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Sample records for system effectors acting

  1. Effectors of Th1 and Th17 cells act on astrocytes and augment their neuroinflammatory properties.

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    Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Kronisch, Julius; Khorooshi, Reza; Knier, Benjamin; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Gudi, Viktoria; Floess, Stefan; Huehn, Jochen; Owens, Trevor; Korn, Thomas; Stangel, Martin

    2017-10-16

    Autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells are believed to mediate the pathology of multiple sclerosis in the central nervous system (CNS). Their interaction with microglia and astrocytes in the CNS is crucial for the regulation of the neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that only Th1 but not Th17 effectors activate microglia. However, it is not clear which cells are targets of Th17 effectors in the CNS. To understand the effects driven by Th17 cells in the CNS, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in wild-type mice and CD4 + T cell-specific integrin α4-deficient mice where trafficking of Th1 cells into the CNS was affected. We compared microglial and astrocyte response in the brain and spinal cord of these mice. We further treated astrocytes with supernatants from highly pure Th1 and Th17 cultures and assessed the messenger RNA expression of neurotrophic factors, cytokines and chemokines, using real-time PCR. Data obtained was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. We observed in α4-deficient mice weak microglial activation but comparable astrogliosis to that of wild-type mice in the regions of the brain populated with Th17 infiltrates, suggesting that Th17 cells target astrocytes and not microglia. In vitro, in response to supernatants from Th1 and Th17 cultures, astrocytes showed altered expression of neurotrophic factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, increased expression of chemokines in Th1- and Th17-treated astrocytes enhanced recruitment of microglia and transendothelial migration of Th17 cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate the delicate interaction between T cell subsets and glial cells and how they communicate to mediate their effects. Effectors of Th1 act on both microglia and astrocytes whereas Th17 effectors preferentially target astrocytes to promote neuroinflammation.

  2. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures

  3. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

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    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now.By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system.The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  4. Type VI secretion system MIX-effectors carry both antibacterial and anti-eukaryotic activities.

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    Ray, Ann; Schwartz, Nika; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Zhang, Junmei; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2017-11-01

    Most type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) described to date are protein delivery apparatuses that mediate bactericidal activities. Several T6SSs were also reported to mediate virulence activities, although only few anti-eukaryotic effectors have been described. Here, we identify three T6SSs in the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus and show that T6SS1 mediates bactericidal activities under warm marine-like conditions. Using comparative proteomics, we find nine potential T6SS1 effectors, five of which belong to the polymorphic MIX-effector class. Remarkably, in addition to six predicted bactericidal effectors, the T6SS1 secretome includes three putative anti-eukaryotic effectors. One of these is a MIX-effector containing a cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 domain. We demonstrate that T6SS1 can use this MIX-effector to target phagocytic cells, resulting in morphological changes and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. In conclusion, the V. proteolyticus T6SS1, a system homologous to one found in pathogenic vibrios, uses a suite of polymorphic effectors that target both bacteria and eukaryotic neighbors. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  5. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System.

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    Tay, Daniel Ming Ming; Govindarajan, Kunde Ramamoorthy; Khan, Asif M; Ong, Terenze Yao Rui; Samad, Hanif M; Soh, Wei Wei; Tong, Minyan; Zhang, Fan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2010-10-15

    Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS) play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE) sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i) comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii) submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii) the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression) are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%). Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors. The T3SEdb represents a platform for inclusion of

  6. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System

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    Tong Minyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Results Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%. Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. Conclusions T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors

  7. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

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    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  8. Type IV Secretion System of Brucella spp. and its Effectors

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    Yuehua eKe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. cause brucellosis in domestic and wild animals. They are intracellular bacterial pathogens and used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we will discuss roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and in more detail of all 15 identified effectors, which may be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells, suggesting that it plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. So, we listed some key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating functions of the effectors secreted will be crucial to clarifying mechanism of T4SS during infection. Studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms by which the bacteria hijack the host signaling pathways, which help us to develop better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  9. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors.

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    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  10. A transcription activator-like effector (TALE) induction system mediated by proteolysis.

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    Copeland, Matthew F; Politz, Mark C; Johnson, Charles B; Markley, Andrew L; Pfleger, Brian F

    2016-04-01

    Simple and predictable trans-acting regulatory tools are needed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to build complex genetic circuits and optimize the levels of native and heterologous gene products. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial virulence factors that have recently gained traction in biotechnology applications owing to their customizable DNA-binding specificity. In this work we expanded the versatility of these transcription factors to create an inducible TALE system by inserting tobacco-etch virus (TEV) protease recognition sites into the TALE backbone. The resulting engineered TALEs maintain transcriptional repression of their target genes in Escherichia coli, but are degraded after induction of the TEV protease, thereby promoting expression of the previously repressed target gene of interest. This TALE-TEV technology enables both repression and induction of plasmid or chromosomal target genes in a manner analogous to traditional repressor proteins but with the added flexibility of being operator-agnostic.

  11. Diversifying Selection in the Wheat Stem Rust Fungus Acts Predominantly on Pathogen-Associated Gene Families and Reveals Candidate Effectors

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    Jana eSperschneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defence proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialised gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.

  12. System design description for the LDUA common video end effector system (CVEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Common Video End Effector System (CVEE), system 62-60, was designed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to provide the control interface of the various video end effectors used on the LDUA. The CVEE system consists of a Support Chassis which contains the input and output Opto-22 modules, relays, and power supplies and the Power Chassis which contains the bipolar supply and other power supplies. The combination of the Support Chassis and the Power Chassis make up the CVEE system. The CVEE system is rack mounted in the At Tank Instrument Enclosure (ATIE). Once connected it is controlled using the LDUA supervisory data acquisition system (SDAS). Video and control status will be displayed on monitors within the LDUA control center

  13. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The LDUA System consists of a deployment vehicle, a vertical positioning mast, a light duty multi-axis robotic arm, a tank riser interface and confinement, a tool interface plate, a control system, and an operations control trailer. The criteria specified in this document will apply to all end effector systems being developed for use on or with the LDUA system at the Hanford site. The requirement stipulated in this document are mandatory

  14. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Mesquita Júnior, D. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruvinel, W.M. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biomedicina, Universidade Católica de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Araujo, J.A.P. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G. [Disciplina de Imunologia Clínica e Alergia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, L.E.C. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-22

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25{sup +/high}CD127{sup Ø/low}FoxP3{sup +}, and effector T cells were defined as CD25{sup +}CD127{sup +}FoxP3{sup Ø}. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4{sup +}TREG and CD28{sup +}TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L{sup +}TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR{sup +}, HLA-DR{sup +}, OX40{sup +}, and CD45RO{sup +} cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L{sup +} cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L{sup +}TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease.

  15. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita Júnior, D.; Cruvinel, W.M.; Araujo, J.A.P.; Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G.; Andrade, L.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25 +/high CD127 Ø/low FoxP3 + , and effector T cells were defined as CD25 + CD127 + FoxP3 Ø . The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4 + TREG and CD28 + TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L + TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR + , HLA-DR + , OX40 + , and CD45RO + cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L + cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L + TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease

  16. A method for selecting cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to small molecule effectors

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    Allas Ülar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cis-acting regulatory sequences functioning at the level of mRNA or nascent peptide and specifically influencing transcription or translation have been described. These regulatory elements often respond to specific chemicals. Results We have developed a method that allows us to select cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to diverse chemicals. The method is based on the β-lactamase gene containing a random sequence inserted into the beginning of the ORF. Several rounds of selection are used to isolate sequences that suppress β-lactamase expression in response to the compound under study. We have isolated sequences that respond to erythromycin, troleandomycin, chloramphenicol, meta-toluate and homoserine lactone. By introducing synonymous and non-synonymous mutations we have shown that at least in the case of erythromycin the sequences act at the peptide level. We have also tested the cross-activities of the constructs and found that in most cases the sequences respond most strongly to the compound on which they were isolated. Conclusions Several selected peptides showed ligand-specific changes in amino acid frequencies, but no consensus motif could be identified. This is consistent with previous observations on natural cis-acting peptides, showing that it is often impossible to demonstrate a consensus. Applying the currently developed method on a larger scale, by selecting and comparing an extended set of sequences, might allow the sequence rules underlying the activity of cis-acting regulatory peptides to be identified.

  17. Modulation of innate immune responses by Yersinia type III secretion system translocators and effectors.

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    Bliska, James B; Wang, Xiaoying; Viboud, Gloria I; Brodsky, Igor E

    2013-10-01

    The innate immune system of mammals responds to microbial infection through detection of conserved molecular determinants called 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs). Pathogens use virulence factors to counteract PAMP-directed responses. The innate immune system can in turn recognize signals generated by virulence factors, allowing for a heightened response to dangerous pathogens. Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens encode type III secretion systems (T3SSs) that translocate effector proteins, subvert PAMP-directed responses and are critical for infection. A plasmid-encoded T3SS in the human-pathogenic Yersinia species translocates seven effectors into infected host cells. Delivery of effectors by the T3SS requires plasma membrane insertion of two translocators, which are thought to form a channel called a translocon. Studies of the Yersinia T3SS have provided key advances in our understanding of how innate immune responses are generated by perturbations in plasma membrane and other signals that result from translocon insertion. Additionally, studies in this system revealed that effectors function to inhibit innateimmune responses resulting from insertion of translocons into plasma membrane. Here, we review these advances with the goal of providing insight into how a T3SS can activate and inhibit innate immune responses, allowing a virulent pathogen to bypass host defences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

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    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  19. Yeast as a Heterologous Model System to Uncover Type III Effector Function.

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    Crina Popa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Type III effectors (T3E are key virulence proteins that are injected by bacterial pathogens inside the cells of their host to subvert cellular processes and contribute to disease. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important heterologous system for the functional characterisation of T3E proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Importantly, yeast contains eukaryotic processes with low redundancy and are devoid of immunity mechanisms that counteract T3Es and mask their function. Expression in yeast of effectors from both plant and animal pathogens that perturb conserved cellular processes often resulted in robust phenotypes that were exploited to elucidate effector functions, biochemical properties, and host targets. The genetic tractability of yeast and its amenability for high-throughput functional studies contributed to the success of this system that, in recent years, has been used to study over 100 effectors. Here, we provide a critical view on this body of work and describe advantages and limitations inherent to the use of yeast in T3E research. "Favourite" targets of T3Es in yeast are cytoskeleton components and small GTPases of the Rho family. We describe how mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling, vesicle trafficking, membrane structures, and programmed cell death are also often altered by T3Es in yeast and how this reflects their function in the natural host. We describe how effector structure-function studies and analysis of candidate targeted processes or pathways can be carried out in yeast. We critically analyse technologies that have been used in yeast to assign biochemical functions to T3Es, including transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as suppressor, gain-of-function, or synthetic lethality screens. We also describe how yeast can be used to select for molecules that block T3E function in search of new antibacterial drugs with medical applications. Finally, we provide our opinion on the limitations

  20. Constrained control allocation for systems with redundant control effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Kenneth A

    1996-01-01

    Control allocation is examined for linear time-invariant problems that have more controls than degrees of freedom. The controls are part of a physical system and are subject to limits on their maximum positions. A control allocation scheme commands control deflections in response to some desired output. The ability of a control allocation scheme to produce the desired output without violating the physical position constraints is used to compare allocation schemes. Methods are develop...

  1. Effectors of Th1 and Th17 cells act on astrocytes and augment their neuroinflammatory properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Kronisch, Julius; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells are believed to mediate the pathology of multiple sclerosis in the central nervous system (CNS). Their interaction with microglia and astrocytes in the CNS is crucial for the regulation of the neuroinflammation. Previously we have shown that only Th1...... mice where trafficking of Th1 cells into the CNS was affected. We compared microglia and astrocyte response in the brain and spinal cord of these mice. We further treated astrocytes with supernatants from highly pure Th1 and Th17 cultures and assessed the mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors......, cytokines and chemokines using real-time PCR. Data obtained was analysed using Kruskal- Wallis test. Results: We observed in α4-deficient mice weak microglial activation but comparable astrogliosis to that of wild-type mice in the regions of the brain populated with Th17 infiltrates suggesting that Th17...

  2. Brassinosteriod Insensitive 2 (BIN2) acts as a downstream effector of the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway to regulate photoautotrophic growth in Arabidopsis.

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    Xiong, Fangjie; Zhang, Rui; Meng, Zhigang; Deng, Kexuan; Que, Yumei; Zhuo, Fengping; Feng, Li; Guo, Sundui; Datla, Raju; Ren, Maozhi

    2017-01-01

    The components of the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway have been well characterized in heterotrophic organisms from yeast to humans. However, because of rapamycin insensitivity, embryonic lethality in tor null mutants and a lack of reliable ways of detecting TOR protein kinase in higher plants, the key players upstream and downstream of TOR remain largely unknown in plants. Using engineered rapamycin-sensitive Binding Protein 12-2 (BP12-2) plants, the present study showed that combined treatment with rapamycin and active-site TOR inhibitors (asTORis) results in synergistic inhibition of TOR activity and plant growth in Arabidopsis. Based on this system, we revealed that TOR signaling plays a crucial role in modulating the transition from heterotrophic to photoautotrophic growth in Arabidopsis. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) was identified as a direct downstream target of TOR, and the growth of TOR-suppressed plants could be rescued by up-regulating S6K2. Systems, genetic, and biochemical analyses revealed that Brassinosteriod Insensitive 2 (BIN2) acts as a novel downstream effector of S6K2, and the phosphorylation of BIN2 depends on TOR-S6K2 signaling in Arabidopsis. By combining pharmacological with genetic and biochemical approaches, we determined that the TOR-S6K2-BIN2 signaling pathway plays important roles in regulating the photoautotrophic growth of Arabidopsis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Functionally redundant RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans act at different steps to suppress early flg22-triggered immunity.

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    Xiangzi Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequences of several economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes have revealed the presence of large families of so-called RXLR effectors. Functional screens have identified RXLR effector repertoires that either compromise or induce plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying the modes of action of these effectors in planta. The perception of highly conserved pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs, such as flg22, triggers converging signaling pathways recruiting MAP kinase cascades and inducing transcriptional re-programming, yielding a generic anti-microbial response. We used a highly synchronizable, pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify a set of RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans (PiRXLRs, the causal agent of potato and tomato light blight that manipulate early stages of flg22-triggered signaling. Of thirty-three tested PiRXLR effector candidates, eight, called Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response (SFI, significantly suppressed flg22-dependent activation of a reporter gene under control of a typical MAMP-inducible promoter (pFRK1-Luc in tomato protoplasts. We extended our analysis to Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-host plant species of P. infestans. From the aforementioned eight SFI effectors, three appeared to share similar functions in both Arabidopsis and tomato by suppressing transcriptional activation of flg22-induced marker genes downstream of post-translational MAP kinase activation. A further three effectors interfere with MAMP signaling at, or upstream of, the MAP kinase cascade in tomato, but not in Arabidopsis. Transient expression of the SFI effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans and, for the most potent effector, SFI1, nuclear localization is required for both suppression of MAMP signaling and virulence function. The present study provides a framework to decipher the

  4. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.; Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. Actual component design, fabrication, testing, and inspection will be performed by various DOE laboratories, industry, and academia. This document augments WHC-SD-TD-FRD-003, 'Functions and Requirements for the Light Duty Utility Arm Integrated System' (F). All requirements dictated in the F shall also be applicable in this document. Whenever conflicts arise between this document and the F, this document shall take precedence

  5. Physical and neural entrainment to rhythm: human sensorimotor coordination across tasks and effector systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marie Ross

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The human sensorimotor system can be readily entrained to environmental rhythms, through multiple sensory modalities. In this review, we provide an overview of theories of timekeeping that make this neuroentrainment possible. First, we present recent evidence that contests the assumptions made in classic timekeeper models. The role of state estimation, sensory feedback and movement parameters on the organization of sensorimotor timing are discussed in the context of recent experiments that examined simultaneous timing and force control. This discussion is extended to the study of coordinated multi-effector movements and how they may be entrained.

  6. Systems-Biology Approaches to Discover Anti-Viral Effectors of the Human Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F.R. Sommer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections elicit an immediate innate response involving antiviral factors. The activities of some of these factors are, in turn, blocked by viral countermeasures. The ensuing battle between the host and the viruses is crucial for determining whether the virus establishes a foothold and/or induces adaptive immune responses. A comprehensive systems-level understanding of the repertoire of anti-viral effectors in the context of these immediate virus-host responses would provide significant advantages in devising novel strategies to interfere with the initial establishment of infections. Recent efforts to identify cellular factors in a comprehensive and unbiased manner, using genome-wide siRNA screens and other systems biology “omics” methodologies, have revealed several potential anti-viral effectors for viruses like Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, West Nile virus (WNV, and influenza virus. This review describes the discovery of novel viral restriction factors and discusses how the integration of different methods in systems biology can be used to more comprehensively identify the intimate interactions of viruses and the cellular innate resistance.

  7. ULtiMATE system for rapid assembly of customized TAL effectors.

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    Junjiao Yang

    Full Text Available Engineered TAL-effector nucleases (TALENs and TALE-based constructs have become powerful tools for eukaryotic genome editing. Although many methods have been reported, it remains a challenge for the assembly of designer-based TALE repeats in a fast, precise and cost-effective manner. We present an ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector system for speedy and accurate assembly of customized TALE constructs. This method takes advantage of uracil-specific excision reagent (USER to create multiple distinct sticky ends between any neighboring DNA fragments for specific ligation. With pre-assembled templates, multiple TALE DNA-binding domains could be efficiently assembled in order within hours with minimal manual operation. This system has been demonstrated to produce both functional TALENs for effective gene knockout and TALE-mediated gene-specific transcription activation (TALE-TA. The feature of both ease-of-operation and high efficiency of ULtiMATE system makes it not only an ideal method for biologic labs, but also an approach well suited for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Type VI System Clusters and Effectors in Burkholderia Species

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    Thao Thi Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type VI secretion system (T6SS has been discovered in a variety of gram-negative bacteria as a versatile weapon to stimulate the killing of eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic competitors. Type VI secretion effectors (T6SEs are well known as key virulence factors for important pathogenic bacteria. In many Burkholderia species, T6SS has evolved as the most complicated secretion pathway with distinguished types to translocate diverse T6SEs, suggesting their essential roles in this genus. Here we attempted to detect and characterize T6SSs and potential T6SEs in target genomes of plant-associated and environmental Burkholderia species based on computational analyses. In total, 66 potential functional T6SS clusters were found in 30 target Burkholderia bacterial genomes, of which 33% possess three or four clusters. The core proteins in each cluster were specified and phylogenetic trees of three components (i.e., TssC, TssD, TssL were constructed to elucidate the relationship among the identified T6SS clusters. Next, we identified 322 potential T6SEs in the target genomes based on homology searches and explored the important domains conserved in effector candidates. In addition, using the screening approach based on the profile hidden Markov model (pHMM of T6SEs that possess markers for type VI effectors (MIX motif (MIX T6SEs, 57 revealed proteins that were not included in training datasets were recognized as novel MIX T6SE candidates from the Burkholderia species. This approach could be useful to identify potential T6SEs from other bacterial genomes.

  9. Bacterial Effectors and Their Functions in the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Insight from the Modes of Substrate Recognition

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    Minsoo Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination plays indispensable roles in the regulation of cell homeostasis and pathogenesis of neoplastic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given the importance of this modification, it is to be expected that several pathogenic bacteria have developed the ability to utilize the host ubiquitin system for their own benefit. Modulation of the host ubiquitin system by bacterial effector proteins inhibits innate immune responses and hijacks central signaling pathways. Bacterial effectors mimic enzymes of the host ubiquitin system, but may or may not be structurally similar to the mammalian enzymes. Other effectors bind and modify components of the host ubiquitin system, and some are themselves subject to ubiquitination. This review will describe recent findings, based on structural analyses, regarding how pathogens use post-translational modifications of proteins to establish an infection.

  10. Bacterial effectors and their functions in the ubiquitin-proteasome system: insight from the modes of substrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Otsubo, Ryota; Morikawa, Hanako; Nishide, Akira; Takagi, Kenji; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Mizushima, Tsunehiro

    2014-08-18

    Protein ubiquitination plays indispensable roles in the regulation of cell homeostasis and pathogenesis of neoplastic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given the importance of this modification, it is to be expected that several pathogenic bacteria have developed the ability to utilize the host ubiquitin system for their own benefit. Modulation of the host ubiquitin system by bacterial effector proteins inhibits innate immune responses and hijacks central signaling pathways. Bacterial effectors mimic enzymes of the host ubiquitin system, but may or may not be structurally similar to the mammalian enzymes. Other effectors bind and modify components of the host ubiquitin system, and some are themselves subject to ubiquitination. This review will describe recent findings, based on structural analyses, regarding how pathogens use post-translational modifications of proteins to establish an infection.

  11. Kinematics Analysis of End Effector for Carrier Robot of Feeding Broiler Chicken System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Rafiuddin; Arsyad, Hairul; Bauna, Ruslan; Renreng, Ilyas; Bakhri, Syaiful

    2018-02-01

    The demand for commodities, especially Broiler chicken farms are increasing, the volume of feed requirements Broiler chickens increased with age up to the age of 30-57 days required feed 3,829 grams/day/head, so if the chicken population is 3,000 needed transporting feed 11 487 kg/day, This research aims to produce a robot capable of transporting feed in the top of the cage by using a control system so as to make efficient use of manpower. Design robot performed using software design three-dimensional Solidworks2010, process of making the robot is started with the design manufacture three (3) units of mechanical systems (mechanical system for holder feed, mechanical systems for lifter feed and mechanical systems for transporting feed), then do the design process framework as a component buffer so that the mechanical system will work properly and safely when the robot operates. Furthermore, the manufacture of electronic circuits and control are using Arduino Mega microcontroller. After assembling all components mechanical systems and installation of electronic systems and control, then experiments to evaluate the performance of the robot have been made. The results of experiments showed that all components work well according to plan, in particular the speed and acceleration of end effector motion so it can hold and release the feed well. This strongly supports the robots perform tasks in accordance with the intent, i.e., holding, lifting and moving feed.

  12. New kids on the block: The Popeye domain containing (POPDC) protein family acting as a novel class of cAMP effector proteins in striated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas; Schindler, Roland

    2017-12-01

    The cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling pathway constitutes an ancient signal transduction pathway present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Previously, it was thought that in eukaryotes three effector proteins mediate cAMP signalling, namely protein kinase A (PKA), exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) and the cyclic-nucleotide gated channels. However, recently a novel family of cAMP effector proteins emerged and was termed the Popeye domain containing (POPDC) family, which consists of three members POPDC1, POPDC2 and POPDC3. POPDC proteins are transmembrane proteins, which are abundantly present in striated and smooth muscle cells. POPDC proteins bind cAMP with high affinity comparable to PKA. Presently, their biochemical activity is poorly understood. However, mutational analysis in animal models as well as the disease phenotype observed in patients carrying missense mutations suggests that POPDC proteins are acting by modulating membrane trafficking of interacting proteins. In this review, we will describe the current knowledge about this gene family and also outline the apparent gaps in our understanding of their role in cAMP signalling and beyond. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effector protein translocation by the Coxiella burnetii Dot/Icm type IV secretion system requires endocytic maturation of the pathogen-occupied vacuole.

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    Hayley J Newton

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Coxiella burnetii encodes a type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm that is essential for intracellular replication. The Dot/Icm system delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cytosol during infection. The effector proteins delivered by C. burnetii are predicted to have important functions during infection, but when these proteins are needed during infection has not been clearly defined. Here, we use a reporter system consisting of fusion proteins that have a β-lactamase enzyme (BlaM fused to C. burnetii effector proteins to study protein translocation by the Dot/Icm system. Translocation of BlaM fused to the effector proteins CBU0077, CBU1823 and CBU1524 was not detected until 8-hours after infection of HeLa cells, which are permissive for C. burnetii replication. Translocation of these effector fusion proteins by the Dot/Icm system required acidification of the Coxiella-containing vacuole. Silencing of the host genes encoding the membrane transport regulators Rab5 or Rab7 interfered with effector translocation, which indicates that effectors are not translocated until bacteria traffic to a late endocytic compartment in the host cell. Similar requirements for effector translocation were discerned in bone marrow macrophages derived from C57BL/6 mice, which are primary cells that restrict the intracellular replication of C. burnetii. In addition to requiring endocytic maturation of the vacuole for Dot/Icm-mediated translocation of effectors, bacterial transcription was required for this process. Thus, translocation of effector proteins by the C. burnetii Dot/Icm system occurs after acidification of the CCV and maturation of this specialized organelle to a late endocytic compartment. This indicates that creation of the specialized vacuole in which C. burnetii replicates represents a two-stage process mediated initially by host factors that regulate endocytic maturation and then by bacterial effectors delivered into

  14. An optimal set of features for predicting type IV secretion system effector proteins for a subset of species based on a multi-level feature selection approach.

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    Zhila Esna Ashari

    Full Text Available Type IV secretion systems (T4SS are multi-protein complexes in a number of bacterial pathogens that can translocate proteins and DNA to the host. Most T4SSs function in conjugation and translocate DNA; however, approximately 13% function to secrete proteins, delivering effector proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. Upon entry, these effectors manipulate the host cell's machinery for their own benefit, which can result in serious illness or death of the host. For this reason recognition of T4SS effectors has become an important subject. Much previous work has focused on verifying effectors experimentally, a costly endeavor in terms of money, time, and effort. Having good predictions for effectors will help to focus experimental validations and decrease testing costs. In recent years, several scoring and machine learning-based methods have been suggested for the purpose of predicting T4SS effector proteins. These methods have used different sets of features for prediction, and their predictions have been inconsistent. In this paper, an optimal set of features is presented for predicting T4SS effector proteins using a statistical approach. A thorough literature search was performed to find features that have been proposed. Feature values were calculated for datasets of known effectors and non-effectors for T4SS-containing pathogens for four genera with a sufficient number of known effectors, Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnetii, Brucella spp, and Bartonella spp. The features were ranked, and less important features were filtered out. Correlations between remaining features were removed, and dimensional reduction was accomplished using principal component analysis and factor analysis. Finally, the optimal features for each pathogen were chosen by building logistic regression models and evaluating each model. The results based on evaluation of our logistic regression models confirm the effectiveness of our four optimal sets of

  15. New players in the same old game: a system level in silico study to predict type III secretion system and effector proteins in bacterial genomes reveals common themes in T3SS mediated pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Vineet; Datta, Sunando; Arunachalam, Manonmani

    2013-07-26

    Type III secretion system (T3SS) plays an important role in virulence or symbiosis of many pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria [CHM 2:291-294, 2007; Physiology (Bethesda) 20:326-339, 2005]. T3SS acts like a tunnel between a bacterium and its host through which the bacterium injects 'effector' proteins into the latter [Nature 444:567-573, 2006; COSB 18:258-266, 2008]. The effectors spatially and temporally modify the host signalling pathways [FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:1100-1125, 2011; Cell Host Microbe5:571-579, 2009]. In spite its crucial role in host-pathogen interaction, the study of T3SS and the associated effectors has been limited to a few bacteria [Cell Microbiol 13:1858-1869, 2011; Nat Rev Microbiol 6:11-16, 2008; Mol Microbiol 80:1420-1438, 2011]. Before one set out to perform systematic experimental studies on an unknown set of bacteria it would be beneficial to identify the potential candidates by developing an in silico screening algorithm. A system level study would also be advantageous over traditional laboratory methods to extract an overriding theme for host-pathogen interaction, if any, from the vast resources of data generated by sequencing multiple bacterial genomes. We have developed an in silico protocol in which the most conserved set of T3SS proteins was used as the query against the entire bacterial database with increasingly stringent search parameters. It enabled us to identify several uncharacterized T3SS positive bacteria. We adopted a similar strategy to predict the presence of the already known effectors in the newly identified T3SS positive bacteria. The huge resources of biochemical data [FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:1100-1125, 2011; Cell Host Microbe 5:571-579, 2009; BMC Bioinformatics 7(11):S4, 2010] on the T3SS effectors enabled us to search for the common theme in T3SS mediated pathogenesis. We identified few cellular signalling networks in the host, which are manipulated by most of the T3SS containing pathogens. We went on to look for

  16. The neuro-immunological interface in an evolutionary perspective: the dynamic relationship between effector and recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, E; Valensin, S; Franceschi, C

    1998-04-16

    The evolutionary perspective indicates that an immune-neuroendocrine effector system integrating innate immunity, stress and inflammation is present in invertebrates. This defense network, centered on the macrophage and exerting primitive and highly promiscuous recognition units, is very effective, ancestral and appears to have been conserved throughout evolution from invertebrates to higher vertebrates. It would seem that there was a "big bang" in the recognition system of lower vertebrates, and T and B cell repertoires, MHC and antibodies suddenly appeared. We argue that this phenomenon is the counterpart of the increasing complexity of the internal circuitry and recognition units in the effector system. The immediate consequences were a progressive enlargement of the pathogen repertoire and new problems regarding self/not-self discrimination. Probably not by chance, a new organ appeared, capable of purging cells able of excessive self recognition. This organ, the thymus, appears to be the result of a well known evolutionary strategy of re-using pre-existing material (neuroendocrine cells and mediators constituting the thymic microenvironment). This bricolage at an organ level is similar to the effect we have already described at the level of molecules and functions of the defense network, and has a general counterpart at genetic level. Thus, in vertebrates, the conserved immune-neuroendocrine effector system remains of fundamental importance in defense against pathogens, while its efficiency has increased through synergy with the new, clonotipical recognition repertoire.

  17. Effector T-cells are expanded in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with high disease activity and damage indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, S; Regola, F; Zanola, A; Andreoli, L; Dall'Ara, F; Tincani, A; Airo', P

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives T-cell activation may be one of the pathogenic mechanisms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). After repeated antigenic stimulation, T-cells undergo different modifications, leading to the differentiation into effector memory T-cells (CCR7-CD45RA-) and terminally differentiated effector memory (TDEM) T-cells (CCR7-CD45RA+). Similarly, down-modulation of CD28 may lead to the expansion of the CD28- T-cells, a subpopulation with peculiar effector activities. The aim of this study was the characterization of T-cell phenotype in a cohort of patients with SLE according to disease activity and damage index. Materials and methods Phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood T lymphocytes of 51 SLE patients and 21 healthy controls was done by flow-cytometry. SLE disease activity was evaluated by SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and damage by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). The variations between different groups were evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons ( p adj ). Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the correlations between quantitative variables. Results CD4+ lymphopenia was found among SLE patients. Patients showed a trend for a higher percentage of TDEM among the CD4+ T-cell subpopulation in comparison with healthy controls ( p = .04). SLE patients were divided into two groups according to disease activity: patients with SLEDAI-2K ≥ 6 ( n = 13) had a higher percentage of circulating CD4+ T-cells with CD28- phenotype ( p adj  = .005) as well as those with an effector memory ( p adj  = .004) and TDEM ( p adj  = .002) phenotype and a trend of decrease of regulatory T-cells (TREGs) ( p = .02), in comparison with patients with low disease activity ( n = 38). Patients with damage (SDI ≥ 1) tended to show an expansion of TDEM among CD4+ T-cells as compared with

  18. Distribution of non-LEE-encoded type 3 secretion system dependent effectors in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia A. Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC are important human gastroenteritis agents. The prevalence of six non-LEE genes encoding type 3 translocated effectors was investigated. The nleC, cif and nleB genes were more prevalent in typical than in atypical EPEC, although a higher diversity of genes combinations was observed in atypical EPEC.

  19. Design and Kinematic Analysis of a New End-Effector for a Robotic Needle Insertion-Type Intervention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjin Moon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new end-effector as a key component for a robotic needle insertion-type intervention system and its kinematic analysis. The mechanism is designed as a spherical mechanism with a revolute joint and a curved sliding joint, and its links always move on the surface of a sphere. The remote centre of motion (RCM of the designed mechanism is placed below the base of the mechanism to avoid contact with the patient's body, unlike the conventional end-effectors developed for needle insertion. For the proposed mechanism, the forward kinematics are solved in terms of input joint parameters and then the reverse kinematics are solved by using the cross-product relationship between each joint vector and a vector mutually perpendicular to the vectors. The kinematic solutions are confirmed by numerical examples.

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acid Knockdown and Intra-host Cell Complementation of Ehrlichia Type IV Secretion System Effector

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    Pratibha Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival of Ehrlichia chaffeensis depends on obligatory intracellular infection. One of the barriers to E. chaffeensis research progress has been the inability, using conventional techniques, to generate knock-out mutants for genes essential for intracellular infection. This study examined the use of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs technology to interrupt type IV secretion system (T4SS effector protein expression in E. chaffeensis followed by intracellular complementation of the effector to determine its requirement for infection. Successful E. chaffeensis infection depends on the E. chaffeensis-specific T4SS protein effector, ehrlichial translocated factor-1 (Etf-1, which induces Rab5-regulated autophagy to provide host cytosolic nutrients required for E. chaffeensis proliferation. Etf-1 is also imported by host cell mitochondria where it inhibits host cell apoptosis to prolong its infection. We designed a PNA specific to Etf-1 and showed that the PNA bound to the target region of single-stranded Etf-1 RNA using a competitive binding assay. Electroporation of E. chaffeensis with this PNA significantly reduced Etf-1 mRNA and protein, and the bacteria's ability to induce host cell autophagy and infect host cells. Etf-1 PNA-mediated inhibition of ehrlichial Etf-1 expression and E. chaffeensis infection could be intracellularly trans-complemented by ectopic expression of Etf-1-GFP in host cells. These data affirmed the critical role of bacterial T4SS effector in host cell autophagy and E. chaffeensis infection, and demonstrated the use of PNA to analyze the gene functions of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  1. Effector Mechanisms of Neutrophils within the Innate Immune System in Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

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    Eric Warren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils have a significant yet controversial role in the innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb infection, which is not yet fully understood. In addition to neutrophils’ well-known effector mechanisms, they may also help control infection of M. tb through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, which are thought to further promote the killing of M. tb by resident alveolar macrophages. Cytokines such as IFN-γ have now been shown to serve an immunomodulatory role in neutrophil functioning in conjunction to its pro-inflammatory function. Additionally, the unique transcriptional changes of neutrophils may be used to differentiate between infection with M. tb and other bacterial and chronic rheumatological diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Adversely, during the innate immune response to M. tb, inappropriate phagocytosis of spent neutrophils can result in nonspecific damage to host cells due to necrotic lysis. Furthermore, some individuals have been shown to be more genetically susceptible to tuberculosis (TB due to a “Trojan Horse” phenomenon whereby neutrophils block the ability of resident macrophages to kill M. tb. Despite these aforementioned negative consequences, through the scope of this review we will provide evidence to support the idea that neutrophils, while sometimes damaging, can also be an important component in warding off M. tb infection. This is exemplified in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. These individuals are at an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB due to a diminished innate immune response associated with decreased levels of glutathione. Consequently, there has been a worldwide effort to limit and contain M. tb infection through the use of antibiotics and vaccinations. However, due to several significant limitations, the current bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG

  2. A translocator-specific export signal establishes the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy that is important for type III secretion system function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalka, Amanda G.; Stopford, Charles M.; Lee, Pei-Chung; Rietsch, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Summary Type III secretion systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to directly deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. To accomplish this, bacteria secrete translocator proteins that form a pore in the host-cell membrane through which the effector proteins are then introduced into the host cell. Evidence from multiple systems indicates that the pore-forming translocator proteins are exported before effectors, but how this secretion hierarchy is established is unclear. Here we used the P. aeruginosa translocator protein PopD as a model to identify its export signals. The amino-terminal secretion signal and chaperone, PcrH, are required for export under all conditions. Two novel signals in PopD, one proximal to the chaperone-binding site and one at the very C-terminus of the protein, are required for export of PopD before effector proteins. These novel export signals establish the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy, which in turn, is critical for the delivery of effectors into host cells. PMID:23121689

  3. Identification of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2-associated chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Kodama, Toshio; Saito, Kazunobu; Iida, Tetsuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Honda, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    The enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2. Effector proteins secreted by these T3SSs are delivered into host cells, leading to cell death or diarrhea. However, it is not known how specific effectors are secreted through a specific T3SS when both T3SSs are expressed within bacteria. One molecule thought to determine secretion specificity is a T3SS-associated chaperone; however, no T3SS2-specific chaperone has been identified. Therefore, we screened T3SS2 chaperone candidates by a pull-down assay using T3SS2 effectors fused with glutathione-S-transferase. A secretion assay revealed that the newly identified cognate chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC was required for the efficient secretion of the substrate through T3SS2. Further experiments determined the chaperone-binding domain and the amino-terminal secretion signal of the cognate effector. These findings, in addition to the previously identified T3SS1-specific chaperone, VecA, provide a strategy to clarify the specificity of effector secretion through T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppressive versus augmenting effect of the same pretreatment regimen in two murine tumor systems with distinct effector mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Hiromi; Hamaoka, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Masayasu

    1978-01-01

    The effect of presensitization with x-irradiated tumor cells on the development of host's immune resistance against the tumor-associated transplantation antigens (TATA) was investigated in two syngeneic tumor systems with distinct effector mechanisms. When X5563 plasmacytoma, to which immune resistance was mediated exclusively by killer T lymphocytes, was intravenously inoculated into syngeneic C3H/He mice with lower number after 7000 R x-irradiation, the mice failed to exhibit any protective immunity against the subsequent challenge with viable tumor cells. Moreover, these mice lost their capability to develop any immune resistance even after an appropriate immunization procedure. The immunodepression induced by such a pretreatment regimen was specific for X5563 tumor. While no suppressor cell activity was detected in the above pretreated mice, serum factor(s) from these mice was virtually responsible for this suppression. When the serum factor mediating this tumor-specific suppression was fractionated on the Sephadex G-200 column, the suppressive activity was found in albumin-corresponding fraction, free of any immunoglobulin component. In contrast, in MM102 mammary tumor system, in which immune resistance is solely mediated by tumor-specific antibody, the pretreatment with x-irradiated MM102 cells augmented the induction of anti-tumor immunity. These results indicate that while tumor antigens given in the form of x-irradiated tumor cells suppress the induction of killer T cell-mediated immunity in one system, the same presensitization regimen of tumor antigens augments the antibody-mediated immunity in another system, thus giving a divergent effect on the distinct effector mechanisms of syngeneic tumor immunity. (author)

  5. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Tracking System

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    Office of Personnel Management — Tracking system which allows for the input of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request date, compiles the due date, information pertaining to the request, name...

  6. 76 FR 64115 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-092)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... retirement of one Privacy Act system of records notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, NASA is giving notice that it proposes to cancel the following Privacy Act system of records notice...

  7. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Nam-Soo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2017-01-01

    Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs) as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs) responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  8. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Soo Jwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  9. 75 FR 81205 - Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice to Revise Privacy Act Systems of Records... two Privacy Act Systems of Records entitled ``Information on Persons Disqualified from the...

  10. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease-Causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Maintain an Antibacterial Type VI Secretion System with Versatile Effector Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Kinch, Lisa N; Ray, Ann; Dalia, Ankur B; Cong, Qian; Nunan, Linda M; Camilli, Andrew; Grishin, Nick V; Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2017-07-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus , we conducted a comparative analysis using the genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633 and of environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V. parahaemolyticus Interestingly, we found that all of the AHPND strains, but none of the non-AHPND strains, harbor the antibacterial type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), which we previously identified and characterized in the clinical isolate RIMD2210633. This finding suggests that the acquisition of this T6SS might confer to AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus a fitness advantage over competing bacteria and facilitate shrimp infection. Additionally, we found highly dynamic effector loci in the T6SS1 of AHPND-causing strains, leading to diverse effector repertoires. Our discovery provides novel insights into AHPND-causing pathogens and reveals a potential target for disease control. IMPORTANCE Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a serious disease that has caused severe damage and significant financial losses to the global shrimp industry. To better understand and prevent this shrimp disease, it is essential to thoroughly characterize its causative agent, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Although the plasmid-encoded binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp have been shown to be the primary cause of AHPND, it remains unknown whether other virulent factors are commonly present in V. parahaemolyticus and might play important roles during shrimp infection. Here, we analyzed the genome sequences of clinical, non-AHPND, and AHPND strains to characterize their repertoires of key virulence determinants. Our studies reveal that an antibacterial type

  11. A survey of commercially available manipulators, end-effectors, and delivery systems for reactor decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, D.R.; Litka, T.J.

    1996-05-01

    Numerous nuclear facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are under consideration for decommissioning. Currently, there are no standardized, automated, remote systems designed to dismantle and thereby reduce the size of activated reactor components and vessels so that they can be packaged and shipped to disposal sites. Existing dismantling systems usually consist of customized, facility-specific tooling that has been developed to dismantle a specific reactor system. Such systems have a number of drawbacks. Generally, current systems cannot be disassembled, moved, and reused. Developing and deploying the tooling for current systems is expensive and time-consuming. In addition, the amount of manual work is significant because long-handled tools must be used; as a result, personnel are exposed to excessive radiation. A standardized, automated, remote system is therefore needed to deliver the tooling necessary to dismantle nuclear facilities at different locations. Because this system would be reusable, it would produce less waste. The system would also save money because of its universal design, and it would be more reliable than current systems

  12. The Toolbox for Uncovering the Functions of Legionella Dot/Icm Type IVb Secretion System Effectors: Current State and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar N. Schroeder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The defective in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication (Dot/Icm Type IVb secretion system (T4SS is the essential virulence factor for the intracellular life style and pathogenicity of Legionella species. Screens demonstrated that an individual L. pneumophila strain can use the Dot/Icm T4SS to translocate an unprecedented number of more than 300 proteins into host cells, where these, so called Icm/Dot-translocated substrates (IDTS or effectors, manipulate host cell functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis of the pan-genus genome predicts at least 608 orthologous groups of putative effectors. Deciphering the function of these effectors is key to understanding Legionella pathogenesis; however, the analysis is challenging. Substantial functional redundancy renders classical, phenotypic screening of single gene deletion mutants mostly ineffective. Here, I review experimental approaches that were successfully used to identify, validate and functionally characterize T4SS effectors and highlight new methods, which promise to facilitate unlocking the secrets of Legionella's extraordinary weapons arsenal.

  13. Manipulator systems for nuclear reactor decommissioning which can take end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampersberger, E.; Hell, W.; Vrba, H.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a remote-handling system on the basis of the new master-slave manipulator will decisively influence the possibilities of remote-controlled manipulation in nuclear technology under the premises of -high availability - universal range of application - a standard normal for industry - maintenance friendlyness. (orig.) [de

  14. 78 FR 40515 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-071] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Each Federal agency is required by the Privacy Act of 1974 to publish...

  15. ACT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF TOYOTA SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Damjan Stanojević; Slobodan Stefanović; Branislav Stanisavljević; Dragoslav Ilić

    2013-01-01

    The production system developed by Toyota Motor Corporation was developed to provide best quality, lowest costs, and shortest lead time through the elimination of losts. Kiichiro Toyota, son of Sakichi and founder of the Toyota automobile factory, developed the concept of Just-in-Time in the 1930's. He decreed that by this act Toyota would contain no excess inventory and that Toyota would strive to work both in partnership with suppliers and level production. The Toyot...

  16. 76 FR 67763 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-109)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  17. 76 FR 64114 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-093)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  18. 76 FR 64112 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-091)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act...: Revisions of NASA Appendices to Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NASA is... Privacy Act of 1974. This notice publishes those amendments as set forth below under the caption...

  19. 78 FR 77503 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-149] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to existing Privacy Act systems of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  20. 77 FR 69898 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-100] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  1. Effectors from Wheat Rust Fungi Suppress Multiple Plant Defense Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sowmya R; Yin, Chuntao; Kud, Joanna; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Mahoney, Aaron K; Xiao, Fangming; Hulbert, Scot H

    2017-01-01

    Fungi that cause cereal rust diseases (genus Puccinia) are important pathogens of wheat globally. Upon infection, the fungus secretes a number of effector proteins. Although a large repository of putative effectors has been predicted using bioinformatic pipelines, the lack of available high-throughput effector screening systems has limited functional studies on these proteins. In this study, we mined the available transcriptomes of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis to look for potential effectors that suppress host hypersensitive response (HR). Twenty small (wheat, confirming its activity in a homologous system. Overall, this study provides the first evidence for the presence of effectors in Puccinia species suppressing multiple plant defense responses.

  2. Computational prediction of secretion systems and secretomes of Brucella: identification of novel type IV effectors and their interaction with the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause brucellosis in various mammals including humans. Brucella survive inside the host cells by forming vacuoles and subverting host defence systems. This study was aimed to predict the secretion systems and the secretomes of Brucella spp. from 39 complete genome sequences available in the databases. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify the type IV secretion effectors and their interactions with host proteins. We predicted the secretion systems of Brucella by the KEGG pathway and SecReT4. Brucella secretomes and type IV effectors (T4SEs) were predicted through genome-wide screening using JVirGel and S4TE, respectively. Protein-protein interactions of Brucella T4SEs with their hosts were analyzed by HPIDB 2.0. Genes coding for Sec and Tat pathways of secretion and type I (T1SS), type IV (T4SS) and type V (T5SS) secretion systems were identified and they are conserved in all the species of Brucella. In addition to the well-known VirB operon coding for the type IV secretion system (T4SS), we have identified the presence of additional genes showing homology with T4SS of other organisms. On the whole, 10.26 to 14.94% of total proteomes were found to be either secreted (secretome) or membrane associated (membrane proteome). Approximately, 1.7 to 3.0% of total proteomes were identified as type IV secretion effectors (T4SEs). Prediction of protein-protein interactions showed 29 and 36 host-pathogen specific interactions between Bos taurus (cattle)-B. abortus and Ovis aries (sheep)-B. melitensis, respectively. Functional characterization of the predicted T4SEs and their interactions with their respective hosts may reveal the secrets of host specificity of Brucella.

  3. Epigenetic control of effectors in plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eGijzen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes.

  4. 32 CFR 505.3 - Privacy Act systems of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of data, which could result in substantial harm... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privacy Act systems of records. 505.3 Section 505... AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.3 Privacy Act systems of records. (a) Systems of...

  5. Privacy Act System of Records: Freedom of Information Act Request and Appeal File, EPA-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the Freedom of Information Act Request and Appeal File System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  6. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2015-07-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057-6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion system is a weapon that

  7. 75 FR 20346 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Federal Student Aid, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of an altered system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (Privacy Act), 5 United States Code (U.S.C.) 552a, the Chief Operating...

  8. 77 FR 32111 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... contacted in order to obtain that office's advice regarding obligations under the Privacy Act; 8. Breach... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice; one new Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to subsection (e)(4) of...

  9. 75 FR 53262 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... a new Privacy Act system of records, JUSTICE/FBI- 021, the Data Integration and Visualization System... provisions of the Privacy Act in order to avoid interference with the national security and criminal law...)(G), (H) and (I); (e)(5) and (8); (f) and (g) of the Privacy Act: (1) Data Integration and...

  10. 77 FR 74851 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Notice to Delete a System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (Privacy Act), the Federal Deposit Insurance...

  11. 77 FR 24242 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) or the Privacy Act. Categories of records in the system: The... allegation or complaint of discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or...

  12. ACT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF TOYOTA SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Stanojević

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The production system developed by Toyota Motor Corporation was developed to provide best quality, lowest costs, and shortest lead time through the elimination of losts. Kiichiro Toyota, son of Sakichi and founder of the Toyota automobile factory, developed the concept of Just-in-Time in the 1930's. He decreed that by this act Toyota would contain no excess inventory and that Toyota would strive to work both in partnership with suppliers and level production. The Toyota production system has been compared to squeezing water from a dry towel. Importance of Toyota sistem for production proces can sum up on the next way : Reducing costs includung the elimination of waste, With help without warehouse production – elimination the „excess inventory in production“, Reducing time of handwork using maxim „smallest posible of serve“, To reach a production without warehouse – its demand a production in small series, Its not neccessary to produce something else except that you realy need

  13. Integration of Fiber-Optic Sensor Arrays into a Multi-Modal Tactile Sensor Processing System for Robotic End-Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kampmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach.

  14. 77 FR 27756 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...) deletes one system of records from its existing inventory of systems of records subject to the Privacy Act... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. The deletion is... following system of records is deleted: 1. (18-04-03) ED Web Personalization Pilot Data Collection, 66 FR...

  15. 78 FR 33807 - Privacy Act New System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE [Docket No. 130520483-3483-01] Privacy Act New System of Records AGENCY... Department's proposal for a new system of records under the Privacy Act. The system is entitled ``Information... Department is creating a new system of records that will enable electronic registration, via the Internet...

  16. Fibre optic sensor on robot end effector for flexible assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, K.L.; Lau, W.S.; Choi, C.K.; Shan, Y.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fibre optic sensor system was constructed for use on robot end effectors for flexible assembly. The sensor detected the deviations between robot end effector and the workpiece. The signal was fed back to robot controller to shift the end effector until the centre of end effector and the centre of workpiece were aligned at the correct orientation. Then workpiece can be grasped symmetrically. Sensor fusion concept was used to guard against sensor system failure. Fuzzy linguistic variable and control rule concept were introduced in the sensor integration. The experimental setup for the sensor integrated system was shown. The accuracy was also discussed

  17. 76 FR 67155 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: The... Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. N05000-1 System name: OPNAV Headquarters Web... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy [Docket ID USN-2011-0015] Privacy Act of 1974; System...

  18. 78 FR 73511 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE [Docket ID: USN-2013-0046] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY... Privacy Act of 1974, as amended. The system being deleted is N01500-8, System Name: Personnel and Training... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  19. 78 FR 69076 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Medical Human Resources System internet (DMHRSi). DHA 12 EDHA 12 Third Party Collection System. DHA 16 DoD... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2013-OS-0216] Privacy Act of 1974... Defense Health Agency's compilation of Privacy Act SORNS. The realignment of the nineteen system...

  20. 78 FR 43869 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy [Docket ID USN-2013-0025] Privacy Act of 1974; System... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  1. 75 FR 67703 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2010-0024] Privacy Act of 1974; System... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  2. 77 FR 60412 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2012-0012] Privacy Act of 1974; System... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  3. 76 FR 60008 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0023] Privacy Act of 1974; System... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  4. 76 FR 82286 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0028] Privacy Act of 1974; System... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  5. 76 FR 39394 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy [Docket ID USN-2011-0010] Privacy Act of 1974; System... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  6. 78 FR 23810 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of new Privacy Act system of records and request for comment. SUMMARY: The Small Business... the protected information collected from applicants and participants in the Small Business Innovation...

  7. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and potential system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David L.; Balombin, Joseph R.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) system is given with special emphasis on the communication characteristics. Potential satellite communications scenarios, including future operational ACTS-like satellite systems, are discussed. The description of the ACTS system updates previously published ACTS system references. Detailed information on items such as experimental ground stations is presented. The potential services can be generically described as voice, video, and data services. The implementation of these services on future operational ACTS-like systems can lead to unique quality, flexibility, and capacity characteristics at lower service costs. The specific service applications that could be supported range from low to high data rates and include both domestic and international applications.

  8. 78 FR 41918 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate.... SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records, T7905, entitled...: Mr. Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act...

  9. 78 FR 21600 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2013-OS-0050] Privacy Act of 1974... notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http...

  10. 75 FR 22569 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force [Docket ID: USAF-2010-0014] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  11. 76 FR 10010 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0020] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  12. 78 FR 52517 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DoD-2013-OS-0183] Privacy Act of 1974... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  13. 75 FR 22570 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force [Docket ID: USAF-2010-0012] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  14. 76 FR 53420 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0097] Privacy Act of 1974... notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are [[Page...

  15. 76 FR 11213 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0017] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... public is of make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  16. 77 FR 37002 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2012-OS-0072] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  17. 76 FR 63611 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2011-0025] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http:// [[Page 63612

  18. 75 FR 39921 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0102] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  19. 75 FR 17910 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0040] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  20. 76 FR 10008 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0023] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... from members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at...

  1. 76 FR 66698 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0117] Privacy Act of 1974... notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  2. 75 FR 52517 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2010-OS-0117] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  3. 75 FR 33789 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0078] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  4. 78 FR 31905 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2013-OS-0110] Privacy Act of 1974... notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http...

  5. 77 FR 65539 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2012-OS-0132] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. [[Page... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  6. 76 FR 70428 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0120] Privacy Act of 1974... notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  7. 76 FR 62394 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0109] Privacy Act of 1974... notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  8. 75 FR 10476 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2010-OS-0021] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  9. 76 FR 37329 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force [Docket ID: USAF-2011-0018] Privacy Act of 1974... of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  10. 76 FR 1409 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0001] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... from members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at...

  11. 75 FR 81247 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2010-OS-0168] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  12. 76 FR 22682 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0044] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... from members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at...

  13. 75 FR 29728 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0067] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  14. 76 FR 1411 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force [Docket ID: USAF-2011-0001] Privacy Act of 1974... of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  15. 78 FR 6078 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2013-OS-0011] Privacy Act of 1974... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http:// [[Page 6079...

  16. 77 FR 37885 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2012-OS-0074] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  17. 78 FR 60265 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DoD-2013-OS-0201] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  18. 75 FR 16760 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0037] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  19. 75 FR 17910 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy [Docket ID: USN-2010-0007] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  20. 78 FR 5788 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2013-OS-0005] Privacy Act of 1974... of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  1. 77 FR 60400 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2012-OS-0119] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a(r)), as amended. DATES: This... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  2. 75 FR 33788 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0077] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... on the Internet at http:// [[Page 33789

  3. 75 FR 63824 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force [Docket ID: USAF-2010-0026] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change...

  4. 75 FR 33794 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2010-0013] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  5. 75 FR 15694 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0035] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  6. 75 FR 65456 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0147] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. [[Page... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  7. 77 FR 26260 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DoD-2012-OS-0030] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as...

  8. 77 FR 66442 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2012-OS-0133] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  9. 78 FR 14279 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DoD-2013-OS-0040] Privacy Act of 1974... of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  10. 78 FR 14273 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DoD-2013-OS-0019] Privacy Act of 1974... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  11. 75 FR 3714 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0004] Privacy Act of 1974... its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  12. 76 FR 28002 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0052] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  13. 77 FR 35945 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2012-OS-0067] Privacy Act of 1974... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: The proposed action will be... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  14. 75 FR 69650 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2010-0026] Privacy Act of 1974... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed... from members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at...

  15. 78 FR 44102 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2013-0027] Privacy Act of 1974... of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  16. 75 FR 62111 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0140] Privacy Act of 1974... records notices in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  17. 78 FR 22525 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DoD-2013-0057] Privacy Act of 1974... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  18. 77 FR 41774 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of Management...-19176 (April 12, 2004). Electronic Access to This Document: The official version of this document is the... Assistant Secretary of the Office of Management deletes the following system of records: System No. System...

  19. 76 FR 46767 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...: The Department of the Army proposes to add a system of records to its inventory of record systems... provides a student management system that integrates Web-enabled courseware to support online certification... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0019] Privacy Act of 1974; System...

  20. 76 FR 114 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Contract Audit Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Contract Audit Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its... INFORMATION: The Defense Contract Audit Agency systems of records notices subject to the Privacy Act of 1974...

  1. 76 FR 115 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Contract Audit Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Contract Audit Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its... INFORMATION: The Defense Contract Audit Agency systems of records notices subject to the Privacy Act of 1974...

  2. 77 FR 65939 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...) is amending the system of records currently entitled ``Veterans Health Information Systems and... Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture (VistA) Records-VA ROUTINE USES OF RECORDS... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of...

  3. 78 FR 27195 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete two Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is deleting two systems of records...: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service systems of records notices subject to the Privacy Act of...

  4. 78 FR 27194 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete two Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is deleting two systems of records...: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service systems of records notices subject to the Privacy Act of...

  5. 78 FR 69392 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is deleting a system of records... INFORMATION: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service systems of records notices subject to the Privacy Act...

  6. 78 FR 47309 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records... Defense Finance and Accounting Service systems of records notices subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U...

  7. 78 FR 34354 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ...(r) of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, was submitted on May 14, 2013, to the House Committee on... replace with ``System contains personnel data to support enlisted assignment, planning, programming...

  8. Strategy to develop and test a multi-function scarifier end effector with an integral conveyance system for waste tank remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Keska, J.K.; Elmore, M.R.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1993-08-01

    This strategy plan describes a coupled analytical/experimental approach to develop a multi-functional scarifier end effector coupled with a pneumatic conveyance system to retrieve wastes from underground storage tanks. The scarifier uses ultra-high-pressure water jets to rubblize and entrain waste forms such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid that can be transported pneumatically. The three waste types (hard, brittle, salt cake, viscous liquid, and deformable sludge) present increasingly complex challenges for scarification and pneumatic conveyance. Salt cake is anticipated to be the easiest to retrieve because (1) a theoretical model of hydraulic rock fracture can be applied to estimate jet performance to fracture salt cake, and (2) gas-solids transport correlations can be used to predict pneumatic transport. Deformable sludge is anticipated to be the most difficult to retrieve: no theories, correlations, or data exist to predict this performance. However order-of-magnitude gas-solid correlations indicate particulate wastes of prototypic density can be transported to a height of 20 m within allowable pressure limits provided that the volume fraction of the gaseous phase is kept above 95%. Viscous liquid is anticipated to be of intermediate complexity to retrieve. Phenomena that are expected to affect system performance are ranked. Experiments and analyses necessary to evaluate the effects of these phenomena are proposed. Subsequent strategies for experiment test plans, system deployment, and operation and control will need to be developed

  9. Freedom of Information Act Request Log System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This system manages FHWA FOIA requests and is used to better meet the extensive annual reporting requirements imposed by statute (5 USC § 552). The FOIA Management...

  10. Acute up-regulation of the rat brain somatostatin receptor-effector system by leptin is related to activation of insulin signaling and may counteract central leptin actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perianes-Cachero, A; Burgos-Ramos, E; Puebla-Jiménez, L; Canelles, S; Frago, L M; Hervás-Aguilar, A; de Frutos, S; Toledo-Lobo, M V; Mela, V; Viveros, M P; Argente, J; Chowen, J A; Arilla-Ferreiro, E; Barrios, V

    2013-11-12

    Leptin and somatostatin (SRIF) have opposite effects on food seeking and ingestive behaviors, functions partially regulated by the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus. Although it is known that the acute suppression of food intake mediated by leptin decreases with time, the counter-regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Our aims were to analyze the effect of acute central leptin infusion on the SRIF receptor-effector system in these areas and the implication of related intracellular signaling mechanisms in this response. We studied 20 adult male Wister rats including controls and those treated intracerebroventricularly with a single dose of 5 μg of leptin and sacrificed 1 or 6h later. Density of SRIF receptors was unchanged at 1h, whereas leptin increased the density of SRIF receptors at 6h, which was correlated with an elevated capacity of SRIF to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in both areas. The functional capacity of SRIF receptors was unaltered as cell membrane levels of αi1 and αi2 subunits of G inhibitory proteins were unaffected in both brain areas. The increased density of SRIF receptors was due to enhanced SRIF receptor subtype 2 (sst2) protein levels that correlated with higher mRNA levels for this receptor. These changes in sst2 mRNA levels were concomitant with increased activation of the insulin signaling, c-Jun and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB); however, activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was reduced in the cortex and unchanged in the hippocampus and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 remained unchanged in these areas. In addition, the leptin antagonist L39A/D40A/F41A blocked the leptin-induced changes in SRIF receptors, leptin signaling and CREB activation. In conclusion, increased activation of insulin signaling after leptin infusion is related to acute up-regulation of the SRIF receptor-effector system that may antagonize short-term leptin actions in the rat brain

  11. Genome-scale identification of Legionella pneumophila effectors using a machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Burstein

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A large number of highly pathogenic bacteria utilize secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into host cells. Using these effectors, the bacteria subvert host cell processes during infection. Legionella pneumophila translocates effectors via the Icm/Dot type-IV secretion system and to date, approximately 100 effectors have been identified by various experimental and computational techniques. Effector identification is a critical first step towards the understanding of the pathogenesis system in L. pneumophila as well as in other bacterial pathogens. Here, we formulate the task of effector identification as a classification problem: each L. pneumophila open reading frame (ORF was classified as either effector or not. We computationally defined a set of features that best distinguish effectors from non-effectors. These features cover a wide range of characteristics including taxonomical dispersion, regulatory data, genomic organization, similarity to eukaryotic proteomes and more. Machine learning algorithms utilizing these features were then applied to classify all the ORFs within the L. pneumophila genome. Using this approach we were able to predict and experimentally validate 40 new effectors, reaching a success rate of above 90%. Increasing the number of validated effectors to around 140, we were able to gain novel insights into their characteristics. Effectors were found to have low G+C content, supporting the hypothesis that a large number of effectors originate via horizontal gene transfer, probably from their protozoan host. In addition, effectors were found to cluster in specific genomic regions. Finally, we were able to provide a novel description of the C-terminal translocation signal required for effector translocation by the Icm/Dot secretion system. To conclude, we have discovered 40 novel L. pneumophila effectors, predicted over a hundred additional highly probable effectors, and shown the applicability of machine

  12. 75 FR 35028 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY [No. 2010-N-07] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of the establishment of a new system of records. SUMMARY: The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is revising the proposed system of records notice that was...

  13. 78 FR 41916 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records...

  14. 78 FR 37799 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is amending a system of records...

  15. 77 FR 58106 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend two Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is amending two systems of records...

  16. 78 FR 52518 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is amending a system of records...

  17. 77 FR 69444 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ..., Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is amending a system of records...

  18. 77 FR 31606 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students, Department... Secretary of the Office of English Language Acquisition deletes the following system of records: System...

  19. 76 FR 81910 - Abolishment of Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Program Manager, USDA, Forest Service, Office of Safety and Occupational and Health, 1400 Independence... Management Handbook (FSH) 6209.11. This system is abolished and removed from the inventory of the USDA System... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Abolishment of Privacy Act System of Records...

  20. 76 FR 77846 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... terrorism and national security threat screening, system back-up, and continuity of operations purposes... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [CPCLO Order No. 004-2011] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice to amend system of records. SUMMARY...

  1. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS): Four-Year System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Bauer, Robert; Krawczyk, Richard J.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Zernic, Michael J.; Gargione, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was conceived at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the late 1970's as a follow-on program to ATS and CTS to continue NASA's long history of satellite communications projects. The ACTS project set the stage for the C-band satellites that started the industry, and later the ACTS project established the use of Ku-band for video distribution and direct-to-home broadcasting. ACTS, launched in September 1993 from the space shuttle, created a revolution in satellite system architecture by using digital communications techniques employing key technologies such as a fast hopping multibeam antenna, an on-board baseband processor, a wide-band microwave switch matrix, adaptive rain fade compensation, and the use of 900 MHz transponders operating at Ka-band frequencies. This paper describes the lessons learned in each of the key ACTS technology areas, as well as in the propagation investigations.

  2. ACT-R Electronic Bookshelf: An Adaptive System To Support Learning ACT-R on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Anderson, John

    This paper describes the electronic ACT-R Bookshelf, a system which supports learning ACT-R, a well-known theory in the field of cognitive psychology, over the World Wide Web. ACT-R Bookshelf is a collection of electronic books on various aspects of ACT-R. The primary role of ACT-R Bookshelf is to serve as a 24-hour information resource for…

  3. The Effector Domain Region of the Vibrio vulnificus MARTX Toxin Confers Biphasic Epithelial Barrier Disruption and Is Essential for Systemic Spread from the Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus causes highly lethal bacterial infections in which the Multifunctional Autoprocessing Repeats-in-Toxins (MARTX toxin product of the rtxA1 gene is a key virulence factor. MARTX toxins are secreted proteins up to 5208 amino acids in size. Conserved MARTX N- and C-terminal repeat regions work in concert to form pores in eukaryotic cell membranes, through which the toxin's central region of modular effector domains is translocated. Upon inositol hexakisphosphate-induced activation of the of the MARTX cysteine protease domain (CPD in the eukaryotic cytosol, effector domains are released from the holotoxin by autoproteolytic activity. We previously reported that the native MARTX toxin effector domain repertoire is dispensable for epithelial cellular necrosis in vitro, but essential for cell rounding and apoptosis prior to necrotic cell death. Here we use an intragastric mouse model to demonstrate that the effector domain region is required for bacterial virulence during intragastric infection. The MARTX effector domain region is essential for bacterial dissemination from the intestine, but dissemination occurs in the absence of overt intestinal tissue pathology. We employ an in vitro model of V. vulnificus interaction with polarized colonic epithelial cells to show that the MARTX effector domain region induces rapid intestinal barrier dysfunction and increased paracellular permeability prior to onset of cell lysis. Together, these results negate the inherent assumption that observations of necrosis in vitro directly predict bacterial virulence, and indicate a paradigm shift in our conceptual understanding of MARTX toxin function during intestinal infection. Results implicate the MARTX effector domain region in mediating early bacterial dissemination from the intestine to distal organs-a key step in V. vulnificus foodborne pathogenesis-even before onset of overt intestinal pathology.

  4. Effector-Triggered Self-Replication in Coupled Subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komáromy, Dávid; Tezcan, Meniz; Schaeffer, Gaël; Marić, Ivana; Otto, Sijbren

    2017-11-13

    In living systems processes like genome duplication and cell division are carefully synchronized through subsystem coupling. If we are to create life de novo, similar control over essential processes such as self-replication need to be developed. Here we report that coupling two dynamic combinatorial subsystems, featuring two separate building blocks, enables effector-mediated control over self-replication. The subsystem based on the first building block shows only self-replication, whereas that based on the second one is solely responsive toward a specific external effector molecule. Mixing the subsystems arrests replication until the effector molecule is added, resulting in the formation of a host-effector complex and the liberation of the building block that subsequently engages in self-replication. The onset, rate and extent of self-replication is controlled by the amount of effector present. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Orbital maneuvering end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an end effector device for grasping and maneuvering objects such as berthing handles of a space telescope. The device includes a V-shaped capture window defined as inclined surfaces in parallel face plates which converge toward a retainer recess in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess where latches lock handle in the recess. To align the capture window, plates may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base. Drive means is included in the form of a motor coupled with a harmonic drive speed reducer, which provides for slow movement of the fingers at a high torque so that large articles may be handled. Novelty of the invention is believed to reside in the combined intermeshing finger structure, drive means and the harmonic drive speed reducer, which features provide the required maneuverability and strength.

  6. 77 FR 24925 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... given that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is revising two Privacy Act (PA) systems... Agriculture (NIFA), formerly the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). DATES... INFORMATION: I. Background 1. Two systems of records are being revised. A. State Cooperative Extension Service...

  7. 75 FR 54662 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ..., Chief Privacy Officer, Office of Information Technology, 202-551-7209. In the Federal Register of August... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. PA-44A; File No. S7-17-10] Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice to establish systems of...

  8. 78 FR 14283 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate... a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system... identifiers or contact information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance...

  9. 75 FR 77849 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Organization, Pentagon Force Protection Agency... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2010-OS-0160] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of...

  10. 75 FR 39500 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... from the address above. The proposed system report, as required by 5 U.S.C. 552a(r) of the Privacy Act... location: Add to entry as last paragraph ``Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) Mega Center, Building... plate number, drivers license number, vehicle make, model, year, color, drivers identification...

  11. 77 FR 44207 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... 10, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments: Paper Comments Fax: (703) 666-5670. Mail: Chief Privacy... the Privacy Act. It is USAID's core financial management system and accounting system of record... Budget Execution, which are required to perform necessary accounting operations. Phoenix falls under...

  12. 77 FR 77049 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ..., Air Force Privacy Act Office, Office of Warfighting Integration and Chief Information officer, ATTN... of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended, which requires the submission of a new or altered system report...). Reason The Innovative Development through Employee Awareness (IDEA) Program Data System (IPDS) has been...

  13. Comparative genomics of the type VI secretion systems of Pantoea and Erwinia species reveals the presence of putative effector islands that may be translocated by the VgrG and Hcp proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maayer Pieter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Type VI secretion apparatus is assembled by a conserved set of proteins encoded within a distinct locus. The putative effector proteins Hcp and VgrG are also encoded within these loci. We have identified numerous distinct Type VI secretion system (T6SS loci in the genomes of several ecologically diverse Pantoea and Erwinia species and detected the presence of putative effector islands associated with the hcp and vgrG genes. Results Between two and four T6SS loci occur among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. While two of the loci (T6SS-1 and T6SS-2 are well conserved among the various strains, the third (T6SS-3 locus is not universally distributed. Additional orthologous loci are present in Pantoea sp. aB-valens and Erwinia billingiae Eb661. Comparative analysis of the T6SS-1 and T6SS-3 loci showed non-conserved islands associated with the vgrG and hcp, and vgrG genes, respectively. These regions had a G+C content far lower than the conserved portions of the loci. Many of the proteins encoded within the hcp and vgrG islands carry conserved domains, which suggests they may serve as effector proteins for the T6SS. A number of the proteins also show homology to the C-terminal extensions of evolved VgrG proteins. Conclusions Extensive diversity was observed in the number and content of the T6SS loci among the Pantoea and Erwinia species. Genomic islands could be observed within some of T6SS loci, which are associated with the hcp and vgrG proteins and carry putative effector domain proteins. We propose new hypotheses concerning a role for these islands in the acquisition of T6SS effectors and the development of novel evolved VgrG and Hcp proteins.

  14. End-point effector stress mediators in neuroimmune interactions: their role in immune system homeostasis and autoimmune pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Stanislava; Kustrimovic, Natasa; Leposavic, Gordana

    2012-04-01

    Much evidence has identified a direct anatomical and functional link between the brain and the immune system, with glucocorticoids (GCs), catecholamines (CAs), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) as its end-point mediators. This suggests the important role of these mediators in immune system homeostasis and the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, although it is clear that these mediators can modulate lymphocyte maturation and the activity of distinct immune cell types, their putative role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease is not yet completely understood. We have contributed to this field by discovering the influence of CAs and GCs on fine-tuning thymocyte negative selection and, in particular, by pointing to the putative CA-mediated mechanisms underlying this influence. Furthermore, we have shown that CAs are implicated in the regulation of regulatory T-cell development in the thymus. Moreover, our investigations related to macrophage biology emphasize the complex interaction between GCs, CAs and NPY in the modulation of macrophage functions and their putative significance for the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  15. The central nervous system environment controls effector CD4+ T cell cytokine profile in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakowski, M L; Owens, T

    1997-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), CD4+ T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS). We derived CD4+ T cell lines from SJL/J mice that were specific for encephalitogenic myelin basic protein (MBP) peptides and produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. These lines transferred EAE...... to naive mice. Peptide-specific cells re-isolated from the CNS only produced Th1 cytokines, whereas T cells in the lymph nodes produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Mononuclear cells isolated from the CNS, the majority of which were microglia, presented antigen to and stimulated MBP-specific T cell lines...... in vitro. Although CNS antigen-presenting cells (APC) supported increased production of interferon (IFN)-gamma mRNA by these T cells, there was no increase in the interleukin (IL)-4 signal, whereas splenic APC induced increases in both IFN-gamma and IL-4. mRNA for IL-12 (p40 subunit) was up...

  16. Pre-Acting Control for Shock and Impact Isolation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-acting control in shock/impact isolation systems is studied. With pre-acting control, the isolation system begins to respond to an impact before this impact has been applied to the base. The limiting performance of the isolator with pre-acting control is investigated for a single-degree-of-freedom system subject to an instantaneous impact. The isolation performance index is defined as the maximum of the absolute value of the displacement of the object to be isolated relative to the base, provided that the magnitude of the control force transmitted to the object does not exceed a prescribed value. It is shown that there is a substantial advantage in the use of pre-acting isolators over isolators without pre-action. Particular attention is given to a pre-acting isolator based on a passive elastic element (a spring separating the object to be protected from the base. An example illustrates the calculation of the design parameters of such an isolator.

  17. 77 FR 33761 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notification to Update an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, “Grievance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... of a data breach. (See also on HUD's privacy Web site, Appendix I for other ways that the Privacy Act... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5613-N-04] Privacy Act of 1974; Notification to Update an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, ``Grievance Records'' AGENCY: Office of the...

  18. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  19. 75 FR 33608 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (Privacy Act), the Department of Education (Department) publishes this notice proposing to revise the system of records notice for the Investigative Files of the Inspector General (18-10-01), 68 FR 38154 (June 26, 2003). The Department proposes to amend this system of records notice by: (1) Adding a new routine use to allow reporting on the activities of the Inspector General regarding American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds to the Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board (RATB) as established by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5); (2) adding a new routine use to allow for disclosure of information in connection with response and remedial efforts in the event of a data breach in accordance with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requirements in M-07-16 (May 22, 2007); (3) revising routine uses ``(12) Disclosure to the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency'' and ``(13) Disclosure for Qualitative Assessment Reviews'' to allow reporting on the activities of the Inspector General to the Council of Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (formerly the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency) as established by the Inspector General Reform Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-409); (4) revising the routine use ``(4) Disclosure to Public and Private Sources in Connection with the Higher Education Act of 1965, as Amended (HEA)'' to allow the disclosure of information to an educational institution or a school that is or was a party to an agreement with the Secretary of Education pursuant to the HEA; and (5) updating the system location addresses. This system of records provides essential support for investigative activities of the Office of Inspector General (OIG) relating to the Department's programs and operations, enabling the OIG to secure and maintain the necessary information and to coordinate with other law enforcement agencies as appropriate.

  20. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  1. 78 FR 16837 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... uses this information to obtain customer feedback concerning their service experience and the level of... listed under ``COMMERCE/ PAT-TM-20 Customer Call Center, Assistance and Satisfaction Survey Records... through the agency's telephone support system or customer service centers. The Privacy Act notice is being...

  2. 75 FR 67700 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2010-0023] Privacy Act of 1974; System... Medical Examination with supporting documentation, the Report of Medical History, and any other reporting... Report of Medical Examination with supporting documentation, the Report of Medical History, and any other...

  3. 76 FR 26714 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0010] Privacy Act of 1974; System... specialty, credit hours accumulated, examination and lesson course completion status, assignment history... history, student academic status, curricula, course description, scheduling, testing, academic, graduation...

  4. 76 FR 43278 - Privacy Act; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... the Privacy Act of 1974, 5 U.S.C. 552a, to publish a description of the systems of records containing... locked file cabinets, and electronic records are maintained on a password-protected desktop personal...'' published by the National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC. Paper records are shredded...

  5. 76 FR 44888 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended, entitled ``USAID-30, Google Apps Business Edition''. This... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Google Apps Business Edition is being established as an Agency-wide system of...'') cloud computing model. The suite is composed of Gmail for e-mail, Google Docs for office productivity...

  6. 78 FR 5784 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records in its.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Gregory Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate Communications, DFAS-HKC/IN, 8899 E. 56th...

  7. 78 FR 14280 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records notice... information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate Communications, DFAS-HKC/IN, 8899 E. 56th...

  8. 78 FR 41919 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    .... SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records, T7340c... identifiers or contact information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate Communications...

  9. 78 FR 14281 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate... Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to amend a system of records in its.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service...

  10. 78 FR 14286 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to amend a system of records in its... information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate Communications, DFAS-HKC/IN, 8899 E. 56th...

  11. 78 FR 14285 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records in its.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate Communications, DFAS-HKC/IN, 8899 E. 56th...

  12. 78 FR 76897 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... established as the Income Verification Match Center, has authority under section 8051 to verify Veterans' self...) is amending the system of records currently titled ``Income Verification Records--VA'' (89VA16) as... Reconciliation Act of 1990, provides VA the authority to verify Veterans' self-reported income to determine...

  13. 78 FR 5785 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... identification number), date of birth, gender, race/ethnicity, citizenship, home and work email address... ``Physical access to system location restricted by cipher locks, visitor escort, access rosters, and photo... Activity, ATTN: Freedom of Information Act Requester Service Center, 16401 Centretech Parkway, Aurora...

  14. 78 FR 64196 - Privacy Act Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... records to COMMERCE/DEPARTMENT-20, Biographical Files and Social Networks. The amendment serves to modify... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE [Docket No. 130730666-3877-02] Privacy Act Altered System of Records AGENCY: Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice; Commerce/Department-20, Biographical Files. SUMMARY: The Department...

  15. 75 FR 39669 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (Privacy Act), the Department of Education (Department) publishes this notice proposing to revise the system of records notice for the Hotline Complaint Files of the Inspector General (18-10-04), 64 FR 30157-59 (June 4, 1999). The Department proposes to amend this system of records notice by: (1) Adding that a purpose of the system is to report on complaints and allegations related to American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funds to the Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board (RATB) as established by the ARRA (Pub. L. 111- 5); (2) adding a new routine use to allow the disclosure of ARRA- related complaints and allegations to the RATB; (3) adding a new routine use to allow for disclosure of information in connection with response and remedial efforts in the event of a data breach in accordance with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requirements in M-07-16 (May 22, 2007); (4) revising the routine use ``Disclosure to Public and Private Sources in Connection with the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA)'' to allow the disclosure of information to an educational institution or a school that is or was a party to an agreement with the Secretary of Education pursuant to the HEA; and (5) updating the address of the System Manager.

  16. 77 FR 73973 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... will become effective on January 25, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments: Paper Comments Fax: (703... requiring protection under the Privacy Act. It is USAID's core financial management system and accounting..., Accounts Receivables, and Budget Execution, which are required to perform necessary accounting operations...

  17. 77 FR 34943 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of Planning..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carmel Martin, Assistant Secretary for Planning, Evaluation and... 20202- 4500. Telephone: (202) 401-3676. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a...

  18. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-11-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  19. Systematic Identification of Intracellular-Translocated Candidate Effectors in Edwardsiella piscicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzhi Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens inject effectors directly into host cells to target a variety of host cellular processes and promote bacterial dissemination and survival. Identifying the bacterial effectors and elucidating their functions are central to understanding the molecular pathogenesis of these pathogens. Edwardsiella piscicida is a pathogen with a wide host range, and very few of its effectors have been identified to date. Here, based on the genes significantly regulated by macrophage infection, we identified 25 intracellular translocation-positive candidate effectors, including all five previously reported effectors, namely EseG, EseJ, EseH, EseK, and EvpP. A subsequent secretion analysis revealed diverse secretion patterns for the 25 effector candidates, suggesting that multiple transport pathways were involved in the internalization of these candidate effectors. Further, we identified two novel type VI secretion system (T6SS putative effectors and three outer membrane vesicles (OMV-dependent putative effectors among the candidate effectors described above, and further analyzed their contribution to bacterial virulence in a zebrafish model. This work demonstrates an effective approach for screening bacterial effectors and expands the effectors repertoire in E. piscicida.

  20. Delphi's new direct acting common rail injection system; Das neue Direct Acting Common Rail System von Delphi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, Detlev; Zuelch, Stefan; Geurts, Derk; Gris, Christian; Jorach, Rainer W. [Delphi Diesel Systems, Europe (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    With the serial start of the Direct Acting Common Rail injection system with 2.000 bar Delphi Diesel Systems could supplement its product portfolio with a valuable component. In Delphi's directly propelled Common Rail injector, the Injection needle directly is set in operation with the help of a piezo-ceramic actuator instead of only controlling this with a conventional servo-hydraulic circuit indirectly. This enables a fast opening and closing of the nozzle needle possible independently from the rail pressure. The process of injection is controllable accurately at any time with the again developed two-stage needle movement amplifier. The additionally in the injector integrated fuel storage works as a 'Rail in the Injector' and improves the quality particularly during multiple injection. The injector completely works leakage-free and thereby helps to reach the future CO{sub 2} targets. The use of piezo-actuators as driving force behind the directly working injector leads to a set of requirements to the electronics. A control electronics was developed in order to head optimally the Direct Acting Injector. The sum of all advantages of the Direct Acting of CR systems enables lowest emissions with simultaneously small fuel consumption while new dimensions are reached with power density and engine torque. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the construction, on the work principle of the Direct Acting CR system and on its performance characteristics as a basis for the premium diesel engine.

  1. Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B. henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B. henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of

  2. Oomycetes, effectors, and all that jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Tolga O; Schornack, Sebastian; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-08-01

    Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete a diverse repertoire of effector proteins that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. Understanding how effectors evolve, translocate and traffic inside host cells, and perturb host processes are major themes in the study of oomycete-plant interactions. The last year has seen important progress in the study of oomycete effectors with, notably, the elucidation of the 3D structures of five RXLR effectors, and novel insights into how cytoplasmic effectors subvert host cells. In this review, we discuss these and other recent advances and highlight the most important open questions in oomycete effector biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm gripper end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This gripper end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized

  4. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm sampler end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This sampler end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized

  5. 75 FR 30411 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a Modified or Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Privacy Act of 1974; the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002; the Computer Fraud and Abuse... Security Management Act of 2002; the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986; the Health Insurance Portability... systems and data files necessary for compliance with Title XI, Part C of the Social Security Act because...

  6. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  7. RNAi effector diversity in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan J Dalzell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While RNA interference (RNAi has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (dsRNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii The Argonautes (AGOs responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research

  8. Differential expression of candidate salivary effector proteins in field collections of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A J; Shukle, R H; Chen, M-S; Srivastava, S; Subramanyam, S; Schemerhorn, B J; Weintraub, P G; Abdel Moniem, H E M; Flanders, K L; Buntin, G D; Williams, C E

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that some proteins secreted by gall-forming parasites of plants act as effectors responsible for systemic changes in the host plant, such as galling and nutrient tissue formation. A large number of secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that are the putative effectors responsible for the physiological changes elicited in susceptible seedling wheat by Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), larvae have been documented. However, how the genes encoding these candidate effectors might respond under field conditions is unknown. The goal of this study was to use microarray analysis to investigate variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst field collections from different geographical regions (southeastern USA, central USA, and the Middle East). Results revealed significant variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst the field collections studied. The field collections separated into three distinct groups that corresponded to the wheat classes grown in the different geographical regions as well as to recently described Hessian fly populations. These data support previous reports correlating Hessian fly population structure with micropopulation differences owing to agro-ecosystem parameters such as cultivation of regionally adapted wheat varieties, deployment of resistance genes and variation in climatic conditions. PMID:25528896

  9. 76 FR 24557 - Privacy Act of 1974; as Amended; Proposed Alteration to an Existing Privacy Act System of Records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... computer system that will house the data. We annually provide all our employees and contractors with... by the system: This system covers vocational experts, medical experts, other health care professional... Privacy Act System of Records, Housekeeping Changes, and New Routine Use AGENCY: Social Security...

  10. An integrated systems approach to remote retrieval of buried transuranic waste using a telerobotic transport vehicle, innovative end effector, and remote excavator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.; Hyde, R.; Peterson, R.

    1995-02-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic feet of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic feet of waste is up to 10 million cubic feet of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate technologies for excavating, and transporting buried transuranic wastes at the INEL, and other hazardous or radioactive waste sites throughout the US Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conduced at RAHCO Internationals facilities in Spokane, Washington, in the summer of 1994, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for digging, dumping, and transporting buried waste. Three technologies were evaluated in the demonstration: an Innovative End Effector for dust free dumping, a Telerobotic Transport Vehicle to convey retrieved waste from the digface, and a Remote Operated Excavator to deploy the Innovative End Effector and perform waste retrieval operations. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate retrieval performance parameters such as retrieval rates, transportation rates, human factors, and the equipment's capability to control contamination spread

  11. 78 FR 37775 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance and Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0104] Privacy Act Systems of Records; Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance and Tracking System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Health Inspection Service proposes to add a system of records to its inventory of records systems subject...

  12. Principles and applications of TAL effectors for plant physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanove, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in DNA targeting allow unprecedented control over gene function and expression. Targeting based on TAL effectors is arguably the most promising for systems biology and metabolic engineering. Multiple, orthogonal TAL-effector reagents of different types can be used in the same cell. Furthermore, variation in base preferences of the individual structural repeats that make up the TAL effector DNA recognition domain makes targeting stringency tunable. Realized applications range from genome editing to epigenome modification to targeted gene regulation to chromatin labeling and capture. The principles that govern TAL effector DNA recognition make TAL effectors well suited for applications relevant to plant physiology and metabolism. TAL effector targeting has merits that are distinct from those of the RNA-based DNA targeting CRISPR/Cas9 system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Three members of a peptide family are differentially distributed and elicit differential state-dependent responses in a pattern generator-effector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Armstrong, Matthew K; Dickinson, Evyn S; Fernandez, Rebecca; Miller, Alexandra; Pong, Sovannarath; Powers, Brian; Pupo Wiss, Alixander; Stanhope, Meredith E; Walsh, Patrick J; Wiwatpanit, Teerawat; Christie, Andrew E

    2018-01-31

    C-type allatostatins (AST-Cs) are pleiotropic neuropeptides that are broadly conserved within arthropods; the presence of three AST-C isoforms, encoded by paralog genes, is common. However, these peptides are hypothesized to act through a single receptor, thereby exerting similar bioactivities within each species. We investigated this hypothesis in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, mapping the distributions of AST-C isoforms within relevant regions of the nervous system and digestive tract, and comparing their modulatory influences on the cardiac neuromuscular system. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the pericardial organ, a neuroendocrine release site, AST-C I and/or III and AST-C II are contained within distinct populations of release terminals. Moreover, AST-C I/III-like immunoreactivity was seen in midgut epithelial endocrine cells and the cardiac ganglion (CG), whereas AST-C II-like immunoreactivity was not seen in these tissues. These data suggest that AST-C I and/or III can modulate the CG both locally and hormonally; AST-C II likely acts on the CG solely as a hormonal modulator. Physiological studies demonstrated that all three AST-C isoforms can exert differential effects, including both increases and decreases, on contraction amplitude and frequency when perfused through the heart. However, in contrast to many state-dependent modulatory changes, the changes in contraction amplitude and frequency elicited by the AST-Cs were not functions of the baseline parameters. The responses to AST-C I and III, neither of which is C-terminally amidated, are more similar to one another than they are to the responses elicited by AST-C II, which is C-terminally amidated. These results suggest that the three AST-C isoforms are differentially distributed in the lobster nervous system/midgut and can elicit distinct behaviors from the cardiac neuromuscular system, with particular structural features, e.g., C-terminal amidation, likely important in determining the

  14. In Planta Functional Analysis and Subcellular Localization of the Oomycete Pathogen Plasmopara viticola Candidate RXLR Effector Repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiao Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew is one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine, causing tremendous economic loss in the grape and wine industry. The disease agent Plasmopara viticola is an obligate biotrophic oomycete, from which over 100 candidate RXLR effectors have been identified. In this study, 83 candidate RXLR effector genes (PvRXLRs were cloned from the P. viticola isolate “JL-7-2” genome. The results of the yeast signal sequence trap assay indicated that most of the candidate effectors are secretory proteins. The biological activities and subcellular localizations of all the 83 effectors were analyzed via a heterologous Agrobacterium-mediated Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Results showed that 52 effectors could completely suppress cell death triggered by elicitin, 10 effectors could partially suppress cell death, 11 effectors were unable to suppress cell death, and 10 effectors themselves triggered cell death. Live-cell imaging showed that the majority of the effectors (76 of 83 could be observed with informative fluorescence signals in plant cells, among which 34 effectors were found to be targeted to both the nucleus and cytosol, 29 effectors were specifically localized in the nucleus, and 9 effectors were targeted to plant membrane system. Interestingly, three effectors PvRXLR61, 86 and 161 were targeted to chloroplasts, and one effector PvRXLR54 was dually targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria. However, western blot analysis suggested that only PvRXLR86 carried a cleavable N-terminal transit peptide and underwent processing in planta. Many effectors have previously been predicted to target organelles, however, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to provide experimental evidence of oomycete effectors targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria.

  15. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eRafiqi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the emerging systems in plant-microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis.

  16. 77 FR 56676 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

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  17. 77 FR 69445 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

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    2012-11-19

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  18. 76 FR 66949 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notification of the Establishment of a Privacy Act System of Records, HUD...

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    2011-10-28

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  19. 77 FR 48984 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

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  20. 76 FR 8992 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION... procedures regarding the use of railroad rights-of-way for railbanking and interim trail use under the National Trails System Act (Trails Act). DATES: Comments are due by April 12, 2011; replies are due by May...

  1. 77 FR 25910 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...] National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION...) for rail banking and interim trail use under the National Trails System Act (Trails Act). New rules are adopted that require the parties jointly to notify the Board when an interim trail use/rail...

  2. Special-purpose multifingered robotic end-effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    A number of advanced multifingered robotic end-effectors have been developed recently in which the finger joints are powered from external actuators. Although this gives dexterous performance, there are considerable problems with power transmission, due to the use of flexible tendons between the external actuators and the individual finger joints. If a multifingered robotic end-effector is to be operated in a confined space, local actuation of the fingers needs to be fully considered, even if there is a reduction in hand dexterity over that of an externally mounted actuator system. The University of Southampton has developed a number of end-effectors that incorporate integral finger actuators and mechanisms, two examples of which are discussed in this paper

  3. 78 FR 54445 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance and Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Christian B. Dellis, Export Services, Plant Health Programs, Plant Protection and... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0104] Privacy Act Systems of Records; Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance and Tracking System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  4. 78 FR 25414 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... communication cables; facility access authorizations/restrictions; photographs, fingerprints; financial records... Reinvestigating Individuals in Positions of Public Trust; and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act...

  5. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  6. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  7. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane G O Saunders

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i contain a secretion signal, (ii are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv are small and cysteine rich, (v contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii contain internal repeats, and (viii do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  8. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  9. Identification of proteins similar to AvrE type III effector proteins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type III effector proteins are injected into host cells through type III secretion systems. Some effectors are similar to host proteins to promote pathogenicity, while others lead to the activation of disease resistance. We used partial least squares alignment-free bioinformatics methods to identify proteins similar to AvrE proteins ...

  10. 76 FR 72325 - Privacy Act; Exempt Record System

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    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 5b RIN 0906-AA91 Privacy Act; Exempt Record... are guaranteed access to, and correction rights for, substantive information reported to the NPDB. The procedures, appearing in 45 CFR part 60, use the Privacy Act access and correction procedures as a basic...

  11. 77 FR 2721 - Privacy Act System of Records

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    2012-01-19

    ...-3, ``National Deaf-Blind Equipment Distribution Program (NDBEDP).'' Following enactment of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA) on October 8, 2010, the..., Implementation of the Twenty- First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, Section 105...

  12. 76 FR 43993 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

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    2011-07-22

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    2011-07-29

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    2012-09-13

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    2011-01-19

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    2013-01-11

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  17. Security Safeguards on E-Payment Systems in Malaysia: Analysis on the Payment Systems Act 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Zulhuda, Sonny; Azmi, Ida Madieha bt. Abdul Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Central to the infrastructure of electronic commerce activities is the electronic payment system. This encompasses not only the issues of technical sophistication but also legal readiness. In the context of electronic commerce environment in Malaysia, this paper seeks to highlight and examine the Malaysian legal readiness in the aspect of electronic payment system, focusing on its Payment Systems Act 2003. The discussion is limited to the issue of electronic security measures embodied in the ...

  18. Orbital maneuvering vehicle end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An end effector device (A) for grasping and holding an article such as a handle (18) of a space telescope is disclosed. The device includes a V-shaped capture window (74) defined as inclined surfaces (76, 78) in parallel face plates (22, 24) which converge toward a retainer recess (54) in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers (26, 28) which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess (54) where latches (50) lock handle (18) in the recess. To align the capture window, plates (22, 24) may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base (64).

  19. 76 FR 35050 - Privacy Act of 1974: New System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    .../Central-15, Health Claims Data Warehouse, to its inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act.... The data warehouse will be fully compliant with all applicable provisions of the Privacy Act, Health... fully compliant with all applicable provisions of the Privacy Act, Federal Information Security...

  20. 75 FR 32233 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... for Miscellaneous Reimbursement. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: None. SYSTEM LOCATION: Office of the... SYSTEM NAME: Travel Reimbursement Records. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: None. SYSTEM LOCATION: Office of the... employee, information from travel authorizations, information from the finance function of the management...

  1. The Danish patient safety experience: the Act on Patient Safety in the Danish Health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Mette; Rabøl, Louise; Jensen, Elisabeth Agnete Brøgger

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the process that lead to the passing of the Act for Patient Safety in the Danisk health care sytem, the contents of the act and how the act is used in the Danish health care system. The act obligates frontline health care personnel to report adverse events, hospital owners...... to act on the reports and the National Board of Health to commuicate the learning nationally. The act protects health care providers from sanctions as a result of reporting. In January 2004, the Act on Patient Safety in the Danish health care system was put into force. In the first twelve months 5740...... adverse events were reported. the reports were analyzed locally (hospital and region), anonymized ad then sent to the National Board af Health. The Act on Patient Safety has driven the work with patient safety forward but there is room for improvement. Continuous and improved feedback from all parts...

  2. 75 FR 65007 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Officer, P.O. Box 2218, Waldorf, MD 20604-2218. Individuals should complete AFOSI's Certification of... of Information/Privacy Act Officer, P.O. Box 2218, Waldorf, MD 20604-2218. Individuals should...

  3. 75 FR 19377 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    .... 552a(r), of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, were submitted on March 31, 2010, to the House..., forced password-change protocols or also equipped with ``Smart Card'' technology that requires the...

  4. 78 FR 22854 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... U.S.C. 552a(r) of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, was submitted on April 1, 2013, to the House... administrative procedures. Computers are equipped with ``Smart Card'' technology that requires the insertion of...

  5. 78 FR 65620 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ..., as required by 5 U.S.C. 552a(r) of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, was submitted on March 18... support officer assignment, planning, programming, accounting, promotions, career development, and...

  6. 77 FR 15143 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... abuse. Recovery Act, Sec. Sec. 1521, 1523(a)(1). The Education Jobs Fund requires, among other things... signature (or submitted with date and signature under penalty of perjury), and any other identifying number...

  7. 75 FR 19624 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act 2001; 5 U.S.C. 6120, Telecommuting in Executive Agencies... by telephone control offices to validate and reimburse participants for costs associated with...

  8. 76 FR 53421 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ..., Air Force Privacy Act Office, Office of Warfighting Integration and Chief Information Officer, ATTN...: Name, signatures, personal contact information, individual's employer and institutional, organizational..., Historical Products, Services, and Requirements; Air Force Instruction 84-105, Organizational Lineage, Honors...

  9. SPRYSEC effector proteins in Globodera rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant pathogens inject so-called effector molecules into the cells of a host plant to promote their growth and reproduction in these hosts. In plant parasitic nematodes, these effector molecules are produced in the salivary glands. The objective of this thesis was to identify and characterize

  10. 78 FR 43258 - Privacy Act; System of Records: Human Resources Records, State-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8384] Privacy Act; System of Records: Human Resources Records... system of records, Human Resources Records, State- 31, pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of... State proposes that the current system will retain the name ``Human Resources Records'' (previously...

  11. 78 FR 65011 - Privacy Act of 1974: New System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Program under section 1334 of the Affordable Care Act (42 U.S.C. 18054). PURPOSE: OPM operates this system... password- protected computers and systems. Computer firewalls will be maintained to prevent access by... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Privacy Act of 1974: New System of Records AGENCY: U.S. Office of...

  12. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  13. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Il Un; Jung, Jong Hak; Kim, Jae Ho; Moon, Jong Wook; Kim, In Sub [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations.

  14. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Il Un; Jung, Jong Hak; Kim, Jae Ho; Moon, Jong Wook; Kim, In Sub

    1998-03-01

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations

  15. 77 FR 65206 - Privacy Act of 1974; Amendment of Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... the system: Storage: These records are maintained in file folders and binders and in computer storage... procedures and other system-based protection methods. Retention and disposal: Paper records are maintained... appropriate facilities. Paper records are destroyed by the Federal Records Centers when the records are seven...

  16. 76 FR 62035 - Privacy Act of 1974: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ..., identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of this system or other systems or programs... Beltsville, MD. Control measures implemented to prevent misuse of accessible data include unique user... allowed access. Agency-implemented cyber security measures and firewalls are built into the application...

  17. 76 FR 12084 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... provide flying career background information used for assignment actions. Accounting and Finance Office... transaction file, a twelve month history file, and a career flying and jump history. A centralized file of...: aviation career; Public Law 92-204, Appropriations Act for 1973; Section 715 Public Law 93-570...

  18. 76 FR 79663 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Advertising, Market Research & Studies Recruiting Database (January 9, 2007, 72 FR 952). Changes... following: Opt-Out information: Individuals, who are 15\\1/2\\ years old or older, or parents or legal guardians acting on behalf of individuals who are between the ages of 15\\1/2\\ and 18 years old, seeking to...

  19. 75 FR 29728 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... telephone number; emergency contact information; Child Development Center and Family Child Care insurance... reports of fire, safety, housing, and environmental health inspections. Children's records will also... Regulation (DoD 6025.18-R) issued pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996...

  20. 75 FR 36644 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2010-0014] Privacy Act of 1974... prisoner, mail records; personal history records; individual prisoner utilization records; requests for... recommendations; request to transfer prisoner; social history; clemency and parole actions; psychologist's report...

  1. 76 FR 63287 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... one command to facilitate collaborative planning and to assist all echelons in achieving situational awareness, and for assisting the Combatant Command and Joint Task Force Surgeon in assessing risks..., Attention: Freedom of Information Act Requester Service Center, 16401 East Centretech Parkway, Aurora, CO...

  2. 78 FR 14278 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Logistics; Pub.L. 95-521, Ethics in Government Act; and DoD Directive 7050.5, Coordination of Remedies for Fraud and Corruption Related to Procurement Activities.'' Purpose(s): Delete entry and replace with... or group of individuals or other entities from DLA procurement and sales.'' Routine uses of records...

  3. 76 FR 27103 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...., Education Jobs Fund, Public Law 111-226, 124 Stat. 2389, sec. 101 (Aug. 10, 2010) (``[T]he amount under this... Recovery Act was enacted on February 17, 2009, in order to make supplemental appropriations for job... of records contains information relevant to the retention of an employee, the retention of a security...

  4. 78 FR 69651 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Dispute Resolution Act (ADR); DIA Instruction 5145.001, Conflict Management Program; DIA Manual 60-1... provided access to the information except to the extent that disclosure would reveal the identity of a.... 552a(k)(5), but only to the extent that such material would reveal the identity of a confidential...

  5. 76 FR 72391 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...; military hospitalization and medical treatment, immunization, and pharmaceutical dosage records; home and... individuals. To detect fraud, waste and abuse pursuant to the authority contained in the Inspector General Act..., immunization, and pharmaceutical dosage records; home and work addresses; and identities of individuals...

  6. 75 FR 54331 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), on..., Academic Competitiveness Grants (ACG), National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent (National... Privacy Act Advice Disclosure. The Department may disclose records to the DOJ or the Office of Management...

  7. Oxysterols and Their Cellular Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Nissilä

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR α and γ, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2 have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine.

  8. Diversification of C. elegans Motor Neuron Identity via Selective Effector Gene Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerk, Sze Yen; Kratsios, Paschalis; Hart, Michael; Mourao, Romulo; Hobert, Oliver

    2017-01-04

    A common organizational feature of nervous systems is the existence of groups of neurons that share common traits but can be divided into individual subtypes based on anatomical or molecular features. We elucidate the mechanistic basis of neuronal diversification processes in the context of C.elegans ventral cord motor neurons that share common traits that are directly activated by the terminal selector UNC-3. Diversification of motor neurons into different classes, each characterized by unique patterns of effector gene expression, is controlled by distinct combinations of phylogenetically conserved, class-specific transcriptional repressors. These repressors are continuously required in postmitotic neurons to prevent UNC-3, which is active in all neuron classes, from activating class-specific effector genes in specific motor neuron subsets via discrete cis-regulatory elements. The strategy of antagonizing the activity of broadly acting terminal selectors of neuron identity in a subtype-specific fashion may constitute a general principle of neuron subtype diversification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-ordinate regulation of distinct host cell signalling pathways by multifunctional enteropathogenic Escherichia coli effector molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Brendan; Ellis, Sarah; Leard, Alan D; Warawa, Jonathan; Mellor, Harry; Jepson, Mark A

    2002-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of paediatric diarrhoea and a model for the family of attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. A/E pathogens encode a type III secretion system to transfer effector proteins into host cells. The EPEC Tir effector protein acts as a receptor for the bacterial surface protein intimin and is involved in the formation of Cdc42-independent, actin-rich pedestal structures beneath the adhered bacteria. In this paper, we demonstrate that EPEC binding to HeLa cells also induces Tir-independent, cytoskeletal rearrangement evidenced by the early, transient formation of filopodia-like structures at sites of infection. Filopodia formation is dependent on expression of the EPEC Map effector molecule - a protein that targets mitochondria and induces their dysfunction. We show that Map-induced filopodia formation is independent of mitochondrial targeting and is abolished by cellular expression of the Cdc42 inhibitory WASP-CRIB domain, demonstrating that Map has at least two distinct functions in host cells. The transient nature of the filopodia is related to an ability of EPEC to downregulate Map-induced cell signalling that, like pedestal formation, was dependent on both Tir and intimin proteins. The ability of Tir to downregulate filopodia was impaired by disrupting a putative GTPase-activating protein (GAP) motif, suggesting that Tir may possess such a function, with its interaction with intimin triggering this activity. Furthermore, we also found that Map-induced cell signalling inhibits pedestal formation, revealing that the cellular effects of Tir and Map must be co-ordinately regulated during infection. Possible implications of the multifunctional nature of EPEC effector molecules in pathogenesis are discussed.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  11. 78 FR 47210 - National Practitioner Data Bank and Privacy Act; Exempt Records System; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... reference cited in the Privacy Act regulations. The National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) system of records... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 5b RIN 0906-AA97 National Practitioner Data Bank and Privacy Act; Exempt Records System; Technical Correction AGENCY: Health Resources and Services...

  12. 75 FR 75546 - Financial Management Service; Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Financial Management Service; Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; System of Records AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed new system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Financial Management Service...

  13. 77 FR 15086 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Defense Intelligence Information System (DoDIIS) Customer Relationship Management System. The records will... instructions for submitting comments. * Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive...

  14. 75 FR 81247 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Control Records system of records is also covered by the Defense Finance and Accounting System T7330a... Defense Finance and Accounting System T7332, Defense Debt Management System (February 17, 2009, 74 FR 7665...

  15. 77 FR 16569 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... two existing systems of records. The two existing systems of records are ``Administrative Audit System... existing systems of records, ``Administrative Audit System (SEC-14)'' and ``Fitness Center Membership... Audit System (SEC-14) records are used to ensure that all obligations and expenditures other than those...

  16. 76 FR 35483 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Records: 500.050 HSPD-12: Identity Management System is being established to support implementation of...: USPS 500.050 SYSTEM NAME: HSPD-12: Identity Management System (IDMS). Accordingly, the Postal Service... Management System (IDMS). SYSTEM LOCATION: Records relating to the Identity Management System are maintained...

  17. 77 FR 28898 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    .../COPS-002 SYSTEM NAME: COPS Online Ordering System. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified. SYSTEM... to economic or property interests, identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of... system of records entitled, ``COPS Online Ordering System,'' (JUSTICE/COPS-002). The system collects...

  18. The Shigella flexneri OspB effector: an early immunomodulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; Scribano, Daniela; Limongi, Dolores; Petrucca, Andrea; Cannavacciuolo, Sonia; Schippa, Serena; Zagaglia, Carlo; Grossi, Milena; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Through the action of the type three secretion system (T3SS) Shigella flexneri delivers several effectors into host cells to promote cellular invasion, multiplication and to exploit host-cell signaling pathways to modulate the host innate immune response. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of many type III effectors, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the OspB effector is still poorly characterized. In this study we present new evidence that better elucidates the role of OspB as pro-inflammatory factor at very early stages of infection. Indeed, we demonstrate that, during the first hour of infection, OspB is required for full activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Activation of cPLA(2) ultimately leads to the production and secretion of PMN chemoattractant metabolite(s) uncoupled with release of IL-8. Moreover, we also present evidence that OspB is required for the development of the full and promptly inflammatory reaction characteristic of S. flexneri wild-type infection in vivo. Based on OspB and OspF similarity (both effectors share similar transcription regulation, temporal secretion into host cells and nuclear localization) we hypothesized that OspB and OspF effectors may form a pair aimed at modulating the host cell response throughout the infection process, with opposite effects. A model is presented to illustrate how OspB activity would promote S. flexneri invasion and bacterial dissemination at early critical phases of infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-08-12

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  20. 76 FR 64115 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...-leaf binders or file folders, and in electronic media, including NASA's Ethics Program Tracking System... documents, electronic media, micrographic media, photographs, or motion pictures film, and various medical....; General Accounting Office's General Policies/Procedures and Communications Manual, Chapter 7; Treasury...

  1. Comparative reactivity of human IgE to cynomolgus monkey and human effector cells and effects on IgE effector cell potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Louise; Saul, Louise; Josephs, Debra H; Josephs, Debra H; Cutler, Keith; Cutler, Keith; Bradwell, Andrew; Bradwell, Andrew; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Selkirk, Chris; Selkirk, Chris; Gould, Hannah J; Gould, Hannah J; Jones, Paul; Jones, Paul; Spicer, James F; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to genetic similarities with humans, primates of the macaque genus such as the cynomolgus monkey are often chosen as models for toxicology studies of antibody therapies. IgE therapeutics in development depend upon engagement with the FcεRI and FcεRII receptors on immune effector cells for their function. Only limited knowledge of the primate IgE immune system is available to inform the choice of models for mechanistic and safety evaluations.   Methods: The recognition of human IgE by peripheral blood lymphocytes from cynomolgus monkey and man was compared. We used effector cells from each species in ex vivo affinity, dose-response, antibody-receptor dissociation and potency assays. Results: We report cross-reactivity of human IgE Fc with cynomolgus monkey cells, and comparable binding kinetics to peripheral blood lymphocytes from both species. In competition and dissociation assays, however, human IgE dissociated faster from cynomolgus monkey compared with human effector cells. Differences in association and dissociation kinetics were reflected in effector cell potency assays of IgE-mediated target cell killing, with higher concentrations of human IgE needed to elicit effector response in the cynomolgus monkey system. Additionally, human IgE binding on immune effector cells yielded significantly different cytokine release profiles in each species. Conclusion: These data suggest that human IgE binds with different characteristics to human and cynomolgus monkey IgE effector cells. This is likely to affect the potency of IgE effector functions in these two species, and so has relevance for the selection of biologically-relevant model systems when designing pre-clinical toxicology and functional studies. PMID:24492303

  2. 77 FR 67348 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Center Case Tracking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ....S.C. 791 et seq.; the Equal Pay Act, 29 U.S.C. 206(d); the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Alternative Dispute Resolution... with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 552a (Privacy Act), the Department of Education...

  3. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  4. Subtle variation within conserved effector operon gene products contributes to T6SS-mediated killing and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Zhu, Kevin; Hershey, Haley L; Musili, Ninette; Miller, Jessa E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-11-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein. In this study, we investigated the role that the PefE T6SS immunity protein plays in recognition between two strains harboring nearly identical effector operons. Interestingly, despite containing seven of eight identical effector proteins, the less conserved immunity proteins only provided protection against their native effectors, suggesting that specificity and recognition could be dependent on variation within an immunity protein and one effector gene product. The variable effector gene product, PefD, is encoded upstream from pefE, and displays toxic activity that can be countered by PefE independent of T6SS-activity. Interestingly, while the entire pef operon was necessary to exert toxic activity via the T6SS in P. mirabilis, production of PefD and PefE alone was unable to exert this effector activity. Chimeric PefE proteins constructed from two P. mirabilis strains were used to localize immunity function to three amino acids. A promiscuous immunity protein was created using site-directed mutagenesis to change these residues from one variant to another. These findings support the notion that subtle differences between conserved effectors are sufficient for T6SS-mediated kin discrimination and that PefD requires additional factors to function as a T6SS-dependent effector.

  5. 77 FR 65370 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... respective personnel management and finance systems.'' Routine uses of records maintained in the system...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to alter a system of records in its inventory of record...

  6. 78 FR 14276 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: United States Marine Corps, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete twenty-three Systems... Management Information System Records, NM01560-2 Department of Defense Voluntary Education System, and...; NM01560-2 Department of Defense Voluntary Education System, and NM01500-2 Department of the Navy Education...

  7. 76 FR 42737 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... in this system can range from UNCLASSIFIED to TOP SECRET. SYSTEM LOCATION: Office of the Director of... UNCLASSIFIED to TOP SECRET. SYSTEM LOCATION: Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Washington, DC... classification of records in this system can range from UNCLASSIFIED to TOP SECRET. SYSTEM LOCATION: Office of...

  8. 77 FR 43816 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Technology E-Learning System (December 8, 2008, 73 FR 74471). * * * * * CHANGES: SYSTEM ID: Delete entry and replace with ``F033 AFSPC C''. SYSTEM NAME: Delete entry and replace with ``AF e-Learning System.'' SYSTEM... OMB Circular No. A-130, ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for Maintaining Records About Individuals...

  9. 77 FR 15360 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... a System of Records. SUMMARY: The National Security Agency (NSA) is amending a system of records... Officer, Department of Defense. GNSA 06 System Name: NSA/CSS Health, Medical and Safety Files (February 10... of the NSA/CSS compilation of system of records notices apply to this system.'' * * * * * Storage...

  10. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) proposes to add a new Privacy Act system of records to its inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, and invites public comment on this new records system. The system of records being proposed is the National Animal Health Laboratory Network. This notice is necessary to meet the requirements of the Privacy Act to publish in the Federal Register notice of the existence and character of record systems maintained by the agency. Although the Privacy Act requires only that the portion of the system that describes ``routine uses'' of the system be published for comment, USDA invites comment on all portions of this notice.

  11. 75 FR 78688 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... automated records maintained by Space and Warfare Systems Center Atlantic.'' * * * * * Retention and... Education and Training Records.'' * * * * * N07220-1 System name: Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System...), date of birth, education, training and qualifications, professional history, assignments, performance...

  12. 78 FR 14275 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... categories: Defense Civilian Personnel Data System, Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System, Military Personnel, and Global Force Management-Data Initiative (GFM-DI). Exemptions claimed for the system: None...

  13. 77 FR 65913 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... follows: SEC-66 SYSTEM NAME: Backup Care Employee and Family Records. SYSTEM LOCATION: Bright Horizons... Securities Rulemaking Board; the Securities Investor Protection Corporation; the Public Company Accounting...

  14. Intrinsic disorder in pathogen effectors: protein flexibility as an evolutionary hallmark in a molecular arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Macarena; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ott, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Effector proteins represent a refined mechanism of bacterial pathogens to overcome plants' innate immune systems. These modular proteins often manipulate host physiology by directly interfering with immune signaling of plant cells. Even if host cells have developed efficient strategies to perceive the presence of pathogenic microbes and to recognize intracellular effector activity, it remains an open question why only few effectors are recognized directly by plant resistance proteins. Based on in-silico genome-wide surveys and a reevaluation of published structural data, we estimated that bacterial effectors of phytopathogens are highly enriched in long-disordered regions (>50 residues). These structurally flexible segments have no secondary structure under physiological conditions but can fold in a stimulus-dependent manner (e.g., during protein-protein interactions). The high abundance of intrinsic disorder in effectors strongly suggests positive evolutionary selection of this structural feature and highlights the dynamic nature of these proteins. We postulate that such structural flexibility may be essential for (1) effector translocation, (2) evasion of the innate immune system, and (3) host function mimicry. The study of these dynamical regions will greatly complement current structural approaches to understand the molecular mechanisms of these proteins and may help in the prediction of new effectors.

  15. Identification of Novel Host Interactors of Effectors Secreted by Salmonella and Citrobacter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Niemann, George S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Sanchez, Octavio; Ansong, Charles; Lu, Shao-Yeh; Choi, Hyungwon; Valleau, Dylan; Weitz, Karl K.; Savchenko, Alexei; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2016-07-12

    Many pathogenic bacteria of the familyEnterobacteriaceaeuse type III secretion systems to inject virulence proteins, termed “effectors,” into the host cell cytosol. Although host-cellular activities of several effectors have been demonstrated, the function and host-targeted pathways of most of the effectors identified to date are largely undetermined. To gain insight into host proteins targeted by bacterial effectors, we performed coaffinity purification of host proteins from cell lysates using recombinant effectors from theEnterobacteriaceaeintracellular pathogensSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium andCitrobacter rodentium. We identified 54 high-confidence host interactors for theSalmonellaeffectors GogA, GtgA, GtgE, SpvC, SrfH, SseL, SspH1, and SssB collectively and 21 interactors for theCitrobactereffectors EspT, NleA, NleG1, and NleK. We biochemically validated the interaction between the SrfHSalmonellaprotein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) host protein kinase, which revealed a role for this effector in regulating phosphorylation levels of this enzyme, which plays a central role in signal transduction.

    IMPORTANCEDuring infection, pathogenic bacteria face an adverse environment of factors driven by both cellular and humoral defense mechanisms. To help evade the immune response and ultimately proliferate inside the host, many bacteria evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver effector proteins directly into host cells. Translocated effector proteins function to subvert host defense mechanisms. Numerous pathogenic bacteria use a specialized secretion system called type III secretion to deliver effectors into the host cell cytosol. Here, we identified 75 new host targets ofSalmonellaandCitrobactereffectors, which will help elucidate their mechanisms of

  16. 77 FR 42593 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Administration (VBA). This system is a core system for VBA programs. This system of records does not directly... processing system designed to serve as the cornerstone of VBA's transition to paperless claims processing... attorney and any information concerning such individual which is relevant to a refusal to grant access...

  17. 75 FR 22573 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Force Automated Education Management System (AFAEMS). System location: Headquarters United States Air... Education Branch, Education Division, Directorate of Personnel Force Development, Headquarters United States.... F036 AF PC U System name: Air Force Automated Education Management System (AFAEMS) (January 28, 2002...

  18. 76 FR 3115 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Integrated Results and Statistical Tracking.'' System Location: Delete entry and replace with ``Headquarters... replace with ``Records are accessed by person(s) responsible for servicing the record system in... need-to-know. The system additionally incorporates integrated system security features to protect data...

  19. 75 FR 30025 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., information systems, and electronic databases; and (2) the FCC management uses the RARS information system... and to add that the information in the RARS information system's electronic documents, files, and... research tools, information systems and electronic databases; and the FCC management will use the RARS...

  20. 78 FR 14284 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Contract Audit Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Contract Audit Agency proposes to alter a system of records in its inventory of.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Contract Audit Agency notices for systems of records subject to the...

  1. 77 FR 75621 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Contract Audit Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Contract Audit Agency is amending a system of records notice in its existing.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Contract Audit Agency systems of records notices subject to the Privacy...

  2. 77 FR 77048 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Contract Audit Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Contract Audit Agency is amending a system of records notice in its existing.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Contract Audit Agency systems of records notices subject to the Privacy...

  3. 78 FR 14282 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Contract Audit Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Contract Audit Agency proposes to alter a system of records in its inventory of.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Contract Audit Agency notices for systems of records subject to the...

  4. 77 FR 77047 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Contract Audit Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) is deleting a system of records in its existing... at (703) 767-1022. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) systems of...

  5. 75 FR 10473 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... testing, or permanent implementation, as applicable. System manager(s) and address: Defense Logistics...; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to amend a system of records notice in its existing...

  6. 76 FR 28002 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... determination is made. System manager(s) and address: Personnel Security Specialists, Defense Logistics Agency...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Amend Two Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend two systems of records notices in its existing...

  7. 76 FR 39390 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    .... System manager(s) and address: Director, DLA Human Resources, Headquarters, Defense Logistics Agency...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing...

  8. 77 FR 3238 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Logistics Agency Primary Level Field Activities. Addresses may be obtained from the System manager below...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice To Amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records in its inventory of record...

  9. 76 FR 73602 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ....'' * * * * * System manager(s) and address: Delete entry and replace with ``Director, Defense Logistics Agency Human...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records...

  10. 78 FR 5787 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... 0450 System name: Drug-Free Workplace Files (September 9, 2009, 74 FR 46418). Changes: * * * * * System... employment with the Defense Intelligence Agency.'' Categories of records in the system: Delete entry and... of the system: Delete entry and replace with ``E.O. 12564, Federal Drug Free Workplace; DoD Directive...

  11. 78 FR 6078 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is deleting a system of records.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service systems of records notices subject to the...

  12. 77 FR 65370 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is deleting a system of records.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service systems of records notices subject to the...

  13. 75 FR 21248 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ...; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) is proposing to alter a system...) 522-5225. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service notices for systems of...

  14. 77 FR 60400 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service. ACTION: Notice to delete two systems of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is deleting two systems of records notices in.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service systems of records notices subject to the...

  15. 78 FR 66709 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...: Online Forms. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: None. SYSTEM LOCATION: Federal Housing Finance Agency, 400 Seventh... or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of this system or other systems or programs (whether... ``Photographic, Video, Voice, and Similar Files.'' The proposed new system, ``Online Forms'' (FHFA-22), will...

  16. 75 FR 136 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... THE SYSTEM: STORAGE: Paper records and on electronic storage media. RETRIEVABILITY: Name and/or Social... Institute of Technology Management and Information System (AFITMIS) (February 21, 2008, 73 FR 9548). CHANGES: * * * * * SYSTEM NAME: Delete entry and replace with ``Air Force Institute of Technology Student Information System...

  17. 77 FR 60401 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... computer password protection.'' * * * * * System manager(s) and address: Delete entry and replace with...; Systems of Records AGENCY: National Security Agency/Central Security Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The National Security Agency (NSA) is proposing to amend a system of...

  18. 77 FR 5313 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... Affairs (VA) is amending the system of records entitled ``Alternative Dispute Resolution Tracking System... records entitled ``Alternative Dispute Resolution Tracking System-VA'' (116VA09) in 67 FR 49392-49395 (July 30, 2002). The system of records tracked alternative dispute resolution (ADR) activity within VA...

  19. 75 FR 36642 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Defense. GNSA 11 System name: NSA/CSS Key Accountability Records System location: National Security Agency... system: NSA/CSS civilian employees, personnel under contract or appointment and military assignees... `Blanket Routine Uses' set forth at the beginning of the NSA/CSS' compilation of systems of records notices...

  20. 76 FR 21902 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a New System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ..., Information and Systems Management Services (ISMS), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Parklawn... Privacy Act of 1974; the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002; the Computer Fraud and Abuse... for integrating acquisition with financial management (one interface between HCAS and UFMS) and other...

  1. School Accountability Systems and the Every Student Succeeds Act. Re:VISION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The "Every Student Succeeds Act" (ESSA) replaced the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (NCLB) in December 2015, substantially changing the federal role in education and how schools across the country will be held accountable. For state policymakers, designing new ESSA-compliant accountability systems is a significant…

  2. 75 FR 10554 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ..., privacy and security objectives: Provide driver-related MCMIS crash and inspection data electronically... to submit a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request or Privacy Act request to FMCSA for the data..., privacy and security objectives are being met. The PSP system will only allow operator-applicants to...

  3. 75 FR 77044 - Financial Management Service; Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Financial Management Service; Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; System of Records AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of a Privacy Act Notice... behalf of the Financial Management Service. DATES: December 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  4. 32 CFR 806b.30 - Evaluating information systems for Privacy Act compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... privacy issues are unchanged. (d) The depth and content of the Privacy Impact Assessment should be... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluating information systems for Privacy Act... FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Privacy Impact Assessments § 806b.30 Evaluating information...

  5. 77 FR 12641 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ..., DC 20590. For privacy issues, please contact: Claire W. Barrett (202-366-8135), Departmental Chief... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DOT-RITA-2012-0001] Privacy Act... the Privacy Act of 1974, the Department of Transportation proposes to add a new system of records...

  6. 77 FR 9632 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    .... Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite..., payroll office and payroll records, including automated payroll systems.'' * * * * * [FR Doc. 2012-3720...

  7. 75 FR 60437 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. F065 AF FMP B System name: Customer Relationship... purpose of the Customer Relationship Management system is to support Air Force members and their... facility behind a firewall. In [[Page 60438

  8. 75 FR 26201 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... National Defense Intelligence College. Categories of records in the system: Name, date of birth and Social... States Commission on Higher Education Association Characteristics of Excellence in Higher Education... system: Storage: Electronic storage media. Retrievability: By last name. Safeguards: Records are...

  9. 75 FR 4789 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... evaluation and treatment of hypo/hyperthyroidism. AUTHORITY FOR MAINTENANCE OF THE SYSTEM: 45 CFR part 46... treatment methods involving incidental exposures to ionizing radiation are not included within this system...

  10. 78 FR 14287 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... by Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) and is covered by DFAS Systems of Records Notice T5500b, Integrated Garnishment System (IGS) (September 19, 2012, 77 FR 58106). Paper records previously...

  11. 77 FR 65564 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Medical, Health and Billing Records system is the authoritative source of patients' IHS medical records... authoritative records, nor are they considered part of the IHS Medical, Health and Billing Records system of...

  12. 78 FR 55703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... notice is being updated to reflect the current System Name and automation of the files in this system... and operations of the FMC; to promote economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in the administration of...

  13. 77 FR 21976 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...: * * * * * System name: Delete entry and replace with ``DIA Military Recognition and Awards Files.'' System location... personnel recommended for recognition or awards while assigned or attached to DIA.'' Categories of records in the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Full name, rank, service affiliation, and Social...

  14. 75 FR 28240 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... IN THE SYSTEM: Delete entry and replace with ``Identity information that includes Social Security... RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: Identity information that includes Social Security Number (SSN), name, sex, race... SYSTEM: STORAGE: Delete entry and replace with ``Paper file folders and electronic storage media...

  15. 78 FR 35610 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... Defense. NM05720-1 System name: FOIA Request/Appeal Files and Tracking System (April 2, 2008, 73 FR 17961...: Delete entry and replace with ``Records are accessed by custodian of the record system and by persons... cabinets or rooms, which are not viewable by individuals who do not have a need to know. Computerized...

  16. 77 FR 38342 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...), interested persons are invited to submit written data, views, or arguments on this proposal. A report of the... Tracking Activity USPS 830.000 SYSTEM NAME: Customer Service and Correspondence USPS 840.000 SYSTEM NAME... waiting to know if information about them is kept in this system of records must address inquiries in...

  17. 75 FR 34709 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... government and the public. When not considered mandatory, patient identification data shall be eliminated...; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Air Force is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing...

  18. 77 FR 271 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. HDTRA 007 System name: Security Services (December 4, 2009, 74 FR... manager.'' * * * * * HDTRA 007 System name: Security Services. System location(s): Primary location... date; badge number; vehicle ID and decal number; special intelligence access; expiration date, agency...

  19. 77 FR 22290 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... of Defense Intelligence Information System (DoDIIS) Customer Relationship Management.'' System.... * Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) pursuant to paragraph 4c of Appendix I to OMB Circular No. A...

  20. 76 FR 35419 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ..., Alternate OSD Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. DHA 10 System name: DoD Women... records, please contact the system manager.'' Categories of individuals covered by the system: Delete... members who are eligible for the DoD Women, Infants, and Children Overseas Program.'' Categories of...

  1. 76 FR 11465 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... separate systems of records: ``FHFA-OIG Audit Files Database,'' ``FHFA-OIG Investigative & Evaluative Files...-OIG-1 system name: FHFA-OIG Audit Files Database. security classification: Sensitive but unclassified.... categories of records in the system: (1) Audit reports; and (2) working papers, which may include copies of...

  2. 78 FR 19244 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    .... This system of records maintains information related to recordation of assignments of property rights.... Categories of individuals covered by the system: Persons who have given or received property rights under an... system: Assignments, grants, mortgages, liens, encumbrances, licenses, and other instruments affecting...

  3. 76 FR 12076 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    .... For a list of system managers at the Defense Logistics Agency Primary Level Field Activities write to... managers at the Defense Logistics Agency Primary Level Field Activities, write to the Project Manager...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records...

  4. 77 FR 29619 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Administration (R-ADM). System location: United States Navy ships and submarines. Official mailing addresses are... by the system: United States Navy commissioned and enlisted personnel. Categories of records in the system: Name, Social Security Number (SSN), gender, race/ethnicity, birth date, place of birth, home...

  5. 76 FR 28964 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... other than military members.'' Safeguards: Delete entry and replace with ``Mass Communication Tool (MCT... System name: Marine Corps Family Readiness Mass Communication Records. System location: Primary location.... Safeguards: Mass Communication Tool (MCT)--Password controlled system, file, and element access based on...

  6. 75 FR 6005 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Officer, Department of Defense. F065 AF FMP A System Name: eFinance Workspace System Location: Commander... entitlement rate for basic allowance for housing. Authority for maintenance of the system: 10 U.S.C. 8013... Offices and Finance Offices--Reserve Component; Air Force [[Page 6006

  7. 76 FR 46756 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Missile Defense Agency, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice to Delete a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Missile Defense Agency proposes to delete a system of records notice in.... Peter Shearston, Missile Defense Agency, MDA/DXCM, 730 Irwin Ave, Schriever AFB, CO 80912-2101, or by...

  8. 76 FR 35197 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Information Architecture--Learning Management System (ATIA-LMS).'' * * * * * Authority for maintenance of the...). (Signature)'.'' * * * * * A0351b TRADOC DoD System name: Army Training Information Architecture--Learning... (703) 428-6185. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Department of the Army notices for systems of records...

  9. 78 FR 41917 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is amending a system of records...: Mr. Gregory Outlaw, (317) 510-4591. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Finance and Accounting...

  10. 76 FR 9849 - Privacy Act of 1974: System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... system of records has been sent to the U.S. Congress and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). V... Classification: Unclassified, Sensitive. System Location: Medical Exemption Program databases reside at the..., encryption, firewalls, and secured operating systems and to which only authorized personnel with a specific...

  11. 75 FR 3899 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... media. Retrievability: Records are retrieved in the system by name, Social Security Number (SSN), NGA.... DATES: The system will be effective on February 24, 2010, unless comments are received that would result..., or badge to an NGA facility. Categories of records in the system: Names, Social Security Number (SSN...

  12. 77 FR 72336 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System... CFSC System name: Army Club Membership Files (June 21, 2001, 66 FR 33239). Reason: The records were..., Army Club Membership Files system of records notice can be deleted. Records have met the required...

  13. 75 FR 13575 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ..., proposes to modify the Accounting Systems for the Department of Justice, Justice/DOJ-001, to update the... the system description is set forth below. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robin Moss, Privacy... NAME: Accounting Systems for the Department of Justice (DOJ). * * * * * RECORD SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  14. 75 FR 43498 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Registration System (AIRS). System location: Installation Management Command (IMCOM), Safety Office, 2511... Safety Program; Executive Order 12196, Occupational Safety and Health Programs for Federal Employees; and... submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, Room 3C843 Pentagon, 1160 Defense...

  15. 78 FR 22525 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... 10-0004 System name: Occupational, Safety, Health, and Environmental Management Records (July 2, 2010...: Delete entry and replace with ``This system will manage occupational, safety, health, and environmental... Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive; East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite 02G09, Alexandria, VA 22350...

  16. 77 FR 56625 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... a System of Records. SUMMARY: The National Security Agency (NSA) is proposing to amend a system of..., Alternate OSD Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. GNSA 25 System Name: NSA/CSS Travel... ``Primary location: National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS), 9800 Savage Road, Ft...

  17. 78 FR 45913 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... at http://dpclo.defense.gov/privacy/SORNs/component/nsa/index.html . The proposed system report, as... Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. GNSA 14 System Name: NSA/CSS Library Patron File Control....'' Categories of individuals covered by the system: Delete entry and replace with ``NSA civilian employees...

  18. 75 FR 61450 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ..., Corporate Communications, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DFAS-HKC/IN, 8899 E. 56th Avenue...; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service; DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) is proposing to add a system of...

  19. 75 FR 64715 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... financial management personnel, human resources specialists, administrative support personnel, and... Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDS), Scientific Applied Programs (SAP-HR), PeopleSoft HR, Navy Standard...

  20. 77 FR 11063 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... signature and encryption certificates for documents and email and to add biometric authentication... National Archives Records Administration--Schedules for the type of record being maintained. System manager...

  1. 77 FR 5062 - Privacy Act of 1974; Consolidation of National Labor Relations Board Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...: Next Generation Case Management System (NxGen) (NLRB-33). NxGen stores electronic case tracking... consolidation of six Privacy Act systems of records notices into one notice: Next Generation Case Management... systems of records notices: Judicial Case Management System--Pending Case List (JCMS-PCL) and Associated...

  2. Innate immunity and effector and regulatory mechanisms involved in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Marilene Chaves; Sato, Maria Notomi; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva Dos

    2018-03-01

    Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis. The antigen-specific inflammation is mediated by T cells, and each subtype of T cells (Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, and Th17/Tc17) activates resident skin cells, thus contributing to inflammation. Skin's regulatory T cells have a strong ability to inhibit the proliferation of hapten-specific T cells, acting at the end of the Allergic Contact Dermatitis response and in the control of systemic immune responses. In this review, we report how cutaneous innate immunity is the first line of defense and focus its role in the activation of the adaptive immune response, with effector response induction and its regulation.

  3. Innate immunity and effector and regulatory mechanisms involved in allergic contact dermatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Marilene Chaves; Sato, Maria Notomi; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2018-01-01

    Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis. The antigen-specific inflammation is mediated by T cells, and each subtype of T cells (Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, and Th17/Tc17) activates resident skin cells, thus contributing to inflammation. Skin's regulatory T cells have a strong ability to inhibit the proliferation of hapten-specific T cells, acting at the end of the Allergic Contact Dermatitis response and in the control of systemic immune responses. In this review, we report how cutaneous innate immunity is the first line of defense and focus its role in the activation of the adaptive immune response, with effector response induction and its regulation. PMID:29723367

  4. Hitting the Sweet Spot: Glycans as Targets of Fungal Defense Effector Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Künzler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Organisms which rely solely on innate defense systems must combat a large number of antagonists with a comparatively low number of defense effector molecules. As one solution of this problem, these organisms have evolved effector molecules targeting epitopes that are conserved between different antagonists of a specific taxon or, if possible, even of different taxa. In order to restrict the activity of the defense effector molecules to physiologically relevant taxa, these target epitopes should, on the other hand, be taxon-specific and easily accessible. Glycans fulfill all these requirements and are therefore a preferred target of defense effector molecules, in particular defense proteins. Here, we review this defense strategy using the example of the defense system of multicellular (filamentous fungi against microbial competitors and animal predators.

  5. Defining essential processes in plant pathogenesis with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 disarmed polymutants and a subset of key type III effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Lei; Collmer, Alan

    2017-12-25

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and its derivatives cause disease in tomato, Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana. The primary virulence factors include a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system and the phytotoxin coronatine. The complete repertoire of effector genes and key coronatine biosynthesis genes have been progressively deleted and minimally reassembled to reconstitute basic pathogenic ability in N. benthamiana, and in Arabidopsis plants that have mutations in target genes that mimic effector actions. This approach and molecular studies of effector activities and plant immune system targets have highlighted a small subset of effectors that contribute to essential processes in pathogenesis. Most notably, HopM1 and AvrE1 redundantly promote an aqueous apoplastic environment, and AvrPtoB and AvrPto redundantly block early immune responses, two conditions that are sufficient for substantial bacterial growth in planta. In addition, disarmed DC3000 polymutants have been used to identify the individual effectors responsible for specific activities of the complete repertoire and to more effectively study effector domains, effector interplay and effector actions on host targets. Such work has revealed that AvrPtoB suppresses cell death elicitation in N. benthamiana that is triggered by another effector in the DC3000 repertoire, highlighting an important aspect of effector interplay in native repertoires. Disarmed DC3000 polymutants support the natural delivery of test effectors and infection readouts that more accurately reveal effector functions in key pathogenesis processes, and enable the identification of effectors with similar activities from a broad range of other pathogens that also defeat plants with cytoplasmic effectors. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Design and force analysis of end-effector for plug seedling transplanter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuohua Jiang

    Full Text Available Automatic transplanters have been very important in greenhouses since the popularization of seedling nurseries. End-effector development is a key technology for transplanting plug seedlings. Most existing end-effectors have problems with holding root plugs or releasing plugs. An efficient end-effector driven by a linear pneumatic cylinder was designed in this study, which could hold root plugs firmly and release plugs easily. This end-effector with four needles could clamp the plug simultaneously while the needles penetrate into the substrate. The depth and verticality of the needles could be adjusted conveniently for different seedling trays. The effectiveness of this end-effector was tested by a combinational trial examining three seedling nursery factors (the moisture content of the substrate, substrate bulk density and the volume proportion of substrate ingredients. Results showed that the total transplanting success rate for the end-effector was 100%, and the root plug harm rate was below 17%. A force measure system with tension and pressure transducers was installed on the designed end-effector. The adhesive force FL between the root plug and the cell of seedling trays and the extrusion force FK on the root plug were measured and analyzed. The results showed that all three variable factors and their interactions had significant effects on the extrusion force. Each factor had a significant effect on adhesive force. Additionally, it was found that the end-effector did not perform very well when the value of FK/FL was beyond the range of 5.99~8.67. This could provide a scientific basis for end-effector application in transplanting.

  7. Design and force analysis of end-effector for plug seedling transplanter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuohua; Hu, Yang; Jiang, Huanyu; Tong, Junhua

    2017-01-01

    Automatic transplanters have been very important in greenhouses since the popularization of seedling nurseries. End-effector development is a key technology for transplanting plug seedlings. Most existing end-effectors have problems with holding root plugs or releasing plugs. An efficient end-effector driven by a linear pneumatic cylinder was designed in this study, which could hold root plugs firmly and release plugs easily. This end-effector with four needles could clamp the plug simultaneously while the needles penetrate into the substrate. The depth and verticality of the needles could be adjusted conveniently for different seedling trays. The effectiveness of this end-effector was tested by a combinational trial examining three seedling nursery factors (the moisture content of the substrate, substrate bulk density and the volume proportion of substrate ingredients). Results showed that the total transplanting success rate for the end-effector was 100%, and the root plug harm rate was below 17%. A force measure system with tension and pressure transducers was installed on the designed end-effector. The adhesive force FL between the root plug and the cell of seedling trays and the extrusion force FK on the root plug were measured and analyzed. The results showed that all three variable factors and their interactions had significant effects on the extrusion force. Each factor had a significant effect on adhesive force. Additionally, it was found that the end-effector did not perform very well when the value of FK/FL was beyond the range of 5.99~8.67. This could provide a scientific basis for end-effector application in transplanting.

  8. 77 FR 70136 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    .... It is USAID's core financial management system and accounting system of record. Phoenix enables USAID..., which are required to perform necessary accounting operations. Phoenix falls under strict regulatory...: name, social security number, details of payroll transactions and work phone numbers. Phoenix imports...

  9. 75 FR 52513 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... practices data, and employee health hazard educational data. Records include the name, Social Security... system of records notice. Note 2: Personal identity, diagnosis, prognosis of any patient maintained in... Records in the System: Storage: Paper records and electronic storage media. Retrievability: By individual...

  10. 76 FR 61679 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... destruction of magnetic media. * * * * * GNSA 27 System name: Information Assurance Scholarship Program...). Categories of records in the system: Individual information to include: Title, full name, Social Security... information necessary to establish the identity of the individual, including name, address, and taxpayer...

  11. 75 FR 69642 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... retirement data; civilian deployment information and adverse and disciplinary action data. Personnel...; civilian deployment information and adverse and disciplinary action data. Personnel information including...; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Alter a System of...

  12. 78 FR 18565 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Defense. A0600o AHRC System name: Army Career and Alumni Program (ACAP XXI). System location: Primary..., VA 22332-0476. Secondary locations: Army Career and Alumni Program Centers. A complete list of ACAP..., Washington, DC 20307-5001. Secondary location: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, 8899 East 56th Street...

  13. 75 FR 21264 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... facilities. Categories of records in the system: Name, Social Security Number (SSN), and DoD Electronic Data... Army's Food Service Program. The system facilitates the ordering, receipt, warehousing, and issuance of... user name and password. Data is encrypted in its stored form and cannot be accessed except through the...

  14. 76 FR 21708 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Appendix I to OMB Circular No. A-130, ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for Maintaining Records About... Instruction (DoDI) 1400.25-V810, DoD Civilian Personnel Management System: Injury Compensation; DoDI 1400.25-V850, DoD Civilian Personnel Management System: Unemployment Compensation; DoD 1400.25-M, DoD Civilian...

  15. 76 FR 49755 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... aircraft. Categories of records in the system: Name, last four of Social Security Number (SSN), squadron ID... of Appendix I to OMB Circular No. A-130, ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for Maintaining records... Military Flight Operations Quality Assurance System location: Primary databases (Enterprise Level Servers...

  16. 77 FR 25991 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...U). System location: National Guard Bureau, Lavern E. Weber National Guard Professional Education... (GuardU) provides a web-based content delivery system for Army National Guard training and education. It... with 28 U.S.C. 1746, in the following format: If executed outside the United States: I declare (or...

  17. 76 FR 61675 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. DODEA 29 System Name: Department of Defense Education Activity Non-DoD Schools Program. System Location: Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA..., Benefits for Certain Employees Assigned Outside the United States; and E.O. 9397 (SSN), as amended. Purpose...

  18. 76 FR 55057 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Records. System location: U.S. Army Human Resources Command, Education Incentives Branch, 1600 Spearhead... Reserve; Army Regulation 621-5, Army Continuing Education System; Army Regulations 621-202, Education... accordance with 28 U.S.C. 1746, in the following format: If executed outside the United States: `I declare...

  19. 75 FR 49482 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ..., Military Police Incident Reports, traffic tickets, letters of notification of dishonored checks, and... Civilian and Military Police Service Investigative Agencies, Military Exchange and Commissary systems, or... individuals covered by the system: Any personnel (military or civilian) assigned to DISA Europe involved in...

  20. 78 FR 5792 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ..., Marine Corps; BUMED Note 6110, Tracking and Reporting Individual Medical Readiness Data; SECNAVINST 6120... persons that are properly screened, cleared, and trained. Access to this system of records and personal... available only to authorized personnel having a need-to-know.'' * * * * * System manager(s) and address...

  1. 75 FR 65405 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... that its three existing systems of records know as ``Veterans and Armed Forces Personnel United States... technology, including the following: (a) Use of the Disability Outreach Tracking System (DOTS) which stores... preventing and detecting fraud or abuse by persons in their operations or programs. Routine use number 7 has...

  2. 77 FR 27859 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ..., during the comment period, comments may be viewed online through the Federal Docket Management System... (704) 245-2492. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Description of Proposed Systems of Records Background The... Federal agencies may be made to assist such agencies in preventing and detecting possible fraud or abuse...

  3. 75 FR 19946 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... of records in the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Individual's name, organizational and home..., contact listing files, organizational telephone directories, and listing of office personnel.'' [[Page... are used to control access to the system data, and procedures are in place to deter and detect...

  4. 75 FR 67697 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... OF INDIVIDUALS COVERED BY THE SYSTEM: Individuals and institutions who apply for recruitment...). CATEGORIES OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: Individual information to include: Title, full name, Social Security... awarding of recruitment scholarships, retention scholarships or grants under the DoD Information Assurance...

  5. 75 FR 42719 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... characteristics (such as name, last four digits of Social Security Number (SSN), grade, Unit Identification Code...) organization. CATEGORIES OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: Name, last four digits of Social Security Number (SSN), duty... RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: STORAGE: Records are stored on electronic storage media. RETRIEVABILITY: Records...

  6. 75 FR 61453 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ...): The Army Audit Agency System for Information Storage (AAAsist) streamlines the audit process, reduces the amount of paperwork and/or e-mail required to manage the audit process. This system will provide project management, track staffing information, provide Activity Based Costing (ABC) Reporting, and agency...

  7. 76 FR 22682 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... storage devices are protected by computer system software, which is Common Access Card (CAC) enabled... Government Reform, the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, and the Office of... folders and computer storage media.'' * * * * * System Manager(s) and address: Delete entry and replace...

  8. 78 FR 44100 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ..., Learning Management System (LMS). System location: Verizon Business--IAD6, 21830 UUNET Way, Ashburn, VA... Management Center; Defense Technology Security Administration; Intelligence Oversight; Joint Chiefs of Staff...; OSD Operation Test & Evaluation; Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (OUSD) Intelligence; Cost...

  9. 77 FR 25993 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... records in the system: Name, Social Security Number (SSN), date of birth, home address, place of birth..., Performance Appraisal; 51, Classification; 53, Pay Rates and Systems; 55, Pay Administration; 61, Hours of... Group Statistics; SECNAV Instruction 12250.6, Civilian Human Resources Management in the Department of...

  10. 77 FR 65938 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ..., nuclear medicine, clinical laboratory, radiology, and patient scheduling information). ROUTINE USES OF..., comments may be viewed online through the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at www.regulations.gov.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The system number is changed from 24VA19 to 24VA10P2 to reflect the current...

  11. 75 FR 24928 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... with the performance of any alcohol/drug abuse treatment function conducted, requested, or directly or... Suicide Event Report (DoDSER) System. SYSTEM LOCATION: Fort Detrick Network Enterprise Center (NEC), 1422... reportable suicide and self-harm behaviors (to include suicide attempts, self harm behaviors, and suicidal...

  12. 75 FR 37842 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ...: Individuals who are consultants and vendors to PBGC. Categories of records in the systems: Payment vouchers..., Human Resources Department; Director, Benefits Administration and Payment Department. Correspondence... system of records is maintained for use in determining amounts to be paid and in effecting payments by...

  13. 75 FR 17906 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... ``Program Manager, Law Enforcement Operations, Headquarters, Defense Logistics Agency, Office of Public... Manager, Law Enforcement Operations, Headquarters, Defense Logistics Agency, Office of Public Safety, 8725...; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records...

  14. 78 FR 17386 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... System name: Historical Airman Promotion Master Test File (MTF) (June 11, 1997, 62 FR 31793). Changes... of Senior Airman (E-4) to Senior Master Sergeant (E-8).'' Categories of records in the system: Delete... Infrastructure (PKI)/ Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to lock out unauthorized access. Access to the...

  15. 75 FR 77851 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Defense. HDTRA 013 System Name: Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System (December 15, 2008, 73 FR... Reduction Agency (DTRA), Office of the Chief of Staff, ATTN: Secretary of the Director's Staff, 8725 John J... Manager(s) and address: Delete entry and replace with ``Office of Chief of Staff/Director- Chief of Staff...

  16. 77 FR 69443 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ..., Alternate OSD Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. HDTRA 013 System name: Assignment and... replace with ``The system is used to initiate, manage, and track assignments coming from outside DTRA as well as those generated within DTRA at the Director, Deputy Director, Chief of Staff, Staff offices...

  17. 76 FR 7239 - Proposed Privacy Act Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... property interests, identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of this system or other... notice of a proposed system of records entitled, ``Treasury/DO .225 --TARP Fraud Investigation...: Supervisory Fraud Specialist, Office of Financial Stability, 1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC...

  18. 78 FR 47308 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... individuals covered by the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Current and former civilian and military members as students of the National Intelligence University.'' * * * * * Authority for maintenance of the system: Delete entry and replace with ``DoD Instruction 3305.01, National Intelligence University, 10 U.S...

  19. 76 FR 65704 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ...' names, e-mail addresses, and citizenship status. DATES: The Department seeks comment on the new system... Register and the Code of Federal Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: http://www.gpo... characteristics, such as gender, race/ ethnicity, and citizenship status; (4) information on the training program...

  20. 75 FR 13090 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. K890.12 System name: Identity Management (IDM... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 1160... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) pursuant to paragraph 4c of Appendix I to OMB Circular No. A-130...

  1. 77 FR 29616 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    .... DCIO 01 System name: Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Cyber Security/Information Assurance Records. System location: Director, Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Cyber Security/Information Assurance (CS/IA) Program... Infrastructure Program (DCIP) Management; and DoDI 5205.13, Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Cyber Security...

  2. 78 FR 32635 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... automated systems security and access policies. Strict controls have been imposed to minimize the risk of...: Security and Installation Counterespionage Division, Cyber Branch (SICCC), National Geospatial-Intelligence...: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite 02G09...

  3. 75 FR 21250 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... permanently retained are destroyed. Visitor passes and campus access files are destroyed when 15 years old... used to pass through automated turnstile system, access office suites and other work areas; to track..., ACCESSING, RETAINING, AND DISPOSING OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: STORAGE: Paper files and electronic storage...

  4. 76 FR 36903 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... have a need-to-know. Individuals responsible for servicing the records in the performance of official... name, nick names, Social Security Number (SSN), gender, date of birth, personal cell phone number, home... address: Delete entry and replace with ``Automated Civil Engineer System/ Interim Work Management System...

  5. 76 FR 61676 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ...' Health and Counseling Programs; E.O. 12564, Drug Free Federal Workplace; E.O. 12196, Occupational safety.... System manager(s) and address: Chief, Employee Assistance Services, National Security Agency/ Central.... For additional information, contact the system manager. [FR Doc. 2011-25697 Filed 10-4-11; 8:45 am...

  6. 78 FR 64031 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ....'' The proposed system of records is necessary to the functions performed by the Workplace Solutions... agreement, self-certification home safety checklist, and supervisor-employee checklist; type of telework... practice. SYSTEM MANAGER(S) AND ADDRESS: Director, Financial Operations Department, Pension Benefit...

  7. 76 FR 52320 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... & Privacy, and DoD Information Assurance Regulations. Auditing: Audit trail records from all available.../JS Privacy Office, Freedom of Information Directorate, Washington Headquarters Services, 1155 Defense... Defense. DHA 23 System name: Pharmacy Data Transaction Service (PDTS). System location: Primary: Emdeon...

  8. 76 FR 65535 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... the FBI BRUs expressly as part of this system notice because the entire notice is being republished. While the FBI BRUs provide necessary flexibility in disseminating records from the system, FBI notes...: Elizabeth Withnell, Supervisory Attorney-Advisor, Privacy and Civil Liberties Unit, Office of the General...

  9. 77 FR 58816 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... obsolete. The records are now covered by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service system of records... Defense Finance and Accounting Service system of records notice, T-7206, Non-appropriated Funds Central... Cards (February 22, 1993, 58 FR 10562). Reason: These records are now covered by the Defense Finance and...

  10. 78 FR 79412 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records, T7205, General Accounting... transaction-driven financial statements in support of Defense Finance and Accounting Service financial mission... INFORMATION: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service notices for systems of records subject to the Privacy...

  11. 78 FR 31905 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records in its... information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service... name: General Accounting and Finance System--Defense Transaction Interface Module (June 4, 2007, 72 FR...

  12. 78 FR 63311 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... or fraud, or harm to the security, confidentiality, or integrity of this system or other systems or...). In addition, during the comment period, comments may be viewed online through the Federal Docket... the media on request.] Additional information includes Social Security Number, VA Employee...

  13. 77 FR 27740 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... storage media''. Retrievability: Delete ``and Social Security Number''. Safeguards: Delete last sentence...: * * * * * Categories of individuals covered by the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Children and their sponsors... admission to, DLA-managed day care facilities.'' Categories of records in the system: Delete ``Social...

  14. 77 FR 31851 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... establishing this new system of records, FCC/OMD-30, ``FCC Visitors Database,'' is for the FCC's Security...-30 SYSTEM NAME: FCC Visitors Database. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: The FCC's Security Operations Center... databases are protected by the FCC's security protocols, which include controlled access, passwords, and...

  15. 78 FR 69393 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Liberties Web site at http://dpclo.defense.gov/privacy/SORNs/component/ngia/index.html . The proposed system... the system: Current and former NGA employees, military personnel, contractors, employed by or assigned... certify, verify, or state) under penalty of perjury under the laws of the United States of America that...

  16. 75 FR 25213 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... requirements of DLA firefighters. To local fire departments for training or assistance in fire fighting... training and educational institutions.'' * * * * * S600.20 SYSTEM NAME: DLA Fire and Emergency Services.... CATEGORIES OF INDIVIDUALS COVERED BY THE SYSTEM: Individuals assigned fire and emergency services duties...

  17. 75 FR 37410 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... on electronic storage media. RETRIEVABILITY: By name, Social Security Number (SSN), or other personal...: * * * * * SYSTEM LOCATION: Delete entry and replace with ``Network Enterprise Center, Sparkman Center, Building... Unmanned Aircraft System Flight Regulations; Army Regulation 350-1, Army Training and Leader Development...

  18. 76 FR 66752 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... SYSTEMS: STORAGE: Information is stored manually in file jackets and electronically in office automation.... SAFEGUARDS: The information is stored in safes, locked filing cabinets, and office automation equipment in a... AND DISPOSAL: Records in the system are retained and disposed of in accordance with NARA Job NCI-60-77...

  19. 75 FR 38494 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. LDIA: 10-0004 System name: Occupational, Safety, Health, and... occupational, safety, health, and environmental management case files. Information is used to comply with... occupational safety, and environmental issues or accidents. Authority for maintenance of the system: 29 CFR...

  20. 75 FR 65457 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... number.'' CONTESTING RECORD PROCEDURES: Delete entry and replace with ``The NSA/CSS rules for contesting...' published at the beginning of the NSA/CSS's compilation of record systems also apply to this record system... number. CONTESTING RECORD PROCEDURES: The NSA/CSS rules for contesting contents and appealing initial...

  1. TAL effectors and the executor R genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junli; Yin, Zhongchao; White, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R) genes have been characterized-recessive, dominant non-transcriptional, and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance.

  2. TAL effectors and the executor R genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcription activation-like (TAL effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R genes have been characterized - recessive, dominant non-transcriptional and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance.

  3. 77 FR 2515 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... software uses Primary Key Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to lock out... Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to lock out unauthorized access. System software...

  4. 77 FR 94 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... software uses Primary Key Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to lock out... Infrastructure (PKI)/Common Access Card (CAC) authentication to lock out unauthorized access. System software...

  5. 78 FR 25974 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... specialty within each career management field. Routine uses of records maintained in the system, including..., distribution and utilization of all personnel in military duties, strength accounting and manpower management...

  6. 77 FR 13571 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... be deleted. A0210-130 DALO Laundry Accounting Files (April 12, 1999, 64 FR 17641). Reason: The... schedule; therefore, the system of records notice can be deleted. A0600-8-104g AHRC Career Management...

  7. 77 FR 56627 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... enterprise, thereby providing a single database source of instant query/access for all personnel types and... system provides a two-factor authentication, using a Common Access Card and Personal Identification...

  8. 77 FR 27863 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... from each facility within the Polytrauma System of Care and the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation..., Dallas, TX 75216. VA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center/ Craig Hospital, 3425 S. Traumatic Brain Injury...

  9. 75 FR 21260 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... records in the system: Storage: Paper records and electronic storage media. Retrievability: Name, Social... include name, Social Security Number (SSN), enlisted service number, date of birth, rate, rank, record... and motivation, and other career related matters to meet [[Page 21261

  10. 76 FR 33286 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    .../GOVT-6 GSA SmartPay Purchase Charge Card Program; GSA/GOVT-8 Excluded Parties List System (EPLS); MSPB... Other Ethics Program Records; OGE/GOVT-2 Confidential Statements of Employment and Financial Interests...

  11. 76 FR 50721 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 1160... of the Army, Privacy Office, U.S. Army Records Management and Declassification Agency, 7701 Telegraph...; laboratory reports, polygraph reports, documentary evidence, physical evidence, summary and administrative...

  12. 75 FR 78684 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... system: Air Force Active duty, Reserve and National Guard military personnel, government civilians, and... information is collected and maintained. To Citibank in support of the Air Force Controlled Spend Account (CSA...

  13. 76 FR 51975 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... credited, leave transfer requests, leave donor forms, medical documentation to support advance of sick... system may be used to prepare information on items considered income for taxation purposes to be...

  14. 77 FR 56815 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... and culture, learning ability, physical performance, combat readiness, discipline, motivation... education, work experience, motivation, knowledge of and attitude about the Army. When records show military... methods and systems aimed at improved group performance. (No decisions affecting an individual's rights or...

  15. 76 FR 37095 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys . At this...) student demographic information such as dependency status, citizenship, veteran status, marital status...

  16. 78 FR 26623 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... document. The general policy for comments and other submissions from members of the public is to make these..., Department of Defense. A0600-8b AHRC System Name: Soldiers' Criminal History Files [[Page 26624

  17. 78 FR 38303 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Leroy Jones, Department of the Army, Privacy Office, U.S. Army.../army/index.html . The Department of the Army proposes to amend two systems of records notices in its...

  18. 75 FR 29818 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ..., identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security, confidentiality, or integrity of this system or other... number) for an appointment. In addition, during the comment period, comments may be viewed online through... [[Page 29819

  19. 75 FR 48657 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    .... Authority for maintenance of the system: 10 U.S.C. 3013, Secretary of the Army; 10 U.S.C. 3020, Inspector... locked containers accessible only to authorized persons with an official need-to-know. Computer data base...

  20. 75 FR 9185 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...: * * * * * SYSTEM LOCATION: Delete entry and replace with ``Financial Services and Accounting Division, Accounting... Services and Accounting Division, Accounting Operations Branch, Headquarters, Defense Logistics Agency... collection process, documents furnished by individual concerning financial condition, personnel actions, and...

  1. 75 FR 33789 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... categories: Individual, social workers, rehabilitation counselors, and/or health care personnel. Exemptions... mental impairments and applicants for employment with Washington Headquarters Services/Human Resources... of records in the system: Storage: Paper files folders and electronic storage media. Retrievability...

  2. 76 FR 76956 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... manager. Record source categories: Individual, social workers, rehabilitation counselors, and/or health... mental impairments and applicants for employment with Washington Headquarters Services/Human Resources... of records in the system: Storage: Paper file folders and electronic storage media. Retrievability...

  3. 75 FR 43494 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. GNSA 01 System name: NSA/CSS Access, Authority and Release... records are covered by GNSA 11, NSA/CSS Key Accountability Records, GNSA 10, NSA/CSS Personnel Security...

  4. Effector peptides of the renin-angiotensin system in the central mechanisms of acquired and innate behavior in thirst in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, R Ya; Kotov, A V

    2007-03-01

    We report here a comparative analysis of the involvement of a number of components of the renin-angiotensin system in the performance of simple and complex forms of drinking behavior and thirst-associated non-drinking types of behavior. On central (intracerebroventricular) microinjection, [des-Asp1]-angiotensin I at doses equieffective to those of angiotensins II and III was found to be involved only in the performance of simple (taking water from the bowl) and linked forms of activity (comfort behavior, stress grooming, orientational-investigative, and feeding behavior). Angiotensin II was involved in the central mechanisms of complex acquired drinking behavior, selectively modulating its key stages (initial, final), while angiotensin III was involved only in the mechanisms of reproduction of the complex skill. All three substances induced "innate patterns of behavior" specific for each compound, these occurring at fixed periods of time after intracerebral microinjection. The effects of these substances were selectively suppressed by the AT1 receptor blocker losartan potassium.

  5. Aminoacyl-tRNA-charged eukaryotic elongation factor 1A is a bona fide substrate for Legionelle pneumophila effector glucosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzivelekidis, Tina; Jank, Thomas; Pohl, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, which is the causative organism of Legionnaires disease, translocates numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytosol by a type IV secretion system during infection. Among the most potent effector proteins of Legionella are glucosyltransferases (Lgt’s), which...

  6. A Legionella Effector Disrupts Host Cytoskeletal Structure by Cleaving Actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates intracellularly in protozoan and human hosts. Successful colonization and replication of this pathogen in host cells requires the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 effector proteins into the host cell to modulate various cellular processes. In this study, we identified RavK as a Dot/Icm substrate that targets the host cytoskeleton and reduces actin filament abundance in mammalian cells upon ectopic expression. RavK harbors an H95EXXH99 motif associated with diverse metalloproteases, which is essential for the inhibition of yeast growth and for the induction of cell rounding in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that the actin protein itself is the cellular target of RavK and that this effector cleaves actin at a site between residues Thr351 and Phe352. Importantly, RavK-mediated actin cleavage also occurs during L. pneumophila infection. Cleavage by RavK abolishes the ability of actin to form polymers. Furthermore, an F352A mutation renders actin resistant to RavK-mediated cleavage; expression of the mutant in mammalian cells suppresses the cell rounding phenotype caused by RavK, further establishing that actin is the physiological substrate of RavK. Thus, L. pneumophila exploits components of the host cytoskeleton by multiple effectors with distinct mechanisms, highlighting the importance of modulating cellular processes governed by the actin cytoskeleton in the intracellular life cycle of this pathogen.

  7. 75 FR 20580 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... past five years and any motor vehicle accidents within the past five years, training and performance record, and other related papers.'' AUTHORITY FOR MAINTENANCE OF THE SYSTEM: Delete entry and replace... past five years and any motor vehicle accidents within the past five years, training and performance...

  8. 78 FR 65976 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Advanced Research Projects Agency; the Office of Economic Adjustment; the Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office; the Office of the Defense Chief Financial Officer; the Defense Information Systems Agency... Accounting Service; the Defense Human Resources Activity; the Department of Defense Inspector General; the...

  9. 76 FR 11213 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ..., ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for Maintaining Records About Individuals,'' dated February 8, 1996... system: Delete entry and replace with ``Records contain individual's name, Social Security Number (SSN....C. 8032, The Air Staff: general duties; Air Force Instruction 36-2102, Base-Level Relocation...

  10. 77 FR 57561 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ..., 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201.'' HDTRA 022 System name: Learning Management... replace with ``Defense Threat Reduction Agency employees and contractor personnel receiving training... & Program Development Division, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Stop 6201, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201...

  11. 78 FR 69653 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Allies and Partner personnel during Maritime Interception or Security Operations, vessel boardings... Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. NM03800-1 System name: Naval Global Maritime... activity or piracy in the maritime sector; crew and passengers of maritime vessels defined by the...

  12. 75 FR 24931 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ..., individual's name; sex; race; citizenship; date and place of birth; address(es); telephone number(s); Social... to economic or property interests, identity theft, or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of..., RETAINING, AND DISPOSING OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: STORAGE: Electronic storage media. [[Page 24932...

  13. 76 FR 16739 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ...: Electronic storage media and paper records. Retrievability: Retrieved by individual's name and Social... individual's full name, Social Security Number (SSN), address and be signed. The system manager may require an original signature or a notarized signature as a means of proving the identity of the individual...

  14. 78 FR 14297 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... name, address, phone number, birth date, and Social Security Number (SSN).'' Authority for maintenance... storage media.'' * * * * * System manager(s) and address: Delete entry and replace with ``Chief of... signature as a means of proving the identity of the individual requesting access to the records.'' Record...

  15. 75 FR 13103 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... system: Storage: Electronic storage media. Retrievability: Name and last four digits of the Social...: Delete entry and replace with ``INDIVIDUAL PROFILE DATA: Full name of the individual; Social Security... Directive 1404.10, DoD Civilian Expeditionary Workforce; DoD Directive 1000.25, DoD Personnel Identity...

  16. 76 FR 37329 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... related to disciplinary actions, responses from subjects, and correspondence with Governmental agencies... responsibility and mismanagement; to take adverse action and appropriate disciplinary action against those found... of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Amend a System of Records. SUMMARY...

  17. 76 FR 40343 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Responsibility Committee opinions, memoranda related to disciplinary actions, responses from subjects, and... professional responsibility and mismanagement; to take adverse action and appropriate disciplinary action... of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY...

  18. 77 FR 66432 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority..., the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is deleting the AID-15 Employee Payroll..., USAID is deleting the AID-15 Employee Payroll Records system of records because it is now covered under...

  19. 78 FR 22526 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... submitted claims for compensation under Public Law 104-201, Sections 657, as amended by Public Law 105- 261...://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal identifiers or contact... Compensation Files (November 30, 1998, 63 FR 65760). Changes: System Identifier: Delete entry and replace with...

  20. 75 FR 64713 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any... Reservation Vehicle Parking Program. System Location: Parking Management Branch, Pentagon Force Protection...: All DoD Civilians, military, and contractors holding DoD parking permits, participating in DoD...

  1. 77 FR 57077 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...) pursuant to paragraph 4c of Appendix I to OMB Circular No. A-130, ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for... System: Civilian employees, contractors and military assignees who are the subject of an inquiry based on... PII and who request guidance on the collection of PII. Civilian employees, contractor, military...

  2. 76 FR 7825 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... OMB Circular No. A-130, ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for Maintaining Records About Individuals... by the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Civilian employees serviced by the Washington.... 1597, Civilian positions: guidelines for reductions; 5 CFR 351, Chapter 1-Office of Personnel...

  3. 78 FR 73507 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...) pursuant to paragraph 4c of Appendix I to OMB Circular No. A-130, ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for...; DoD Instruction 1400.25-V771, DoD Civilian Personnel Management System (Administrative Grievance... of civilian personnel management programs. To the Comptroller General, or any of his or her...

  4. 77 FR 74176 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ..., ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for Maintaining Records About Individuals,'' dated February 8, 1996... United States civilian personnel who are recommended for an award.'' Categories of Records in the System... Command (MAJCOM) are destroyed after 50 years. Decorations to individuals (Military and Civilian...

  5. 75 FR 36640 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ..., ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for Maintaining Records About Individuals,'' dated February 8, 1996... individuals covered by the system: Delete entry and replace with ``DoD military and civilian personnel... Benefit Program for DoD military and civilian personnel applying for and in receipt of fare subsidies...

  6. 76 FR 76959 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... storage media. Retrievability: Individual's name and last four of Social Security Number (SSN). Safeguards....'' * * * * * Categories of records in the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Name, last four of Social Security... address, Smartrip card number, and usage history from Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority...

  7. 77 FR 13574 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... electronic storage media. Retrievability: Individual's name and last four of Social Security Number (SSN... commuting to and from work. Categories of records in the system: Name, last four of Social Security Number... work number, email address, duty/work address, transit authority card number, and usage from benefit...

  8. 78 FR 68039 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ..., official title, subproject code, work address, home address, work phone, home phone, Social Security Number... system: Storage: Paper records and electronic storage media. Retrievability: Records may be retrieved by... duties and who have appropriate clearances and permissions. Usage of physical access controls, encryption...

  9. 76 FR 14119 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., Director, Compensation and Pension Service, Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans... access to or interaction with the Department of Veterans Affairs. The information collected by the system... Pay and Personnel Center. Remote on-line access is also made available to authorized remote sites...

  10. 76 FR 24001 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...'' student, as defined in DoD Joint Travel Regulation, Volume 2, Appendix A (JTR V. 2, App. A). Access is... student records of their ``dependent'' student, as defined in DoD Joint Travel Regulation, Volume 2....'' Categories of individuals covered by the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Current and former students...

  11. 77 FR 68746 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... providing comprehensive content management and enterprise search, accelerating shared business processes... Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite 02G09, Alexandria, VA 22350... Committee on Governmental Affairs, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) pursuant to paragraph 4c of...

  12. 76 FR 28757 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... online tool helps the staff members at all four levels (school, district, area, and headquarters) apply... to paragraph 4c of Appendix I to OMB Circular No. A-130, ``Federal Agency Responsibilities for.... Categories of records in the system: Records consist of first name, last name, Social Security Number (SSN...

  13. 75 FR 63824 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... and replace with ``10 U.S.C. 8013, Secretary of the Air Force; 10 U.S.C. 47, Uniform Code of Military... Code of Military Justice and 8012, 8013; DoD Directive 7730.47, Defense Incident Based Reporting System... obtained from previous employers, financial institutions, educational institutions, police and...

  14. 78 FR 14295 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... in the system: Storage: Delete entry and replace with ``Paper records maintained in file folders, binders, and electronic storage media.'' Retrievability: Delete entry and replace with ``Name, SSN and/or... Personnel Record Group for permanent retention. Paper records are destroyed after electronic copy has been...

  15. 76 FR 10010 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ....'' * * * * * Storage: Delete entry and replace with ``Maintained on electronic storage media and/or in file binders... individual for consideration of continued service in the Air Force. Paper records are destroyed by tearing... records in the system: Storage: Maintained on electronic storage media and/or in file binders/ cabinets...

  16. 75 FR 21258 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... folders and electronic storage media. Retrievability: By surname or Social Security Number (SSN....'' Categories of records in the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Name, Social Security Number (SSN... Academy, his/her scholastic and athletic achievements, performance, motivation, discipline, final standing...

  17. 78 FR 14293 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite 02G09, Alexandria, VA 22350... Security and Governmental Affairs, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) pursuant to paragraph 4c... Name: Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segment (DCAPES) Records (July 2, 2009, 74 FR...

  18. 76 FR 38643 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... ``Access is limited to officials/ employees of the office who have a need to know. Files are stored in.... Investigation working papers are destroyed after 2 years. Database tracking records are destroyed when no longer... covered by the system: Any person who has been the subject of, witness for, or referenced in an...

  19. 75 FR 14142 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... while traveling on official business; and to create a tracking system whereby DoD can monitor the... to individuals who are properly screened and cleared on a need- to-know basis in the performance of.... Physical and electronic access are limited to persons responsible for servicing and authorized to use the...

  20. 75 FR 16758 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Defense. HDTRA 017 Voluntary Leave Sharing Program Records (August 3, 2005; 70 FR 44573). Changes: System... Agency (DTRA) Voluntary Leave Sharing Program. The recipient's name, and a brief description of the... Labor in connection with a claim filed by an employee for compensation due to a job-related injury or...

  1. 78 FR 14290 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    .... Street West, Randolph AFB, TX 78150-4750. Records are also located at Air Force units of assignment...D ID Number), rank, date of birth, duty phone, height, weight, physical fitness test scores... are properly screened and cleared for need-to-know. System software uses Primary Key Infrastructure...

  2. 75 FR 17978 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... COVERED BY THE SYSTEM: Past and present employees, interns, fellows, volunteers and persons who work at... (FEGLI), union dues, taxes, allotments, quarters, retirement, charities, Federal and commercial health... withholding, retirement contributions, or allotments to charities, labor unions, wage garnishments, and other...

  3. 76 FR 39392 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System...: Mr. Leroy Jones, Department of the Army, Privacy Office, U.S. Army Records Management and... address, counselor's phone number and email, documentary evidence, affidavits, information from individual...

  4. 77 FR 24982 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... that documentary (physical, ``hard copies,'' paper, etc.) records are maintained in the same method as.... ADDRESSES: The public, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and Congress are invited to submit [[Page...), storage area networks, or tape backup systems. Documentary (physical, ``hard copies,'' paper, etc...

  5. 78 FR 44931 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ...), as amended. This system will provide DLA installations with the ability to rapidly and effectively... Defense Privacy and Civil Liberties Web site at http://dpclo.defense.gov/privacy/SORNs/component/dla/index...: First name, last name, work email, work phone number, mobile phone number, short message service (SMS...

  6. 75 FR 51854 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... employment; disciplinary history; business relationships; and similar information relating to the categories... Reference Room, 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549, on official business days between the hours of 10 a... electronic and paper records in this system may include: name, business address, residential address (for...

  7. 75 FR 13091 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... birth, gender, Social Security Number (SSN), rank/grade, duty status, skill specialty, and deployability..., Social Security Number (SSN), rank/ grade, duty status, skill specialty, deployability and related reason... properly screened and cleared for need-to-know. System users can view only truncated Social Security Number...

  8. 78 FR 73509 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... files and Manpower Authorization files, including name; grade/rank; Social Security Number (SSN); DoD ID Number, gender; Military Occupational Skills and/or Civilian Occupational Series; additional Skill.... The system employs secure socket layer certificate and the Social Security Number data is encrypted to...

  9. 78 FR 5781 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... users and organizations; and (6) an enterprise-class Customer Relationship Management platform to manage.... * Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite... Reform, the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  10. 77 FR 11534 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...: [CHANGE TO READ] Chief Financial Officer, Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board, 77 K Street NE..., Washington, DC 20002. SYSTEM MANAGERS AND ADDRESS: [CHANGE TO READ] The Chief Financial Officer maintains the... information about themselves should send inquiries to the Chief Financial Officer at Federal Retirement Thrift...

  11. 78 FR 73535 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Lifeline Program system of records covers the PII that the Eligible Telecommunications Carriers (ETCs) must... PII that enables USAC to recertify the eligibility of current Lifeline Program subscribers of ETCs who... verification service not in the control of USAC or the Commission; 2. The information that ETCs that elect to...

  12. 78 FR 16835 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ...: Martha Sneed, ATTN: Public Search Facility, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450...: Unclassified. System location: Public Search Facility, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Madison East... and other representatives of commercial firms offering patent search services to the public...

  13. 77 FR 46528 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Barcode. The second will strengthen the digital relationship with consumers and aid all customers with... services. * * * * * SYSTEM MANAGER(S) AND ADDRESS: [ADD NEW TEXT] President, Digital Solutions, United... States Postal Service, 475 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20260. [CHANGE TO READ] Chief Marketing...

  14. 78 FR 2695 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... information, finance number(s), duty location, and pay location. 2. Non-employee information: Name, gender... application will enable the Postal Service headquarters Equal Employment Opportunity and Workplace Environment.... CATEGORIES OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: [CHANGE TO READ] 1. Employee information: Name, gender, Social Security...

  15. 78 FR 31526 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Agency Responsibilities for Maintaining Records About Individuals,'' dated February 8, 1996 (February 20... passes, payroll information, Social Security Number (SSN), time and attendance, performance, awards and... employment with NGA.'' System manager(s) and address: Delete entry and replace with ``Corporate Applications...

  16. 77 FR 40630 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... compromise there is a risk of harm to economic or property interests, identity theft or fraud, or harm to the... request submitted by the candidate for the candidate's transition team members pursuant to Section 7601 of..., renovations, or maintenance of buildings or building systems; problems arising from planning, testing or other...

  17. 76 FR 58788 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Manager, Corporate Communications, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DFAS-HKC/IN, 8899 E. 56th... inquires to FOIA/PA Program Manager, Corporate Communications, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DFAS...; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Department of Defense, (DoD). ACTION...

  18. Acting together in and beyond the mirror neuron system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, Idil; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Moving a set dinner table often takes two people, and doing so without spilling the glasses requires the close coordination of the two agents' actions. It has been argued that the mirror neuron system may be the key neural locus of such coordination. Instead, here we show that such coordination

  19. 76 FR 4880 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Management, the Office of Government Ethics, and the Department of Labor. Government-wide systems of records.../GOVT-1: Executive Branch Public Financial Disclosure Reports and Other Name-Retrieved Ethics Program... folders in locked file cabinets in Procurement and financial management staff offices. Electronic records...

  20. 77 FR 21974 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    .... ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, identified by docket number and title, by any of the following methods... system: Delete entry and replace with ``Federal employees, contractors and active duty service members who access the Joint Intelligence Virtual University (JIVU II) in order to facilitate a training...