hens' activities (higher particulate matter levels) in it. Specifically, daily mean indoor ammonia concentrations had the 95% confidence interval values of 3.8 to 4.2 (overall mean of 4.0) ppm for the conventional cage house; 6.2 to 7.2 (overall mean of 6.7) ppm for the aviary house; and 2.7 to 3.0 (overall mean of 2.8) ppm for the enriched colony house. The 95% confidence interval (overall mean) values of daily mean indoor carbon dioxide concentrations were 1997 to 2170 (2083) ppm for the conventional cage house, 2367 to 2582 (2475) ppm for the aviary house, and 2124 to 2309 (2216) ppm for the enriched colony house. Daily mean indoor methane concentrations were similar for all three houses, with 95% confidence interval values of 11.1 to 11.9 (overall

  11. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses

  12. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  13. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. On Improving the Quality and Interpretation of Environmental Assessments using Statistical Analysis and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, R.; Faldi, A.; Laurenzi, I.; Usadi, A.; Venkatesh, A.

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of studies are focused on assessing the environmental footprint of different products and processes, especially using life cycle assessment (LCA). This work shows how combining statistical methods and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with environmental analyses can help improve the quality of results and their interpretation. Most environmental assessments in literature yield single numbers that characterize the environmental impact of a process/product - typically global or country averages, often unchanging in time. In this work, we show how statistical analysis and GIS can help address these limitations. For example, we demonstrate a method to separately quantify uncertainty and variability in the result of LCA models using a power generation case study. This is important for rigorous comparisons between the impacts of different processes. Another challenge is lack of data that can affect the rigor of LCAs. We have developed an approach to estimate environmental impacts of incompletely characterized processes using predictive statistical models. This method is applied to estimate unreported coal power plant emissions in several world regions. There is also a general lack of spatio-temporal characterization of the results in environmental analyses. For instance, studies that focus on water usage do not put in context where and when water is withdrawn. Through the use of hydrological modeling combined with GIS, we quantify water stress on a regional and seasonal basis to understand water supply and demand risks for multiple users. Another example where it is important to consider regional dependency of impacts is when characterizing how agricultural land occupation affects biodiversity in a region. We developed a data-driven methodology used in conjuction with GIS to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the impacts of growing different crops on different species in various biomes of the world.

  16. Context and systems: thinking more broadly about effectiveness in strategic environmental assessment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Olivia

    2008-10-01

    China is an illustrative--and extreme--case of the difficulties of balancing the pursuit of economic, social, and environmental objectives. In 2003 it adopted a form of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for its plans and programs (referred to here as PEIA) with the aim of moving towards greater environmental sustainability. The literature has explored primarily the issue of methods and legal procedures. This research contributes to the analysis of PEIA through a different set of interpretative lens. Drawing on recent developments in the theory and practice of SEA, I propose a conceptualization of SEA effectiveness that combines direct and incremental impacts, and a need for context-specific systems as a way to focus on the relationship between assessment, planning, and their context, and thus maximize effectiveness. This framework underpins the analysis of China's experience, which I explore with the help of interview material and the literature. The result is an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of PEIA in terms of its purpose, assessment concept, process, and methods. The detailed analysis of six aspects of the context helps explain the origin of such shortcomings, and identify opportunities for its improvement. I conclude defining elements of a context-specific system for SEA that seeks to maximize the opportunity for incremental, as well as direct, effectiveness in China.

  17. Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of wastes from electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.; Smith, G.M.; Linsley, G.; Hossain, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an outline methodology for assessing and comparing the environmental impact arising from management of the wastes from nuclear and other electricity generation systems. The assessment framework is applicable to wastes from all generation systems, including nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel systems, and can also be applied to the management of mixed hazardous waste. The major energy technologies in terms of waste production can be classified according to three major categories of fuels: fossil, nuclear and renewable. The emphasis in this description is on nuclear utility low-level and mixed wastes and waste streams. The methodology may be used to support the project on Data Bases and Methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation (DECADES project, (2)) which is being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with other international agencies. The DECADES project has the overall objective to improve the abilities for comparative assessment of energy chains for electricity generation. The objective of a methodology such as that described here is to ensure that waste management aspects are included effectively in comparative assessments of energy systems. This paper discusses the waste strams arising from nuclear power plants

  18. A System of Integrated Indicators for Socio-Environmental Assessment and Eco-Certification in Agriculture – Ambitec-Agro

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Caldeira Monteiro; Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) has proposed a “System for Environmental Impact Assessment of Agricultural Technology Innovations” (Ambitec-Agro) for the appraisal of research projects and technology innovations in the institutional context of R&D. A derived system, directed at eco-certification of rural activities (Eco-cert.Rural), has been proposed in order to extend the environmental assessment practice to rural activities. The Ambitec-Agro System comprises a set of we...

  19. A Spatially Intelligent Public Participation System for the Environmental Impact Assessment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An environmental impact assessment (EIA is a decision-making process that evaluates the possible significant effects that a proposed project may exert on the environment. The EIA scoping and reviewing stages often involve public participation. Although its importance has long been recognized, public participation in the EIA process is often regarded as ineffective, due to time, budget, resource, technical and procedural constraints, as well as the complexity of environmental information. Geographic Information System (GIS and Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI have the potential to contribute to data collection, sharing and presentation, utilize local user-generated content to benefit decision-making and increase public outreach. This research integrated GIS, VGI, social media tools, data mining and mobile technology to design a spatially intelligent framework that presented and shared EIA information effectively to the public. A spatially intelligent public participative system (SIPPS was also developed as a proof-of-concept of the framework. The research selected the Tehachapi Renewable Transmission Project (TRTP as the pilot study area. Survey questionnaires were designed to collect feedback and conduct evaluation. Results show that SIPPS was able to improve the effectiveness of public participation, promote environmental awareness and achieve good system usability.

  20. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D A; Rumbaugh, D M; Richardson, W K

    1992-11-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental

  1. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental

  2. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)reg-sign: Riverine pathway formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the mathematical formulations used for contaminant fate and transport in the riverine pathway of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Of the many types of surface-water bodies (e.g., nontidal rivers, estuaries, lakes, open coasts, reservoirs, impoundments, etc.) in which contaminant fate and transport could be simulated, only a nontidal river model is currently incorporated into MEPAS. Nontidal rivers refer to freshwater bodies with unidirectional flow in definable channels. Because the MEPAS methodology is compositely coupled, other surface-water models can be added when deemed necessary

  3. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    strategic planning, decisions about larger investments and education in universities and within organisations. Systems analysis and models may be used in pre-planning procedures. A potential is a more general application (Technology Assessment) in predominantly waste- and biofuel based energy processes, but also for assessment of new technical components in a systems perspective. The methodology and systems approach developed within the systems analysis has here been transformed to an assessment of environmental, economic and technical performance of technical systems in a broad sense.

  4. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-01-01

    strategic planning, decisions about larger investments and education in universities and within organisations. Systems analysis and models may be used in pre-planning procedures. A potential is a more general application (Technology Assessment) in predominantly waste- and biofuel based energy processes, but also for assessment of new technical components in a systems perspective. The methodology and systems approach developed within the systems analysis has here been transformed to an assessment of environmental, economic and technical performance of technical systems in a broad sense

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Roura, R.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    This publication focuses on the instrument of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that has been developed within the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) as one of the tools to promote environmental protection. The states involved in the ATS already recognized the importance of this instrument in 1975

  6. Assessing and managing health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    There is a growing awareness that it is necessary to identify, assess, and manage the risks of energy and other complex industrial activities in order to minimize their potential to harm public health and the environment. Therefore, quantitative risk analysis with emphasis on risk management has become an important aspect in high level decision making for regulation in developed and developing countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have initiated a project to promote the use of risk assessment and risk management in environmental health and safety decision making throughout the world. A meeting was held in Paris, France on October 13-17, 1986. The purpose of the meeting was to: a) Discuss the state of the art of national and international experience in conducting case studies in the field of assessing and managing industrial risks from energy and other complex industrial systems either at the plant level or in highly industrialized areas within a country; b) Present and discuss planned regional risk management case studies within a country or international research projects on risk management to be implemented in the future; and c) Review the Project Document on ''Assessing, Controlling, and Managing Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems''. The full texts, together with abstracts, of the papers given at the meeting are presented. The summary reviews briefly some of the major points that arose in papers or in the ensuing discussions. Where a consensus view resulted, conclusions were drawn. Major differences of opinion are also noted

  7. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: atmospheric effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.; Brubaker, K.L.; Lee, J.L.

    1980-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a preliminary, three-year program to investigate the impacts of the construction and operation of a satellite power system, of unprecedented scale. The Department of Energy's program, titled The Concept Development and Evaluation Program, focused its investigations on a Reference System description that calls for the use of either silicon (Si) or gallium aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) photovoltaic cells on 60 satellites to be constructed in GEO over a 30-yr period. Rectennas would be constructed on the ground to receive microwave energy from the satellites. Each satellite-rectenna pair is designed to produce 5 GW of power on an essentially continuous basis for use as a baseload power source for an electric power distribution system. The environmental assessment part of the program was divided into five interdependent task areas. The present document constitutes the final technical report on one of the five task areas, the Assessment of the Atmospheric Effects, and as such presents an in-depth summary of work performed during the assessment program. The issues associated with SPS activities in the troposphere are examined. These include tropospheric weather modification related to rectenna operations and rocket launches, and air quality impacts related to rocketlaunch ground clouds. Then progressing upward through the various levels of the atmosphere, the principal middle and upper atmospheric effects associated with rocket effluents are analyzed. Finally, all of the potential SPS atmospheric effects are summarized.

  8. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: atmospheric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rote, D.M.; Brubaker, K.L.; Lee, J.L.

    1980-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a preliminary, three-year program to investigate the impacts of the construction and operation of a satellite power system, of unprecedented scale. The Department of Energy's program, titled The Concept Development and Evaluation Program, focused its investigations on a Reference System description that calls for the use of either silicon (Si) or gallium aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) photovoltaic cells on 60 satellites to be constructed in GEO over a 30-yr period. Rectennas would be constructed on the ground to receive microwave energy from the satellites. Each satellite-rectenna pair is designed to produce 5 GW of power on an essentially continuous basis for use as a baseload power source for an electric power distribution system. The environmental assessment part of the program was divided into five interdependent task areas. The present document constitutes the final technical report on one of the five task areas, the Assessment of the Atmospheric Effects, and as such presents an in-depth summary of work performed during the assessment program. The issues associated with SPS activities in the troposphere are examined. These include tropospheric weather modification related to rectenna operations and rocket launches, and air quality impacts related to rocketlaunch ground clouds. Then progressing upward through the various levels of the atmosphere, the principal middle and upper atmospheric effects associated with rocket effluents are analyzed. Finally, all of the potential SPS atmospheric effects are summarized

  9. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program-electromagnetic systems compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K A; Grant, W B; Morrison, E L; Juroshek, J R

    1981-01-01

    The EMC analysis addressed only the direct effects of electromagnetic emissions from the SPS on other technological systems. Emissions were defined quite broadly, including not only those from the microwave system, but also thermal blackbody emission and scattered sunlight from the satellite. The analysis is based on the design for an SPS as described in the Reference System Report and some quantitative conclusions, e.g., ranges from rectenna sites at which effects are expected are specific to that design. The methodology and qualitative conclusions, however, apply to an SPS concept using microwave power transmission. Quantitative conclusions have been obtained parametrically and can be adjusted as SPS designs change. The electromagnetic environment that the Reference System would produce, and in which other systems would have to function, is described. As an early part of the EMC Assessment, the problems expected for a hypothetical rectenna site, in the Mojave Desert of southern California, were analyzed in detail. This effort provided an initial quantitative indication of the scope of potential EMC problems and indicated the importance of EMC considerations in rectenna site selection. The results of this analysis are presented. The effects of SPS microwave emissions on important categories of electronic systems and equipment are summarized, with many examples of test results and demonstrated techniques for mitigation of problems encountered. SPS effects on other satellite systems are presented. Astronomical research frequently involves measurement of extremely low levels of electromagnetic radiation and is thus very susceptible to interference. The concerns of both radio astronomy with microwave emissions from SPS and optical astronomy with sunlight scattered from SPS spacecraft are discussed. Summaries of mitigation techniques, cost estimates, and conclusions are presented. (WHK)

  10. An evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Vietnam: The gap between theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Alison; Vu, Hoang Hoa; Pedrono, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has one of the fastest growing economies in the world and has achieved significant socio-economic development in recent years. However this growth is placing increased pressure on an already depleted natural environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is recognised by the Government and international organizations as an important tool in the management of the impacts of future development on the country's natural resource base. The Government's commitment to EIA has been demonstrated through the development and adoption of the Law on Environment Protection (Revised) in 2005 which sets out the requirements for EIA and which represents a major step in the development of a robust legislative framework for EIA in Vietnam. The Law on Environment Protection (Revised) 2005 has now been operational for several years and we have undertaken an evaluation of the resulting EIA system in Vietnam. We argue that while significant improvements have been achieved in the EIA policy framework, an important gap remains between EIA theory and practice. We contend that the basis of the current EIA legislation is strong and that future developments of the EIA system in Vietnam should focus on improving capacity of EIA practitioners rather than further substantial legislative change. Such improvements would allow the Vietnamese EIA system to emerge as an effective and efficient tool for environmental management in Vietnam and as a model EIA framework for other developing countries.

  11. Workshop on environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.C.

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs

  12. Assessing the performance of Taiwan’s environmental protection system with a non-radial network DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chin-wei; Chiu, Yung-ho; Fang, Wei-ta; Shen, Neng

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies involving environmental performance purely focus on analyzing environmental or waste treatment efficiencies. This study combines various aspects of environmental protection and establishes a non-radial network DEA approach to evaluate the performance of an environmental protection system. The empirical methodology assumes that the system consists of three stages: administrative, executive processes, and protection effectiveness. The executive process includes waste treatment and pollution auditing divisions. In addition to assessing efficiencies, the empirical evaluation further explores the internal and external influences on performances and contributes implications and suggestions for environmental policy makers. The proposed model is utilized to gauge the performance of an environmental protection system for 20 municipalities in Taiwan. The results indicate the following: (1) for improving environmental quality, the government needs to put forth greater efforts in environmental audits; (2) improving productivity per unit so as to increase achievements in the executive process is more important for raising performance on environmental work, in addition to increasing workers and equipment for environmental protection; (3) a high degree of industrialization negatively influences administrative efficiency and educated residents have a greater comprehension for administrative operations, which can help in efficient budget utilization. - Highlights: • A non-radial network DEA approach to evaluate the Performance of Environmental Protection System. • The performance of waste treatment performs better than the efficiency of auditing. • Governmental expenditure is more efficiently utilized in the administrative process. • The effectiveness of achieved protection is a critical indicator for revealing environmental quality in a region

  13. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-11-01

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:974-979. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Nuclear Power and Environment Comparative Assessment of Environmental and Health Impacts of Electricity Generating Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashed, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with comparative assessment of the environmental and health impacts of nuclear and other electricity generation systems. The study including normal operations and accidents in full energy chain analysis. The comparison of the environmental impacts arising from the waste management cycles associated with non emission waste are also discussed. Nuclear Power while economically feasible and meeting 17% of the world,s demand for electricity is almost free of the air polluting gases that threaten the global climate. Comparing nuclear power with other sources for electricity generation in terms of their associated environmental releases of pollutant such as SO 2 , NOX, CO 2 , CH 4 and radioisotopes, taking into account the full fuel chains chains of supply option, nuclear power will help to reduce environmental degradation due to electricity generation activities. In view of CO 2 emission, the ranking order commences with hydro, followed by nuclear, wind and photovoltaic Power Plants. CO 2 emissions from a nuclear power plant are by two orders of magnitude lower than those of fossil fueled power plants. A consequent risk comparison between different energy sources has to include al phases of the whole energy cycle. Coal mines accidents have resulted in several 1000 acute deaths over the years. Later fatalities have never been estimated. Then came hydropower, also resulting in many catastrophes and losses of human lives. Followed oil and gas energy industry, its tribute in acute fatalities is expressed in more than 1000 life lost. No estimate is available concerning later fatalities. latest in the list is commercial nuclear energy, badly illustrated by the Chernobyl accident resulting officially in 31 acute fatalities, 145 latent fatalities, and 135000 evacuated individuals. The paper offers some findings and conclusions on the role of nuclear power in protecting the global environment

  15. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)reg-sign: Source-term release formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streile, G.P.; Shields, K.D.; Stroh, J.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses

  16. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  17. Environmental Workplace Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes environmental workplace assessments as tools in developing customized training, highlighting the group process and individual interview techniques. Suggests that, by assessing the cultural climate of an organization, education providers can gather essential baseline information on an organization and thereby provide a guide for further…

  18. In itinere strategic environmental assessment of an integrated provincial waste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Giovanna; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Traverso, Marzia

    2009-06-01

    In the paper, the practical problem of analysing in an integrated way the performance of provincial waste systems is approached, in the framework of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In particular, the in itinere phase of SEA is analysed herein. After separating out a proper group of ambits, to which the waste system is supposed to determine relevant impacts, pertinent sets of single indicators are proposed. Through the adoption of such indicators the time trend of the system is investigated, and the suitability of each indicator is critically revised. The structure of the evaluation scheme, which is essentially based on the use of ambit issues and analytical indicators, calls for the application of the method of the Dashboard of Sustainability for the integrated evaluation of the whole system. The suitability of this method is shown through the paper, together with the possibility of a comparative analysis of different scenarios of interventions. Of course, the reliability of the proposed method strongly relies on the availability of a detailed set of territorial data. The method appears to represent a useful tool for public administration in the process of optimizing the policy actions aimed at minimizing the increasing problem represented by waste production in urban areas.

  19. Assessing the environmental impacts of cropping systems and cover crops : Life cycle assessment of FAST, a long-term arable farming field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prechsl, U E; Wittwer, R; van der Heijden, M.G.A.; Luscher, G; Jeanneret, P; Nemecek, T

    2017-01-01

    To reduce environmental impacts of cropping systems, various management strategies are being discussed. Longterm field experiments are particularly suitable to directly compare different management strategies and to perform a comprehensive impact assessment. To identify the key drivers of several

  20. Assessing the utility of geospatial technologies to investigate environmental change within lake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Eirini; Rowan, John S; Cutler, Mark E J

    2016-02-01

    Over 50% of the world's population live within 3 km of rivers and lakes highlighting the on-going importance of freshwater resources to human health and societal well-being. Whilst covering c. 3.5% of the Earth's non-glaciated land mass, trends in the environmental quality of the world's standing waters (natural lakes and reservoirs) are poorly understood, at least in comparison with rivers, and so evaluation of their current condition and sensitivity to change are global priorities. Here it is argued that a geospatial approach harnessing existing global datasets, along with new generation remote sensing products, offers the basis to characterise trajectories of change in lake properties e.g., water quality, physical structure, hydrological regime and ecological behaviour. This approach furthermore provides the evidence base to understand the relative importance of climatic forcing and/or changing catchment processes, e.g. land cover and soil moisture data, which coupled with climate data provide the basis to model regional water balance and runoff estimates over time. Using examples derived primarily from the Danube Basin but also other parts of the World, we demonstrate the power of the approach and its utility to assess the sensitivity of lake systems to environmental change, and hence better manage these key resources in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore,

  2. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Integrated environmental and safety assessment of selected mechanical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The environmental, safety, and social impacts of two mechanical storage systems, underground pumped hydro (UPH) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) are similar to those of existing peaking power plants. These impacts, with engineering factors, form a methodology for selecting sites for these two systems. Application of this methodology to a hypothetical case indicates that, although design alternatives which mitigate adverse environmental impacts are recommended, site selection effectively limits the environmental effect of CAES or UPH plants. Public perception of CAES and UPH energy storage facilities should generally be positive, provided that those affected are informed and allowed to participate in the siting process.

  4. Application of environmental Decision Support Systems (Ed's) for the assessment of health effects due to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Decision Support System containing a Geographical Information System (GIS) combined with (radio)ecological data and models were developed within different research activities in radioecology and geography for environmental management, especially after accidental release of pollutants into the environment. It may be possible to achieve the full potentials of EDSS, through its application in a variety of ways. These include: 1. Identification of radio-ecological sensitive areas, 2. extending its use in the identification of non-radioactive pollution (e.g., heavy metals) by using the necessary transfer models and parameters and 3. its effective use in defining the role of environmental pollution on health effects. In order to achieve the latter (e.g., defining the role of environmental pollution on health effects), a database containing spatial and temporal information on radioactive and conventional pollution can be combined with ethnic composition, living habits, education, income, age/sex structure, general sanitary situation, production, import and export overlaid with health data (e.g., congenital malformations, cancer, mental retardation, immunological situation, birth and death certificates etc.). Since a spatial as well as temporal resolution of data can be achieved, time trends and spatial trends of a potential impact to human health can be demonstrated. (author)

  5. Power and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew Asa; Richardson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently...

  6. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Results of the environmental health activities and needs assessment of the South Carolina statewide family practice system for the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: EHAP Volume 1, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musham, C.; Hainer, B.

    1993-05-01

    An activities and needs assessment was conducted to determine what each of the seven family practice residency programs in South Carolina is providing in environmental health education. In addition, this study was designed to determine: what are the barriers to greater emphasis on environmental health in family practice residency programs and, what the basic environmental health educational goals for family practice residency programs should be.

  7. Influence of environmental tobacco smoke on morphology and functions of cardiovascular system assessed using diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Poręba, Rafał

    Exposure to tobacco smoke is a significant problem of environmental medicine. Tobacco smoke contains over one thousand identified chemicals including numerous toxicants. Cardiovascular system diseases are the major cause of general mortality. The recent development of diagnostic imaging provided methods which enable faster and more precise diagnosis of numerous diseases, also those of cardiovascular system. This paper reviews the most significant scientific research concerning relationship between environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and the morphology and function of cardiovascular system carried out using diagnostic imaging methods, i.e. ultrasonography, angiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In the forthcoming future, the studies using current diagnostic imaging methods should contribute to the reliable documentation, followed by the wide-spreading knowledge of the harmful impact of the environmental tobacco smoke exposure on the cardiovascular system.

  8. Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS{reg_sign}): Exposure pathway and human health impact assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Chamberlain, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) provides physics-based models for human health risk assessment for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. MEPAS analyzes pollutant behavior in various media (air, soil, groundwater and surface water) and estimates transport through and between media and exposure and impacts to the environment, to the maximum individual, and to populations. MEPAS includes 25 exposure pathway models, a database with information on more than 650 contaminants, and a sensitivity module that allows for uncertainty analysis. Four major transport pathways are considered in MEPAS: groundwater, overland, surface water, and atmospheric. This report describes the exposure pathway and health impact assessment component of MEPAS, which provides an estimate of health impacts to selected individuals and populations from exposure to pollutants. The exposure pathway analysis starts with pollutant concentration in a transport medium and estimates the average daily dose to exposed individuals from contact with the transport medium or a secondary medium contaminated by the transport medium. The average daily dose is then used to estimate a measure of health impact appropriate to the type of pollutant considered. Discussions of the exposure pathway models include the assumptions and equations used to convert the transport medium concentrations to exposure medium concentrations. The discussion for a given exposure pathway defines the transport pathways leading to the exposure, the special processes considered in determining the pollutant concentration in the exposure medium, and the exposure model used to estimate the average daily dose. Models for the exposure pathway and health impact assessments require definition of several parameters. A summary of the notation used for these parameters is provided.

  9. Strategic environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    1997-01-01

    The integration of environmental considerations into strategic decision making is recognized as a key to achieving sustainability. In the European Union a draft directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is currently being reviewed by the member states. The nature of the proposed SEA...... directive is outlined, together with its relationship with the process of spatial planning and public participation in Denmark. This paper analyses the adoption of the proposed directive and discusses whether the SEA is an appropriate tool for opening and democratizing political structures. It concludes...

  10. Environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a current overview of the basic elements of environmental risk assessment within the basic four-step process of hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and risk characterization. These general steps have been applied to assess both human and ecological risks from environmental exposures. Approaches used to identify hazards and exposures are being refined, including the use of optimized field sampling and more representative, rather than conservative,upper-bound estimates. In addition, toxicity data are being reviewed more rigorously as US and European harmonization initiatives gain strength, and the classification of chemicals has become more qualitative to more flexibly accommodate new dose-response information as it is developed. Finally, more emphasis is being placed on noncancer end points, and human and ecological risks are being weighed against each other more explicitly at the risk characterization phase. Recent advances in risk-based decision making reflect the increased transparency of the overall process, with more explicit incorporation of multiple trade-offs. The end result is a more comprehensive life-cycle evaluation of the risks associated with environmental exposures at contaminated sites.

  11. New techniques for environmental monitoring and risk assessment in water surface systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios-Theodosios; Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Escudero, Javier; Vagras, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Our society is continuously impacted by significant weather events many times resulting in catastrophes that interrupt our normal way of life. In the context of climate change and increasing urbanisation these "extreme" hydrologic events are intensified both in magnitude and frequency, inducing costs of the order of billions of pounds. The vast majority of such costs and impacts (even more to developed societies) are due to water related catastrophes such as the geomorphic action of flowing water (including scouring of critical infrastructure, bed and bank destabilisation) and flooding. New tools and radically novel concepts are in need, to enable our society becoming more resilient. In this presentation, new research at the interface of sensors and water engineering is presented, focusing on addressing the above challenges in a holistic and comprehensive manner. In particular, the design, development, testing and calibration, as well as preliminary field implementation of a new tool for risk assessment and environmental monitoring in water surface systems, is explored in this work. It is demonstrated that novel advances in conceptual approaches in water engineering and specifically in the field of hydrodynamic transport of solids (such as the impulse and energy criteria) can be successfully combined with rapid advances in sensors to help monitor and increase the resilience of our society against catastrophic hydrologic events.

  12. Earthwatch— Global environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C. E.; Brown, D. W.

    1981-05-01

    Progress of the United Nations Environment Program, Earthwatch, since its inception in 1972 is critically reviewed. The conclusion is reached that, while UNEP has provided support for several important programs in cooperation with United Nations specialized agencies, the new global assessment perspective envisioned at the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment has not evolved. A framework is proposed calling for threshold criteria, statements of current conditions, predictions of trends to be watched, and alerts to warn of approaching environmental threats. A network of world, regional, and national assessment centers is recommended based on existing centers-of-excellence.

  13. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  14. Environmental Assessment for the centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for the proposed centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system on the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings

  15. Spatial Representativeness of Environmental DNA Metabarcoding Signal for Fish Biodiversity Assessment in a Natural Freshwater System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civade, Raphaël; Dejean, Tony; Valentini, Alice; Roset, Nicolas; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Bonin, Aurélie; Taberlet, Pierre; Pont, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the study of environmental DNA (eDNA) has drawn attention for many reasons, including its advantages for monitoring and conservation purposes. So far, in aquatic environments, most of eDNA research has focused on the detection of single species using species-specific markers. Recently, species inventories based on the analysis of a single generalist marker targeting a larger taxonomic group (eDNA metabarcoding) have proven useful for bony fish and amphibian biodiversity surveys. This approach involves in situ filtering of large volumes of water followed by amplification and sequencing of a short discriminative fragment from the 12S rDNA mitochondrial gene. In this study, we went one step further by investigating the spatial representativeness (i.e. ecological reliability and signal variability in space) of eDNA metabarcoding for large-scale fish biodiversity assessment in a freshwater system including lentic and lotic environments. We tested the ability of this approach to characterize large-scale organization of fish communities along a longitudinal gradient, from a lake to the outflowing river. First, our results confirm that eDNA metabarcoding is more efficient than a single traditional sampling campaign to detect species presence, especially in rivers. Second, the species list obtained using this approach is comparable to the one obtained when cumulating all traditional sampling sessions since 1995 and 1988 for the lake and the river, respectively. In conclusion, eDNA metabarcoding gives a faithful description of local fish biodiversity in the study system, more specifically within a range of a few kilometers along the river in our study conditions, i.e. longer than a traditional fish sampling site.

  16. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System concept development and evaluation program: Nonmicrowave health and ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. R.

    1980-11-01

    A preliminary reference system was developed. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).

  17. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i agriculture, ii grassland and cattle, iii rainforest and iv forest in regeneration stage (fallow: 1, 2 and 3 years old. Emergy analysis integrates all flows within a system of coupled economic and environmental work in common biophysical units (solar emjoules – seJ. The main conclusions of the study are: the basin does not have dependence of purchased resources and the environmental impact is moderate; the efficiency of the basin as a system is highly positive and it represents a positive contribution to the economy; the emergy exchange ratio is moderate and; the biggest contributions to the system come from natural sources showing that the ecological sustainability is moderate to good.

  18. Environmental Assessment and Monitoring with ICAMS (Image Characterization and Modeling System) Using Multiscale Remote-Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, N.; Qiu, H.-I.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Zhao, Wei

    1997-01-01

    With the rapid increase in spatial data, especially in the NASA-EOS (Earth Observing System) era, it is necessary to develop efficient and innovative tools to handle and analyze these data so that environmental conditions can be assessed and monitored. A main difficulty facing geographers and environmental scientists in environmental assessment and measurement is that spatial analytical tools are not easily accessible. We have recently developed a remote sensing/GIS software module called Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) to provide specialized spatial analytical tools for the measurement and characterization of satellite and other forms of spatial data. ICAMS runs on both the Intergraph-MGE and Arc/info UNIX and Windows-NT platforms. The main techniques in ICAMS include fractal measurement methods, variogram analysis, spatial autocorrelation statistics, textural measures, aggregation techniques, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and delineation of land/water and vegetated/non-vegetated boundaries. In this paper, we demonstrate the main applications of ICAMS on the Intergraph-MGE platform using Landsat Thematic Mapper images from the city of Lake Charles, Louisiana. While the utilities of ICAMS' spatial measurement methods (e.g., fractal indices) in assessing environmental conditions remain to be researched, making the software available to a wider scientific community can permit the techniques in ICAMS to be evaluated and used for a diversity of applications. The findings from these various studies should lead to improved algorithms and more reliable models for environmental assessment and monitoring.

  19. Environmental compliance assessment review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliday, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1972-1991, The United States Congress passed stringent environmental statues which the Environment Protection Agency implemented via regulations. The statues and regulations contain severe civil and criminal penalties. Civil violations resulted in fines, typically payable by the company. The act of willfully and knowingly violating the permit conditions or regulations can result in criminal charges being imposed upon the responsible part, i.e., either the company or individual. Criminal charges can include fines, lawyer fees, court costs and incarceration. This paper describes steps necessary to form an effective Environmental Compliance Assessment Review [CAR] program, train field and engineering personnel and perform a CAR audit. Additionally, the paper discusses the findings of a number of Exploration and Production [E and P] field audits

  20. Mining Association Rules Between Credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Green Building Assessment System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Benjamin J

    2008-01-01

    The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Building Assessment System is a performance-based tool for determining the environmental impact of a facility from the whole-building perspective...

  1. Energy and environmental performance assessment of R744 booster supermarket refrigeration systems operating in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical comparison among different commercial refrigeration systems in terms of annual energy consumption and environmental impact. Eight configurations were studied: a R744/R134a cascade refrigeration system (baseline), a conventional and an improved R744 booster system...... as on the running modes of a conventional European supermarket. A transition zone, which occurred between sub critical and transcritical operations, was adopted.The results showed that all the enhanced configurations may achieve a comparable energy saving to the one of the baseline in both the selected locations...

  2. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: nonmicrowave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M R

    1980-11-01

    A Concept Development and Evaluation Program is being carried out for a proposed Satellite Power System (SPS). For purposes of this evaluation, a preliminary reference system has been developed. SPS, as described in the reference system, would collect solar energy on satellites in geosychronous orbit in space. The energy would be converted to microwaves and beamed to an earth-receiving antenna (rectenna). One task in the environmental part of the program is the assessment of the nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment. These effects would result from all phases of SPS development and operation. This report covers the current knowledge regarding these effects, and is based on the reference system. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).

  3. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  5. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program (CDEP). [Microwave and non-microwave health and ecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, A.R.

    1980-08-01

    In the satellite power system (SPS), satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted to electricity. This SPS environmental assessment considers the microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and effects on electromagnetic systems. No environmental problem has been identified that would preclude the continued study of SPS technology. To increase the certainty of the assessment, some research has been initiated and long-term research is being planned.

  6. Environmental assessment: Industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadley, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian mining industry supports the concept of environmental assessment, but the current process at the time of the conference had a number of problems that the industry felt should be addressed. The author makes the following suggestions: that the process for individual projects should be separated from policy issues; that panel members should be drawn from a full-time staff; that there should be better referral criteria to determine which projects require full scale assessment including public hearings; that either the government or project opponents should participate but not both; that the financial burden on proponents should be reduced; that funding of intervenors should be controlled; that there should be a definite time frame

  7. Strategic environmental assessment: Integrated environmental management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available is to provide general information on techniques, tools and processes for environmental assessment and management. The material in this document draws upon experience and knowledge from South African Overview of Integrated Environmental Management Screening..., social and economic considerations. Through the integration of environmental, social and economic objectives into the policy and planning process, SEA has the potential to assist in the implementation of the concept of sustainable development. SEA...

  8. Environmental compliance management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, A. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States); Larrinaga, L.

    1995-12-01

    A cross-functional team of environmental regulatory experts, plant managers, and plant engineers have been working since 1991 on the development, implementation and maintenance of the Environmental Compliance Management System. The Environmental Compliance Management System is a practical and accurate method of determining the applicability of the state and federal environmental regulations and of establishing standard and straightforward procedures to meet these requirements. The Environmental Compliance Management System allows individual manufacturing facilities to avoid the additional manpower that would be required to read, digest and decide on the applicability and plan of action to meet the requirements of all the environmental regulations.

  9. Long-term environmental assessment of waste from PyroGreen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Heejae; Hahm, Inhye; Sohn, Sungjune; Hwang, Il-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a long-term environmental assessment of a geological repository for Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) arising from PyroGreen processes that has been developed to decontaminate all HLW from the pyrochemical partitioning of spent nuclear fuels (SNF). PyroGreen process has been designed so that final ILW can meet conservative acceptance criteria such as one established for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in U.S.A. The nuclide inventory of final vitrified PyroGreen waste is calculated using ORIGEN 2.1 based on the design decontamination factor of PyroGreen processes applied to 18,171 metric tons of PWR SNF with 45 GWD/MTU burnup. Using GoldSim model, the environmental impact of ILW upon geological disposal at an intermediate depth. Among radioactive nuclides, Ra 226 , Rn 222 and Sn 126 are identified as key contributors to radiological dose for general public. The environmental impact of PyroGreen wastes satisfies the Korean dose limit of 0.1 mSv/year with sufficiently high margin. Sensitivity studies have shown that the predicted dose can vary significantly by distribution coefficient of Ra 226 and Rn 222 , solubility limit of Se 79 . (authors)

  10. Long-term environmental assessment of waste from PyroGreen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Heejae; Hahm, Inhye; Sohn, Sungjune; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    We have conducted a long-term environmental assessment of a geological repository for Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) arising from PyroGreen processes that has been developed to decontaminate all HLW from the pyrochemical partitioning of spent nuclear fuels (SNF). PyroGreen process has been designed so that final ILW can meet conservative acceptance criteria such as one established for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in U.S.A. The nuclide inventory of final vitrified PyroGreen waste is calculated using ORIGEN 2.1 based on the design decontamination factor of PyroGreen processes applied to 18,171 metric tons of PWR SNF with 45 GWD/MTU burnup. Using GoldSim model, the environmental impact of ILW upon geological disposal at an intermediate depth. Among radioactive nuclides, Ra{sup 226}, Rn{sup 222} and Sn{sup 126} are identified as key contributors to radiological dose for general public. The environmental impact of PyroGreen wastes satisfies the Korean dose limit of 0.1 mSv/year with sufficiently high margin. Sensitivity studies have shown that the predicted dose can vary significantly by distribution coefficient of Ra{sup 226} and Rn{sup 222}, solubility limit of Se{sup 79}. (authors)

  11. Development of a Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System, Life Cycle Assessment Systems, and Pollution Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Walter M.

    2003-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) opportunities and Greening the Government (GtG) activities, including the development of the Real-Time Environmental Monitoring System (RTEMS), are currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The RTEMS project entails the ongoing development of a monitoring system which includes sensors, instruments, computer hardware and software, plus a data telemetry system.Professor Kocher has been directing the RTEMS project for more than 3 years, and the implementation of the prototype system at GRC will be a major portion of his summer effort. This prototype will provide mulitmedia environmental monitoring and control capabilities, although water quality and air emissions will be the immediate issues addressed this summer. Applications beyond those currently identified for environmental purposes will also be explored.

  12. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report.

  13. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report

  14. Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

    1988-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Environmental impacts of future low-carbon electricity systems: Detailed life cycle assessment of a Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide; Nielsen, Christian F.B.

    2014-01-01

    The need to reduce dependency on fossil resources and to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is driving many countries towards the implementation of low-carbon electricity systems. In this study the environmental impact of a future (2030) possible low-carbon electricity system in Denmark....... The results showed that consumption of fossil resources and global warming impacts from the Danish electricity sector could be reduced significantly compared with 2010. Nevertheless, a reduction in GHG may be at the expense of other environmental impacts, such as the increased depletion of abiotic resources...... was assessed and compared with the current situation (2010) and an alternative 2030 scenario using life cycle assessment (LCA). The influence on the final results of the modeling approach used for (i) electricity import, (ii) biomass resources, and (iii) the cogeneration of heat and power was discussed...

  16. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be

  17. Assessment of environmental control technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco coal gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1979-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification technologies employed by Winkler, Koppers-Totzek (K-T) and Texaco are described. Evaluation of the status of these technologies for control of major environmental pollutants indicates that a minimum risk to the environment is involved. The complete gasification process involves coal storage, coal preparation, gasification, gas cooling, particulate removal, acid gas cleanup, shift conversion, oxygen manufacture, cleanup of waste water and makeup water, and utility operation. The status of each of these technologies with respect to environmental acceptability is discussed. Very little is known about the behavior of trace elements in the K-T, Texaco and Winkler gasification systems. Airborne emissions of trace elements can occur from the utility boiler, and from wind entrainment of discharged residue and stored coal. Ash components are discharged from the gasification processes with gasifier residues and gas-cleanup sludges and residues. The trace element composition of coal is geochemically similar to the makeup of the earth's crust and includes almost all of the elements of the periodic table. The potential hazard from emissions of trace elements is mainly from long-term, low-level exposures to increased atmospheric pollution levels. Discharges from the K-T, Texaco and Winkler processes can be expected to have very minor contributions to atmospheric pollution levels of trace elements. Table 1 summarizes the status of technology and data needs for the different processing steps. The different process areas and their potential for intrusion of the environment are discussed.

  18. An environmental assessment of electricity production from slaughterhouse residues. Linking urban, industrial and waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, R.; Ripa, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal by-products use for electricity generation is investigated as a case-study. • Different methodological approaches to deal with by-products are explored in LCA. • Adopting a holistic perspective is crucial to achieve a circular economy framework. - Abstract: The food processing industry continues to grow, generating large amount of organically rich waste flows per year: these processors face significant economic and environmental pressures for appropriate conversion and disposal of these waste flows. Solid waste disposal problems, mostly in highly urbanized environments, energy shortages (primarily oil) and/or high petroleum prices, as well as environmental issues such as the shrinking landfill capacity, can all be addressed by converting waste material into useful and saleable products. This paper brings to the attention a possible strategy in order to meet the general EU directives concerning the residues utilization and percentage contribution for the total energy consumption by 2020, by evaluating the use of animal by-products (category 3, as defined in the directive 2002/1774/EC) for energy purposes. Slaughterhouse waste represents an important potential source of renewable energy: on average, 40–50% of a live animal is waste, with a potential energy content close to diesel fuel. Treatment of animal waste from slaughterhouse and the subsequent conversion to electricity is investigated as a case study in the Campania Region (Italy): the animal waste undergoes a rendering process, to separate a protein-rich fraction useful for animal meal production and a fat-rich fraction, to be combusted in a diesel engine for power and heat generation (CHP). An environmental assessment of the entire process is performed by means of LCA, providing a quantitative understanding of the plant processing. The study aims to understand to what extent electricity production from animal fat is environmentally sound and if there are steps and/or components

  19. Preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, S.L.; Rote, D.M.; Rush, C.M.; Davis, K.; White, M.; Cahill, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    The impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) as well as impacts related to other elements of the total SPS on the environment are being determined. The goal of these programs is to advance the state of knowledge by the year 1980 to the point where an assessment can be made of the probability and severity of the impacts of the SPS. Assessments will be made of the effects on the health and safety of the public, and occupationally involved personnel, and the ecology; the upper and lower atmosphere including climatological impacts; and on communications systems including electromagnetic compatibility, the effects of microwave heating of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the effects of F-layer depletion by launch vehicle and transport vehicle effluents. If the assessment indicates that the impacts are acceptable or that feasible mitigating strategies can be implemented and if other related assessments (the impact on society and a competitive comparison of the SPS with other energy alternatives) are favorable, a decision may be made to implement the development of the SPS related technologies. This paper identifies postulated effects and summarizes the research efforts to determine whether or not these effects will occur

  20. Environmental Assessment for the proposed Induction Linac System Experiments in Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1087) evaluating the proposed action to modify existing Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to install and conduct experiments on a new Induction Linear Accelerator System. LBNL is located in Berkeley, California and operated by the University of California (UC). The project consists of placing a pre-fabricated building inside Building 51B to house a new 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator. A control room and other support areas would be provided within and directly adjacent to Building 51B. The accelerator system would be used to conduct tests, at reduced scale and cost, many features of a heavy-ion accelerator driver for the Department of Energy's inertial fusion energy program. Based upon information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  1. Environmental Assessment for the proposed Induction Linac System Experiments in Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1087) evaluating the proposed action to modify existing Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to install and conduct experiments on a new Induction Linear Accelerator System. LBNL is located in Berkeley, California and operated by the University of California (UC). The project consists of placing a pre-fabricated building inside Building 51B to house a new 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator. A control room and other support areas would be provided within and directly adjacent to Building 51B. The accelerator system would be used to conduct tests, at reduced scale and cost, many features of a heavy-ion accelerator driver for the Department of Energy`s inertial fusion energy program. Based upon information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. Building better environmental risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eLayton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERA for genetically modified (GM crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data, and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  3. Russian Northwest: An integral Assessment of the Conditions of Regional Social, Environmental and Economic Systems and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev Vasily

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of an integral assessment of the regional social, environmental and economic systems (SEES and the quality of life (QOL in the regions of Russia’s Northwestern Federal District (NWFD. This work aims at giving an integrated assessment of SEES in the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions in comparison to the Moscow region. The authors examine the QOL in 10 NWFD regions, including the Baltic ones. The significance of the research work lies in an integrated and comprehensive assessment of the regional SEES and QOL in 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2013 in view of the effect of priorities within and between groups of assessment parameters. Another important result is the identification of ‘stability limits’, when regions retain their QOL whereas their regional environmental characteristics change. The proposed methodology is based on multi-criteria and integrated approaches, the aggregate index method, and the parameter analysis and synthesis. The assessment of SEES and QOL was performed for five classes (from ‘1 — high’ to ‘5 — poor’ based on calculating statistics for 3—6 groups of assessment criteria at two levels of convolution. The analysis of the data obtained shows an upward trend in QOL in the regions. The authors suggest assessing stability of SEES on the basis of critical values of aggregate indices, at which a given SEES maintain its characteristics and regime properties within a certain QOL class.

  4. Facility Environmental Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the Web site of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) facility Environmental Management System (EMS)....

  5. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serenje, W.; Chidumayo, E.N.; Chipuwa, J.H.; Egneus, H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  6. Economic and environmental assessment of rooftops regarding suitability for photovoltaic systems installation based on remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukač, Niko; Seme, Sebastijan; Dežan, Katarina; Žalik, Borut; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2016-01-01

    Within the last few years, the increase of the world's energy consumption has substantially impacted the environment. Solar energy initiative is more than ever involved to tackle this issue, especially when deploying PV (photovoltaic) systems over large-scale residential areas. However, not all surfaces in these areas are economically suitable, while some surfaces have low CO 2 mitigation. With the availability of high-resolution remote sensing data, the estimation of suitable rooftops for PV systems installation can be performed automatically by estimating the PV potential. This paper presents a novel method for estimating NPV (net present value) of the potential PV systems installed on rooftops by using LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data and PV systems' nonlinear efficiency characteristics. More importantly, the environmental impact is estimated for each rooftop through EPBT (energy payback time) and GGER (greenhouse gas emission rate), based on the life-cycle of a specific PV system. This is combined with NPV in order to find rooftops that are both economically and environmentally viable candidates for PV systems deployment. Results demonstrate a case study LiDAR data for predicting each building's economical and environmental impact, as well as providing an overall view of resulting cumulative CO 2 mitigation over large residential area. - Highlights: • The method relies on PV potential estimation over LiDAR remote sensing data. • Novel economic assessment of PV systems using remote sensing data is proposed. • Environmental analysis of PV systems based on EPBT and GGER is performed. • Estimation of CO 2 mitigation over LiDAR data by considering national energy network.

  7. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A fuzzy logic-based tool to assess beef cattle ranching sustainability in complex environmental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra A; de Lima, Helano Póvoas; Massruhá, Silvia M F S; de Abreu, Urbano G P; Tomás, Walfrido M; Salis, Suzana M; Cardoso, Evaldo L; de Oliveira, Márcia Divina; Soares, Márcia Toffani S; Dos Santos, Antônio; de Oliveira, Luiz Orcírio F; Calheiros, Débora F; Crispim, Sandra M A; Soriano, Balbina M A; Amâncio, Christiane O G; Nunes, Alessandro Pacheco; Pellegrin, Luiz Alberto

    2017-08-01

    One of the most relevant issues in discussion worldwide nowadays is the concept of sustainability. However, sustainability assessment is a difficult task due to the complexity of factors involved in the natural world added to the human interference. In order to assess the sustainability of beef ranching in complex and uncertain tropical environment systems this paper describes a decision support system based on fuzzy rule-approach, the Sustainable Pantanal Ranch (SPR). This tool was built by a set of measurements and indicators integrated by fuzzy logic to evaluate the attributes of the three dimensions of sustainability. Indicators and decision rules, as well as scenario evaluations, were obtained from workshops involving multi-disciplinary team of experts. A Fuzzy Rule-Based System (FRBS) was developed to each attribute, dimension and general index. The essential parts of the FRBS are the knowledge database, rules and the inference engine. The FuzzyGen and WebFuzzy tools were developed to support the FRBS and both showed efficiency and low cost for digital applications. The results of each attribute, dimension and index were presented as radar graphs, showing the individual value (0-10) of each indicator. In the validation process using the WebFuzzy, different combinations of indicators were made for each attribute index to show the corresponding output, and which confirm the feasibility and usability of the tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental life cycle assessment of methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Anna; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions generated through methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology. The analysis focuses on polygeneration technologies from which two products are produced, and thus, issues related to an allocation procedure for LCA are addressed in this paper. In the LCA, two methods were used: a 'system expansion' method based on two approaches, the 'avoided burdens approach' and 'direct system enlargement' methods and an 'allocation' method involving proportional partitioning based on physical relationships in a technological process. Cause-effect relationships in the analysed production process were identified, allowing for the identification of allocation factors. The 'system expansion' method involved expanding the analysis to include five additional variants of electricity production technologies in Poland (alternative technologies). This method revealed environmental consequences of implementation for the analysed technologies. It was found that the LCA of polygeneration technologies based on the 'system expansion' method generated a more complete source of information on environmental consequences than the 'allocation' method. The analysis shows that alternative technologies chosen for generating LCA results are crucial. Life cycle assessment was performed for the analysed, reference and variant alternative technologies. Comparative analysis was performed between the analysed technologies of methanol and electricity co-production from coal gasification as well as a reference technology of methanol production from the natural gas reforming process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Compliance Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownson, L.W.; Krsul, T.; Peralta, R.A.; Knudson, D.A.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing the Environmental Compliance Management System (ECMS) as a comprehensive, cost-effective tool to ensure (1) that the Laboratory complies with all applicable federal and state environmental laws and regulations, (2) that environmental issues and concerns are recognized and considered in the early phases of projects; and (3) that Laboratory personnel conduct Laboratory operations in the most environmentally acceptable manner. The ECMS is an expert computer system which is designed to allow project engineers to perform an environmental evaluation of their projects. The system includes a Master Program which collects basic project information, provide utility functions, and access the environmental expert modules, environmental expert system modules for each federal and state environmental law which allows the user to obtain specific information on how an individual law may affect his project; and site-specific databases which contain information necessary for effective management of the site under environmental regulations. The ECMS will have the capability to complete and print many of the necessary environmental forms required by federal and state agencies, including the Department of Energy

  11. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice-wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  12. Towards a New System for Analysis of Environmental Disasters and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Fernandes, N. F.; França, G. B.; Peixoto, M. O.; Carvalho, I. S.; Silva Júnior, G. C.

    2012-12-01

    In response to catastrophic occurrences frequently observed in densely populated regions in Brazil, the researchers of the three interdisciplinary areas of the Institute of Geosciences, at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, have joined efforts to plan an integrated system for analysis and assessment of vulnerability and risk that are driven by extreme meteorological events. This integrated information and analysis system primarily consists of a suite of atmospheric and land-surface models, including adaptive models, applied to severe weather studies together with landslide modeling. All proposed modeling experiments, as well as essential datasets, would be used in the refinement of the modeling systems, providing better predictions and projections to model areas susceptible to landslides. The landslide modeling will apply physically based numerical models that include advanced hydrology and slope stability, among other combinations. Predictions of areas susceptible to mass movements will be made by combining a prediction model of mass movements (e.g., SHALSTAB and TRIGRS models for shallow landslides) with a propagation model for debris flow (model FLO-2D). This combined modeling effort will also contribute to the understanding of regional climate variability and change; and will support better mitigation and adaptation decisions at local scales. Preliminary results obtained from the independent modeling systems are encouraging, and can be proven useful to address this multi-scale problem when combined in a same framework.

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for Rapid Attack Identification, Detection, and Reporting System - Block 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-03

    and best available sea turtle lighting technology . The Environmental Office would then consult with the USFWS for plan approval. As a result, the...AFB Environmental Office in development of a Light Management Plan that incorporates the latest and best available sea turtle lighting technology . The...Office in development of a Light Management Plan that incorporates the latest and best available sea turtle lighting technology . The Environmental

  14. An economic evaluation and assessment of environmental impact of the municipal solid waste management system for Taichung City in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Min-Der

    2012-05-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an important environmental challenge and subject in urban planning. For sustainable MSWM strategies, the critical management factors to be considered include not only economic efficiency of MSW treatment but also life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact. This paper employed linear programming technique to establish optimal MSWM strategies considering economic efficiency and the air pollutant emissions during the life cycle of a MSWM system, and investigated the correlations between the economical optimization and pollutant emissions. A case study based on real-world MSW operating parameters in Taichung City is also presented. The results showed that the costs, benefits, streams of MSW, and throughputs of incinerators and landfills will be affected if pollution emission reductions are implemented in the MSWM strategies. In addition, the quantity of particulate matter is the best pollutant indicator for the MSWM system performance of emission reduction. In particular this model will assist the decision maker in drawing up a friendly MSWM strategy for Taichung City in Taiwan. Recently, life-cycle assessments of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) strategies have been given more considerations. However, what seems to be lacking is the consideration of economic factors and environmental impacts simultaneously. This work analyzed real-world data to establish optimal MSWM strategies considering economic efficiency and the air pollutant emissions during the life cycle of the MSWM system. The results indicated that the consideration of environmental impacts will affect the costs, benefits, streams of MSW, and throughputs of incinerators and landfills. This work is relevant to public discussion and may establish useful guidelines for the MSWM policies.

  15. Environmental Assessments and Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, Cassandra

    2006-01-01

    Directives and legislation on EIA and SEA need to provide more guidance on how and when public participation should be used. There are now several examples of how well public participation can be performed and the methods are becoming more proactive and innovative. By increasing the role of public participation within the Environmental Assessment process, plans, programmes and projects will become more publicly acceptable. There does need to be a balance as to where public participation is performed in the system, as too much can be a stress on resources and time, as well as producing ineffective results. Key stages such as scoping, preparing the environmental statement or report and decision-making need to be highlighted for the benefits public participation can have. The Aarhus Convention is certainly making a difference in the UK; however it is difficult to judge exactly how much difference yet. It was only fully implemented in the UK in 2005 although some Authorities were applying the three pillars prior to implementation. It is not clear how aware the general public are of the Convention and their rights. Empowering communities in the UK. will communities for decision-making in Environmental Assessments? Providing the public with resources to enable them to fully engage in the process will improve the participation and increase their confidence, but how will this increase their influence within the decision-making process? Ultimately, should the stakeholders and public just influence the incremental decisions made in Environmental Assessments or have more responsibility within the major decisions taken? It will be interesting to see how these issues are addressed over the coming years

  16. Environmental impact assessment of the Swedish high-level radioactive waste disposal system - examples of likely considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sweden is investigating the feasibility of establishing a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system consisting of three components as follows: (1) Encapsulation facility, (2) system for transporting waste and (3) geologic repository. Swedish law requires that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) be written for any planned action expected to have a significant impact on the environment. Before embarking on construction and operation of a HLW disposal system, the Swedish government will evaluate the expected environmental impacts to assure that the Swedish people and environmental will not be unduly affected by the disposal system. The EIA process requires that reasonable alternatives to the proposed action, including the 'zero' or 'no action' alternative, be considered so that the final approved plan for disposal will have undergone scrutiny and comparison of alternatives to arrive at a plan which is the best achievable given reasonable physical and monetary constraints. This report has been prepared by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) for use by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The purpose of this report is to establish a document which outlines the types of information which would be in an EIA for a three part disposal system like that envisioned by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for the disposal of Sweden's HLW. Technical information that would normally be included in an EIA is outlined in this document. The SSI's primary interest is in radiological impacts. However, for the sake of completeness and also to evaluate all environmental impacts in a single document, non-radiological impacts are also included. Swedish authorities other than the SSI may have interest in the non-radiological parts of the document. 26 refs

  17. Bilastine: an environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, María Luisa; Peither, Armin; Ledo, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Bilastine is a new oral selective, non-sedating histamine H1 antagonist for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. The European Medicines Agency requires an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) for all novel medicines for human use. To calculate the bilastine predicted environmental concentration in surface water (PECsw; phase I ERA), and to determine the effects of bilastine on aquatic systems (phase II [tier A]). Bilastine PECsw was calculated using the maximum daily dosage (20 mg), assuming that all administered bilastine was released into the aquatic environment. A persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment was conducted using the log Kow from the molecular structure. In phase II (tier A), a ready biodegradability test was performed, and bilastine's potential toxicity to various aquatic and sediment-dwelling micro-organisms was evaluated. Bilastine PECSW was calculated as 0.1 μg L(-1), and the compound was not readily biodegradable. Bilastine had no significant effects on Chironomus riparius midges, or on the respiration rate of activated sludge. For green algae, the bilastine no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was 22 mg L(-1); bilastine had no effect on zebra fish development, or on the reproduction rate of daphnids. Bilastine NOEC values against zebra fish, algae, daphnids, and aerobic organisms in activated sludge were at least 130 000-fold greater than the calculated PECSW value. No environmental concerns exist from bilastine use in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or urticaria.

  18. A unified model for energy and environmental performance assessment of natural gas-fueled poly-generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    Poly-generation systems for combined production of manifold energy vectors such as electricity, heat at different enthalpy levels (for instance, in the form of hot water and steam), and cooling power from a unique source of primary energy (typically natural gas) are increasingly spreading, above all on a small-scale basis (below 1 MW e ), owing to their enhanced energy, environmental and economic characteristics. Availability of suitable tools for assessing the performance of such systems is therefore fundamental. In this paper, a unified general model is proposed for assessing the energy and CO 2 emission performance of any type of poly-generation system with natural gas as the energy input. In particular, the classical energy saving model for cogeneration systems is extended to include in the analysis further energy vectors by defining the novel PPES (Poly-generation Primary Energy Saving) indicator. In addition, equivalent efficiencies for CO 2 emission assessment are defined and used in the formulation of the new PCO2ER (Poly-generation CO 2 Emission Reduction) indicator, specifically introduced for environmental analysis. The formal analogy between the PPES and the PCO2ER indicators is highlighted. Numerical applications are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed models and to quantify the typical benefits that poly-generation systems can bring. In particular, the new indicators are of relevant interest for both energy planners and policy makers, above all in the outlook of formulating financial incentive strategies, as it already occurs for cogeneration systems, or of participating to specific energy-related markets such as the ones for trading white certificates or emission allowances

  19. Environmental radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Shioiri, Masatoshi; Sakamaki, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring systems are used to measure and monitoring gamma-rays at the observation boundaries of nuclear facilities and in the surrounding areas. In recent years, however, few new nuclear facilities have been constructed and the monitoring systems shift to renewal of existing systems. In addition, in order to increase public acceptance, the facilities are being equipped with communication lines to provide data to prefectural environmental centers. In this text, we introduce the latest technology incorporated in replacement of environmental radiation monitoring systems. We also introduce a replacement method that can shorten the duration during which environmental dose rate measurement is interrupted by enabling both the replacement system and the system being replaced to perform measurements in parallel immediately before and after the replacement. (author)

  20. Environmental (Saprozoic Pathogens of Engineered Water Systems: Understanding Their Ecology for Risk Assessment and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Ashbolt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major waterborne (enteric pathogens are relatively well understood and treatment controls are effective when well managed. However, water-based, saprozoic pathogens that grow within engineered water systems (primarily within biofilms/sediments cannot be controlled by water treatment alone prior to entry into water distribution and other engineered water systems. Growth within biofilms or as in the case of Legionella pneumophila, primarily within free-living protozoa feeding on biofilms, results from competitive advantage. Meaning, to understand how to manage water-based pathogen diseases (a sub-set of saprozoses we need to understand the microbial ecology of biofilms; with key factors including biofilm bacterial diversity that influence amoebae hosts and members antagonistic to water-based pathogens, along with impacts from biofilm substratum, water temperature, flow conditions and disinfectant residual—all control variables. Major saprozoic pathogens covering viruses, bacteria, fungi and free-living protozoa are listed, yet today most of the recognized health burden from drinking waters is driven by legionellae, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM and, to a lesser extent, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In developing best management practices for engineered water systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP or water safety plan (WSP approaches, multi-factor control strategies, based on quantitative microbial risk assessments need to be developed, to reduce disease from largely opportunistic, water-based pathogens.

  1. Environmental impacts of future low-carbon electricity systems: Detailed life cycle assessment of a Danish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide; Nielsen, Christian F.B.; Simonsen, Christian G.; Astrup, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of a power system with a high share of wind power assessed. • LCI data for electricity supply in Denmark in 2010 and 2030 (low carbon) provided. • Focus on GHG reduction may lead to increase in other impact categories. • Imported biomass might cause high GHG emissions form Land Use Change. • Need for guidelines for LCA of electricity supply (cogeneration and power import). - Abstract: The need to reduce dependency on fossil resources and to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is driving many countries towards the implementation of low-carbon electricity systems. In this study the environmental impact of a future (2030) possible low-carbon electricity system in Denmark was assessed and compared with the current situation (2010) and an alternative 2030 scenario using life cycle assessment (LCA). The influence on the final results of the modeling approach used for (i) electricity import, (ii) biomass resources, and (iii) the cogeneration of heat and power was discussed. The results showed that consumption of fossil resources and global warming impacts from the Danish electricity sector could be reduced significantly compared with 2010. Nevertheless, a reduction in GHG may be at the expense of other environmental impacts, such as the increased depletion of abiotic resources. Moreover, the results were very dependent upon biomass origin: when agricultural land was affected by biomass import, and land use changes and transportation were included, GHG emissions from imported biomass were comparable to those from fossil fuels. The results were significantly influenced by the modeling approach regarding the import of electricity, biomass provision, and the allocation between heat and power in cogeneration plants. As the importance of all three aspects is likely to increase in the future, transparency in LCA modeling is critical. Characterized impacts for Danish power plants in 2010 and 2030 (including corresponding

  2. Environmental Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site on Environmental Management Systems (EMS) provides information and resources related to EMS for small businesses and private industry, as well as local, state and federal agencies, including all the EPA offices and laboratories.

  3. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  4. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  5. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  6. Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M.; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom…

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for a Solar Power System at Davis-Monthan Air Force Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    southwestern boundary of the Base with the property line on the west and a dirt road on the east within the proposed West Airfield Parcel. The site...direct rail connection to the Base (Davis-Monthan AFB 2006a). There are officially designated bike paths on the Base, as FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL...permit a vacant lo~ or an urban or suburbm open area, to be driven over or used by motor vehicles, trucks, cars, cycles, . bikes , or buggies, or by

  8. Making better sense of the mosaic of environmental measurement networks: a system-of-systems approach and quantitative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Peter W.; Madonna, Fabio; Schulz, Joerg; Oakley, Tim; Ingleby, Bruce; Rosoldi, Marco; Tramutola, Emanuele; Arola, Antti; Buschmann, Matthias; Mikalsen, Anna C.; Davy, Richard; Voces, Corinne; Kreher, Karin; De Maziere, Martine; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2017-11-01

    There are numerous networks and initiatives concerned with the non-satellite-observing segment of Earth observation. These are owned and operated by various entities and organisations often with different practices, norms, data policies, etc. The Horizon 2020 project GAIA-CLIM is working to improve our collective ability to use an appropriate subset of these observations to rigorously characterise satellite observations. The first fundamental question is which observations from the mosaic of non-satellite observational capabilities are appropriate for such an application. This requires an assessment of the relevant, quantifiable aspects of the measurement series which are available. While fundamentally poor or incorrect measurements can be relatively easily identified, it is metrologically impossible to be sure that a measurement series is correct. Certain assessable aspects of the measurement series can, however, build confidence in their scientific maturity and appropriateness for given applications. These are aspects such as that it is well documented, well understood, representative, updated, publicly available and maintains rich metadata. Entities such as the Global Climate Observing System have suggested a hierarchy of networks whereby different subsets of the observational capabilities are assigned to different layers based on such assessable aspects. Herein, we make a first attempt to formalise both such a system-of-systems networks concept and a means by which to, as objectively as possible, assess where in this framework different networks may reside. In this study, we concentrate on networks measuring primarily a subset of the atmospheric Essential Climate Variables of interest to GAIA-CLIM activities. We show assessment results from our application of the guidance and how we plan to use this in downstream example applications of the GAIA-CLIM project. However, the approach laid out should be more widely applicable across a broad range of application

  9. Making better sense of the mosaic of environmental measurement networks: a system-of-systems approach and quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Thorne

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous networks and initiatives concerned with the non-satellite-observing segment of Earth observation. These are owned and operated by various entities and organisations often with different practices, norms, data policies, etc. The Horizon 2020 project GAIA–CLIM is working to improve our collective ability to use an appropriate subset of these observations to rigorously characterise satellite observations. The first fundamental question is which observations from the mosaic of non-satellite observational capabilities are appropriate for such an application. This requires an assessment of the relevant, quantifiable aspects of the measurement series which are available. While fundamentally poor or incorrect measurements can be relatively easily identified, it is metrologically impossible to be sure that a measurement series is correct. Certain assessable aspects of the measurement series can, however, build confidence in their scientific maturity and appropriateness for given applications. These are aspects such as that it is well documented, well understood, representative, updated, publicly available and maintains rich metadata. Entities such as the Global Climate Observing System have suggested a hierarchy of networks whereby different subsets of the observational capabilities are assigned to different layers based on such assessable aspects. Herein, we make a first attempt to formalise both such a system-of-systems networks concept and a means by which to, as objectively as possible, assess where in this framework different networks may reside. In this study, we concentrate on networks measuring primarily a subset of the atmospheric Essential Climate Variables of interest to GAIA–CLIM activities. We show assessment results from our application of the guidance and how we plan to use this in downstream example applications of the GAIA–CLIM project. However, the approach laid out should be more widely applicable across

  10. Strategic Defense Initiative Demonstration/Validation Program Environmental Assessment. Exoatmospheric Reentry Vehicle Interception System (ERIS),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    2; - 4; C i O Ga. ; . ft* .4 .4 ~I A la 4. a d .4 . - aa .3 r U. AM 0SP0 o~~0 0.ei. ’U4 Is .~ -4 -- I r ’M .0. ~ aDa id .40 *l - 3~.4 144 0.U .4z- z... Lovelace , Norm, Environmental Protection Agency, Permit Programs, Micronesia, Region IX, San Francisco, California. 27 May 1987. Tele- phone...Defense Initiative Organization. 98. Vall, Lieutenant General John F., U.S. Department of the Army. 27 July 1987. Letter to Lieutenant General James A

  11. Environmental impacts of innovative dairy farming systems aiming at improved internal nutrient cycling: A multi-scale assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, J; Dolman, M A; Vellinga, Th V; de Boer, H C; Gerritsen, A L; Sonneveld, M P W; Bouma, J

    2015-12-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing environmental impacts by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) on their farm by optimizing the use of available on-farm resources. This study evaluates the environmental performance of selected INC farms in the Northern Friesian Woodlands in comparison to regular benchmark farms using a Life Cycle Assessment. Regular farms were selected on the basis of comparability in terms of milk production per farm and per hectare, soil type and drainage conditions. In addition, the environmental impacts of INC farming at landscape level were evaluated with the integrated modelling system INITIATOR, using spatially explicit input data on animal numbers, land use, agricultural management, meteorology and soil, assuming that all farms practised the principle of INC farming. Impact categories used at both farm and landscape levels were global warming potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Additional farm level indicators were land occupation and non-renewable energy use, and furthermore all farm level indicators were also expressed per kg fat and protein corrected milk. Results showed that both on-farm and off-farm non-renewable energy use was significantly lower at INC farms as compared with regular farms. Although nearly all other environmental impacts were numerically lower, both on-farm and off-farm, differences were not statistically significant. Nitrogen losses to air and water decreased by on average 5 to 10% when INC farming would be implemented for the whole region. The impact of INC farming on the global warming potential and eutrophication potential was, however, almost negligible (cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward an analytical framework for understanding complex social-ecological systems when conducting environmental impact assessments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bowd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of biophysical impacts has historically dominated environmental impact assessment (EIA practice. Despite the emergence of social impact assessment, the consideration of socioeconomic impacts in EIA is variable, as is the extent of their integration in EIA findings. There is growing recognition for the need to move EIA practice toward sustainability assessment, characterized by comprehensiveness, i.e., scope of impacts, integration, i.e., of biophysical and socioeconomic impacts, and a greater strategic focus. This is particularly the case in developing regions and in countries like South Africa, which have statutory requirements for the full consideration of socioeconomic impacts in EIA. We suggest that EIA practice could benefit from incorporating evolving theory around social-ecological systems (SES as an effective way of moving toward sustainability assessment. As far as we are aware, our study constitutes the first attempt to apply and formalize SES constructs to EIA practice within a regulated procedure. Our framework goes beyond conventional scoping approaches reliant on checklists and matrices by requiring the EIA practitioner to cocreate a conceptual model of the current and future social-ecological system with the implicated communities. This means social and biophysical impacts are assessed integratively, and that communities participate meaningfully in the EIA process, thereby helping address two of the most common shortfalls of EIA practice. The framework was applied in two case studies, establishment of community-based accommodation linked to existing tourism infrastructure (Eastern Cape, South Africa, and a proposed wine estate (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The framework revealed impacts, which would not be considered in a biophysically-oriented EIA, and helped identify development synergies and institutional and governance needs that are equally likely to have been overlooked. We suggest the framework has value as a

  13. Environmental assessment of depleted uranium used in military armor-piercing rounds in terrestrial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jacob K; Coleman, Jessica G; Brasfield, Sandra M; Bednar, Anthony J; Ang, Choo Y

    2014-06-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) from the military testing and use of armor-piercing kinetic energy penetrators has been shown to accumulate in soils; however, little is known about the toxicity of DU geochemical species created through corrosion or weathering. The purpose of the present study was to assess the toxic effects and bioaccumulation potential of field-collected DU oxides to the model terrestrial invertebrates Eisenia fetida (earthworm) and Porcellio scaber (isopod). Earthworm studies were acute (72 h) dermal exposures or 28-d spiked soil exposures that used noncontaminated field-collected soils from the US Army's Yuma and Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Endpoints assessed in earthworm testing included bioaccumulation, growth, reproduction, behavior (soil avoidance), and cellular stress (neutral red uptake in coelomocytes). Isopod testing used spiked food, and endpoints assessed included bioaccumulation, survival, and feeding behavior. Concentration-dependent bioaccumulation of DU in earthworms was observed with a maximum bioaccumulation factor of 0.35; however, no significant reductions in survival or impacts to cellular stress were observed. Reproduction lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOEC) of 158 mg/kg and 96 mg/kg were observed in Yuma Proving Ground and a Mississippi reference soil (Karnac Ferry), respectively. Earthworm avoidance of contaminated soils was not observed in 48-h soil avoidance studies; however, isopods were shown to avoid food spiked with 12.7% by weight DU oxides through digital tracking studies. © 2014 SETAC.

  14. Environmental impacts and benefits of smart home automation:life cycle assessment of home energy management system

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, J.-N. (Jean-Nicolas); Calo, A. (Antonio); Leiviskä, K. (Kauko); Pongrácz, E. (Eva)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses the life-cycle environmental impact of Home Energy Management System (HEMS), in terms of their potential benefits and detrimental impacts. It is the expectation that adapting smart home automation (SHA) would lead to reduced electricity usage in the household and overall environmental advantages. The purpose of this research was to quantify the negative environmental impacts of SHA and balance them with their benefits. The evaluation of SHA has been done by co...

  15. Environmental assessment of façade-building systems and thermal insulation materials for different climatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra-Pérez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In the European Union, the building sector accounts for more than 40% of the total energy consumption and environmental impacts, representing the area with the greatest potential for intervention. In addition to the existing policies that promote energy efficiency in buildings, the embodied energy and the environmental impacts contained in the building materials should be considered. In the case of the construction of insulation façade systems, the environmental implications are different dep...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Treatment Technologies. An environmental and financial systems analysis of gasification, incineration and landfilling of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Technology

    2003-05-01

    A technology which is currently developed by researchers at KTH is catalytic combustion. which is one component of a gasification system. Instead of performing the combustion in the gas turbine by a flame, a catalyst is used. When the development of a new technology (as catalytic combustion) reaches a certain step where it is possible to quantify material-, energy- and capital flows, the prerequisites for performing a systems analysis is at hand. The systems analysis can be used to expand the know-how about the potential advantages of the catalytic combustion technology by highlighting its function as a component of a larger system. In this way it may be possible to point out weak points which have to be investigated more, but also strong points to emphasise the importance of further development. The aim of this project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts and economic costs of thermal treatment technologies in general and catalytic combustion in particular. By using a holistic assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion of waste it was possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technology under different conditions. Following different treatment scenarios have been studied: (1) Gasification with catalytic combustion, (2) Gasification with flame combustion, (3) Incineration with energy recovery and (4) Landfilling with gas collection. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion. of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios is supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced. from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied were classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment into the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical

  17. Assessing the Role of Environmental Factors on Baltic Cod Recruitment, a Complex Adaptive System Emergent Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Krekoukiotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fish recruitment has been a subject of intensive research with stock–recruitment models commonly used for recruitment prediction often only explaining a small fraction of the inter-annual recruitment variation. The use of environmental information to improve our ability to predict recruitment, could contribute considerably to fisheries management. However, the problem remains difficult because the mechanisms behind such complex relationships are often poorly understood; this in turn, makes it difficult to determine the forecast estimation robustness, leading to the failure of some relationships when new data become available. The utility of machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks (ANNs for solving complex problems has been demonstrated in aquatic studies and has led many researchers to advocate ANNs as an attractive, non-linear alternative to traditional statistical methods. The goal of this study is to design a Baltic cod recruitment model (FishANN that can account for complex ecosystem interactions. To this end, we (1 build a quantitative model representation of the conceptual understanding of the complex ecosystem interactions driving Baltic cod recruitment dynamics, and (2 apply the model to strengthen the current capability to project future changes in Baltic cod recruitment. FishANN is demonstrated to bring multiple stressors together into one model framework and estimate the relative importance of these stressors while interpreting the complex nonlinear interactions between them. Additional requirements to further improve the current study in the future are also proposed.

  18. ERMS - Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vax, Eran; Sarusi, Benny; Sheinfeld, Mati; Levinson, Shmuel; Brandys, Irad; Sattinger, Danny; Wengrowicz, Udi; Tshuva, Avi; Tirosh, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A new Environmental Radiation Monitoring System (ERMS) has been developed in the NRCN as an extensive tool to be applied in case of nuclear malfunction or Nuclear Disposal Device (NDD) incident, as well as for routine radiation monitoring of the reactor's vicinity. The system collects real-time environmental data such as: gamma radiation, wind speed, wind direction, and temperature for monitoring purposes. The ERMS consists of a main Control Center and an array of monitoring stations. Fixed, environmental, gamma radiation monitoring stations are installed at the reactor's surroundings while portable stations can be posted rapidly along the wind direction, enhancing the spatial sampling of the radiation measurements and providing better hazard assessment at an emergency event. The presented ERMS, based on industrial standards for hardware and network protocols, is a reliable standalone system which upgrades the readiness to face a nuclear emergency event by supplying real-time, integrated meteorological and radiation data. (author)

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Miler-Virc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ISO 14001 prescribes the requirements for a system, not environmental performance itself. Similarly, certification is of the management system itself, not environmental performance. An audit is not conducted to ascertain whether your flue gas emissions are less than X part per million nitrous oxide or that your wastewater effluent contains less that Y milligrams of bacteria per litre. Consequently, the procces of auditing the system for compliance to the standard entails checking to see that all of the necessary components of a functioning system are present and working properly.           A company can have a complete and fully functional EMS as prescribed by ISO 14001 without being certified. As certification can add to the time and expense of EMS development, it is important for you to establish, in advance, whether certification is of net benefit to you. Although most companies that develop an EMS do in fact certify, there are cases where certification does not add immediate value. Certification is not always beneficial to small and medium sized companies. Certification is not always necessary for companies with one or two large clients with environmental demands who are satisfied that you have a functional EMS (second-party declaration. Whatever decision you make, it is important to remember that just as a driver′s licence does not automatically make you a good driver, ISO 14001 certification does not automatically make your company environmentally benign or ensure that you will continually improve environmental performance. The system is only as good as the people who operate it.

  20. A Multicriteria Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems: Energetic, Environmental, and Economic Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of photovoltaic (PV energy has led to rising efficiencies, better reliability, and falling prices. A multicriteria analysis (MCA of PV systems is proposed in this paper in order to evaluate the sustainability of alternative projects. The investigations are presented using multiple indicators: Energy Payback Time (EPBT, Energy Return on Investment (EROI, Greenhouse Gas per kilowatt-hour (GHG/kWh, Greenhouse Gas Payback Time (GPBT, Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment (GROI, Net Present Value (NPV, Discounted Payback Time (DPBT, and Discounted Aggregate Cost Benefit (D(B/CA. PV energy is a relevant player in global electricity market and can have a key-role in sustainable growth.

  1. The satellite power system - Assessment of the environmental impact on middle atmosphere composition and on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Park, C.; Pfister, L.; Woodward, H. T.; Turco, R. P.; Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.; Kropp, T.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical models were developed to calculate the total deposition of watervapor, hydrogen, CO2, CO, SO2, and NO in the middle atmosphere from operation of heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV) used to build a satellite solar power system (SPS). The effects of the contaminants were examined for their effects on the upper atmosphere. One- and two-dimensional models were formulated for the photochemistry of the upper atmosphere and for rocket plumes and reentry. An SPS scenario of 400 launches per year for 10 yr was considered. The build-up of the contaminants in the atmosphere was projected to have no significant effects, even at the launch latitude. Neither would there by any dangerous ozone depletion. It was found that H, OH, and HO2 species would double in the thermosphere. No measurable changes in climate were foreseen.

  2. Environmental Assessment for Type III Fuel Hydrant System at Grissom Air Reserve Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    emissions from  architectural  coatings and asphalt paving operations. Emissions of all criteria pollutants    Grissom Air Reserve Base  3‐7  October 2011...3.4 CULTURAL RESOURCES 3.4.1 EVALUATION CRITERIA Cultural resources include archaeological resources, historic  architectural  or engineering...potable water distribution  system (GARB 2007).    Drinking water is sampled periodically by  bioenvironmental  engineering personnel at various locations

  3. A Hybrid Fuzzy Inference System Based on Dispersion Model for Quantitative Environmental Health Impact Assessment of Urban Transportation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Tashayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the spatial variation of traffic-related air pollution has been and is a long-standing challenge in quantitative environmental health impact assessment of urban transportation planning. Advanced approaches are required for modeling complex relationships among traffic, air pollution, and adverse health outcomes by considering uncertainties in the available data. A new hybrid fuzzy model is developed and implemented through hierarchical fuzzy inference system (HFIS. This model is integrated with a dispersion model in order to model the effect of transportation system on the PM2.5 concentration. An improved health metric is developed as well based on a HFIS to model the impact of traffic-related PM2.5 on health. Two solutions are applied to improve the performance of both the models: the topologies of HFISs are selected according to the problem and used variables, membership functions, and rule set are determined through learning in a simultaneous manner. The capabilities of this proposed approach is examined by assessing the impacts of three traffic scenarios involved in air pollution in the city of Isfahan, Iran, and the model accuracy compared to the results of available models from literature. The advantages here are modeling the spatial variation of PM2.5 with high resolution, appropriate processing requirements, and considering the interaction between emissions and meteorological processes. These models are capable of using the available qualitative and uncertain data. These models are of appropriate accuracy, and can provide better understanding of the phenomena in addition to assess the impact of each parameter for the planners.

  4. Modern biogeochemistry environmental risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    Most books deal mainly with various technical aspects of ERA description and calculationsAims at generalizing the modern ideas of both biogeochemical and environmental risk assessment during recent yearsAims at supplementing the existing books by providing a modern understanding of mechanisms that are responsible for the ecological risk for human beings and ecosystem

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production activities in any industry may “harm the environment through their damaging effects on air, water, soil and biodiversity.”1. To protect the environment, it is imperative to conduct environmental impact assessment (“EIA”) of investment projects in order to identify their potential harms. Appropriate measures should be ...

  6. Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment methodologies are presented as possible pollution assessment methodologies, even though petroleum as a resource is desirable, whereas pollution is undesirable. A methodology is defined in this paper to consist of a probability model and a probabilistic method, where the method is used to solve the model. The following four basic types of probability models are considered: 1) direct assessment, 2) accumulation size, 3) volumetric yield, and 4) reservoir engineering. Three of the four petroleum resource assessment methodologies were written as microcomputer systems, viz. TRIAGG for direct assessment, APRAS for accumulation size, and FASPU for reservoir engineering. A fourth microcomputer system termed PROBDIST supports the three assessment systems. The three assessment systems have different probability models but the same type of probabilistic method. The type of advantages of the analytic method are in computational speed and flexibility, making it ideal for a microcomputer. -from Author

  7. Assessment of indirect human exposure to environmental sources of nickel: oral exposure and risk characterization for systemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brouwere, Katleen; Buekers, Jurgen; Cornelis, Christa; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the indirect human exposure to Ni via the oral route for the regional scale in the EU, together with a method to assess additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach fills a gap in the generic REACH guidance which is inadequate for assessing indirect environmental exposure of metals. Estimates of regional scale Ni dietary intake were derived from Ni dietary studies performed in the EU. Typical and Reasonable Worst Case dietary Ni intakes for the general population in the EU were below the oral Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) of Ni sulfate for systemic effects. Estimates for the Ni dietary intake at the local scale take into account the influence of aerial Ni deposition and transfer from soil to crops grown near industrial plants emitting Ni. The additional dietary exposure via this local contribution was small. Despite the use of conservative parameters for these processes, this method may underestimate dietary exposure around older industrial sites because REACH guidance does not account for historical soil contamination. Nevertheless, the method developed here can also be used as a screening tool for community-based risk assessment, as it accounts for historical soil pollution. Nickel exposure via drinking water was derived from databases on Ni tap water quality. A small proportion of the EU population (<5%) is likely to be exposed to tap water exceeding the EU standard (20 μg Ni/l). Taking into account the relative gastrointestinal absorption of Ni from water (30%) versus from solid matrices (5%), water intake constitutes, after dietary intake, the second most important pathway for oral Ni intake. Incidental ingestion of Ni from soil/dust at the regional scale, and also at the local scale, was low in comparison with dietary intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the Anticipated Environmental Footprint of Future Nuclear Energy Systems. Evidence of the Beneficial Effect of Extensive Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Serp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this early 21st century, our societies have to face a tremendous and increasing energy need while mitigating the global climate change and preserving the environment. Addressing this challenge requires an energy transition from the current fossil energy-based system to a carbon-free energy production system, based on a relevant energy mix combining renewables and nuclear energy. However, such an energy transition will only occur if it is accepted by the population. Powerful and reliable tools, such as life cycle assessments (LCA, aiming at assessing the respective merits of the different energy mix for most of the environmental impact indicators are therefore mandatory for supporting a risk-informed decision-process at the societal level. Before studying the deployment of a given energy mix, a prerequisite is to perform LCAs on each of the components of the mix. This paper addresses two potential nuclear energy components: a nuclear fuel cycle based on the Generation III European Pressurized Reactors (EPR and a nuclear fuel cycle based on the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR. The basis of this study relies on the previous work done on the current French nuclear fuel cycle using the bespoke NELCAS tool specifically developed for studying nuclear fuel cycle environmental impacts. Our study highlights that the EPR already brings a limited improvement to the current fuel cycle thanks to a higher efficiency of the energy transformation and a higher burn-up of the nuclear fuel (−20% on most of the chosen indicators whereas the introduction of the GEN IV fast reactors will bring a significant breakthrough by suppressing the current front-end of the fuel cycle thanks to the use of depleted uranium instead of natural enriched uranium (this leads to a decrease of the impact from 17% on water consumption and withdrawal and up to 96% on SOx emissions. The specific case of the radioactive waste is also studied, showing that only the partitioning

  9. Accounting for external costs in a study of a Swedish district-heating system. An assessment of environmental policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, E.; Ahlgren, E.O. [Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Sweden has historically had strict emission control by implementation of economic policy instruments with the aim of internalising the external costs of air pollution. This study aims to evaluate how well current Swedish policy instruments reflect the environmental costs associated with heat generation in several district-heating (DH) plants in the DH system of Goeteborg. Furthermore, it aims to simulate and evaluate the operation of the DH system based on its social cost-effectiveness which takes into account the DH system's private and external costs (non-internalised environmental costs). The study shows that the economic policy instruments do not fully internalise all external costs whereas for certain technologies, the costs in terms of taxes, emission permits, environmental fees, etc. are higher than the environmental costs caused by the pollutants, given the environmental cost estimates used in the study. The simulation results show that the deviating internalisation of external costs affects the economic ranking of the different plants within the studied DH system. The estimated loss in social-cost effectiveness of the operation of the DH system of Goeteborg is noticable but relatively small if compared to the variable heat generation costs for most of the studied DH plants. (author)

  10. Accounting for external costs in a study of a Swedish district-heating system - An assessment of environmental policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, E., E-mail: elsaf@chalmers.s [Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Ahlgren, E.O. [Energy Systems Technology, Division of Energy Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Sweden has historically had strict emission control by implementation of economic policy instruments with the aim of internalising the external costs of air pollution. This study aims to evaluate how well current Swedish policy instruments reflect the environmental costs associated with heat generation in several district-heating (DH) plants in the DH system of Goeteborg. Furthermore, it aims to simulate and evaluate the operation of the DH system based on its social cost-effectiveness which takes into account the DH system's private and external costs (non-internalised environmental costs). The study shows that the economic policy instruments do not fully internalise all external costs whereas for certain technologies, the costs in terms of taxes, emission permits, environmental fees, etc. are higher than the environmental costs caused by the pollutants, given the environmental cost estimates used in the study. The simulation results show that the deviating internalisation of external costs affects the economic ranking of the different plants within the studied DH system. The estimated loss in social-cost effectiveness of the operation of the DH system of Goeteborg is noticable but relatively small if compared to the variable heat generation costs for most of the studied DH plants.

  11. Accounting for external costs in a study of a Swedish district-heating system - An assessment of environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlen, E.; Ahlgren, E.O.

    2010-01-01

    Sweden has historically had strict emission control by implementation of economic policy instruments with the aim of internalising the external costs of air pollution. This study aims to evaluate how well current Swedish policy instruments reflect the environmental costs associated with heat generation in several district-heating (DH) plants in the DH system of Goeteborg. Furthermore, it aims to simulate and evaluate the operation of the DH system based on its social cost-effectiveness which takes into account the DH system's private and external costs (non-internalised environmental costs). The study shows that the economic policy instruments do not fully internalise all external costs whereas for certain technologies, the costs in terms of taxes, emission permits, environmental fees, etc. are higher than the environmental costs caused by the pollutants, given the environmental cost estimates used in the study. The simulation results show that the deviating internalisation of external costs affects the economic ranking of the different plants within the studied DH system. The estimated loss in social-cost effectiveness of the operation of the DH system of Goeteborg is noticable but relatively small if compared to the variable heat generation costs for most of the studied DH plants.

  12. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  13. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  14. Assessing the agro-environmental sustainability of organic mixed-crop dairy systems on the basis of a multivariate approach

    OpenAIRE

    COQUIL, X.; FIORELLI, J.-L.; MIGNOLET, C.; BLOUET, A.; FOISSY, D.; TROMMENSCHLAGER, J.M.; BAZARD, C.; GAUJOUR, E.; GOUTTENOIRE, L.; SCHRACK, D.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable development calls upon the farming sector to commit itself to the transmission of natural resources to future generations. The INRA research team of Mirecourt studies the design of environmentally-friendly farming systems. The design of these systems is based on a multitude of objectives, and their evaluation is determined by a wide range of criteria. This work aims at determining the practical conditions for implementing agricultural systems considered to be sustainable from an e...

  15. Strategic Environmental Assessment: Integrated environmental management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, DEAT

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available , or an integrative role, where the focus is on combining environmental, social and economic considerations. Through the integration of environmental, social and economic objectives into the policy and planning process, SEA has the potential to assist... and economic considerations (K?rn?v and Thissen, 2000). Through the integration of environmental, social and economic objectives into the policy and planning process, SEA has the potential to assist in the implementation of the concept of sustainable...

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sustainable development of water resources is a multi-dimensional way of thinking about the connections or interdependencies among natural, social, and economic systems in the use of water. The purpose of environmental impact assessment is to guarantee a sustainable development that is in harmony with human ...

  17. Federal environmental assessment panel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.A.; King, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Government of Canada inaugurated an environmental assessment process in 1973. Since that time, the Department of Natural Resources, or its predecessor, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, and industrial clients of the Department, have been major participants in the process. In 1995, the authors interviewed representatives of a number of client industries and selected individuals, to ask their opinion of the public hearing part of the environmental assessment process, with the objective of identifying shortcomings and proposing improvements. Respondents criticized the hearings as costly, time-wasting, bureaucratic, and uncertain in cost, time, and outcome. A number of observations on noted areas of shortcoming are presented in this paper, with suggestions for improvement

  18. Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Standard Targetry Replacement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    This Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) evaluates potential direct, indirect, and cumulative impacts of standard targetry replacement and alternatives on environmental and land use resources...

  19. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  20. Protocols for conducting Environmental Management Assessments of DOE organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of DOE`s environmental programs, the Office of Environmental Audit conducts Environmental Management Assessments of DOE programs and facilities. These assessments take a broad programmatic view of environmental systems which may cover multiple sites. The focus of the assessment is on the infrastructure, systems, programs, and tools to manage environmental issues, not on the compliance issues themselves. Protocols have been developed to assist in the conduct of Environmental Management Assessments. The protocols are, based on and serve as implementing guidelines for the Environmental Management Section of ``Performance Objectives and Criteria for Conducting DOE Environmental Audits`` (DOE/EH-022). They are intended to provide guidance to the Assessment Team in conducting these reviews.

  1. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  2. Assessing the effects of customer innovativeness, environmental value and ecological lifestyles on residential solar power systems install intention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kee Kuo

    2014-01-01

    To understand the impact of environmental value, ecological lifestyle, customer innovativeness on customer intention to install solar power system (SPS) in their private houses, an empirical model was proposed. Customer innovativeness was treated as a second-order construct with two first-order dimensions, with each of the latter being measured by means of reflective indicators. Using structural equation modeling, data collected from 203 college students and faculties at a University of Taiwan were tested against the model. We found that environmental value has a positive impact on ecological lifestyle and SPS install intention. Although ecological lifestyle associates positively with SPS install intention, the effect disappears when environmental value is included in the model. The effect of customer innovativeness on SPS install intention results from the tendency of customer novelty seeking, while the impact of customer independent judgment-making on SPS install intention is insignificant. The model explained 76% of the total variations within SPS install intention. Managerial implications for promoting of SPS are considered, and suggestions for further research provided. - Highlights: • We integrate customer innovativeness into an environmental behavior model. • The impact of customer innovativeness on SPS install intention was confirmed. • The impact of novelty seeking on SPS install intention has been found. • Environmental value is the most important factor for SPS install intention. • The model explained 76% of the total variations within SPS install intention

  3. Environmental issues for intensive biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattersall Smith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.2 'Environmental Issues' was to evaluate environmental sustainability of intensive biomass systems and develop guidelines to ensure environmental soundness of such systems. Eight countries participated in the work: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, U.S.A. and U.K. During the period 1995-1997, collaborators have: evaluated environmental sustainability of intensive biomass production systems; assessed environmental sustainability of utilizing biosolids, e.g., wastewater sludge and wood ash, and effluents, to increase productivity of conventional and short rotation forestry systems; and evaluated and developed environmental guidelines for deployment of bioenergy production systems. The forestry and bioenergy industrial sectors were active participants in all Activity field study tours and workshops. This paper reviews achievements of Task XII Activity 4.2 and suggests where future international collaboration is required to achieve sustainable forestry bioenergy production systems 62 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Industrial Estate Development Plan with the Geographical Information System and Matrix Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemian, M.; Poursafa, P.; Amin, O.M.; Rezaei, A.H.; Ziarati, M.; Ghoddousi, H.; Momeni, S.A.; Rezaei, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study is environmental impact assessment of the industrial estate development planning. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in Isfahan province, Iran. GIS and matrix methods were applied. Data analysis was done to identify the current situation of the region, zoning vulnerable areas, and scoping the region. Quantitative evaluation was done by using matrix of Wooten and Rau. Results. The net score for impact of industrial units operation on air quality of the project area was (-3). According to the transition of industrial estate pollutants, residential places located in the radius of 2500 meters of the city were expected to be affected more. The net score for impact of construction of industrial units on plant species of the project area was (-2). Environmental protected areas were not affected by the air and soil pollutants because of their distance from industrial estate. Conclusion. Positive effects of project activities outweigh the drawbacks and the sum scores allocated to the project activities on environmental factor was (+37). Totally it does not have detrimental effects on the environment and residential neighborhood. EIA should be considered as an anticipatory, participatory environmental management tool before determining a plan application

  5. Strategic environmental assessment for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

  6. Environmental impacts assessment: Instruments for environmental policy making and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavelli, C.M.; Sartori, S.

    1993-06-01

    This review of evaluation criteria for environmental impacts assessments in Italy covers the following aspects: the efficacy of current Italian normatives governing assessment methods, the current approach of regional public administrations, the necessity for the creation of a national regulating board, environmental impacts assessment for complex environmental systems, the application of impacts assessment recommendations to resource development modelling in the planning of integrated environmental-economic systems, the involvement of the general public in decision making, techniques to determine the monetary worth of environmental resources, the use of multi-criteria analysis techniques

  7. MULTICRITERIA APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Agarski; Igor Budak; Janko Hodolič; Đorđe Vukelić

    2010-01-01

    Environment is important and inevitable element that has direct impact on life quality. Furthermore, environmental protection represents prerequisite for healthy and sustainable way of life. Environmental quality can be represented through specific indicators that can be identified, measured, analyzed, and assessed with adequate methods for assessment of environmental quality. Problem of insight in total environmental quality, caused by different, mutually incomparable, indicators of environm...

  8. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report is concerned with the potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS). The report is written in the form of a detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system (US DOE and NASA, 1978).

  10. Evaluation and network of EC-decision support systems in the field of hydrological dispersion models and of aquatic radioecological research: assessment of environmental models and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi; Brittain, John

    2006-02-01

    The present report describes the results of an assessment of state-of-the-art computerised Decision Support Systems based on environmental models for the management of fresh water ecosystems contaminated by radioactive substances. The models are examined and compared to identify their main features, the application domains, the performances, etc., for a rationale of the entire sector in view of the needs of potential users. A similar assessment was performed for the software products implementing the Decision Support Systems. This work was carried out in the frame of the network EVANET-HYDRA financed by the European Commission [it

  11. Biological Environmental Sampling Technologies Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    assay performance for the detection of target pathogens or protein biomarkers in liquid matrices. The nanomanipulation technology provides a dramatic...personal protective equipment qPCR quantitative polymerase chain reaction RAID Rapid Assessment Initial Detection kit RFI request for information RT...Carrie Poore Robert Dorsey RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE Aaron Chonko David Grieco JOINT BIOLOGICAL TACTICAL DETECTION SYSTEM

  12. Life Support Systems: Environmental Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Environmental Monitoring (EM) systems task objectives are to develop and demonstrate onboard...

  13. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power - generating capability and one without

  14. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  15. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  16. Assessment of the Economic and Environmental Impact of Double Glazed Façade Ventilation Systems in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Alavedra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Free convection is the most often used method in order to reduce solar load gains on a building with double glazed façades (DGFs. However, depending on the climate factors, the thermal performance of a DGF may not be satisfactory and extra energy costs are required to obtain suitable comfort conditions inside the building. Forced ventilation systems are a feasible alternative to improve the thermal performance of a DGF in Mediterranean climates where large solar gains are a permanent condition throughout the year. In this paper the feasibility of using diverse forced ventilation methods in DGF is evaluated. In addition, an economical comparison between different mechanical ventilation systems was performed in order to demonstrate the viability of DGF forced ventilation. Moreover, an environmental study was carried out to prove the positive energetic balance on cooling loads between free and forced convection in DGF for Mediterranean climates. For this investigation, a CFD model was used to simulate the thermal conditions in a DGF for the different ventilation systems. Results obtained for heat flux, temperature and reductions in solar load gains were analyzed and applied for the economic and environmental research.

  17. Environmental assessment and social justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hardee, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  18. Lessons from spatial and environmental assessment of energy potentials for Anaerobic Digestion production systems applied to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierie, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.Th. van; Moll, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    lessons drawn from the aforementioned are twofold: there is a substantial gap between bio-energy potential and net energy gain; there is also a gap between top–down regulation and actual emission reduction and sustainability. Therefore, a full life cycle-based understanding of the absolute energy and environmental impact of biogas production and utilization pathways is required to help governments to develop optimal policies serving a broad set of sustainable objectives. Well-founded ideas and decisions are needed on how best to utilize the limited biomass availability most effectively and sustainably in the near and far future, as biogas can play a supportive role for integrating other renewable sources into local decentralized energy systems as a flexible and storable energy source.

  19. Environmental Assessment for Electrical Power System Upgrades at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico - Final Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-03-09

    The ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA) requires Federal agency officials to consider the environmental consequences of their proposed actions before decisions are made. In complying with NEPA, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) follows the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021). The purpose of an Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide Federal decision makers with sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact. In this case, the DOE decision to be made is whether to construct and operate a 19.5-mile (mi) (31-kilometer [km]) electric transmission line (power line) reaching from the Norton Substation, west across the Rio Grande, to locations within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Areas (TAs) 3 and 5 at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The construction of one electric substation at LANL would be included in the project as would the construction of two line segments less than 1,200 feet (ft) (366 meters [m]) long that would allow for the uncrossing of a portion of two existing power lines. Additionally, a fiber optics communications line would be included and installed concurrently as part of the required overhead ground conductor for the power line. The new power line would improve the reliability of electric service in the LANL and Los Aktrnos County areas as would the uncrossing of the crossed segments of the existing lines. Additionally, installation of the new power line would enable the LANL and the Los Alamos County electric grid, which is a shared resource, to be adapted to accommodate the future import of increased power when additional power service becomes available in the northern New Mexico area. Similarly, the fiber optics line would allow DOE to take advantage of

  20. Environmental Management Assessment of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental management assessment performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from September 14 through September 27, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and NREL contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The environmental management assessment of NREL focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems and assessed the formality of programs employing an approach that recognizes the level of formality implementing environmental programs may vary commensurate with non-nuclear research and development operations. The Assessment Team evaluated environmental monitoring, waste management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities at NREL, from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section of this report. The scope of the NREL Environmental Management Assessment was comprehensive and included all areas of environmental management. At the same time, environmental monitoring, waste management, and NEPA activities were evaluated to develop a programmatic understanding of these environmental disciplines, building upon the results of previous appraisals, audits, and reviews performed at the NREL.

  1. [Environmental damage assessment: international regulations and revelation to China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-zhen; Cao, Dong; Yu, Fang; Wang, Jin-nan; Qi, Ji; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Tian-zhu; Luo, Yong-ming

    2013-05-01

    As the whole society gradually realizes the scarcity of nature resources and environmental value, countries all over the world have evolved and improved the system of environmental damage assessment through the practices of pollution prevention and ecological environmental protection. On one hand, in the research prospective, the practices of environmental damage assessment brought new challenges to environmental law, environmental economics, environmental science, environmental engineering, etc. On the other hand, they constantly promoted and developed relevant laws and regulations, techniques, working mechanism, and guidelines on procedure in practice. On the hasis of comparison and analysis of international practices and experiences from US, EU, and Japan, etc., this article identified relevant concepts, content, and scope of environmental damage assessment, and presented its scientific positioning and development direction. At present, both theory and practice of environmental damage assessment in China are in their infancy period. Considering current environmental situation and socioeconomic development features of China, learning international practices and experiences and raising the orientation of environmental damage assessment have great meaning in exploring the suitable environmental damage assessment system.

  2. Continuous-flow complete-mixing system for assessing the effects of environmental factors on colony-level coral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Tomihiko; Shiroma, Kazuyo; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Hamdun, Asha Mansour; Nakano, Yoshikatsu; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2008-04-24

    A small-scale chamber experimental system was designed to study the effects of temperature on colony-level coral metabolism. The system continuously supplies fresh seawater to the chamber, where it is mixed immediately and completely with the seawater already present. This continuous-flow complete-mixing system (CFCM system), in conjunction with theoretical equations, allows quantitative determination of chemical uptake and release rates by coral under controlled environmental conditions. We used the massive hermatypic coral Goniastrea aspera to examine variations in pH, total alkalinity, and total inorganic carbon for 16 days at 27 degrees C under controlled light intensities (300 and 0 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). We confirmed the stability of the CFCM system with respect to coral photosynthetic and calcification fluxes. In addition, we obtained daily photosynthetic and calcification rates at different temperatures (27 degrees C, 29 degrees C, 31 degrees C, and 33 degrees C). When seawater temperature was raised from 31 degrees C to 33 degrees C, the gross primary production rate (Pgross) decreased 29.5%, and the calcification rate (G) decreased 85.7% within 2 days. The CFCM system allows quantitative evaluation of coral colony chemical release and uptake rates, and metabolism.

  3. MULTICRITERIA APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Agarski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Environment is important and inevitable element that has direct impact on life quality. Furthermore, environmental protection represents prerequisite for healthy and sustainable way of life. Environmental quality can be represented through specific indicators that can be identified, measured, analyzed, and assessed with adequate methods for assessment of environmental quality. Problem of insight in total environmental quality, caused by different, mutually incomparable, indicators of environmental load and difficult expression of overall environment quality, can be solved with multicriterial assessment. This paper presents appliance of multicriterial methods for analysis of indicators that represent environmental quality for several sites.

  4. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives

  5. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  6. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives.

  7. Environmental assessment of the alkanolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J W; Carpenter, C L

    1997-01-01

    This review provides a summary of current information available on the environmental fate and aquatic toxicology of the alkanolamines. Because these materials are widely used, there is a need to understand their fate and effects in the environment. This assessment was confined to information regarding selected physical properties of the alkanolamines as well as their potential for degradation in the atmosphere, soil, surface water, and groundwater. In addition, their relevant aquatic toxicological information and bioconcentration potential were evaluated. In general, the alkanolamines have high water solubilities and low to moderate vapor pressures. Some are solids whereas others are liquids at room temperature. Aqueous solutions of the alkanolamines are basic, with the pKas decreasing with increased alkyl substitution. Predictions of the environmental distribution of these compounds, based on a unit world model of Mackay and Paterson, suggested that alkanolamines would partition primarily into the aqueous compartment at equilibrium, with the remainder distributed to the atmosphere. Only a very small fraction of these materials is expected to sorb to soil or sediments. However, adsorption mechanisms other than partitioning into the soil organic layer were not considered in this model. Since polar compounds may sorb to soil by alternate mechanisms, this model may underestimate the true adsorption potential and subsequent environmental distribution of the alkanolamines. Future work with these compounds should focus on other types of adsorption mechanisms that could impact the environmental distribution of the alkanolamines. Although only small amount of the alkanolamines are expected to partition to the atmosphere, they are expected to be removed by reactions with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals. They may also be removed from the atmosphere by precipitation, due to their high water solubility. Because of the relatively low levels expected to be present in

  8. 16 CFR 260.8 - Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.8 Environmental assessment. (a) National Environmental Policy... and analysis to determine whether issuing the Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims...

  9. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FRA to approve a project for physical construction. FRA's “Procedures for Considering Environmental... reviews (including environmental assessments and categorical excisions, but not environmental impact statements since there are restrictions on what types of entities can manage an environmental impact...

  10. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  11. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 771.119 Section 771.119 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared by...

  12. Environmental assessment of lightweight electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Egede, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This monograph adresses the challenge of the environmental assessment of leightweight electric vehicles. It poses the question whether the use of lightweight materials in electric vehicles can reduce the vehicles’ environmental impact and compares the environmental performance of a lightweight electric vehicle (LEV) to other types of vehicles. The topical approach focuses on methods from life cycle assessment (LCA), and the book concludes with a comprehensive concept on the environmental assessment of LEVs. The target audience primarily comprises LCA practitioners from research institutes and industry, but it may also be beneficial for graduate students specializing in the field of environmental assessment.

  13. Network analysis as a tool for assessing environmental sustainability: applying the ecosystem perspective to a Danish water management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Scotti, Marco; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    New insights into the sustainable use of natural resources in human systems can be gained through comparison with ecosystems via common indices. In both kinds of system, resources are processed by a number of users within a network, but we consider ecosystems as the only ones displaying sustainable...... patterns of growth and development. We applied Network Analysis (NA) for assessing the sustainability of a Danish municipal Water Management System (WMS). We identified water users within the WMS and represented their interactions as a network of water flows. We computed intensive and extensive indices...... of system-level performance for seven different network configurations illustrating past conditions (2004-2008) and future scenarios (2015 and 2020). These indices allowed comparing the WMS with 24 human systems and 12 ecosystems. The results of the NA reveal that the WMS differs from ecosystems...

  14. Applying geographic information systems to support strategic environmental assessment: Opportunities and limitations in the context of Irish land-use plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa; Gilmer, Alan; Foley, Ronan; Sweeney, John; Fry, John

    2011-01-01

    The strengthening of spatial database infrastructures, further promoted by the INSPIRE Directive adopted in 2007, has led to an increased use of spatial data in planning and decision-making. Given that land-use plans are intrinsically spatial, such evidence and approaches can significantly benefit plan-making. A spatial framework could especially support the specific Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) aspects of the plan-making process. Spatial tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are particularly well-placed to support the environmental integration sought in SEA by providing evidence through the spatial assessment of multiple environmental datasets. Moreover, GIS bring the opportunity to augment conventional assessment techniques (e.g. matrix-based assessments) by acting as visual mediators of spatial knowledge and by providing an effective tool for the spatial and temporal analysis of environmental impacts. This paper presents a GIS-based approach to SEA (GISEA), and analyses the above premise by evaluating the barriers, limitations, opportunities and benefits of its implementation. The GISEA approach has been applied to seven development plans of differing scales in the Republic of Ireland. The results of the case studies revealed that current issues in SEA (e.g. restricted time-frames and institutional arrangements) condition the implementation of a GIS-based approach. Moreover, GIS expertise, data accessibility and quality remain limiting factors to an effective GIS application in SEA. However, the results also confirmed that GIS have the potential to increase the objectivity and accuracy of the assessment, enhance both the understanding of environmental and planning considerations and the delivery of information, and, therefore, help to improve the effectiveness of SEA practice.

  15. Proceeding of the workshop on the results of the cooperative research between JAERI and CHESCIR concerning the study on assessment and analysis of environmental radiological consequences and verification of an assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Saito, Kimiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    This workshop was organized and sponsored by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Chernobyl Science and Technology Center for International Research (CHESCIR). JAERI and CHESCIR have conducted 8 years research cooperation from 1992 to 1999 concerning the study on assessment and analysis of environmental radiological consequences and verification of an assessment system, focusing on the Chernobyl contaminated area. It contained 3 research subjects. Subject-1 initiated at 1992 and focused the study on measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after nuclear accident. Subject-2 initiated at 1992 and focused the study on the validation of assessment models in an environmental consequence assessment methodology for nuclear accidents. Subject-3 initiated at 1995 and focused on the study on migration of radionuclides released into terrestrial and aquatic environment after nuclear accidents. This workshop was held to summarize the research cooperation between JAERI and CHESCIR, and to discuss future research needs in this field. (author)

  16. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  17. Environmental policy, assessment and communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, D.; Krampen, M.; Stea, D.

    1988-01-01

    This second volume in the Gower ethnoscapes Series explores the realm of environmental policy and presents analysis of three major public policy issues: growing public concern over environmental factors; growing awareness of the relationship between environment, crime and adolescent development; and increased environmental awareness in relation to population growth and housing needs (especially housing for the elderly and mass housing for third world nations).

  18. Assessment of Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System with Different Collector Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Angrisani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desiccant-based air handling units can achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and energy savings with respect to conventional air conditioning systems. Benefits are maximized when they interact with renewable energy technologies, such as solar collectors. In this work, experimental tests and data derived from scientific and technical literature are used to implement a model of a solar desiccant cooling system, considering three different collector technologies (air, flat-plate and evacuated collectors. Simulations were then performed to compare the energy, environmental and economic performance of the system with those of a desiccant-based unit where regeneration thermal energy is supplied by a natural gas boiler, and with those of a conventional air-handling unit. The only solution that allows achieving the economic feasibility of the solar desiccant cooling unit consists of 16 m2 of evacuated solar collectors. This is able to obtain, with respect to the reference system, a reduction of primary energy consumption and of the equivalent CO2 emissions of 50.2% and 49.8%, respectively, but with a payback time of 20 years.

  19. Auditing of environmental management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuchranová Katarína

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental auditing has estabilished itself as a valueable instrument to verify and help to improve the environmental performance.Organizations of all kinds may have a need to demonstrate the environmental responsibility. The concept of environmental management systems and the associated practice of environmental auditing have been advanced as one way to satisfy this need.These system are intended to help an organization to establish and continue to meet its environmental policies, objectives, standards and other requirements.Environmental auditing is a systematic and documented verification process of objectively obtaining and evaluating audit evidence to determine whether an organizations environmental management system conforms to the environmental management system audit criteria set by the organization and for the communication of the results of this process to the management.The following article intercepts all parts of preparation environmental auditing.The audit programme and procedures should cover the activities and areas to be considered in audits, the frequency of audits, the responsibilities associated with managing and conducting audits, the communication of audit results, auditor competence, and how audits will be conducted.The International Standard ISO 140011 estabilishes the audit procedures that determine conformance with EMS audit criteria.

  20. Dynamic performance assessment of a residential building-integrated cogeneration system under different boundary conditions. Part II: Environmental and economic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio; Scorpio, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A building-integrated micro-cogeneration system was dynamically simulated. • Simulation data were analyzed from both environmental and economic point of views. • The proposed system was compared with a conventional supply system. • The proposed system reduces the environmental impact under heat-led operation. • The proposed system reduces the operating costs whatever the control logic is. - Abstract: This work examines the performance of a residential building-integrated micro-cogeneration system during the winter by means of a whole building simulation software. The cogeneration unit was coupled with a multi-family house composed of three floors, compliant with the transmittance values of both walls and windows suggested by the Italian Law; a stratified combined tank for both heating purposes and domestic hot water production was also used for storing heat. Simulations were performed considering the transient nature of the building and occupant driven loads as well as the part-load characteristics of the cogeneration unit. This system was described in detail and analyzed from an energy point of view in the companion paper. In this paper the simulation results were evaluated in terms of both carbon dioxide equivalent emissions and operating costs; detailed analyses were performed in order to estimate the influence of the most significant boundary conditions on both environmental and economic performance of the proposed system: in particular, three volumes of the hot water storage, four climatic zones corresponding to four Italian cities, two electric demand profiles, as well as two control strategies micro-cogeneration unit were considered. The assessment of environmental impact was performed by using the standard emission factors approach, neglecting the effects of local pollutants. The operating costs due to both natural gas and electric energy consumption were evaluated in detail, whereas both the capital and maintenance costs were

  1. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  3. Before-after environmental impact assessment of an artificial channel opening on a south-western Atlantic choked lagoon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestrelo, L; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the human induced impact of a channel opening in a choked lagoon and attempted to establish the cause-effect links for the observed changes. The same lagoon system was sampled before and after the channel opening event, and the differences in fish and crustacean assemblages and environmental variables between these periods analysed. The opening of the artificial channel resulted in salinity increases, leading to a shift in species composition, favouring marine species and reducing abundance and diversity of previously dominant freshwater species. Furthermore, saltwater entrance into the choked lagoon caused an unexpected decrease in species richness and biomass, plus deterioration of ecosystem processes, reducing fishing capacity. The effects of salinity on the ecosystem vary depending on the ecosystem's composition and capacity to overcome salinity changes, thus specific monitoring projects are important strategies for developing coastal lagoon conservation management. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. environmental stress indicators system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    TESs =TELd/As = (DMI+DPO+2HF-I)/As. (7). From the above-mentioned calculated Formulas (4) (5) (7), it can be observed that TESg, TESn and TESs can help construct a country's total carried environmental stress via the material flow indicators. Ecological footprint intensity indicators and ecological overshoot indicators.

  5. Public participation in Malawi's environmental impact assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the adoption of the Environmental Management Act of 1996, Malawi has been using environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a tool for predicting and assessing the impact of development projects on the environment. This study assessed the extent of public participation in Malawi's EIA process. Desktop study of ...

  6. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed...

  7. Environmental and economic assessment of hybrid FO-RO/NF system with selected inorganic draw solutes for the treatment of mine impaired water

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jung Eun

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO)/nanofiltration (NF) system in a closed-loop operation with selected draw solutes was evaluated to treat coal mine impaired water. This study provides an insight of selecting the most suitable draw solution (DS) by conducting environmental and economic life cycle assessment (LCA). Baseline environmental LCA showed that the dominant components to energy use and global warming are the DS recovery processes (i.e. RO or NF processes) and FO membrane materials, respectively. When considering the DS replenishment in FO, the contribution of chemical use to the overall global warming impact was significant for all hybrid systems. Furthermore, from an environmental perspective, the FO-NF hybrid system with Na2SO4 shows the lowest energy consumption and global warming with additional considerations of final product water quality and FO brine disposal. From an economic perspective, the FO-NF with Na2SO4 showed the lowest total operating cost due to its lower DS loss and relatively low solute cost. In a closed-loop system, FO-NF with NaCl and Na2SO4 had the lowest total water cost at optimum NF recovery rates of 90 and 95%, respectively. FO-NF with Na2SO4 had the lowest environmental and economic impacts. Overall, draw solute performances and cost in FO and recovery rate in RO/NF play a crucial role in determining the total water cost and environmental impact of FO hybrid systems in a closed-loop operation.

  8. Environmental assessment: South microwave communication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to construct, operate, and maintain eight microwave repeater stations in southwestern Colorado, southeastern Utah, and northern Arizona, in order to meet the minimum fade criteria established by the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) for the operation and protection of electric power systems. The proposed microwave facilities would increase the reliability of communication. This environmental assessment (EA) describes the existing environmental conditions and the impacts from construction of the eight microwave communication facilities. The EA was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the Department of Energy Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). The proposed project would consist of constructing eight microwave facilities, each of which would include a self-supported lattice tower, an equipment building, a propane tank, distribution lines to provide electric power to the sites, and access roads to the sites. The facilities would be constructed in San Miguel and Montezuma Counties in Colorado, San Juan County, Utah, and Navajo, Apache, Coconino, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Linked environmental data. The next step for environmental information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menger, Matthias; Ackermann, Patrick; Linse, Andreas [Federal Environemnt Agency, Dessau (Germany); Bandholtz, Thomas [innoQ GmbH, Monheim (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Federal Environment Agency (UBA) in Germany as one Competent Authority of the European Member States involved with the assessment and authorisation of chemicals, pesticides, biozides and medicals, has a wide expertise of complex information systems. Having timely, comprehensive and reliable information on the environmental relevant properties (e.g. of chemical substances and preparations) is of immense importance for all sections dealing with environmental protection issues. Regarding the reality of available information systems in each environmental section, and moreover in each section itself, there has been developed several specific approaches to gather, store and search its relevant data. This makes sense due to each section has its own requirements, different user groups (industry and authorities or just authorities or scientific partners etc.), different budgets to bring technology 'on the road', and different (legally obligatory) procedures to handle the data and information of such systems. Nevertheless, there several strong reasons to look for a Linked Environmental Data infrastructure - at least internally in one authority itself: - Overcome the mostly separated systems; - Explore the potential of data silos in several environmental sections; - Efficiency/effectiveness in data gathering, assessment, results, budgets..; - sharing of knowledge, i.e. use of specific prepared information of specially intended information systems; - timelyness of data/information; - best data/information from most competent partner/section; - gain from already available systems and their data/information; - speed up developments and availability of data/information. Of course there are also several points which might be a huge obstacle to Linked Environmental Data (LED), e.g. confidential business data. This leads already to the distinction between 'Open LED' and 'Non-Open LED'. Nevertheless, the potential benefits and the possibilities

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  11. Environmental Assessment -- Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. Construction-related impacts would be relatively minor. Construction of the facility will require the distance of about 1.7 ha (4.1 acres). No further disturbance is anticipated, unless it becomes necessary to replace the seepage pond with an injection well, because the production well is in service and adjacent roads and transmission lines are adequate. Disruption of competing land uses will be minimal, and loss of wildlife habitat will be acceptable. Noise should not significantly affect wildlife and local residents; the most noise activities (well drilling and flow testing) have been completed. Water use during construction will not be large, and impacts on competing uses are unlikely. Socio-economic impacts will be small because the project will not employ a large number of local residents and few construction workers will need to find local housing.

  12. Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-11-17

    International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

  13. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 51.30 Section 51.30 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2...

  14. Quality Assessment on Environmental Conservation Interventions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need for immediate attention. Development in those selected councils involves environmental use which should not ignore the question of environmental conservation interventions. The main objective this study was to assess the environmental interventions by local government authorities on quality of environment ...

  15. Ecological risk assessment as a framework for environmental impact assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments in South Africa are usually conducted according to the integrated environmental management (IEM) procedure. The preliminary investigation reported here, indicated that most of the ecological requirements specified...

  16. Environmental Justice Assessment for Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Application of Executive Order 12898 to risk assessment of highway or rail transport of hazardous materials has proven difficult; the location and conditions affecting the propagation of a plume of hazardous material released in a potential accident are unknown, in general. Therefore, analyses have only been possible in geographically broad or approximate manner. The advent of geographic information systems and development of software enhancements at Sandia National Laboratories have made kilometer-by-kilometer analysis of populations tallied by U.S. Census Blocks along entire routes practicable. Tabulations of total, or racially/ethnically distinct, populations close to a route, its alternatives, or the broader surrounding area, can then be compared and differences evaluated statistically. This paper presents methods of comparing populations and their racial/ethnic compositions using simple tabulations, histograms and Chi Squared tests for statistical significance of differences found. Two examples of these methods are presented: comparison of two routes and comparison of a route with its surroundings

  17. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS reg-sign): Completely-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) formulations for the wetland pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.P.; van der Aa, N.G.F.M.; Whelan, G.

    1997-06-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a physics-based environmental analysis code integrating source-term, fate, and exposure models for concentration, dose, or risk endpoints. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is designed for site-specific assessments using readily available information. Endpoints are computed for chemical and radioactive pollutants. For human health impacts, risks are computed for radioactive and hazardous carcinogens, and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. This system has wide applicability to environmental problems using air, groundwater, surface-water, overland, wetland, and exposure models. MEPAS enables users to simulate release of contaminants from a source; transport of contaminants through the air, groundwater, surface-water, overland, or wetland pathways; and transfer of contaminants through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. Whenever available and appropriate, guidance and/or models from the US Environmental Protection Agency, International Commission on Radiological Protection, and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements were used to facilitate compatibility and acceptance. Although based on relatively standard transport and exposure computation approaches, MEPAS uniquely integrated these approaches into a single system, providing a consistent basis for evaluating health impacts for a large number of problems and sites. Implemented on a desktop computer, a user-friendly platform allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models. This document describes the mathematical formulations for the Completely-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) component of MEPAS as applied to the wetland pathway

  18. Environmental Risk Assessment Strategy for Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeck J. Scott‐Fordsmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA for nanomaterials (NMs is outlined in this paper. Contrary to other recent papers on the subject, the main data requirements, models and advancement within each of the four risk assessment domains are described, i.e., in the: (i materials, (ii release, fate and exposure, (iii hazard and (iv risk characterisation domains. The material, which is obviously the foundation for any risk assessment, should be described according to the legislatively required characterisation data. Characterisation data will also be used at various levels within the ERA, e.g., exposure modelling. The release, fate and exposure data and models cover the input for environmental distribution models in order to identify the potential (PES and relevant exposure scenarios (RES and, subsequently, the possible release routes, both with regard to which compartment(s NMs are distributed in line with the factors determining the fate within environmental compartment. The initial outcome in the risk characterisation will be a generic Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC, but a refined PEC can be obtained by applying specific exposure models for relevant media. The hazard information covers a variety of representative, relevant and reliable organisms and/or functions, relevant for the RES and enabling a hazard characterisation. The initial outcome will be hazard characterisation in test systems allowing estimating a Predicted No-Effect concentration (PNEC, either based on uncertainty factors or on a NM adapted version of the Species Sensitivity Distributions approach. The risk characterisation will either be based on a deterministic risk ratio approach (i.e., PEC/PNEC or an overlay of probability distributions, i.e., exposure and hazard distributions, using the nano relevant models.

  19. Environmental impacts of innovative dairy farming systems aiming at improved internal nutrient cycling: a multi-scale assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Kros, J.; Dolman, M.A.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Boer, de H.C.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Bouma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing environmental impacts by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) on their farm by optimizing the use of available on-farm resources. This study evaluates the environmental performance of selected INC farms in the Northern Friesian Woodlands

  20. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact assessments were taken to determine the causes of environmental threats to farm lands and the environment in the selected areas. Of significance of impact assessment were activities like air, traffic, noise, had insignificant impact (p > 0.05), while water pollution, insecurity as a result of land exposure ...

  1. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Palsson, S.E.; Poroddsson, P.

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  2. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  3. Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Data (REMAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) was initiated to test the applicability of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program...

  4. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. A study on the radiation and environmental safety -Development of a real-time radiological dose assessment system-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Heui; Lee, Yung Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The real-time dose assessment system under development has been updated and the technology for tracer experiment has been established. The calculation of external gamma dose is the most difficult and time-consuming part of the dose calculations. The characteristics of external gamma exposure have been investigated and the method for reducing the calculation time has been devised. The internal exposure via the ingestion of the contaminated foodstuffs is one of the important pathways to the total radiological exposure. In the emergency, it is necessary to take an action such like food ban to protect the internal exposure. An algorithm for the interface between the real-time system and the food chain model has been provided. The second field tracer experiment over flat terrain has been carried out on a plain in Iksan city in Junrabook-Do. Sequential tracer sampler which can be sampled the tracer gas over arbitrary 12 time interval has been designed and manufactured. SF{sub 6} has been used as the tracer gas and the sampled gas has been analysed by gas-chromatographer. 55 figs, 32 tabs, 65 refs. (Author).

  6. Environmental Assessment of R&D Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Byriel, Inger Pihl

    2013-01-01

    cause severe negative environmental impacts. This paper presents an innovative environmental assessment practice on R&D programmes in Denmark. It reports on the challenges and experiences of assessing the Danish R&D programme ForskEL, which promotes R&D projects within the electricity sector......Despite their important role in shaping the technologies of the future, public research and development (R&D) programmes are rarely based on systematic assessments of the environmental effects. R&D programmes thus allocate a huge amount of financial resources to projects, which potentially may...

  7. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    comparative assessment of conventional vs. alternative hen housing systems regarding air emissions and enhance the U.S. national air emissions inventory for farm animal operations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  8. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems — Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T. A.; Zhao, Y.; Li, H.; Stinn, J. P.; Hayes, M. D.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    enable comparative assessment of conventional vs. alternative hen housing systems regarding air emissions and enhance the U.S. national air emissions inventory for farm animal operations. PMID:25737568

  9. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  10. Development and validation of an experimental life support system for assessing the effects of global climate change and environmental contamination on estuarine and coastal marine benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Rocha, Rui J M; Pires, Ana C C; Ladeiro, Bruno; Castanheira, José M; Costa, Rodrigo; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Ribeiro, Rui; Pereira, Ruth; Lopes, Isabel; Marques, Catarina; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Calado, Ricardo; Cleary, Daniel F R; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-08-01

    An experimental life support system (ELSS) was constructed to study the interactive effects of multiple stressors on coastal and estuarine benthic communities, specifically perturbations driven by global climate change and anthropogenic environmental contamination. The ELSS allows researchers to control salinity, pH, temperature, ultraviolet radiation (UVR), tidal rhythms and exposure to selected contaminants. Unlike most microcosms previously described, our system enables true independent replication (including randomization). In addition to this, it can be assembled using commercially available materials and equipment, thereby facilitating the replication of identical experimental setups in different geographical locations. Here, we validate the reproducibility and environmental quality of the system by comparing chemical and biological parameters recorded in our ELSS with those prevalent in the natural environment. Water, sediment microbial community and ragworm (the polychaete Hediste diversicolor) samples were obtained from four microcosms after 57 days of operation. In general, average concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO3 (-) ; NH4 (+) and PO4 (-3) ) in the water column of the ELSS experimental control units were within the range of concentrations recorded in the natural environment. While some shifts in bacterial community composition were observed between in situ and ELSS sediment samples, the relative abundance of most metabolically active bacterial taxa appeared to be stable. In addition, ELSS operation did not significantly affect survival, oxidative stress and neurological biomarkers of the model organism Hediste diversicolor. The validation data indicate that this system can be used to assess independent or interactive effects of climate change and environmental contamination on benthic communities. Researchers will be able to simulate the effects of these stressors on processes driven by microbial communities, sediment and seawater

  11. Land Grant Colleges and Mechanization: A Need for Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catz, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 applies to agricultural research and development projects receiving federal monies through the land grant college system, and that the Department of Agriculture has neglected its statutory duty to assess long-term environmental impact of agricultural mechanization. (Author/MSE)

  12. Targeting the environmental assessment of veterinary drugs with the multi-species-soil system (MS{center_dot}3) agricultural soil microcosms: the ivermectin case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell-Martin, G.; Pro-Gonzalez, J.; Aragones-Grunert, P.; Babib-Vich, M. M.; Fernandez-Rorija, C.; Tarazona-Lafarga, J. V.

    2011-07-01

    The environmental risk assessment of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin is receiving significant attention. This paper assesses the capacity of the MS{center_dot}3 soil microcosm as a tool for targeting the environmental impact assessment of veterinary drugs, using ivermectin as model. Two screening MS{center_dot}3 were performed using different European soils; one with a soil collected in an agricultural station near to Madrid, Spain and a second with a soil collected in a farm area close to York, UK. Soils were fortified with ivermectin at the following ranges: 0.01-10 mg kg{sup -}1 and 0.1-100 mg kg{sup -}1 in the Madrid and York studies, respectively. The effects on earthworms, plants and soil microorganisms were assessed in the Madrid soil. Toxicity tests on aquatic organisms (algae, cladocerans and in vitro fish cell line RTLW1) were also conducted with the leachates. No effects were observed in earthworms and plants at any tested concentration; reduction in the respiration rate (< 5%) of soil microorganisms was detected. Earthworm/soil bioconcentration factors decreased with the increase in soil concentrations and were higher for the York soil. Effects on daphnids were observed in tested leachates; based on measured levels of ivermectin in the leachates an EC50 of about 0.5{mu}gL{sup -}1 can be estimated. Comparisons based on toxicity data and equilibrium partitioning confirmed that the main risk is expected to be related to the high sensitivity of cladocerans. The results confirm that MS{center_dot}3 systems are cost-effective tools for assessing the impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals when applied to agricultural land, as previously demonstrated for antimicrobials. (Author) 39 refs.

  13. Selecting environmental indicator for use in strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Alison; Jones, Mike; O'Mahony, Tadhg; Byrne, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of carrying out Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is to provide for a high level of environmental protection and to integrate environmental considerations into the planning process. The SEA Directive (2001/42/EC) recommends monitoring to determine the environmental impact of the implementation of plans and programmes. Environmental indicators are a useful tool by which this impact may be measured. However, careful consideration must be given to developing a set of indicators in order to isolate, plan or programme specific impacts. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a workshop-based approach to develop appropriate criteria for selecting environmental indicator for use in SEA. A multi-disciplinary team was used in the approach which consisted of representatives from each of four environmental fields i.e. biodiversity, water, air and climatic factors, together with SEA experts, planning experts, academics and consultants. The team reviewed various sets of criteria, already in existence, for environmental indicator development but not specifically for SEA indicators. The results of this review together with original criteria were applied to the final list agreed upon. Some of the criteria recommended includes, relevance to plan, ability to prioritise, and ability to identify conflict with other plan or SEA objectives

  14. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impacts Assessment has been developed as a critically substantial approach to determine, predict and interpret the ecological impact on the environment, public hygiene and healthy ecosystems. This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important ...

  15. Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental variables on distribution and composition of aquatic macrophyte community in a tropical river was assessed for one year (March 2009 to February 2010). Hypothesis tested was that the spatial variation in environmental variables on the river's longitudinal gradient affects macrophyte species ...

  16. Application of Remote Sensing (Rs) and Geographic Information Systems (Gis) to Environmental Impact Assessment (Eia) for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Idowu Innocent Abbas and J.A. Ukoje

    2009-01-01

    A new paradigm that is fast gaining ascendancy the world over is the concept of sustainabledevelopment. Sustainable development in its simplest form advocates that the present generation develops(manage) the available resources to achieve growth and social and economic well-being in such a manner thatwill not jeopardize the chances of generation yet unborn in meeting their own needs. But then, how do w e attainsustainable development? Well, this can be achieved through Environmental Impact As...

  17. A bioelectronic system for the monitoring of cardiac activity in mussels and crabs and its application in environmental assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kholodkevich, Sergey V.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Lehtonen, Kari

    The problem of developing early diagnostic tools for bioindication of the state of aquatic ecosystems and assessment of pollution level dangerous for the environment and biota is of great importance. The BEAST project of the Baltic Sea BONUS programme develops approaches for the assessment of eco...

  18. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  19. Fiber Grating Environmental Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Whitten L.; Udd, Eric

    2003-07-29

    Fiber grating environmental measurement systems are comprised of sensors that are configured to respond to changes in moisture or chemical content of the surrounding medium through the action of coatings and plates inducing strain that is measured. These sensors can also be used to monitor the interior of bonds for degradation due to aging, cracking, or chemical attack. Means to multiplex these sensors at high speed and with high sensitivity can be accomplished by using spectral filters placed to correspond to each fiber grating environmental sensor. By forming networks of spectral elements and using wavelength division multiplexing arrays of fiber grating sensors may be processed in a single fiber line allowing distributed high sensitivity, high bandwidth fiber optic grating environmental sensor systems to be realized.

  20. INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Ada Mirela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of management as significant factor of business activity can be established on various management systems. These will help to obtain, organise, administrate, evaluate and control particulars: information, quality, environmental protection, health and safety, various resources (time, human, finance, inventory etc. The complexity of nowadays days development, forced us to think ‘integrated’. Sustainable development principles require that environment management policies and practices are not good in themselves but also integrate with all other environmental objectives, and with social and economic development objectives. The principles of sustainable development involve that environment management policies and practices. These are not sound in them-self but also integrate with all other environmental objectives, and with social and economic development objectives. Those objectives were realized, and followed by development of strategies to effects the objective of sustainable development. Environmental management should embrace recent change in the area of environmental protection, and suit the recently regulations of the field -entire legal and economic, as well as perform management systems to meet the requirements of the contemporary model for economic development. These changes are trailed by abandon the conventional approach of environmental protection and it is replaced by sustainable development (SD. The keys and the aims of Cleaner Productions (CP are presented being implemented in various companies as a non-formalised environmental management system (EMS. This concept is suggested here as a proper model for practice where possible environmental harmful technologies are used -e.g. Rosia Montana. Showing the features and the power of CP this paper is a signal oriented to involve the awareness of policy-makers and top management of diverse Romanian companies. Many companies in European countries are developing

  1. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labouze, E.; Le Guerin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne

  2. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R ampersand D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  3. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R&D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  4. Geo-environmental indicators in strategic environmental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kazak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is obligatory for European Union member states to conduct the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA in order to implement the principles of environmental protection and development into the framework of strategic documents and development policies. As practice shows, SEAs are often performed in a descriptive, subjective manner which makes it difficult to perform a final evaluation of development variants. The use of environmental indicators which allow for the quantification of states, processes and phenomena may help make SEA more objective. The aim of this article is to attempt at implementing environmental indicators into the SEA procedure. A matrix of environmental indicators taking into account environmental quality indicators and anthropogenic pressure indicators has been formulated as part of the research. The ArcGIS software with the CommunityViz platform was used for the analyses. The proposed concept and established model for the evaluation of the environmental consequences of the planning document is a contribution to the debate on issues related to SEA methodology and the use of the GIS-based approach in SEA.

  5. Environmental assessment, proposed generating station for Darlington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This document indicates the intention of Ontario Hydro to seek approval from the Provincial Government for its plan to construct and operate a 3400 MWe nuclear generating station at the Darlington site, west of Bowmanville. This preliminary proposal also contains the environmental assessment. The environmental section of this proposal describes and assesses the existing environment and the environmental influences which would occur due to the construction and operation of a nuclear generating station, consisting of four 850 MW units, at the Darlington site. This proposed station is similar to the Bruce GS A station presently under construction. (author)

  6. Thermoluminescence dosimetry environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoluzzi, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, characteristics and performances of an environmental monitoring system with thermoluminescence dosimetry are presented. Most of the work deals with the main physical parameters necessary for measurements of ambiental dose. At the end of this report some of level doses in the environment around the site of the ENEA Center of Energy Research Salluggia (Italy) are illustrated

  7. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    level. The temporal scope is defined by the impact category considered. The technological scope includes both current environmental performance of biomaterials and a discussion of future perspectives, including potentials for future change in their environmental impacts compared to fossil based......Goal and scope The goal of this PhD project is to contribute to a more consistent methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA) of biomaterials and to address the environmental performance and perspectives of biomaterials. In particular, it is the goal to develop an approach for dealing...... production is increasing. As the demand for biomaterials increases, so does the need for knowledge about their environmental performance – both in absolute terms and relative to the petrochemical counterparts that they may replace. LCA is a commonly used tool for assessing environmental sustainability...

  8. Comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. General framework and preliminary results for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostron, W.; Schneider, T.; Thieme, M.; Dreicer, M.

    1992-06-01

    The comparison of the effects of electricity producing systems is of growing importance in decision-making processes for energy planning. This report documents the preliminary results of a project for the CEC-DG XII Radiation Protection Programme on the comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. The work reported in this document has also been supported by EDF - Mission Environnement. In order to profit from the comparative studies already existing, some of the most important ones were surveyed. The aim of these past energy comparison studies was mainly to obtain a global measure of the risks associated with an energy cycle, with a view to ranking the various electricity production systems; but this is now recognised as merely an academic exercise, with a limited impact in decision-making. For energy planning the development of a multi-dimensional approach seems more suitable, as this allows the different types of indicators and measures needed to assess the risks of different energy cycles to be compared. From the past studies it has been seen that health indicators are generally well established, but a weakness is noted with respect to indicators of environmental impacts. This remains a difficult subject, and until such indicators are established, surrogates like concentrations in the environment will have to be used, or qualitative comparisons must suffice. This report presents a general framework allowing for consistent comparisons between different energy systems. The key issues discussed are: assessment by fuel cycle, consideration of the dimensions of time and space, the impact pathway approach for assessing risk, and coherent indicators that can be used to measure the impacts. First results are presented for four activities of the nuclear fuel cycle according to the approach developed: (1) the construction and dismantling of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor, (2) the transportation of materials between

  9. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a Renewable Stand-Alone Energy Supply System Using Multi-objective Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dohyun; Han, Seulki; Kim, Jiyong Kim [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aims to propose a new optimization-based approach for design and analysis of the stand-alone hybrid energy supply system using renewable energy sources (RES). In the energy supply system, we include multiple energy production technologies such as Photovoltaics (PV), Wind turbine, and fossil-fuel-based AC generator along with different types of energy storage and conversion technologies such as battery and inverter. We then select six different regions of Korea to represent various characteristics of different RES potentials and demand profiles. We finally designed and analyzed the optimal RES stand-alone energy supply system in the selected regions using multiobjective optimization (MOOP) technique, which includes two objective functions: the minimum cost and the minimum CO{sub 2} emission. In addition, we discussed the feasibility and expecting benefits of the systems by comparing to conventional systems of Korea. As a result, the region of the highest RES potential showed the possibility to remarkably reduce CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the conventional system. Besides, the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the RES-based energy system is identified to be slightly higher than conventional energy system: 0.35 and 0.46 $/kWh, respectively. However, the total life-cycle emission of CO{sub 2} (LCECO{sub 2}) can be reduced up to 470 gCO{sub 2}/kWh from 490 gCO{sub 2}/kWh of the conventional systems.

  10. Environmental assessment of stillage control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, W. K.; Chang, H.

    1980-01-01

    The US government is encouraging increased production and use of gasohol in an effort to make the United States more energy independent. The current national goal is to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States by th end of 1980. Increased production of fuel ethanol in the years to come seems certain. In producing fuel ethanol (200 proof) from biomass feedstocks by fermentation, a liquid residue called stillage is produced. The concentration of BOD/sub 5/ in stillage is usually high compared to that in domestic waste, and this residue must go through a waste treatment process before discharge into bodies of water. While stillage has potential uses as an animal feed, soil amendment, and protein source for humans, the liquid remaining after useful stillage components have been extracted must still be treated before discharge to the environment. This paper identifies the types of stillage that are produced as well as their control. The concept of stillage control in the context of this paper includes both the uses and environmental control technology needs of stillage.

  11. Institutional Assessment of Environmentally Oriented Subsoil Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gennadyevna Polyanskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article solves two relevant problems related to the implementation of the institutional assessment of environmentally oriented subsoil use: 1 the definition of the ‘environmental security’ and 2 the determination of the development level of institutional bases of environmentally oriented subsoil use including the institutional capacity of subsoil use and institutional capacity of environmental security. The article shows an analysis of the existing definitions of “environmental security” and offers the own one. Despite the significant national and foreign experience in the institutional capacity assessment of various processes, there are still some difficulties in defining and measuring the institutional capacity. We eliminate these difficulties by employing 1 original factors, previously identified, and the content of the “institutional capacity” term; 2 quality characteristics for the institutional capacity assessment of the process regulated at the macroeconomic level, and 3 a consistent methodological tool for the institutional assessment of environmentally oriented subsoil use. The study is based on the hypothesis of the necessity of legal and discreet state intervention in the process of subsoil use. Therefore, we identify the evaluation indicator of state regulation in the environmentally oriented subsoil use as the institutional capacity level calculated by using the fuzzy-set theory. As a result, the institutional capacity levels of the environmentally oriented subsoil use have been defined for both the transport corridor «Arctic-Central Asia» and for the countries composing it. The obtained values of the assessment of institutional capacity levels of the environmentally oriented subsoil use can serve as a basis for identifying the vector of its increase

  12. Towards prospective life cycle sustainability analysis: exploring complementarities between social and environmental life cycle assessments for the case of Luxembourg's energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugani, B.; Benetto, E.; Igos, E.; Quinti, G.; Declich, A.; Feudo, F.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability typically relies on the durable interaction between humans and the environment. Historically, modelling tools such as environmental-life cycle assessment (E-LCA) have been developed to address the mitigation of environmental impacts generated by human activities. More recently, social-life cycle assessment (S-LCA) methods have been proposed to investigate the social sustainability sphere, looking at the life cycle effects generated by positive or negative pressures on social endpoints (i.e. well-being of stakeholders). Despite this promising added value, however, S-LCA methods still show limitations and challenges to be faced, e.g. regarding the lack of high quality datasets and the implementation of consensual social impact assessment indicators. This paper discusses on the complementarity between S-LCA and E-LCA towards the definition of prospective life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA) approaches. To this aim, a case study is presented comparing (i) E-LCA results of business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios of energy supply and demand technology changes in Luxembourg, up to 2025, based on economic equilibrium modeling and hybrid life cycle inventories, with (ii) a monetary-based input-output estimation of the related changes in the societal sphere. The results show that environmental and social issues do not follow the same impact trends. While E-LCA outputs highlight contrasting patterns, they do generally underlie a relatively low decrease in the aggregated environmental burdens curve (around 20% of decrease over the single-score impact trend over time). In contrast, social hotspots (identified in S-LCA by specific risk indicators of human rights, worker treatment, poverty, etc.) are typically increasing over time according to the growth of the final energy demand. Overall, the case study allowed identifying possible synergies and tradeoffs related to the impact of projected energy demands in Luxembourg. Despite the studied approach does not fully

  13. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    system that is capable of search, automatic detection, transition to track, tracking of air and surface targets, and missile engagement support. 2...several pillboxes , bunkers, and aircraft revetments. A comprehensive survey of Japanese earthen structures and field fortifications has not been

  14. Environmental assessment of the Greek transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos, C.; Nanaki, E.

    2007-01-01

    Transport constitutes a crucial factor to the quality of life, since many people depend greatly on access to a reliable transport system. However, there are concerns about the impacts of the transport system on the quality of life, since it constitutes one of the main sources of greenhouse gases and also gives rise to significant air pollution stemming from acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and particulate matter. During the last decade, the demand for transport services in Greece has rapidly grown following the European trend. Transport policies have recognised the need to restrain transport growth and to improve the various transport modes. Technology and fuel improvements have resulted in decreases of emissions of certain pollutants. Taking into account the major role of road transport in Greece for both passenger and goods transport, this work is focused on the assessment of the Greek transport sector. The changes made in the Greek transport sector during the past decade as well as the adverse environmental impacts of the Greek transport sector are presented and analysed. This work aims to present, assess and investigate the progress of the Greek transport sector-over the past decade-in relation to its sustainability. The scope is to examine the effectiveness of various emission reduction measures, in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions from transport

  15. System and scenario choices in the life cycle assessment of a building – changing impacts of the environmental profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Freja; Birgisdóttir, Harpa; Birkved, Morten

    2013-01-01

    . The parameters concern the reference study period and the energy supply scenarios. Furthermore, a set of toxicological impact categories are included in the assessment to test whether the toxicological impact potentials follow the same trends as the impact categories already included in the DGNB methodology...

  16. Guidelines for integrated risk assessment and management in large industrial areas. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) within the framework of the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated area wide approaches to risk management. An Inter-Agency Programme, which brings together expertise in health the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management, was established. The Inter-Agency Programme on the assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems aims at promoting and facilitating the implementation of integrated risk assessment and management for large industrial areas. This initiative includes the compilation of procedures and methods for environmental and public health risk assessment, the transfer of knowledge and experience amongst countries in the application of these procedures and the implementation of an integrated approach to risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. The UN organizations sponsoring this programme have been involved for several years in activities aimed at assessment and management of environmental and health risks, prevention of major accidents and emergency preparedness. These Guidelines have been developed on the basis of experience from these activities to assist in the planning and conduct of regional risk management projects. They provide a reference framework for the undertaking of integrated health and environmental risk assessment for large industrial areas and for the formulation of appropriate risk management strategies

  17. Recovery in environmental risk assessment at EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    EFSA performs environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives and for invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. In this risk assessment domain, the EFSA Scientific Committee

  18. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  19. Community environmental health assessment strengthens environmental public health services in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Brian; Gelting, Richard; Baffigo, Virginia; Sarisky, John

    2005-01-01

    In December 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Peru Country Office (CARE Peru), initiated the Urban Environmental Health Project (SAU, in Spanish) to strengthen environmental public health services in urban and periurban settlements in Peru. The project received funding from the Woodruff Foundation as part of the CARE-CDC Health Initiative (CCHI). The "Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health" (PACE EH) guided the development of a community environmental public health assessment (CEHA) process in Cardozo, a settlement in Iquitos, Peru. The project developed a three-phase process that merged scientific understanding and community perception about local environmental health problems. In phase 1, local environmental health technicians assisted the community in understanding environmental health conditions in Cardozo and selecting priorities. During phase 2, local technicians assessed the community-selected priorities: water and sanitation. Results from recent water quality assessments revealed that 82% (9 of 11) of samples from shallow dug wells, 18% (2 of 11) from deeper drilled wells, and 61% (11/18) from household drinking containers were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. Phase 3 activities produced an action plan and an intervention to mitigate health problems associated with inadequate water and sanitation services in the Cardozo community. As a result of the CEHA process, CARE Peru obtained funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to develop and implement an environmental health risk monitoring system and the proposed water and sewage intervention in the settlement. CDC continues to provide technical assistance to the local environmental health services groups in Iquitos through an agreement with CARE Peru as part of the USAID-funded Urban Environmental Health Models Project (MUSA). Technical assistance activities

  20. Environmental impact assessment - a selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography of literature relevant to the environmental impact assessment process is essentially a list of material dealing with the environmental impact assessment process held by Griffith University Library. The list is however well supplemented with citations of material not held in the Griffith University Library. Some economic and social impact assessment citations have been included in the bibliography, as the the environmental impact assessment concept has been interpreted very broadly. The citations are arranged according to broad subject areas, such as methodology, critical reviews, social impacts etc. Citations in each of these subject areas, which are listed in the table of contents, are identified by prefixes which are given in parentheses before the subjects headings. Within each subject area the citations are arragend in alphabetic author sequence

  1. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  2. [Environmental safety assessment on the new super absorbent polymers applied into a soil-Chinese cabbage system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; He, Ji-Zheng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Ming-Lan

    2014-02-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs), a new water retention material, have a potential for application in water-saving agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effects of SAPs, synthesized from natural plant extracts, on Chinese cabbage fresh weight, soil water content, soil water stable aggregates, soil microbial biomass (carbon) and soil microbial respiration under three water conditions (excessive, normal and deficient) and two SAPs application strategies (bulk treatment and spraying treatment). The results showed that the SAPs significantly promoted the soil water content, water-stable aggregates (> 0.25 mm) and the soil microbial activities, especially under the water deficient conditions. Meanwhile, SAP application strategy was of great significance to the effects on Chinese cabbage and soil properties. Compared with the control treatment under normal water condition, spraying treatment of Jaguar C (S-JC) could reduce irrigation water amount by about 25% without reducing the crop production. Furthermore, compared with the control treatment under the same water condition with S-JC (deficient), it could increase Chinese cabbage production by 287%. Thus, SAPs is an environmental friendly water-saving technique in agricultural production.

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    of passes), weight of the vehicle, tire pressure, soil type, ground cover, and soil properties, particularly soil moisture content and texture ... Corona (Eric Schreiner) at 951.273.5032 Appendix C Range Safety Lighting Specifications August 2010 APAFR Range Safety Lighting System

  4. Resumption of surrogate testing in the Engineering Demonstration System at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Engineering Demonstration System (EDS) is an existing equipment system within the Plutonium Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) designed to test the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process for application to the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) program. The proposed action is to resume testing with members of the family of rare-earth metals in the EDS. The purpose of these tests is to train operators, verify operations procedures and obtain information on the engineering design, operational reliability, and separative performance capability of the integrated system hardware. The information to be provided by the EDS tests with the rare-earth metals is needed for engineering and operability evaluation of the prototype AVLIS separator hardware in an integrated system configuration. These evaluations are necessary to demonstrate the technology to the maximum extent possible, short of actual validation with plutonium. The EDS tests to be performed would use single and multiple separator units. Testing would be intermittent in nature, typically consisting of one to two tests per month, with durations ranging from approximately 10 to 200 h. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Predictions of models for environmental radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Sueli da Silva; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Mahler, Claudio Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In the field of environmental impact assessment, models are used for estimating source term, environmental dispersion and transfer of radionuclides, exposure pathway, radiation dose and the risk for human beings Although it is recognized that the specific information of local data are important to improve the quality of the dose assessment results, in fact obtaining it can be very difficult and expensive. Sources of uncertainties are numerous, among which we can cite: the subjectivity of modelers, exposure scenarios and pathways, used codes and general parameters. The various models available utilize different mathematical approaches with different complexities that can result in different predictions. Thus, for the same inputs different models can produce very different outputs. This paper presents briefly the main advances in the field of environmental radiological assessment that aim to improve the reliability of the models used in the assessment of environmental radiological impact. The intercomparison exercise of model supplied incompatible results for 137 Cs and 60 Co, enhancing the need for developing reference methodologies for environmental radiological assessment that allow to confront dose estimations in a common comparison base. The results of the intercomparison exercise are present briefly. (author)

  6. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro Calderón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in Colombia constitutes the primary tool for making decisions with respect to projects, works and activities (PWA with potential for significant environmental impacts. In the case of the infrastructure of the PWA, the EIA is mandatory and determines the environmental license (EL for construction and operation. This paper analyzes the methods used to assess the environmental impact of the PWA that have applied for licenses with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. It was found that the method most frequently used is the qualitative proposal by Conesa, with modifications that reduce the effectiveness of the EIA and favor the subjectivity and bias of the evaluator. Finally a series of recom­mendations to improve the process in the country are proposed.

  7. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  8. Environmental Cost Accounting – Assessing the Environmental Responsibility Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Marcel Nuțǎ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s aim is to evaluate different approaches of environmental cost accounting used aroundthe world. One of the main issues of modern enterprise is to affirm its responsible behavior and to connect itwith a positive economic benefit for the shareholders. Practically the management systems must find a way toaddress all the stakeholders’ interests and needs.

  9. Assessment of Environmental Impact of Thai Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Tikul, Nachawit; Srichandr, Panya

    2011-01-01

    Building and construction has consumed a lot of various resources and emitted pollution.  These cause environmental problems, especially global warming.  The buildings and constructions in various regions and different styles will lead to different environmental problems and levels of seriousness.   The objective of this research is to assess the global warming impact from the use of construction materials in residential buildings since this type of buildin...

  10. Strategic Environmental Assessment and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingjing; Gao, Qingjun; Wang, Nan; Yang, Xigen; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Lu

    2018-04-01

    The development of social science and technology economy, the international community more and more attention to environmental and development issues. So the main goal pursued by people is not only to meet the needs of social and natural resources, while at the same time being able to protect the needs of future generations. This is the path of sustainable development. Therefore, this paper is a detailed study of strategic environmental assessment and sustainable development.

  11. Environmental Assessment - Gotten across to industrial designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a simplified method for environmental assessment for designers, the Oil Point Method (OPM). The paper explains characteristics of the method, such as the reduced problem with missing data, and describes how the method is used with its three steps, “FOCUS on the problem...... into an Internet-based design tool, and results and conclusions from four empirical tests with environmentally non-skilled designers are presented....

  12. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  13. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal as applied to electrical utility systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal (FBC), specifically as applied to base-load generation of electrical energy by utilities. The public health impacts of Fluidized-Bed Combustion (FBC) plants are expected to be quite similar to those for Low Sulfur Coal (LSC) and Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants because all appear to be able to meet Federal emission standards; however, there are emissions not covered by standards. Hydrocarbon emissions are higher and trace element emissions are lower for FBC than for conventional technologies. For FBC, based on an analytical model and a single emission data point, the polycyclic organic material decreases the anticipated lifespan of the highly exposed public very slightly. Added health protection due to lower trace element emissions is not known. Although there is a large quantity of solid wastes from the generating plant, the environmental impact of the FBC technology due to solid residue appears lower than for FGD, where sludge management requires larger land areas and presents problems due to the environmentally noxious calcium sulfite in the waste. Fixing the sludge may become a requirement that increases the cost of wet-limestone FGD but makes that system more acceptable. The potential for aquatic or terrestrial impacts from hydrocarbon emissions is low. If application of AFBC technology increases the use of local high-sulfur coals to the detriment of western low-sulfur coal, a sociological benefit could accrue to the FBC (or FGD) technology, because impacts caused by western boom towns would decrease. The infrastructure of areas that mine high-sulfur coal in the Midwest are better equipped to handle increased mining than the West.

  14. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Biota subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage the data collected from samples of plants and animals. This includes both samples taken from the plant or animal or samples related to the plant or animal. Related samples include animal feces and animal habitat. Data stored in the Biota subject area include data about the biota samples taken, analysis results counts from population studies, and species distribution maps

  15. Environmental assessment of nanomaterial use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølholt, Jesper; Gottschalk, Fadri; Brinch, Anna

    This is the concluding report of the project "Nanomaterials – occurrence and effects in the Danish environment" (abbreviated NanoDEN), which part the Danish Government's initiative "Better Control of Nanomaterials" (“Bedre styr på nanomaterialer”) which is administered by the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency. The projects in NanoDEN have aimed to investigate and generate new environmentally relevant knowledge on of nanomaterials on the Danish market and to assess the possible associated risks to the environment. The results from the sub-projects are summarized in the current report...... and it is assessed whether and how nanomaterials may pose a risk for the environment in Denmark. The assessment is based on investigations of nine selected nanomaterials, which are expected to be environmentally relevant based on knowledge of consumption quantities or how they are used. These data contribute...

  16. Hydra, a model system for environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hydra have been extensively used for studying the teratogenic and toxic potential of numerous toxins throughout the years and are more recently growing in popularity to assess the impacts of environmental pollutants. Hydra are an appropriate bioindicator species for use in environmental assessment owing to their easily measurable physical (morphology), biochemical (xenobiotic biotransformation; oxidative stress), behavioural (feeding) and reproductive (sexual and asexual) endpoints. Hydra also possess an unparalleled ability to regenerate, allowing the assessment of teratogenic compounds and the impact of contaminants on stem cells. Importantly, Hydra are ubiquitous throughout freshwater environments and relatively easy to culture making them appropriate for use in small scale bioassay systems. Hydra have been used to assess the environmental impacts of numerous environmental pollutants including metals, organic toxicants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds), nanomaterials and industrial and municipal effluents. They have been found to be among the most sensitive animals tested for metals and certain effluents, comparing favourably with more standardised toxicity tests. Despite their lack of use in formalised monitoring programmes, Hydra have been extensively used and are regarded as a model organism in aquatic toxicology.

  17. Comprehensive environmental assessment and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, T.C.; Vocke, R.W.; Stoker, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Albuquerque Operations Office installations are being evaluated under its Comprehensive Environmental Assessment and Response Program (CEARP). The installations consist of eight weapons development and production facilities, which are located across the United States. The evaluation covers the major environmental regulations, with emphasis on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The CEARP is intended to help fulfill USDOE obligations for federal facilities under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) CERCLA Program and constitutes the same basic approach as contained in USEPA guidance to federal facilities. The Program is a phased program to identify, assess, and correct existing and potential environmental concerns relative to these regulations. The five phases are Phase I - Installation Assessment, Phase II - Confirmation, Phase III - Technological Assessment, Phase IV - Remedial Action, and Phase V - Compliance and Verification. Phase I activities and reports should be completed during 1986. The Phase II generic sampling plans, data management plans, health and safety plans, and quality assurance/quality control plans will be prepared during 1986. Significant characterization of CERCLA sites will be initiated during 1987

  18. Data management and statistical analysis for environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendelberger, J.R.; McVittie, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    Data management and statistical analysis for environmental assessment are important issues on the interface of computer science and statistics. Data collection for environmental decision making can generate large quantities of various types of data. A database/GIS system developed is described which provides efficient data storage as well as visualization tools which may be integrated into the data analysis process. FIMAD is a living database and GIS system. The system has changed and developed over time to meet the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Restoration Program. The system provides a repository for data which may be accessed by different individuals for different purposes. The database structure is driven by the large amount and varied types of data required for environmental assessment. The integration of the database with the GIS system provides the foundation for powerful visualization and analysis capabilities

  19. Review of Chinese Environmental Risk Assessment Regulations and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Yuchao; Lou, In Chio; Gao, Jixi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment is an essential step in the development of solutions for pollution problems and new environmental regulations. An assessment system for environmental risks has been developed in China in recent decades. However, many of the Chinese technical guidelines, standards, and regulations were directly adapted from those of developed countries, and were not based on the Chinese environmental and socioeconomic context. Although existing environmental regulations for pollutants are usually obtained by extrapolations from high-dose toxicological data to low-dose scenarios using linear-non-threshold (LNT) models, toxicologists have argued that J-shaped or inverse J-shaped curves may dominate the dose–response relationships for environmental pollutants at low doses because low exposures stimulate biological protective mechanisms that are ineffective at higher doses. The costs of regulations based on LNT and J-shaped models could therefore be dramatically different. Since economic factors strongly affect the decision-making process, particularly for developing countries, it is time to strengthen basic research to provide more scientific support for Chinese environmental regulations. In this paper, we summarize current Chinese environmental policies and standards and the application of environmental risk assessment in China, and recommend a more scientific approach to the development of Chinese regulations. PMID:22740787

  20. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Subject Area manuals are designed as reference guides, that is, each chapter provides the information needed to make best use of each subject area, its tables, and reporting capabilities. Each subject area is documented in a chapter in one of the subject area manuals. Because these are reference manuals, most of the information is also available in the online help system as well. See Section 5.4.2 of the HEIS User's Guide (DOE-RL 1994a) for a detailed description of the online help

  1. Environmental management systems: An industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottenbreit, R.

    1993-01-01

    Imperial Oil is upgrading systems used to ensure protection of health and safety and to facilitate the internalization and integration of environmental considerations into its business. Work in progress related to this upgrading is reported. The upgrading was undertaken partly in response to increased expectations from stakeholders and from the notion that improvement of the environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) aspects of business can have the effect of improving reliability, lowering expenses, and minimizing liabilities. The responsibility for establishing environmental policy and direction as well as the environmental management framework rests with Imperial Oil's management committee and the EH ampersand S committee of the board of directors. Responsibility and accountability for implementation and sustainment of environmental processes and systems resides with line management. One of the management systems, the Operations Integrity Management Framework, is described. Elements of this framework include management leadership, accountability, and commitment; risk assessment and management; management of change; personnel and training; incident investigation and analysis; and facilities design and construction. 2 figs

  2. Environmental assessment, Pinellas Plant site, Petersburg, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment is to describe the operations at the Pinellas Plant, discuss the locale in which the plant is situated and assess the actual and possible impacts of plant operation on the surrounding environment. The facility and the local environment are described; impacts on the economy, local community and the environment discussed, and alternatives presented. A comparison of the environmental impact of operating the Pinellas Plant versus the benefits gained by its operation suggests that the plant should continue its function of supplying nuclear weapons components for the US Department of Energy

  3. Initial assessment of environmental effects on SiC/SiC composites in helium-cooled nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2013-09-01

    This report summarized the information available in the literature on the chemical reactivity of SiC/SiC composites and of their components in contact with the helium coolant used in HTGR, VHTR and GFR designs. In normal operation conditions, ultra-high purity helium will have chemically controlled impurities (water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen) that will create a slightly oxidizing gas environment. Little is known from direct experiments on the reactivity of third generation (nuclear grade) SiC/SiC composites in contact with low concentrations of water or oxygen in inert gas, at high temperature. However, there is ample information about the oxidation in dry and moist air of SiC/SiC composites at high temperatures. This information is reviewed first in the next chapters. The emphasis is places on the improvement in material oxidation, thermal, and mechanical properties during three stages of development of SiC fibers and at least two stages of development of the fiber/matrix interphase. The chemical stability of SiC/SiC composites in contact with oxygen or steam at temperatures that may develop in off-normal reactor conditions supports the conclusion that most advanced composites (also known as nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites) have the chemical resistance that would allow them maintain mechanical properties at temperatures up to 1200 1300 oC in the extreme conditions of an air or water ingress accident scenario. Further research is needed to assess the long-term stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in inert gas (helium) in presence of very low concentrations (traces) of water and oxygen at the temperatures of normal operation of helium-cooled reactors. Another aspect that needs to be investigated is the effect of fast neutron irradiation on the oxidation stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in normal operation conditions.

  4. Assessments of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, R.

    1978-01-01

    Assessments of competing energy systems are gaining increased importance as a means for an optimal choice of energy source for each specific major application considering the growing energy needs and the shortage of supply. However it is important to make sure that the assessments reflect scientific facts rather than private interests. If this is not achieved, scientists will lose credibility and one will lose the basis for political decisions. It is concluded that to accomplish the globally justified needs for thousands of nuclear reactors soon after the year 2000 and to save a maximum of lives with a minimum of environmental impact, emphasis must be put on low energy costs and on a good fuel and capital resource utilization. This goal can be best accomplished by expendient introduction of the fast breeders and of promising advanced reactors. The gas cooled breeder and the high temperature reactor have outstanding short and long terms merits on this respect, but are not enjoying the financial support that they deserve. (UK)

  5. Cumulative Impact Assessment: Approaching Environmental Capacity in Development Area Using Environmental Impact Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N.; Lee, M. J.; Maeng, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental impact assessment estimates the impact of development as a business unit and establishes mitigation plan. If the development is done, its economic effects can spread to the nearby areas. So that various developments can be distributed at different time intervals. The impact of the new developments can be combined with existing environmental impacts and can have a larger impact. That is, Cumulative impact assessment is needed to consider the environmental capacity of the Nearby area. Cumulative impact assessments require policy tools such as environmental impact assessment information and cumulative impact estimation models. In Korea, environmental information (water quality, air quality, etc.) of the development site is measured for environmental impact assessment and monitored for a certain period (generally 5 years) after the project. In addition, by constructing the environmental information as a spatial database, it is possible to express the environmental impact on a regional basis spatially and to intuitively use it for development site selection. Utilizing a composite model of environmental impact assessment information and Remote Sensing data for cumulative impact estimation, That can be used as a policy decision support tool that provides quantitative information for development area management, such as time series effect and sprawl phenomenon.

  6. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  7. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District`s elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  8. Environmental impact assessments for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevblad, Gun; Skaerby, Lena

    2000-06-01

    The report is the final report from a jointly financed project within lVL studying methodology for environmental impact assessments (EIAs). The aim has been to show possibilities and problems with EIAs for air pollution emissions from energy production plants in environments where critical loads and levels are exceeded. The project has mainly dealt with plants emitting air pollutants with environmental effects on the regional scale, including sulphur and nitrogen compounds, volatile organic compounds and particles, and effects such as acidification, eutrophication and ozone formation. Conclusions from the work are that project managers, environmental auditors, together with regional and local authorities could have use for better and more detailed guidelines, in the form of more detailed emission data from different types of alternative plants; Guidelines for the elaborating and assessing of relevant zero alternatives; Regional environmental goals and guidelines for the acceptable contribution to these by different activities; Criteria for the definition of the areas of 'environmental influence'. Furthermore, quantitative relationships between exposure and effects may contribute to better and more detailed descriptions of environmental impact and the need of decreasing the load for the recovery of polluted ecosystems

  9. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is a consolidated set of automated resources that effectively manage the data gathered during environmental monitoring and restoration of the Hanford Site. HEIS includes an integrated database that provides consistent and current data to all users and promotes sharing of data by the entire user community. HEIS is an information system with an inclusive database. Although the database is the nucleus of the system, HEIS also provides user access software: query-by-form data entry, extraction, and browsing facilities; menu-driven reporting facilities; an ad hoc query facility; and a geographic information system (GIS). These features, with the exception of the GIS, are described in this manual set. Because HEIS contains data from the entire Hanford Site, many varieties of data are included and have.been divided into subject areas. Related subject areas comprise several volumes of the manual set. The manual set includes a data dictionary that lists all of the fields in the HEIS database, with their definitions and a cross reference of their locations in the database; definitions of data qualifiers for analytical results; and a mapping between the HEIS software functions and the keyboard keys for each of the supported terminals or terminal emulators

  10. Environmental monitoring system with TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguerre, L.; Carelli, J.; Gregori, B.

    2006-01-01

    Presently work the methodology used by the Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (RNA) to gauge it system of environmental monitoring in function of the media absorbed dose rate in free air and the environmental dose equivalent, H * (10), according to the recommendation ICRU Report 47 is described. It was studied the response of the environmental dosemeter (DA) in fields of photonic radiation of energies W60, Wl 10, W200 and 137 Cs. The irradiations were carried out following the recommendations of the standard ISO:4037. It was analyzed the response in the DA of the detectors LiF: Mg, Ti and CaF 2 : Dy for the different radiation qualities and the relative response at 137 Cs of both. The methodology used in the evaluation of the dose includes: the correction of the readings of both detectors by fading, gotten experimentally, the witness of transfers, the energy answer and the value of the zero. The dose is calculated applying the average pondered in uncertainty of the dose obtained for each type of detector. Its were analyzed and calculated the uncertainties that affect to the measurement following the recommendation of the Argentine standard IRAM 35050. The detection limit of the absorbed dose rate in free air of this system it is 3.5 n Gy/h for a period of sampling of 3 months. With this detection limit environmental dose equivalent rates of the order of 70 n Sv/h are measured with an expanded uncertainty of the order of 10% with a cover factor k = 2. (Author)

  11. Environmental impact assessment around TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk; Lee, Young Bok; Cheong, Kyu Hoi; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kim, Kug Chan; You, Byung Sun; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Sang Bok; Han Moon Hee

    1985-01-01

    Population distribution, atmospheric change, X/Q, characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem around Seoul site were surveyed. Environmental radiation and radioactivities such as grossα, grossβ, Cs-137, Sr-90 and H-3 of various environmental samples were analyzed. The values of environmental radiation dose tended to increase gradually in the light of the recent five years' results of environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear power plants from 1980 to 1984, however, the changes were not significant. In addition, continuous assessment of environmental radiation monitoring on the roofs of main building and life science building at KAERI showed that the environmental radiation dose tended to increase a little during the night time. Judging from the above results, it is concluded that environmental contamination level by radioactive materials could be ignored in the case of radioisotope production or experiment using radioisotopes except the release of gaseous radioactive materials such as Ar-41 of short half life by the operation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  12. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  13. The value of environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohocki, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The environment and the economy are inextricably linked. Today the environmental, economic, and social associated with project and program decisions are at times of such a magnitude and duration that they exceed our ability to understand, let alone mitigate them. Energy production, distribution, pricing, policies, end uses, and externalities demonstrate the need for wise planning and informed decision making. International cooperation, based upon mutually shared respect, responsibility, and innovative solutions is an essential component of addressing contemporary issues, impacts, and opportunities. Both egypt and the united states have laws requiring environmental impact assessments. Just as egypt can learn from our successes and failures in the environmental impact assessment field over the past 36 years, the united states and other nations can learn as egypt develops and innovates its own approaches and solutions

  14. Risk and environmental impact assessment: nuclear and environmental licensing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Eduardo M.; Monteiro, Iara A.

    1997-01-01

    The main aims of this paper are the identification and discussion of interfaces and application of common concepts in the existing nuclear and environmental licensing procedures. Risk and impact assessment of nuclear electricity generation are two of these concepts which are discussed detail. The risk concept, which had initially focused on engineering projects, has been extended to many other areas of human activity. Risk resulting from the use of ionization radiation has been associated to the dose for the critical members of the public. Therefore, radiation protection applies basic dose limits which are established in national and international recommendations. These recommendations are increasing the emphasis to keep all the exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonable achievable, economical and social factors being taken into account. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment has been used as a tool in planning and decision-making processes, thus including environmental concern in the discussion of social and economical development strategies. This paper aims to discuss the association of these two concepts by presenting the procedures of control of radiological impact during normal operation of a nuclear power plant and the various forms of risk communication to the public in the case of events occurrence. (author). 13 refs

  15. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  16. The biological basis for environmental quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.I.; Kudritsky, Y.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic approach is required to environmental quality assessments with regard to the Baltic regions in order to address the problem of pollution abatement. The proposed systematization of adaptive states stems from the general theory of adaptation. The various types of adaption are described. (AB)

  17. GEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    GEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND BENEFIT OF. GRANITIC ROCKS OF MINNA AREA, NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA. Alabi, A. A.. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v4i4.5. Received November 23rd 2011; accepted December 5th 2011. Abstract. Nigeria basement complex has shown that the ...

  18. 78 FR 25297 - Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...-FF04R02000] Programmatic Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), intend to prepare a programmatic... addresses, dates, and times of meetings will be announced through local and regional media. Public...

  19. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  20. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  1. Comprehensive environmental assessment: a meta-assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christina M; Dana, Genya; Gillespie, Patricia; Gwinn, Maureen R; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Long, Thomas C; Wang, Amy; Davis, J Michael

    2012-09-04

    With growing calls for changes in the field of risk assessment, improved systematic approaches for addressing environmental issues with greater transparency and stakeholder engagement are needed to ensure sustainable trade-offs. Here we describe the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach as a holistic way to manage complex information and to structure input from diverse stakeholder perspectives to support environmental decision-making for the near- and long-term. We further note how CEA builds upon and incorporates other available tools and approaches, describe its current application at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and point out how it could be extended in evaluating a major issue such as the sustainability of biofuels.

  2. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlson, Mårten; Mörtberg, Ulla; Balfors, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  3. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    characterize the impact of the spill. Verify that the following parameters are monitored in the receiving stream: - dissolved oxygen - fecal coliform bacteria ...or other microorganism, except viruses, bacteria or other microor- ganisms on or in living man or other living animals which the USEPA or the...cf jordani Lipstick Darter E Fundulus auroguntatus Undescribed Topminnow R Fundulus bifax Stippled Studflsh E Fundulus catenatus Northern Studfish T

  4. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    properties material, a historical site, or scenic beauty. (1)(2) or areas, and properties must be well managed Verify that: (1)(2) (Ministry of Culture Order...of the direct control cities ( Busan , Inchon, Kwangju, Daejun, Daegu), or governors of the provinces. "* Noise - violent sound caused by the use of...shopping malls, schools, hospitals. reli- gious buildings, factories. workshops, or tourism sites are found within 200 meters (in) of the border of the

  5. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    generators -open burning/open detonation -peak shaving generators -landfills -turbines -surface impoundments -landfarw r- bioremediation Petroleum Product...treatment of wastewater from wood preserving processes that use creosote and/or pentachlorophenol. F034 Wastewaters (except those that have not come into...processes that use creosote and or phentachlorophenoL F035 Wastewaters (except those that have not come into contact with process (t) contaminants), process

  6. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the procedures that establish the configuration control processes for the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) software. The procedures also provide the charter and function of the HEIS Configuration Control Board (CCB) for maintaining software. The software configuration control items covered under these procedures include the HEIS software and database structure. The configuration control processes include both administrative and audit functions. The administrative role includes maintaining the overall change schedule, ensuring consistency of proposed changes, negotiating change plan adjustments, setting priorities, and tracking the status of changes. The configuration control process audits to ensure that changes are performed to applicable standards

  7. ISO 14000 : environmental management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutin, C.; Emard, C.; Lalonde, G.; Levesque, A.; Robitaille, R.; Rollin, A.L.; Thibeault, I.

    1996-01-01

    This book is addressed to the managers, professionals, and government agents which wish to know the philosophy of the step as well as the stages to be followed for the establishment of a system of environmental management in conformity with the standards of the series ISO 14000. This work locates ISO 14000 in the historical context of its development by describing the bonds with other standards in place of which those of the series ISO 9000. This book answers questions that arise regarding a companies step toward accreditation to ISO 14000

  8. Systems dependability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Presents recent developments of probabilistic assessment of systems dependability based on stochastic models, including graph theory, finite state automaton and language theory, for both dynamic and hybrid contexts.

  9. Assessing the Environmental Risks of Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    of uncertainty, degree of precaution, inclusion of quantitative or qualitative data, inclusion of life-cycle perspective, iterative and/or adaptive, ensuring timely decision making, and degree of transparency. This analysis can ultimately assist scientists, government agencies, organizations, and other...... to a wide range of technical limitations. For instance, serious knowledge gaps remain within e.g. the detection of NM in the environment, developing adequate testing equipment and protocols, and toxicity endpoints (Grieger et al., 2009). In the past few years, many scientists and organizations have...... proposed the use of other risk assessment tools and frameworks (Grieger et al., 2009- submitted,). In the present work, we compare different environmental risk assessment and analysis frameworks proposed for NM, including multicriteria decision analysis, comprehensive environmental assessment, and Nano...

  10. Environmental radiology assessment in Lahad Datu, Sabah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Fharhana, Yusof; Wan Muhamad Saridan, Wan Hassan; Ahmad Termizi, Ramli; Mohd Hilmi, Sahini; Mohammad Syazwan, Mohd Sanusi; Nor Afifah, Basri; Nor Zati Hani, Abu Hanifah

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring terrestial gamma radiation is crucial to prepare a baseline data for environmental radiological protection. Radiological research was carried out in Lahad Datu, Sabah to obtain the radioactivity status and terrestrial gamma radiation level in the area. We measure the terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates and analyse the radioactivity concentration of primordial radionuclides for radiological risk assessment. We identified that the annual estimation of dose effective for public is below the public dose limit, 1 mSv per year. Public and environment safety and health are remain secure. The obtained data and results can be used as reference for environmental radiology protection.

  11. Eglin Gulf Test and Training Range: Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Information System (LMRIS),” Cecilia R. Burrus, SPAWAR Systems Center. April 22, 1999 Naval Air Systems Command, 1995. "Environmental Assessment... Payne , 1974) show that breaching 1-pound shots at 1.5 feet and 3 feet exhibit normal image-interference directional source effects. It is expected...NAVORD Rept 478 (1949) Bluy, O.Z. and F. A. Payne , 1974. “Angular dependence of Spectral Shapes of Near-Surface Fired Charges,” J. Acoust. Soc

  12. Klickitat Cogeneration Project: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA's contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA's proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact)

  13. Klickitat Cogeneration Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat Energy Partners

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA`s contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA`s proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact).

  14. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic products... COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures for...

  15. Final Creech Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    State Implementation Plan SO2 Sulfur Dioxide SOx Sulfur Oxide THPO Tribal Historic Preservation Office UFC Unified Facilities Criteria UNLV...Environmental Assessment systems. Drinking water standards consist of maximum contaminant levels established for various water quality constituents to...pollutants. These standards represent the maximum allowable atmospheric concentrations that may occur while ensuring protection of public health and welfare

  16. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies...

  17. An Assessment of Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid Masdiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in evaluating the planning project is a debatable issue among academics and practitioners, since EIA has been claimed to be unable to eliminate the environmental issues. Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the problems of EIA; the process of EIA should be clearly identified instead to maximise the effective use of EIA. It is important to note that the effective use of EIA, particularly on process-related issues could significantly minimise bad environmental effects. In summary, this study aims to explore and identify the effectiveness of EIA in the planning process and barriers to evaluate the environmental performance in Malaysia. The findings of this study could be a baseline for organisation to minimize emission, avoid the risk of prosecution and fines arising from potential environment breaches and cost reduction within the organisation.

  18. Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

    1980-01-01

    This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

  19. Environmental assessment, Richton Dome site, Mississippi (US)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC Sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a potential site to include a statement of the basis for the nomination of a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 of this environmental assessment provides a detailed evaluation of the Richton Dome Site and its suitability as the site for a radioactive waste disposal facility under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Richton Dome site with other proposed sites. Evaluation of the Richton Dome site is based on the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The comparative evaluation of proposed sites is required under DOE guidelines, but is not intended to directly support the subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 428 refs., 24 figs., 62 tabs. (MHB)

  20. Environmental assessment, Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC Sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a potential site to include a statement of the basis for the nomination of a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 of this environmental assessment provides a detailed evaluation of the Richton Dome Site and its suitability as the site for a radioactive waste disposal facility under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Richton Dome site with other proposed sites. Evaluation of the Richton Dome site is based on the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The comparative evaluation of proposed sites is required under DOE guidelines, but is not intended to directly support the subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 428 refs., 24 figs., 62 tabs

  1. Environmental impact assessment in practice: A gender critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurian, P.A.; Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN

    1995-01-01

    The author evaluates the extent to which environmental impact assessment (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of impacts. Such biases distort the impact assessment process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve

  2. Environmental assessment of end-of-life textiles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koligkioni, Athina; Parajuly, Keshav; Sørensen, Birgitte Lilholt

    2017-01-01

    The European Union is on its way to a circular economy through eco-design, waste prevention, reuse and recycling of products and materials. This study analyzes the environmental effects of end-of-life textile management in Denmark. First, a Mass Flow Analysis was performed for textile flows from...... 17% constitute user-to-user flows. A Life Cycle Assessment was carried out showing the potential environmental effects. This assessment included system expansion to cover the impact of the most likely final cycle of end-of-life, which differ substantially depending on the geographical location...

  3. Passive environmental temperature control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, John M.; Stickford, George H.

    1981-01-01

    Passive environmental heating and cooling systems are described, which utilize heat pipes to transmit heat to or from a thermal reservoir. In a solar heating system, a heat pipe is utilized to carry heat from a solar heat absorber plate that receives sunlight, through a thermal insulation barrier, to a heat storage wall, with the outer end of the pipe which is in contact with the solar absorber being lower than the inner end. The inclining of the heat pipe assures that the portion of working fluid, such as Freon, which is in a liquid phase will fall by gravity to the outer end of the pipe, thereby assuring diode action that prevents the reverse transfer of heat from the reservoir to the outside on cool nights. In a cooling system, the outer end of the pipe which connects to a heat dissipator, is higher than the inner end that is coupled to a cold reservoir, to allow heat transfer only out of the reservoir to the heat dissipator, and not in the reverse direction.

  4. Weaving Ecosystem Service Assessment into Environmental Impact Assessments of Thar Coal Field: Impact of Coal Mining on Socio-Ecological Systems of Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Research takes into account Block II Mining and Power Plant Project of Thar Coal field in Pakistan by carrying out ecosystem service assessment of the region to identify the impact on important ecosystem service losses and the contribution of mining companies to mitigate the socio-economic problems as a part of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The study area includes 7 rural settlements, around 921 households and 7000 individuals, dependent on agriculture and livestock for their livelihoods. Currently, the project has adopted the methods of strip mining (also called open-cut mining, open-cast mining, and stripping), undergoing removing the overburden in strips to enable excavation of the coal seams. Since the consequences of mine development can easily spill across community and ecological boundaries, the rising scarcity of some ecosystem services makes the case to examine both project impact and dependence on ecosystem services. A preliminary Ecosystem Service review of Thar Coal Field identifies key ecosystems services owing to both high significance of project impact and high project dependence are highlighted as: the hydrogeological study results indicate the presence of at least three aquifer zones: one above the coal zone (the top aquifer), one within the coal and the third below the coal zone. Hence, Water is identified as a key ecosystem service to be addressed and valued due to its high dependency in the area for livestock, human wellbeing, agriculture and other purposes. Crop production related to agricultural services, in association with supply services such as soil quality, fertility, and nutrient recycling and water retention need to be valued. Cultural services affected in terms of land use change and resettlement and rehabilitation factors are recommended to be addressed.

  5. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B H; Kim, S G

    2002-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of the existing nuclear power plants is required every ten years according to the recently revised atomic energy acts. The PSR of Kori unit 1 and Wolsong unit 1 that have been operating more than ten years is ongoing to comply the regulations. This research project started to develop the techniques necessary for the PSR. The project developed the following four techniques at the first stage for the environmental assessment of the existing plants. 1) Establishment of the assessment technology for contamination and accumulation trends of radionuclides, 2) alarm point setting of environmental radiation monitoring system, 3) Development of Radiation Safety Evaluation Factor for Korean NPP, and 4) the evaluation of radiation monitoring system performance and set-up of alarm/warn set point. A dynamic compartment model to derive a relationship between the release rates of gas phase radionuclides and the concentrations in the environmental samples. The model was validated by comparing ...

  6. Tank waste remediation system environmental program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borneman, L.E.

    1998-01-09

    This Environmental Program Plan has been developed in support of the Integrated Environmental, Safety and Health Management System and consistent with the goals of DOE/RL-96-50, Hanford Strategic Plan (RL 1996a), and the specifications and guidance for ANSI/ISO 14001-1996, Environmental Management Systems Specification with guidance for use (ANSI/ISO 1996).

  7. Tank waste remediation system environmental program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borneman, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    This Environmental Program Plan has been developed in support of the Integrated Environmental, Safety and Health Management System and consistent with the goals of DOE/RL-96-50, Hanford Strategic Plan (RL 1996a), and the specifications and guidance for ANSI/ISO 14001-1996, Environmental Management Systems Specification with guidance for use (ANSI/ISO 1996)

  8. Environmental systems analysis of wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerrman, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The history of wastewater management tells us that efforts have been made at solving only one problem at the time; sanitation during the first half of the 20th Century followed by eutrophication of lakes and sea and, for the past ten years, recycling of nutrients. After the 'Brundtland Report', 1987, a reversal of the debate occurred where water management was discussed in a more holistic manner than before. The concept sustainable development became widely accepted and was put into practice. This thesis suggests a framework for evaluating the sustainability of wastewater systems, which contains the use of criteria and system analytical evaluation methods matching each criterion. The main categories of criteria are identified as: Health and Hygiene, Social and Cultural, Environmental, Economic and Functional and Technical. The usability of different concepts of Environmental Systems Analysis for evaluating environmental criteria of wastewater systems is also investigated. These studies show that a substance-flow model combined with evaluation methods from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), sometimes complemented with Exergy Analysis or Analysis of Primary Energy, is a beneficial approach for evaluating environmental impacts and the usage of resources. The substance-flow model ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) combined with LCA was used to compare four systems structures for the management of household wastewater and solid organic waste, namely Conventional System, Irrigation of Energy Forests, Liquid Composting and Urine Separation. This study shows a potential for further development of the three alternative systems. The comparative study also included some development of system analytical methods. This thesis shows how the contribution from oxidation of ammonia should be included in the eutrophication impact category. Furthermore, a method is given for prioritization of the most relevant impacts from wastewater management by using normalisation of these impacts in

  9. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  10. Hanford Environmental Information System Configuration Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Configuration Management Plan establishes the software and data configuration control requirements for the HEIS and project-related databases maintained within the Environmental Restoration Contractor's data management department

  11. Importance of environmental impact assessment and monitoring studies in industrial development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    are foreseen and addressed at an early stage in project planning and design. Creation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system is vital to conform socio-economic development projects to environmental safety and thereby ensure sustainable economic...

  12. Using integrated environmental modeling to automate a process-based Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) organizes multidisciplinary knowledge that explains and predicts environmental-system response to stressors. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is an approach integrating a range of disparate data (fate/transport, exposure, an...

  13. Using Integrated Environmental Modeling to Automate a Process-Based Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) organizes multidisciplinary knowledge that explains and predicts environmental-system response to stressors. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is an approach integrating a range of disparate data (fate/transport, exposure, and...

  14. Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    to include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques......This paper illustrates the necessity to use a holistic perspective when striving to assess the environmental performance of a livestock production system. It elaborates on the methodological dimension of livestock- related LCAs, i.e. it describes the essential environmental impacts categories....... It illustrates a Danish example of establishing data of such reference systems. Finally, it provides an overview of approaches used to estimate emissions based on knowledge of manure composition throughout the stages of the livestock production system....

  15. Information Systems Solutions for Environmental Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Roya; Watson, Richard T.; Hasan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    We contend that too few information systems (IS) academics engage in impactful research that offers solutions to global warming despite the fact that climate change is one of the most critical challenges facing this generation. Climate change is a major threat to global sustainability in the 21st...... themselves in creating solutions for environmental problems. Moreover, information is a perquisite for assessing the state of the environment and making appropriate decisions to ameliorate identified problems. Indeed, the IS scholarly community needs to help create a sustainable society. While...

  16. Voting Systems for Environmental Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURGMAN, MARK A; REGAN, HELEN M; MAGUIRE, LYNN A; COLYVAN, MARK; JUSTUS, JAMES; MARTIN, TARA G; ROTHLEY, KRIS

    2014-01-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. Sistemas de Votación para Decisiones Ambientales Resumen Los sistemas de votación agregan preferencias eficientemente y muy seguido se usan para decidir prioridades de conservación. Las características deseables de un sistema de votación incluyen la transitividad, lo completo que sean y la optimalidad de Pareto, entre otras. Los sistemas de votación que son comunes y potencialmente útiles para la toma de decisiones ambientales incluyen simple mayoría, aprobación y votación preferencial. Desafortunadamente, ningún sistema de votación puede garantizar un resultado y a la vez satisfacer un rango de criterios de desempeño muy razonable. Además, los métodos de votación pueden manipularse por los que toman las decisiones y votantes estratégicos si tienen el conocimiento de los patrones de votación y de las alianzas entre miembros dentro de las poblaciones votantes. Las

  17. Environmental assessment in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel; Carnero, María Carmen

    2017-12-22

    The aim of this research is to design a multi-criteria model for environmental assessment of health care organizations. This is a model which guarantees the objectivity of the results obtained, is easy to apply, and incorporates a series of criteria, and their corresponding descriptors, relevant to the internal environmental auditing processes of the hospital. Furthermore, judgments were given by three experts from the areas of health, the environment, and multi-criteria decision techniques. From the values assigned, geometric means were calculated, giving weightings for the criteria of the model. This innovative model is intended for application within a continuous improvement process. A practical case from a Spanish hospital is included at the end. Information contained in the sustainability report provided the data needed to apply the model. The example contains all the criteria previously defined in the model. The results obtained show that the best-satisfied criteria are those related to energy consumption, generation of hazardous waste, legal matters, environmental sensitivity of staff, patients and others, and the environmental management of suppliers. On the other hand, those areas returning poor results are control of atmospheric emissions, increase in consumption of renewable energies, and the logistics of waste produced. It is recommended that steps be taken to correct these deficiencies, thus leading to an acceptable increase in the sustainability of the hospital.

  18. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional analysis and environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Brocksen, R.W.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a number of techniques that can be used to assess environmental impacts on a regional scale. Regional methodologies have been developed which examine impacts upon aquatic and terrestrial biota in regions through consideration of changes in land use, land cover, air quality, water resource use, and water quality. Techniques used to assess long-range atmospheric transport, water resources, effects on sensitive forest and animal species, and impacts on man are presented in this paper, along with an optimization approach which serves to integrate the analytical techniques in an overall assessment framework. A brief review of the research approach and certain modeling techniques used within one regional studies program is provided. While it is not an all inclusive report on regional analyses, it does present an illustration of the types of analyses that can be performed on a regional scale

  20. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcas, Adrian [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Paul M. [Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Merchant, Nathan D., E-mail: nathan.merchant@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  1. Environmental Compliance Assessment Army Reserve (ECAAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Comprehensive Planning BEE Bioenvironmental Engineer BOD Biological Oxygen Demand CAA Clean Air Act CELDS Computer-Aided Environmental Legislative Data System...Diquat, Endrin, Endothall, Glyphosate , Hexachlorobenzene, Hexachlorocyclopentadiene, Oxamyl (Vydate), Picloram, Simazine, 2,3,7,8,-TCDD (Dioxin), Antimony...reportable 40 CFR 302.4 in Appendix 7-1 have bee reported. (IX2) quantities of hazardous substances shall be Verify that a procedure is in place for

  2. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review...

  3. On - Site Assessment Methods For Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrinec, B.; Babic, D.; Bituh, T.

    2015-01-01

    A method for the rapid determination of radioactivity in cases of release into the environment as well as in cases of nuclear/radiological accidents is described. These measurements would enable a direct risk assessment for humans and biota, without any sampling and at a considerably larger number of locations than in previous studies. Thus obtained, the substantially expanded dataset is expected to shed more light on the properties of environmental radioactivity both in the region studied and in other similar areas. Field measurements will be performed and samples of soil and biota will be collected in order to compare field results with laboratory measurements. Once the method has been validated, previously unexplored locations will be included in the study. Our measurements at numerous locations will also provide control values for comparison in cases of any unplanned or accidental radiological event. An assessment of the possible effects of radionuclide concentrations on the human food chain and biota will be performed within the appropriate models used worldwide exactly for this purpose. In this way, the project should contribute to regional, European, and global efforts towards understanding the radiological impact on ecosystems. Field measurements will also address certain issues in the environmental metrology of radioactive substances, e.g., simultaneous determination of activity concentrations and related dose rates. This will serve as a tool for rapid risk assessment in emergency situations. (author).

  4. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Heck, Thomas; Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  5. Strategic environmental evaluation of National Transmission System Plan in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanadio, E.; Motawi, A.; Rizzuto, R.; Cappiello, A.; Micotti, M.

    2008-01-01

    The entry into force of part II of D. Lgs. 152/2006 establishing the procedures for strategic environmental assessment for plans and programs. The application of legislation to the development plan of the electric network of the National Transmission System verify testing conducted by Terna with ministries and authorities with environmental competences [it

  6. EASETECH – A LCA model for assessment of environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Baumeister, Hubert; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    with different kinds of material flows, such as sludge, wastewater, biomass for energy production and treatment of contaminated soil. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The main novelties of the model compared to other......EASETECH is a new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies developed in collaboration between DTU Environment and DTU Compute. EASETECH is based on experience gained in the field of waste management modelling over the last decade and applies the same concepts to systems...... LCA software are as follows. The focus is put on material flow modelling. This means that each material flow is characterized as a mix of material fractions with different properties. Flows in terms of mass and composition are computed throughout the integrated system including rejects, slags, ashes...

  7. Strategic Environmental Assessment & The Danish Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    "Strategic Environmental Assessment and the Danish Energy Sector" is a doctoral thesis based on a Ph.D. project with the same title. The overall aim of the project has been to assist actors in the energy sector in developing a meaningful way of applying SEA at strategic level. Understanding of how...... strategic decisions are made is a prerequisite for achieving this target, and the thesis therefore explores the strategic decision-making processes of contemporary energy infrastructure developments. The highlights of this thesis are: - A combination of disciplines in a continuum of perspectives...

  8. Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is planning, to design, construct and operate a Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). This facility will be located on a site easement near the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar company (KC&S) Paia Sugar Factory on Maui, Hawaii. The proposed BGF Project is a scale-up facility, intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of emerging biomass gasification technology for commercialization. This Executive Summary summarizes the uses of this Environmental Assessment, the purpose and need for the project, project,description, and project alternatives.

  9. Reactor safety assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSA is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category

  10. Assessing and managing freshwater ecosystems vulnerable to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Birgé, Hannah E; Drakare, Stina; McKie, Brendan G; Johnson, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are important for global biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services. There is consensus in the scientific literature that freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change, which may trigger irreversible regime shifts upon which biodiversity and ecosystem services may be lost. There are profound uncertainties regarding the management and assessment of the vulnerability of freshwater ecosystems to environmental change. Quantitative approaches are needed to reduce this uncertainty. We describe available statistical and modeling approaches along with case studies that demonstrate how resilience theory can be applied to aid decision-making in natural resources management. We highlight especially how long-term monitoring efforts combined with ecological theory can provide a novel nexus between ecological impact assessment and management, and the quantification of systemic vulnerability and thus the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

  11. Development of the environmental data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatebe, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Yurina; Shirato, Seiichi; Sato, Yoshinori

    2012-02-01

    The recent society requires business activities with environmental consideration to every enterprise. Also, Japanese laws require those activities. For example, 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc, by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures' (Environmental Consideration Law) mandates publication of a report relating to the activities of environmental consideration to each enterprise above designated size. 'Act on the Rational Use of Energy' mandates the report of the results of energy consumption and the long-term plan of the rational use of energy. Moreover, 'Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures' mandates the report of the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to those, 'Water Pollution Control Law', 'Waste Management and Public Cleaning Law' and other environmental laws as well as environmental ordinances require business activities with environmental consideration to all companies. So, it is very important for Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to report business activities with environmental consideration in order to build up trustful relations with the nation and communities. The Environmental Data Management System has been developed as the data base of business activities with environmental consideration in JAEA and as the means to promote the activities at every site and office of JAEA. This report summarizes the structure of the Environmental Data Management System, kinds of environmental performance data treated by the system, and gathering methods of the data. (author)

  12. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  13. A comparison of Capri and SEAMLESS-IFas Integrated Modelling Systems, Chapter 11 in Environmental and Agricultural Modelling: Integrated Approaches for Policy Impact Assessement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Britz, W.; Perez Dominguez, I.; Heckelei, T.

    2010-01-01

    SEAMLESS-IF and CAPRI are both integrated agricultural modelling systems for policy impact assessment at EU level, linking model components across scales and between the economic and bio-physical domains. However, the overall design, focus and representation of agricultural sub-systems vary between

  14. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century.

  15. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century

  16. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report

  17. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Kar, Amlanjyoti

    2016-01-01

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałaś, Slávka, E-mail: sgalas@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Gałaś, Andrzej, E-mail: pollux@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Zeleňáková, Martina, E-mail: martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Zvijáková, Lenka, E-mail: lenkazvijakova@gmail.com [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Fialová, Jitka, E-mail: jitka.fialova@mendelu.cz [Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Landscape Management, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  19. Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniya Arushanyan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  20. Strategic environmental assessment in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kay Leng; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the development and application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process in the planning framework of Hong Kong. Two strategic planning case studies are evaluated within the context of SEA, namely the Territorial Development Strategy Review (TDS Review) and the Third Comprehensive Transport Study (CTS-3). Rapid population growth and urbanisation in Hong Kong, coupled with a historic lack of planning controls and inherent conflicts between government departments have been major obstacles to achieving sustainable development in the territory. Despite these challenges, Hong Kong was one of the first Asian countries to apply SEA to major development plans, where the implementation of the 'SUSDEV 21' study on sustainable development has demonstrated the government's commitment towards integrated environmental protection. The application of SEA has provided decision-makers with key information on potential environment impacts arising from proposed developments, resulting in greater accountability and transparency in the decision-making process. SEA in Hong Kong has also prompted an increased level of environmental awareness and co-operation between government departments and agencies responsible for the management of Hong Kong's natural and urban environments. However, the application of SEA in Hong Kong continues to have notable limitations. SEA needs to evolve beyond its current sectoral application to examine ways in which development decisions can not only pre-empt and prevent environmental damage, but also positively enhance and restore existing natural resources. Current land use plans and transportation strategies still largely determine the pattern of development in the near future without adequate longer-term environmental cost-benefit analysis. Sustainable development includes environmental, social and economic considerations, and these inter-related elements need be suitably balanced. SEA is not a means to obstruct development

  1. Assessing and Enhancing Environmental Sustainability: A Conceptual Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John C; Hester, Erich T; Carey, Cayelan C

    2016-07-05

    While sustainability is an essential concept to ensure the future of humanity and the integrity of the resources and ecosystems on which we depend, identifying a comprehensive yet realistic way to assess and enhance sustainability may be one of the most difficult challenges of our time. We review the primary environmental sustainability assessment approaches, categorizing them as either being design-based or those that employ computational frameworks and/or indicators. We also briefly review approaches used for assessing economic and social sustainability because sustainability necessitates integrating environmental, economic, and social elements. We identify the collective limitations of the existing assessment approaches, showing that there is not a consistent definition of sustainability, that the approaches are generally not comprehensive and are subject to unintended consequences, that there is little to no connection between bottom-up and top-down approaches, and that the field of sustainability is largely fragmented, with a range of academic disciplines and professional organizations pursuing similar goals, but without much formal coordination. We conclude by emphasizing the need for a comprehensive definition of sustainability (that integrates environmental, economic, and social aspects) with a unified system-of-systems approach that is causal, modular, tiered, and scalable, as well as new educational and organizational structures to improve systems-level interdisciplinary integration.

  2. Alternatives and implication in process of environmental impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauš Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EIA is an interactive, rule-based expert system for the environmental impact assessment. It is designed for a screening level assessment of development projects at a pre-feasibility stage. Typical problems for the evaluation include: resettlement; watershed degradation; encroachment upon precious ecosystems; encroachment on historical/cultural values; watershed erosion; reservoir siltation; impairment of navigation; changes in groundwater hydrology, waterlogging; seepage and evaporation losses; migration of valuable fish species; inundation of mineral resources/forests; other inundation losses and adverse effects. It is important to prevent environmental pollution when carrying out large-scale development projects, such as artificial change of landscapes and building of certain structures that may cause a tremendous impact on the environment. In accordance with Cities Environmental Impact Assessment Departments it is necessary to provide project organisers with a necessary advice and instructions concerning the environmental impact assessment a survey to predict and evaluate environmental impact to be conducted by project organisers. Prior to offering the advice and instructions, cities need to hear the opinions of residents of the areas concerned, mayors of related municipalities and other opinion leaders, including specialists, to reflect their views in the environmental preservation. The first aspect in any quality assessment is to determine the representativeness of data both in terms of physical siting and data collected. It must be recognised the environment is a dynamic fluid; quality therefore varies over space and time. There will be locations in any community that experience poorer quality than recorded at a monitoring station. Likewise other sites will have a better quality. Most communities have only a single monitoring site. Therefore, the air quality monitors are sited to provide a representative estimate of the community exposure

  3. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA's CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information

  4. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D.; Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia

    2011-03-01

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  5. Assessment of Environmental Intention of Journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of environmental education (EE) is that citizens develop a responsible environmental behavior. Environmental awareness constitutes an important factor for the shaping of a responsible environmental behavior. The mass media can strengthen the degree of environmental awareness of the public, through the dissemination of…

  6. Assessing the Environmental Costs and Benefits of Households Electricity Consumption Management

    OpenAIRE

    Segtnan, Ida Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this study the environmental costs and benefits of smart metering technology systems installed in households in Norway have been assessed. Smart metering technology systems enable mechanisms to manage electricity consumption by shifting loads. With the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the ReCiPe method for impact assessment, the life cycle impacts of installation and operation of a system in a household have been found. Environmental benefits of using the systems to manage electricit...

  7. Environmental effects of cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1974 Thermal Discharges at Nuclear Power Stations (Technical Reports Series No.155), much progress has been made in the understanding of phenomena related to thermal discharges. Many studies have been performed in Member States and from 1973 to 1978 the IAEA sponsored a co-ordinated research programme on 'Physical and Biological Effects on the Environment of Cooling Systems and Thermal Discharges from Nuclear Power Stations'. Seven laboratories from Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, India and the United States of America were involved in this programme, and a lot of new information has been obtained during the five years' collaboration. The progress of the work was discussed at annual co-ordination meetings and the results are presented in the present report. It complements the previous report mentioned above as it deals with several questions that were not answered in 1974. With the conclusion of this co-ordinated programme, it is obvious that some problems have not yet been resolved and that more work is necessary to assess completely the impact of cooling systems on the environment. It is felt, however, that the data gathered here will bring a substantial contribution to the understanding of the subject

  8. Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R.

    1983-09-01

    Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides

  9. Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R. (eds.)

    1983-09-01

    Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides.

  10. Environmental management systems and organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2000-01-01

    The establishment of an environmental management system and its continuous improvements is a process towards a reduction of the companies' and the products' environmental impact. The organizations' ability to change is crucial in order to establish a dynamic environmental management system...... and environmental management systems. The structure of the organizations has changed, the relationships with external partners have strengthened and the implementation of quality and environmental management systems has trimmed the organizations to manage and develop these areas. The organization analysis is based...... and to achieve continuous environmental improvements. The study of changes gives an insight into how organizations function, as well as their forces and barriers. This article focuses on the organizational changes that two companies have undergone from 1992 up until today in connection with their quality...

  11. Assessment of the Aviation Environmental Design Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-29

    A comprehensive Tools Suite to allow for : thorough evaluation of the environmental effects and impacts : of aviation is currently being developed by the U.S. This suite : consists of the Environmental Design Space (EDS), the : Aviation Environmental...

  12. Environmental information systems - practicable decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Environmental information systems are classified in documentation systems and environmental planning systems. In environmental information systems emphasis is laid on scientific documentation. Environmental planning systems, on the other hand, involve facts on the state of the environment with respect to the air, noise, water, soil, waste management, the ecology and nature conservation. They can be used as instruments for documenting trends in enviromental pollution and the state of the art in environmental engineering. The relation polluter-environment-enforcement plays a central role for the protection of the environment (integration in terms of the KMSYS). The 'trade and process-specific emissions' system already represents an instrument for the transfer of knowledge in the field of air pollution abatement (see, e.g., Clean Air Technical Code, and the backfitting of existing plants). (DG) [de

  13. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  14. Total quality environmental management: Integrating environmental and quality management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carley, J.A.; Kubala, G.; Hudson, T. [and others

    1996-11-01

    As the oilfield industry strives to globally sustain continuous movement of environmental and quality performance, companies have come to realize Total Quality Environmental Management (TQEM) is essential in product research, development manufacturing and services. As our industry endeavors to continuously improve, more emphasis is being placed upon the management systems we apply such as ISO 14000 and ISO 9000. These standards are tools for improving environmental and quality performance, meeting customer requirements, and increasing profitability. lbs paper presents actual examples of the successful integration of environmental and quality management systems into an operational TQEM system. Also presented are pilot study evaluations of the draft ISO 14000 standards by two certified ISO 9000 facilities. Examples of continuous improvement and cross-functional teams as means to merge environment and quality management into the functions of process control, corrective and preventive action, document control, and waste management are presented. Results and improvements from facilities involved with TQEM discussed along with their strategies and progress in consolidating the environmental and quality programs into a single, viable management system. The case histories from various facilities demonstrate the implementation of TQEM and in TQEM promotes a cleaner environment, reduces costs, con- serves energy and raw materials, minimizes pollutants and wastes, and reduces redundant paperwork.

  15. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and...

  16. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  17. Environmental asset management: Risk management systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naudé, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available purposes until the assets are exhausted. This paper addresses elements of environmental crime and the risk management strategies as part of EAP, including risk management system functions. A unique implemented risk management system in the Kruger National...

  18. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, Soteris A.

    2004-01-01

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO 2 and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gasses are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water system the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gasses are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future

  19. Implementation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEAF provides a uniform and integrated approach for evaluating leaching from solid materials (e.g., waste, treated wastes such as by solidification/stabilization, secondary materials such as blast furnace slags, energy residuals such as coal fly ash, soil, sediments, mining and mineral processing wastes). Assessment using LEAF applies a stepwise approach that considers the leaching behavior of COPCs in response to chemical and physical factors that control and material properties across a range of plausible field conditions (US EPA, 2010). The framework provides the flexibility to tailor testing to site conditions and select the extent of testing based on assessment objectives and the level of detailed information needed to support decision-making. The main focus will be to discuss the implementation of LEAF in the US and the How to Guide that has recently been completed. To present the How To Guide for the implementation of the leaching environmental assessment framework to an international audience already familiar with comparable leaching tests in use in Europe. Will be meeting with European colleagues on their interest in expanding methods to include organics.

  20. The paradox of strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidstrup, Morten; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2014-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool that can facilitate sustainable development and improve decision-making by introducing environmental concern early in planning processes. However, various international studies conclude that current planning practice is not taking full advantage of the tool, and we therefore define the paradox of SEA as the methodological ambiguity of non-strategic SEA. This article explores causality through at three-step case study on aggregates extraction planning in Denmark, which consists of a document analysis; a questionnaire survey and follow-up communication with key planners. Though the environmental reports on one hand largely lack strategic considerations, practitioners express an inherent will for strategy and reveal that their SEAs in fact have been an integrated part of the planning process. Institutional context is found to be the most significant barrier for a strategy and this suggests that non-strategic planning setups can prove more important than non-strategic planning in SEA practice. Planners may try to execute strategy within the confinements of SEA-restricted planning contexts; however, such efforts can be overlooked if evaluated by a narrow criterion for strategy formation. Consequently, the paradox may also spark from challenged documentation. These findings contribute to the common understanding of SEA quality; however, further research is needed on how to communicate and influence the strategic options which arguably remain inside non-strategic planning realities. - Highlights: • International studies conclude that SEAs are not strategic. = The paradox of SEA. • Even on the highest managerial level, some contexts do not leave room for strategy. • Non-strategic SEA can derive from challenged documentation. • Descriptive and emergent strategy formation can, in practice, be deemed non-strategic

  1. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-10

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA.

  2. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA

  3. 3000 Area Phase 1 environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranade, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to sell the 3000 Area to prospective buyers. Environmental Services was requested by the WHC Economic Transition group to assess potential environmental liabilities in the area. Historical review of the area indicated that the site was the location of ''Camp Hanford'' in 1951 and has been used for a variety of purposes since then. The activities in the area have changed over the years. A number of Buildings from the area have been demolished and at least 15 underground storage tanks (USTs) have been removed. Part of the 3000 Area was identified as Operable Unit 1100-EM-3 in the Tri-Party Agreement and was cleaned up by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The cleanup included removal of contaminated soil and USTS. WHC and ICF KH had also performed sampling and analysis at some locations in the 3000 Area prior to USACE's work on the Operable Unit 1100-EM-3. They removed a number of USTs and performed remediation

  4. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, G.L.; Kirk, D.W.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  5. Environmental assessment, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a proposed site to include a statement of the basis for nominating a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 provides a detailed statement evaluating the site suitability of the Deaf Smith County Site under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Deaf Smith County Site to the other sites under consideration. The evaluation of the Deaf Smith County Site is based on the impacts associated with the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The second part of this document compares the Deaf Smith County Site to Davis Canyon, Hanford, Richton Dome and Yucca Mountain. This comparison is required under DOE guidelines and is not intended to directly support subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 259 refs., 29 figs., 66 refs

  6. Environmental assessment, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a proposed site to include a statement of the basis for nominating a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 provides a detailed statement evaluating the site suitability of the Deaf Smith County Site under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Deaf Smith County Site to the other sites under consideration. The evaluation of the Deaf Smith County Site is based on the impacts associated with the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The second part of this document compares the Deaf Smith County Site to Davis Canyon, Hanford, Richton Dome and Yucca Mountain. This comparison is required under DOE guidelines and is not intended to directly support subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 259 refs., 29 figs., 66 refs. (MHB)

  7. Assessing the environmental impact of buildings in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, P.; Baldwin, R. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The protection of the environment is one of today`s key issues demanding international action. In the UK, the government has issued a {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} White Paper and two updating reviews, setting out its Agenda; businesses are also responding by developing environmental policy statements as part of their business strategy; general public concern is evident through changes in purchasing practices and an increasing interest in recycling waste such as paper, cans, and bottles. In Europe, initiatives are being taken to develop ecolabelling schemes specifically for assessing consumer products. Environmental management systems are being developed through BSI and internationally. Underlying these concerns is a perception that industrialised economies have significantly and irreversibly changed (or perhaps about to change) the planet`s climate, atmosphere and ecosystems. This perception is fuelled by reports in the media of rising pollution, poor air quality, threats to ecosystems such as historic hedgerows, and even graffiti and litter. This paper describes action taken by the BRE to set standards for environmentally friendlier buildings which uses market forces to bring about environmental sensitivity in the industry. BREEAM is an environmental assessment method, embodies in an accreditation scheme, which is enjoying considerable success in the UK. The paper describes its development and underlying philosophy and provides details of its content and operation.

  8. Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-29

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Environment and Energy (FAA-AEE) is : developing a comprehensive suite of software tools that will allow for thorough assessment of the environmental effects of aviation. The main goal of the effort is ...

  9. Analysis of the most widely used Building Environmental Assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhenhong [Architectural School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Wennersten, R.; Assefa, G. [Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) is a term used for several methods for environmental assessment of the building environment. Generally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important foundation and part of the BEA method, but current BEA methods form more comprehensive tools than LCA. Indicators and weight assignments are the two most important factors characterizing BEA. From the comparison of the three most widely used BEA methods, EcoHomes (BREEAM for residential buildings), LEED-NC and GBTool, it can be seen that BEA methods are shifting from ecological, indicator-based scientific systems to more integrated systems covering ecological, social and economic categories. Being relatively new methods, current BEA systems are far from perfect and are under continuous development. The further development of BEA methods will focus more on non-ecological indicators and how to promote implementation. Most BEA methods are developed based on regional regulations and LCA methods, but they do not attempt to replace these regulations. On the contrary, they try to extend implementation by incentive programmes. There are several ways to enhance BEA in the future: expand the studied scope from design levels to whole life-cycle levels of constructions, enhance international cooperation, accelerate legislation and standardize and develop user-oriented assessment systems.

  10. Analysis of the most widely used Building Environmental Assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhenhong; Wennersten, R.; Assefa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) is a term used for several methods for environmental assessment of the building environment. Generally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important foundation and part of the BEA method, but current BEA methods form more comprehensive tools than LCA. Indicators and weight assignments are the two most important factors characterizing BEA. From the comparison of the three most widely used BEA methods, EcoHomes (BREEAM for residential buildings), LEED-NC and GBTool, it can be seen that BEA methods are shifting from ecological, indicator-based scientific systems to more integrated systems covering ecological, social and economic categories. Being relatively new methods, current BEA systems are far from perfect and are under continuous development. The further development of BEA methods will focus more on non-ecological indicators and how to promote implementation. Most BEA methods are developed based on regional regulations and LCA methods, but they do not attempt to replace these regulations. On the contrary, they try to extend implementation by incentive programmes. There are several ways to enhance BEA in the future: expand the studied scope from design levels to whole life-cycle levels of constructions, enhance international cooperation, accelerate legislation and standardize and develop user-oriented assessment systems

  11. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Pascal, Mathilde; Smolders, Roel; Skjetne, Erik; Dusinska, Maria

    2012-11-21

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as 'a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain'. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  12. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  13. Strategic environmental assessment can help solve environmental impact assessment failures in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshuwaikhat, Habib M.

    2005-01-01

    The current trend of industrialization and urbanization in developing nations has a huge impact on anthropogenic and natural ecosystems. Pollution sources increase with the expansion of cities and cause contamination of water, air and soil. The absence of urban environmental planning and management strategies has resulted in greater concern for future urban development. This paper advocates the adoption of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to achieve sustainable development in developing countries. It investigates project-level environmental impact assessment (EIA) and its limitations. The exploration of SEA and its features are addressed. The effective implementation of SEA can create a roadmap for sustainable development. In many developing countries, the lack of transparency and accountability and ineffective public participation in the development of the policy, plan and program (PPP) would be mitigated by the SEA process. Moreover, the proactive and broadly based characteristics of SEA would benefit the institutional development of the PPP process, which is rarely experienced in many developing countries. The paper also explores the prospects for SEA and its guiding principles in developing countries. Finally, the paper calls for a coordinated effort between all government, nongovernment and international organizations involved with PPPs to enable developing countries to pursue a path of sustainable development through the development and application of strategic environmental assessment

  14. Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division: 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.V.N.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1998-08-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1995 - 1997 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on Radioactivity Measurements 2) Internal Dosimetry Studies 3) Epidemiological Studies 4) Aerosol Studies 5) Pollution Monitoring Systems 6) Studies on Trace Constituents in the Environment 7) Modelling Studies 8) Radiological Safety Assessment and 9) Dating Studies. At the end of the report, list of publications including papers published in journals, papers in symposium proceedings, papers in bulletins/newsletters and reports and summaries of Ph.D. theses completed during the period are given. (author)

  15. Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified or engineered organisms (GMOs, GEOs) are utilised in agriculture, expressing traits of interest, such as insect or herbicide resistance. Soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape are the GM crops with the largest acreage in the world. The distribution of GM acreage in the different countries is related with the different positions concerning labelling of GMO products: based on the principle of substantial equivalence, or rather based on the precautionary principle. The paper provides an overview on how the risks associated with release of GMO in the environments can be analysed and predicted, in view of a possible coexistence of GM and non-GM organisms in agriculture.Risk assessment procedures, both qualitative and quantitative, are compared in the context of application to GMOs considering also legislation requirements (Directive 2001/18/EC). Criteria and measurable properties to assess harm for human health and environmental safety are listed, and the possible consequences are evaluated in terms of significance.Finally, a mapping of the possible risks deriving from GMO release is reported, focusing on gene transfer to related species, horizontal gene transfer, direct and indirect effects on non target organisms, development of resistance in target organisms, and effects on biodiversity.

  16. 44 CFR 10.9 - Preparation of environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment not to prepare an environmental impact statement, the Regional Administrator shall prepare a... prepare an environmental impact statement is based on a categorical exclusion. (f) Environmental Officer... assessments. 10.9 Section 10.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  17. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in

  18. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  19. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-01-01

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries

  20. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slunge, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.slunge@economics.gu.se [Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Tran, Trang Thi Huyen, E-mail: trang2k@yahoo.com [University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  1. Atmospheric environmental implications of propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Allan J.; Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    Three independent studies have been conducted for assessing the impact of rocket launches on the earth's environment. These studies have addressed issues of acid rain in the troposphere, ozone depletion in the stratosphere, toxicity of chemical rocket exhaust products, and the potential impact on global warming from carbon dioxide emissions from rocket launches. Local, regional, and global impact assessments were examined and compared with both natural sources and anthropogenic sources of known atmospheric pollutants with the following conclusions: (1) Neither solid nor liquid rocket launches have a significant impact on the earth's global environment, and there is no real significant difference between the two. (2) Regional and local atmospheric impacts are more significant than global impacts, but quickly return to normal background conditions within a few hours after launch. And (3) vastly increased space launch activities equivalent to 50 U.S. Space Shuttles or 50 Russian Energia launches per year would not significantly impact these conclusions. However, these assessments, for the most part, are based upon homogeneous gas phase chemistry analysis; heterogeneous chemistry from exhaust particulates, such as aluminum oxide, ice contrails, soot, etc., and the influence of plume temperature and afterburning of fuel-rich exhaust products, need to be further addressed. It was the consensus of these studies that computer modeling of interactive plume chemistry with the atmosphere needs to be improved and computer models need to be verified with experimental data. Rocket exhaust plume chemistry can be modified with propellant reformulation and changes in operating conditions, but, based upon the current state of knowledge, it does not appear that significant environmental improvements from propellant formulation changes can be made or are warranted. Flight safety, reliability, and cost improvements are paramount for any new rocket system, and these important aspects

  2. Environmental performance assessment and ranking of petrochemical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Most industrial companies have internal programs to evaluate the environmental performance of their operations facilities and programs. In some cases, the company's environmental performance versus the industry should be evaluated, allowing the company to set levels of performance and the company goals. This paper describes a system developed to assess and rank the environmental performance of individual petrochemical facilities. The individual facility information was then used to rank the parent petrochemical companies. The three major goals of the study were: identifying study group companies and facilities; establishing appropriate and useable evaluation criteria; allowing for independent evaluation of company and individual facility environmental performance. Fourteen petrochemical companies were evaluated and ranked based on the performance of over seventy facilities in three states. The evaluation criteria used, enforcement action and non-compliance data, were directly related to facility operations. Enforcement data and noncompliance data were directly related to facility operations. Enforcement data and noncompliance data available through the state and Federal agencies were reasonably good indicators of the relative environmental performance of individual petrochemical facilities. Furthermore, the data collected was effectively used to determine the relative environmental performance of fourteen petrochemical companies, based on individual facility performance. Information was collected, processes, and evaluated independently from the company. Overall, the ranking system produced industry data that allowed the senior management of a major petrochemical company to evaluate company performance and thereby develop internal directives to meet company goals. Finally, individual facility data were provided to allow company personnel to take appropriate actions, where necessary, to improve the environmental performance of individual facilities

  3. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE's and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ( 238 Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ( 241 Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ( 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 ). The proposed action would include placing the 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility

  4. Environmental Sampling, Monitoring and Site Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical data on environmental quality with regard to the presence of radiological contamination of all kinds regulated...

  5. Environmental Engineering Curricula assessment in the global world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, Enrica; Catelani, Marcantonio; Manfrida, Giampaolo; Valdiserri, Juna

    2014-05-01

    Environmental engineers are technicians with specific expertise on the sustainability of human presence in the environment. Among other global dilemmas, to the environmental engineers it is often demanded to be able in developing systematic, innovative solutions in order to simultaneously meet water and energy needs, to build resilience to natural and technological disasters, to more accurately gauge and manage countries' greenhouse gas emissions. The general objectives of the Environmental Engineers are to establish actions of environmental sustainability as well as to verify progress toward global goals or international commitments. The globalization of challenges and problems to be faced, leads, in general, to the globalization of the engineering profession. In particular, since the environmental issues are without boundaries, and many and different are the involved professions and the competences, the environmental engineer must have a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach to adequately answer to the demand of technical innovative knowledge at global scale. The environmental engineers, more and more, are involved in international projects were the effective collaboration requires not only the capacity to communicate in a common technical language, but also the assurance of an adequate and common level of technical competences, knowledge and understanding. The Europe-based EUR ACE system, currently operated by ENAEE - European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education, can represent the proper framework and accreditation system in order to provide a set of measures to assess the quality of engineering degree programmes in Europe and abroad. In the global frame of the knowledge triangle: education-innovation-research, the accreditation and quality assurance of engineering curricula in Europe is discussed with reference to the Environmental engineering curricula, of the 1st and 2nd cycle, based on the European Credit Transfer System and in

  6. Environmental Assessment. Moanalua Shopping Center Redevelopment Oahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pingree, Ryan; Halperin, William

    2004-01-01

    The Department of the Navy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) and determined that an Environmental Impact Statement is not required for the redevelopment of the Moanalua Shopping Center (MSC) Oahu Hawaii...

  7. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  8. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Database contains estuarine and coastal data that EMAP and Regional-EMAP have collected...

  9. Can environmental impact assessments alone conserve freshwater fish biota? Review of the Chilean experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, Shaw Nozaki; Meza, Francisco J.; Marquet, Pablo A.

    2017-01-01

    Chile was one of many countries that initiated environmental impact assessments in the 1990s, and has relied on their use for species conservation and territorial planning without the use of larger-scale environmental and ecological planning. The capacity of Chile's environmental impact assessment system (SEIA) to evaluate resident freshwater fishes and the potential impacts of water projects and aquaculture activities – two categories of projects that create direct threats to freshwater fishes – are assessed. Of the 3997 such submissions to the SEIA, only 0.6% conducted any freshwater fish assessment, and only 0.1% conducted any quantitative assessment of expected impacts from the associated project. The small number of assessments was characterized by poor study design, inconsistent sampling methodology, and species misidentification. Traditional assessments failed to include freshwater fish ecology in the general assessment framework. The new strategic environmental evaluation system only underscores the need for vastly improved field sampling protocols and assessment methodologies.

  10. Environmental impact of energy systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauscas, V.; Mishkins, V.

    1994-04-01

    Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig

  11. Technology needs assessment for DOE environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duray, J.R.; Carlson, T.J.; Carpenter, C.E.; Cummins, L.E.; Daub, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 'Technology Needs Assessment Final Report' describes current and planned environmental restoration activity, identifies technologies intended to be used or under consideration, and ranks technology deficiencies in the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration program. Included in the ranking are treatment technologies, characterization technologies, and non-technology issues that affect environmental restoration. Data used for the assessment was gathered during interviews in the spring of 1991 with DOE site personnel responsible for the environmental restoration work. (author)

  12. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on...

  13. SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sustainability through use in: (a) Problem-based environmental curriculum for freshmen and sophomores funded by the Hewlett Foundation that integrates scientific, cultural, and policy perspectives to understand the dynamics of wetland degradation, deforestation, and desertification and that will develop policies for sustainable environments and economies; (b) Higher-level undergraduate and graduate courses focused on monitoring the environment and developing policies that will lead to sustainable environmental and economic conditions; and (c) Interdisciplinary research focused on the dynamics of the Missouri River system and development of policies that lead to sustainable environmental and economic floodplain conditions.

  14. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization

  15. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  16. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  17. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome Site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  18. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines

  19. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  20. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  1. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines

  2. Framework for conducting environmental assessments of trade negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This document described the complex task of assessing the environmental impacts of trade negotiations with particular emphasis on the framework of the Strategic Environmental Assessment which the Government of Canada will conduct through a systematic process which can identify and evaluate possible and significant environmental impacts of an initiative. The objective of the assessment is to integrate environmental considerations into decision-making processes at the earliest possible stage. The first part of the framework identifies the importance of recognizing environmental considerations of trade and explains how the framework will contribute to environmental policy. The second part of the framework outlines the process and analytical requirements for conducting an environmental assessment of a trade negotiation. Environmental Assessment Committees will be formed by the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and will include representatives from federal government departments and agencies. All analyses will be conducted in four stages which will include identifying the economic effect of the negotiation, identifying the likely environmental impact of such changes, assessing the significance of the likely environmental impacts, and identifying enhancement/mitigation options to inform the negotiations. The framework is designed to be flexible enough to be used at current and future trade negotiations in the World Trade Organization, the Free Trade Area of the Americas and in bilateral Free Trade Agreements. An environmental assessment of trade negotiations is considered to be an important decision-making tool for promoting sustainable development. 16 refs., 1 tab

  3. Environmental assessment of spatial plan policies through land use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geneletti, Davide

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method based on scenario analysis to compare the environmental effects of different spatial plan policies in a range of possible futures. The study aimed at contributing to overcome two limitations encountered in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for spatial planning: poor exploration of how the future might unfold, and poor consideration of alternative plan policies. Scenarios were developed through what-if functions and spatial modeling in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and consisted in maps that represent future land uses under different assumptions on key driving forces. The use of land use scenarios provided a representation of how the different policies will look like on the ground. This allowed gaining a better understanding of the policies' implications on the environment, which could be measured through a set of indicators. The research undertook a case-study approach by developing and assessing land use scenarios for the future growth of Caia, a strategically-located and fast-developing town in rural Mozambique. The effects of alternative spatial plan policies were assessed against a set of environmental performance indicators, including deforestation, loss of agricultural land, encroachment of flood-prone areas and wetlands and access to water sources. In this way, critical environmental effects related to the implementation of each policy were identified and discussed, suggesting possible strategies to address them. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: ► The method contributes to two critical issues in SEA: exploration of the future and consideration of alternatives. ► Future scenarios are used to test the environmental performance of different spatial plan policies in uncertainty conditions. ► Spatially-explicit land use scenarios provide a representation of how different policies will look like on the ground.

  4. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  5. Comparative study for environmental assessment by program characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Chul; Lee, Young Soo; Park, Young Min; Park, Suk Soon; Chung, Kyung Tae; Cho, Hong Yun; Chae, Jang Won; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Chan Ho; Choi, Joon Kyu; Kim, Kang Joo; Chung, Won Moo; Jin, Jae Yool [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The level of environmental assessment in Korea was diagnosed by examining the situation of its model for the entire environmental assessment implemented. Also, it proposed an improvement scheme for its problems to be able to advance. It is expected to be utilized as developing optimum model for Korea and establishing a systematic and concrete guideline for environmental assessment modeling. 244 refs., 65 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m-3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m-3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m-3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m-3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m-3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m-3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m-3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m-3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m-3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m-3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m-3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m-3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m-3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m-3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas

  7. Environmentally-adapted local energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, N.; Oefverholm, E. [NUTEK, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Owe [EKAN Gruppen (Sweden); Froste, H. [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Energy companies, municipalities, property companies, firms of consultants, environmental groups and individuals are examples of players working locally to shape environmentally adapted energy systems. These players have needed information making them better able to make decisions on cost-efficient, environmentally-adapted energy systems. This book answers many of the questions they have put. The volume is mainly based on Swedish handbooks produced by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, together with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. These handbooks have been used in conjunction with municipal energy planning, local Agenda 21 work, to provide a basis for deciding on concrete local energy systems. The contents in brief: -The book throws new light on the concept of energy efficiency; -A section on the environment compares how air-polluting emissions vary with different methods of energy production; -A section contains more than 40 ideas for measures which can be profitable, reduce energy consumption and the impact on the environment all at the same time; -The book gives concrete examples of new, alternative and environmentally-adapted local energy systems. More efficient use of energy is included as a possible change of energy system; -The greatest emphasis is laid upon alternative energy systems for heating. It may be heating in a house, block of flats, office building or school; -Finally, there are examples of environmentally-adapted local energy planning.

  8. The consideration of health in strategic environmental assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Thomas B; Matuzzi, Marco; Nowacki, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Following the requirements of the European Directive 2001/42/EC on strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev, 2003) to the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991), health is one of the aspects to be considered in SEA. In this paper, results of an evaluation of eight SEAs from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (England and Wales) regarding the consideration of health are presented. This includes SEAs for five spatial plans, as well as one SEA for each, a transport, a waste management and an economic development plan. It is found that while all SEAs cover important physical and natural aspects that are related to health, social and behavioural aspects are considered to a much smaller extent. Based on the results, facilitating factors and barriers for health inclusive SEA are identified. Overall, good baseline data can be seen as an important starting point for effective health inclusive SEA, while an effective monitoring system is crucial for effective implementation of the measures and recommendations brought forward in health inclusive SEA. Crucially, health authorities/health experts need to engage more with SEA, as this provides a key platform for cross sectoral dialogue on a range of issues. SEA presents the health sector with an opportunity to influence the policy and decision-making process to improve people's health and well-being.

  9. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  10. Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-01

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  11. Environmental impact of hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malai, Marius

    1996-01-01

    The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

  12. Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, E.C.

    1983-10-15

    Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  13. Environmental Gradient Analysis, Ordination, and Classification in Environmental Impact Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    associations. The proposed methodology can also be applied to land-use management, maintenance and monitoring programs, and to environmental impact...analysis. Analytical results were then examined and the advantages and disadvantages of each stastistical analysis method used were noted. Mode of Technology...and S. Wearden, Statistics for Research (John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1983). 20a. Draper, N. R., and H. Smith, Applied Regression Analysis, 2nd

  14. Environmental risk assessment: an Australian perspective. Supervising Scientist Report 102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, T.; Ziolkowski, F.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment can be used as a strategic tool to set environmental priorities and as a tactical tool to set environmental standards. This report is designed to inform Australian environmental managers about the techniques and applications of environmental risk assessment and to familiarize risk analysts with some of the issues that are of concern to environmental managers. The use of risk assessment is illustrated by applying its techniques to five case studies which include: risk from chemicals and from contaminated sites; risk to people and to the natural environment from development, such as uranium mining; climate change; and risk associated with political decision-making. Then, by considering Australian and overseas practice, a generic framework is presented within which environmental risk assessment in Australia can be undertaken, and possible methods of implementation are discussed. refs., 38 figs

  15. A biologic approach to environmental assessment and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Thomas J; Kriebel, David

    2010-01-01

    .... The two key fields of study on this issue, environmental epidemiology and exposure assessment, are still given separate names because of their separate historical roots and scientific traditions...

  16. Quality Management Plan for the Environmental Assessment and Innovation Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality management plan (QMP) which identifies the mission, roles, responsibilities of personnel with regard to quality assurance and quality management for the environmental assessment and innovation division.

  17. Preliminary environmental site assessments in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, P.; Gasson, D.R.; Longendyke, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary Environmental Site Assessments are often performed prior to real estate transactions or refinancing. These assessments are typically performed for real estate buyers, sellers and lending institutions. Undertaking a Preliminary Environmental Site Assessment in New York City can often be quite complex and time-consuming. This is due, in part, to the age and density of buildings in the city as well as the myriad of regulatory agencies with jurisdiction over environmental issues. This paper will discuss how environmental assessments are performed with a special emphasis on building in New York City. In includes hazardous wastes management for Radon, PCB's and asbestos

  18. An environmental monitoring detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli Yuniarsari; Istofa; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    Is part of radiation detection of the nuclear facilities engineering activities within nuclear facilities. The system comprised of gamma-ray radiation detector and weather detection which includes anemometer to detect the wind direction and speed, as well as rain gauge to measure the rainfall in a period of time. Data acquisition of the output is processed by Arduino Uno system which transformed the data into a particular standard and then displayed online in the website. The radiation detection system uses gamma-ray detector of NaI(Tl) and GM which convert the radiation detected into electric pulse to be fed into a pre-amp and amplifier and modified into square pulse. The weather detection system on the other hand works based on switch principle. For example, the wind with a certain speed could turn on a switch in the system and produce a voltage or pulse which can be measured. This value will then be interpreted as the wind direction and speed. Likewise for the rainfall gauge, the volume of water entering the bucket will turn the switch on, at the same time producing 1 pulse. The result of the experiment shows that for radiation detection system the output is a square pulse 4 volts by using detector NaI(Tl) and 4.4 volts by using detector GM. For weather detection system, basically was able to detect the wind direction, wind speed and rainfall just to find out further research is needed accuracy and the results compared with the standard tools available in BMKG. (author)

  19. Promoting compliance at DOE: Tiger team assessments and environmental audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.S.; Crawford, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Environmental Audit, within the Department of Energy's Office of Environment, Safety and Health, has effected positive environmental results across the DOE complex. Beginning in the mid 1980's, a concerted effort was established by DOE upper management to achieve environmental consciousness and responsibility. The Office of Environmental Audit was established to conduct and Environmental survey to define environmental problems caused by 40 years of operation at DOE production and research facilities. The Office provided initial identification of DOE sites requiring environmental restoration and assured plans were developed to address these environmental problems. Initiated by massive problems in the environmental operations at DOE's Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) followed. TTAs established a compliance baseline and evaluated management with respect to environment, safety, and health. The Tiger Teams assured plans were established to correct deficiencies including root causes. As part of this comprehensive effort, the Office of Environmental Audit led the environmental component of the TTAs. With TTAs completed, the Office's future vision entails addressing new environmental regulations and world changes affecting DOE operations. To proactively continue its efforts to effect positive environmental change, the Office is headed toward a comprehensive cross-cutting program that conducts environmental management assessments, reassesses the environmental progress of formerly audited facilities, and evaluates special focuses environmental issues that span across the DOE complex. Through these efforts, the Office of Environmental Audit will determine the environmental activities which address environmental problems and identify environmental problems requiring resolution. Following trending analyses, the Office will disseminate information describing mechanisms to pursue and pitfalls to avoid to achieve environmental excellence

  20. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina's (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine

  1. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine.

  2. Can productivity and profitability be enhanced in intensively managed cereal systems while reducing the environmental footprint of production? Assessing sustainable intensification options in the breadbasket of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virender; Jat, Hanuman S; Sharma, Parbodh C; Balwinder-Singh; Gathala, Mahesh K; Malik, Ram K; Kamboj, Baldev R; Yadav, Arvind K; Ladha, Jagdish K; Raman, Anitha; Sharma, D K; McDonald, Andrew

    2018-01-15

    In the most productive area of the Indo-Gangetic Plains in Northwest India where high yields of rice and wheat are commonplace, a medium-term cropping system trial was conducted in Haryana State. The goal of the study was to identify integrated management options for further improving productivity and profitability while rationalizing resource use and reducing environmental externalities (i.e., "sustainable intensification", SI) by drawing on the principles of diversification, precision management, and conservation agriculture. Four scenarios were evaluated: Scenario 1 - "business-as-usual" [conventional puddled transplanted rice (PTR) followed by ( fb ) conventional-till wheat]; Scenario 2 - reduced tillage with opportunistic diversification and precision resource management [PTR fb zero-till (ZT) wheat fb ZT mungbean]; Scenario 3 - ZT for all crops with opportunistic diversification and precision resource management [ZT direct-seeded rice (ZT-DSR) fb ZT wheat fb ZT mungbean]; and Scenario 4 - ZT for all crops with strategic diversification and precision resource management [ZT maize fb ZT wheat fb ZT mungbean]. Results of this five-year study strongly suggest that, compared with business-as-usual practices, SI strategies that incorporate multi-objective yield, economic, and environmental criteria can be more productive when used in these production environments. For Scenarios 2, 3, and 4, system-level increases in productivity (10-17%) and profitability (24-50%) were observed while using less irrigation water (15-71% reduction) and energy (17-47% reduction), leading to 15-30% lower global warming potential (GWP), with the ranges reflecting the implications of specific innovations. Scenario 3, where early wheat sowing was combined with ZT along with no puddling during the rice phase, resulted in a 13% gain in wheat yield compared with Scenario 2. A similar gain in wheat yield was observed in Scenario 4 vis-à-vis Scenario 2. Compared to Scenario 1, wheat yields in

  3. 22 CFR 216.6 - Environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.6 Environmental... avoided should the proposed action be implemented; the relationship between short-term uses of the... will eliminate significant effects for classes of actions shall be made available for public comment...

  4. Assessment of environmental awareness among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major finding of study reveals that teachers possessed positive attitudes towards both environmental issues and environmental education. We found that contrary to a number of findings from studies in other parts of the world, male respondents were the most concerned about the environment and more knowledgeable ...

  5. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N [Department of Physics, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre, Altinsehir Yolu, Halkali, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: ndamla@ktu.edu.tr

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using {gamma}-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and a fission product {sup 137}Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations of gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross {alpha} and {beta} activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq l{sup -1} gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m{sup -3} and the average value was 56 Bq m{sup -3}. The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  6. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs

  7. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  8. Assessing potential future environmental legal events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Petrich, C. [The Ernst and Yound Center for Business Innovation, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-10-28

    This report addresses the topic of environmental citizenship in the United States. The term refers to responsibilities each of us have with respect to helping our communities and nation make sound environmental decisions. This research centers on the citizens and what we ought to be doing, as opposed to what the government ought to be doing for us, to improve environmental citizenship. This report examines four central questions: What are the requirements (i.e., responsibilities) of citizenship vis-a-vis environmental decision- making processes; what constraints limit people`s ability to meet these requirements; what does our form of governance do to help or hinder in meeting these requirements; and what recommendations can be put forth to improve public participation in environmental decision making?

  9. Environmental assessments under CEAA of WPPI wind farm projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamirande, I. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an examination of issues concerning environmental assessments of Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI) wind farms projects. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) is the legal basis for the federal environmental assessment process for projects in which federal departments have a role. Key objectives of the CEAA are to ensure that projects receive careful consideration, do not cause significant adverse environmental effects and also allow for participation of the public. To date, CEAA triggers for wind farm projects include the WPPI financial incentive, the Fisheries Act Authorization and the Navigable Waters Protection Act. Types of environmental assessment include screening, comprehensive studies and panel reviews or mediation. Natural Resources Canada has developed guidelines specific to wind farms, with key environmental issues identified as aesthetics, noise, birds and bats, endangered species and sensitive habitats. Legislations considered to be important were the Species at Risk Act and the Migratory Birds Convention Act. Challenges were identified as a difficulty in harmonizing timelines between project schedules and environmental assessments, regional disparities, the fact that avifauna inventories are often incomplete or inadequate and the fact that assessments are often triggered late with regards to proper guidance to proponents for avifauna inventories. The paper concluded by suggesting that a balance between the promotion of wind energy and efficient environmental assessments was necessary, and that steps should be taken to assist with bird issues. Streamlining of the environmental assessment process and the development of a matrix were also suggested. tabs., figs.

  10. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring ``global visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  11. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring global visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  12. ABOUT FORMS, EFFICIENCY AND ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a holistic framework for analyzing, assessment and improvement of environmental management using “agrariansector” as an example. It incorporates an interdisciplinary approach (Economics, Organization, Law, Sociology, Ecology, Technology, Behavioral and Political Sciences and includes: specification of managerial actors, needs and spectrum of governing modes (institutional environment; private, collective, market, public modes at different level of decision-making (individual, farm, eco-system, local, regional, national, transnational, global; specification of critical socio-economic, natural, technological, behavioral etc. factors of managerial choice, and feasible spectrum of managerial forms; defining and assessing comparative and absolute efficiency of eco-management forms and system; improvement of forms of public intervention in eco-management.

  13. Holistic environmental assessment and offshore oil field exploration and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, E; Ford, J

    2001-01-01

    According to UK Government surveys, concern for the environment is growing. Environmental regulation of the industry is becoming wider in its scope and tougher in its implementation. Various techniques are available to assess how the industry can drive down its environmental impact and comply with environmental regulation. Environmental Assessments (EA) required by European law do not cover the whole life cycle of the project that they are analysing. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was developed to assess the environmental loadings of a product, process or activity over its entire life cycle. It was the first technique used in environmental analysis that adopted what was described as a holistic approach. It fails this approach by not assessing accidental emissions or environmental impacts other than those that are direct. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) offers the opportunity to value environmental effects and appraise a project on the basis of costs and benefits. Not all environmental effects can be valued and of those that can there is considerable uncertainty in their valuation and occurrence. CBA cannot satisfactorily measure the total environmental risk of a project. Consequently there is a need for a technique that overcomes the failures of project-level EA, LCA and CBA, and assesses total environmental risk. Many organizations such as, the British Medical Association, the European Oilfield Speciality Chemicals Association, the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (Norway) and Shell Expro now recognize that a holistic approach is an integral part of assessing total risk. The Brent SPAR case study highlights the interdisciplinary nature required of any environmental analysis. Holistic Environmental Assessment is recommended as such an environmental analysis.

  14. Assessing environmental dependence using asset and income measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen; Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2015-01-01

    Understanding rural environmental dependence in a rural population is an important factor in the framing of environmental policy with the dual aim of tackling poverty and conserving nature. Firstly, this study compares the assessment of environmental dependence between poverty groupings based on ...

  15. Assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardos, R.P.; Kearney, T.E.; Nathanail, C.P.; Weenk, A.; Martin, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider qualitative and quantitative approaches for assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination. In terms of the environmental element of sustainable development, a remediation project's overall environmental performance is the sum of the

  16. 10 CFR 51.31 - Determinations based on environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determinations based on environmental assessment. 51.31 Section 51.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations...

  17. Environmental Assessment for Fuel Storage Tank Removal and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-23

    Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks...Income Populations); and EO 13045 (Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks). 1.8 Scope of the Environmental Assessment...pyrene, aluminum, arsenic, beryllium, iron, and thallium . Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 72 SWMU 72 is an inactive coal ash disposal site located

  18. Proposal of a new process of products environmental assessment/ improvement on CAD phase

    OpenAIRE

    Gaha, Raoudha; YANNOU, Bernard; Benamara, Abdelmajid

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Most of methodologies, concepts and tools, which integrate Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) systems and aim at ecodesigning, are generally oriented to the environmental assessment. The environmental improvement is treated only in a few works; however it is a pivotal phase in the eco-design process. In this paper, we propose a new environmental improvement process based on the remaining Degrees of Freedom (DoFs) for CAD designer on which he ca...

  19. Mining Association Rules Between Credits in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Green Building Assessment System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Benjamin J

    2008-01-01

    .... Taking this vision into account, the individual credits that comprise LEED are designed to reward design teams for employing sustainable design strategies that reduce the total environmental impact...

  20. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Pinelli, Eric, E-mail: pinelli@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities.

  1. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury; Pinelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities

  2. Online Assessment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PETRIŞOR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As a continuous effort to improve and increase the use of computers in students’ education, we implemented an online assessment server. Its purpose is to ease the students’ examination process and to provide a transparent and objective evaluation. The solution we developed is a web application, written using PHP and Javascript. It uses MySQL as a database management system and Apache for the web server, hosted on a Linux system. The site can be accessed through a web browser capable of handling AJAX queries (Asynchronous Javascript and XML. Using the administration module, one can add or remove questions, question categories, can create tests and set its parameters (number of questions, time per question, IP addresses allowed to access the test. The administrator can also monitor the students during the test. The types of questions allowed are multiple choices with a single or multiple correct answers. After a student finishes a test, the grade is automatically displayed and there also is the possibility to review the questions and the correct answers. The system has proven itself to be quite stable; it has been in used for two years. In the nearby future, we intend to develop a second version of the server, one with more capabilities and improved functions.

  3. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  4. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-31

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards, both chemical and radiation, on the health and well-being of all; (2) develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes the progress made this quarter in the following areas: public and professional outreach; science programs; clinical programs; and information support and access systems.

  5. Progress report of Environmental Assessment Division 1991-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadasivan, S.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1994-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities of Environmental Assessment Division during the period 1991-1994 are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: 1) Studies on radioactivity measurements, 2) Dosimetry, 3) Epidemiological studies, 4) Aerosol studies, 5) Pollution monitoring systems, 6) Studies on trace constituents in the environment, and 7) Modelling studies. At the end of the report a list of publications including papers published in journals, presented at symposia, conferences etc., and published technical reports is given. (author)

  6. Environmental Management System ISO 14001

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, Syed

    2010-01-01

    This is a must-have tool for any company in the process of adopting and incorporating the ISO 14001:2004 requirements, this book and accompanying CD-ROM provides the latest updates and amendments and translates the ISO language into actionable strategy. Offering administrative solutions to managers of all sorts, it includes practical examples of policies with objectives, targets, and action plans applicable to any process related industry or an ordinary organization. With template formats and hands-on flow charts to describe step-by-step system development, documentation, and implementation ph

  7. A statistical proposal for environmental impact assessment of development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas C, Julian A; De J Lema T, Alvaro; Leon P, Juan Diego

    2009-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment of development projects is a fundamental process, which main goal is to avoid that their construction and functioning, lead to serious and negative consequences on the environment. Some of the most important limitations of the models employed to assess environmental impacts, are the subjectivity of its parameters and weights, and the multicolineality among the variables, which represent high quantities of similar information. This work presents a multivariate statistical-based method that tries to diminish such limitations. For this purpose, environmental impact assessment, is valuated through different environmental impact attributes and environmental elements, synthesized in an environmental quality index (ICA in Spanish). ICA can be applied at different levels, such as at a project level, or applied only at a partial level on one or some environmental components.

  8. Basin-Scale Assessment of the Land Surface Water Budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Operational and Research NLDAS-2 Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youlong; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ek, Michael B.; Brewer, Michael; Mocko, David; Kumar, Sujay V.; Wei, Helin; Meng, Jesse; hide

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the components of the land surface water budget in the four land surface models (Noah, SAC-Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model, (VIC) Variable Infiltration Capacity Model, and Mosaic) applied in the newly implemented National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational and research versions of the North American Land Data Assimilation System version 2 (NLDAS-2). This work focuses on monthly and annual components of the water budget over 12 National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Centers (RFCs). Monthly gridded FLUX Network (FLUXNET) evapotranspiration (ET) from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) of Germany, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) total runoff (Q), changes in total water storage (dS/dt, derived as a residual by utilizing MPI ET and USGS Q in the water balance equation), and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observed total water storage anomaly (TWSA) and change (TWSC) are used as reference data sets. Compared to these ET and Q benchmarks, Mosaic and SAC (Noah and VIC) in the operational NLDAS-2 overestimate (underestimate) mean annual reference ET and underestimate (overestimate) mean annual reference Q. The multimodel ensemble mean (MME) is closer to the mean annual reference ET and Q. An anomaly correlation (AC) analysis shows good AC values for simulated monthly mean Q and dS/dt but significantly smaller AC values for simulated ET. Upgraded versions of the models utilized in the research side of NLDAS-2 yield largely improved performance in the simulation of these mean annual and monthly water component diagnostics. These results demonstrate that the three intertwined efforts of improving (1) the scientific understanding of parameterization of land surface processes, (2) the spatial and temporal extent of systematic validation of land surface processes, and (3) the engineering-oriented aspects such as parameter calibration and optimization are key to substantially improving product

  9. Adding Dynamic Innovation to Environmental Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    Over the last two decades, a number of organizations have implemented Environmental Management Systems (EMS) to assure a systematic approach and continuous improvements. Such systems include a number of “rules” for specific actions to be taken by members of the organization in given situations....... While such procedures may ensure a certain level of environmental effort they also tend to favor a learning style in the organization based on optimization of already known actions. This is among other things due to the fact that a certified EMS should include regular audits, and to the people...... to the ongoing development of the organization? Based on a case study in a global, but Danish based production company, the paper discusses the development of more dynamic, yet still systematic, environmental effort in organizations by introducing a matrix structure of the environmental management. In the matrix...

  10. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  11. Integrated environmental monitoring and information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of the environmental monitoring within the territory of the Slovak Republic and the concept of the integrated environmental information system of the Slovak Republic were accepted and confirmed by the Government Order No. 449/1992. The state monitoring system covering the whole territory of Slovakia is the most important and consists of 13 Partial Monitoring Systems (PMSs). List of PMSs is included. The listed PMSs are managed according to the concept of the Sectoral Information System (SIS) of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic (MESR) which was established by the National Council Act No. 261/1995 Coll. on the SIS. The SIS consists of 18 subsystems which are listed. The overviews of budget of PMSs as well as of environmental publications and periodicals of the MESR are included

  12. 76 FR 48119 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Risk Assessment and an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...] Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Risk Assessment and an Environmental Assessment AGENCY... environmental assessment relative to an oral rabies vaccination field trial in West Virginia. The environmental... rabies vaccine, analyzes the use of that vaccine in field safety and efficacy trials in West Virginia...

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for Construction and Operation of the Edgemeade Readiness Center and Tactical Unmanned Aerial System Storage and Maintenance Facility Idaho Army National Guard Elmore County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    resources, biological resources including birds of prey , cultural resources, socioeconomics, environmental justice, transportation, visual resources... Birds of Prey Air Space corridor which covers the nearby Orchard Training Area. The Orchard Training Area is the IDARNG’s Individual Weapons...Visual Resources • Land Use • Socioeconomics • Environmental Justice • Cultural Resources • Biological Resources including Birds of Prey • Noise

  14. Incident Command System - Environmental Unit responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S. O.

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Command System (ICS) for crisis management, used for response to oil spills by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company throughout its facilities, including the Trans Alaska Pipeline and the Valdez Marine Terminal, was described. Special attention was given to the Environmental Unit within the ICS which functions as a primary support unit for the Incident Operations Section. Details of the Unit's function were provided. These include the collection, evaluation and dissemination of information on all environmental issues concerning the crisis, provision of advice and direction on environmental aspects, and up-front agency interaction. A checklist of tasks is included. 7 refs

  15. Assessing the Environmental Safety of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology research in the United States is coordinated under the National Nano-technology Initiative with the goal of fostering development and implementation of nanomaterials and products that incorporate them and assuring that they are environmentally safe. The environmen...

  16. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CADMIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium consumed in foods grown on soils contaminated by industrial Cd+Zn discharge has caused renal tubular dysfunction in exposed humans in discrete situations. However, lack of understanding about environmental Cd has caused wide concern that generalpopulations may...

  17. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of

  18. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary

    Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments

    Angela N. Mwenda

    Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that

  19. Taking stock of environmental assessment: law, policy and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGillivray, Donald; Holder, Jane

    2007-01-01

    ... treatment of key issues in environmental assessment, in order to encourage an appreciation of where environmental assessment has come from and, perhaps most importantly, how it could develop in the future. This collection is a full 'stocktaking' exercise, encompassing a broad range of concerns, timescales and legal and policy contexts. It is both ...

  20. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)