WorldWideScience

Sample records for system consequences main

  1. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport......The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...

  2. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO 2 -emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market. The

  3. Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System provides the impulse to transfer the reusable Orbiter of the Space Shuttle Transportation system and its payload from earth to earth orbit. Both cryogenic and solid rocket propulsion systems are utilized. The selected systems are characterized by (1) reusability wherever possible to reduce program cost, (2) design pressures, and other important design parameters, for the liquid propellant engine significantly higher than past programs for increased performance, and (3) advanced materials and manufacturing processes to withstand the extreme environments. The approaches for solution of these varied problems are emphasized.

  4. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, W.; Steimel, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System

  6. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.; Omelyanetz, N.; Strapko, N.; Ledoschuck, B.; Krasnikova, L.; Kartushin, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  7. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  8. Isolated systems with wind power. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, H.; Clausen, N.E.; Frandsen, S.; Hansen, L.H.; Hansen, J.C.

    2001-06-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to study the development of methods and guidelines rather than 'universal solutions' for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. The main specific objective of the project is to develop and present a more unified and generally applicable approach for assessing the technical and economical feasibility of isolated power supply systems with wind energy. As a part of the project the following tasks were carried out: Review of literature, field measurements in Egypt, development of an inventory of small isolated systems, overview of end-user demands, analysis of findings and development of proposed guidelines. The project is reported in one main report and four topical reports, all of them issued as Risoe reports. This is the Main Report Risoe-R-1256, summing up the activities and findings of the project and outlining an Implementation Strategy for Isolated Systems with Wind Power, applicable for international organisations such as donor agencies and development banks. (au)

  9. Magnet system for the KEKB main ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Kazumi; Endo, Kuninori; Fukuma, Hitoshi; Kubo, Tadashi; Masuzawa, Mika; Ohsawa, Yasunobu; Ohuchi, Norihito; Ozaki, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Yoshida, Masato; Sugahara, Ryuhei

    2003-01-01

    KEKB is a two-ring electron-positron collider with asymmetric energies of 8 and 3.5 GeV to study CP violation in B meson decay. In KEKB, there are 21 types of magnets; about 1600 in total. About 430 dipole and quadrupole magnets were recycled from TRISTAN, the preceding program. All quadrupole magnets are equipped with vertical and horizontal steering dipole magnets. The number of steering magnets is about 1700. There are 212 sextupole magnets, and all of them are fixed on remotely controlled movers to adjust their positions to the beam passage. All main dipole magnets have back-leg coils to steer beams precisely. All quadrupole and sextupole magnets are equipped with correction coils to have a capability for beam-based alignment. Also one-turn coils are installed as well to each magnetic pole of the main magnets to monitor the magnetic flux in the case of trouble. The magnetic field in all magnets was measured and its quality strictly checked. After field measurement, the magnets were installed and precisely aligned. A cooling water system and a power supply system for these magnets were constructed. Magnet design was started in 1994, and construction of the two rings was completed in November 1998. The parameters of the magnets and the construction of the KEKB magnet system are described. Some of the problems experienced during this construction work are also presented

  10. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  11. PLEIADES SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND MAIN PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gleyzes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available France, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES, has set up a cooperative program with Austria, Belgium, Spain, Sweden, in order to develop a space Earth Observation system called PLEIADES. PLEIADES is a dual system, this means that it is intended to fulfill an extended panel of both civilian and Defense user’s needs.. This paper reports the status of the satellite after its launch and the in orbit commissioning, the PLEIADES satellite first model has been launched at the end of year 2011, the second model will be launched about 12 months later. It describes the main mission characteristics and performances status. It exposes how the system, satellite and ground segment have been designed in order to be compliant with a dual exploitation between civilian and defense partners. The system is based on the use of a set of newly European developed technologies to feature the satellite. In order to maximize the agility of the satellite, weight and inertia have been reduced using a compact hexagonal shape for the satellite bus. The optical mission consists in Earth optical observation composed of 0.7 m nadir resolution for the panchromatic band and 2.8 m nadir resolution for the four multi-spectral bands. The image swath is about 20 km. PLEIADES delivers optical high resolution products consisting in a Panchromatic image, into which is merged a four multispectral bands image, orthorectified on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM. Thanks to the huge satellite agility obtained with control momentum gyros as actuators, the optical system delivers as well instantaneous stereo images, under different stereoscopic conditions and mosaic images, issued from along the track thus enlarging the field of view. The ground segment is composed of a dual ground center located in CNES Toulouse premises in charge of preparing the dual mission command plan and of the real time contacts with the satellite through a control center. The dual ground center

  12. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  13. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses

  14. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  15. Semi extensive methods - two main systems are

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vit/Trace minerals. (including 250 ppm copper). A feeding system commonly in practice is for the litter to be fed the above feed in meal or pellet form prior to weaning and afterwards until 12.5 kg. per pig has been consumed, when the feed is changed to a normal pig grower diet. Results show such systems are generally ...

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models.

  17. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Grupa, J.B. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models.

  18. Important consequences of atomic diffusion inside main-sequence stars: opacities, extra-mixing, oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deal M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic diffusion, including the effects of radiative accelerations on individual elements, leads to important variations of the chemical composition inside stars. The accumulation of important elements in specific layers leads to a local increase of the average opacity and to hydrodynamic instabilities that modify the internal stellar structure. This can also have important consequences for asteroseismology.

  19. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project.

  20. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.; Hora, S.C.; Lui, C.H.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Helton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project

  1. Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Anomaly Detection: A Case Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is part of the Main Propnlsion System (MPS) which is an extremely complex system containing several sub-systems and components,...

  2. RIMACS, Reactor Inspection Main Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RIMACS prepares for automatic inspection files on each inspection item for the reactor. These automatic inspection files provide the data to move RIROB (Reactor Inspection Robot) with laser by interpreting the coordinates of LASPO (Laser Positioner) and the laser detecting device of RIROB in three dimensional space. In addition, when RIROB arrives at the inspecting location, the files provide all values of the manipulator's motions to acquire the ultrasonic data. RIMACS provides various modules in order to perform these complex functions, and the functions are programmed on graphic user interface for the convenience of the user. RIMACS provides various functions, such as insertion of reactor production data, selection of the reactor for inspection, the creation of automatic inspection file, the selection of the inspection item, inspection simulation, and automatic inspection procedures. It also provides all other functions, which are necessary for the inspection, such as operating program download and manual control of LASPO and RIROB, the inspection simulation and the inspection status display by means of the graphic screen, and SODAS (ultra-Sonic Data Acquisition System) drive verification. 2 - Methods: Moving path and operation procedures for inspection robot are generated automatically with Kinematics algorithm. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A graphics display with MS-Window capability is required

  3. Modern technical diagnostic system for the main components of powerful turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezovit, G.P.; Uglyarenko, V.P.; Burlaka, S.I.; Goroz, N.I.; Orinin, S.E.; Komaritsa, V.N.; Zav'yalov, D.N.; Mazurenko, O.A.

    2011-01-01

    The modern diagnostic system to monitor the technical state of a powerful turbine generator is considered. This system permits the detection of defects in its main components and cooling system at the early stage of their development, prevention of damage and, as a consequence, emergency shutdown of nuclear power units

  4. The role of main olfactory and vomeronasal systems in animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many terrestrial tetrapod, olfactory sensory communication is mediated by two anatomically and functionally distinct sensory systems; the main olfactory system and vomeronasal system (accessory olfactory system). Recent anatomical studies of the central pathways of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems showed that ...

  5. The system development of consequence analysis for army nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wei; Zuo Li; Chen Xianbo; Qu Yantao; Yang Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Through the analysis of the assessment technique and the function characteristics of related system, domestic nuclear facilities accident consequence, assessment technique for army nuclear accident consequence was studied and the difference between the two evaluation methods were also compared. On this basis, the function, the application and the optimization of a software system that was developed for army was discussed. All of these will provide suggestion for the nuclear weapon accident consequence assessment. (authors)

  6. Targeting the orexinergic system: Mainly but not only for sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orexin receptors belong to the big family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that constitute the main targets in the modern pharmacological approaches. Although the orexinergic system is involved in a variety of processes, treating sleep-wakefulness disorders such as narcolepsy and insomnia, remains the main ...

  7. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Main Hawaiian Islands: Data Assimilating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 3-day, 3-hourly data assimilating hindcast for the region surrounding the main Hawaiian islands at approximately 4-km...

  8. [Remodeling of Cardiovascular System: Causes and Consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, E V; Kipenko, A V; Penniyaynen, V A; Pasatetckaia, N A; Tsyrline, V A

    2016-01-01

    Literature and our data suggest the regulatory action of a number of biologically active substances (catecholamines, cardiac glycosides, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor) on the growth and proliferation of heart cells. By using of organotypic tissue culture has proved that the basis of this regulation is the ability of test substances, receptor- or transducer-mediated signaling to modulate the function of Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase. There is a delay in the development of vascular smooth muscle in the late postnatal period in rats with the blockade of the sympathetic nervous system in the prenatal period. The relationship between vascular remodeling and contractile activity is described. It seems that one of the causes of high blood pressure is a remodeling of the cardiovascular system, which precedes the development of hypertension.

  9. Development of main steam safety valve set pressure evaluating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oketani, Koichiro; Manabe, Yoshihisa.

    1991-01-01

    A main steam safety valve set pressure test is conducted for all valves during every refueling outage in Japan's PWRs. Almost all operations of the test are manually conducted by a skilled worker. In order to obtain further reliability and reduce the test time, an automatic test system using a personnel computer has been developed in accordance with system concept. Quality assurance was investigated to fix system specifications. The prototype of the system was manufactured to confirm the system reliability. The results revealed that this system had high accuracy measurement and no adverse influence on the safety valve. This system was concluded to be applicable for actual use. (author)

  10. Neutrophils and macrophages: The main partners of phagocyte cell systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel T. Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological cellular systems are groups of cells sharing a set of characteristics, mainly key function and origin. Phagocytes are crucial in the host defense against microbial infection. The previously proposed phagocyte cell systems including the most recent and presently prevailing one, the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS, grouped mononuclear cells but excluded neutrophils, creating an unacceptable situation. As neutrophils are archetypical phagocytes that must be members of comprehensive phagocyte systems, M. T. Silva recently proposed the creation of a Myeloid Phagocyte System (MYPS that adds neutrophils to the MPS. The phagocytes grouped in the MYPS include the leukocytes neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, macrophages and immature myeloid DCs. Here the justifications behind the inclusion of neutrophils in a phagocyte system is expanded and the MYPS are further characterized as a group of dedicated phagocytic cells that function in an interacting and cooperative way in the host defense against microbial infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are considered the main arms of this system.

  11. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... automatic air brake system shall be adjusted so that the compressor will start when the main reservoir..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.49... least one safety valve that shall prevent an accumulation of pressure of more than 15 pounds per square...

  12. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  13. Assessment of Consequences of Replacement of System of the Uniform Tax on Imputed Income Patent System of the Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Manokhina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the main questions concerning possible consequences of replacement of nowadays operating system in the form of a single tax in reference to imputed income with patent system of the taxation. The main advantages and drawbacks of new system of the taxation are shown, including the opinion that not the replacement of one special mode of the taxation with another is more effective, but the introduction of patent a taxation system as an auxilary system.

  14. A Cause-Consequence Chart of a Redundant Protection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dan Sandvik; Platz, O.; Runge, B.

    1975-01-01

    A cause-consequence chart is applied in analysing failures of a redundant protection system (a core spray system in a nuclear power plant). It is shown how the diagram provides a basis for calculating two probability measures for malfunctioning of the protection system. The test policy...

  15. A radiological accident consequence assessment system for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Lam, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the Hong Kong Radiological Accident Consequence Assessment System which would be used to assess the potential consequences of an emergency situation involving atmospheric release of radioactive material. The system has the capability to acquire real-time meteorological information from the Observatory's network of automatic stations, synoptic stations in the nearby region as well as forecast data from numerical prediction models. The system makes use of these data to simulate the transport and dispersion of the released radioactive material. The effectiveness of protective action on the local population is also modeled. The system serves as a powerful aid in the protective action recommendation processes

  16. Main Differentiating Issues in Aligning Information Systems with Business Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia C. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The information systems and technologies (IS/IT) are a decisive platform in the response capacity of organizations to the new management imperatives through new solutions that permit to improve their competitive position. As information management is a highly differentiating area, the present study compares several enterprises of different sectors, located (headoffice or branch) in the Algarve region, with the aim of systematising the main differentiating issues related with adoption, restruc...

  17. Main rotor six degree-of-freedom isolation system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The design requirements of the system have been defined and an isolator concept satisfies these requirements identified. Primary design objectives for the isolation system are 90% attenuation of all NP main rotor shaft loads at a weight penalty less than or equal to 1% of design gross weight. The configuration is sized for a UH-60A BLACK HAWK helicopter and its performance, risk, and system integration were evaluated through a series of parametric studies. Preliminary design was carried forward to insure that the design is practical and that the details of the integration of the isolator into the helicopter system are considered. Alternate ground and flight test demonstration programs necessary to verify the proposed isolator design are defined.

  18. [Social and economic consequences of night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiser, E; Glaeske, G

    2013-03-01

    A prospective calculation of disease-related social and economic costs due to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport was performed for the calendar years 2012-2021. It was based on risk estimates for a variety of diagnostic entities (cardiovascular disease, depression, psychosis, diabetes mellitus, dementia and Alzheimer's disease, all cancers except malignancies of the respiratory system) from a previous case-control study on more than 1 million persons enrolled in compulsory sickness funds in the vicinity of the Cologne-Bonn airport, on disease-related cost estimates performed by the German Federal Statistical Office for the calender years 2002-2008, and calculations of the population exposed to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport (2005 aircraft routes and flight frequencies). Total estimated costs came to more than 1.5 billion € with an excess of 23 400 cases of diseases treated in hospitals and of 3 400 subsequent deaths. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. European wildcat populations are subdivided into five main biogeographic groups: consequences of Pleistocene climate changes or recent anthropogenic fragmentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattucci, Federica; Oliveira, Rita; Lyons, Leslie A; Alves, Paulo C; Randi, Ettore

    2016-01-01

    Extant populations of the European wildcat are fragmented across the continent, the likely consequence of recent extirpations due to habitat loss and over-hunting. However, their underlying phylogeographic history has never been reconstructed. For testing the hypothesis that the European wildcat survived the Ice Age fragmented in Mediterranean refuges, we assayed the genetic variation at 31 microsatellites in 668 presumptive European wildcats sampled in 15 European countries. Moreover, to evaluate the extent of subspecies/population divergence and identify eventual wild × domestic cat hybrids, we genotyped 26 African wildcats from Sardinia and North Africa and 294 random-bred domestic cats. Results of multivariate analyses and Bayesian clustering confirmed that the European wild and the domestic cats (plus the African wildcats) belong to two well-differentiated clusters (average Ф ST = 0.159, r st = 0.392, P > 0.001; Analysis of molecular variance [AMOVA]). We identified from c. 5% to 10% cryptic hybrids in southern and central European populations. In contrast, wild-living cats in Hungary and Scotland showed deep signatures of genetic admixture and introgression with domestic cats. The European wildcats are subdivided into five main genetic clusters (average Ф ST = 0.103, r st = 0.143, P > 0.001; AMOVA) corresponding to five biogeographic groups, respectively, distributed in the Iberian Peninsula, central Europe, central Germany, Italian Peninsula and the island of Sicily, and in north-eastern Italy and northern Balkan regions (Dinaric Alps). Approximate Bayesian Computation simulations supported late Pleistocene-early Holocene population splittings (from c. 60 k to 10 k years ago), contemporary to the last Ice Age climatic changes. These results provide evidences for wildcat Mediterranean refuges in southwestern Europe, but the evolution history of eastern wildcat populations remains to be clarified. Historical genetic subdivisions suggest

  20. Consequences of the Solar System passage through dense interstellar clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yeghikyan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Several consequences of the passage of the solar system through dense interstellar molecular clouds are discussed. These clouds, dense (more than 100 cm-3, cold (10–50 K and extended (larger than 1 pc, are characterized by a gas-to-dust mass ratio of about 100, by a specific power grain size spectrum (grain radii usually cover the range 0.001–3 micron and by an average dust-to-gas number density ratio of about 10-12. Frequently these clouds contain small-scale (10–100 AU condensations with gas concentrations ranging up to 10 5 cm-3. At their casual passage over the solar system they exert pressures very much enhanced with respect to today’s standards. Under these conditions it will occur that the Earth is exposed directly to the interstellar flow. It is shown first that even close to the Sun, at 1 AU, the cloud’s matter is only partly ionized and should mainly interact with the solar wind by charge exchange processes. Dust particles of the cloud serve as a source of neutrals, generated by the solar UV irradiation of dust grains, causing the evaporation of icy materials. The release of neutral atoms from dust grains is then followed by strong influences on the solar wind plasma flow. The behavior of the neutral gas inflow parameters is investigated by a 2-D hydrodynamic approach to model the interaction processes. Because of a reduction of the heliospheric dimension down to 1 AU, direct influence of the cloud’s matter to the terrestrial environment and atmosphere could be envisaged.Key words. Interplanetary physics (heliopause and solar wind termination; interplanetary dust; interstellar gas

  1. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Rodela, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., in cooperation with NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), has developed a new Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) controller for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will increase the probability of successfully placing the shuttle into the intended orbit and increase the safety of the Space Transportation System (STS) launches. The AHMS is an upgrade o the current Block II engine controller whose primary component is an improved vibration monitoring system called the Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) that can effectively and reliably monitor the state of the high pressure turbomachinery and provide engine protection through a new synchronous vibration redline which enables engine shutdown if the vibration exceeds predetermined thresholds. The introduction of this system required improvements and modification to the Block II controller such as redesigning the Digital Computer Unit (DCU) memory and the Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS) circuitry, eliminating the existing memory retention batteries, installation of the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, and installation of a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) with accompanying outside world connectors. Test stand hot-fire testing along with lab testing have verified successful implementation and is expected to reduce the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the shuttle ascent phase and improve safely by about 23% according to the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS), leading to a safer and more reliable SSME.

  2. Beam position measurement system at the Fermilab main accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1975-01-01

    The beam position system of the Fermilab Main Ring contains one horizontal and one vertical Electrostatic Beam Pickup in each of the 96 cells of the machine. A pair of 75 ohm cables transmits the induced signal from the machine tunnel to the nearest service building. In each of the 24 service buildings, there is a solid-state multiplexer and a beam position detector which processes the A-B signal pairs to produce an intensity-normalized voltage proportional to beam displacement. This voltage is digitized, read into buffer of the Lockheed MAC A, and in turn transferred to the Xerox 530. Horizontal or vertical orbits can be obtained in 50 millisec. Orbits are obtained at injection and at a Main Ring Sample time, if requested, anywhere on the acceleration cycle. Injection orbits can be flattened automatically by a program that sets dipole trim magnets. (auth)

  3. Main features of ECR ion source vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarc, J.

    1993-01-01

    This is a paper giving a view on the main features of vacuum systems of ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources. It is still very interesting to use such a source as a possible source of high charge state ions at upgrading present heavy particle accelerators. Scaling relationships are given as a basis for understanding the vacuum configurations of ECR ion sources. The relevance of gas desorption effects to vacuum equilibrium and stability is also pointed out. Ion induced pressure instability, a model of hydrogen diffusion and influence of neutral gases on the vacuum stability of ECR ion sources are discussed. 23 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Vulnerability of ecological systems for nuclear war climatic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharuehll, M.; Khatchinson, T.; Kropper, U.; Kharuehll, K.

    1988-01-01

    Vulnerability of ecological systems of Northern hemisphere (terrestrial, aquatic and tropical) as well as Southern one in relation to climatic changes following large nuclear war is considered. When analyzing potential sensitivity of ecological systems to climatic changes, possible consequences are considered for different stress categories under various war scenarios. The above-mentioned stresses correspond to those adopted in published work by Pittok and others. To estimate the less important climatic disturbances a few additional computer-simulated models are developed

  5. The Livingstone Model of a Main Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Anupa; Sweet, Adam; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Livingstone is a discrete, propositional logic-based inference engine that has been used for diagnosis of physical systems. We present a component-based model of a Main Propulsion System (MPS) and say how it is used with Livingstone (L2) in order to implement a diagnostic system for integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) for the Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX). We start by discussing the process of conceptualizing such a model. We describe graphical tools that facilitated the generation of the model. The model is composed of components (which map onto physical components), connections between components and constraints. A component is specified by variables, with a set of discrete, qualitative values for each variable in its local nominal and failure modes. For each mode, the model specifies the component's behavior and transitions. We describe the MPS components' nominal and fault modes and associated Livingstone variables and data structures. Given this model, and observed external commands and observations from the system, Livingstone tracks the state of the MPS over discrete time-steps by choosing trajectories that are consistent with observations. We briefly discuss how the compiled model fits into the overall PITEX architecture. Finally we summarize our modeling experience, discuss advantages and disadvantages of our approach, and suggest enhancements to the modeling process.

  6. The applicability of CFD to simulate and study the mixing process and the thermo-hydraulic consequences of a main steam line break in PWR model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the validation and applicability of CFD to simulate and analyze the thermo-hydraulic consequences of a main steam line break. Extensive validation data come from experiments performed using the Rossendorf coolant mixing model facility. For the calculation, the range of 9 to 12 million hexahe¬dral cells was constructed to capture all details in the interrogation domain in the system. The analysis was performed by running a time-dependent calculation, Detailed analyses were made at different cross-sections in the system to evaluate not only the value of the maximum and minimum temperature, but also the loca¬tion and the time at which it occurs during the transient which is considered to be indicator for the quality of mixing in the system. CFD and experimental results were qualitatively compared; mixing in the cold legs with emergency core cooling systems was overestimated. This could be explained by the sensitivity to the bound¬ary conditions. In the downcomer, the experiments displayed higher mixing: by our assumption this related to the dense measurement grid (they were not modelled. The temperature distribution in the core inlet plane agreed with the measurement results. Minor deviations were seen in the quantitative comparisons: the maximum temperature difference was 2ºC.

  7. Limbic system, the main focus of dementia syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1990-01-01

    Alzheimer disease and multi-infarct dementia are two entirely different diseases producing almost the same abnormalities as dementia syndrome. The statistical studies with MRI to locate the focus of dementia syndrome in the neocortex was an absolute failure. With MRI there is drastic atrophy and destruction of the amygdala and hippocampus suggesting the limbic system as the focus of dementia syndrome. Destruction of the limbic system in particular amygdala and hippocampus produced the functional obstruction brought about by the marked reduction in the glucose utilization with PET in the bilateral temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients. It is considered the fundamental type of dementia syndrome. Aside from this, there is a type wherein simultaneous and symmetrical reductions in glucose utilization of the frontal association cortex and the motor association cortex in the anterior part of the neocortex. This is referred to as type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more than type I. Based on these results, it is thought that limbic system is the main focus of dementia syndrome. (author)

  8. The radiological assessment system for consequence analysis - RASCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) has been developed for use during a response to radiological emergencies. The model estimates doses for comparison with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and thresholds for acute health effects. RASCAL was designed to be used by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel who report to the site of a nuclear accident to conduct an independent evaluation of dose and consequence projections and personnel who conduct training and drills on emergency responses. It allows consideration of the dominant aspects of the source term, transport, dose, and consequences. RASCAL consists of three computational tools: ST-DOSE, FM-DOSE, and DECAY. ST-DOSE computes source term, atmospheric transport, and dose to man from accidental airborne releases of radionuclides. The source-term calculations are appropriate for accidents at U.S. power reactors. FM-DOSE computes doses from environmental concentrations of radionuclides in the air and on the ground. DECAY computes radiological decay and daughter in-growth. RASCAL 2.1 is a DOS application that can be run under Windows 3.1 and 95. RASCAL has been the starting point for other accident consequence models, notably INTERRAS, an international version of RASCAL, and HASCAL, an expansion of RASCAL that will model radiological, biological, and chemical accidents

  9. The Main Asteroid Belt: The Crossroads of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, main belt asteroids are leftover planetary building blocks that never accreted enough material to become planets. They are therefore keys to understanding how the Solar System formed and evolved. They may also provide clues to the origin of life, as similar bodies may have delivered organics and water to the early Earth.Strong associations between asteroids and meteorites emerged thanks to multi-technique observations, modeling, in situ and sample return analyses. Spacecraft images revolutionized our knowledge of these small worlds. Asteroids are stunning in their diversity in terms of physical properties. Their gravity varies by more orders of magnitude than its variation among the terrestrial planets, including the Moon. Each rendezvous with an asteroid thus turned our geological understanding on its head as each asteroid is affected in different ways by a variety of processes such as landslides, faulting, and impact cratering. Composition also varies, from ice-rich to lunar-like to chondritic.Nearly every asteroid we see today, whether of primitive or evolved compositions, is the product of a complex history involving accretion and one or more episodes of catastrophic disruption that sometimes resulted in families of smaller asteroids that have distinct and indicative petrogenic relationships. These families provide the best data to study the impact disruption process at scales far larger than those accessible in laboratory. Tens, perhaps hundreds, of early asteroids grew large enough to thermally differentiate. Their traces are scattered pieces of their metal-rich cores and, more rarely, their mantles and crusts.Asteroids represent stages on the rocky road to planet formation. They have great stories to tell about the formation and evolution of our Solar System as well as other planetary systems: asteroid belts seem common around Sun-like stars. We will review our current knowledge on their properties, their link to

  10. Beam monitors and transverse feedback system of TRISTAN Main Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieiri, T.; Ishii, H.; Kishiro, J.; Mizumachi, Y.; Mori, K.; Nakajima, K.; Ogata, A.; Shintake, T.; Tejima, M.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of 30 GeV TRISTAN Main Ring (MR) started in 1983 soon after the commissioning of 8 GeV Accumulation Ring (AR). The authors prepared 392 position monitors, 6 synchrotron radiation monitors, 9 screen monitors, 2 DCCT's, 3 scrapers, 12 bunch monitors, transverse feedback systems for two beams and DC separators. Since the required monitoring devices of AR and MR are almost the same, the experiences in AR were very useful in the design of MR monitors. However, machine parameters of two rings are very different and the authors had to review the performance of each item. From the monitor point of view the most important is the difference of revolution frequency; 794.6 kHz for AR and 99.33 kHz for MR. This means that average beam current of MR is 1/8 as small as AR current with the same bunch number and intensity. Therefore, the sensitivity of each monitor must be better in MR. The second difference is that MR should be used as a collider from the beginning. Therefore they must prepare for multi-beam and multi-bunch operation

  11. LHC beam dump system Consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Uythoven, J

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system is one of the most critical systems concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated using particle tracking in MAD-X, including an asynchronous dump action, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setting up and operation of these protection elements are discussed.

  12. Climate-induced tree mortality: Earth system consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D.; Macalady, Alison K.; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Saleska, Scott; Huxman, Travis E.; McDowell, Nathan G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and the Earth system. Terrestrial ecosystems and, in particular, forests exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets [Bonan, 2008; Chapin et al., 2008].According to new research, tree mortality associated with elevated temperatures and drought has the potential to rapidly alter forest ecosystems, potentially affecting feedbacks to the Earth system [Allen et al., 2010]. Several lines of recent research demonstrate how tree mortality rates in forests may be sensitive to climate change—particularly warming and drying. This emerging consequence of global change has important effects on Earth system processes (Figure 1).

  13. Policy research programme on particulate matter. Main results and policy consequences; Beleidsgericht onderzoeksprogramma fijn stof. Resultaten op hoofdlijnen en beleidsconsequenties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, J.; Koelemeijer, R.B.A.

    2010-06-15

    The Policy-Oriented Research on Particulate Matter (BOP) programme aimed at increasing knowledge on particulate matter so that future policy can be supported adequately. The main research objectives of BOP were to improve knowledge of the PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations, composition and sources of particulate matter; Increasing the understanding of the behavior of particulate matter in the urban area; Determining the trends in concentrations of particulate matter and its components; and Clarify the impact of policies in the past and the future of PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations. The first part of this study presents the main findings of the study, discussing the (chemical) composition of particulate matter, concentration trends, expected developments, health impacts, policy implications, and how to proceed with the particulate matter dossier. In the second part of the study the underlying analysis are elaborated. [Dutch] Het Beleidsgericht Onderzoeksprogramma Particulate Matter (BOP) had als doel om de kennis over fijn stof te vergroten, zodat beleidsvorming in de toekomst adequater ondersteund kan worden. De belangrijkste onderzoeksdoelstellingen van BOP waren: Verbeteren van de kennis over de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties, de samenstelling en de bronnen van fijn stof; Vergroten van het inzicht in het gedrag van fijn stof in het stedelijke gebied; Bepalen van de trends in fijnstofconcentraties en de bestanddelen ervan; Verduidelijken van de invloed van beleidsmaatregelen in het verleden en de toekomst op de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties. Het eerste deel van deze studie, de Bevindingen, presenteert de belangrijkste uitkomsten van het onderzoek. Hierbij komen achtereenvolgens aan de orde: de (chemische) samenstelling van fijn stof, trends in concentraties, verwachte ontwikkelingen, gezondheidseffecten, beleidsconsequenties en hoe nu verder te gaan met het dossier fijn stof. In het tweede deel van de studie, de Verdieping, staat de verantwoording en worden de

  14. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    .5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis......The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis...... on a depreciation period of 20 years. This highlights the importance of taking into account the impacts of land use in assessing the environmental impacts of livestock production....

  15. European Reliability Data System: main developments and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amesz, J.; Capobianchi, S.; Kalfsbeek, H.W.; Mancini, G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper revises the aims and objectives of the European Reliability Data System (ERDS), a centralized system collecting and organizing information related to the operation of light water reactors. The paper first describes the recent developments of the four data banks constituting the system: Component Event Data Bank, Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, Operating Unit Status Report and Reliability Parameters Data Bank. Then several issues are discussed referring mostly to the status of classification schemes and their use, to the operation of the banks (data input and transcoding) and to the retrieval and utilization of the information; in this latter case particularly the analysis potential of the data collection scheme of the AORS (Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System) is demonstrated. Finally, emphasis is given to the increasing role which artificial intelligence techniques such as natural language and expert systems and fuzzy logic may play in improving the future capabilities of the system

  16. Structure of the main control system for the FTU device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panaccione, L.

    1983-01-01

    The computer based control system for FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) machine is a distributed intelligence control system consisting of various subsystems, called ''specific units''. A specific unit can work as a stand-alone small system or as a part of more complex systems, together with other units, in any possible combination. In the case of combined units working mode, a dedicated specific unit performs supervisory functions. Communication between specific units is done on a dedicated bus-like network, in the form of temporary master-slave relationship. There are three groups of specific units: Plant Control Units, Supervisory Control Unit and Synoptic Handling Unit. Performances and structures of these specific units are described. In addition, a very simple hard-wired safety system works in parallel with the computer based control system, in order to save personnel and apparatus. (author)

  17. Governing education systems: International trends and main topics

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Dejan

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents different approaches and international trends in governing education systems and analyses the causes of the perceived convergence of education policies in this field. An overview of the situation in countries throughout the world indicates an increasingly greater mutual similarity in governing education systems, especially when it comes to insisting on the following: searching for balance in (de)centralization of the system, increasing school autonomy, reinforcing the role ...

  18. Embedded expert system for space shuttle main engine maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, J.; Thompson, W.; Homsley, T.; Teoh, W.; Jones, J.; Lewallen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The SPARTA Embedded Expert System (SEES) is an intelligent health monitoring system that directs analysis by placing confidence factors on possible engine status and then recommends a course of action to an engineer or engine controller. The technique can prevent catastropic failures or costly rocket engine down time because of false alarms. Further, the SEES has potential as an on-board flight monitor for reusable rocket engine systems. The SEES methodology synergistically integrates vibration analysis, pattern recognition and communications theory techniques with an artificial intelligence technique - the Embedded Expert System (EES).

  19. ARAC: A flexible real-time dose consequence assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.S.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since its beginning, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), an emergency radiological dose assessment service of the US Government, has been called on to do consequence assessments for releases into the atmosphere of radionuclides and a variety of other substances. Some of the more noteworthy emergency responses have been for the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power reactor accidents, and more recently, for a cloud of gases from a rail-car spill into the Sacramento river of the herbicide metam sodium, smoke from hundreds of burning oil wells in Kuwait, and ash clouds from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The spatial scales of these responses range from local, to regional, to global, and the response periods from hours, to weeks, to months. Because of the variety of requirements of each unique assessment, ARAC has developed and maintains a flexible system of people, computer software and hardware

  20. ["Handle with care": about the potential unintended consequences of oracular artificial intelligence systems in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabitza, Federico; Alderighi, Camilla; Rasoini, Raffaele; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2017-10-01

    Decisional support systems based on machine learning (ML) in medicine are gaining a growing interest as some recent articles have highlighted the high diagnostic accuracy exhibited by these systems in specific medical contexts. However, it is implausible that any potential advantage can be obtained without some potential drawbacks. In light of the current gaps in medical research about the side effects of the application of these new AI systems in medical practice, in this article we summarize the main unexpected consequences that may result from the widespread application of "oracular" systems, that is highly accurate systems that cannot give reasonable explanations of their advice as those endowed with predictive models developed with ML techniques usually are. These consequences range from the intrinsic uncertainty in the data that are used to train and feed these systems, to the inadequate explainability of their output; through the risk of overreliance, deskilling and context desensitization of their end-users. Although some of these issues may be currently hard to evaluate due to the still scarce adoption of these decisional systems in medical practice, we advocate the study of these potential consequences also for a more informed policy of approval beyond hype and disenchantment.

  1. Dinoflagellate Blooms and Physical Systems in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    interests lie in studying the modes of coupling of primary production and physical systems. xi xii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION " Hallo !" said Piglet, "what are...HISTORICAL DATA " Hallo , Pooh," said Rabbit. " Hallo , Rabbit. Fourteen, wasn’t it?" "What was?" "My pots of honey what I was counting." "Fourteen, that’s

  2. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arenz, M.; Dragoun, Otokar; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebeda, Ondřej; Ryšavý, Miloš; Sentkerestiová, Jana; Slezák, Martin; Špalek, Antonín; Vénos, Drahoslav; Zbořil, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, APR (2016), P04011 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/1896; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : gas systems and purification * neutriono detectors * spectrometers Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  3. TASKA-M exhaust system and its main components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeldt, K.W.; Mueller, R.A.; Schramm, K.

    1985-01-01

    TASKA-M is a study for a mirror based D-T plasma device for fusion technology tests. Mature technology was applied whereever possible. The axial confinement time is relatively short, resulting in a large gas throughput compared to the fusion power level of 6.8 MW. The technological requirements of the exhaust system will not cause undue development problems in either of the two major areas: highly loaded dumps for the conversion of the escaping particle and plasma streams to thermal gas; vacuum pumping facilities. (orig.)

  4. Space shuttle main propulsion pressurization system probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastiras, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that, in post-Challenger discussions with Congressional Committees and the National Research Council Risk Management Oversight Panel, criticism was levied against NASA because of the inability to prioritize the 1300+ single point failures. In the absence of a ranking it was difficult to determine where special effort was needed in failure evaluation, in design improvement, in management review of problems, and in flight readiness reviews. The belief was that the management system was overwhelmed by the quantity of critical hardware items that were on the Critical Items List (CIL) and that insufficient attention was paid to the items that required it. Congressional staff members from Congressman Markey's committee who have oversight responsibilities in the nuclear industry, and specifically over the nuclear power supplies for NASA's Galileo and Ulysses missions, felt very strongly that the addition of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to the existing Failure Mode Effects Analysis/Hazard Analysis (FMEA/HA) methods was exceedingly important. Specifically, the Markey committee recognized that the inductive, qualitative component-oriented FMEA could be supplemented by the deductive, quantitative systems-oriented PRA. Furthermore, they felt that the PRA approach had matured to the extent that it could be used to assess risk, even with limited shuttle-specific failure data. NASA responded with arguments that the FMEA/HA had illuminated all significant failure modes satisfactorily and that no failure rate data base was available to support the PRA approach

  5. Socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS in the family system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among patients admitted in in-patient department and those attending integrated ... reported loss of job, decreased family income, increased expenditure for care seeking, and faced greater economic consequences, reflected by selling assets.

  6. Implementation of a Proficiency-Based Diploma System in Maine: Phase II--District Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvernail, David L.; Stump, Erika K.; McCafferty, Anita Stewart; Hawes, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the findings from Phase II of a study of Maine's implementation of a proficiency-based diploma system. At the request of the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Affairs of the Maine Legislature, the Maine Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) has conducted a two-phased study of the implementation of Maine law…

  7. Conceptual design of the EU DEMO EC-system: main developments and R&D achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granucci, G.; Aiello, G.; Alberti, S.; Avramidis, K. A.; Braunmüller, F.; Bruschi, A.; Chelis, J.; Franck, J.; Figini, L.; Gantenbein, G.; Garavaglia, S.; Grossetti, G.; Illy, S.; Ioannidis, Z.; Jelonnek, J.; Kalaria, P.; Latsas, G.; Moro, A.; Pagonakis, I. Gr.; Peponis, D.; Poli, E.; Rispoli, N.; Rzesnicki, T.; Scherer, T.; Strauss, D.; Thumm, M.; Tigelis, I.; Tsironis, C.; Wu, C.; Franke, T.; Tran, M. Q.

    2017-11-01

    For the development of a DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant the design of auxiliary heating systems is a key activity in order to achieve controlled burning plasma. The present heating mix considers electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) with a target power to the plasma of about 50 MW for each system. The main tasks assigned to the EC system are plasma breakdown and assisted start-up, heating to L-H transition and plasma current ramp up to burn, MHD stability control and assistance in plasma current ramp down. The consequent requirements are used for the conceptual design of the EC system, from the RF source to the launcher, with an extensive R&D program focused on relevant technologies to be developed. Gyrotron: the R&D and Advanced Developments on EC RF sources are targeting for gyrotrons operating at 240 GHz, considered as optimum EC Current Drive frequency in case of higher magnetic field than for the 2015 EU DEMO1 baseline. Multi-purpose (multi-frequency) and frequency step-tunable gyrotrons are under investigation to increase the flexibility of the system. As main targets an output power of significantly above 1 MW (target: 2 MW) and a total efficiency higher than 60% are set. The principle feasibility at limits of a 236 GHz, conventional-cavity and, alternatively, of a 238 GHz coaxial-cavity gyrotron are under investigation together with the development of a synthetic diamond Brewster-angle window technology. Advanced developments are on-going in the field of multi-stage depressed collector technologies. Transmission line (TL): different TL options are under investigation and a preliminary study of an evacuated quasi-optical multiple-beam TL, considered for a hybrid solution, is presented and discussed in terms of layout, dimensions and theoretical losses. Launcher: remote steering antennas have been considered as a possible launcher solution especially under the constraints to

  8. Coherence of Radial Implicative Fuzzy Systems with Nominal Consequents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coufal, David

    -, č. 4 (2006), s. 60-66 ISSN 1509-4553 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : implicative fuzzy system * radial fuzzy system * nominal output space * coherence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  9. Economic consequences of investing in sensor systems on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of investment in sensor systems on productivity change, using farm accounting data. Farm accounting data for the years 2008–2013 was available for 217 Dutch dairy farms. In addition, information was available on the adoption of sensor systems

  10. In situ corrosion potential measurements in the main recirculation system of the Barsebaeck 1 BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molander, A.; Karlberg, G.

    1994-01-01

    In situ corrosion potential measurements are performed in one of the main recirculation loops of the Barsebaeck 1 BWR. The installation was performed close to a stainless steel ring where crack indications have earlier been obtained by nondestructive testing. Simultaneous measurements were performed in the residual heat removal system and in a side-stream system. The purpose of the measurements was to investigate any differences in the corrosion potential of stainless steel between the monitoring point in the main recirculation system and the residual heat removal system, which has earlier been used for hydrogen dosage surveillance. The results show that the corrosion potential in the main recirculation system and the residual heat removal system can differ. The differences depend on the hydrogen doserate and the main recirculation flow. Under certain circumstances the corrosion potential in the main recirculation system was up to two hundred millivolts higher in the main recirculation system compared to the residual heat removal system. For future hydrogen water chemistry surveillance it is recommended to perform the corrosion potential monitoring in the main recirculation system. Measurements in the residual heat removal system are recommended for backup reasons

  11. Causes, consequences, and reversal of immune system aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Berent-Maoz, Beata; Dorshkind, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    The effects of aging on the immune system are manifest at multiple levels that include reduced production of B and T cells in bone marrow and thymus and diminished function of mature lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid tissues. As a result, elderly individuals do not respond to immune challenge as robustly as the young. An important goal of aging research is to define the cellular changes that occur in the immune system and the molecular events that underlie them. Considerable progress has been made in this regard, and this information has provided the rationale for clinical trials to rejuvenate the aging immune system.

  12. Product Configuration Systems and Consequences for Productivity and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are systems to produce quotations to potential buyers of the products an enterprise produces. Typically the products are complex and will first be produced according to specific needs from the customers. From twelve case studies in Danish industry...... with informations about expected and realised costs and benefits in implemented PCS's we have the following results: the three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, and 3)using less resources.The results achieved are in accordance...

  13. [Aging of the respiratory system: anatomical changes and physiological consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketata, W; Rekik, W K; Ayadi, H; Kammoun, S

    2012-10-01

    The respiratory system undergoes progressive involution with age, resulting in anatomical and functional changes that are exerted on all levels. The rib cage stiffens and respiratory muscles weaken. Distal bronchioles have reduced diameter and tend to be collapsed. Mobilized lung volumes decrease with age while residual volume increases. Gas exchanges are modified with a linear decrease of PaO(2) up to the age of 70 years and a decreased diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. Ventilatory responses to hypercapnia, hypoxia and exercise decrease in the elderly. Knowledge of changes in the respiratory system related to advancing age is a medical issue of great importance in order to distinguish the effects of aging from those of diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Pathology of motivation system – reasons and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define the dysfunction of the motivational process and the presentation accompanying this issue causes and effects. Pathologies of the incentive system in this day and age are quite a frequently occurring phenomenon in Polish companies. This is accompanied by increasing ignorance of employers in the area of motivation, incompetence immediate superiors in the field of personnel management, as well as advancing the level of unemployment. Employees are evaluated throu...

  15. Development of new type main instrumentation system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imase, Masahiro; Okamoto, Hiroki

    1998-01-01

    Main basic technology of the forth generation control panel is soft operation in console type control panel. New type main instrumentation system is consisted of a large display device, operation console and operation command console. An operation support system, new alarm system and its specification are developed. The monitoring method for the safety system is an important item for soft operation of main control panel. The method is constructed by the basic set with one CRT in the regular use system and two FDP (Flat Display Panel) in the safety system. The monitoring function is unified by CRT and the operation function is carried out by small FDP separated by each train. This method consolidate control operation of the regular use system and the safety system. Layout of these instruments are setted out under consideration of operation control, movement and psychological comment. (S.Y.)

  16. Tax systems and tax reforms in south and East Asia: Overview of the tax systems and main policy tax issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Luigi; Fumagalli, Laura; Gandullia, Luca

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the main aspects of taxation in South and East Asia. Particolar attention is given to the main issues which emerge from the tax systems of China, India, Japan, Malysia, South Korea and Thailand

  17. Pathology of motivation system – reasons and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define the dysfunction of the motivational process and the presentation accompanying this issue causes and effects. Pathologies of the incentive system in this day and age are quite a frequently occurring phenomenon in Polish companies. This is accompanied by increasing ignorance of employers in the area of motivation, incompetence immediate superiors in the field of personnel management, as well as advancing the level of unemployment. Employees are evaluated through the prism of cheap labour and so they are treated. Lack of motivation and appropriate way to combat forms of harassment or discrimination in the workplace causes subordinates loss of self-esteem and commitment to duties performed. Thus, this could lead to excessive stress or so burnout, and sometimes even the death of the employee.

  18. From Craftsperson to Teacher: A Planning Document for a Vocational Teacher Development System in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Gordon A., Jr.; Rog, James

    This document is intended to stimulate the development of a statewide system to support the improvement of teaching in Maine's secondary vocational schools. It is arranged in three parts. Part 1 assesses the professional demands on Maine's vocational teachers in the following competency areas: understanding students, managing the laboratory…

  19. Application of GIS in prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingyu; Shi Zhongqi

    2002-01-01

    The assessment and prediction software system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant (GNARD2.0) is a GIS-based software system. The spatial analysis of radioactive materials and doses with geographic information is available in this system. The structure and functions of the GNARD system and the method of applying ArcView GIS are presented

  20. Replacement of electrical protection of generation (main generator, main transformer and auxiliary transformers) and new associated monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archilla, J.

    2013-01-01

    The replacement of the electrical protection of generation is a technological quantum leap, since moving from an analog system (known by) (all, intuitive and visual) to a digital (integrates the hardware on a single computer, much more powerful and programmable). The keys to overcoming the challenge are know to manage the technological leap, the operational limitations of plant (keep operating the)preferred sources of energy) and make a good design (including a review independent of the configuration of the relays, taking into account the experience (operational available).

  1. Operating experience with an on-line vibration control system for PWR main coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, J.; Stegemann, D.; Vortriede, A.

    1996-01-01

    The main circulation pumps are key components of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors, because the availability of the main circulation pumps has a direct influence on the availability and electrical output of the entire plant. The on-line automatic vibration control system ASMAS was developed for early failure detection during the normal operation of the main circulation pumps in order to avoid unexpected outages and to establish the possibility of preventive maintenance of the pumps. This system is permanently and successfully operating in three German 1300 MW el NPP's with PWR and has been successfully tested in a 350 MW el NPP with a PWR. (orig.)

  2. Operating experience with an on-line vibration control system for PWR main coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, J.; Stegemann, D.; Vortriede, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main circulation pumps are key components of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors (PWRs), because the availability of the main circulation pumps has a direct influence on the availability and electrical output of the entire plant. The on-line automatic vibration control system ASMAS was developed for early failure detection during the normal operation of the main circulation pumps in order to avoid unexpected outages and to establish the possibility of preventive maintenance of the pumps. This system is permanently and successfully operating in three German 1300 MW e1 NPP's with PWR and has been successfully tested in a 350 MW e1 NPP with a PWR. (orig.)

  3. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Briegel, C.; Brown, B.C.; Capista, D.; Drennan, C.; Fellenz, B.; Knickerbocker, K.; Lewis, J.D.; Marchionni, A.; Needles, C.; Olson, M.

    2011-01-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and show a number of examples of its use in both the Main Injector and Tevatron.

  4. Operational experiences of fire protection system of the main circulation pump rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katus, Ferenc; Sipos, Laszlo

    1989-01-01

    The physical security of the nuclear power plant equipment is described for the main circulation pump system of PNPP, Hungary. The fire alarm and protection system consists of closed-circuit tv and radio monitoring system, a Larsen camera and fire extinguisher system, a Cerberus microprocessor controlled fire alarm system, special fireman paging and walkie-talkie radio system. In addition, remote operated alarm system, smoke and flame detectors, Auer type fireman protective clothing and attached throat-transmitter automatic switchover radios have been acquired to provide maximum security. (R.P.) 5 refs.; 2 figs

  5. The hydraulic lifting system for the main magnets of CYCIAE-30 cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Zhen Lu; Chen Rong Fan; Chu Cheng Jie

    2002-01-01

    The oil-line structure, control system and their working principles of the hydraulic lifting system for the main magnets of CYCIAE-30 cyclotron are introduced. The six years practice proves that the specification of the system matches the requirements: the oil cylinder maximum stroke of 850 mm, the eight slot positioning dowels repositioning accuracy of +-0.01 mm, the two oil cylinders moving in step accuracy of 5-10 mm. The system is safe, reliable and easy to be operated

  6. Main Directions in Ensuring Business Continuity for Information and Telecommunication Systems of High Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Mikhailovich Egorov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Continuity Program, Information and Telecommunication System of Bank of Russia The results of the analysis of the main directions to ensure business continuity for the information and telecommunication systems of high availability in relation to expansion of the problems range, their intellectualization and the modern IT implementation are given.

  7. Design and performance of the external tank portion of the Space Shuttle main propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquist, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    The External Tank (ET) portion of the Space Transportation System (STS) Main Propulsion System (MPS) has achieved flight performance requirements on four very successful flights. This paper will describe the design requirements and goals, ground and flight performance achievements, lessons learned and future plans.

  8. The main principles of small systems development for manifacturing and research automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Nicolaiciuc

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Major factors are described that determine the development of small automation systems of manufacturing and research for use in small production companies and research centers. The requirements towards stations and networks are emphasized and their properties are outlined along with the main systems development trends.

  9. Flexibility analysis of main primary heat transport system : Narora Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents flexibility analysis problem of main primary heat transport system and the approximate analysis that has been made to estimate the loads coming on major equipments. The primary heat transport system for Narora Atomic Power Project is adopting vertical steam generators and pumps equally divided on either side of the reactor with inter-connecting pipes and feeders. Since the system is mainly spring supported with movement of a few points in certain direction defined but no anchorage, it represents a good problem for flexibility analysis which can only be solved in one step by developing a good computer programme. (author)

  10. Seveso II directive in prevention and mitigation of consequences of chemical terrorism, safety management systems in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klicek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mayor accidents caused by hazardous substances are great threat to public. The consequences are often very severe with great number of injured people or even deaths and a great material damage. Statistic data shows that the main cause of accidents in hazardous installations is 'human factor', including the possibility of terrorist attack, or classic military operations. In order to ensure effective chemical safety, the actions should be taken by industry, public authorities, communities and other stake holders to prevent industrial accidents. Safety should be an integral part of the business activities of an enterprise, and all hazardous installations should strive to reach the ultimate goal of zero incidents. Safety management systems (SMS) should include appropriate technology and processes, as well as establishing an effective organisational structure. To mitigate consequences of accidents, emergency planning, land-use planning and risk communication is necessary. Adequate response in the event of accident should limit adverse consequences to health, environment and property. Follow-up actions are needed to learn from the accidents and other unexpected events, in order to reduce future incidents. In this paper the author will discus the implementing of SEVESO II directive in obtaining two main goals: major accident prevention and mitigation of consequences for men and environment in case of possible terrorist actions or military activities. Some Croatian experiences in implementing of UNEP APELL Programme, and its connection with SEVESO II directive will be shown.(author)

  11. Effect of systemic administration of essential oils and main components on honeybee survival

    OpenAIRE

    Porrini, M.P.; Pires, Sância; Rossini, C.; Garrido, P.M.; Hermida, L.; Gende, L.B.; Eguaras, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Controlling bee diseases with non contaminant products is a challenge in apicultural research. Essential oils and their main components have been widely studied as alternative treatments for honeybee pathologies [1, 2, 3]. However, there is little information about prolonged systemic administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in laboratory assays, the effect of long term consumption of essential oils and main components. Oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from Lau...

  12. The main cooling system of the RSG-GAS: a study of dissabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyono

    1999-01-01

    The RSG-GAS has been operating since August 1987 until now. During that period it has been many papers explain the performance and the safety features of the system. Those papers does not mean any think to the system, but the wickednesses of the system. Is still remain stick on it. This paper describes the wickednesses of the RSG-GAS main cooling system with an objective that their will be a corrective action of the management to improve the system so that such wickednesses can be minimized or even be avoided

  13. Main chains and eigen modes of fractional order hybrid multipendulum system dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrih, Katica R. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Nis, Mathematical Institute SANU, ul. Vojvode Tankosic 3/V/22, 18000- Nis (Serbia)], E-mail: katica@masfak.ni.ac.yu, E-mail: khedrih@eunet.yu

    2009-10-15

    A short review of the author's research results in the area of the dynamics of pendulum hybrid systems, as well as an analytical approach to the discrete material particle system dynamics containing creep elements with the constitutive stress-strain relation described by the fractional order derivative are presented. The first results presented in this paper are analytical expressions of the modes of three pendulum fractional order system vibrations. It is shown that two time modes (partial solutions) are pure periodical, and four time modes (particular solutions) are 'creeping modes' as a result of the creeping properties influencing standard light elements to the periodical pendulum mode vibrations with corresponding frequencies. By using an analytical approach, for a fractional order hybrid multipendulum system dynamics, eigen main chains, eigen modes and main coordinates are obtained. The second and generalized result concerns the fractional order hybrid multipendulum system dynamics.

  14. Main chains and eigen modes of fractional order hybrid multipendulum system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrih, Katica R.

    2009-01-01

    A short review of the author's research results in the area of the dynamics of pendulum hybrid systems, as well as an analytical approach to the discrete material particle system dynamics containing creep elements with the constitutive stress-strain relation described by the fractional order derivative are presented. The first results presented in this paper are analytical expressions of the modes of three pendulum fractional order system vibrations. It is shown that two time modes (partial solutions) are pure periodical, and four time modes (particular solutions) are 'creeping modes' as a result of the creeping properties influencing standard light elements to the periodical pendulum mode vibrations with corresponding frequencies. By using an analytical approach, for a fractional order hybrid multipendulum system dynamics, eigen main chains, eigen modes and main coordinates are obtained. The second and generalized result concerns the fractional order hybrid multipendulum system dynamics.

  15. Main control computer security model of closed network systems protection against cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, Bilal

    2014-06-01

    The model that brings the data input/output under control in closed network systems, that maintains the system securely, and that controls the flow of information through the Main Control Computer which also brings the network traffic under control against cyber-attacks. The network, which can be controlled single-handedly thanks to the system designed to enable the network users to make data entry into the system or to extract data from the system securely, intends to minimize the security gaps. Moreover, data input/output record can be kept by means of the user account assigned for each user, and it is also possible to carry out retroactive tracking, if requested. Because the measures that need to be taken for each computer on the network regarding cyber security, do require high cost; it has been intended to provide a cost-effective working environment with this model, only if the Main Control Computer has the updated hardware.

  16. The MainSTREAM component platform: a holistic approach to microfluidic system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, David; Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Søe, Martin Jensen; Hemmingsen, Mette; Alberti, Massimo; Coman, Vasile; Petersen, Jesper; Emnéus, Jenny; Kutter, Jörg P; Snakenborg, Detlef; Jørgensen, Flemming; Clausen, Christian; Holmstrøm, Kim; Dufva, Martin

    2013-06-01

    A microfluidic component library for building systems driving parallel or serial microfluidic-based assays is presented. The components are a miniaturized eight-channel peristaltic pump, an eight-channel valve, sample-to-waste liquid management, and interconnections. The library of components was tested by constructing various systems supporting perfusion cell culture, automated DNA hybridizations, and in situ hybridizations. The results showed that the MainSTREAM components provided (1) a rapid, robust, and simple method to establish numerous fluidic inputs and outputs to various types of reaction chips; (2) highly parallel pumping and routing/valving capability; (3) methods to interface pumps and chip-to-liquid management systems; (4) means to construct a portable system; (5) reconfigurability/flexibility in system design; (6) means to interface to microscopes; and (7) compatibility with tested biological methods. It was found that LEGO Mindstorms motors, controllers, and software were robust, inexpensive, and an accessible choice as compared with corresponding custom-made actuators. MainSTREAM systems could operate continuously for weeks without leaks, contamination, or system failures. In conclusion, the MainSTREAM components described here meet many of the demands on components for constructing and using microfluidics systems.

  17. Non-volatile main memory management methods based on a file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    There are upcoming non-volatile (NV) memory technologies that provide byte addressability and high performance. PCM, MRAM, and STT-RAM are such examples. Such NV memory can be used as storage because of its data persistency without power supply while it can be used as main memory because of its high performance that matches up with DRAM. There are a number of researches that investigated its uses for main memory and storage. They were, however, conducted independently. This paper presents the methods that enables the integration of the main memory and file system management for NV memory. Such integration makes NV memory simultaneously utilized as both main memory and storage. The presented methods use a file system as their basis for the NV memory management. We implemented the proposed methods in the Linux kernel, and performed the evaluation on the QEMU system emulator. The evaluation results show that 1) the proposed methods can perform comparably to the existing DRAM memory allocator and significantly better than the page swapping, 2) their performance is affected by the internal data structures of a file system, and 3) the data structures appropriate for traditional hard disk drives do not always work effectively for byte addressable NV memory. We also performed the evaluation of the effects caused by the longer access latency of NV memory by cycle-accurate full-system simulation. The results show that the effect on page allocation cost is limited if the increase of latency is moderate.

  18. Main Principles of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia - 13333

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshnikov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    For the last several years the System of the Spent Nuclear Fuel management in Russia was seriously changed. The paper describes the main principles of the changes and the bases of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia. Among such the bases there are the theses with the interesting names like 'total knowledge', 'pollutant pays' and 'pay and forget'. There is also a brief description of the modern Russian SNF Management Infrastructure. And an outline of the whole System. The System which is - in case of Russia - is quite necessary to adjust SNF accumulation and to utilize the nuclear heritage. (authors)

  19. Design optimization of single-main-amplifier KrF laser-fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be a very promising laser fusion driver for commercial applications. The Large Amplifier Module for the Aurora Laser System at Los Alamos is the largest KrF laser in the world and is currently operating at 5 kJ with 10 to 15 kJ eventually expected. The next generation system is anticipated to be a single-main-amplifier system that generates approximately 100 kJ. This paper examines the cost and efficiency tradeoffs for a complete single-main-amplifier KrF laser fusion experimental facility. It has been found that a 7% efficient $310/joule complete laser-fusion system is possible by using large amplifier modules and high optical fluences

  20. Study of an effective structural system with rational parameters based on main energy principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toporkova Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective architectural and construction system with rational parameters based on main energy principles applied to construction of buildings and constructions with a small-step and large-step frames, representing the metal frame of full factory production collected in spatial system on high-strength bolts and previously strained combined prestressed concrete slabs which formed without timbering is proposed in this paper. The main constructive and technological features of the proposed frame, which allows reducing construction period, increasing working efficiency, and reducing labor intensity by using factory-made materials, quick erection of all process elements through the use of highstrength bolts is considered. The advantages of this constructive system in comparison with alternative systems are shown. The basic concepts of "rational decisions" to the design, namely, the objective of the optimal management of the structure parameters, which can not only improve its basic performance indicators, but also, and most importantly, improve operational reliability, is presented.

  1. The MainSTREAM Component Platform: A Holistic Approach to Microfluidic System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Søe, Martin Jensen

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic component library for building systems driving parallel or serial microfluidic-based assays is presented. The components are a miniaturized eight-channel peristaltic pump, an eight-channel valve, sample-to-waste liquid management, and interconnections. The library of components...... was tested by constructing various systems supporting perfusion cell culture, automated DNA hybridizations, and in situ hybridizations. The results showed that the MainSTREAM components provided (1) a rapid, robust, and simple method to establish numerous fluidic inputs and outputs to various types...... with tested biological methods. It was found that LEGO Mindstorms motors, controllers, and software were robust, inexpensive, and an accessible choice as compared with corresponding custom-made actuators. MainSTREAM systems could operate continuously for weeks without leaks, contamination, or system failures...

  2. Immediate and short-term consequences of secondhand smoke exposure on the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-03-01

    This review critically evaluates the existing biological evidence regarding the immediate and short-term respiratory consequences of secondhand smoke (SHS). A 1-h exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels generates a marked inflammatory reaction and significant decrements on lung function. These deleterious effects of SHS are exacerbated when physical activity follows the SHS exposure, particularly in less fit individuals. The main respiratory effect mechanisms of SHS include a direct induction of growth factors resulting in airway remodelling and alterations in nitric oxide regulation. Pharmacological agents that increase either apical membrane chloride conductance or basolateral membrane potassium conductance may be of therapeutic benefit in patients with diseases related to SHS exposure. Moreover, treatment with statins has shown beneficial effects towards preventing the SHS-induced pulmonary hypertension, vascular remodelling, and endothelial dysfunction. Based on recently discovered evidence, even brief and short-term exposures to SHS generate significant adverse effects on the human respiratory system. Future research directions in this area include the concentrations of tobacco smoke constituents in the alveolar milieu following SHS exposure, individual susceptibility to SHS, as well as pharmacological treatments for reversing the SHS-induced airway remodelling.

  3. Scale Mismatches in Social-Ecological Systems: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme S. Cumming

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale is a concept that transcends disciplinary boundaries. In ecology and geography, scale is usually defined in terms of spatial and temporal dimensions. Sociological scale also incorporates space and time, but adds ideas about representation and organization. Although spatial and temporal location determine the context for social and ecological dynamics, social-ecological interactions can create dynamic feedback loops in which humans both influence and are influenced by ecosystem processes. We hypothesize that many of the problems encountered by societies in managing natural resources arise because of a mismatch between the scale of management and the scale(s of the ecological processes being managed. We use examples from southern Africa and the southern United States to address four main questions: (1 What is a "scale mismatch?" (2 How are scale mismatches generated? (3 What are the consequences of scale mismatches? (4 How can scale mismatches be resolved? Scale mismatches occur when the scale of environmental variation and the scale of social organization in which the responsibility for management resides are aligned in such a way that one or more functions of the social-ecological system are disrupted, inefficiencies occur, and/or important components of the system are lost. They are generated by a wide range of social, ecological, and linked social-ecological processes. Mismatches between the scales of ecological processes and the institutions that are responsible for managing them can contribute to a decrease in social-ecological resilience, including the mismanagement of natural resources and a decrease in human well-being. Solutions to scale mismatches usually require institutional changes at more than one hierarchical level. Long-term solutions to scale mismatch problems will depend on social learning and the development of flexible institutions that can adjust and reorganize in response to changes in ecosystems. Further research is

  4. The main technological R and D challenges for future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billot, Ph.; Carre, F.

    2006-01-01

    The search for natural resources saving, for a minimum production of radioactive wastes and for the direct use of high temperature heat in industrial applications, are the main context elements that influence today the development of future nuclear systems. The priority has been given to fast neutron systems with closed fuel cycle, while the second goal requires a very high temperature system. The common technological challenges of the very-high temperature gas-cooled thermal neutron system (VHTR) and of the gas-cooled fast neutron system (GFR) are the high temperature resistant materials, the helium generic technology, and the gas turbine technology of the power generation system. The specific problems raised by both systems concern the fuel and the management of accidental situations. (J.S.)

  5. Water hammer calculation and analysis in main feedwater system of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Han Weishi

    2010-01-01

    The main feedwater system of a nuclear power plant is an important part in ensuring the cooling of the steam generator. Moreover, it is the main pipe section where water hammers frequently occur. Studying the regular patterns of water hammers to the main feedwater system is significant to the stable operation of the system. The paper focuses on the study of water hammers through Flowmaster's transient calculating function to establish a mathematical model with boundary conditions such as a feedwater pump, control valves, etc.; calculation of the water hammers pressure when feedwater pumps and control valves shut down; exporting the instantaneous change in solution of pressure. Combined with engineering practical examples, the conclusions verify the viability of calculating the water hammers pressure through Flowmaster's transient function, increasing the periods of closure of control valves and feedwater pumps control water hammers effectively, changing the intervals of closing signals to feedwater pumps and control valves to relieve hydraulic impact. This could be a guideline for practical engineering design and system optimization. (authors)

  6. Understanding the Space Shuttle Main Engine Hydraulic Actuation System and Reviewing Its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWade, Robert J.; Minor, Robert B.; McNutt, Leslie M.

    2010-01-01

    The complex engine start and thrust control requirements of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) require unique valve, actuator and control system hardware. The Hydraulic Actuation System (HAS) was designed, developed, and now operates to meet tight engine control requirement limits to assure safe, reliable and correct engine thrust at all times. The actuator is designed to be fail safe and fail operate in the areas where redundancy is important. The HAS has an additional pneumatic operating capability that insures a safe sequential closure of all actuators and propellant valves in the event of the loss of hydraulic system pressure or loss of electrical closed loop control of the actuator. The objective of this paper is to provide a complete description of the actuator s internal operating system, along with its interaction with all SSME system interfaces. Additionally the paper addresses the challenges, problems identified, and corrected, and lessons learned, during the course of the almost 35 years of engine operation.

  7. Asteroids as tracers of solar system formation: Probing the interior of primordial main belt asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, P.

    2017-09-01

    Asteroids in our solar system are metallic, rocky and/or icy objects, ranging in size from a few meters to a few hundreds of kilometers. Whereas we now possess constraints for the surface composition of most D>100 km primordial main-belt asteroids, little is known regarding their internal structure. Yet, this is a fundamental property whose characteristics result directly from (a) their formation location, (b) their time of formation, and (c) their collisional history. Characterizing the internal structure of the main compositional classes of asteroids would therefore allow us to address entirely new questions regarding the earliest stages of planetesimal formation and their subsequent collisional and dynamical evolution. To achieve this goal, we will - via an ESO Large Program (LP) that was awarded 152h on VLT/SPHERE (the observations will be spread over 4 semesters from April 1st, 2017 till March 30, 2019 in service mode) - carry out disk-resolved observations of a substantial fraction of all D>100 km main-belt asteroids (sampling the four main compositional classes) at high angular resolution with VLT/SPHERE throughout their rotation. These observations will enable us to derive their volume (via their 3-D shape) which combined with already existing mass estimates will allow us to determine their bulk density and hence to characterize their internal structure. Such information will, in turn, provide unprecedented constraints on solar system formation models such as the Nice and Grand Tack models.

  8. A portable, low-cost, 3D-printed main magnetic field system for magnetic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iksung Kang

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a portable, low-cost, 3D-printed system for main magnetic field is proposed to suggest a solution for accessibility problems of current magnetic imaging systems, e.g. MRI scanner, their size and cost. The system consists of twelve pairs of NdFeB N35 permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array in a 3D-printed, cylindrical container based on FEM simulation results by COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4b. Its magnetic field homogeneity and field strength were measured by Hall sensors, WSH-135 XPAN2 by Wilson Semiconductor, and the container was printed by 3DISON H700 by Rokit. The system generated a 5-mm imaging quality FOV and main magnetic field of 120 mT with a 12 % error in the field strength. Also, a hundred dollar was enough for the manufacture of the system with a radius of 6 cm and height of 10 cm. Given the results, I believe the system will be useful for some magnetic imaging applications, e.g. EPRI and low-field MRI.

  9. Research on the proficient machine system. Main part; Jukutatsu machine system no chosa kenkyu. Honpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Because the succession of techniques requiring proficient technologies is becoming difficult year by year, the proficient machine system was proposed. Most of such techniques are dependent on intuition or experience difficult to express numerically, and also require flexible adaptation to work conditions. The above system was studied theoretically to realize acquisition of techniques and adaptation to situation changes (cf. the theoretical part). Seven important proficient works with strong industrial need and social impact were selected, and in addition, these were restricted for four fields such as maintenance, machinery, testing/adjustment and welfare industries. The proficient machine featured by self-progress and evolution of abilities was studied in three stages such as execution of only translated works, establishing of optimum combination of functions with procedures, and automatic construction of new works. The learning method of robots, the mechanism of adaptive process for system proficiency, and feedback system were studied as approaches. Bio-actuator was also studied as elemental technology. 10 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Environmental decision support system on base of geoinformational technologies for the analysis of nuclear accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, T.C.; Maigan, M.; Arutyunyan, R.V.; Bolshov, L.A.; Demianov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The report deals with description of the concept and prototype of environmental decision support system (EDSS) for the analysis of late off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents and analysis, processing and presentation of spatially distributed radioecological data. General description of the available software, use of modem achievements of geostatistics and stochastic simulations for the analysis of spatial data are presented and discussed

  11. From Retrieval to Communication: The Development, Use, and Consequences of Digital Documentary Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Rob; Crawford, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Traditional themes of information science must be expanded to accommodate systematic understandings of ways to design effective documentary systems and anticipate their social consequences. The field of social informatics offers important concepts, theories, and methods that give this kind of inquiry a sound scientific basis. Social informatics…

  12. Consequences of the release of chemical pollutants on the transfers of radiioactive products in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    With the increasing rate of industrial activities, aquatic systems undergo, more and more frequently, the accumulation of chemical and radioactive wastes released separatly or associated in the same discharge. An attempt is made to evaluate the consequence of the association of pollutants on the transfers of neutron activation radionuclides. Emphasis is given to heavy metal pollution and complexing agents [fr

  13. Differential rotation on both components of the pre main-sequence binary system HD 155555

    OpenAIRE

    Dunstone, N. J.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Cameron, A. Collier; Marsden, S. C.; Jardine, M.; Barnes, J. R.; Vlex, J. C. Ramirez; Donati, J. -F.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first measurements of surface differential rotation on a pre-main sequence binary system. Using intensity (Stokes I) and circularly polarised (Stokes V) timeseries spectra, taken over eleven nights at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), we incorporate a solar-like differential rotation law into the surface imaging process. We find that both components of the young, 18 Myr, HD 155555 (V824 Ara, G5IV + K0IV) binary system show significant differential rotation. The equator-pole...

  14. Issues regarding Risk Effect Analysis of Digitalized Safety Systems and Main Risk Contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors of safety-critical digital systems affect overall plant risk. In order to assess this risk effect, a risk model of a digitalized safety system is required. This article aims to provide an overview of the issues when developing a risk model and demonstrate their effect on plant risk quantitatively. Research activities in Korea for addressing these various issues, such as the software failure probability and the fault coverage of self monitoring mechanism are also described. The main risk contributors related to the digitalized safety system were determined in a quantitative manner. Reactor protection system and engineered safety feature component control system designed as part of the Korean Nuclear I and C System project are used as example systems. Fault-tree models were developed to assess the failure probability of a system function which is designed to generate an automated signal for actuating both of the reactor trip and the complicated accident-mitigation actions. The developed fault trees were combined with a plant risk model to evaluate the effect of a digitalized system's failure on the plant risk. (authors)

  15. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Maine Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  16. New data acquisition system for beam loss monitor used in J-PARC main ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, K.; Toyama, T.; Kamikubota, N.; Yoshida, S.; Matsushita, J.; Wakita, T.; Sugiyama, M.; Morino, T.

    2018-04-01

    A new data acquisition system has been developed continually as a part of the development of a new beam loss monitor (BLM) system for the J-PARC main ring. This development includes a newly designed front-end isolation amp that uses photo-couplers and a VME-based new analog-to-digital converter (ADC) system. Compared to the old amp, the new amp has a 10 times higher conversion impedance for the input current to the output voltage; this value is 1 M Ω. Moreover, the bandwidth was improved to from DC to 50 kHz, which is about two orders of magnitude greater than the previously used bandwidth. The theoretical estimations made in this study roughly agree with the frequency response obtained for the new system. The new ADC system uses an on-board field-programmable gate array chip for signal processing. By replacing the firmware of this chip, changes pertaining to future accelerator upgrade plans may be introduced into the new ADC system; in addition, the ADC system can be used in other applications. The sampling speed of the system is 1 MS/s, and it exhibits a 95 dBc spurious-free dynamic range and 16.5 effective number of bits. The obtained waveform and integrated charge data are compared with two reference levels in the ADC system. If the data exceeds the reference level, the system generates an alarm to dump the beams. By using the new data acquisition system, it was proved that the new BLM system shows a wide dynamic range of 160 dB. In this study, the details of the new data acquisition system are described.

  17. Geological characteristics of the main deposits in the world. Geological characteristics of French uranium deposits; their consequences on the different stages of valorisation. The uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.; Lenoble, A.; Mabile, J.

    1958-07-01

    This document gathers three contributions. In the first one, after having recalled data regarding uranium ore and metal reserves in Canada, USA, South Africa and France, the author describes and discusses the geological and mineral characteristics of the main deposits in Canada (Great Bear Lake, Ace-Verna and other deposits of the Beaverlodge district, Gunnar, Blind River and Bancroft), in the USA (New Mexico, Colorado and Arizona), and in South Africa (similar structure as observed in Blind River). The second contribution addresses the French uranium deposits by firstly presenting, describing and classifying vein deposits (five types are distinguished) and sedimentary deposits in different geological formations, and by secondly discussing the impacts of these characteristics on exploration, surface exploration works, and mining works. The third contribution proposes an overview of the uranium market: comments of world productions (conventional extraction processes and technical peculiarities, costs and prices, reserves and production in Canada, USA, South Africa, France, Australia and others), presentation of the French program (location and production capacity of uranium production plants, locations of ore extraction), overview of the current situation of the world market (price levels, possible prices after 1962), discussion of the comparison between demands and supplies, overview of the French uranium policy

  18. Systemic consequences of poor oral health in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Harun; Akar, Gulcan Coskun; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Stenvinkel, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the oral cavity, such as periodontitis and other manifestations of poor oral health, are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may contribute to increased morbidity and mortality because of systemic consequences such as inflammation, infections, protein-energy wasting, and atherosclerotic complications. Poor oral health in CKD patients may thus represent an important, but often overlooked, problem. Several studies show that uremic patients have higher rates of decayed, missing, and filled teeth, loss of attachment, and periapical and mucosal lesions than the general population. The consequences of poor oral health may be more severe in CKD patients because of advanced age, common comorbidities such as diabetes, concurrent medications, and a state of immune dysfunction that may increase the risk for systemic consequences of periodontitis and other oral and dental pathologic conditions. Poor dentition and other signs of poor oral health should be an alarm clock also at early stages of CKD. However, it remains to be determined whether more successful management of poor oral health and periodontitis will reduce the risk of inflammation, infection, protein-energy wasting, and atherosclerotic complications in CKD patients. This review explores etiological factors and potential systemic consequences of poor oral health in CKD patients as well as possible preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  19. Assessment of passive safety system performance under main steam line break accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.; Choi, S.W.; Yang, J.; Lee, D.Y.; Rassame, S.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An integral test of MSLB was conducted in a small-scale test facility, i.e. PUMA which is scaled to generation III + BWR applications. • GDCS as an ECCS provided adequate supply of water to keep RPV coolant level well above TAF. • PCCS kept containment below design pressure during long-term cooling phase. - Abstract: A generation III + Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) which relies on natural circulation has evolved from earlier BWR designs by incorporating passive safety features which require no emergency injection pump and no operator action or Alternating Current (AC) power supply. The generation III + BWR’s passive safety systems include the Automatic Depressurization System (ADS), the Suppression Pool (SP), the Standby Liquid Control System (SLCS), the Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS), the Isolation Condenser System (ICS), and the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). The ADS is actuated to rapidly depressurize the reactor leading to the GDCS injection. The large amount of water in the SP condenses steam from the reactor. The SLCS provides makeup water to the reactor. The GDCS injects water into the reactor by gravity head and provides cooling to the core. The ICS and the PCCS are used to remove the decay heat from the reactor. The objective of this paper is to analyze the response of passive safety systems under the Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). A Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) test has been conducted in the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) which is scaled to represent the generation III + BWR. The main results of PUMA MSLB test were that the reactor coolant level was well above the Top of Active Fuel (TAF) and the reactor containment pressure has remained below the design pressure. In particular, the minimum water level (1.706 m) was 5% higher than the TAF (1.623 m) and the containment maximum pressure (271 kPa) was 35% lower than the safety limit (414 kPa), respectively

  20. Contribution of pheromones processed by the main olfactory system to mate recognition in female mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal J. Baum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until recently it was widely believed that the ability of female mammals (with the likely exception of women to identify and seek out a male breeding partner relied on the detection of non-volatile male pheromones by the female’s vomeronasal organ and their subsequent processing by a neural circuit that includes the accessory olfactory bulb, vomeronasal amygdala, and hypothalamus. Emperical data are reviewed in this paper that demonstrate the detection of volatile pheromones by the main olfactory epithelium of female mice which, in turn, leads to the activation of a population of glomeruli and abutting mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB. Anatomical results along with functional neuroanatomical data demonstrate that some of these MOB mitral cells project to the vomeronasal amygdala. These particular MOB mitral cells were selectively activated (i.e., expressed Fos protein by exposure to male as opposed to female urinary volatiles. A similar selectivity to opposite sex urinary volatiles was also seen in mitral cells of the accessory olfactory bulb of female mice. Behavioral data from female mouse, ferret, and human are reviewed that implicate the main olfactory system, in some cases interacting with the accessory olfactory system, in mate recognition.

  1. CONCEPT OF "GENERIC ORIGIN" AND CHRISTIAN VALUES AS THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF PAVEL VASILYEV'S ARTISTIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Viktorovna Popova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contemplates the system of moral and aesthetic values which predetermined the main characteristics of Pavel Vasilyev’s artistic system, and traces the main stages of his creative biography. The main attention is paid to his key works – poems The Song about Death of Cossack Army, Salt Revolt, Khristolyubovskiye Printed Cottons, Summer, and August, as well as the poems written during the period of 1930–1937 (Farewell to Friends, Stonemason, Old Moscow, Serafi m Dagaev’s Town, Horse, Camel, Injured Song, Oath on Chalice. The article raises the question about the most important role of the concept of “generic origin”, Christian values and Christian symbolism in Vasilyev’s poetics and studies the problem of using various forms of verbal folk art in the art structure of his poems for the reflection of Russian orthodox traditions. The axiological approach and methods of historical typological and structural semiotic methods for studying art texts are used.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin Apostoaie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To know and to understand the factors within a financial system that significantly influences the institutions behaviour and the market responses to the central bank actions is of great importance for the monetary authorities and for the achievement of their monetary policy objectives. In Romania, the National Bank must pay special attention to financial institutions given their significant role in the process of financial intermediation (bank-based system. This study aims to conduct an investigation of the main coordinates of the Romanian financial system that are relevant for the study of the monetary policy transmission mechanism. The study focuses on the following features of the Romanian financial system: financial deepening, the existence of a bank-based system, the concentration degree of the Romanian banking sector, the balance sheet structure of monetary financial institutions and the soundness of the banking system. The study also considers the effects of the recent financial market turmoil on the financial system. The span of the empirical study covers the period after 2000 but brings to the forefront the period before and after October 2008. We believe that this research provides useful information for a future analysis of the Romanian monetary policy transmission mechanism.

  3. Digitized operator evaluation system for main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Yan Shengyuan; Chen Wenlong

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the human-machine system matching relation of main control room in nuclear power plant accurately and efficiently, the expression and parameters of operator human body model were analyzed, and the evaluation required function of digital operator was determined. Based on the secondary development technology, the digital operator evaluation body model was developed. It could choose generation, gender, operation posture, single/eyes horizon, and left/right hand up to the domain according to the needs of specific evaluation, it was used to evaluate whether display information can be visible and equipment can be touch, and it also has key evaluation functions such as workspace and character visibility at the same time. The examples show that this method can complete the evaluation work of human-machine matching relation for main control room of nuclear power plant accurately, efficiently and quickly, and achieve the most optimal human-machine coordination relationship. (authors)

  4. Beyond the Main Belt: Properties of Solar System Objects using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Shannon; Ivezic, Z.; Juric, M.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, SDSS has reinvigorated the research of asteroid color properties by producing a large volume of accurate color data to several magnitudes fainter completeness limit than available before. To date, SDSS has observed over 200,000 moving objects in five photometric bands. The resulting moving object catalog (``SDSSMOC'') can be downloaded from http://www.sdss.org/science/. We used SDSSMOC to search for, and study properties of solar system objects whose observed angular velocity indicates distances between the main belt and the Kuiper Belt. Extensive visual selection was used to clean the candidate list from various contaminants. We summarize the results of this search and discuss a color vs. semi-major axis relationship for asteroids beyond the main belt.

  5. Intelligent Driver Support System functions in cars and their potential consequences on safety

    OpenAIRE

    PAUZIE, A; AMDITIS, A

    2011-01-01

    This section will provide an overview of the Intelligent Driver Support System (IDSS) functions, describing primary characteristics of the systems as well as their impact on road safety. Two main types of systems will be described: In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). The functions of IVIS that are addressed are navigation, traffic and other information, and information coming from other vehicles or from the infrastructure. ADAS provide driver s...

  6. Migration of Older to New Digital Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has the primary mission to advance nuclear power by resolving socio-technical issues through research and development (R&D). One DOE-NE activity supporting this mission is the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. LWRS has the overall objective to sustain the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through conducting R&D across multiple “pathways,” or R&D focus areas. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and related information systems in operating U.S. NPPs. This work involves (1) ensuring that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) implementing digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Under the LWRS Advanced II&C pathway, Human Factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been conducting R&D in support of NPP main control room (MCR) modernization activities. Work in prior years has focused on migrating analog I&C systems to new digital I&C systems (). In fiscal year 2016 (FY16), one new focus area for this research is migrating older digital I&C systems to new and advanced digital I&C systems. This report summarizes a plan for conducting a digital-to-digital migration of a legacy digital I&C system to a new digital I&C system in support of control room modernization activities.

  7. Duct corrosion in the ventilating air conditioning system for Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Takashi; Minami, Akiko; Fukuba, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Higashidori Nuclear Power Station, start-of-operation in December 2005, is a relatively new plant. We decided to get original data of air duct condition to determine maintenance policy of air duct, because planned maintenance of air duct has never been done and the corrosion of air duct has occurred in other plant. In January 2014, we found a corrosion-hole at the downstream of the inlet damper in the ventilating air conditioning system for Main Control Room (MCR). We supposed that the cause of rapid corrosion is related to the characteristic environment of this site. (author)

  8. Dynamic optimization of maintenance and improvement planning for water main system: Periodic replacement approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Choi, Go Bong; Lee, Jong Min [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Chul [Samchully Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) based approach to derive an optimal schedule of maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement of the water main system. The scheduling problem utilizes auxiliary information of a pipe such as the current state, cost, and deterioration model. The objective function and detailed algorithm of dynamic programming are modified to solve the periodic replacement problem. The optimal policy evaluated by the proposed algorithm is compared to several existing policies via Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed decision framework provides a systematic way to obtain an optimal policy.

  9. Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Bradley T.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

  10. A main amplifier circuit and data acquisition system for charged particle detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Rui; Ge Yucheng

    2011-01-01

    The charged particle detector array has huge amounts of signal and needs high counting rate. To meet the requirements, a main amplifier and analog-to-digital conversion circuit based on high-speed op-amp chips and ADC chip was designed. A 51-MCU was used to control the circuit of ADC and the USB communication chip. The signals were digitized and uploaded by the MCU-ADC-USB circuit. The whole system has a compact hardware structure and a reasonable controlling software, which meet the design requirements. (authors)

  11. SYSTEMS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF THE MAIN KINEMATIC CHAIN OF THE VERTICAL TURNING LATHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan PRODAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paperwork presents some systems for the adjustment of the main kinematic chains of theVertical Turning Lathes that have been used within the last 20 years. There are presented adjustment systemsused when having the machine equipped with older type motors, with only one speed, and also modern systemsfor which A.C. motors with the speed adjustable by frequency variation are needed. It insists on the presentrole of the “gearboxes” as torque multipliers and not as speed reducer.

  12. Economic crisis: impact on the health of citizens and consequences on health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karaiskou A.; Malliarou M.; Sarafis P.

    2012-01-01

    The current status of the economy, for which the term financial crisis of 2008 was used, began from the US and evolved due to the globalization crisis internationally to a composite of the economy with the result today to talk more about economic downturn or crisis for many low-and middle-income countries. Employment is one of the main areas affected during an economic crisis and consequently the unemployment rate and employment insecurity rise sharply. The last 20 years in all relevant studi...

  13. Manchester Triage System: main flowcharts, discriminators and outcomes of a pediatric emergency care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Amthauer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objetive: to characterize the care services performed through risk rating by the Manchester Triage System, identifying demographics (age, gender, main flowcharts, discriminators and outcomes in pediatric emergency Method: cross-sectional quantitative study. Data on risk classification were obtained through a search of computerized registration data from medical records of patients treated in the pediatric emergency within one year. Descriptive statistics with absolute and relative frequencies was used for the analysis. Results: 10,921 visits were conducted in the pediatric emergency, mostly male (54.4%, aged between 29 days and two years (44.5%. There was a prevalence of the urgent risk category (43.6%. The main flowchart used in the care was worried parents (22.4% and the most prevalent discriminator was recent event (15.3%. The hospitalization outcome occurred in 10.4% of care performed in the pediatric emergency, however 61.8% of care needed to stay under observation and / or being under the health team care in the pediatric emergency. Conclusion: worried parents was the main flowchart used and recent events the most prevalent discriminator, comprising the hospitalization outcomes and permanency in observation in the pediatric emergency before discharge from the hospital.

  14. Study on the code system for the off-site consequences assessment of severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Mn, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The importance of severe nuclear accidents and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were brought to international attention with the occurrence of severe nuclear accidents caused by the extreme natural disaster at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. In Korea, studies on level 3 PSA had made little progress until recently. The code systems of level 3 PSA, MACCS2 (MELCORE Accident Consequence Code System 2, US), COSYMA (COde SYstem from MAria, EU) and OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Releases in reactor accidents, JAPAN), were reviewed in this study, and the disadvantages and limitations of MACCS2 were also analyzed. Experts from Korea and abroad pointed out that the limitations of MACCS2 include the following: MACCS2 cannot simulate multi-unit accidents/release from spent fuel pools, and its atmospheric dispersion is based on a simple Gaussian plume model. Some of these limitations have been improved in the updated versions of MACCS2. The absence of a marine and aquatic dispersion model and the limited simulating range of food-chain and economic models are also important aspects that need to be improved. This paper is expected to be utilized as basic research material for developing a Korean code system for assessing off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents.

  15. Structure and main operation reg/imes of the film information processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhurkin, V.V.; Krupnov, V.E.; Lisovskij, A.V.; Lyulevich, V.I.; Matveev, V.A.; Polikarpov, V.M.; Tolkachev, D.A.; Fedotov, O.P.

    1980-01-01

    The system is intended for the automatic processing of images of spark and bubble chambers. The main element of the system is the device which takes information from the image using the method of sweep with a light spot in a raster. The device is controlled with the M-6000 computer. The preliminary processing of information is carried out using a specialized device for the identification of track elements and the ES-1010 computer. The system is connected with BESM-6 and BESM-4 on which the final information processing takes place. The full cycle of the automatic processing of chamber images contrains the stages of filtration, spatial restoration the obtaining of kinematic parameters and the statistic processing of results. The filtration stage is characteristic for the automatic processing alone; the system is used at this stage, as a rule, together with a large computer and the complex of filtration software. Depending in the nature and complexity of images, various filtration regimes are used, hence the composition of the system elements used varies

  16. System control for the CLIC main beam quadrupole stabilization and nano-positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Janssens, S; Collette, E; Esposito, M; Fernandez Carmona, P; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C; Kuzmin, A; Leuxe, R; Pfingstner, J; Schulte, D; Snuverink, J

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of the active stabilization and nano-positioning of the CLIC main beam quadrupoles was validated in models and experimentally demonstrated on test benches. Although the mechanical vibrations were reduced to within the specification of 1.5 nm at 1 Hz, additional input for the stabilization system control was received fromintegrated luminosity simulations that included the measured stabilization transfer functions. Studies are ongoing to obtain a transfer function which is more compatible with beam based orbit feedback; it concerns the controller layout, new sensors and their combination. In addition, the gain margin must be increased in order to reach the requirements froma higher vibration background. For this purpose, the mechanical support is adapted to raise the frequency of some resonances in the system and the implementation of force sensors is considered. Furthermore, this will increase the speed of repositioning the magnets between beam pulses. This paper describes the improvement...

  17. LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER MODEL OF MAIN MAGNET SYSTEM AND FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    Large accelerator main magnet system consists of hundreds, even thousands, of dipole magnets. They are linked together under selected configurations to provide highly uniform dipole fields when powered. Distributed capacitance, insulation resistance, coil resistance, magnet inductance, and coupling inductance of upper and lower pancakes make each magnet a complex network. When all dipole magnets are chained together in a circle, they become a coupled pair of very high order complex ladder networks. In this study, a network of more than thousand inductive, capacitive or resistive elements are used to model an actual system. The circuit is a large-scale network. Its equivalent polynomial form has several hundred degrees. Analysis of this high order circuit and simulation of the response of any or all components is often computationally infeasible. We present methods to use frequency decomposition approach to effectively simulate and analyze magnet configuration and power supply topologies.

  18. Overview of the arthritis Cost Consequence Evaluation System (ACCES): a pharmacoeconomic model for celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, D; Goldstein, J L; McGuire, A; Schwartz, J S; Burke, T; Maniadakis, N

    2000-12-01

    Pharmacoeconomic analyses have become useful and essential tools for health care decision makers who increasingly require such analyses prior to placing a drug on a national, regional or hospital formulary. Previous health economic models of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been restricted to evaluating a narrow range of agents within specific health care delivery systems using medical information derived from homogeneous clinical trial data. This paper summarizes the Arthritis Cost Consequence Evaluation System (ACCES)--a pharmacoeconomic model that has been developed to predict and evaluate the costs and consequences associated with the use of celecoxib in patients with arthritis, compared with other NSAIDs and NSAIDs plus gastroprotective agents. The advantage of this model is that it can be customized to reflect local practice patterns, resource utilization and costs, as well as provide context-specific health economic information to a variety of providers and/or decision makers.

  19. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: project overview and main results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Massarutto, Antonio; Ragazzi, Marco; Saccani, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the context, the basic assumptions and the main findings of a joint research project aimed at identifying the optimal breakdown between material recovery and energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the framework of integrated waste management systems (IWMS). The project was carried out from 2007 to 2009 by five research groups at Politecnico di Milano, the Universities of Bologna and Trento, and the Bocconi University (Milan), with funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR). Since the optimization of IWMSs by analytical methods is practically impossible, the search for the most attractive strategy was carried out by comparing a number of relevant recovery paths from the point of view of mass and energy flows, technological features, environmental impact and economics. The main focus has been on mature processes applicable to MSW in Italy and Europe. Results show that, contrary to a rather widespread opinion, increasing the source separation level (SSL) has a very marginal effects on energy efficiency. What does generate very significant variations in energy efficiency is scale, i.e. the size of the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant. The mere value of SSL is inadequate to qualify the recovery system. The energy and environmental outcome of recovery depends not only on "how much" source separation is carried out, but rather on "how" a given SSL is reached. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10{sup -4} Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  1. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10 -4 Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  2. Main components and characteristics of landslide early warning systems operational worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piciullo, Luca; Cepeda, José

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades the number of victims and economic losses due to natural hazards are dramatically increased worldwide. The reason can be mainly ascribed to climate changes and urbanization in areas exposed at high level of risk. Among the many mitigation measures available for reducing the risk to life related to natural hazards, early warning systems certainly constitute a significant cost-effective option available to the authorities in charge of risk management and governance. The aim is to help and protect populations exposed to natural hazards, reducing fatalities when major events occur. Landslide is one of the natural hazards addressed by early warning systems. Landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) are mainly composed by the following four components: set-up, correlation laws, decisional algorithm and warning management. Within this framework, the set-up includes all the preliminary actions and choices necessary for designing a LEWS, such as: the area covered by the system, the types of landslides and the monitoring instruments. The monitoring phase provides a series of important information on different variables, considered as triggering factors for landslides, in order to define correlation laws and thresholds. Then, a decisional algorithm is necessary for defining the: number of warning levels to be employed in the system, decision making procedures, and everything else system managers may need for issuing warnings in different warning zones. Finally the warning management is composed by: monitoring and warning strategy; communication strategy; emergency plan and, everything connected to the social sphere. Among LEWSs operational worldwide, two categories can be defined as a function of the scale of analysis: "local" and "territorial" systems. The scale of analysis influences several actions and aspects connected to the design and employment of the system, such as: the actors involved, the monitoring systems, type of landslide phenomena

  3. Imitative modeling automatic system Control of steam pressure in the main steam collector with the influence on the main Servomotor steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriushin, A. V.; Zverkov, V. P.; Kuzishchin, V. F.; Ryzhkov, O. S.; Sabanin, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The research and setting results of steam pressure in the main steam collector “Do itself” automatic control system (ACS) with high-speed feedback on steam pressure in the turbine regulating stage are presented. The ACS setup is performed on the simulation model of the controlled object developed for this purpose with load-dependent static and dynamic characteristics and a non-linear control algorithm with pulse control of the turbine main servomotor. A method for tuning nonlinear ACS with a numerical algorithm for multiparametric optimization and a procedure for separate dynamic adjustment of control devices in a two-loop ACS are proposed and implemented. It is shown that the nonlinear ACS adjusted with the proposed method with the regulators constant parameters ensures reliable and high-quality operation without the occurrence of oscillations in the transient processes the operating range of the turbine loads.

  4. Welfare, inequality and financial consequences of a multi-pillar pension system. A reform in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Olivera

    2010-01-01

    The distributional impact of the structural pension reform in Latin American countries has been largely absent in the economic debate. However, this reform may widen inequality in old-age and reduce welfare. In this paper we study the consequences of implementing a multi-pillar system in one of these countries. We take advantage of available administrative records for Peruvian workers to estimate inequality in pensions, pension debt and welfare. Overall, our results show that the pension debt...

  5. Modulation of stress consequences by hippocampal monoaminergic, glutamatergic and nitrergic neurotransmitter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joca, Sâmia Regiane Lourenço; Ferreira, Frederico Rogério; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2007-08-01

    Several findings relate the hippocampal formation to the behavioural consequences of stress. It contains a high concentration of corticoid receptors and undergoes plastic modifications, including decreased neurogenesis and cellular remodelling, following stress exposure. Various major neurotransmitter systems in the hippocampus are involved in these effects. Serotonin (5-HT) seems to exert a protective role in the hippocampus and attenuates the behavioural consequences of stress by activating 5-HT1A receptors in this structure. These effects may mediate the therapeutic actions of several antidepressants. The role of noradrenaline is less clear and possibly depends on the specific hippocampal region (dorsal vs. ventral). The deleterious modifications induced in the hippocampus by stress might involve a decrease in neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) following glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. In addition to glutamate, nitric oxide (NO) could also be related to these effects. Systemic and intra-hippocampal administration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors attenuates stress-induced behavioural consequences. The challenge for the future will be to integrate results related to these different neurotransmitter systems in a unifying theory about the role of the hippocampus in mood regulation, depressive disorder and antidepressant effects.

  6. Tracking "Large" or "Smal": Boundaries and their Consequences for Veterinary Students within the Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermilya, Jenny R.

    In this dissertation, I use 42 in-depth qualitative interviews with veterinary medical students to explore the experience of being in an educational program that tracks students based on the species of non-human animals that they wish to treat. Specifically, I examine how tracking produces multiple boundaries for veterinary students. The boundaries between different animal species produce consequences for the treatment of those animals; this has been well documented. Using a symbolic interactionist perspective, my research extends the body of knowledge on species boundaries by revealing other consequences of this boundary work. For example, I analyze the symbolic boundaries involved in the gendering of animals, practitioners, and professions. I also examine how boundaries influence the collective identity of students entering an occupation segmented into various specialties. The collective identity of veterinarian is one characterized by care, thus students have to construct different definitions of care to access and maintain the collective identity. The tracking system additionally produces consequences for the knowledge created and reproduced in different areas of animal medicine, creating a system of power and inequality based on whose knowledge is privileged, how, and why. Finally, socially constructed boundaries generated from tracking inevitably lead to cases that do not fit. In particular, horses serve as a "border species" for veterinary students who struggle to place them into the tracking system. I argue that border species, like other metaphorical borders, have the potential to challenge discourses and lead to social change.

  7. Users of the main smartphone operating systems (iOS, Android) differ only little in personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Friedrich M; Stieger, Stefan; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    The increasingly widespread use of mobile phone applications (apps) as research tools and cost-effective means of vast data collection raises new methodological challenges. In recent years, it has become a common practice for scientists to design apps that run only on a single operating system, thereby excluding large numbers of users who use a different operating system. However, empirical evidence investigating any selection biases that might result thereof is scarce. Henceforth, we conducted two studies drawing from a large multi-national (Study 1; N = 1,081) and a German-speaking sample (Study 2; N = 2,438). As such Study 1 compared iOS and Android users across an array of key personality traits (i.e., well-being, self-esteem, willingness to take risks, optimism, pessimism, Dark Triad, and the Big Five). Focusing on Big Five personality traits in a broader scope, in addition to smartphone users, Study 2 also examined users of the main computer operating systems (i.e., Mac OS, Windows). In both studies, very few significant differences were found, all of which were of small or even tiny effect size mostly disappearing after sociodemographics had been controlled for. Taken together, minor differences in personality seem to exist, but they are of small to negligible effect size (ranging from OR = 0.919 to 1.344 (Study 1), ηp2 = .005 to .036 (Study 2), respectively) and may reflect differences in sociodemographic composition, rather than operating system of smartphone users.

  8. Formation of Main Elements of the System Motivation of Human Capital of Construction Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykhina Oksana M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on a necessity to develop system motivation of human capital of construction enterprises. The author gives her own vision of this process on the basis of the system situational approach. The article identifies main requirements, which are made stronger with the necessity of establishment of the system motivation. It generalises the aggregate of components of internal and external environments, which form the structure, requirements to functioning and directions of managerial impact on the genesis of this process, which would facilitate achievement of long-term goals of construction enterprises on the basis of the innovation model of development. Efficiency of functioning of the system motivation of human capital of construction enterprises would depend on accounting in the process of its formation and development of such basic properties as: target orientation, synergetic integrity, availability of the internal organisational structure, ability to restore and resistance to influence of external environment factors, flexibility and dynamism and ecologo-socio-economic efficiency.

  9. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological

  10. Simplified Models for Analysis and Design of the Control System Main Loops of CAREM Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchepareborda, Andres; Flury, Celso

    2000-01-01

    The target of this work is to show a few models developed for control analysis and design of the reactor CAREM's main control loops within a broad range of power (between 40 % and 100%).By one side, it is shown the main features of a analytic model programed in MATLAB.This model is based on fitting steady state points at different power levels of the CAREM's RETRAN model.By the other side, it is shown linear models of black-box type denoting the perturbed behavior of the system for each level power point.These models are identified from temporal responses of CAREM's RETRAN model to perturbed input signals over the different steady power level points.Then the dynamics of these models are verified contrasting the temporal responses of the RETRAN model versus the responses of the MATLAB model and the identified models, in each steady power level point.Also are contrasting the frequency response of the linearization of MATLAB model versus the frequency response of the identified models, in each steady power level point.Either the MATLAB model as the identified models are good enough for the control analysis and design of the three main control loops.The MATLAB model has a few differences against the RETRAN model in the primary pressure output variable, that it must be taken into account in the design of this control loop if this model is used.The aim of these models is to represent in a satisfactory way the dynamics of the plant for a later control analysis and design of the control loops in a frequency range between 0.01 rad/seg and 0.3 rad/seg, and a power range between 40 % and 100 %

  11. The main microelements and phosphorus content of sediments formed in a drinking water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Valentukeviciene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the only source for drinking water supply in Lithuania. Twenty water intakes exploiting Quaternary aquifers are operating in Vilnius City. The main aim of this study was to characterize the heavy metal content of internal pipeline sediments in the water supply network. It also provides a new insight into the accumulation of phosphorus and its variation in pipeline sediments in the study area. The results of this research reflect the level of heavy metals that accumulated during the water supply process. The main microelements detected were lead, nickel, zinc and copper. The research results will be useful for conducting preliminary evaluations of possible microelement accumulation in other similar water supply systems. The evaluation of water supply sediments is considered as one of the most important activities associated with a water safety approach. The results of this research indicate the dependence between phosphorus accumulation and Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni and Cu quantities in the internal sediments of water supply pipelines.

  12. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  13. Use of an expert system data analysis manager for space shuttle main engine test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Ken

    1988-01-01

    The ability to articulate, collect, and automate the application of the expertise needed for the analysis of space shuttle main engine (SSME) test data would be of great benefit to NASA liquid rocket engine experts. This paper describes a project whose goal is to build a rule-based expert system which incorporates such expertise. Experiential expertise, collected directly from the experts currently involved in SSME data analysis, is used to build a rule base to identify engine anomalies similar to those analyzed previously. Additionally, an alternate method of expertise capture is being explored. This method would generate rules inductively based on calculations made using a theoretical model of the SSME's operation. The latter rules would be capable of diagnosing anomalies which may not have appeared before, but whose effects can be predicted by the theoretical model.

  14. Operating experience with LAMPF main beam lines instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dyck, O.B.; Harvey, A.; Howard, H.H.; Roeder, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Instrumentation and control (I and C) for the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) main beam line is based upon central computer control through remote stations which provide input and output to most devices. Operating experience shows that the ability of the computer to give high-quality graphical presentation of the measurements enhances operator performance and instrument usefulness. Experience also shows that operator efficiency degrades rapidly with increasing instrument response time, that is, with increasing delay between the time a control is changed and the result can be observed. For this reason, instrumentation upgrade includes speeding up data acquisition and display times to under 10 s. Similarly, television-viewed phosphors are being retained where possible since their instantaneous response is very useful. Other upgrading of the instrumentation system is planned to improve data accuracy, reliability, redundancy, and instrument radiation tolerance. Past experience is being applied in adding or relocating devices to simplify tuning procedures. (U.S.)

  15. Vibration reduction at the engine-pumps assembly of the main moderator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holostencu, Adriana; Dinu, Marius

    2005-01-01

    Problem of decreasing vibrations in the main moderator motor at Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1 is presented. The moderator pumps are of centrifugal, vertical, single stage and double suction type. Each pump is provided with a main motor (690 Kw, 50 Hz, 6 KV) capable of full rotative speed and a secondary motor, also known as 'pony motor' (15 Kw, 50 Hz, 380 V) capable of a quarter of the full speed. At starting-commissioning stage of Cernavoda NPP, the vibration level in the moderator pump - motor assembly had an average value of 6 mm/s with spurious peaks up to 8 mm/s. It has to be mentioned that operation with a high vibration level may lead to: - a premature wear of the motor bearings; - extra stresses and fatigue in the material of pump and associated pipes. In order to maintain vibration speed to the design limit, the NPP personnel have started investigations since 1997. The main activities were: - verification of the vibration measuring loops; - checking the torque of the bolts that hold the motor's case; - measuring the start-up and nominal currents of the motors in order to determine any phase unbalance; - adjusting the spring hangers from the pumps discharge with simultaneous monitoring of the motor vibration level; - installation of rubber pads in the gap between the motor lugs and the existing seismic supports. None of these actions revealed deviations from the installation requirements or operating parameters. In 1999, a contract with EUROTEST S. A and Stevenson was signed, in order to find a solution to reduce the vibration level. The EUROTEST/ Stevenson action plan contains de following main activities: 1. Creating a calculus model of the moderator system, based on the design drawings provided by Cernavoda NPP; 2. Preparing and performing the vibration measurements in various points of the system; 3. Analyzing the measurements results; 4. Calibrating the calculus model created in step 1, according with the field measurements; 5. Propose a solution to reduce

  16. STUDY ON THE MAIN ASPECT RELATED TO COSTS, GENERATED BY INTEGRATED SYSTEMS IN THE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUSESCU AURELIAN IONUT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions in which the world for some time past threshold Internet era, many Romanian companies yet reducing management applications accounting programs to CIEL, Win a Mentor or ASCON. It is true that the statement should not be generalized, so that, however, the market Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP has evolved, but we must admit that we are still far from being connected to the reality generated by globalisation of technological markets. In other words, for developed countries in terms of technology, ERP constitute the pinnacle of development over five decades of the techniques of economic administration support beneficiary technologies of information. Main challenge consists of the economic integration of all processes and optimize available resources of a global market.. In our country, however, things are different, and about a tradition in Romanian develop IT systems we can't talk about, though without too much excitement..

  17. An Embedded System for Safe, Secure and Reliable Execution of High Consequence Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY,JAMES A.

    2000-08-29

    As more complex and functionally diverse requirements are placed on high consequence embedded applications, ensuring safe and secure operation requires an execution environment that is ultra reliable from a system viewpoint. In many cases the safety and security of the system depends upon the reliable cooperation between the hardware and the software to meet real-time system throughput requirements. The selection of a microprocessor and its associated development environment for an embedded application has the most far-reaching effects on the development and production of the system than any other element in the design. The effects of this choice ripple through the remainder of the hardware design and profoundly affect the entire software development process. While state-of-the-art software engineering principles indicate that an object oriented (OO) methodology provides a superior development environment, traditional programming languages available for microprocessors targeted for deeply embedded applications do not directly support OO techniques. Furthermore, the microprocessors themselves do not typically support nor do they enforce an OO environment. This paper describes a system level approach for the design of a microprocessor intended for use in deeply embedded high consequence applications that both supports and enforces an OO execution environment.

  18. Health consequences and health systems response to the Pacific U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Neal A; Riklon, Sheldon; Alik, Wilfred; Hixon, Allen L

    2007-03-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States detonated 67 thermonuclear devices in the Pacific as part of their U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program (USNWTP). The aggregate explosive power was equal to 7,200 Hiroshima atomic bombs. Recent documents released by the U.S. government suggest that the deleterious effects of the nuclear testing were greater and extended farther than previously known. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government and affected communities have sought refress through diplomatic routes with the U.S. government, however, existing medical programs and financial reparations have not adequately addressed many of the health consequences of the USNWTP. Since radiation-induced cancers may have a long latency, a healthcare infrastructure is needed to address both cancer and related health issues. This article reviews the health consequences of the Pacific USNWTP and the current health systems ability to respond.

  19. Operation of the main feedwater system turbopump following plant trip with total failure of the auxiliary feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas Alvaro, A.M. de; Rosa Martinez, B. de la; Alcaide, F.; Toledano Camara, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Auxiliary Feedwater System (AF) is a safeguard system which has been designed to supply feedwater to the steam generators, cool the primary system and remove decay heat from the reactor when the main feedwater pumps fail due to loss of power or any other reason. Thus, when plant trip occurs, the AF system pumps start up automatically, allowing removal of decay heat from the reactor. However, even though this system (2 motor-driven pumps and 1 turbopump) is highly reliable, injection of water to the steam generators must be ensured when it fails completely. To do this, if plant trip has not been caused by loss of off site power or failure of the Main Feedwater System (FW) turbopumps, one of these turbopumps can be used to achieve removal of decay heat. Since a large amount of steam is consumed by these turbopumps, an analysis has been performed to determine whether one of these pumps can be used and what actions are necessary to inject water into the steam generators. Results show that, for the case in question, a FW turbopump can be used to remove decay heat from the reactor. (author)

  20. Users of the main smartphone operating systems (iOS, Android differ only little in personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich M Götz

    Full Text Available The increasingly widespread use of mobile phone applications (apps as research tools and cost-effective means of vast data collection raises new methodological challenges. In recent years, it has become a common practice for scientists to design apps that run only on a single operating system, thereby excluding large numbers of users who use a different operating system. However, empirical evidence investigating any selection biases that might result thereof is scarce. Henceforth, we conducted two studies drawing from a large multi-national (Study 1; N = 1,081 and a German-speaking sample (Study 2; N = 2,438. As such Study 1 compared iOS and Android users across an array of key personality traits (i.e., well-being, self-esteem, willingness to take risks, optimism, pessimism, Dark Triad, and the Big Five. Focusing on Big Five personality traits in a broader scope, in addition to smartphone users, Study 2 also examined users of the main computer operating systems (i.e., Mac OS, Windows. In both studies, very few significant differences were found, all of which were of small or even tiny effect size mostly disappearing after sociodemographics had been controlled for. Taken together, minor differences in personality seem to exist, but they are of small to negligible effect size (ranging from OR = 0.919 to 1.344 (Study 1, ηp2 = .005 to .036 (Study 2, respectively and may reflect differences in sociodemographic composition, rather than operating system of smartphone users.

  1. Evaluation of Main Compositions of Water Chemistry Data By Graphical Methods, Edremit (Balikesir) Alluvial Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Can; Sedat Çetiner, Ziya

    2015-04-01

    This case study aims to characterize and compare hydrogeochemistry based on major ion composition belonging to the year of 1970's, 2007 and 2008 for Edremit alluvial aquifer system which lies on the northwestern coast of Anatolia. Graphical representations including Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Durov diagrams are applied to ease a systematic interpretation of a wide range of well chemistry data sets. In Piper diagram, water types of the aquifer system are mainly dominated with calcium, carbonate-bicarbonate and sulphate ions. Water types of the site are separated as sulphate or carbonate-bicarbonate ion dominated zones for 1970's data. Comparing data of 1970's, 2007 and 2008 the newest data set is clustered into magnesium dominate zone. This is related to relatively deep groundwater chemistry affect probably resulting from long term groundwater withdrawal for irrigation in the aquifer system. The Schoeller diagram portrays differences of the data set of 1970's, 2007 and 2008 more clearly comparing the Piper diagram. In this diagram, higher portions of magnesium and sulphate composition of the well data belonging to the year of 2007 and 2008 are possibly related to deep routes of groundwater flow paths of the site and/or geothermal water mixing. In Durov diagram, the data set was projected to a rectangular shape and it was not immediately clear to differentiate ionic composition of the water. This is not coincidence because the fact that pH values do not change significantly over the years and its contribution is not substantial comparing to major ion chemistry. Finally, application of hydrogeochemical modeling as a further step was touched upon herein to further depict undergone processes and end-members in the whole aquifer system on Edremit Plain. Keywords: Edremit, groundwater, aquifer, hydrogeochemistry, facies

  2. THE QUADRUPLE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE SYSTEM LkCa 3: IMPLICATIONS FOR STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W.; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Prato, L.; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Badenas, Mariona; Schaefer, G. H.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery that the pre-main-sequence (PMS) object LkCa 3 in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region is a hierarchical quadruple system of M stars. It was previously known to be a close (∼0.''5) visual pair, with one component being a moderately eccentric 12.94 day single-lined spectroscopic binary. A re-analysis of archival optical spectra complemented by new near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy shows both visual components to be double lined; the second one has a period of 4.06 days and a circular orbit. In addition to the orbital elements, we determine optical and NIR flux ratios, effective temperatures, and projected rotational velocities for all four stars. Using existing photometric monitoring observations of the system that had previously revealed the rotational period of the primary in the longer-period binary, we also detect the rotational signal of the primary in the 4.06 day binary, which is synchronized with the orbital motion. With only the assumption of coevality, a comparison of all of these constraints with current stellar evolution models from the Dartmouth series points to an age of 1.4 Myr and a distance of 133 pc, consistent with previous estimates for the region and suggesting that the system is on the near side of the Taurus complex. Similar comparisons of the properties of LkCa 3 and the well-known quadruple PMS system GG Tau with the widely used models from the Lyon series for a mixing length parameter of α ML = 1.0 strongly favor the Dartmouth models

  3. Wireless Self-powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Burkett; Hagen Schempf

    2006-01-31

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design of the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main NDE and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching and

  4. Operation safety of complex industrial systems. Main concepts; Surete de fonctionnement des systemes industriels complexes. Principaux concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingelstein, G

    2009-06-15

    Operation safety consists in knowing, evaluating, foreseeing, measuring and mastering the technological system and human failures in order to avoid their impacts on health and people's safety, on productivity, and on the environment, and to preserve the Earth's resources. This article recalls the main concepts of operation safety: 1 - evolutions in the domain; 2 - failures, missions and functions of a system and of its components: functional failure, missions and functions, industrial processes, notions of probability; 3 - basic concepts and operation safety: reliability, unreliability, failure density, failure rate, relations between them, availability, maintainability, safety. (J.S.)

  5. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut.

  6. Effectiveness of experimental system in children’s mastering of main manual motor skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Galamandjuk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine effectiveness of simulated system of pre-school age children motor functioning’s preventive development for mastering of main movements for manual skills. Material: in the research five years’ children (control group n=150 and experimental group n=120 participated. Results: it was determined that transition from uncomfortable to comfortable for a child conditions of exercises’ fulfillment facilitates quicker formation of required motor program. It is connected with the fact that, independent on orientation of manual motor asymmetry progressing of semi-spheres’ interaction takes place. This interaction is an important condition of increasing of child functioning’s effectiveness in different aspects. Achievement of such result was also facilitated by physical exercises, which children practiced at home. Functioning of physical culture instructor and kindergarten teachers was also important: they formed parents’ conscious position concerning importance of such trainings; recommended effective means and methods. Conclusions: application of the offered system ensures much better result than traditional approach to this problem. It is one of keys to prevention of negative tendencies in development of pre-school age children.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. The main factors controlling petrophysical alteration in hydrothermal systems of the Kuril-Kamchatka island arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, J.; Ladygin, V.; Rychagov, S.; Shanina, V.; Blyumkina, M.

    2009-04-01

    systems are mainly volcanic or volcaniclastic types of Neogene-Quaternary age. Volcanic rocks (lava rocks) are dense with high strength and elastic modulus and low porosity and permeability. The speed of their alteration is low. Basically volcanic rocks form impermeable horizons in the structure of hydrothermal system. But sometimes they form fracture-type reservoir. The origin of fracturing can be various. Volcanoclastic rocks are characterized by lower physical and mechanical properties, higher porosity and permeability. Due to high porosity and permeability they are greatly exposed to thermal fluids so they are altered intensively. Volcaniclastic rocks are the most common host rocks of geothermal reservoirs. Typically they form porous or fracture-porous aquifers. But in some cases they form water confining layers. The well-studied example is Pauzhetskaya hydrothermal system. The main reservoir is composed of highly porous (30-40%) and permeable medium-grained tuffs. The caprock is composed of fine-grained argillized tuffs. They are highly porous but due to small pore size porosity is un-effective for fluid and permeability is low. The temperature and pressure in a hydrothermal system cardinally influence on rocks properties. High-temperature deep fluids (Т>200C) cause the perfect tendency of petrophysical alteration - consolidation, hardening, a decrease of porosity and permeability, and removal of a hygroscopic moisture. This petrophysical tendency is observed independently of composition of fluids. This is the result of the development of high-temperature secondary minerals, which fill pores and cracks, and substitute matrix and phenocrystals. The contacts between grains become strong and dense, intergranular porosity is disappeared that reinforces cementation of rock. The petrophysical alteration caused by low-temperature subsurface fluids (Т<150C) are more difficult and diverse. Depending on what process prevails - rocks leaching, sedimentation of secondary

  9. Long-Range Untethered Real-Time Live Gas Main Robotic Inspection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf; Daphne D' Zurko

    2004-10-31

    Under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) developed an untethered, wireless remote controlled inspection robot dubbed Explorer. The project entailed the design and prototyping of a wireless self-powered video-inspection robot capable of accessing live 6- and 8-inch diameter cast-iron and steel mains, while traversing turns and Ts and elbows under real-time control with live video feedback to an operator. The design is that of a segmented actively articulated and wheel-leg powered robot design, with fisheye imaging capability and self-powered battery storage and wireless real-time communication link. The prototype was functionally tested in an above ground pipe-network, in order to debug all mechanical, electrical and software subsystems, and develop the necessary deployment and retrieval, as well as obstacle-handling scripts. A pressurized natural gas test-section was used to certify it for operation in natural gas at up to 60 psig. Two subsequent live-main field-trials in both cast-iron and steel pipe, demonstrated its ability to be safely launched, operated and retrieved under real-world conditions. The system's ability to safely and repeatably exidrecover from angled and vertical launchers, traverse multi-thousand foot long pipe-sections, make T and varied-angle elbow-turns while wirelessly sending live video and handling command and control messages, was clearly demonstrated. Video-inspection was clearly shown to be a viable tool to understand the state of this critical buried infrastructure, irrespective of low- (cast-iron) or high-pressure (steel) conditions. This report covers the different aspects of specifications, requirements, design, prototyping, integration and testing and field-trialing of the Explorer platform.

  10. Simulation of main steam and feedwater system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoyu

    1996-01-01

    The simulation of main steam and feedwater system is the most important and maximal part in secondary circuit model, including all of main steam and feedwater's thermal-hydraulic properties, except heat-exchange of secondary side of steam generator. It simulates main steam header, steam power in each stage of turbine, moisture separator-reheater, deaerator, condenser, high pressure and low pressure heater, auxiliary feedwater and main steam bypass in full scope

  11. Financial system loss as an example of high consequence, high frequency events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1996-07-01

    Much work has been devoted to high consequence events with low frequency of occurrence. Characteristic of these events are bridge failure (such as that of the Tacoma Narrows), building failure (such as the collapse of a walkway at a Kansas City hotel), or compromise of a major chemical containment system (such as at Bhopal, India). Such events, although rare, have an extreme personal, societal, and financial impact. An interesting variation is demonstrated by financial losses due to fraud and abuse in the money management system. The impact can be huge, entailing very high aggregate costs, but these are a result of the contribution of many small attacks and not the result of a single (or few) massive events. Public awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milikin or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These event,s although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. This paper explores the magnitude of financial system losses and identifies new areas for analysis of high consequence events including the potential effect of malevolent intent.

  12. Unintended adverse consequences of a clinical decision support system: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Erin G

    2017-09-23

    Many institutions have implemented clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). While CDSS research papers have focused on benefits of these systems, there is a smaller body of literature showing that CDSSs may also produce unintended adverse consequences (UACs). Detailed here are 2 cases of UACs resulting from a CDSS. Both of these cases were related to external systems that fed data into the CDSS. In the first case, lack of knowledge of data categorization in an external pharmacy system produced a UAC; in the second case, the change of a clinical laboratory instrument produced the UAC. CDSSs rely on data from many external systems. These systems are dynamic and may have changes in hardware, software, vendors, or processes. Such changes can affect the accuracy of CDSSs. These cases point to the need for the CDSS team to be familiar with these external systems. This team (manager and alert builders) should include members in specific clinical specialties with deep knowledge of these external systems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Replacement of heavy components of the Main Primary System (MPS). Recent innovations made by Framatome ANP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanussot, J.M.; Thevenet, R.

    2006-01-01

    The replacement of heavy components is the result of widespread stress corrosion of Inconel 600 (and alloys 82/182) in the primary system. Following the corrosion of steam generator tubes, which led to the first steam generator replacement (SGR) operations, work has begun on reactor vessel head replacements (RVHR) and pressurizer replacements, pending treatment of the dissimilar butt welds (DBW). The replacement of sections of the Main Primary System is one way of optimizing plant lifetime besides preventing stress corrosion in primary components and combating phenomena as thermal fatigue or certain metallurgical weaknesses. The increase in the number of major operations carried out in the reactor building on PWR and BWR reactor geometries has called for major technical innovations. AREVA, has over the past twenty years carried out more than forty SGRs throughout the world, including the supply of 115 steam generators of all types. This equates to over 60% of all SGR operations performed in Europe and the USA. Today, most SGR operations are performed in the USA, though some still continue in Europe and Asia. Operations have been planned until 2015. The first RVHR operations were carried out in France in 1993, and have been widespread in Europe since 1996 (Spain and Belgium), and in the USA since 2002 (Davis Besse). Since 1993 AREVA, through its subsidiaries Framatome ANP, Jeumont SA and SGT, has performed 72 RVHRs, i.e. most of those carried out in Europe and the USA. Today, RVHR operations take place throughout the world and have been planned until 2014. The first pressurizer replacement took place in the fall of 2005 in Saint Lucie, USA. Others are to follow (Fort Calhoun, Millestone). A significant number of partial or complete pressurizer replacements are now being scheduled. Special focus must be given to this new operation, as a decision is required between the following types of replacements, taking into account the number of pressurizer heaters and the

  14. Systems Analysis, Scenario Construction and Consequence Analysis Definition for SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Robinson, P.; Andersson, Johan; Wingefors, S.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Wene, C.O.

    1995-06-01

    SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. This report uses scenario definition work as a vehicle to introduce the systems approach to performance assessment which has been developed and tested in SITE-94 and which constitutes one of the main advances made during the project. The results of the application of the methodology are presented separately, in the SITE-94 Summary Report. 40 refs, 21 figs, 12 tabs

  15. Heatwave early warning systems and adaptation advice to reduce human health consequences of heatwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dianne; Ebi, Kristie L; Forsberg, Bertil

    2011-12-01

    With climate change, there has been an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of heatwave events. In response to the devastating mortality and morbidity of recent heatwave events, many countries have introduced heatwave early warning systems (HEWS). HEWS are designed to reduce the avoidable human health consequences of heatwaves through timely notification of prevention measures to vulnerable populations. To identify the key characteristics of HEWS in European countries to help inform modification of current, and development of, new systems and plans. We searched the internet to identify HEWS policy or government documents for 33 European countries and requested information from relevant organizations. We translated the HEWS documents and extracted details on the trigger indicators, thresholds for action, notification strategies, message intermediaries, communication and dissemination strategies, prevention strategies recommended and specified target audiences. Twelve European countries have HEWS. Although there are many similarities among the HEWS, there also are differences in key characteristics that could inform improvements in heatwave early warning plans.

  16. Endocrine disruption in aquatic systems: up-scaling research to address ecological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Fredric M; Ormerod, Steve J; Tyler, Charles R

    2018-02-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter biological function in organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations and are a significant threat to aquatic biodiversity, but there is little understanding of exposure consequences for populations, communities and ecosystems. The pervasive nature of EDCs within aquatic environments and their multiple sub-lethal effects make assessments of their impact especially important but also highly challenging. Herein, we review the data on EDC effects in aquatic systems focusing on studies assessing populations and ecosystems, and including how biotic and abiotic processes may affect, and be affected by, responses to EDCs. Recent research indicates a significant influence of behavioural responses (e.g. enhancing feeding rates), transgenerational effects and trophic cascades in the ecological consequences of EDC exposure. In addition, interactions between EDCs and other chemical, physical and biological factors generate uncertainty in our understanding of the ecological effects of EDCs within aquatic ecosystems. We illustrate how effect thresholds for EDCs generated from individual-based experimental bioassays of the types commonly applied using chemical test guidelines [e.g. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)] may not necessarily reflect the hazards associated with endocrine disruption. We argue that improved risk assessment for EDCs in aquatic ecosystems urgently requires more ecologically oriented research as well as field-based assessments at population-, community- and food-web levels. © 2017 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  17. Risk from a pressurized toxic gas system: Part 2, Dispersal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Altenbach, T.J.; Lane, S.G.; Martin, D.W.

    1995-02-01

    During the preparation of a Safety Analysis Report at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. we studied the release of chlorine from a compressed gas experimental apparatus. This paper presents the second pan in a series of two papers on this topic. The first paper focuses on the frequency of an unmitigated release from the system; paper focuses the consequences of the release. The release of chlorine from the experimental apparatus was modeled as an unmitigated blowdown through a 0.25 inch (0.006.4 m) outside diameter tube. The physical properties of chlorine were considered as were the dynamics of the fluid flow problem. The calculated release rate was used as input for the consequence assessment. Downwind concentrations as a function of time were evaluated and then compared to suggested guidelines. For comparison purposes, a typical water treatment plant was briefly studied. The lower hazard presented by the LLNL operation becomes evident when its release is compared to the release of material from a water treatment plant, a hazard which is generally accepted by the public

  18. Risk from a pressurized toxic gas system: Part 2, Dispersal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Martin, D.; Lane, S.G.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1995-04-01

    During the preparation of a Safety Analysis Report at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we studied the release of chlorine from a compressed gas experimental apparatus. This paper presents the second part in a series of two papers on this topic. The first paper focuses on the frequency of an unmitigated release from the system; this paper discusses the consequences of the release. The release of chlorine from the experimental apparatus was modeled as an unmitigated blowdown through a 0.25 inch (0.0064 m) outside diameter tube. The physical properties of chlorine were considered as were the dynamics of the fluid flow problem. The calculated release rate was used as input for the consequence assessment. Downwind concentrations as a function of time were evaluated and then compared to suggested guidelines. For comparison purposes, a typical water treatment plant was briefly studied. The lower hazard presented by the LLNL operation becomes evident when its release is compared to the release of material from a water treatment plant, a hazard which is generally accepted by the public

  19. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of optical telescopes, striving to increase the penetrating power of a telescope has been always the main trend. A real way to solve this problem is to raise the quality of the image (reduction of the image angular size under real conditions of distorting factor and increase a diameter of the main mirror. This is counteracted by the various distorting factors or interference occurring in realtime use of telescopes, as well as by complicated manufacturing processes of large mirrors.It is shown that the most effective method to deal with the influence of distorting factors on the image quality in the telescope is the minimization (through selecting the place to mount a telescope and choosing the rational optical scheme, creating materials and new technologies, improving a design, unloading the mirrors, mounting choice, etc., and then the adaptive compensation of remaining distortions.It should be noted that a domestic concept to design large-sized telescopes allows us to use, in our opinion, the most efficient ways to do this. It means to abandon the creation of "an absolutely rigid and well-ordered" design, providing the passively aligned state telescope optics under operating conditions. The design must just have such a level of residual deformations that their effect can be efficiently compensated by the adaptive system using the segmented elements of the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a corrector.It has been found that in the transmission optical systems to deliver laser power to a remote object, it is necessary not only to overcome the distorting effect of factors inherent in optical information systems, but, additionally, find a way to overcome a number of new difficulties. The main ones have been identified to be as follows:• the influence of laser radiation on the structure components and the propagation medium and, as a consequence, the opposite effect of the structure components and the propagation

  20. Modeling soil organic carbon dynamics and their driving factors in the main global cereal cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Zhang, Wen; Sun, Wenjuan; Li, Tingting; Han, Pengfei

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock are determined by the balance between the carbon input from organic materials and the output from the decomposition of soil C. The fate of SOC in cropland soils plays a significant role in both sustainable agricultural production and climate change mitigation. The spatiotemporal changes of soil organic carbon in croplands in response to different carbon (C) input management and environmental conditions across the main global cereal systems were studied using a modeling approach. We also identified the key variables that drive SOC changes at a high spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) and over a long timescale (54 years from 1961 to 2014). A widely used soil C turnover model (RothC) and state-of-the-art databases of soil and climate variables were used in the present study. The model simulations suggested that, on a global average, the cropland SOC density increased at annual rates of 0.22, 0.45 and 0.69 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 under crop residue retention rates of 30, 60 and 90 %, respectively. Increasing the quantity of C input could enhance soil C sequestration or reduce the rate of soil C loss, depending largely on the local soil and climate conditions. Spatially, under a specific crop residue retention rate, relatively higher soil C sinks were found across the central parts of the USA, western Europe, and the northern regions of China. Relatively smaller soil C sinks occurred in the high-latitude regions of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and SOC decreased across the equatorial zones of Asia, Africa and America. We found that SOC change was significantly influenced by the crop residue retention rate (linearly positive) and the edaphic variable of initial SOC content (linearly negative). Temperature had weak negative effects, and precipitation had significantly negative impacts on SOC changes. The results can help guide carbon input management practices to effectively mitigate climate change through soil C

  1. Modeling soil organic carbon dynamics and their driving factors in the main global cereal cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the soil organic carbon (SOC stock are determined by the balance between the carbon input from organic materials and the output from the decomposition of soil C. The fate of SOC in cropland soils plays a significant role in both sustainable agricultural production and climate change mitigation. The spatiotemporal changes of soil organic carbon in croplands in response to different carbon (C input management and environmental conditions across the main global cereal systems were studied using a modeling approach. We also identified the key variables that drive SOC changes at a high spatial resolution (0.1°  ×  0.1° and over a long timescale (54 years from 1961 to 2014. A widely used soil C turnover model (RothC and state-of-the-art databases of soil and climate variables were used in the present study. The model simulations suggested that, on a global average, the cropland SOC density increased at annual rates of 0.22, 0.45 and 0.69 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 under crop residue retention rates of 30, 60 and 90 %, respectively. Increasing the quantity of C input could enhance soil C sequestration or reduce the rate of soil C loss, depending largely on the local soil and climate conditions. Spatially, under a specific crop residue retention rate, relatively higher soil C sinks were found across the central parts of the USA, western Europe, and the northern regions of China. Relatively smaller soil C sinks occurred in the high-latitude regions of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and SOC decreased across the equatorial zones of Asia, Africa and America. We found that SOC change was significantly influenced by the crop residue retention rate (linearly positive and the edaphic variable of initial SOC content (linearly negative. Temperature had weak negative effects, and precipitation had significantly negative impacts on SOC changes. The results can help guide carbon input management practices to

  2. [Treatment of removable partial dentures. 2. Causes and consequences of a reduced occlusal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, D J; Barèl, J C; de Baat, C; Keltjens, H M A M; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    The occlusal system is part of the orofacial system and consists of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridge and teeth which are occluding or not or the removable denture teeth. The most prevalent causes of loss of teeth are insufficient oral self care or inadequate professional oral healthcare service. A reduced dentition can be described in terms of diastemas in the anterior region and number of occluding pairs of (pre)molars, differentiated as interrupted or shortened dental arches. Characteristic of a healthy functional occlusal system are the absence of pathology and the possibility to practice all oral functions without inconvenience. The consequences of a reduced occlusal system may be overload and/or migration of teeth, mandibular instability, and impaired esthetics and chewing function. Morphological and functional alterations can be considered to be adaptations to changed situations or to be pathological. The distinction between adaptation and pathology cannot be sharply defined. If prosthetic replacement of teeth is needed, the trend is to avoid removable partial dentures.

  3. Different features of work systems in Indonesia and their consequent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuaba, A

    1997-12-01

    Indonesia, with its ultimate development goal of "developing the people and the community as a whole," in fact is facing problems in the execution of this goal. With a population of more than 200 million persons, different in sociocultural background, educational level and environmental conditions, it is understandable that the process and results of technological choices and transfers for various target groups will be different. A wide range of work systems is found, from the simplest man-tool system to the most complex. The conditions are becoming even more complex, a phenomenon especially evident through studies of their sociocultural, psychological, and environmental factors. As a consequence, if success is to be gained in anticipating and understanding the role of Indonesia in the global competition that lies ahead, a very wise approach to the situation by using local values that are often based on traditional habits and customs in a modern context should be carried out. This approach will require an immense amount of time, dedication and effort. Improvement endeavors that have been carried out in different work systems in different types of activities and industries, showed that if the improvement to be sustained, a holistic, systemic, and interdisciplined participatory approach should be taken into consideration where the technical, economical, ergonomic, sociocultural, energy, and environmental factors will play significant roles.

  4. Manchester Triage System: main flowcharts, discriminators and outcomes of a pediatric emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthauer, Camila; Cunha, Maria Luzia Chollopetz da

    2016-08-29

    to characterize the care services performed through risk rating by the Manchester Triage System, identifying demographics (age, gender), main flowcharts, discriminators and outcomes in pediatric emergency. cross-sectional quantitative study. Data on risk classification were obtained through a search of computerized registration data from medical records of patients treated in the pediatric emergency within one year. Descriptive statistics with absolute and relative frequencies was used for the analysis. 10,921 visits were conducted in the pediatric emergency, mostly male (54.4%), aged between 29 days and two years (44.5%). There was a prevalence of the urgent risk category (43.6%). The main flowchart used in the care was worried parents (22.4%) and the most prevalent discriminator was recent event (15.3%). The hospitalization outcome occurred in 10.4% of care performed in the pediatric emergency, however 61.8% of care needed to stay under observation and / or being under the health team care in the pediatric emergency. worried parents was the main flowchart used and recent events the most prevalent discriminator, comprising the hospitalization outcomes and permanency in observation in the pediatric emergency before discharge from the hospital. caracterizar os atendimentos realizados por meio da classificação de risco pelo Sistema de Triagem de Manchester, identificando dados demográficos (idade, sexo), principais fluxogramas, discriminadores e desfechos na emergência pediátrica. estudo quantitativo transversal. Os dados referentes à classificação de risco foram obtidos por meio de uma pesquisa ao registro informatizado de dados dos prontuários dos pacientes atendidos na emergência pediátrica no período de um ano. Para análise foi utilizada estatística descritiva com frequências absolutas e relativas. foram realizados 10.921 atendimentos na emergência pediátrica, em sua maioria do sexo masculino (54,4%), com idade entre 29 dias e dois anos (44

  5. Analysis of man-machine interaction for control and display system in main control room of light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, Kussigit; Supriatna, Piping; Karlina, Itjeu; Widagdo, Suharyo; Darlis; Sudiono, Bambang

    1998-01-01

    One of potential hazard in Nuclear Power Plant is the failure of its operation. The accident or operation failure in the reactor must be concerned event its probability is low. The important thing should be concerned is 'Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI) for Control and Display System in Main Control Room (MCR) of Nuclear Power Reactor', especially LWR type. Control and Display System in MCR of Reactor is the main part of MMI link process in Reactor MCR work system. Signal from display system showed performance process in reactor, while this signal will be received by operator. This signal will be described through central nerve for making decision what kind must be done. Then the operator manage the next process of reactor operation through control system. So by knowing Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction for Control and Display System in Main Control Room of Power Reactor, we can understand human error probability of the operator in reactor operation

  6. Characterization of Pump-Induced Acoustics in Space Launch System Main Propulsion System Liquid Hydrogen Feedline Using Airflow Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, C. J.; Snellgrove, L. M.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity acoustic edgetones located upstream of the RS-25 Low Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (LPFTP) were previously observed during Space Launch System (STS) airflow testing of a model Main Propulsion System (MPS) liquid hydrogen (LH2) feedline mated to a modified LPFTP. MPS hardware has been adapted to mitigate the problematic edgetones as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program. A follow-on airflow test campaign has subjected the adapted hardware to tests mimicking STS-era airflow conditions, and this manuscript describes acoustic environment identification and characterization born from the latest test results. Fluid dynamics responsible for driving discrete excitations were well reproduced using legacy hardware. The modified design was found insensitive to high intensity edgetone-like discretes over the bandwidth of interest to SLS MPS unsteady environments. Rather, the natural acoustics of the test article were observed to respond in a narrowband-random/mixed discrete manner to broadband noise thought generated by the flow field. The intensity of these responses were several orders of magnitude reduced from those driven by edgetones.

  7. The impact of radiation therapy on the antitumor immunity: local effects and systemic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumniczky, Katalin; Sáfrány, Géza

    2015-01-01

    The main antitumor efficacy of irradiation relies in its direct cytotoxic effect. Increasing evidence indicates a systemic effect of radiation though, mediated mainly by the immune system. In this review we wish to focus on the radiotherapy induced modifications of the soluble and cellular mediators of the antitumor immune response and summarize some of the mechanisms by which radiation driven local and systemic bystander effects can influence tumor immunogenicity. In different tumor types due to the intrinsic immunogenicity of the tumor cells and the immunological characteristics of the tumor microenvironment, different radiation induced immune modulatory mechanisms are predominant. Radiation most probably can only amplify or augment a pro-immunogenic phenotype and can hardly change by itself a net immune suppressing environment into an immune stimulating one. This immune modulatory potential of radiotherapy could be exploited in tumor treatment by developing combined radiotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic approaches. The last few years showed a dramatic increase in the knowledge of radiation induced out-of field and systemic effects, which foresees a rapid progress in the development and clinical application of these new, combined therapies for cancer cure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Main control system verification and validation of NPP digital I and C system based on engineering simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Meng; Hou Dong; Liu Pengfei; Yang Zongwei; Yang Yanhua

    2010-01-01

    Full-scope digital instrumentation and controls system (I and C) technique is being introduced in Chinese new constructed Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which mainly includes three parts: control system, reactor protection system and engineered safety feature actuation system. For example, SIEMENS TELEPERM XP and XS distributed control system (DCS) have been used in Ling Ao Phase II NPP, which is located in Guangdong province, China. This is the first NPP project in China that Chinese engineers are fully responsible for all the configuration of actual analog and logic diagram, although experience in NPP full-scope digital I and C is very limited. For the safety, it has to be made sure that configuration is right and control functions can be accomplished before the phase of real plant testing on reactor. Therefore, primary verification and validation (V and V) of I and C needs to be carried out. Except the common and basic way, i.e. checking the diagram configuration one by one according to original design, NPP engineering simulator is applied as another effective approach of V and V. For this purpose, a virtual NPP thermal-hydraulic model is established as a basis according to Ling Ao Phase II NPP design, and the NPP simulation tools can provide plant operation parameters to DCS, accept control signal from I and C and give response. During the test, one set of data acquisition equipments are used to build a connection between the engineering simulator (software) and SIEMENS DCS I/O cabinet (hardware). In this emulation, original diagram configuration in DCS and field hardware structures are kept unchanged. In this way, firstly judging whether there are some problems by observing the input and output of DCS without knowing the internal configuration. Then secondly, problems can be found and corrected by understanding and checking the exact and complex configuration in detail. At last, the correctness and functionality of the control system are verified. This method is

  9. A case study of the Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-10

    This report presents the results of a case study evaluation of a Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) project under a program funded by the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint Program Off...

  10. Development of monitoring and control system for a mine main fan based on frequency converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, R. W.; Kong, X. Z.; Y Gong, J.; Chen, Q. G.

    2013-12-01

    In the process of mine exploitation, the requirement of air flow rate often changes. The procedure of traditional control mode of the fan is complex and it is hard to meet the worksite requirement for air. This system is based on Principal Computer (PC) monitoring system and high performance PLC control system. In this system, the frequency converter is adapted to adjust the fan speed and the air of worksite can be regulated steplessly. The function of the monitoring and control system contains on-line monitoring and centralized control. The system can monitor the parameters of fan in real-time, control the operation of frequency converter, as well as, control the fan and its accessory equipments. At the same time, the automation level of the system is highly, the field equipments can be monitored and controlled automatically. So, the system is an important safeguard for mine production.

  11. Development of monitoring and control system for a mine main fan based on frequency converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y C; Kong, X Z; Chen, Q G; Zhang, R W; Gong, J Y

    2013-01-01

    In the process of mine exploitation, the requirement of air flow rate often changes. The procedure of traditional control mode of the fan is complex and it is hard to meet the worksite requirement for air. This system is based on Principal Computer (PC) monitoring system and high performance PLC control system. In this system, the frequency converter is adapted to adjust the fan speed and the air of worksite can be regulated steplessly. The function of the monitoring and control system contains on-line monitoring and centralized control. The system can monitor the parameters of fan in real-time, control the operation of frequency converter, as well as, control the fan and its accessory equipments. At the same time, the automation level of the system is highly, the field equipments can be monitored and controlled automatically. So, the system is an important safeguard for mine production

  12. Commissioning of a motion system to investigate dosimetric consequences due to variability of respiratory waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetnar, Ashley J; James, Joshua; Wang, Brain

    2016-01-08

    A commercially available six-dimensional (6D) motion system was assessed for accuracy and clinical use in our department. Positional accuracy and respiratory waveform reproducibility were evaluated for the motion system. The system was then used to investigate the dosimetric consequences of respiratory waveform variation when an internal target volume (ITV) approach is used for motion management. The maximum deviations are 0.3 mm and 0.22° for translation and rotation accuracy, respectively, for the tested clinical ranges. The origin reproducibility is less than±0.1 mm. The average differences are less than 0.1 mm with a maximum standard deviation of 0.8 mm between waveforms of actual patients and replication of those waveforms by HexaMotion for three breath-hold and one free-breathing waveform. A modified gamma analysis shows greater than 98% agreement with a 0.5 mm and 100 ms threshold. The motion system was used to investigate respiratory waveform variation and showed that, as the amplitude of the treatment waveform increases above that of the simulation waveform, the periphery of the target volume receives less dose than expected. However, by using gating limits to terminate the beam outside of the simulation amplitude, the results are as expected dosimetrically. Specifically, the average dose difference in the periphery between treating with the simulation waveform and the larger amplitude waveform could be up to 12% less without gating limits, but only differed 2% or less with the gating limits in place. The general functionality of the system performs within the manufacturer's specifications and can accurately replicate patient specific waveforms. When an ITV approach is used for motion management, we found the use of gating limits that coincide with the amplitude of the patient waveform at simulation helpful to prevent the potential underdosing of the target due to changes in patient respiration.

  13. A HWMSE for clue detection: the system design and main technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzhou; Li, Dehua; Zhao, Xingtao; Chen, Shihong

    2013-10-01

    Video surveillance is an important security technology, which is widely use in public areas and police detection utilizing video surveillance system is a powerful method in the police investigation that must answer the question of five W's on crim. In this paper, a HWMSE system is designed to solve problems in case detection based on the theories of metasynthesis from qualitative to quantitative. The proposed HWMSE system is constituted of four components: Database sub-system of case information and knowledge, man-machine combination toolsets of video analysis, deduction simulation system based on crime behavior modeling and case analyzing platform.

  14. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  15. The Main Subsystems Involved in Defining the Quality Management System in a Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrea Valentina Alina

    2010-01-01

    The hospital is the most important organization in health field, so they have to improve the quality in all the activities deployed. A very suitable way to show the hospital’s preoccupation for quality of health services is the quality management system certificate according ISO 9001/2000. In understanding the architecture of the hospital quality management system is necessary to decompose this system in subsystems and analyze each separately: the managerial subsystem, the human subsystem, th...

  16. Consequences of Circadian and Sleep Disturbances for the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibhai, Faisal J; Tsimakouridze, Elena V; Reitz, Cristine J; Pyle, W Glen; Martino, Tami A

    2015-07-01

    Circadian rhythms play a crucial role in our cardiovascular system. Importantly, there has been a recent flurry of clinical and experimental studies revealing the profound adverse consequences of disturbing these rhythms on the cardiovascular system. For example, circadian disturbance worsens outcome after myocardial infarction with implications for patients in acute care settings. Moreover, disturbing rhythms exacerbates cardiac remodelling in heart disease models. Also, circadian dyssynchrony is a causal factor in the pathogenesis of heart disease. These discoveries have profound implications for the cardiovascular health of shift workers, individuals with circadian and sleep disorders, or anyone subjected to the 24/7 demands of society. Moreover, these studies give rise to 2 new frontiers for translational research: (1) circadian rhythms and the cardiac sarcomere, which sheds new light on our understanding of myofilament structure, signalling, and electrophysiology; and (2) knowledge translation, which includes biomarker discovery (chronobiomarkers), timing of therapies (chronotherapy), and other new promising approaches to improve the management and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Reconsidering circadian rhythms in the clinical setting benefits repair mechanisms, and offers new promise for patients. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Indirect adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural network with self- recurrent consequent part for AC servo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Runmin; Wang, Li; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Yuanglong; Wang, Chao

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel indirect adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural network (IAFWNN) to control the nonlinearity, wide variations in loads, time-variation and uncertain disturbance of the ac servo system. In the proposed approach, the self-recurrent wavelet neural network (SRWNN) is employed to construct an adaptive self-recurrent consequent part for each fuzzy rule of TSK fuzzy model. For the IAFWNN controller, the online learning algorithm is based on back propagation (BP) algorithm. Moreover, an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) is used to adapt the learning rate. The aid of an adaptive SRWNN identifier offers the real-time gradient information to the adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural controller to overcome the impact of parameter variations, load disturbances and other uncertainties effectively, and has a good dynamic. The asymptotical stability of the system is guaranteed by using the Lyapunov method. The result of the simulation and the prototype test prove that the proposed are effective and suitable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The program system UFOMOD for assessing the consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Burkart, K.; Hasemann, I.; Matzerath, C.; Panitz, H.J.; Steinhauer, C.

    1988-10-01

    The programm system UFOMOD is a completely new accident consequence assessment (ACA) code. Its structure and modelling is based on the experience gained from applications of the old UFOMOD code during and after the German Risk Study - Phase A, the results of scientific investigations performed within the ongoing Phase B and the CEC-project MARIA, and the requirements resulting from the extended use of ACAs to help in decision-making. One of the most important improvements is the introduction of different trajecotry models for describing atmospheric dispersion in the near range and at larger distances. Emergency actions and countermeasures modelling takes into account recommendations of international commissions. The dosimetric models contain completely new age-, sex- and time-dependent data of dose-conversion factors for external and internal radiation; the ingestion pathway is modelled to consider seasonal dependencies. New dose-risk-relationships for stochastic and non-stochastic health effects are implemented; a special algorithm developed for ACA codes allows individual and collective leukemia and cancer risks to be presented as a function of time after the accident. According to the modular structure of the new program system UFOMOD, an easy access to parameter values and the results of the various submodels exists what facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (orig.) [de

  19. Ecosocial consequences and policy implications of disease management in East African agropastoral systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Gilioli, Gianni; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2009-01-01

    International research and development efforts in Africa have brought ecological and social change, but analyzing the consequences of this change and developing policy to manage it for sustainable development has been difficult. This has been largely due to a lack of conceptual and analytical models to access the interacting dynamics of the different components of ecosocial systems. Here, we examine the ecological and social changes resulting from an ongoing suppression of trypanosomiasis disease in cattle in an agropastoral community in southwest Ethiopia to illustrate how such problems may be addressed. The analysis combines physiologically based demographic models of pasture, cattle, and pastoralists and a bioeconomic model that includes the demographic models as dynamic constraints in the economic objective function that maximizes the utility of individual consumption under different level of disease risk in cattle. Field data and model analysis show that suppression of trypanosomiasis leads to increased cattle and human populations and to increased agricultural development. However, in the absence of sound management, these changes will lead to a decline in pasture quality and increase the risk from tick-borne diseases in cattle and malaria in humans that would threaten system sustainability and resilience. The analysis of these conflicting outcomes of trypanosomiasis suppression is used to illustrate the need for and utility of conceptual bioeconomic models to serve as a basis for developing policy for sustainable agropastoral resource management in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19620722

  20. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies.

  1. Cost-consequence analysis of Pharmaceutical Care program for systemic arterial hypertension in the public health system in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurílio de Souza Cazarim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, 80% of hypertensive patients have no blood pressure controlled, this fact has caused severe financial consequences for the public health system (PHS and the Pharmaceutical Care (PC has emerged as an effective alternative. The aim of this study was to analyze the costs and outcomes of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH for conventional assistance compared to assistance with PC in the PHS. This is a pharmacoeconomic study with cost-consequence analysis nested to clinical trial. Hypertensives patients were followed-up from 2006 to 2012. During 2009 they were assisted by the PC program in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. Clinical indicators, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC and its fractions and healthcare indicators, consumption of antihypertensive medication and consultations were analyzed. Costs were listed as direct medical and direct non-medical. The average cost of conventional care for 104 patients followed-up was US$ 198.97, in the PC period and after discharge was US$ 407.91 and US$ 214.96 patient/year. After discharge of patients from PC there was reduction of SBP, DBP, TC and cardiovascular risk, 9.4 mmHg, 4.6 mmHg, 12.0 mg/dL, and 23% [p<0.005], respectively. The PC program optimized clinical and healthcare indicators and impacted in the SAH costs for the PHS.

  2. Dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae seroconversion and infection in pigs in the three main production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Enrico; Ferrari, Nicola; Pitozzi, Alessandra; Remistani, Michela; Giardiello, Daniele; Maes, Dominiek; Alborali, Giovanni Loris

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in 66 pig farms, with different production systems (one-, two-, and three-site systems), and considered different risk factors. Serological assay was used to detect serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect M. hyopneumoniae DNA in tracheobronchial swabs. Results demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae infection status was predominantly influenced by the age of the animals and the type of production system. Infection rates were higher in older animals and the prevalence was higher in the one- and two-site systems than in the three-site systems. Dynamics of infection by RT-PCR showed that earlier M. hyopneumoniae infection on one-site farms occurs earlier, while on two- and three-site farms occurs later but spreads faster, suggesting that contact between animals of different age favors the transmission.

  3. A legacy endures. A Maine system emphasizes its sponsor's mission in all aspects of its work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Marguerite

    2005-01-01

    The Sisters of Charity Health System, Lewiston, ME, a member of Covenant Health Systems, Lexington, MA, remains deeply committed to the mission of service begun by its foundress, St. Marguerite d'Youville. Although St. Marguerite experienced a hard life, her resilience and her commitment to the poor and disadvantaged serve as an inspiration to those who continue her legacy of compassionate care. The founding work of St. Marguerite and the sisters has helped to foster a culture in which the mission of service thrives among the system's 2,000 employees. This culture can be attributed to two things: the system's organizational values of compassion, stewardship, respect, and excellence; and the recognition of those employees whose work embodies these values. From the boardroom to the patient room, mission is integrated into each decision and action. Every two years, each of Covenant Health System's member facilities engages in a mission assessment process that examines various aspects of mission, including Catholic identity, holistic care, care for the poor, mission values integration, ethics and employee relations. In addition, the Sisters of Charity Health System's board has its own standing Mission and Community Committee, which looks strategically at how creatively and faithfully the system is continuing to live its mission.

  4. Mexico: An Evaluation of the Main Features of the Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

    2001-01-01

    Mexico's tax system is a paradox. The tax policy and tax administration reforms of the late 1980s and early 1990s delivered a tax structure that is in many ways comparable, if not superior, to that in many OECD countries. However, Mexico's tax system continues to perform in some fundamental ways, in particular in its ability to raise adequate revenues, worse than the tax system of many developing countries. The basic objective of this evaluation is to try to explain this paradox. In doing tha...

  5. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Main report exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d' Alene tribe

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  7. The Main Subsystems Involved in Defining the Quality Management System in a Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrea Valentina Alina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hospital is the most important organization in health field, so they have to improve the quality in all the activities deployed. A very suitable way to show the hospital’s preoccupation for quality of health services is the quality management system certificate according ISO 9001/2000. In understanding the architecture of the hospital quality management system is necessary to decompose this system in subsystems and analyze each separately: the managerial subsystem, the human subsystem, the social subsystem, thetechnical subsystem, the informative subsystem. The relationship between those subsystems leads to the continuous improvement of quality in health services.

  8. A strategy for tuning achiral main-chain polymers into helical assemblies and chiral memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Zhao, Yin; Lv, Kai; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2016-01-28

    A general strategy to tune the achiral main chain polymers into helical nanoassemblies was proposed based on the co-gelation approach. As an example, two achiral main chain polymers, PCz8 and PSi8, were selected, and their co-assembly with an amphiphilic l- or d-glutamide gelator was investigated. Although the polymers could not form gels individually, they could form co-gels with the gelator and the resultant gels exhibited macroscopic supramolecular chirality, which could be confirmed by CD spectra and SEM observations. Moreover, the supramolecular chirality can be memorized even after the gelator molecules were removed. Remarkably, either the gelator-containing or gelator-free chiral polymer assemblies showed circularly polarized luminescence (CPL), which is usually inherent to intrinsic chiral polymers. It was suggested that during the co-gelation, the chirality of the gelator was transferred to and memorized by the achiral polymers. The approach seems to be general and we provided the first example to tune the achiral polymers into helical assemblies through the co-gelation.

  9. Accessory and main olfactory systems influences on predator odor-induced behavioral and endocrine stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Cher V; Garcia, Robert J; Sasse, Sarah K; Nyhuis, Tara J; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2010-02-11

    Exposures to predator odors are very effective methods to evoke a variety of stress responses in rodents. We have previously found that ferret odor exposure leads to changes in endocrine hormones (corticosterone and ACTH) and behavior. To distinguish the contributions of the main and accessory olfactory systems in these responses, studies were designed to interfere with these two systems either independently, or simultaneously. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 10% zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4)), which renders rodents anosmic (unable to smell) while leaving the accessory olfactory areas intact, or saline, in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the vomeronasal organs of rats were surgically removed (VNX) to block accessory olfactory processing, while leaving the main olfactory system intact. And in the third experiment both the main and accessory olfactory areas were disrupted by combining the two procedures in the same rats. Neither ZnSO(4) treatment nor VNX alone reliably reduced the increased corticosterone response to ferret odor compared to strawberry odor, but in combination, they did. This suggests that processing through the main or the accessory olfactory system can elicit the endocrine stress response to ferret odor. VNX alone also did not affect the behavioral responses to the ferret odor. ZnSO(4) treatment, alone and in combination with VNX, led to changes in behavior in response to both ferret and strawberry odor, making the behavioral results less clearly interpretable. Overall these studies suggest that both the main and accessory olfactory systems mediate the neuroendocrine response to predator odor.

  10. Highway Safety Information System guidebook for the Maine state data files. Volume 2 : single variable tabulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The United States and European Union (EU) share many of the same transportation research issues, challenges, and goals. They also share a belief that cooperative vehicle (also termed connected vehicle) systems, based on vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle...

  11. The Main Directions of Improving the Management of the Higher Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terovanesov Mykhajlo R.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at determining the mechanisms of improving the management of the system of higher education in the context of the current regulatory support, which will be the means to solve the problem of inefficient functioning, lack of financing, and low quality of higher education. The factors, causing negative impact on development of the higher education system were analyzed, the most important of which are the lack of financing and the shortcomings of the legal support of the education sector. It has been determined that a shortage of funds and lack of communication between the education sphere and employers reduces the efficiency of management of the system of higher education. The legal support of the educational activities requires improvement due to the declarative nature of individual provisions on the management of the system of higher education. Consideration of the legal factor is necessary for regulating the decentralization of management in the education sphere, improvement of financing, perfection of the system of control of the education quality. Ways for decentralizing the management of the education sphere, increasing its effectiveness, and improving the economic status of higher education institutions, have been suggested. The scientific-practical recommendations have been formulated to attract potential consumers of educational services to reforming the higher education system and increasing its effectiveness.

  12. Strategic analysis for safeguards systems: a feasibility study. Volume 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaver, D.A.; Cohen, M.S.; Immerman, W.H.; Crane, F.L.; Goldman, A.J.

    1984-12-01

    Strategic analysis (game theory) is a formal method for modeling adversary situations that, when solved, yields an optimal strategy that maximizes the expected payoff to the player. As such, it appears to be potentially applicable in the nuclear material accounting context in which there is potential for an adversary attempting to divert special nuclear material. The NRC has previously supported research to develop preliminary strategic analysis models which has been considered to be only partially successful. This study reviewed previous efforts and other game theory research and assessed the feasibility of: (1) applying strategic analysis in a regulatory framework; (2) making strategic analysis understandable by licensees; and (3) assuring that strategic analysis can effectively be enforced. This report includes a discussion of the role of strategic analysis in material control and accounting, and of the mechanisms by which the NRC could implement strategic analysis. A set of feasibility criteria are described including both technical feasibility and organizational/implementation feasibility. Alternative strategic analysis model options are evaluated with respect to these criteria, as is the current material accounting practice. The assessment determined that the development of a payoff function that adequately represented the NRC's (and therefore the public's) values with respect to the consequences of diversion and the actions taken to prevent it is the most serious impediment to implementation. Given the limited role of material accounting in safeguards and the uncertainty regarding the development of a payoff function, the NRC should not proceed with full-scale implementation of strategic analysis. It does, however, have sufficient potential to warrant further development, with first priority going to the development of an appropriate payoff function

  13. General structure of the system of ecological monitoring of motor transport and main highways of general usage in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Bileysh, A.

    2006-01-01

    The submitted is the general structure of system of ecological monitoring of motor transport and main highways of general usage in Ukraine in which structure enter information system and control system of monitoring. The analysis of characteristic pollution on highways is given. The established is the choice of items of monitoring, on which is necessary to carry out (the) selection of tests at the continuous or periodic control. The formulated are the directions of regulation of quality envir...

  14. Lessons from the domestic Ebola response: Improving health care system resilience to high consequence infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Diane; Kirk Sell, Tara; Schoch-Spana, Monica; Shearer, Matthew P; Chandler, Hannah; Thomas, Erin; Rose, Dale A; Carbone, Eric G; Toner, Eric

    2017-12-15

    The domestic response to the West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic from 2014-2016 provides a unique opportunity to distill lessons learned about health sector planning and operations from those individuals directly involved. This research project aimed to identify and integrate these lessons into an actionable checklist that can improve health sector resilience to future high-consequence infectious disease (HCID) events. Interviews (N = 73) were completed with individuals involved in the domestic EVD response in 4 cities (Atlanta, Dallas, New York, and Omaha), and included individuals who worked in academia, emergency management, government, health care, law, media, and public health during the response. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively. Two focus groups were then conducted to expand on themes identified in the interviews. Using these themes, an evidence-informed checklist was developed and vetted for completeness and feasibility by an expert advisory group. Salient themes identified included health care facility issues-specifically identifying assessment and treatment hospitals, isolation and treatment unit layout, waste management, community relations, patient identification, patient isolation, limitations on treatment, laboratories, and research considerations-and health care workforce issues-specifically psychosocial impact, unit staffing, staff training, and proper personal protective equipment. The experiences of those involved in the domestic Ebola response provide critical lessons that can help strengthen resilience of health care systems and improve future responses to HCID events. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The several faces of fear: ecological consequences of predation risk in a lagoon model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dettogni Guariento

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of predation risk on the occurrence of trophic cascades in a benthic food chain, and detect if the ecological consequences of predation risk can reverberate in patterns observed across different hierarchical scales, such as prey size, prey growth efficiency and nutrient recycling patterns. METHODS: The model system used in the present experiment consisted of a simple linear food chain comprising a predator, a consumer and periphyton as basal resources. For 2 weeks, we manipulated predation risk using caged predators, incapable of killing their prey, across twelve outdoor mesocosms, simulating natural lagoon conditions. RESULTS: Our results showed that predation risk can be responsible for the occurrence of a trophic cascade and the strength of the cascade is proportional to the intensity of risk. Predation risk can also negatively influence prey biomass and growth efficiency as well as affect nutrient recycling patterns by altering prey nutrient excretion rates. Through a simple mathematical formulation, we attempted to show that individual-level experimental results can be generalized to natural populations if evolutionary constraints to prey fitness can be reproduced in experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results corroborate to integrate ecosystem dynamics with animal behavior, highlighting that not only bottom-up but also top-down mechanisms are responsible for determining ecosystem properties. We ultimately claim that prey adaptive foraging may serve to integrate ecosystem and evolutionary ecology, resulting in the development of a more robust and predictive theory of the functioning of aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Solvent selection for biocatalysis in mainly organic systems: predictions of effects on equilibrium position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, P J

    1990-03-25

    Predictions may be made for the influence of solvent choice on the equilibrium position of biocatalyzed reactions, based on data for the liquid-liquid distribution of the reactants. The most reliable predictions are probably for dilute systems, based on partition coefficients or correlations derived from them. The effective equilibrium constant for esterification reactions is predicted to alter by more than four orders of magnitude on changing between different water-immiscible solvents. The equilibrium constant correlates well with the solubility of water in the solvent, and is most favorable for synthesis in the least polar solvents (aliphatic hydrocarbons). Similar effects seem to apply for other reactions, including oxidation of alcohols and hydrolysis of chlorides. Predictions can be made for nondilute systems using the UNIFAC system of group contributions, but the reliability of these is more questionable.

  17. Autonomous spectrographic system to analyse the main elements of fireballs and meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espartero, Francisco Ángel; Martínez, Germán; Frías, Marta; Montes Moya, Francisco Simón; Castro-Tirado, Alberto Javier

    2018-01-01

    We present a meteor observation system based on imaging CCD cameras, wide-field optics and a diffraction grating. This system is composed of two independent spectrographs with different configurations, which allows us to capture images of fireballs and meteors with several fields of view and sensitivities. The complete set forms a small autonomous observatory, comprised of a sealed box with a sliding roof, weather station and computers for data storing and reduction. Since 2014, several meteors have been studied using this facility, such as the Alcalá la Real fireball recorded on 30 September 2016.

  18. The history of the construction of main state irrigation systems in the postwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chepurda

    2017-03-01

    It was established that the construction of large public irrigation systems in Ukraine started in 1951 stated that hydro construction that unfolded in the south of Ukraine, opened prospects to final elimination of the impact of drought and dry winds, the prospects for an unprecedented economic prosperity of the area.

  19. Children's perspectives on crime and the criminal justice system: main findings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is an exploratory pilot study aimed at accessing the views of children on the criminal justice system, their perceptions of how children in conflict with the law are treated, the impact that crime has on them, their schools...

  20. Differential Subsidence in Mexico City and its Consequences to the Collective Transport System (Metro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Rojas, D. E.; Wdowinski, S.; Cabral, E.; Zhang, Y.; Torres, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Mexico City is one of the most populated metropolitans in the world, with more than 20 millions inhabitants. It is located above a sequence of deformable unconsolidated lacustrine sediments interlayered with strong volcanic rocks. These natural conditions combined with massive groundwater extraction, caused the city to subside unevenly, at rates from 0 to ~370 mm/yr, which we term differential subsidence. Our study focuses on the Collective Transport System (Metro), the massive, widely used transportation system in the city. It has been in operation since 1969. The Metro system carries an average of more than four million passengers per day along its 218 km of railways. This system has been occasionally damaged by ground deformation, in particular Line 12, in which 50% of its stations where shut down just 2.5 years after the beginning of its operation due to faults, "waves" and "bumps" along the line. In this study we used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations to monitor land subsidence throughout the city and infer differential subsidence along the main Metro lines. Our analysis is based on 34 TerraSAR-X and 36 COSMO-SkyMed high-resolution scenes acquired from mid 2011 to mid 2013. The data were processed using the StaMPS InSAR time series technique, which calculates ground displacement time series for more than 2.5 million selected measurement points, typically separated 3-15 meters apart. The differential subsidence along the Metro lines was calculated by averaging subsidence rate within a 30 m radius circles, every 60 m along the lines. We found that the segments with the most differential deformation are in lines 4, 5, 9, A, B and 12. Our easy-to-implement method can be applied to permanent monitor deformation along the railways, as well as serve as a guide for the development of new lines of the Metro system prospected by Mexico's City government.

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC SAFETY OF ELECTRIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS: MAIN SOURCES AND PARAMETERS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fields produced by electric drive vehicles may break electromagnetic safety. For electromagnetic safety and electromagnetic compatibility knowledge about characteristics and sources of magnetic fields in the electric transport is necessary. The article deals with analysis of available data about magnetic fields in electric cars and comparison with results of our measurements carried out in the other types of electrified transport systems.

  2. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.); United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) Final EIS addresses four actions: (a) need to develop coordinated strategy for managing the multiple uses of the Federal Columbia River system (System Operating Strategy [SOS]); (b) need to provide interested parties other than management agencies with a long-term role in system planning (Forum); (c) need to renew or change current Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA); and (d) need to renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). SOS alternatives analyzed are: (1) operation prior to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon stocks; (2) current operations (no action); (3) stable storage project operation; (4) natural river operation; (5) fixed drawdown; (6) operating strategies proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, State fisheries agencies, Native American tribes, and Federal operating agencies; and (7) Preferred Alternative. The seven Forum alternatives analyzed are: (1) decisionmaking by the SOR lead agencies (preferred alternative); (2) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by an existing regional entity; (3) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by a new regional entity; (4) decisionmaking by a Federal consultation forum; (5) decisionmaking by a new entity; (6) decisionmaking by one Federal operating agency; (7) decisionmaking by a Federal agency other than an operating agency. PNCA alternatives analyzed are: (1) no replacement contract; (2) contract to maximize regional power benefits; (3) roll over existing PNCA; (4) current PNCA with modified operating procedures (preferred alternative); (5) current PNCA with nonpower modifications. CEAA alternatives include: (1) no action (no replacement of current allocation agreements); (2) entitlement allocation: 55 percent Federal; 45 percent non-Federal; (3) entitlement allocation: 70 percent Federal, 30 percent non-Federal (preferred alternative); (4) no agreement.

  3. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) Final EIS addresses four actions: (a) need to develop coordinated strategy for managing the multiple uses of the Federal Columbia River system (System Operating Strategy [SOS]); (b) need to provide interested parties other than management agencies with a long-term role in system planning (Forum); (c) need to renew or change current Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA); and (d) need to renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). SOS alternatives analyzed are: (1) operation prior to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon stocks; (2) current operations (no action); (3) stable storage project operation; (4) natural river operation; (5) fixed drawdown; (6) operating strategies proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, State fisheries agencies, Native American tribes, and Federal operating agencies; and (7) Preferred Alternative. The seven Forum alternatives analyzed are: (1) decisionmaking by the SOR lead agencies (preferred alternative); (2) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by an existing regional entity; (3) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by a new regional entity; (4) decisionmaking by a Federal consultation forum; (5) decisionmaking by a new entity; (6) decisionmaking by one Federal operating agency; (7) decisionmaking by a Federal agency other than an operating agency. PNCA alternatives analyzed are: (1) no replacement contract; (2) contract to maximize regional power benefits; (3) roll over existing PNCA; (4) current PNCA with modified operating procedures (preferred alternative); (5) current PNCA with nonpower modifications. CEAA alternatives include: (1) no action (no replacement of current allocation agreements); (2) entitlement allocation: 55 percent Federal; 45 percent non-Federal; (3) entitlement allocation: 70 percent Federal, 30 percent non-Federal (preferred alternative); (4) no agreement

  4. Altered balance of main vasopressor and vasodepressor systems in rats with genetic hypertension and hypertriglyceridaemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Zicha, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 3 (2002), s. 269-277 ISSN 0143-5221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011711; GA AV ČR IAA7011805; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Prague hereditary hypertriglyceridaemic rats * sympathetic nervous system Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.941, year: 2002

  5. Conceptual design main progress of EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Shanshuang, E-mail: shiss@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Song, Yuntao; Cheng, Yong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Villedieu, Eric; Bruno, Vincent [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Feng, Hansheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Huapeng [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wang, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hao, Zhiwei; Li, Yang; Wang, Kun; Pan, Hongtao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA) system is being collaboratively developed by ASIPP and CEA-IRFM. • Conceptual design for a 3-DOF wrist end effector with gripper has been finished. • Kinematic design can reach 90% of the workspace inside EAST tokamak vessel. • A prototype of EAMA arm segment has been built to validate the design. - Abstract: EAST articulated maintenance arm (EAMA) system is being collaboratively developed by ASIPP and CEA-IRFM for the purpose of remote inspection and simple maintenance operations in EAST vacuum vessel during physical experiments without breaking the ultra-high vacuum condition. The EAMA system design is based on a similar articulated inspection arm robot successfully demonstrated in Tore Supra in 2008. In order to better meet EAST configurations and maintenance requirements, optimized mechanisms and dimensions are considered for EAMA robot as upgrades. Besides, the segmented arm is equipped with a 3-DOF wrist end effector and gripper for gripping operation as well as inspection. Some calculations and simulations on statics, kinematics and workspace of EAMA have been presented to validate the feasibility. This paper introduces the overall design of the EAMA robot and presents implementation progress.

  6. Detailed Pictures of Multiple Asteroid Systems in the Main-Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Enriquez, J. E.; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Durech, J.

    2011-12-01

    Since their discovery less than 10 years ago, ~200 known multiple asteroid systems have been studied with a combination of observing techniques, including adaptive optics, lightcurve photometry, and mid-infrared spectrophotometry. Those observations show that ~15 large (D>100km) asteroids that are known to possess km-sized satellite(s) (22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, ...) share common orbital characteristics, implying a common formation scenario: e.g. catastrophic disruption or ejection after an oblique impact. More than 70 smaller (10-15km) binary asteroid systems have been detected through anomalies in their lightcurves and are believed to have formed by fission due to the YORP effect. By comparison with meteorite analog densities, mid-IR data reveal that these systems have a significant porosity (larger than 30%) implying a rubble-pile interior. We will review these key results and discuss their implications for the interior of asteroids in the light of recent space mission results. Future explorations using new ground-based facilities and space mission concepts will be also discussed. This work is supported by the NSF grant AAG-0807468 and NASA grant NNX11AD62G

  7. Geothermal Heat Pump System for New Student Housing Project at the University at Albany Main Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lnu, Indumathi [Univ. of Albany, NY (United States)

    2015-08-27

    University at Albany successfully designed, constructed and is operating a new student housing building that utilizes ground source heat pump (GSHP) for heating and cooling the entire 191,500SF building. The installed system consists of a well field with 150 bores, 450 feet deep and (189) terminal heat pump units for a total capacity of 358 Tons cooling and 4,300 MBtu/h heating. The building opened in Fall 2012. The annual energy use and cost intensity of the building, after the changes made during the first 2 years’ of operation is 57kBtu/SF/Year and $1.30/SF/Year respectively. This is approximately 50% lower than the other residential quads on campus, despite the fact that the quads are not air-conditioned. The total project cost from design through 3-years of operations is approximately $6 Million, out of which $5.7 Million is for construction of the GSHP system including the well field. The University received a $2.78 Million grant from the Department of Energy. The estimated utility cost savings, compared to a baseline building with conventional HVAC system, is approximately $185,000. The estimated simple payback, after grant incentives, is 15 years. Additionally, the project has created 8.5FTE equivalent jobs.

  8. LHC beam dump system : analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. lt is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. lt is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missing MKD elements. Therefore a sophisticated simulation environment was developed based on the use of the MAD-X tracking code. A system of tracking jobs was set up to study failure cases and losses for various dump events. Those jobs can be distributed to available CPU power and be calculated in parallel. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated including an asynchronous dump action, prefire cases, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setup and operation of these protection elements are discussed. Particle distributions can be created according to the used orbit. Simulations with different orbit parameters (including magnet field errors, beam position read out errors

  9. Main Consolidations and Improvements of the Control System and Instrumentation for the LHC Cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Fluder, C; Bremer, J; Bremer, K; Ivens, B; Casas-Cubillos, J; Claudet, S; Gomes, P; Ivens, B; Perin, A; Pezzetti, M; Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Vauthier, N

    2013-01-01

    Operation of the LHC during 2010 and 2011 with 3.5 TeV beam energy and luminosity up to 3.65x1033 cm-2 s-1, led to radiation-induced failures of micro-electronic devices used in the cryogenic control system. Mitigating actions addressed equipment relocation and corrective patches on electronics and software. Driven by the technical requirements and by feedback from the cryogenic operation team, numerous consolidations and improvements were implemented on-the-fly, enhancing availability and operability of the LHC cryogenics. Furthermore, additional diagnostic tools, test benches, technical procedures and trainings have been provided to strengthen first line support services.

  10. Triatoma infestans Calreticulin: Gene Cloning and Expression of a Main Domain That Interacts with the Host Complement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Katherine; Collazo, Norberto; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Molina, María Carmen; Rosas, Carlos; Peña, Jaime; Pizarro, Javier; Maldonado, Ismael; Cattan, Pedro E.; Apt, Werner; Ferreira, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Triatoma infestans is an important hematophagous vector of Chagas disease, a neglected chronic illness affecting approximately 6 million people in Latin America. Hematophagous insects possess several molecules in their saliva that counteract host defensive responses. Calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional protein secreted in saliva, contributes to the feeding process in some insects. Human CRT (HuCRT) and Trypanosoma cruzi CRT (TcCRT) inhibit the classical pathway of complement activation, mainly by interacting through their central S domain with complement component C1. In previous studies, we have detected CRT in salivary gland extracts from T. infestans. We have called this molecule TiCRT. Given that the S domain is responsible for C1 binding, we have tested its role in the classical pathway of complement activation in vertebrate blood. We have cloned and characterized the complete nucleotide sequence of CRT from T. infestans, and expressed its S domain. As expected, this S domain binds to human C1 and, as a consequence, it inhibits the classical pathway of complement, at its earliest stage of activation, namely the generation of C4b. Possibly, the presence of TiCRT in the salivary gland represents an evolutionary adaptation in hematophagous insects to control a potential activation of complement proteins, present in the massive blood meal that they ingest, with deleterious consequences at least on the anterior digestive tract of these insects. PMID:27895277

  11. Triatoma infestans Calreticulin: Gene Cloning and Expression of a Main Domain That Interacts with the Host Complement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Katherine; Collazo, Norberto; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Molina, María Carmen; Rosas, Carlos; Peña, Jaime; Pizarro, Javier; Maldonado, Ismael; Cattan, Pedro E; Apt, Werner; Ferreira, Arturo

    2017-02-08

    Triatoma infestans is an important hematophagous vector of Chagas disease, a neglected chronic illness affecting approximately 6 million people in Latin America. Hematophagous insects possess several molecules in their saliva that counteract host defensive responses. Calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional protein secreted in saliva, contributes to the feeding process in some insects. Human CRT (HuCRT) and Trypanosoma cruzi CRT (TcCRT) inhibit the classical pathway of complement activation, mainly by interacting through their central S domain with complement component C1. In previous studies, we have detected CRT in salivary gland extracts from T. infestans We have called this molecule TiCRT. Given that the S domain is responsible for C1 binding, we have tested its role in the classical pathway of complement activation in vertebrate blood. We have cloned and characterized the complete nucleotide sequence of CRT from T. infestans , and expressed its S domain. As expected, this S domain binds to human C1 and, as a consequence, it inhibits the classical pathway of complement, at its earliest stage of activation, namely the generation of C4b. Possibly, the presence of TiCRT in the salivary gland represents an evolutionary adaptation in hematophagous insects to control a potential activation of complement proteins, present in the massive blood meal that they ingest, with deleterious consequences at least on the anterior digestive tract of these insects. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Overview of main challenges for Early Warning Systems for Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesio, Lorenzo; Bacci, Maurizio; Baron, Christian; Diarra, Birama; di Vecchia, Andrea; Traoré, Seydou; Hassane, Idrissa; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Philippon, Nathalie; Tarchiani, Vieri

    2010-05-01

    In West Africa Early Warning Systems (EWSs) for food security have been widely recognized to have contributed in the last twenty years to better face famine emergencies. The improved understanding of the environmental and socio-economic dynamics of the region, a change in the causes for food insecurity and the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have favored the introduction of new approaches and the involvement of a network of stakeholders. In recent years the improvement of EWS has been concentrated in the adaptation and the transfer of existing tools rather than the development of the overall design of EWS in function of users needs, at the same time key scientific areas to be improved to provide major operational advancements needs to be better identified. This partially due to a difficulty of the research community to be in direct connection with operational processes and on the other side by an evident limit in following a demand driven approach due to the difficulties in modelling bio and social phenomena in a unique environment. In this context AMMA project had the ambitious objective of bridging the gap between state of the art research in the domains of geo-science and human related disciplines, and the operational EWS. The work carried out in AMMA, while improving the understanding of monsoon system, allowed to better orient research challenges in order to provide EWS with improved products effectively meeting the needs of end-users at different levels. In this work, advancements in providing appropriate information for the identification of agricultural risk zones by using short to long time forecasts are illustrated highlighting critical aspects still demanding scientific improvements.

  13. Main findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Licensing regimes vary from country to country. When the license regime involves several regulators and several licenses, this may lead to complex situations. Identifying a leading organisation in charge of overall coordination including preparation of the licensing decision is a useful practice. Also, if a stepwise licensing process is implemented, it is important to fix in legislation decisions and/or time points and to identify the relevant actors. There is considerable experience in civil and mining engineering that can be applied when constructing a deep geological disposal facility. Specific challenges are, however, the minimization of disturbances to the host rock and the understanding of its long-term behavior. Construction activities may affect the geo-hydraulic and geochemical properties of the various system components which are important safety features of the repository system. Clearly defined technical specifications and an effective quality management plan are important in ensuring successful repository implementation which is consistent with safety requirements. Monitoring plan should also be defined in advance. The regulatory organization should prepare itself to the licensing review before construction by allocating sufficient resources. It should increase its competence, e.g., by interacting early with the implementer and through its own R and D. This will allow the regulator to define appropriate technical conditions associated to the construction license and to elaborate a relevant inspection plan of the construction work. After construction, obtaining the operational license is the most important and crucial step. Main challenges include (a) establishing sufficient confidence so that the methods for closing the individual disposal units comply with the safety objectives and (b) addressing the issue of ageing of materials during a 50-100 years operational period. This latter challenge is amplified when reversibility/retrievability is required

  14. A novel supervisory control approach to switching operations for hybrid wind/diesel/battery/mains energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, T. [Guilin Inst. of Electronic Technology, School of Computer Engineering, Guilin (China); Keerthipala, W.W.; Islam, S.M.; Nayar, C.V. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Perth (Australia)

    2000-12-01

    Hybrid energy systems, integrating renewable energy technologies with diesel generators, batteries and inverters, can provide 24 h grid quality power to remote communities. Work in the Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology Australia (CRESTA) has been carried out to develop a new hybrid/wind/diesel/battery/mains energy system. In the system, the switching operations of different modes play an important role in the proper running of the system. From the view of discrete event dynamic systems, a novel supervisory control approach for the switching operations of modes has been explored, in which the switching actions are defined as events, switching modes as states and events take the system from one state to another. The supervisory controller for a prototype of the hybrid wind/diesel/battery mains energy system has been designed and it has been simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC. The results reveal that this technique could facilitate the analysis and design of supervisory controllers for switching operations, particularly in the complicated hybrid energy systems. (Author)

  15. Uses of Data on Child Outcomes and Program Processes in Early Childhood Accountability Systems: Assumptions, Challenges, and Consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Love

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines a number of issues crucial in establishing state early childhood accountability systems. The author notes that these systems require careful consideration of who will be using the results and how the results are likely to be used. Challenges exist in attributing outcomes to program characteristics, implementing a large system with limited resources, and anticipating negative unintended consequences. The paper concludes with five actions that can lead to effective accountab...

  16. Calculations of fuel temperature transients in the LPTR following a main coolant system pump trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made to determine the fuel temperature in the Livermore Pool Type Reactor, LPTR, during a transient involving a reactor scram following a cooling system pump trip. A computer code was obtained for this purpose from the University of Virginia. This code was used in preparation of UVAR-18, the SAR Manual of the University of Virginia Reactor. This reactor is very similar to the LPTR. The code incorporates a form of the reactor point kinetics equation with six delayed neutron groups, and standard heat transfer equations. The code was modified for use in this study. These modifications included rewriting the code in Fortran IV from ALGO, replacing a straight line pump coastdown by an equation closely following the actual pump RPM during a pump trip, modifying flow resistance equations to conform to the conditions in the LPTR, and replacing various constants with others applicable to the LPTR. The calculations in this study apply to a reactor scram from conditions at the ''safety limit'' settings

  17. Calculations of fuel temperature transients in the LPTR following a main coolant system pump trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W.

    1976-09-28

    An analysis was made to determine the fuel temperature in the Livermore Pool Type Reactor, LPTR, during a transient involving a reactor scram following a cooling system pump trip. A computer code was obtained for this purpose from the University of Virginia. This code was used in preparation of UVAR-18, the SAR Manual of the University of Virginia Reactor. This reactor is very similar to the LPTR. The code incorporates a form of the reactor point kinetics equation with six delayed neutron groups, and standard heat transfer equations. The code was modified for use in this study. These modifications included rewriting the code in Fortran IV from ALGO, replacing a straight line pump coastdown by an equation closely following the actual pump RPM during a pump trip, modifying flow resistance equations to conform to the conditions in the LPTR, and replacing various constants with others applicable to the LPTR. The calculations in this study apply to a reactor scram from conditions at the ''safety limit'' settings.

  18. How engineering data management and system support the main process[-oriented] functions of a large-scale project

    CERN Document Server

    Hameri, A P

    1999-01-01

    By dividing the development process into successive functional operations, this paper studies the benefits of establishing configuration management procedures and of using an engineering data management systems (EDMS) in order to execute the tasks. The underlying environment is that of CERN and the ongoing, a decade long, Large Hadron Collider (LHC)-project. By identifying the main functional groups who will use the EDMS the paper outlines the basic motivations and services provided by such a system to each process function. The implications of strict configuration management on the daily operation of each functional user group are also discussed. The main argument of the paper is that each and every user of the EDMS must act in compliance with the configuration management procedures to guarantee the overall benefits from the system. The pilot EDMS being developed at CERN, which serves as a test-bed to discover the real functional needs of the organisation of an EDMS supports the conclusions. The preliminary ...

  19. System aspects of black liquor gasification - Consequences for both industry and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large quantities of biofuels (mainly bark and black liquor) to satisfy process requirements. Biomass is however a limited resource, and biofuel usage should therefore be as effective as possible. Modern pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have excess fuel compared to the amounts needed to satisfy the process steam demand. The excess fuel is often used for cogeneration of electric power in CHP units. For integrated pulp and paper mills, this usually requires import of supplementary fuel to the plant. For market pulp mills, the excess internal biofuel quantities are sufficient to also allow electric power generation in condensing power plant units. If biofuel availability at a reasonable price is limited, import/export to, from a mill changes the amount of such biofuel available to alternative users. The goal of this thesis is to compare different mill powerhouse technologies and CHP plant configurations (including conventional recovery boiler technology and black liquor gasification technology) in order to identify the technology and CHP plant configuration that can produce the most electric power output from a given fuel resource for a given process steam demand. Different process steam demand levels for different representative mill types are considered. The comparison accounts for increased/decreased electricity production in an alternative energy system when biofuel is imported/exported to/from from the mill. The alternative energy system considered includes a district heating system with CHP capacity and natural gas fired combined cycle power plant capacity. The results show that black liquor gasification is in all cases considered an attractive powerhouse recovery cycle technology compared to conventional recovery boiler technology. If the marginal electric power generation efficiency for biofuel exported to the reference alternative energy system is 49%, excess mill internal biofuel should be used on mill

  20. Diagnosis of the Main Busbar II Panel Components Ageing of RSG-GAS Electrical System by Using Infrared Thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teguh Sulistyo; Kiswanto; Roziq Himawan; Ari Satmoko

    2007-01-01

    To support the operation of RSG-GAS safely, the diagnosis of the ageing of main busbar II BHD/BHE/BHF panel components of RSG-GAS electrical system have been done. By using infrared thermography type Thermo Tracer TH9100PM VI/PW VI. The results of the diagnosis showed that some of the components under degradation with various rate. It can cause the system failure. By understanding the components ageing degradation mechanism and performing the preventive and predictive maintenance and safety of RSG-GAS electrical system earlier, the possibility of accident can be avoided. (author)

  1. Critiquing the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) : Systemic Consequences for Global Governance and the Rule of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) for the architecture of global (economic) governance, including the international rule of law, the article addresses some of the most pertinent systemic consequences TTIP is likely to produce, based on the

  2. Long scale astronomical variations in our solar system: consequences for future ice ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardsson, S.; Karlsson, K.G.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that the Earth has gone through a number of glaciations during the last few million years. It is generally agreed that changes in the Earth's orbital parameters and obliquity play an important role in climate forcing, an idea originally due to Milutin Milankovitch. The climatic history of the Earth shows clear evidence of the precession periods (about 19 000 and 23 000 years) and changes in the obliquity (period about 41 000 years). The main period in glacial data (around 100 000 years) is, however, hard to explain in terms of orbital variations. During the last decade or so a large number of simulations of the planetary system have been reported, many of which have been concerned with the influence of variations in the Earth's orbit on climate. In former studies comparisons have been made between the astronomical parameters and the ice volume of the Earth. Generally speaking, the match between astronomical forcing and ice data has been rather poor. In this study we instead compare the parameters with changes in ice volume, which yields a much better agreement between the astronomical and the geological data. A number of climate models have been constructed to reproduce past climate history, and also to make predictions about the future. These are purely empirical models designed to match certain periods of past climate. Typically they also involve a substantial number of free parameters. (authors)

  3. Chemical buffering in natural and engineered barrier systems: Thermodynamic constraints and performance assessment consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C.; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-12-01

    to simulate the acidimetric/alkalimetric titration of pore solutions equilibrated with water-saturated, compacted MX-80 bentonite. Calculation of the inverse of derivatives of the simulated titration curve provides estimates of the pH buffer intensity. Analytical and adaptive grid numerical models are then used to simulate the propagation velocity of the pH front through the buffer. Two assumptions. that are adopted in these models may be questionable, however: 1) that the region near the pH front is a closed chemical system, and 2) that local and partial equilibrium is sustained as H{sup +} diffuses into this region. A rigorous reactive transport modeling approach may be needed to assess the validity of these assumptions. A reaction-path model appropriate for advection-dominated groundwater flow in one spatial dimension is also used in this study to evaluate the relation between chemical buffering due to water-rock interaction and the migration velocity of a pH front in a granitic host rock. The modeling approach is based on the stationary state approximation to the governing mass-transport equations controlling coupled fluid flow and water-rock interaction. A consequence of stationary-state behavior is that the migration velocity of a reaction front is fixed relative to the Darcy flow velocity. An analytical expression consistent with this behavior predicts that front velocities are attenuated relative to the flow velocity by a retardation factor, which is similar, and in some cases identical, to the buffer intensity of reactions that control the front. A key assumption in this model is that the groundwater system involves purely advective transport in a homogeneous porous medium. This may be unrealistic in real groundwater systems, except over extremely limited scales of space and time. Results of both the near-field and far-field models indicate that buffering may strongly attenuate the migration velocities of reaction fronts, and that front velocities are

  4. Infectious diseases and immune system in infants Risk factors and consequences: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Duijts (Liesbeth)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPreterm birth and low birth weight are considered as important public health concerns since both are important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality (1-3). Furthermore, these adverse birth outcomes seem to have long term consequences. Preterm birth infants are at risk for

  5. Early development of endocrine and metabolic consequences after treatment of central nervous system tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Ramanauskienė

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Survivors of brain tumors suffer from numerous endocrine and metabolic consequences, majority of them developing within the first 5 years after brain tumor therapy. An active follow-up aiming for early diagnosis and therapy is essential for improvement of quality of life in these patients.

  6. Evaluating the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. IV. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. 4 refs

  7. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  8. Techniques for remote maintenance of in-cell material-handling system in the HFEF/N main cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, D.A.; Frickey, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Operations in the main cell of HFEF/N have required development of remote handling equipment and unique techniques for maintaining the in-cell material-handling system. Specially designed equipment is used to remove a disabled crane or electromechanical manipulator bridge from its support rails and place it on floor stands for repair or maintenance. Support areas for the main cell, such as the spray chamber and hot repair area, provide essential decontamination, repair, and staging areas for the in-cell material-handling-system equipment and tools. A combined engineering and technical effort in upgrading existing master-slave manipulators has definitely reduced the requirements for their maintenance. The cell is primarily for postirradiation examination of LMFBR materials and fuel elements

  9. Main-Branch Structure Iterative Detection Using Approximate Message Passing for Uplink Large-Scale Multiuser MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging large-scale/massive multi-input multioutput (MIMO system combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM is considered a key technology for its advantage of improving the spectral efficiency. In this paper, we introduce an iterative detection algorithm for uplink large-scale multiuser MIMO-OFDM communication systems. We design a Main-Branch structure iterative turbo detector using the Approximate Message Passing algorithm simplified by linear approximation (AMP-LA and using the Mean Square Error (MSE criterion to calculate the correlation coefficients between main detector and branch detector for the given iteration. The complexity of our method is compared with other detection algorithms. The simulation results show that our scheme can achieve better performance than the conventional detection methods and have the acceptable complexity.

  10. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N; Rollstin, J.A.; Helton, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs

  11. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  12. Analysis of pressure oscillations and safety relief valve vibrations in the main steam system of a Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbally, David, E-mail: dgalbally@innomerics.com [Innomerics, Calle San Juan de la Cruz 2, 28223 Madrid (Spain); García, Gonzalo [Alava Ingenieros, Calle Albasanz 16, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Hernando, Jesús; Sánchez, Juan de Dios [Iberdrola, Calle Tomás Redondo 1, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Barral, Marcos [Alava Ingenieros, Calle Albasanz 16, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyze the vibratory response of safety relief valves in the main steam system of a Boiling Water Reactor. • We show that valve internals experience acceleration spikes of more than 20 g. • Spikes are caused by impacts between the valve disc and the seating surface of the valve nozzle. • Resonances occur at higher Strouhal numbers than those reported in the literature for tandem side branches. • Valves experience high vibration levels even for resonances caused by second order hydrodynamic modes. - Abstract: Steam flow inside the main steam lines of a Boiling Water Reactor can generate high-amplitude pressure oscillations due to coupling between the separated shear layer at the mouth of the safety relief valves (SRVs) and the acoustic modes of the side branches where the SRVs are mounted. It is known that certain combinations of flow velocities and main steam line geometries are capable of generating self-excited pressure oscillations with very high amplitudes, which can endanger the structural integrity of main steam system components, such as safety valves, or reactor internals such as steam dryers. However, main steam systems may also experience lower amplitude pressure oscillations due, for example, to coupling of higher order hydrodynamic modes with acoustic cavity modes, or to incipient resonances where the free stream velocity is slightly lower than the critical flow velocity required to develop a stable locked-on acoustic resonance. The amplitude of these pressure oscillations is typically insufficient to cause readily observable structural damage to main steam system components, but may still have subtle effects on safety relief valves. The investigation presented in this article focuses on the characterization of the response of SRVs under the effects of pressure oscillations associated with acoustic excitations that are insufficient to cause structural damage to the valves or associated equipment. It is shown that valve

  13. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu eKELLER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb is more developped than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  14. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Lévy, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) [in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)] is more developed than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  15. Reliability Analysis of Main-axis Control System of the Equatorial Antarctica Astronomical Telescope Based on Fault Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Y.; Yang, S. H.

    2017-05-01

    The Antarctica astronomical telescopes work chronically on the top of the unattended South Pole, and they have only one chance to maintain every year. Due to the complexity of the optical, mechanical, and electrical systems, the telescopes are hard to be maintained and need multi-tasker expedition teams, which means an excessive awareness is essential for the reliability of the Antarctica telescopes. Based on the fault mechanism and fault mode of the main-axis control system for the equatorial Antarctica astronomical telescope AST3-3 (Antarctic Schmidt Telescopes 3-3), the method of fault tree analysis is introduced in this article, and we obtains the importance degree of the top event from the importance degree of the bottom event structure. From the above results, the hidden problems and weak links can be effectively found out, which will indicate the direction for promoting the stability of the system and optimizing the design of the system.

  16. Applying Systems Engineering to Improve the Main Gas Turbine Exhaust System Maintenance Strategy for the CG-47 Ticonderoga Class Cruiser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    national security and prosperity (U.S. Navy 2014). In perspective, oceans are the lifeblood of the planet and its entire population. The National...in excess of 80 percent of the world’s population lives within 100 miles of an ocean and greater than 90 percent of the world’s commerce travels via...emergency drainage, backup seawater service, machinery and electronic cooling systems. The Countermeasure Wash down System (CMWD), magazine

  17. Comparison of INTERA and WISAP consequence model application. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being conducted to develop, for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the methodology necessary to perform long-term safety assessments of deep geologic repositories. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program is developing a nuclear waste storage facility and is performing assessments of that site. WISAP and WIPP have similar, though independent, methodologies for assessing the consequences of a repository breach subsequent to closure. Intera Environmental Consultants are under contract to Sandia Laboratories to conduct the hydrologic and transport modeling for the WIPP Site Release Consequence Analysis (WIPP EIS/ER 1978). To provide a mutual benchmark check of the radionuclide and ground-water transport models of these two programs, ONWI has requested WISAP to perform a release consequence analysis based on the WIPP site, utilizing the same data and conceptual model which the WIPP program used for its environmental assessments. Therefore, only a portion of the WISAP methodology was used; specifically, only WISAP geotransport models were exercised. The other important parts of WISAP assessment methodology were not used, so that WISAP did not develop the scenario nor did WISAP interpret the field data to develop the conceptual model of the geohydrology of the WIPP site. The results of the comparative assessment are presented. Although the different models required slightly different input parameters, the results of the hydrologic simulations show a very close correspondence between the WISAP and WIPP predictions. This was as expected, since the various hydrologic codes available essentially utilize and solve the same basic flow equations. In addition, this report presents the results of the WISAP radionuclide transport model simulations. These results will provide the basis for comparison with WIPP results when these become available

  18. Review of the Main Security Problems with Multi-Agent Systems used in E-commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso GONZÁLEZ BRIONES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to connect to the Internet from a wide variety of devices such as smart phones, IoT devices and desktops at anytime and anywhere, produces a large number of e-commerce transactions, such as purchases of clothes, ticket entrances for performances, or banking operations. The increasing number of these transactions has also created an increase in the number of threats and attacks by third parties to access user data banks. It is important to control the access procedure to user data so that the number of threats does not continue to grow. To do so, it is necessary to prevent unauthorized access, theft and fraud in electronic commerce, which is required to ensure the safety of these transactions. Many e-commerce platforms are developed through multi-agent-systems because they include certain advantages to control the product, resource management, task distribution, etc. However, there are a number of threats that can jeopardize the safety of the agents that make up the system. These issues must be taken into account in the development of these multi-agent systems. However, existing methods of development do not cover in depth the issue of security. It is necessary to present and classify the potential security flaws of multi-agent systems. Therefore, the present research presents a review of the main vulnerabilities that occur in multi-agent systems responsible for managing e-commerce applications, as well as the proposed solutions to the major security problems on these platform systems. The main conclusions provided by this research is the need to optimize security measures and enhance the different security solutions applied in e-commerce applications in order to prevent identity theft, access to private data, access control, etc. It is therefore essential to continue to develop the security methods employed in applications such as e-commerce as different types of attacks and threats continue to evolve.

  19. A parametric study of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) Input Values for the Predicted Health Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Ra; Min, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2, MACCS2, has been the most widely used through the world among the off-site consequence analysis codes. MACCS2 code is used to estimate the radionuclide concentrations, radiological doses, health effects, and economic consequences that could result from the hypothetical nuclear accidents. Most of the MACCS model parameter values are defined by the user and those input parameters can make a significant impact on the output. A limited parametric study was performed to identify the relative importance of the values of each input parameters in determining the predicted early and latent health effects in MACCS2. These results would not be applicable to every case of the nuclear accidents, because only the limited calculation was performed with Kori-specific data. The endpoints of the assessment were early- and latent cancer-risk in the exposed population, therefore it might produce the different results with the parametric studies for other endpoints, such as contamination level, absorbed dose, and economic cost. Accident consequence assessment is important for decision making to minimize the health effect from radiation exposure, accordingly the sufficient parametric studies are required for the various endpoints and input parameters in further research

  20. Practical use of valve seating machine with remote control system for main steam isolation valve at N.P.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Sadao; Noda, Hiroshi; Sadamura, Morito; Utsunomiya, Yasushi.

    1975-01-01

    The main steam isolation valves in BWR power stations are installed at the boundary of reactor containment vessels, and 2 valves in each main steam system total 8 valves in a plant. They are pneumatically operated Y type globe valves for preventing the release of radioactive substances in the atmosphere in case of the breaking of main steam pipes and also preventing the loss of coolant in case of the breaking of recirculating equipments. Therefore careful leak test, inspection, and seat-fitting are carried out to the valves at each regular maintenance. The manual maintenance work is difficult because of narrow space and the reduction of exposure, and the seat-fitting work requires the skill of high degree, therefore Okano Valve Manufacturing Co. and Tokyo Electric Power Co. jointly started the research and development of an automatic valve seating machine, and successfully put it to practical use in Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Station in Nov. 1974. First, the problems in the manual seat-fitting work were investigated, and the means to mechanically solve them were materialized with a prototype machine. After its mock-up test, an actual machine was designed and manufactured. The test result showed remarkable reduction of exposure and labor-saving, and the leak evaluation was sufficiently below the allowable value. (Kako, I.)

  1. Management Control Systems, Evaluative Style, and Behaviour : Exploring the Concept and Behavioural Consequences of Evaluative Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Noeverman (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganisations develop and implement performance measurement and performance evaluation systems to motivate employees to take actions that -in the end- improve organisational (financial) performance. But do these systems really influence employee behaviour as intended? This thesis shows

  2. The Main Strategic Directions of the Education System Development (on the Example of Higher Education Institutions on Personnel Education for the Hospitality Industry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Natalia A.; Ilina, Elena L.; Nikolskaya, Elena Y.; Romanova, Marianna M.; Larionova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    The importance and relevance of research of questions is determined by the intensive development of the tourism and hospitality industry, the consequence of which is the increase of business needs for skilled personnel. The purpose of this paper is to examine and assess the main strategic trends in educational technologies and methods used for…

  3. Radiological consequences of radionuclide releases to sewage systems from hospitals in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Cruz, Idalmis de la [Facilia AB (Sweden); Bergman, Synnoeve [Vattenfall Power Consultants AB (Sweden); Hasselblad, Serena [Callido AB (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    The report addresses radioactive discharges to sewers originating from hospitals, mainly in the form of the excretion of patients treated with radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Assessments of doses to the public, including sewage workers, arising from such discharges are performed. Doses are compared against the exemption level of 10 {mu}Sv/a and the dose constraint of 100 {mu}Sv/a. As a basis for the dose assessments, information on the use of radionuclides in Swedish hospitals during the period 1999-2004 is presented and estimates of discharges to the sewage systems are derived. Current sewage treatment practices in Sweden are summarised focusing particularly on the fate of sewage sludge, both in the sewage plant and outside. Radiological impact assessments are performed in two steps. The assessments in the first stage are performed using a simple screening model, not intending to predict exposures realistically but only to identify exposure pathways and radionuclides that are potentially relevant and require further consideration in the more detailed assessments. Results show that only a few of those radionuclides used in the period 1999-2004 in Swedish hospitals for radiotherapy and radiodiagnostics could lead to potentially significant doses (P-32, Y-90, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, I-131 and Tl-201). Relevant exposure pathways are the external exposure of sewage workers (for Tc- 99m, I-123, I-131, In-111 and Tl-201) and the exposure of the public via ingestion of water (I-131) and fish (P-32, Y-90 and In-111 and I-131). The objective of the second stage is to perform realistic assessments of the doses to sewage workers and to the public through the use of contaminated agricultural sludge and through the contamination of drinking water. For this purpose, the LUCIA model was developed. This model dynamically addresses the behaviour of radionuclides in the different process steps of a sewage plant. The model can address continuous releases as well

  4. Systemic consequences of bariatric surgery and its repercussions on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Grec, Patrícia Garcia; Assis, Vivian Helena; Cannabrava, Vanessa Pavoni; Vieira, Vanessa Maira; Siqueira, Thalissa Laís Donalonso; Anaguizawa, Wellington Hideaki; Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Morbid obesity control can be done by bariatric surgery that restricts or reduces the amount of food absorption. The objective of this review was to identify the consequences of bariatric surgery and its repercussions on oral health. It was used the Virtual Library of Health, which included articles that had any direct or indirect connection between bariatric surgery and oral health, and published in the last ten years. Some complications of the surgery are chronicle reflux and nutritional deficiency, which may bring repercussions on the oral cavity, such as tooth erosion, bone loss and dental caries. On the other hand, there are also positive impacts, such as the decrease of diabetes, apnea and improvement on self-esteem, that makes the patients less vulnerable to complications regarding oral health, for example xerostomy and periodontal disease. Maintaining proper oral health in patients undergoing bariatric surgery contributes to success after surgery protecting benefits and minimizing side effects.

  5. Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie Mellon University

    2008-09-30

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules

  6. Energy performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant air-conditioning system for commercial building in main climate zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of solar liquid desiccant AC system in four climate regions was conducted. • System performance was determined by relationship of sensible and latent cooling load. • For humid area, saving amount is large by handling latent load with solar energy. • For dry area, electricity saving rate is considerable due to the high COP of chillers. • For buildings with mild SHR, the system performance was not as good as others. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) system, which consists of a liquid desiccant ventilation system for dehumidification and an air-handling unit for cooling, has become a promising alternative for conventional technology. To evaluate its feasibility and applicability, the simulation of solar-assisted LDAC (SLDAC) in commercial buildings in five cities of four main climate regions were conducted, including Singapore in Tropical, Houston and Beijing in Temperate, Boulder in Arid and Los Angeles in Mediterranean. Results showed that the system’s performance was seriously affected by the ratios of building’s sensible and latent cooling load. For buildings located in humid areas with low sensible-total heat ratio (SHR), the electricity energy reduction of SLDAC was high, about 450 MW h in Houston and Singapore, which accounted for 40% of the total energy consumption in cooling seasons. The cost payback period was as short as approximately 7 years. The main reason is that the energy required for handling the moisture could be saved by liquid desiccant dehumidification, and the regeneration heat could be covered by solar collectors. For buildings in dry climate with high SHR, the total cooling load was low, but up to 45% electricity of AC system could be saved in Boulder because the chiller COP could be significantly improved during more than 70% operation time. The cost payback period was around 22 years, which was acceptable. However, for the buildings with mild SHR, such as those in Beijing and Los

  7. RASCAL [Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis]: A screening model for estimating doses from radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Athey, G.F.; Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis (RASCAL) is a new MS-DOS-based dose assessment model which has been written for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use during response to radiological emergencies. RASCAL is designed to provide crude estimates of the effects of an accident while the accident is in progress and only limited information is available. It has been designed to be very simple to use and to run quickly. RASCAL is unique in that it estimates the source term based on fundamental plant conditions and does not rely solely on release rate estimation (e.g., Ci/sec of I-131). Therefore, it can estimate consequences of accidents involving unmonitored pathways or projected failures. RASCAL will replace the older model, IRDAM. 6 refs

  8. A comparison of the consequences of different waste handling systems in two Danish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.; Thøgersen, John

    1995-01-01

    Results from a study conducted in two Danish communities with different waste handling systems are reported: Whereas one community introduced in the beginning of 1993 a system of combining economic incentives with structural improvements to promot separation, the other started in spring 1994...

  9. [Treatment of removable partial dentures. 2. Causes and consequences of a reduced occlusal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Barel, J.C.; Baat, C. de; Keltjens, H.M.A.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The occlusal system is part of the orofacial system and consists of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridge and teeth which are occluding or not or the removable denture teeth. The most prevalent causes of loss of teeth are insufficient oral self care or inadequate professional oral healthcare

  10. Education reforms: consequences for the systems and the workers in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleno Araújo Filho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the consequences of the reforms in basic education, which started with the promulgation of the Federal Constitution of 1988. These reforms were elaborated without the social participation, resulting, nowadays, in high number of no literate people, big percentage of functional illiterates, the non universalization of the service school, low quality of the learning and a school with difficulties to accomplishing its paper of preparing the citizen for the life and the work. Besides, the education politics took a long time, after the Constitution, for being approved and they didn't assist to the claims and expectations of the workers’ in education. However, in the last three years, there were changes in the structure of the Brazilian education, causing some progresses; but, still, there are challenges to be overcome. The author concluded getting the attention for the importance of the participation, organization and intervention of the organized entities of the social movements so that the present challenges in the education are overcome and that the education is in the right direction.

  11. Spurious indications of energetic consequences of decoherence at short times for scattering from open quantum systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mayers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dreismann, Gray and Blach (DGB have claimed that neutron scattering from molecular hydrogen at energy transfers E sufficiently large to break the H-H bond, gives E ∼3% larger than predicted by conventional quantum theory. DGB presented this claim as the first experimental evidence for energetic consequences of decoherence of quantum entangled particles due to interactions with the environment. It is shown here this claim is entirely spurious. DGB obtained disagreement with conventional theory by changing the geometrical description of the Vesuvio instrument at ISIS, they used to collect their data. Instead of using the default scattering angles obtained from neutron diffraction, DGB used scattering angles obtained using a steel rule and protractor. DGB then manufactured apparent but in fact completely spurious evidence for quantum decoherence effects from the large measurement errors in the scattering angles they used. These give shifts to both higher and lower E than predicted by conventional quantum theory. DGB simply ignored detectors giving shifts to lower values of E. DGB also ignored previously published H2 data that clearly contradict their claim.

  12. Spurious indications of energetic consequences of decoherence at short times for scattering from open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, J.; Reiter, G.

    2012-09-01

    Dreismann, Gray and Blach (DGB) have claimed that neutron scattering from molecular hydrogen at energy transfers E sufficiently large to break the H-H bond, gives E ˜3% larger than predicted by conventional quantum theory. DGB presented this claim as the first experimental evidence for energetic consequences of decoherence of quantum entangled particles due to interactions with the environment. It is shown here this claim is entirely spurious. DGB obtained disagreement with conventional theory by changing the geometrical description of the Vesuvio instrument at ISIS, they used to collect their data. Instead of using the default scattering angles obtained from neutron diffraction, DGB used scattering angles obtained using a steel rule and protractor. DGB then manufactured apparent but in fact completely spurious evidence for quantum decoherence effects from the large measurement errors in the scattering angles they used. These give shifts to both higher and lower E than predicted by conventional quantum theory. DGB simply ignored detectors giving shifts to lower values of E. DGB also ignored previously published H2 data that clearly contradict their claim.

  13. Classification Systems, their Digitization and Consequences for Data-Driven Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Newell, Sue; Galliers, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    of such information systems. Based on a multi-site field study, we suggest that representational quality is achieved through four types of negotiations that human actors engage in when confronted with the materiality of a new IS. These negotiations are associated with three broad practices (instantiation, re......-narration and meta-narration), and three different information production/consumption situations. We contribute to the relational theorization of representational quality and extend classification systems research by drawing explicit attention to the importance of ‘materialization’ of classification systems...

  14. Indications of energetic consequences of decoherence at short times for scattering from open quantum systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Decoherence of quantum entangled particles is observed in most systems, and is usually caused by system-environment interactions. Disentangling two subsystems A and B of a quantum system AB is tantamount to erasure of quantum phase relations between A and B. It is widely believed that this erasure is an innocuous process, which e.g. does not affect the energies of A and B. Surprisingly, recent theoretical investigations by different groups showed that disentangling two systems, i.e. their decoherence, can cause an increase of their energies. Applying this result to the context of neutron Compton scattering from H2 molecules, we provide for the first time experimental evidence which supports this prediction. The results reveal that the neutron-proton collision leading to the cleavage of the H-H bond in the sub-femtosecond timescale is accompanied by larger energy transfer (by about 3% than conventional theory predicts. It is proposed to interpreted the results by considering the neutron-proton collisional system as an entangled open quantum system being subject to decoherence owing to the interactions with the “environment” (i.e., two electrons plus second proton of H2.

  15. Process and system - A dual definition, revisited with consequences in metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, K. H.

    2010-07-01

    Lets assert that metrology life could be easier scientifically as well as technologically, if we, intentionally, would make an explicit distinction between two outstanding domains, namely the given, really existent domain of processes and the just virtually existent domain of systems, the latter of which is designed and used by the human mind. The abstract domain of models, by which we map the manifold reality of processes, is itself part of the domain of systems. Models support comprehension and communication, although they are normally extreme simplifications of properties and behaviour of a concrete reality. So, systems and signals represent processes and quantities, which are described by means of Signal and System Theory as well as by Stochastics and Statistics. The following presentation of this new, demanding and somehow irritating definition of the terms process and system as a dual pair is unusual indeed, but it opens the door widely to a better and more consistent discussion and understanding of manifold scientific tools in many areas. Metrology [4] is one of the important fields of concern due to many reasons: One group of the soft and hard links between the domain of processes and the domain of systems is realised by concepts of measurement science on the one hand and by instrumental tools of measurement technology on the other hand.

  16. Modeling and Analysis of Queuing Systems in Banks A case study of Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Agyei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Queues are common sight of many banks in Ghana. The obvious implication of customers waiting in long and winding queues could result to prolonged discomfort and economic cost to them however increasing the service rate will require additional number of tellers which implies extra cost to management. This study therefore attempts to find the trade-off between minimizing the total economic cost waiting cost and service cost and the provision of a satisfactory and reasonably shortest possible time of service to customers in order to assist management of the bank in deciding the optimal number of tellers needed. Data for this study was collected at the Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd Kumasi Main Branch for one month through observations interviews and by administering of questionnaire and was formulated as multi-server single line queuing model. The data was analyzed using TORA optimization Software as well as using descriptive method of analysis. The performance measures of different queuing systems were evaluated and analyzed. The results of the analysis showed using a five teller system was better than a four or a six-teller system in terms of average waiting time and thetotal economic cost hence the study recommends that the management should adopt a five teller model to reduce total economic costs and increase customer satisfaction.

  17. Influences of the guide bearing stiffness on the critical speed of rotation in the main shaft system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, B; Zhang, L X; Zhao, L

    2012-01-01

    An analysis is carried out on the natural vibration characteristics of the main shaft system of a hydro-turbine generating set. The critical speed of rotation in different orders are calculated based on simplified real parameters and the influences of different guide bearing stiffness on the critical speed are analyzed. The results show that the up guide bearing has little influence on the critical speed; however, the down and the water guide bearings strongly affect the critical speed and to a certain extent the 'saturation' phenomenon happens; as all of these three bearings stiffness become larger at the same time, the critical speed also increases significantly. So it is necessary to consider the effect of the bearing stiffness when doing an estimation of the critical speed.

  18. Trend and pattern analysis of failures of main feedwater system components in United States commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentillon, C.D.; Meachum, T.R.; Brady, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the trend and pattern analysis of MFW (main feedwater) component failure data is to identify component attributes that are associated with relatively high incidences of failure. Manufacturer, valve type, and pump rotational speed are examples of component attributes under study; in addition, the pattern of failures among NPP units is studied. A series of statistical methods is applied to identify trends and patterns in failures and trends in occurrences in time with regard to these component attributes or variables. This process is followed by an engineering evaluation of the statistical results. In the remainder of this paper, the characteristics of the NPRDS that facilitate its use in reliability and risk studies are highlighted, the analysis methods are briefly described, and the lessons learned thus far for improving MFW system availability and reliability are summarized (orig./GL)

  19. Development of an Eccentric CAM Based Active Pre-Alignment System for the CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, F; Collette, C; Mainaud Durand, H; Hauviller, C; Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R

    2010-01-01

    CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) is a study for a future electron-positron collider that would allow physicists to explore a new energy region beyond the capabilities of today's particle accelerators. The demanding transverse and vertical beam sizes and emittance specifications are resulting in stringent alignment and a nanometre stability requirement. In the current feasibility study, the main beam quadrupole magnets have to be actively pre-aligned with a precision of 1 µm in 5 degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) before being mechanically stabilized to the nm scale above 1 Hz. This contribution describes the approach of performing this active pre-alignment based on an eccentric cam system. In order to limit the amplification of the vibration sources at resonant frequencies a sufficiently high Eigenfrequency is required. Therefore the contact region between cam and support was optimized for adequate stiffness based on the Hertzian theory. Furthermore, practical tests performed on a single degree of freedom mock-up wil...

  20. Embedded system design to control the entry and exit of vehicles online, at the main access of ESPOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier J. Gavilanes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research a embedded real-time system was developed by using Raspberry Pi3 (a reduced board computer, which is an equipment with a camera placed in strategic points of the mechanic arms at the main entrance and exit of Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo, this equipment captures images of vehicles that enter and exit the campus and the information is extracted through the implementation of a segmentation algorithm written in Python programming language and the collaboration of artificial vision bookstores offered by OpenCV, processing techniques were applied to extract the vehicle plate from the location scenery. Then, an Optical Character Recognition (OCR algorithm also known as K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN was applied, which after a training phase is able to identify letters and numbers on the automobile plates, the information is stored in the entrance database and it is deleted when the automobile exits the campus.

  1. A System for Fault Management and Fault Consequences Analysis for NASA's Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano; Spirkovska, Liljana; Baskaran, Vijaykumar; Aaseng, Gordon; McCann, Robert S.; Ossenfort, John; Smith, Irene; Iverson, David L.; Schwabacher, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA's exploration program envisions the utilization of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for human exploration of the space environment in the vicinity of Mars and/or asteroids. Communication latencies with ground control of as long as 20+ minutes make it imperative that DSH operations be highly autonomous, as any telemetry-based detection of a systems problem on Earth could well occur too late to assist the crew with the problem. A DSH-based development program has been initiated to develop and test the automation technologies necessary to support highly autonomous DSH operations. One such technology is a fault management tool to support performance monitoring of vehicle systems operations and to assist with real-time decision making in connection with operational anomalies and failures. Toward that end, we are developing Advanced Caution and Warning System (ACAWS), a tool that combines dynamic and interactive graphical representations of spacecraft systems, systems modeling, automated diagnostic analysis and root cause identification, system and mission impact assessment, and mitigation procedure identification to help spacecraft operators (both flight controllers and crew) understand and respond to anomalies more effectively. In this paper, we describe four major architecture elements of ACAWS: Anomaly Detection, Fault Isolation, System Effects Analysis, and Graphic User Interface (GUI), and how these elements work in concert with each other and with other tools to provide fault management support to both the controllers and crew. We then describe recent evaluations and tests of ACAWS on the DSH testbed. The results of these tests support the feasibility and strength of our approach to failure management automation and enhanced operational autonomy

  2. A Step by Step Approach for Evaluating the Reliability of the Main Engine Lube Oil System for a Ship's Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Anantharaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient maintenance is essential to ensure reliability of a ship's main propulsion system, which in turn is interdependent on the reliability of a number of associated sub- systems. A primary step in evaluating the reliability of the ship's propulsion system will be to evaluate the reliability of each of the sub- system. This paper discusses the methodology adopted to quantify reliability of one of the vital sub-system viz. the lubricating oil system, and development of a model, based on Markov analysis thereof. Having developed the model, means to improve reliability of the system should be considered. The cost of the incremental reliability should be measured to evaluate cost benefits. A maintenance plan can then be devised to achieve the higher level of reliability. Similar approach could be considered to evaluate the reliability of all other sub-systems. This will finally lead to development of a model to evaluate and improve the reliability of the main propulsion system.

  3. Managing Errors to Reduce Accidents in High Consequence Networked Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, J.H.

    1999-02-01

    Computers have always helped to amplify and propagate errors made by people. The emergence of Networked Information Systems (NISs), which allow people and systems to quickly interact worldwide, has made understanding and minimizing human error more critical. This paper applies concepts from system safety to analyze how hazards (from hackers to power disruptions) penetrate NIS defenses (e.g., firewalls and operating systems) to cause accidents. Such events usually result from both active, easily identified failures and more subtle latent conditions that have resided in the system for long periods. Both active failures and latent conditions result from human errors. We classify these into several types (slips, lapses, mistakes, etc.) and provide NIS examples of how they occur. Next we examine error minimization throughout the NIS lifecycle, from design through operation to reengineering. At each stage, steps can be taken to minimize the occurrence and effects of human errors. These include defensive design philosophies, architectural patterns to guide developers, and collaborative design that incorporates operational experiences and surprises into design efforts. We conclude by looking at three aspects of NISs that will cause continuing challenges in error and accident management: immaturity of the industry, limited risk perception, and resource tradeoffs.

  4. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  5. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 01: Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) provides accessible, up-to-date fire effects summaries, taken from current English-language literature, for almost 900 plant species, about 100 animal species, and 16 Kuchler plant communities found on the North American continent. This fact sheet discusses the development of FEIS and what is contained in the species summary....

  6. Causes and consequences of timing errors associated with global positioning system collar accelerometer activity monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam J. Gaylord; Dana M. Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral observations of multiple free-ranging animals over long periods of time and large geographic areas is prohibitively difficult. However, recent improvements in technology, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with motion-sensitive activity monitors, create the potential to remotely monitor animal behavior. Accelerometer-equipped...

  7. Plasticity of the melanocortin system: determinants and possible consequences on food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danaé eNuzzaci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin system is one of the most important neuronal pathways involved in the regulation of food intake and is probably the best characterized. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP and proopiomelanocortin (POMC expressing neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are key elements of this system. These two neuronal populations are sensitive to circulating molecules and receive many excitatory and inhibitory inputs from various brain areas. According to sensory and metabolic information they integrate, these neurons control different aspects of feeding behavior and orchestrate autonomic responses aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis. Interestingly, composition and abundance of pre-synaptic inputs onto arcuate AgRP and POMC neurons vary in the adult hypothalamus in response to changes in the metabolic state, a phenomenon that can be recapitulated by treatment with hormones such as leptin or ghrelin. As described in other neuroendrocrine systems, glia might be determinant to shift the synaptic configuration of AgRP and POMC neurons. Here, we discuss the physiological outcome of the synaptic plasticity of the melanocortin system, and more particularly its contribution to the control of energy balance. The discovery of this attribute has changed how we view obesity and related disorders, and opens new perspectives for their management.

  8. Modelling shelf-ocean exchange and its biogeochemical consequences in coastal upwelling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchamad, Al Azhar

    margin bathymetry, and 3) what processes determine the observed variability of total organic carbon (TOC) content in shelf sediments underlying the upwelling system, with implications for the formation of petroleum source rocks. Here, a numerical ocean modeling approach is used in this thesis to explore...

  9. Consequences for wind technology diffusion under different configurations of tradable green certificate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    2002-01-01

    The liberalisation of Western European electricity sectors challenged governments to revise the support systems for the reduction of market barriers of renewable technologies. One of the most frequently discussed support approaches is the imposition of legal quota obligations for the generation,

  10. Computer Network’s Time (Synchronization) Systems Espionage and Its Possible Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Anatolevich Melnikov; Vladislav Romanovich Petrov; Evgeny Vasilevich Dirienko; Anton Anatolevich Abramov; Ivan Alexandrovich Korsakov; Stanislav Sergeevich Kuzminov

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes cryptanalysis attacks on network time (synchronization) systems method (computer espionage) based on timestamp fractional value falsification that software’s implant realizes. For massive time stamps using in a public key infrastructure, the considered method of attack can completely compromise that infrastructure.

  11. Computer Network’s Time (Synchronization Systems Espionage and Its Possible Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Anatolevich Melnikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes cryptanalysis attacks on network time (synchronization systems method (computer espionage based on timestamp fractional value falsification that software’s implant realizes. For massive time stamps using in a public key infrastructure, the considered method of attack can completely compromise that infrastructure.

  12. Ventilation system consequence calculations to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W.

    1997-05-07

    This document presents the radiological dose and toxicological exposure calculations for an accident scenario involved with the ventilation system used to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101. This tank has been listed on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  13. Ventilation system consequence calculations to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents the radiological dose and toxicological exposure calculations for an accident scenario involved with the ventilation system used to support salt well pumping single-shell tank 241-A-101. This tank has been listed on the Hydrogen Watch List

  14. Retrogradation of concentrated starch systems : mechanism and consequences for product properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, C.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical properties of concentrated starch + water systems were studied during heating, cooling and storage. Methods used were a small-amplitude dynamic rheological test and compression between parallel plates. The mechanical properties were related to the structure of the gels.

  15. Genomic conflict in scale insects : The causes and consequences of bizarre genetic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Laura; Pen, Ido; Shuker, David M.

    2010-01-01

    It is now clear that mechanisms of sex determination are extraordinarily labile, with considerable variation across all taxonomic levels. This variation is often expressed through differences in the genetic system (XX-XY, XX-XO, haplodiploidy, and so on). Why there is so much variation in such a

  16. Plant protection system optimization studies to mitigate consequences of large breaks in the advanced neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayat, M.I.; March-Leuba, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents some of the optimization studies performed to maximize the performance of the engineered safety features and scram systems to mitigate the consequences of large breaks in the primary cooling system of the advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor. The ANS is a new basic and applied research facility based on a powerful steady-state research reactor that provides beams of neutrons for measurements and experiments in the field of material science and engineering, biology, chemistry, material analysis, and nuclear science. To achieve the high neutron fluxes for these state-of-the-art experiments, the ANS design has a very high power density core (330 MW fission with an active volume of 67.6 ell) surrounded by a large heavy-water reflector, where most neutrons are moderated. This design maximizes the number of neutrons available for experiments but results in a low heat capacity core that creates unique challenges to the design of the plant protection system

  17. and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Athanasopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (a Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name, they belong to one of the most popular teams in Greece with a large fan population; have both competed in International Competitions (UEFA’s Champion League; Final Four of the European Tournament and have realised many CSR initiatives in the past. The case studies involved in depth, personal interviews of managers responsible for CSR in each team. Case study data was triangulated with documentation and search of published material concerning CSR actions. Data was analysed with content analysis. (c Findings: Both teams investigated have undertaken various CSR activities the last 5 years, the football team significantly more than the basketball team. Major factors that affect CSR activity include pressure from leagues; sponsors; local community, and global organisations; orientation towards fulfilling their duty to society, and team CSR strategy. Major benefits from CSR include relief of vulnerable groups and philanthropy as well as a better reputation for the firm; increase in fan base; and finding sponsors more easily due to the social profile of the team. However, those benefits are not measured in any way although both teams observe increase in tickets sold; web site traffic and TV viewing statistics after CSR activities. Finally, promotion of CSR is mainly done through web sites; press releases; newspapers, and word-of-mouth communications. (d Research limitations/implications: This study involves only two case studies and has limited generalisability. Future research can extend the

  18. Multiset Analysis of Consequences of Natural Disasters Impacts on Large-Scale Industrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sheremet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Paper is dedicated to the new approach to distributed industrial systems (IS sustainability/vulnerability assessment. This approach is based on the unitary multiset grammars (UMG as a flexible and convenient tool designed specially for large systems analysis and optimization. UMG description of IS technological base as well as multiset representation of order completed by the IS, its resource base and impact on the IS are presented. Criterion for recognition of IS sustainability to the impact is formulated. UMG extension for natural disasters impacts (NDI representation is introduced, and criterion for recognition of IS sustainability to the NDI is also presented. The solution of the reverse problem, concerning part of the order, which may be completed by the affected IS, is described. Implementation issues are considered.

  19. Real-time analyses and precautionary action. The program system for assessing and limiting radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Gregor, J.

    1993-01-01

    AUTOPARK is a mostly automatically running program system which during intensive operation of IMIS provides large-scale assessments of nuclide-specific contamination of soils and 20 plants. Based on calculation results, the potential radiation exposure of the population to ten relevant radionuclides is assessed; contaminations of food to be expected are forecast, and the effects of the emergency measures 'recommendation to stay indoors' and 'marketing ban on higher contaminated food' are investigated. DIAPARK is a dialogue-controlled program system which, on the basis of the depositions on soil and plants calculated by AUTOPARK, enables the study of specific questions, such as the effects of changed feed compositions for useful animals. The DOSISPARK program was developed to assess potential radiation exposure of the population by means of meaasuring data acquired during normal operation of IMIS. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Modelling shelf-ocean exchange and its biogeochemical consequences in coastal upwelling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchamad, Al Azhar

    margin bathymetry, and 3) what processes determine the observed variability of total organic carbon (TOC) content in shelf sediments underlying the upwelling system, with implications for the formation of petroleum source rocks. Here, a numerical ocean modeling approach is used in this thesis to explore...... processes and the development of anoxia/euxinia under the present day or past geological conditions. Thirdly and last, processes controlling distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) content in sediments across the continental margin is evaluated by application of the model to the Benguela upwelling system....... In the model, biological primary production and shelf bottom-water anoxia result in enhanced sedimentary TOC concentrations on the mid shelf and upper slope. The simulated TOCs implicate that bottom lateral transport only has a significant effect on increasing the deposition of the organic carbon on the mid...

  1. Using three-dimension virtual reality main control room for integrated system validation and human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chihwei; Cheng Tsungchieh

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes the performance assessment in three-dimension virtual reality (3D-VR) main control room (MCR). The assessment is conducted for integrated system validation (ISV) purposes, and also for human reliability analyses (HRA). This paper describes the latest developments in 3D-VR applications, designated for the familiarization with MCR, specially taking into account the ISV and HRA. The experiences in 3D-VR application, the benefits and advantages of use of VR in training and maintenances of MCR operators in the target NPP are equally presented in this paper. Results gathered from the performance measurement lead to hazard mitigation and reduces the risk of human error in the operation and maintenance of nuclear equipments. The latest developments in simulation techniques, including 3D presentation enhances the above mentioned benefits, brings the MCR simulators closer to reality. In the near future, this type of 3D solutions should be applied more and more often in the design of MCR simulators. The presented 3D-VR are related to the MCR in NPPs, but the concept of composition and navigation through the system's elements can be easily applied for the purpose of any type of technical equipment and shall contribute in a similar manner to hazard prevention. (author)

  2. Mobile Computerized Procedure System for the Improved Situation Awareness among Field Workers and Main Control Room Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Seong, Nokyu; Jung, Yeonsub

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains the technical issues of the mobile CPS (m-CPS) in the conceptual development stage. The proposed m-CPS can be developed with many recent technologies in the various industry fields based on CRI CPS. Performance and stability of CRI CPS have been tested several times until now. It is expected that more human errors can be reduced by the m-CPS through improved situation awareness and human performance tools for local workers and MCR operators. Some considerations as well as mentioned ones will be reflected in the m-CPS development. Human errors can occur during the test and maintenance of the generator, safety injection system and reactor coolant inventory in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most of human errors have been occurred by the omission of the prevention techniques such as the self-check, the peer-check, the concurrent verification and etc. Another important reason is the insufficient information sharing among main control room (MCR) operators and field workers. Various field service automation tools have been developed with recent information technology in many countries. APR1400 computerized procedure system (CPS) has been developed for the MCR operators of Shin-Kori 3 and 4 units. Especially, the concurrent verification support design is applied in the construction project of Shin-Hanul 1 and 2 CPS. KHNP central research institute (CRI) expects that the extended application of CPS including the field activity, that is a kind of mobile CPS, can enhance the reduction of human errors

  3. Gravitational Waves from Isolated Systems: Surprising Consequences of a Positive Cosmological Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice; Kesavan, Aruna

    2016-02-05

    There is a deep tension between the well-developed theory of gravitational waves from isolated systems and the presence of a positive cosmological constant Λ, however tiny. In particular a generalization of Einstein's 1918 quadrupole formula that would allow a positive Λ is not yet available. We first explain the principal difficulties and then show that it is possible to overcome them in the weak field limit. These results also provide concrete hints for constructing the Λ>0 generalization of the Bondi-Sachs framework for full, nonlinear general relativity.

  4. Modeling activities in air traffic control systems: antecedents and consequences of a mid-air collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; Ferreira, Bemildo

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a model of some functions and activities of the Brazilian Air traffic Control System (ATS) in the period in which occurred a mid-air collision between flight GLO1907, a commercial aircraft Boeing 737-800, and flight N600XL, an executive jet EMBRAER E-145, to investigate key resilience characteristics of the ATM. Modeling in some detail activities during the collision and related them to overall behavior and antecedents that stress the organization uncover some drift into failure mechanisms that erode safety defenses provided by the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), enabling a mid-air collision to be happen.

  5. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdkhasti, Mansureh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Pirak, Arezoo; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births) imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system perspective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic, 53 scientific journals were found in various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985-2013). Original articles, review articles, published books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the inclusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that imposes substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes reduced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation.

  6. Unintended greenhouse gas consequences of lowering level of service in urban transit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, Julia B; Cheng, Han; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Public transit is often touted as a ‘green’ transportation option and a way for users to reduce their environmental footprint by avoiding automobile emissions, but that may not be the case when systems run well below passenger capacity. In previous work, we explored an approach to optimizing the design and operations of transit systems for both costs and emissions, using continuum approximation models and assuming fixed demand. In this letter, we expand upon our previous work to explore how the level of service for users impacts emissions. We incorporate travel time elasticities into the optimization to account for demand shifts from transit to cars, resulting from increases in transit travel time. We find that emissions reductions are moderated, but not eliminated, for relatively inelastic users. We consider two scenarios: the first is where only the agency faces an emissions budget; the second is where the entire city faces an emissions budget. In the latter scenario, the emissions reductions resulting from reductions in transit level of service are mitigated as users switch to automobile. (letter)

  7. Targeting local vascular and systemic consequences of inflammation on vascular and cardiac valve calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaut, Lucie; Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores; Aldamiz-Echevarría Castillo, Gonzalo; Sanz, Ana B; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac valve calcification and vascular calcification (VC) are associated with cardiovascular mortality in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis are among the causes of systemic inflammation that are associated with VC. This review collates clinical and experimental evidence that inflammation accelerates VC progression. Specifically, we review the actions of key pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related transcription factors on VC, and the role played by senescence. Inflammatory cytokines, such as the TNF superfamily and IL-6 superfamily, and inflammation-related transcription factor NF-κB promote calcification in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, valvular interstitial cells, or experimental animal models through direct effects, but also indirectly by decreasing circulating Fetuin A or Klotho levels. Experimental evidence suggests a causal link between inflammation and VC that would change the clinical approach to prevention and treatment of VC. However, the molecular basis remains unclear and little is known about VC in humans treated with drugs targeting inflammatory cytokines. The effect of biologicals targeting TNF-α, RANKL, IL-6, and other inflammatory mediators on VC, in addition to the impact of dietary phosphate in patients with chronic systemic inflammation, requires study.

  8. Space Shuttle Main Engine Quantitative Risk Assessment: Illustrating Modeling of a Complex System with a New QRA Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Christian

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, a team from Hernandez Engineering, MSFC, Rocketdyne, Thiokol, Pratt & Whitney, and USBI completed the first phase of a two year Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of the Space Shuttle. The models for the Shuttle systems were entered and analyzed by a new QRA software package. This system, termed the Quantitative Risk Assessment System(QRAS), was designed by NASA and programmed by the University of Maryland. The software is a groundbreaking PC-based risk assessment package that allows the user to model complex systems in a hierarchical fashion. Features of the software include the ability to easily select quantifications of failure modes, draw Event Sequence Diagrams(ESDs) interactively, perform uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and document the modeling. This paper illustrates both the approach used in modeling and the particular features of the software package. The software is general and can be used in a QRA of any complex engineered system. The author is the project lead for the modeling of the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and this paper focuses on the modeling completed for the SSMEs during 1997. In particular, the groundrules for the study, the databases used, the way in which ESDs were used to model catastrophic failure of the SSMES, the methods used to quantify the failure rates, and how QRAS was used in the modeling effort are discussed. Groundrules were necessary to limit the scope of such a complex study, especially with regard to a liquid rocket engine such as the SSME, which can be shut down after ignition either on the pad or in flight. The SSME was divided into its constituent components and subsystems. These were ranked on the basis of the possibility of being upgraded and risk of catastrophic failure. Once this was done the Shuttle program Hazard Analysis and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) were used to create a list of potential failure modes to be modeled. The groundrules and other criteria were used to screen

  9. Medical Consequences of Chernobyl with Focus on the Endocrine System - Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  10. Medical consequences of Chernobyl with focus on the endocrine system: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information on effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  11. System for mitigating consequences of loss of coolant accident at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukrinsky, A.M.; Rzheznikov, J.V.; Shvyryaev, J.V.; Zlatin, D.A.; Kuznetsov, J.A.; Babenko, E.A.; Tatarnikov, V.P.; Lapshin, A.L.; Sanovich, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    The system according to the invention comprises a first room which accommodates a reactor plant and an active-type sprinkler means. As pressure rises in the first room due to a release of steam from the lost coolant, most of the air contained in this first room is driven out through holes provided in walls of the first room in immediate proximity to a floor of the first room, wherefrom it proceeds to a second room through channels and a basin-type condenser accommodated in the second room. The length of the channels is selected so as to form a water seal in these channels to prevent the back-flow of air from the second room to the first room and thus produce rarefaction in the first room. (author)

  12. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an In-Service Interim Storage System at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David

    2016-10-01

    In July, 2016, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners performed a field test at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site, located near Wiscasset, Maine. The primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of an in-service interim storage canister within an overpack; however, as part of the demonstration, dust and soluble salt samples were collected from horizontal surfaces within the interim storage system. The storage system is a vertical system made by NAC International, consisting of a steel-lined concrete overpack containing a 304 stainless steel (SS) welded storage canister. The canister did not contain spent fuel but rather greater-than-class-C waste, which did not generate significant heat, limiting airflow through the storage system. The surfaces that were sampled for deposits included the top of the shield plug, the side of the canister, and a shelf at the bottom of the overpack, just below the level of the pillar on which the canister sits. The samples were sent to Sandia National Laboratories for analysis. This report summarizes the results of those analyses. Because the primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of the canister within the overpack, collection of dust samples was carried out in a qualitative fashion, using paper filters and sponges as the sampling media. The sampling focused mostly on determining the composition of soluble salts present in the dust. It was anticipated that a wet substrate would more effectively extract soluble salts from the surface that was sampled, so both the sponges and the filter paper were wetted prior to being applied to the surface of the metal. Sampling was accomplished by simply pressing the damp substrate against the metal surface for two minutes, and then removing it. It is unlikely that the sampling method quantitatively collected dust or salts from the metal surface; however, both substrates did extract a

  13. Political Correctness and the System of Education: Selected Examples and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Rojek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing political correctness in the context of education. Political correctness has already been widely studied and commented on; however, the phenomenon has received surprisingly little attention in relation to schooling and, particularly, teachers. In the Polish system of education, political correctness is manifest first of all in the overt policy applied by people in charge of education, who refrain from using terminology of e.g. “free market,” “commercial value,” “product,” “competition,” or “profit,” which could be unfavourably received or assessed by teachers. It turns out that political correctness, though founded upon proper assumptions and ideally contributing to common good, can be incorrectly understood or used for political purposes, and thus lose its initial sense, thwart communication between politicians and teachers and hinder their mutual understanding or even render it impossible. This paper attempts to reveal yet another set of conditions, this time the language-related ones, in which contemporary teachers work.

  14. Evaluation of corrosiveness grade of the main pipeline system within the machine-room of the Cen Juragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho C, J.; Corvo P, F.

    1998-01-01

    It is realized a study of the corrosion process and the products formed over the carbon steel in different points of the machine-room of the Electronuclear plant of Juragua (Cuba) particularly in the pipelines considering the specific characteristics of corrosion under roof which has been less studied. The determination of corrosiveness grade was carried out by gravimetric methods (lost and gain weight) in the different coats of the machine-room not existing a correlation between them in according to results with those ones obtained by Infrared Spectroscopy, in which there is not a correlation between the band intensities (lepidocrocite/ goethite) and the corrosion; however both explain different parts of corrosive process. Also it is realized the corrosion products analysis by chemical methods and by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, obtaining the concentration of the major anions and cations of importance for the corrosion, not existing a meaning correlation between them and the corrosion velocity by what it was determined the absorption isotherms, obtaining as result a microporous structure in the formed oxides which was capable to retain and to absorb water and pollutants which could be this the main cause of corrosion. By analyzing the high concentration of iron and the low concentration of the remainder anions and cations it is possible to make the traditional chemical washes which are less expensive and greater effectiveness. All the obtained results are very important to assure the conditions of the pipelines systems installed at the presence of Government and Foreign organizations which are interested for the protection and conservation measures in the pipelines system. (Author)

  15. The commissioning of the advanced radiographic capability laser system: experimental and modeling results at the main laser output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, J. M.; Yang, S. T.; Boley, C. D.; Crane, J. K.; Heebner, J. E.; Spinka, T. M.; Arnold, P.; Barty, C. P. J.; Bowers, M. W.; Budge, T. S.; Christensen, K.; Dawson, J. W.; Erbert, G.; Feigenbaum, E.; Guss, G.; Haefner, C.; Hermann, M. R.; Homoelle, D.; Jarboe, J. A.; Lawson, J. K.; Lowe-Webb, R.; McCandless, K.; McHale, B.; Pelz, L. J.; Pham, P. P.; Prantil, M. A.; Rehak, M. L.; Rever, M. A.; Rushford, M. C.; Sacks, R. A.; Shaw, M.; Smauley, D.; Smith, L. K.; Speck, R.; Tietbohl, G.; Wegner, P. J.; Widmayer, C.

    2015-02-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the first of a kind megajoule-class laser with 192 beams capable of delivering over 1.8 MJ and 500TW of 351nm light [1], [2]. It has been commissioned and operated since 2009 to support a wide range of missions including the study of inertial confinement fusion, high energy density physics, material science, and laboratory astrophysics. In order to advance our understanding, and enable short-pulse multi-frame radiographic experiments of dense cores of cold material, the generation of very hard x-rays above 50 keV is necessary. X-rays with such characteristics can be efficiently generated with high intensity laser pulses above 1017 W/cm² [3]. The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) [4] which is currently being commissioned on the NIF will provide eight, 1 ps to 50 ps, adjustable pulses with up to 1.7 kJ each to create x-ray point sources enabling dynamic, multi-frame x-ray backlighting. This paper will provide an overview of the ARC system and report on the laser performance tests conducted with a stretched-pulse up to the main laser output and their comparison with the results of our laser propagation codes.

  16. Cost consequences of implementing an electronic decision support system for ordering laboratory tests in primary care: evidence from a controlled prospective study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poley, M.J.; Edelenbos, K.I.; Mosseveld, M.; Wijk, M.A.M. van; Bakker, D. de; Lei, J. van der; Rutten-van Mölken, M.P.M.H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The economic consequences of interventions to promote rational, evidence-based use of laboratory tests by physicians are not yet fully understood. We evaluated the cost consequences of a computer-based, guideline-driven decision-support system (CDSS) for ordering blood tests in primary

  17. Modulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by the renin angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Verónica C; Ciancio, María C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Aiello, Ernesto A

    2013-01-01

    The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 1 molecule of HCO(-) 3 (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1) and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 2 molecules of HCO(-) 3 (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1). Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pH i ) and sodium concentration ([Na(+)] i ). In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pH i and [Na(+)] i , which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pH i and [Na(+)] i , which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

  18. Financial consequences of the implementation of a rapid response system on a surgical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmes, Friede; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Mintjes, Joke; Adang, Eddy; van der Hoeven, Johannes G

    2014-08-01

    Rapid response systems (RRSs) are recommended by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and implemented worldwide. Our study on the effects of an RRS showed a non-significant decrease in cardiac arrest and/or unexpected death from 0.5% to 0.25%. Unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admissions increased significantly from 2.5% to 4.2% without a decrease in APACHE II scores. In this study, we estimated the mean costs of an RRS per patient day and tested the hypothesis that admitting less severely ill patients to the ICU reduces costs. A cost analysis of an RRS on a surgical ward, including costs for implementation, a 1-day training programme for nurses, nursing time for extra vital signs observation, medical emergency team (MET) consults and differences in unplanned ICU days before and after RRS implementation. To test the hypothesis, we performed a scenario analysis with a mean APACHE II score of 14 points instead of the empirical 17.6 points for the unplanned ICU admissions, including 33% extra MET consults and 22% extra unplanned ICU admissions. Mean RRS costs were €26.87 per patient-day: implementation €0.33 (1%), training €0.90 (3%), nursing time spent on extended observation of vital signs €2.20 (8%), MET consults €0.57 (2%) and increased number of unplanned ICU days after RRS implementation €22.87 (85%). In the scenario analysis mean costs per patient-day were €10.18. The costs for extra unplanned ICU days were relatively high but the remaining RRS costs were relatively low. The 'APACHE II 14' scenario confirmed the hypothesis that costs for the number of unplanned ICU days can be reduced if less severely ill patients are referred to the ICU. Based upon these findings, our hospital stimulates earlier referral to the ICU, although further implementation strategies are needed to achieve these aims. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Metabolic and Hematological Consequences of Dietary Deoxynivalenol Interacting with Systemic Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bannert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that chronic oral deoxynivalenol (DON exposure modulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced systemic inflammation, whereby the liver was suspected to play an important role. Thus, a total of 41 barrows was fed one of two maize-based diets, either a DON-diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, n = 19 or a control diet (CON, n = 22. Pigs were equipped with indwelling catheters for pre- or post-hepatic (portal vs. jugular catheter infusion of either control (0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW for 1h and frequent blood sampling. This design yielded six groups: CON_CONjugular‑CONportal, CON_CONjugular‑LPSportal, CON_LPSjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑LPSportal and DON_LPSjugular‑CONportal. Blood samples were analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, lactate and red hemogram. The red hemogram and electrolytes were not affected by DON and LPS. DON-feeding solely decreased portal glucose uptake (p < 0.05. LPS-decreased partial oxygen pressure (pO2 overall (p < 0.05, but reduced pCO2 only in arterial blood, and DON had no effect on either. Irrespective of catheter localization, LPS decreased pH and base-excess (p < 0.01, but increased lactate and anion-gap (p < 0.01, indicating an emerging lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis was more pronounced in the group DON_LPSjugular-CONportal than in CON-fed counterparts (p < 0.05. DON-feeding aggravated the porcine acid-base balance in response to a subsequent immunostimulus dependent on its exposure site (pre- or post-hepatic.

  20. Constrained consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available and explicate one formal framework for a whole spectrum of consequence relations, flexible enough to be tailored for choices from a variety of contexts. They do so by investigating semantic constraints on classical entailment which give rise to a family of infra...

  1. Variation of Extreme and Fatigue Design Loads on the Main Bearing of a Front Mounted Direct Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    on the thrust and bending moments at the main bearing, both for ultimate design and in fatigue. It is found that the initial superconductor generator weight of 363 tons must be reduced by 25% in order not to result in higher extreme loads on main and yaw bearing than the reference10 MW geared reference drive...... train. A weight reduction of 50% is needed in order to maintain main bearing fatigue damage equivalent to the reference drive train. Thus a target mass of front mounted superconducting direct drive generators is found to be between 183-272 tons....

  2. Consequences of immune system aging in nature: a study of immunosenescence costs in free-living Tree Swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Winkler, David W; Klasing, Kirk C; Hasselquist, Dennis; Vleck, Carol M

    2011-04-01

    Immunosenescence, the aging of the immune system, is well documented in humans and laboratory models and is known to increase infection risk, morbidity, and mortality among the old. Immunosenescence patterns have recently been unveiled in various free-living populations, but their consequences in the wild have not been explored. We investigated the consequences of immunosenescence in free-living Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor through a field experiment simulating a bacterial infection (challenge with lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in females of different ages during the nestling rearing period. We assessed behavioral and physiological responses of females, as well as growth and quality of their offspring, to determine the costs associated with the simulated infection. Results of the experiment differed between the two years of study. In the first year, old females challenged with LPS lost more body mass and reduced their nest visitation rates more, and their offspring tended to grow slower compared to similarly challenged younger females. In contrast, in the second year, old females did not appear to suffer larger costs than younger ones. Interestingly, immunosenescence was only detected during the first year of the study, suggesting that it is the dysregulated immune function characteristic of immunosenescent individuals rather than age per se that can lead to higher costs of immune defense in old individuals. These results provide the first evidence of costs of immunosenescence in free-living animals and support the hypothesis that old, immunosenescent individuals pay higher costs than younger ones when faced with a challenge to their immune system. Our results also suggest that these costs are mediated by an exaggerated sickness behavior, as seen in laboratory models, and can be modulated by ecological factors such as weather conditions and food availability.

  3. A risk measurement tool for an underground electricity distribution system considering the consequences and uncertainties of manhole events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Thalles Vitelli; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a risk measure of underground vaults that considers the consequences of arc faults. The increasing use of underground systems, together with the aging of networks, the lack of maintenance and interference from other (third party) underground systems nearby have caused many accidents in urban areas, thus endangering human life. The involvement of a large number (hundreds or thousands) of underground vaults with different characteristics, the lack of historical data on modes of failure, the rarity of the occurrence of some faults, the magnitude of their consequences and the involvement of a complex environment surrounding the hazard zone make risk management even more complex and uncertain. Furthermore, given that the (monetary, time, staff, etc.) resources of an electrical power company are limited and scarce, it is necessary to use decision-making tools that aggregate the consequences and the uncertainties to assess the risks jointly with the preference structure of the company, thus solving the problem more realistically. Therefore, this paper puts forward the use of an additional risk analysis for manhole events in underground electrical distribution networks with a view to its being used as a decision aid tool in risk management. As an illustration of the use of the risk measurement tool proposed, a numerical application is presented. The result rather than showing a ranking of underground vaults, gives a measure of the risk used that can show the decision-maker (DM) how much better one group of alternatives (formed by alternatives with quite similar risk values) is than other groups, based on the DM’s attitude to risk and grounded on the axiomatic structure of utility theory. - Highlights: • The paper proposes a risk measure of underground vaults for manhole events. • It makes risk analysis in underground electrical distribution networks. • It makes more than show a risk ranking of underground vaults. • It can show to the DM how

  4. Modernization of Kozloduy nuclear plant unit 5 and 6, implementation of measures to improve the reliability of the main generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinshoff, H.

    2003-01-01

    To improve the reliability of Kozloduy Nuclear power plant several modernization measures will be implemented during the outages in the years 2003 to 2005. In the area of the main generator the following measures will be performed in unit 6 during 2003 outage: - Replacement of main generator circuit breaker by new SF6 cooled breaker type - Replacement of main generator excitation system by new two channel digital system - Replacement of main generator protection by new digital multi-purpose protections including digital fault recorders - Installation of radio frequency monitoring system of main generator circuit Starting from the present situation the new concept is explained. The project organization under consideration of large Bulgarian participation as well as the sequence and schedule of the implementation during the short outage time window is shown. These modernization measures lead to an increase of reliability and availability for the operation of the power plant and with this to increase power plant safety

  5. Consequences of Reducing the Cost of PV Modules on a PV Wind Diesel Hybrid System with Limited Sizing Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable resources for power supply in family homes has passed the stage of utopia to became a reality, with limits set by technical and economic parameters. This paper presents the results of a project originated from the initiative of a middle-class family to achieve energy independence at home. The starting point was the concept of home with “zero energy” in which the total energy available is equal to the energy consumed. The solution devised to meet the energy demand of the residence in question is a PV wind diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, with the possibility of energy storage in batteries and in the form of heating water and the environment of the house. As a restriction, the family requested that the system would represent little impact to the lifestyle and landscape. This paper aims to assess the consequences of reductions in the cost of the PV modules on the optimization space, as conceived by the software Homer. The results show that for this system, a 50% reduction in the cost of PV modules allows all viable solutions including PV modules.

  6. Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership: transitioning to ecosystem service indicators and a new smartphone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) was formed in 2006 to look at change in the health of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem through the use of indicators. ESIP’s initial approach to indicator development focused on seven ecosystem themes, whic...

  7. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Mayn, B.G.

    1979-08-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  8. The replacement of major components of the main primary system, recent achievements performed by Framatome-ANP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanussot, J.M.; Thevenet, R.

    2005-01-01

    Steam generators, the closure head, and now pressurizers are likely to be fully or partially replaced as a consequence of maintenance or repair programs aiming at extending the operating life of a nuclear unit. The generalization of important operations inside the reactor containment has led Framatome-ANP to propose innovations in order to optimize the replacement of primary components in terms of delays and work quality. These innovations and improvements are presented here, they concern 5 issues: -) lifting and handling, -) metrology and topometry, -) tooling and welding, -) automated operations in piping, and -) the management of replacement operations. (A.C.)

  9. Design, calculation and experimental studies for liquid metal system main parameters in support of the liquid lithium fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtikhin, V.A.; Lyublinski, I.E.; Vertkov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    A new concept of a Liquid Lithium Fusion Reactor and the first experimental results were presented at the 16th IAEA Conference on Fusion Energy. During the past two years theoretical estimations have been made, and calculated and experimental results have been obtained in confirmation of this concept and supporting its progress. The main results of this work are given in the paper. (author)

  10. Place-Based Education and Geographic Information Systems: Enhancing the Spatial Awareness of Middle School Students in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Nancy; Hazelton, Eric; Erickson, Jeryl; Allan, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Spatial literacy is a new frontier in K-12 education. This article describes a place-based introductory GIS/GPS middle school curriculum unit in which students used measuring tools, GPS units, and My World GIS software to collect physical and spatial data of trees to create a schoolyard tree inventory. Maine students completed "memory…

  11. Design, calculation and experimental studies for liquid metal system main parameters in support of the liquid lithium fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtikhin, V.A.; Lyublinski, I.E.; Vertkov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of a Liquid Lithium Fusion Reactor and the first experimental results were presented at the 16th IAEA Conference on Fusion Energy. During the past two years theoretical estimations have been made, and calculated and experimental results have been obtained in confirmation of this concept and supporting its progress. The main results of this work are given in the paper. (author)

  12. Private business perceptions of transportation issues and the island explorer bus system at Acadia National Park, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea Brennan; Marc Edwards; John J. Daigle

    2002-01-01

    National Parks and communities that surround them often must work together to create the best possible experience for the visitors to the area. In the case of Acadia National Park in Maine, the surrounding communities and the park have worked together to face the issue of congestion in the area caused by too many automobiles. The Island Explorer Bus alternative...

  13. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  14. Integrated Multivariate Health Monitoring System for Helicopters Main Rotor Drives: Development and Validation with In-Service Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    Speed, Roll Angle, Pitch Angle, True Airspeed, Radio Altitude, Vertical Speed, Normal Acceleration, Density Altitude, Tail Rotor Torque, Main Rotor...Torque, Roll Rate, Pitch Rate, Yaw Rate, Longi- tudinal Acceleration. It has been hypothesised that the accelerometric measure- ments are in some extent...integrated control process in the following way: 10 ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE PROGNOSTICS AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOCIETY 2014 432 ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF

  15. Analysis of Input Currents in «Frequency Converter - Induction Motor» System under Asymmetry of Mains Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Firago

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of modem firequency converters with uncontrolled rectifiers on the supply network is investigated in this paper. The developed mathematical model permits us to analyze rectifier input currents with symmetrical and asymmetrical supply networks and in discontinuous operational mode. Results of modeling in case of asymmetrical supply network are shown in the form of mains current curves and current spectrum of one phase.

  16. Two years of unintended consequences: introducing an electronic health record system in a hospice in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Kolb, Hildegard

    2017-05-01

    To explore the impact of implementing an electronic health record system on staff at a Scottish hospice. Electronic health records are broadly considered preferable to paper-based systems. However, changing from one system to the other is difficult. This study analysed the impact of this change in a Scottish hospice. Naturalistic prospective repeated-measures mixed-methods approach. Data on the usability of the system, staff engagement and staff experience were obtained at four time points spanning 30 months from inception. Quantitative data were obtained from surveys, and qualitative from concurrent analysis of free-text comments and focus group. Participants were all 150 employees of a single hospice in Scotland. Both system usability and staff engagement scores decreased for the first two years before recovering at 30 months. Staff experience data pointed to two main challenges: (1) Technical issues, with subthemes of accessibility and usability. (2) Cultural issues, with subthemes of time, teamwork, care provision and perception of change. It took 30 months for system usability and staff engagement scores to rise, after falling significantly for the first two years. The unintended outcomes of implementation included challenges to the way the patient story was both recorded and communicated. Nevertheless, this process of change was found to be consistent with the 'J-curve' theory of organisational change, and as such, it is both predictable and manageable for other organisations. It is known that implementing an electronic health record system is complex. This paper puts parameters on this complexity by defining both the nature of the complexity ('J' curve) and the time taken for the organisation to begin recovery from the challenges (two years). Understanding these parameters will help health organisations across the world plan more strategically. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ranking sources of hospital quality information for orthopedic surgery patients: consequences for the system of managed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes, Romy Evelien; van den Berg, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare quality information is crucial for the system of managed competition. Within a system of managed competition, health insurers can selectively contract care providers and are allowed to channel patients towards contracted providers. The idea is that insurers have a stronger bargaining position compared to care providers when they are able to channel patients. In the Dutch system of managed competition that was implemented in 2006, channelling patients to preferred providers has not yet been very successful. Empirical knowledge of which sources of hospital quality information they find important may help us to understand how to channel patients to preferred providers. The objective of this survey was to measure how patients rank various sources of information when they compare hospital quality in a system of managed competition. A written survey was conducted among clients of a large Dutch health insurance company. These clients underwent orthopedic surgery on the hip or knee no longer than 12 months ago. Two major players within a system of managed competition-health insurers and the government-were not seen as important sources of hospital quality information. In contrast, own experience and general practitioners (GPs) were seen as the most important sources of hospital quality information within the Dutch system of managed competition. Health insurers should take the main finding-that GPs are the most important source of hospital quality information-into account when they contract care providers and develop strategies for channeling patients towards preferred providers. A well-functioning system of managed competition will benefit patients, as it involves incentives for care providers to increase healthcare quality and to produce at the lowest cost per unit of quality.

  18. Study on Near Distributed Dynamic Model of a Multifountain-and-multiconfluent Network System of Steam Main-pipeline and Parallel Coursing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pan; Jiong, Shen

    2007-06-01

    According to the deficiency of the prior modeling methods on main-pipeline system, the paper advances a near distributed modeling way based on subsection, combination and delamination for parallel coursing units and main-pipeline system to fully show its distributed dynamics by an easy-simulated mode of expression. Firstly, a principle is established to plot out the main-pipeline into some short pipe-sections between each pair of fountain/confluent points. Secondly, a near distributed decoupling transfer function matrix model without steady error for each pipe-section is built by rationally approximate deduction and then joined with the dynamic models of the fountain/confluent at the two ends of the pipe-section to form the near distributed model of each subsection. Finally, a smooth arithmetic is adopted to joint all the conterminous subsections into a whole system model. The modeling method above decreases the dimension of matter space and integrates more influence factors on the system dynamic characteristics into the built model, such as pipe length, diameter and the thermodynamics of working fluid, so it more particularly reflects the distributed dynamic characteristics of a multifountain-and-multiconfluent network system of steam main-pipeline and parallel coursing units than before, and can act well as the simulated research object for advanced main-pipeline system control arithmetic and distributed control technology or even validates them. Some simulation experiments have been done and produced good results to prove the validity of the modeling method.

  19. Population Genetics and Genetic Variability ofBulinus globosus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) From the Two Main River Systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratirwa, S.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    1996-01-01

    Bullnus globosus is the only known vector of Schistosoma haematoblum in Zimbabwe. The population genetic structure of this vector snail from the two main river drainage systems, represented by 27 localities, was determined from starch gel lsoenzyme electrophoretic data. Out of 11 enzyme systems s...

  20. Learning about the history of landscape use for the future: consequences for ecological and social systems in Swedish Bergslagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Isacson, Maths; Gavrilov, Dmitri V; Axelsson, Robert; Bäckström, Mattias; Degerman, Erik; Elbakidze, Marine; Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu; Sartz, Lotta; Sädbom, Stefan; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies.

  1. Quality assurance and verification of the MACCS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] code, Version 1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbe, C.A.; Carlson, E.R.; Marshall, N.H.; Marwil, E.S.; Tolli, J.E.

    1990-02-01

    An independent quality assurance (QA) and verification of Version 1.5 of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) was performed. The QA and verification involved examination of the code and associated documentation for consistent and correct implementation of the models in an error-free FORTRAN computer code. The QA and verification was not intended to determine either the adequacy or appropriateness of the models that are used MACCS 1.5. The reviews uncovered errors which were fixed by the SNL MACCS code development staff prior to the release of MACCS 1.5. Some difficulties related to documentation improvement and code restructuring are also presented. The QA and verification process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations of the models implemented in the code is essentially error free and ready for widespread use. 15 refs., 11 tabs

  2. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Neto, Severino Aires; Mello-Junior, Carlos Fernando de; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Claudia Martina Araujo; Borges, Rafael Farias; Magalhaes, Ana Guardiana Ximenes de, E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. (author)

  3. Lack of value of scheduling processes to move cases from a heavily used main campus to other facilities within a health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulecki, Louise; Dexter, Franklin; Zura, Andrew; Saager, Leif; Epstein, Richard H

    2012-08-01

    Economically, the most important anesthesia group and operating room (OR) management decision is the choice made months before surgery of the allocated OR time (duration of the workday) for each service. Consider a health system with surgeons who practice at multiple hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers. The main campus' ORs are busy, with nearly 8 h of cases, including turnovers, per anesthetizing location per workday. The other (regional) facilities have substantial underutilized time. A surgeon wants to do one 3-hour case at the main campus and have an afternoon start. The anesthesia group's OR director could use the health systems' common OR information system to examine the surgeons' schedules at all facilities. In this study, we quantify the percentage of OR hours that can practically be off-loaded from a main campus with long duration workdays. One year of cases were evaluated from a health system with a busy main campus, multiple (11) regional facilities with low workload per OR per day, and a common OR information system. The OR time was summed among surgeons meeting the following criteria: no first case start at the main campus that day; performing investing in the software and personnel to coordinate case scheduling among facilities is unlikely to be of benefit, either operationally or financially.

  4. Human consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropper, U.; Kharuehll, M.

    1988-01-01

    READY FOOD RESERVES IN A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES ARE CONSIDERED AND VULNERABILITY OF FOOD SUPPLY SYSTEM UNDER DECREASED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND STOPPED FOOD-STUFF IMPORT IN CASE OF NUCLEAR WAR IS DISCUSSED. IT IS SHOWN THAT AFTER NUCLEAR WAR MOST OF PEOPLE WILL DIE DUE TO FOOD SHORTAGE CAUSED BY GLOBAL DISTURBANCES OF SOCIAL AND AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

  5. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  6. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  7. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  8. Development of the main processes of the quality management system in the Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Garcia, M.; Sarabia Molina, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    The quality management system of the Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear - CNSN from Cuba is based on the ISO 9001 of 2008, whose key element is the management of the identified processes. The methods used were the diagnosis of the Organization according the expert criteria. It were established the following basic rules: 'to say what you do, do what you say and to be able to demonstrate it'. In the present work, the processes identified are presented, experience in implementing them and the prospects of integration with the model proposed by the IAEA for effective management systems

  9. The traffic safety of the Carin car information and navigation system IA-literature study : Main report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blikman, G.

    1988-01-01

    Report of the Delft University of Technology, Department of Transportation Planning and Highway Engineering in assignment of Philips International B.V. Aim of the study was to determine the possible posi tive and negative effects on traffic safety of the Carin Car Information and Navigation system

  10. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; An, Kung Il; Hong, Suk Young; Lee, Jeong Soo; Jung, Duk Jin; Shin, Sun Hee; Son, So Hee [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following. Development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power. Selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the four NPP, all unit). Communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server. Development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data. Real time monitoring system development based on Web using JAVA.

  11. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON MAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Colored water” resulting from suspended iron particles is a common drinking water consumer complaint which is largely impacted by water chemistry. A bench scale study, performed on a 90 year-old corroded cast-iron pipe section removed from a drinking water distribution system, w...

  12. 33 CFR 149.415 - What are the requirements for a fire main system on a manned deepwater port?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for such systems and hardware, and comply with the standards set by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, as that term is defined in 29 CFR... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN...

  13. Overview of main accident parameters in car-to-cyclist accidents for use in AEB-system test protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    The number of fatalities in road traffic accidents in Europe is decreasing. Unfortunately, the number of fatalities among cyclists does not follow this trend with the same rate [1]. The au-tomotive industry is making a significant effort in the development and implementation of safety systems in

  14. The Struve-Sahade effect in the optical spectra of O-type binaries. I. Main-sequence systems (Corrigendum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linder, N.; Rauw, G.; Sana, H.; De Becker, M.; Gosset, E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims.We present a spectroscopic analysis of four massive binary systems that are known or are good candidates to display the Struve-Sahade effect (defined as the apparent strengthening of the secondary spectrum of the binary when the star is approaching, and the corresponding weakening of the lines

  15. Moving towards an Educational Policy for Inclusion? Main Reform Stages in the Development of the Norwegian Unitary School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to study the development of educational policy in Norway in the field of the unitary school system and to analyse whether the development can be seen as a move towards increasing inclusion. The educational policy, when seen over a long time span, has progressively aimed towards the development of a common compulsory…

  16. Development of a web-based monitoring system using operation parameters for the main component in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong Chan; An, Kung Il; Hong, Suk Young; Lee, Jeong Soo; Jung, Duk Jin; Shin, Sun Hee; Son, So Hee

    2004-02-01

    The frequency of the damage is increasing, which is caused by the fatigue, according to the increase of running of nuclear power plants. So we need to acquire the reliance of design data to estimate the fatigue and damage of major machinery that might happen as time-dependent crack growth characterization. The research is focused on keeping operating record of nuclear power plants about major machinery which consists of a nuclear reactor pressure boarder on each excessive operating condition including normal operating and extraordinary operating by estimating fracture mechanical movements on real time and fatigue about major nuclear power plants machinery, which are acquired the pressure and temperature data. For further details about the scope and contents of R and D are following. Development of H/W that is necessary to acquire operating real time data of heating and hydraulic power. Selection of a safety variable about major system by each type (the four NPP, all unit). Communication protocol development for connecting between CARE system data base server and fatigue monitoring system data base server. Development of connecting database for controlling and storing of heating and hydraulic power operating data. Real time monitoring system development based on Web using JAVA

  17. An Overview of Turkish Healthcare System after Health Transformation Program: Main Successes, Performance Assessment, Further Challenges, and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkish healthcare system has been stated to show significant improvements regarding wider access to healthcare facilities, and the quality and efficiency through the introduction of Health Transformation Program launched in 2003. While the old system relied on differing provisions and financing and lacked behind many developed nations in terms of health outcomes, the new system achieved nearly universal coverage and many health outcomes enhanced significantly. Health expenditures rose to 5.4% of GDP in 2013 from 4.8% in 1998. Furthermore, Turkey provided both better financial protection for the poor against high health expenditures, and equity in access to health care across the population. However, Turkey still faces new challenges to catch other developed countries to have better health and further improve financial sustainability. To reach these targets, Turkey needs to further implement new policy options for reform such as combating informal economy, allocating more on health resources, designing incentive- based payment methods, adopting gate keeping system and referral chain, developing capacity to deploy health technology assessments in reimbursement decisions, and ensuring the hospital autonomy.

  18. Multi-parameter analysis for the technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic systems in the main European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Graziani, Alessandro; Mora, Cristina; Regattieri, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance cost model assesses the feasibility and profitability of PV systems. • Multi-country and multi-parameter analysis of PV systems in the European Union area. • The impact of key technical, environmental, economic and financial data is assessed. • Germany, Italy and Spain present the most effective PV sector support strategies. • The rated power and energy self-consumption ratio affect PV plant profitability. - Abstract: In the last decades, the attention to solar energy as a renewable and nonpolluting energy source increased a lot through scientists, private and public institutions. Several efforts are made to increase the diffusion of such a source and to create the conditions making it competitive for the energy market. Particularly, for the photovoltaic (PV) sector, the module efficiency increase, manufacturing cost reduction and a strong public support, through favorable incentive schemes, generates a significant rise in the installed power, exceeding 40 GWp in 2010. Although the global trend of the PV sector is positive, differences among countries arise out of local peculiarities and evolutions in the national support policies. This paper investigates such issues focusing on the feasibility analysis of PV solar systems for eight relevant countries in the European Union area, i.e. France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands, Turkey and United Kingdom. A multi-country and multi-parameter comparative analysis, based on the net present value and payback capital budget indices, allows to highlight the conditions most affecting the economic feasibility of PV systems. The national support strategies, along with the most relevant technical, environmental, economic and financial parameters, are the key features included and compared in the analysis. The major results deal with the conditions which make PV systems potentially profitable for each country and installation feature. The national support strategies to the PV

  19. Consequences of Population Aging in Iran with Emphasis on its Increasing Challenges on the Health System (Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Azizi Zeinalhajlu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and objectives: Nowadays among majority of societies, the problem of aging as a social issue has been concentrated due to its rapid increase and its consequences. Regarding level of its development, each country would face the problem sooner or later but it can be predicted that most societies will encounter the phenomena. According to the present statistics in Iran, the ratio of population above 6o years has been raised from 6.6 % in 1996 to 8.2 % in 2011 and it is predicted that would go up to 22% in 2047. The present study actually tries to highlight the importance of engaging in such imminent phenomena that may cause numerous challenges to the health system. Material and Methods: The present study is a literature review inside which, obtained data from various resources like Statistical Center of Iran, UN‘s databases, WHO website, English and Persian databases alongside with ISI, Pubmed, Medline and SID indexes, reports by active organizations in terms of aging issues, books, dissertations, journals and finally the magazines about health policies in Iran are collected and processed. Discussion and Conclusion: Aging problem in Iran is going to emerge rapidly, yet without adequate planning and concentration. In addition, there is no enough legal support to settle aged people’s affairs. Analysis of present situations and future perspectives can divulge the present challenges, problems and the complication of growing obstacles in a near future. Though it is too late by now, there seems to be inevitable to settle down, support and promote health in aging population.

  20. Weight-sparing effect of insulin detemir: a consequence of central nervous system-mediated reduced energy intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Jones, D; Danne, T; Hermansen, K; Niswender, K; Robertson, K; Thalange, N; Vasselli, J R; Yildiz, B; Häring, H U

    2015-10-01

    Insulin therapy is often associated with adverse weight gain. This is attributable, at least in part, to changes in energy balance and insulin's anabolic effects. Adverse weight gain increases the risk of poor macrovascular outcomes in people with diabetes and should therefore be mitigated if possible. Clinical studies have shown that insulin detemir, a basal insulin analogue, exerts a unique weight-sparing effect compared with other basal insulins. To understand this property, several hypotheses have been proposed. These explore the interplay of efferent and afferent signals between the muscles, brain, liver, renal and adipose tissues in response to insulin detemir and comparator basal insulins. The following models have been proposed: insulin detemir may reduce food intake through direct or indirect effects on the central nervous system (CNS); it may have favourable actions on hepatic glucose metabolism through a selective effect on the liver, or it may influence fluid homeostasis through renal effects. Studies have consistently shown that insulin detemir reduces energy intake, and moreover, it is clear that this shift in energy balance is not a consequence of reduced hypoglycaemia. CNS effects may be mediated by direct action, by indirect stimulation by peripheral mediators and/or via a more physiological counter-regulatory response to insulin through restoration of the hepatic-peripheral insulin gradient. Although the precise mechanism remains unclear, it is likely that the weight-sparing effect of insulin detemir can be explained by a combination of mechanisms. The evidence for each hypothesis is considered in this review. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Food allergy: system immunologic and main food involved Alergia alimentar: sistema imunológico e principais alimentos envolvidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beltrão Lessa Constant

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy can be defined as an adverse reaction to a food antigen mediated by fundamentally immunological mechanisms. It is a nutritional problem that has shown an increase in the last decades probably due to the population’s exposure to a higher number of available food allergens. It has become a health problem worldwide being associated to a significant negative impact on life quality. The foods most cited as those which cause food allergy are: milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, shrimps, fish and soy bean. The main food allergens are protein-nature ones. There must be investment in research in order to reduce the damage caused by foods containing allergens. Biotechnology studies can be considered an efficient and safe alternative. The purpose of this research is to present an updated review on food allergies focusing on its action mechanism in the body, main food involved and alternatives that have been used to minimize this problem. A alergia alimentar pode ser definida como uma reação adversa a um antígeno alimentar mediada por mecanismos fundamentalmente imunológicos. É um problema nutricional que apresentou um crescimento nas ultimas décadas, provavelmente devido à maior exposição da população a um número maior de alérgenos alimentares disponíveis. Ele vem se tornando um problema de saúde em todo o mundo e está associado a um impacto negativo significativo na qualidade de vida. Os alimentos mais citados como causadores de alergias alimentares são: leite, ovos, amendoim, castanhas, camarão, peixe e soja, e os principais alérgenos alimentares identificados são de natureza protéica. É importante que haja investimento em pesquisas no sentido de reduzir os danos causados por alimentos que contém alérgenos. Estudos com a biotecnologia podem apresentar-se como uma alternativa eficiente e segura. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão atualizada das alergias alimentares, com foco principal no seu mecanismo de

  2. Investigation of the Temperature Sensors Accuracy in the Temperature Monitoring System for the Welded Joints of the Industrial Power Supply Main Busways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivennaya, N. V.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Bondareva, G. A.; Malygin, S. V.; Knyaginin, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the substantiation of the technical solution of the remote monitoring system for the temperature changes of main and branch busways of power supply to industrial enterprises of increased environmental danger. When monitoring the temperature of trunk buses of AC mains up to 1000 V, heated by an electric current, errors occur due to various factors. Studies have been carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature of surrounding objects (including neighboring busbars) on the accuracy of temperature measurements. Conclusions are made about the possibility of using alternative versions of temperature sensors as the basis of the monitoring system.

  3. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...

  4. Developmental testing resulting in a simplified liquid oxygen check valve for the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Gregory S.; Barrett, Michael J.; Reith, Timothy W.

    1993-01-01

    The coil spring in a Space Shuttle liquid oxygen check valve failed due to cyclic fatigue in September, 1991. The dual-flapper, swing check valve is used to prevent reverse flow to the Space Shuttle Main Engines. Upon inspection of the failed component, the spring tangs were found to be missing and heavy wear was observed on the inner diameter of the spring coils. The fracture surfaces revealed that the metal had been steadily worn away until a simple overload caused the final fracture. A series of flow tests using water and a water/gas mixture was conducted to identify the flow phenomenon which produced the cyclic wear. A Plexiglas outlet housing was utilized to view the flapper behavior under different flow conditions and to aid in high speed photography. The tests revealed that flow instabilities induced two oscillatory flapper responses: a rocking mode and a chattering mode. Initially, attempts were made to reduce the spring-flapper oscillations. However, the final solution to the problem was a springless configuration which satisfied the valve's design requirements and eliminated the oscillations. The springless design relied on the inherent ability of the reverse flow momentum to close the flappers.

  5. Central sensitization of the trigeminal and somatic nociceptive systems in medication overuse headache mainly involves cerebral supraspinal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzenberg, I; Obermann, M; Nyhuis, P; Gastpar, M; Limmroth, V; Diener, H C; Kaube, H; Katsarava, Z

    2006-09-01

    Trigeminal and somatic nociceptive systems were studied in controls (n=15), episodic migraine (n=16), analgesics (n=14) and triptan-induced medication overuse headache (MOH) (n=15) before and after withdrawal. Patients with MOH and comorbid depressive symptoms and depression without headache were studied to investigate the influence of depression. Trigeminal nociception was studied by simultaneous registration of pain-related cortical potentials (PREP) and nociceptive blink reflex (nBR) following nociceptive-specific electrical stimulation of the forehead. Somatic nociception was evaluated using PREP of upper limbs. We found facilitation of both trigeminal and somatic PREP but not of nBR in MOH, which normalized after withdrawal. No differences were found comparing analgesics vs. triptan MOH. No differences were observed between controls and patients with episodic migraine and depression without headache. A transient facilitation was found of trigeminal and somatic nociceptive systems in MOH, which was more pronounced on a supraspinal level.

  6. On Power-system Benefits, Main-circuit Design, and Control of StatComs with Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Hailian

    2009-01-01

    Static synchronous compensation (StatCom) is an application that utilizes a voltage source converter (VSC) to provide instantaneous reactive power support to the connected power system. Conventionally, StatComs are employed for reactive power support only. However, with the integration of energy storage (ES) into a StatCom, it can provide active power support in addition to the reactive power support. This thesis deals with the integration of ES into StatComs. The investigation involves the f...

  7. The new dc power supply system for the main ring magnets of the 28 GeV CERN proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Jahn, K; Steckmann, E

    1972-01-01

    High overload capacity, low residual ripple, exact reproducibility of periodic current pulses and very great reliability in long-term duty are essential requirements for a modern power supply system for feeding beam-guide magnets. These requirements can be met with certainty and at reasonable cost by the use of high-performance single-anode mercury-arc converters with suitable electronic control and protective equipment. (4 refs).

  8. Main trends in steam generator monitoring using the equipment of a power unit technological process on-line control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khutorestkij, G.M.; Vatan'yan, A.G.; Kotova, I.P.; Sivkov, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility to use signals of technological process control system equipment and data provided by conventional means of parameter on-line and technological control for functional diagnostics of turbine generators in the process of operation is analyzed. Four groups of parameters (power, thermal, mechanical and process) which should be taken into account when selecting algorithms and determining the order of various defect diagnostics are separated. 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Virtual reality - aesthetic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Benda, Lubor

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we study aesthetic consequences of virtual reality. Exploring the fringe between fictional and virtual is one of the key goals, that will be achieved through etymologic and technologic definition of both fiction and virtual reality, fictional and virtual worlds. Both fiction and virtual reality will be then studied from aesthetic distance and aesthetic pleasure point of view. At the end, we will see the main difference as well as an common grounds between fiction and virtu...

  10. Development of a national Flash flood warning system in France using the AIGA method: first results and main issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Demargne, Julie; de Saint-Aubin, Céline; Garandeau, Léa; Janet, Bruno; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Fouchier, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Developing a national flash flood (FF) warning system is an ambitious and difficult task. On one hand it rises huge expectations from exposed populations and authorities since induced damages are considerable (ie 20 casualties in the recent October 2015 flood at the French Riviera). But on the other hand, many practical and scientific issues have to be addressed and limitations should be clearly stated. The FF warning system to be implemented by 2016 in France by the SCHAPI (French national service in charge of flood forecasting) will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014). The AIGA method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr). It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km² resolution to reference flood quantiles of different return periods, at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France. Model calibration was based on ~700 hydrometric stations over the 2002-2015 period and then hourly discharges were computed at ~76 000 catchment outlets, with areas ranging from 10 to 3 500 km², over the last 19 years. This product makes it possible to calculate reference flood quantiles at each outlet. The on-going evaluation of the FF warnings is currently made at two levels: in a 'classical' way, using discharges available at the hydrometric stations, but also in a more 'exploratory' way, by comparing past flood reports and warnings issued by the system over the 76 000 catchment outlets. The interest of the last method is that it better fit the system objectives since it is designed to monitor small ungauged catchments. Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D, .Pansu, J, .Arnaud, P. (2014). Evaluating flash-flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system

  11. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  12. Efficiency Analysis of the Main Components of a Vertical Closed-Loop System in a Borehole Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sáez Blázquez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In vertical closed-loop systems, it is common to use single or double U-tube heat exchangers separated by longitudinal spacers. In addition, the helical-shaped pipe is another configuration that requires lower drilling lengths but it is less used. The aim of the present research is to study the influence of these components on the total efficiency of a borehole heat exchanger (BHE. Thus, the differences between using single/double U-tubes (with or without spacers and helical pipes are analysed in terms of efficiency. Through different laboratory tests, a small vertical closed-loop system was simulated in order to analyse all these possible configurations. The grouting materials and the temperatures of the ground were modified at the same time in these tests. Regarding the heat exchange process between the ground and the heat carrier fluid, it must be highlighted that the best results were obtained for the helical-shaped pipe configuration. Some of the improvements offered by this heat exchanger typology with respect to the vertical configuration is that a lower drilling depth is required even it requires a larger diameter. This leads to significant economic savings in the performing drilling process. Finally, it is also worth noting the importance of using spacers in vertical U-tubes and that no improvements have been found regarding the use of single or double configuration of U-tubes. Thanks to the laboratory results derived from this study it is possible to establish the optimum behaviour pattern for the entire vertical closed-loop systems.

  13. Proposal of safety design methodologies for an HTGR-hydrogen production system. Mainly on countermeasures against fire and explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Hada, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Syusaku

    1996-03-01

    Among key issues of the safety design for an HTGR-hydrogen production system is to ensure the safety of the nuclear reactor against fire and explosion accidents in the hydrogen production plant. The fire and explosion accidents in the hydrogen production plant are categorized into the following two cases; Accidents inside the reactor building (R/B) and accidents outside the R/B. Against accidents inside the R/B, the proposed safety design concept is to prevent the occurrence of the accidents based on the defence in depth concept. The piping system and/or heat transfer tubes which have the potential possibility of combustible materials ingress into the R/B due to the failure are designed at the highest aseismic level to prevent the failure against severe earthquake. Even if the failure occurs, the piping trench and related compartments are fulfilled with nitrogen so as to prevent the occurrence of accidents. The proposed safety design concept for the accidents outside the R/B is the mitigation of effects of accidents. Proposed countermeasures is to take the safe distance between the hydrogen production plant and the items important to safety in the nuclear plant. We showed that the anticipated accidents to estimate the safe distance are large scale pool burning, fireball, pressure vessel burst and vapor cloud explosion. Especially, new estimating concept to establish the safe distance is proposed for the vapor cloud explosion. To reduce the safe distance, we proposed the underground non-pressurized storage tank and ventilation system for the storage of large amount of combustible liquid. (author). 61 refs

  14. Source term assessment, containment atmosphere control systems, and accident consequences. Report to CSNI by an OECD/NEA Group of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    CSNI Report 135 summarizes the results of the work performed by CSNI's Principal Working Group No. 4 on the Source Term and Environmental Consequences (PWG4) during the period extending from 1983 to 1986. This document contains the latest information on some important topics relating to source terms, accident consequence assessment, and containment atmospheric control systems. It consists of five parts: (1) a Foreword and Executive Summary prepared by PWG4's Chairman; (2) a Report on the Technical Status of the Source Term; (3) a Report on the Technical Status of Filtration and Containment Atmosphere Control Systems for Nuclear Reactors in the Event of a Severe Accident; (4) a Report on the Technical Status of Reactor Accident Consequence Assessment; (5) a list of members of PWG4

  15. Climate Change Education on Public Health Consequences and Impacts to the Human System - An Interdisciplinary Approach to Promoting Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella Novak, M.; Paxton, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    - someone not like you. On the other hand, public health impacts are felt by millions and lead to very high costs and those impacts are something with which most people have direct experiences. We will discuss, for example, how climate change can be framed as a cost/benefit problem by looking at the long term costs of increase in disease and illness such as the startling trends in childhood asthma. Changes in water availability, and water and air quality, will result from a warming climate, with measureable consequences for public health: disease spread, food and water security, respiratory health, etc. By integrating this information with education efforts, society, educators and decision makers will have a better understanding of how climate change affects the human system, and what decisions can be made at the individual and community levels to mitigate and adapt to climate change. We will show how this can be achieved.

  16. Photographic Observations of Solar System Bodies at the Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine: Final Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovnia, V.; Yizhakevych, O.; Shatokhina, S.; Andruk, V.

    Astrometric photographic observations of Solar system bodies in the frame of different programs were made at MAO NAN of Ukraine during 1950-2005. 9245 plates with the images of planets and their natural satellite, Moon, minor planets, comets and artificial satellites were obtained and processed in the late 20th century. At the beginning of the 21st century, the UkrVO Joint Digital Archive (JDA) was created, which is accessible at the MAO NAS resources (http://gua.db.ukr-vo.org/archivespecial.php). To digitize the plate archive for the JDA database, flat bed scanners were used and the software was specially de-veloped on the basis of the LINUX/MIDAS/ROMAFOT software for the processing of wide-field images, as well as searching for the images of minor planets and comets on the Northern sky survey program plates. Up to the present time, the photographic plates with images of outer planets and their satellites have been re-processed. The final result of the long-lasting program of the photographic positional observations of Solar system bodies are summarized and presented in this publication.

  17. Contribution to Energy Management of the Main Standards for Environmental Management Systems: The Case of ISO 14001 and EMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Laskurain

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of Energy Management Systems (EnMSs based on international standards has gained momentum since the ISO 50001 standard was launched in 2011. Before that, the potential to improve the energy management with Environmental Management Systems (EMSs based on ISO 14001 and EMAS was identified in the literature. However, no in-depth analysis reported in the literature has explored this claim. The need for research is now even more evident with the development of new versions of the standards for environmental management―ISO 14001:2015 and EMAS III. Since many companies that already have a certified EMSs might be uncertain whether to adopt an ISO 50001 based EnMSs, the present work aims to shed light on the contribution of ISO 14001:2015 and EMAS III to energy management. Furthermore, the work summarizes the results of an empirical exploratory study carried out in eight Spanish organizations, four with an EMS implemented and certified based on ISO 14001:2015 and four more with an EMS registered to EMAS III. The findings show that both ISO14001 and EMAS certified organizations carry out energy management practices, even though they have no formal EnMSs implemented. Implications for managers and policy makers are discussed, together with avenues for further research.

  18. Main results of biological experiments on Russian orbital stations and its contribution in future life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    Biological experiments in a field of space biology have been started before the first satellite flight. These experiments were devoted to an estimation of space radiation factors on living organisms and carried out in mountains. The systematic biological experiments in space have been started in 1971 with orbital station Salyut. In total more than 1000 experiments have been installed in space flights: fundamental investigations (panspermia theory, gravity biology, complex factors of space environment on biological objects) and applications focused on future biological life support systems. The investigations were directed to some tasks: influence of complex factors of space flight on living organisms at different stages of the evolution scale; investigations of proteins and DNA, cell, tissue, organism and assembled organisms under space flight factors with separation of individual factors, for example, microgravity and space radiation. The aim was to understand the organism reactions on different levels, to get complete ontogenesis cycle in space flight and to find adaption ability of organisms to extreme factors of the space flight. In course of investigations, the unique experimental equipment for orbital biological experiments has been designed; new methods for organism protection against the negative factors of space flight were found; developed new biotechnological products and processes; developed recommendations for space station interior with biological objects for psychological comfort of crew. The results showed a possibility and ways to include different organisms into biotechnological life support systems for future space stations and interplanet spaceships.

  19. Hydrostatic Mooring System. Final Technical Report: Main Report plus Appendices A, B, and C - Volume 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jens Korsgaard

    2000-08-08

    The main conclusions from the work carried out under this contract are: An ordinary seafarer can learn by training on a simulator, to moor large tanker vessels to the Hydrostatic Mooring, safely and quickly, in all weather conditions up to storms generating waves with a significant wave height of 8 m. Complete conceptual design of the Hydrostatic Mooring buoy was carried out which proved that the buoy could be constructed entirely from commercially available standard components and materials. The design is robust, and damage resistant. The mooring tests had a 100% success rate from the point of view of the buoy being securely attached and moored to the vessel following every mooring attempt. The tests had an 80% success rate from the point of view of the buoy being adequately centered such that petroleum transfer equipment on the vessel could be attached to the corresponding equipment on the buoy. The results given in Table 3-2 of the mooring tests show a consistently improving performance from test to test by the Captain that performed the mooring operations. This is not surprising, in view of the fact that the Captain had only three days of training on the simulator prior to conducting the tests, that the maneuvering required is non-standard, and the test program itself lasted four days. One conclusion of the test performance is that the Captain was not fully trained at the initiation of the test. It may therefore be concluded that a thoroughly trained navigator would probably be able to make the mooring such that the fluid transfer equipment can be connected with reliability in excess of 90%. Considering that the typical standard buoy has enough power aboard to make eight mooring attempts, this implies that the probability that the mooring attempt should fail because of the inability to connect the fluid transfer equipment is of the order of 10{sup {minus}8}. It may therefore be concluded that the mooring operation between a Hydrostatic Mooring and a large

  20. Technical Feasibility Study for Deployment of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems: Portsmouth Naval Shipyard -- Kittery, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNSY) is a United States Navy facility located on a series of conjoined islands in the Piscataqua River between Kittery, ME and Portsmouth, NH. EPA engaged NREL to conduct a study to determine technical feasibility of deploying ground-source heat pump systems to help PNSY achieve energy reduction goals.

  1. Proficiency-Based High School Diploma Systems in Maine: Implications for Special Education and Career and Technical Education Programming and Student Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Erika; Johnson, Amy; Jacobs, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Document review and interviews were conducted with college admissions' personnel to gather data regarding alignment of proficiency-based diploma systems and college eligibility and entry requirements. In addition, leaders and representative personnel from and Maine businesses and the U.S. military were interviewed to identify postsecondary career…

  2. Economic consequences of ill-health for households in northern rural India Health systems and services in low and middle income settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Quintussi (Marta); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As compared to other countries in South East Asia, India's health care system is characterized by very high out of pocket payments, and consequently low financial protection and access to care. This paper describes the relative importance of ill-health compared to other

  3. Evaluating Main Parameters Effects of Near-Field Earthquakes on the Behavior of Concrete Structures with Moment Frame System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Talebi Jouneghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude and frequency content are two important features of the earthquake which are different for near and far-fault earthquakes and in most of the standards, effects of the near -field earthquakes in loading are not considered. So study and comparison of these effects on structures is necessary. In this paper, structures operation against near and far fault earthquakes for two near sites and two far sites have been investigated. For this purpose, in order to achieve operation point of a six stairs structural model with mean lateral bending frame resistant system, from special plan spectrums of two different sites, near and far fault, which are obtained from seismic hazard analysis is used. Evaluation of effects due to near and far fault earthquakes based on the Iran’s standard 2800 ranges on operation point and also comparison of operation effects of near and far fault spectrums with Iran’s standard are results of this research work. In continues, after presentation of obtained results from time history analyses, some suggestions have been proposed for design correction based on the regulations in near -field earthquakes.

  4. ISR main control room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The ISR main control room (SRC) on the night of 20 October when beam was first successfully injected into Ring I. The panels along the left contain controls and observational information about the beam-transfer system and injection. Along the right are recorders showing beam intensity (in the centre) and controls for currents in the main magnets, the pole face windings, and auxiliary magnets, and the magnetic field display panel (further for the rear). At the far back are controls and observations for the r.f. system and the betatron-frequency meter. Also at the far back (in the centre) are oscilloscopes for looking at signals from the pick-up electrodes.

  5. Principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el año 2004 Main results of the Cuban system of pharmacological surveillance system in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Debesa García

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los principales resultados alcanzados por el sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el 2004. Durante 12 meses, los casos se identificaron mediante el sistema de notificación voluntaria de sospecha de reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Se recibieron en la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovigilancia 7 063 notificaciones de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM que contenían 13 500 a razón de 1,9 RAM por notificación, de ellas 3 185 fueron “importantes” para el 35,1 % (según criterios para determinar RAM importantes de la UCNFv , en las Normas y procedimientos de trabajo del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia. La tasa de notificación anual fue de 628 notificaciones por millón de habitantes. El 64,6 % de las RAM correspondió al sexo femenino y el 35,4 % al masculino. En cuanto al nivel de asistencia, la atención primaria fue la que más notificó con 85 %. La relación de reacciones leves con respecto a las moderadas y graves fue de 48,3/51,4 %, que continúa con un balance muy bueno en relación con el reporte por severidad. Se reportaron 23 reacciones con desenlace fatal, para el 0,3 %. A pesar de la disminución en cuanto al número de notificaciones recibidas en nuestro unidad, con respecto al año anterior, aún se encuentra entre las tasas de notificación más altas de los países miembros del sistema internacional de monitoreo de RAM; por otra parte, dada la calidad de estas permitieron cuantificar y caracterizar las RAM, teniendo además un gran valor para generar alertas y vigilar la seguridad de los medicamentos que circulan en nuestro país.The main results achieved by the Cuban Pharmacological Surveillance System in the year 2004 were described. During these 12 months, the cases were identified by the voluntary notification system of suspected adverse reactions to drugs. The National Coordinating Unit of Pharmacological Surveillance (NCUPs received 7 063 notifications that included 13 500 adverse drug

  6. On a Batch Arrival Queuing System Equipped with a Stand-by Server during Vacation Periods or the Repairs Times of the Main Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a queuing system which is equipped with a stand-by server in addition to the main server. The stand-by server provides service to customers only during the period of absence of the main server when either the main server is on a vacation or it is in the state of repairs due to a sudden failure from time to time. The service times, vacation times, and repair times are assumed to follow general arbitrary distributions while the stand-by service times follow exponential distribution. Supplementary variables technique has been used to obtain steady state results in explicit and closed form in terms of the probability generating functions for the number of customers in the queue, the average number of customers, and the average waiting time in the queue while the MathCad software has been used to illustrate the numerical results in this work.

  7. SYSTEM AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF INSTALLATION THE MAIN DOMINANTS IN THE STUDENTS MOTIVATION FOR A CLOSED TASK OF DECISION-MAKING REGARDING ABSENTEEISM

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr V. Kamyshyn

    2014-01-01

    Developed the system and information technology of the construction the evaluation of the utility functions of absenteeism, which is the main dominant, namely the tendency, not being indifferent to risk. Of utility functions built 45th student air traffic controllers for the six academic subjects revealed ratio of students with different attitudes to risk. Risk appetite – the desire of the student play virtual lottery to minimize absenteeism. Students are indifferent to risk, that is, with «l...

  8. Epidemiological changes and financial consequences of hypertension in Latin America: implications for the health system and patients in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Zuñiga, Alexis

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the costs and financial consequences of epidemiological changes in hypertension in Mexico. The cost evaluation method to estimate costs was based on instrumentation techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and expected cases of hypertension in 2010-2012, three probabilistic models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique. Comparing the economic impact, from 2010 to 2012 there will be a 24% increase in financial requirements (p < 0.05). The total cost of hypertension in 2011 will be US$ 5,733,350,291, including US$ 2,718,280,941 in direct costs and US$ 3,015,069,350 in indirect costs. If the risk factors and various healthcare models remain unaltered in the institutions analyzed here, the financial consequences will have a major impact on users' pockets, followed by social security providers and public healthcare providers. The authors suggest a revision in the planning, organization, and allocation of resources, particularly programs for health promotion and prevention of hypertension.

  9. Implementing Data Acquisition Systems DAS1 and DAS2 at Cernavoda Full-Scope Simulator Main Control Room based on the SIEN2007 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Ana Maria; Tutuianu, Bogdan; Ionescu, Teodor

    2009-01-01

    Modern personnel training, re-training and licensing is a guarantee of NPP's safe reliable operation. Cernavoda NPP personnel training system is the main objective of its specialized department built up as Training Center (TC), directly supervised by Administration of the National Nuclearelectrica Society (SNN) and National Regulatory Body for Nuclear Activities (CNCAN). It was implemented to ensure the abilities, skills and knowledge required by the safe reliable operation of the nuclear reactor by the Main Control Room (MCR) operators. This objective was reached through training lessons taught and tested on the Full Scope Simulator (FSS), the TC's main training tool, a replica of the MCR of the real plant. Its description is the subject of this paper. The TC's FSS includes a computer network equipped with a software connected to the specialized program DATAPATH supplied for Cernavoda FSS by the FSS provider, delivered by L-3/ MAPPS. An alternative to DATAPATH Communication of the L 3/MAPPS Simulation System, developed by Cernavoda Full Scope Simulator Staff, was presented in the previous edition of the symposium (see the SIEN 2007 paper). This original solution is now already applied in order to connect to simulation process Data Acquisition Systems DAS1 and DAS2, two new systems already installed in the real MCR but not included by the Cernavoda FSS initial design. Communication between simulation software and DAS1 and DAS2, considered to be simple receivers of simulated data both as much alike as the two DASs from real plant, is performed in parallel with DATAPATH in a safe mode and without affecting simulation process. This paperwork presents the above mentioned application of this communication solution, developed by the Cernavoda NPP Full Scope Simulator Staff with details about the hardware/software solutions and their performance, training impact, cost and benefits. (authors)

  10. Development of digital device based work verification system for cooperation between main control room operators and field workers in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min, E-mail: jewellee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Chul, E-mail: leehc@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun Su, E-mail: junsu.ha@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 127788 (United Arab Emirates); Seong, Poong Hyun, E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A digital device-based work verification and cooperation support system was developed. • Requirements were derived by interviewing field operators having experiences with mobile-based work support systems. • The usability of the proposed system was validated by conducting questionnaire surveys. • The proposed system will be useful if the manual or the set of guidelines is well constructed. - Abstract: Digital technologies have been applied in the nuclear field to check task results, monitor events and accidents, and transmit/receive data. The results of using digital devices have proven that these devices can provide high accuracy and convenience for workers, allowing them to obtain obvious positive effects by reducing their workloads. In this study, as one step forward, a digital device-based cooperation support system, the nuclear cooperation support and mobile documentation system (Nu-COSMOS), is proposed to support communication between main control room (MCR) operators and field workers by verifying field workers’ work results in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The proposed system consists of a mobile based information storage system to support field workers by providing various functions to make workers more trusted by MCR operators; also to improve the efficiency of meeting, and a large screen based information sharing system supports meetings by allowing both sides to share one medium. The usability of this system was estimated by interviewing field operators working in nuclear power plants and experts who have experience working as operators. A survey to estimate the usability of the suggested system and the suitability of the functions of the system for field working was conducted for 35 subjects who have experience in field works or with support system development-related research. The usability test was conducted using the system usability scale (SUS), which is widely used in industrial usability evaluation. Using questionnaires

  11. Integrated Multidisciplinary Fault Observation System in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of an EU-FP7 project, titled as MARSITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array consisting of eight broadband sensors as close to the main Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from these arrays. The multi-parameter borehole system is composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. All these sensors are installed in 146m-deep borehole. All the sensor outputs are digitized; total of 11*24 bit-channels and 6*20 bit-channels. Real-time data transmission to the main server of the Marsite Project at Kandilli Observatory in Istanbul is accomplished. The multi-parameter borehole seismic station uses the latest update technologies and design ideas to record "Earth tides" signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events, as the innovative part of the Marsite Project. Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The main causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny

  12. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXVII. Physical parameters of B-type main-sequence binary systems in the Tarantula nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, R.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Howarth, I. D.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Grin, N. J.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; McEvoy, C. M.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Símon Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Thompson, A.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-07-01

    A spectroscopic analysis has been undertaken for the B-type multiple systems (excluding those with supergiant primaries) in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). Projected rotational velocities, vesini, for the primaries have been estimated using a Fourier Transform technique and confirmed by fitting rotationally broadened profiles. A subset of 33 systems with vesini ≤ 80 km s-1 have been analysed using a TLUSTY grid of model atmospheres to estimate stellar parameters and surface abundances for the primaries. The effects of a potential flux contribution from an unseen secondary have also been considered. For 20 targets it was possible to reliably estimate their effective temperatures (Teff) but for the other 13 objects it was only possible to provide a constraint of 20 000 ≤ Teff ≤ 26 000 K - the other parameters estimated for these targets will be consequently less reliable. The estimated stellar properties are compared with evolutionary models and are generally consistent with their membership of 30 Doradus, while the nature of the secondaries of 3 SB2 system is discussed. A comparison with a sample of single stars with vesini ≤ 80 km s-1 obtained from the VFTS and analysed with the same techniques implies that the atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances of the two samples are similar. However, the binary sample may have a lack of primaries with significant nitrogen enhancements, which would be consistent with them having low rotational velocities and having effectively evolved as single stars without significant rotational mixing. This result, which may be actually a consequence of the limitations of the pathfinder investigation presented in this paper, should be considered as a motivation for spectroscopic abundance analysis of large samples of binary stars, with high quality observational data. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 182.D-0222.Tables

  13. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 1: System trades study and design methodology plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The System Trades Study and Design Methodology Plan is used to conduct trade studies to define the combination of Space Shuttle Main Engine features that will optimize candidate engine configurations. This is accomplished by using vehicle sensitivities and engine parametric data to establish engine chamber pressure and area ratio design points for candidate engine configurations. Engineering analyses are to be conducted to refine and optimize the candidate configurations at their design points. The optimized engine data and characteristics are then evaluated and compared against other candidates being considered. The Evaluation Criteria Plan is then used to compare and rank the optimized engine configurations on the basis of cost.

  14. SYSTEM AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF INSTALLATION THE MAIN DOMINANTS IN THE STUDENTS MOTIVATION FOR A CLOSED TASK OF DECISION-MAKING REGARDING ABSENTEEISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Kamyshyn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developed the system and information technology of the construction the evaluation of the utility functions of absenteeism, which is the main dominant, namely the tendency, not being indifferent to risk. Of utility functions built 45th student air traffic controllers for the six academic subjects revealed ratio of students with different attitudes to risk. Risk appetite – the desire of the student play virtual lottery to minimize absenteeism. Students are indifferent to risk, that is, with «linear» attitude to attendance, are only 18,52 %, indicating a need to develop special educational measures for the individualization of learning.

  15. Value-impact analysis of regulatory options for resolution of Generic Issue C-8: MSIV [Main Steam Isolation Valve] leakage and LCS [Leakage Control System] failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, J.D.; Vo, T.V.; Tabatabai, A.S.

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the analysis conducted to establish the basis for answering two remaining regulatory questions facing the NRC staff regarding the resolution of Generic Issue C-8, specifically:(1) What action should the NRC take concerning plants that currently have a leakage control system (LCS)? and, (2) What action should the NRC take concerning plants that do not have an LCS? Using individual MSIV leak test data, the performance of a system of eight such valves in a standard BWR con-figuration was modeled. The performance model was used along with estimates of core damage accident frequency and calculated dose consequences to determine the public risk associated with each of the alternatives. The occupational exposure implications of each alternative were calculated using estimates of labor hours in radiation zones that would be incurred or avoided. The costs to industry of implementing each alternative were estimated using standard cost formulae and NRC staff estimates. The cost to the NRC were estimated based on the effort incurred or avoided for reviews or other staff actions engendered by the selection of or avoided for reviews or other staff actions engendered by the selection of a particular alternative. The cost and risks thus calculated suggest that no regulatory action can be justified on the basis of risk reduction or cost savings. 12 refs., 1 tab

  16. Social side issues of the energy supply; criteria for estimating the consequences of energy supply systems on technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Abich, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of the question concerning the benefit of an energy system, teh development tendencies of demand and supply are discussed. The social expense for an energy supply system is characterized by economy, international compatibility, environmental consideration, and social suitability. (UA) [de

  17. Ranking sources of hospital quality information for orthopedic surgery patients: consequences for the system of managed competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bes, R.E.; Berg, B. van den

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthcare quality information is crucial for the system of managed competition. Within a system of managed competition, health insurers can selectively contract care providers and are allowed to channel patients towards contracted providers. The idea is that insurers have a stronger

  18. Weak feedbacks, governance mismatches, and the robustness of social-ecological systems: an analysis of the Southwest Nova Scotia lobster fishery with comparison to Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain J. . Barnett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The insights in Governing the Commons have provided foundational ideas for commons research in the past 23 years. However, the cases that Elinor Ostrom analyzed have been exposed to new social, economic, and ecological disturbances. What has happened to these cases since the 1980s? We reevaluated one of Ostrom's case studies, the lobster and groundfishery of Port Lameron, Southwest Nova Scotia (SWNS. Ostrom suggested that the self-governance of this fishery was fragile because the government did not recognize the rights of resource users to organize their own rules. In the Maine lobster fishery, however, the government formalized customary rules and decentralized power to fishing ports. We applied the concepts of feedback, governance mismatches, and the robustness of social-ecological systems to understand the pathway of institutional change in Port Lameron. We revisited the case of Port Lameron using marine harvesters' accounts collected from participant observation, informal interviews and surveys, and literature on fisheries policy and ecology in SWNS and Maine. We found that the government's failure to recognize the customary rights of harvesters to organize has weakened feedback between the operational level, where resource users interact with the resource, and the collective-choice level, where agents develop rules to influence the behavior of resource users. This has precipitated governance mismatches, which have led harvesters to believe that the decision-making process is detrimental to their livelihoods. Thus, harvesters rarely participate in decision making and resist regulatory change. In Maine, harvesters can influence decisions through participation, but there is a trade-off. With higher influence in decisions, captains have co-opted the decision-making process. Nevertheless, we suggest that the fisheries of SWNS are more vulnerable to social-ecological change because of weaker feedbacks than in Maine. Finally, we have discussed

  19. The multi-parameter borehole system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSITE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array as close to the main Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change, which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from the arrays already running in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea. The multi-parameter borehole system is composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. The borehole seismic station uses the latest update technologies and design ideas to record "Earth tides" signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events. Additionally, a surface microearthquake observation array, consisting of 8-10 seismometers around the borehole is established to obtain continuous high resolution locations of micro-seismicity and to better understand the existing seismically active structures and their roles in local tectonic settings.Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The main causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny events. It is

  20. Consequences of phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotranferase system and pyruvate kinase isozymes inactivation in central carbon metabolism flux distribution in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meza Eugenio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP is a key central metabolism intermediate that participates in glucose transport, as precursor in several biosynthetic pathways and it is involved in allosteric regulation of glycolytic enzymes. In this work we generated W3110 derivative strains that lack the main PEP consumers PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS- and pyruvate kinase isozymes PykA and PykF (PTS-pykA- and PTS-pykF-. To characterize the effects of these modifications on cell physiology, carbon flux distribution and aromatics production capacity were determined. Results When compared to reference strain W3110, strain VH33 (PTS- displayed lower specific rates for growth, glucose consumption and acetate production as well as a higher biomass yield from glucose. These phenotypic effects were even more pronounced by the additional inactivation of PykA or PykF. Carbon flux analysis revealed that PTS inactivation causes a redirection of metabolic flux towards biomass formation. A cycle involving PEP carboxylase (Ppc and PEP carboxykinase (Pck was detected in all strains. In strains W3110, VH33 (PTS- and VH35 (PTS-, pykF-, the net flux in this cycle was inversely correlated with the specific rate of glucose consumption and inactivation of Pck in these strains caused a reduction in growth rate. In the PTS- background, inactivation of PykA caused a reduction in Ppc and Pck cycling as well as a reduction in flux to TCA, whereas inactivation of PykF caused an increase in anaplerotic flux from PEP to OAA and an increased flux to TCA. The wild-type and mutant strains were modified to overproduce L-phenylalanine. In resting cells experiments, compared to reference strain, a 10, 4 and 7-fold higher aromatics yields from glucose were observed as consequence of PTS, PTS PykA and PTS PykF inactivation. Conclusions Metabolic flux analysis performed on strains lacking the main activities generating pyruvate from PEP revealed the high

  1. [Belief system regarding Cannabis, its use and consequences: Users versus non-users in colombian university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Carballo, Álvaro; Gómez-Morales, Ileana; Humánez-Julio, Oscar; Guerrero-Martelo, Manuel; Vásquez De la Hoz, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Descriptive and comparative study of cross-sectional that had as objective to evaluate and compare the beliefs about cannabis, its use and potential consequences between two groups of Colombian university students, matched by gender and age. The frst group consisted of ordinary consumers of cannabis (n=35) the second group consisted of students that have never tried cannabis (n=35). The results showed that the group of consumers presents a moderate risk of abuse and only the 20% fulflled dependence criteria. Furthermore, the non-consumers group was mostly agree about that the marijuana use: damages the memory, deteriorates the cognitive functions, creates dependency, can affect the neurons and mental health. Also, it can lead to legal problems, it is a harmful drug for the health, it affects the academic performance, it creates problems with the family, friends, couple and the like, it reduces the driving ability, and, that the marijuana that is sold in the street is always pure. The consumer group, instead, agreed that smoking tobacco affects the lungs more than smoking marijuana. Marijuana has a positive in?uence on the brain, it increases the creativity, and it is less damaging than alcohol and tobacco. Smart people smoke marijuana and it has medicinal effects. In conclusion, according to the kind of beliefs that they have about this drug, the cannabis consumers would have a decreased perception of risk in relation to the potential risk that the consumption brings from two points of view: a. They minimize the real risks of consuming and, b. They attribute some benefts and virtues to the cannabis. The kind of beliefs that the consumer have are maybe in?uenced, at least, in part, for experiences of family and other consumers and, furthermore, the reinforcement of the same consume.

  2. Recent advances in host defense mechanisms/therapies against oral infectious diseases and consequences for systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffen, S L; Herzberg, M C; Taubman, M A; Van Dyke, T E

    2014-05-01

    The innate and adaptive immune systems are both crucial to oral disease mechanisms and their impact on systemic health status. Greater understanding of these interrelationships will yield opportunities to identify new therapeutic targets to modulate disease processes and/or increase host resistance to infectious or inflammatory insult. The topics addressed reflect the latest advances in our knowledge of the role of innate and adaptive immune systems and inflammatory mechanisms in infectious diseases affecting the oral cavity, including periodontitis and candidiasis. In addition, several potential links with systemic inflammatory conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, are explored. The findings elucidate some of the defense mechanisms utilized by host tissues, including the role of IL-17 in providing immunity to oral candidiasis, the antimicrobial defense of mucosal epithelial cells, and the pro-resolution effects of the natural inflammatory regulators, proresolvins and lipoxins. They also describe the role of immune cells in mediating pathologic bone resorption in periodontal disease. These insights highlight the potential for therapeutic benefit of immunomodulatory interventions that bolster or modulate host defense mechanisms in both oral and systemic disease. Among the promising new therapeutic approaches discussed here are epithelial cell gene therapy, passive immunization against immune cell targets, and the use of proresolvin agents.

  3. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part II: Sensitivity assessment of main techno-economic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of a MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents the application of a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) methodology to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the assessment of the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems, and on the decoupling of the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps. After a brief description of the methodology, which is presented in detail in Part I of the research, an application to a generic urban area is proposed. Moreover, the influence of energy demand typologies (urban areas energy density, heat consumption patterns, buildings energy efficiency levels, baseline energy costs and available infrastructures) and specific constraints of urban areas (transport logistics, air emission levels, space availability) on the selection of optimal bioenergy pathways for heat and power is assessed, by means of sensitivity analysis. On the basis of these results, broad considerations about the key factors influencing the use of bioenergy into urban energy systems are proposed. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  4. Causes and Consequences of Ownership Concentration among Europe´s Largest Companies: Economic and Systemic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    . The findings indicate that both general economic effects and system effects are significant. Ownership concentration is found to decrease with firm size and to increase with earnings volatility. But in support of the system theories advocated by Roe (1991), Laporta et al. (1996) and Shleifer and Vishny (1997......) nationality is also found to have a significant effect which is partly attributable to institutional differences between nations such as stock market size and the frequency of large banks. Finally, in line with Demsetz and Lehn (1985), ownership concentration is found to have an insignificant effect...

  5. Multi-metal contamination with uranium trend impact on aquatic environment and consequences for fish immune system and adaptive responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guernic, A.; Gagnaire, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO (France); Sanchez, W. [Institut national de l' environnement industriel et des risques - INERIS (France); Betoulle, S. [Champagne Ardenne University (France)

    2014-07-01

    Human activities have conducted to an increase of concentrations of various metals in aquatic ecosystems, including uranium. Its extraction and use have been rapidly magnified because of its role in the nuclear fuel cycle. These activities have led to high concentrations of uranium in the aquatic environment and thus a potential risk to exposed organisms, including fish. Consequences can be observed through metabolic and physiological responses, called biomarkers. Some biomarkers are interesting in order to evaluate the effects of metal contamination, among other immunotoxicity markers, antioxidant defenses and genotoxicity. The aims of this study are: i) to investigate the effects of a multi-metal contamination on a fish, the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and ii) to observe the adaptive capacity of fish due to a combination of stress (chemical stress and biological stress). To meet the first objective, six water bodies (ponds and lakes) located in two departments (Cantal and Haute-Vienne, France) were chosen according to their proximity to old uranium mines and to their levels of metal contamination related to chemical processes appeared during extraction. 240 three-spined sticklebacks were caged for 28 days in the six selected sites. A battery of biomarkers was measured in fish sampled after 14 and 28 of caging. The results for the Haute-Vienne department showed that caged fish in the pond with the highest uranium concentration (20 μg.L{sup -1}) presented the most DNA damage after 14 days of caging. Leukocyte phagocytosis (marker of immunotoxicity) of caged fish in this pond was lower at 14 days and greater at 28 days compared to other ponds without uranium. The multi-metal contamination negatively affected other parameters such as the condition index, oxidative activity, viability of lysosomal membrane and leukocytes distribution. In order to study the response of fish to a combined stress (chemical + biological) (objective ii), a second

  6. Establishment of a real-time electronic expert system to estimate and limit radiological consequences of nuclear facility accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Eklund, J.; Gregor, J.; Mueller, H.; Paretzke, H.G.; Proehl, G.; Richter, M.; Stapel, R.

    1991-12-01

    The programme system PARK is mainly based on the radioecological food chain model ECOSYS. PARK is subdivided into the system parts AUTOPARK and DIAPARK, and into the programme DOSISPARK. AUTOPARK is a mainly automatically running programme system which converts the measured data obtained by intensive operation of the 'Integrated measuring and information system for monitoring environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany (IMIS)', and the propagation calculations provided by the German Weather Service, into a full-scale assessment of nuclide-specific contamination of air, soil and 20 plant species. Based on such calculation results, the potential radiation exposures of the public are assessed, the expected contamination of food is prognosticated, and the effects of the preventive measures 'recommendation of staying indoors' and 'prohibition of marketing higher-level contaminated food' are investigated for ten relevant radionuclides. (orig.) [de

  7. Problem shifting in transport systems. Analysing and balancing unintended consequences of CO2 emission reduction in Dutch transport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebler, Malte

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transport systems face significant input- and output-related challenges in the upcoming decades. To tackle climate change – the major output challenge - an 80% CO2 reduction has to be achieved by 2050 (base year 1990). This requires a sustainabi

  8. Replacement of electrical protection of generation (main generator, main transformer and auxiliary transformers) and new associated monitoring system; Sustitucion de portecciones electricas de generacion (genrador principal, transformador principal y transformadores auxiliares) y nuevo sistema de supervision asociado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archilla, J.

    2013-07-01

    The replacement of the electrical protection of generation is a technological quantum leap, since moving from an analog system (known by) (all, intuitive and visual) to a digital (integrates the hardware on a single computer, much more powerful and programmable). The keys to overcoming the challenge are know to manage the technological leap, the operational limitations of plant (keep operating the)preferred sources of energy) and make a good design (including a review independent of the configuration of the relays, taking into account the experience (operational available).

  9. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6

  10. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  11. [Quality management and strategic consequences of assessing documentation and coding under the German Diagnostic Related Groups system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, M; Mann, D; Efe, T; Schrappe, M; V Garrel, T; Gotzen, L; Schaeg, M

    2004-10-01

    The introduction of the German Diagnostic Related Groups (D-DRG) system requires redesigning administrative patient management strategies. Wrong coding leads to inaccurate grouping and endangers the reimbursement of treatment costs. This situation emphasizes the roles of documentation and coding as factors of economical success. The aims of this study were to assess the quantity and quality of initial documentation and coding (ICD-10 and OPS-301) and find operative strategies to improve efficiency and strategic means to ensure optimal documentation and coding quality. In a prospective study, documentation and coding quality were evaluated in a standardized way by weekly assessment. Clinical data from 1385 inpatients were processed for initial correctness and quality of documentation and coding. Principal diagnoses were found to be accurate in 82.7% of cases, inexact in 7.1%, and wrong in 10.1%. Effects on financial returns occurred in 16%. Based on these findings, an optimized, interdisciplinary, and multiprofessional workflow on medical documentation, coding, and data control was developed. Workflow incorporating regular assessment of documentation and coding quality is required by the DRG system to ensure efficient accounting of hospital services. Interdisciplinary and multiprofessional cooperation is recognized to be an important factor in establishing an efficient workflow in medical documentation and coding.

  12. The intended and unintended consequences of communication systems on general internal medicine inpatient care delivery: a prospective observational case study of five teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Lo, Vivian; Morra, Dante; Wong, Brian M; Sargeant, Robert; Locke, Ken; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Quan, Sherman D; Rossos, Peter; Tran, Kim; Cheung, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Effective clinical communication is critical to providing high-quality patient care. Hospitals have used different types of interventions to improve communication between care teams, but there have been few studies of their effectiveness. To describe the effects of different communication interventions and their problems. Prospective observational case study using a mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative methods. General internal medicine (GIM) inpatient wards at five tertiary care academic teaching hospitals. Clinicians consisting of residents, attending physicians, nurses, and allied health (AH) staff working on the GIM wards. Ethnographic methods and interviews with clinical staff (doctors, nurses, medical students, and AH professionals) were conducted over a 16-month period from 2009 to 2010. We identified four categories that described the intended and unintended consequences of communication interventions: impacts on senders, receivers, interprofessional collaboration, and the use of informal communication processes. The use of alphanumeric pagers, smartphones, and web-based communication systems had positive effects for senders and receivers, but unintended consequences were seen with all interventions in all four categories. Interventions that aimed to improve clinical communications solved some but not all problems, and unintended effects were seen with all systems.

  13. Practical Application of the MFM Suite on a PWR System: Modelling and Reasoning on Causes and Consequences of Process Anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Thunem, Harald P - J; Lind, Morten

    2014-01-01

    is equipped with an MFM Model Editing Interface to facilitate the modelling process and MFM model analysis modules to run diag nosis and prognosis analyses based on developed models. New features of the MFM Suite also include making corresponding process diagram for the plant being modelled with MFM...... and linking the MFM model to its process components. The purpose of this report is to make a comprehensive demonstration of how to use the MFM Suite to develop MFM models and run causal reasoning for abnormal situations. This report will explain the capability of representing process and operational knowledge......Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) is a functional modelling methodology which applies means - end and parts - whole decomposition and aggregation techniques to handle the complexity of engineering systems. It has been adopted in several case studies to model the process goal and functions of PWR...

  14. Review of the chronic exposure pathways models in MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) and several other well-known probabilistic risk assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the work performed by the author in connection with the following task, performed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (USNRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Systems Research: MACCS Chronic Exposure Pathway Models: Review the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) and compare those models to the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in similar codes developed in countries that are members of the OECD. The chronic exposures concerned are via: the terrestrial food pathways, the water pathways, the long-term groundshine pathway, and the inhalation of resuspended radionuclides pathway. The USNRC has indicated during discussions of the task that the major effort should be spent on the terrestrial food pathways. There is one chapter for each of the categories of chronic exposure pathways listed above.

  15. Review of the chronic exposure pathways models in MACCS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] and several other well-known probabilistic risk assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the work performed by the author in connection with the following task, performed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (USNRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Systems Research: MACCS Chronic Exposure Pathway Models: Review the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) and compare those models to the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in similar codes developed in countries that are members of the OECD. The chronic exposures concerned are via: the terrestrial food pathways, the water pathways, the long-term groundshine pathway, and the inhalation of resuspended radionuclides pathway. The USNRC has indicated during discussions of the task that the major effort should be spent on the terrestrial food pathways. There is one chapter for each of the categories of chronic exposure pathways listed above

  16. A coupled 3-D kinetics/system thermal-hydraulic analysis of main steam line break accident for Optimized Power Reactor 1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yung Kwon; Choi, Chul Jin; Kim, Eun Kee; Lee, Sang Yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the coupled 3-D neutronics/thermal-hydraulic analysis of hypothetical main steam line break (MSLB) accident for Optimized Power Reactor 1000. One of the major concerns of this accident is a return-to-power occurrence accompanied with extremely large radial peaking near the stuck Control Element Assembly (CEA). The conventional point kinetics application does not properly account for this kind of asymmetric and local core behavior. Therefore, the current licensing method of point kinetics application introduces some uncertainties and conservatisms in the physics parameters generation, e.g., the static net scram rod worth, moderator cooldown reactivity, Doppler reactivity, and a 3-D peaking factor. The recently developed UNICORN-TM code system is applied for the 3-D coupled calculation, where neutronics code MASTER is coupled with the best-estimate system transient code RETRAN. The 3-D coupled results were assessed in comparison with those by point kinetics application using stand-alone RETRAN application. To quantify the 3-D reactivity benefits over point kinetics, both calculations assumed the accidents to be initiated from the same core state, e.g., end of cycle burnup, fuel and CEA configuration with the same initial moderator and Doppler temperature coefficient, and with initial system thermal-hydraulic condition. The core physics parameters required for point kinetics application were produced using MASTER with the method and procedure consistent with the current licensing application. The occurrence of return-to-power was simulated by intentionally reducing the net CEA worth in order to assess the spatial power distribution and local T-H effect on the dynamic reactivity feedback. The results have demonstrated that the 3-D analysis removes some of the conservatisms inherent in point kinetics analysis mainly caused by the inability to properly account for local reactivity feedback effects during return-to-power transient

  17. Leveraging Formal Methods and Fuzzing to Verify Security and Reliability Properties of Large-Scale High-Consequence Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruthruff, Joseph. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Armstrong, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Benjamin Garry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Mayo, Jackson R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Punnoose, Ratish J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Formal methods describe a class of system analysis techniques that seek to prove specific properties about analyzed designs, or locate flaws compromising those properties. As an analysis capability,these techniques are the subject of increased interest from both internal and external customers of Sandia National Laboratories. Given this lab's other areas of expertise, Sandia is uniquely positioned to advance the state-of-the-art with respect to several research and application areas within formal methods. This research project was a one-year effort funded by Sandia's CyberSecurity S&T Investment Area in its Laboratory Directed Research & Development program to investigate the opportunities for formal methods to impact Sandia's present mission areas, more fully understand the needs of the research community in the area of formal methods and where Sandia can contribute, and clarify from those potential research paths those that would best advance the mission-area interests of Sandia. The accomplishments from this project reinforce the utility of formal methods in Sandia, particularly in areas relevant to Cyber Security, and set the stage for continued Sandia investments to ensure this capabilityis utilized and advanced within this laboratory to serve the national interest.

  18. [Childhood and adolescent obesity--consequences for the locomotor system and treatment options. Musculoskeletal complications of overweight children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönau, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this article is to present the most relevant musculoskeletal complications known to be associated with being overweight or obese in childhood and adolescence in order to help the clinicians and physiotherapists in the diagnostic and management of these patients. Various musculoskeletal problems like slipped capital femoral epiphysis and Blount disease are well-known complications. More recent studies describe the effects of overweight on musculoskeletal pain and controversial influences on fracture rates. Reduced physical activity is a contributing factor in obesity, but also effects bone mineral accrual. Reduced postural stability and increased falls may be the reason for increased fracture rates. Furthermore these data show relevant changes of locomotion studied by gait analysis. Longitudinal kinematic studies may be needed to understand the entire aspect of gait development in overweight children. Obesity is still a serious health problem and has a relevant impact on the development of a child's musculoskeletal system. Obesity affects the locomotor sytem both functionally and structurally. Future studies are necessary to help us better understand the pathophysiology and development of optimal therapeutic strategies.

  19. The SMS, Phone, and medical Examination sports injury surveillance system is a feasible and valid approach to measuring handball exposure, injury occurrence, and consequences in elite youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, G; Lind, M; Sørensen, H; Hebert, J J; Attermann, J

    2018-04-01

    Current methods of sports injury surveillance are limited by lack of medical validation of self-reported injuries and/or incomplete information about injury consequences beyond time loss from sport. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the feasibility of the SMS, Phone, and medical Examination injury surveillance (SPEx) system (b) to evaluate the proportion of injuries and injury consequences reported by SPEx when compared to outcomes from a modified version of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire. We followed 679 elite adolescent handball players over 31 weeks using the SPEx system. During the last 7 weeks, we also implemented a modified OSTRC questionnaire in a subgroup of 271 players via telephone interviews. The weekly response proportions to the primary SPEx questions ranged from 85% to 96% (mean 92%). SMS responses were received from 79% of the participants within 1 day. 95% of reported injuries were classified through the telephone interview within a week, and 67% were diagnosed by medical personnel. Comparisons between reported injuries from SPEx and OSTRC demonstrated fair (κ = 39.5% [25.1%-54.0%]) to substantial prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK = 66.8% [95% CI 58.0%-75.6%]) agreement. The average injury severity score difference between SPEx and the OSTRC approach was -0.2 (95% CI -3.69-3.29) of possible 100 with 95% limits of agreement from(-14.81-14.41). These results support the feasibility and validity of the SPEx injury surveillance system in elite youth sport. Future studies should evaluate the external validity of SPEx system in different cohorts of athletes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 27 August 2001 substorm: Preonset phenomena, two main onsets, field-aligned current systems, and plasma flow channels in the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, V. M.; Mishin, V. V.; Lunyushkin, S. B.; Wang, J. Y.; Moiseev, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    We supplement the results of the 27 August 2001 substorm studied earlier in the series of papers. Described is the plasma flow in the nightside ionosphere from the near-polar region from the polar cap to the auroral oval during the substorm preonset phase and two expansion onsets, EO1 and EO2, produced by reconnection in the closed tail (magnetic reconnection (MR1) and in the open tail lobes (MR2), respectively. We discuss the location of the MR2 region (is it near, middle, and/or distant tail?) and the EO2 trigger mechanism. The upward substorm current wedge field-aligned current (FAC) and the downward FAC in the polar cap dusk sector that were both produced by different types of magnetosphere-ionosphere feedback instability are found to provide the main contribution to the system of FACs during EO1 and EO2. Also, we obtain the estimates for the EO1 and EO2 power and energy. Addressed are the variations in the tail lobe magnetic flux and their (variations) association with EO2. In addition, we describe a 3-D system of mesoscale cells, each of which involves a plasma vortex and a local FAC maximum. The cells of this system in the inner magnetosphere and in the tail lobes intensify one after other within 2 min interval. At last, we substantiate the assumption that the fast plasma flow recorded by the Cluster satellites 7 min prior to EO1 was a bursty bulk flow from the most distant tail.

  1. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  2. Generation IV nuclear energy systems: road map and concepts. 3. Measurement and Analysis of Conducted Noise at Main Control Room in Uljin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Bok-Ryul; Cho, Won-Seo

    2001-01-01

    The utility has implemented digital technology into the design of the plant protection system in new nuclear power plants (NPPs) and also replaced existing analog instrumentation and control (I and C) systems with computer-based digital I and C systems as the analog systems become obsolete. Digital I and C systems, which provide more operating capabilities than analog systems, operate at conditions that are more vulnerable to EMI/RFI than existing analog systems. The purpose of the site survey is to get the actual electromagnetic measurement (EM) level in NPPs and to eliminate the need for plant-specific EM at the point of installation to demonstrate the sufficiency of equipment test levels. Actual electromagnetic environments in NPPs are major elements to decide the limit for the susceptibility of the installed equipment. The data obtained with standard methods are indispensable to make guidelines for an electromagnetic qualification test for the equipment to be installed in the NPP. We performed EM at the power ports of the Plant Control System (PCS) and the Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in Uljin to obtain the conducted noise level, which can be utilized to determine the electromagnetic environment test limit for the equipment qualification test. The continuous conducted noise and discontinuous transient or surge at the power ports of the PCS and the CPC installed at the no.3 main control room in the Uljin NPP were measured and analyzed. The measurements were continuously conducted for 2 weeks of the power-escalated phase with reactor power from 0% to full power. The measurements selected for the power leaders were the current and voltage of the power cables using a current and voltage (passive) probe, EMI test receiver, and notebook computer. The data were recorded in accordance with standard industry practices and procedures. The conducted noise current was measured over the frequency range of 30 Hz to 50 kHz, and the voltage was captured over the frequency

  3. IAEA technical meeting on integrating analog and digital instrumentation and control systems in hybrid main control rooms at nuclear power plants. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    that digital technology offers are needed to increase cost-effective electricity production. As an integral part of the I and C modernization program at a nuclear power plant, the control room and other human-system interfaces (HSIs) will also be modernized. To support safe and effective operation, it is critical to specify, design, implement, operate, and maintain, as well as train for, the control room and HSI changes to take advantage of human cognitive processing abilities. This consideration of human factors is essential to increase performance and to reduce the likelihood of human errors. The plant I and C and HSI modifications can affect personnel in various ways. They can impact the role of personnel, the tasks to be performed, the way tasks are performed, and the knowledge, skills and training required of personnel. As part of modernization, HSIs are becoming more computer-based, incorporating features such as soft controls and computerized procedures, touch-screen interfaces, sit-down workstations, and large-screen overview displays. As computer-based technologies are integrated into control rooms that were largely based on conventional technology, hybrid control rooms are created. The potential benefits of implementing digital technology include more efficient operations and maintenance, leading to improved power plant availability and safety through the avoidance of transients, forced outages, and unnecessary shutdowns. The potential benefits also include increased efficiency and power output as well as reduced operating costs. New digital systems provide the opportunity to give personnel information they did not have with conventional systems. The importance of these issues has led the IAEA to organize (in conjunction with AECL) an international forum for presentations and discussions on the potential benefits and challenges related to the integration of Analog and Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems in Hybrid Main Control Rooms. Many of these

  4. Acidification increases abundances ofVibrionalesandPlanctomycetiaassociated to a seaweed-grazer system: potential consequences for disease and prey digestion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Tania; Serebryakova, Alexandra; Viard, Frédérique; Serrão, Ester A; Engelen, Aschwin H

    2018-01-01

    Ocean acidification significantly affects marine organisms in several ways, with complex interactions. Seaweeds might benefit from rising CO 2 through increased photosynthesis and carbon acquisition, with subsequent higher growth rates. However, changes in seaweed chemistry due to increased CO 2 may change the nutritional quality of tissue for grazers. In addition, organisms live in close association with a diverse microbiota, which can also be influenced by environmental changes, with feedback effects. As gut microbiomes are often linked to diet, changes in seaweed characteristics and associated microbiome can affect the gut microbiome of the grazer, with possible fitness consequences. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effects of acidification on the microbiome of the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum and a native isopod consumer Synisoma nadejda . Both were exposed to ambient CO 2 conditions (380 ppm, pH 8.16) and an acidification treatment (1,000 ppm, pH 7.86) for three weeks. Microbiome diversity and composition were determined using high-throughput sequencing of the variable regions V5-7 of 16S rRNA. We anticipated that as a result of acidification, the seaweed-associated bacterial community would change, leading to further changes in the gut microbiome of grazers. However, no significant effects of elevated CO 2 on the overall bacterial community structure and composition were revealed in the seaweed. In contrast, significant changes were observed in the bacterial community of the grazer gut. Although the bacterial community of S. muticum as whole did not change, Oceanospirillales and Vibrionales (mainly Pseudoalteromonas ) significantly increased their abundance in acidified conditions. The former, which uses organic matter compounds as its main source, may have opportunistically taken advantage of the possible increase of the C/N ratio in the seaweed under acidified conditions. Pseudoalteromonas, commonly associated to diseased

  5. Impact of the Voltage Transients after a Fast Power Abort on the Quench Detection System in the LHC Main Dipole Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Formenti, F; Montabonnet, V; Pojer, M; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, A; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H; Verweij, A

    2012-01-01

    A Fast Power Abort in the LHC superconducting main dipole circuit consists in the switch-off of the power converter and the opening of the two energy-extraction switches. Each energy-extraction unit is composed of redundant electromechanical breakers, which are opened to force the current through an extraction resistor. When a switch is opened arcing occurs in the switch and a voltage of up to 1 kV builds up across the extraction resistor with a typical ramp rate of about 80 kV/s. The subsequent voltage transient propagates through the chain of 154 dipoles and superposes on the voltage waves caused by the switch-off of the power converter. The resulting effect caused intermittent triggering of the quench protection systems along with heater firings in the magnets when the transient occurred during a ramp of the current. A delay between power converter switch-off and opening of the energy-extraction switches was introduced to prevent this effect. Furthermore, the output filters of the power converters were mod...

  6. Maine highway safety plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  7. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  8. Maine's forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  9. Maine Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; Thomas Albright; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third 5-year annualized inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2013 after more than 3170 forested plots were measured. Maine contains more than 17.6 million acres of forest land, an area that has been quite stable since 1960, covering more than 82 percent of the total land area. The number of live trees greater than 1 inch in diameter are approaching 24...

  10. What is regressive autism and why does it occur? Is it the consequence of multi-systemic dysfunction affecting the elimination of heavy metals and the ability to regulate neural temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Graham E

    2009-07-01

    There is a compelling argument that the occurrence of regressive autism is attributable to genetic and chromosomal abnormalities, arising from the overuse of vaccines, which subsequently affects the stability and function of the autonomic nervous system and physiological systems. That sense perception is linked to the autonomic nervous system and the function of the physiological systems enables us to examine the significance of autistic symptoms from a systemic perspective. Failure of the excretory system influences elimination of heavy metals and facilitates their accumulation and subsequent manifestation as neurotoxins: the long-term consequences of which would lead to neurodegeneration, cognitive and developmental problems. It may also influence regulation of neural hyperthermia. This article explores the issues and concludes that sensory dysfunction and systemic failure, manifested as autism, is the inevitable consequence arising from subtle DNA alteration and consequently from the overuse of vaccines.

  11. Improvement of main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Sung Ki; Ham, Chang Sik; Kwon, Ki Chun

    1991-07-01

    Information display system, advanced alarm system and fiber optical communication system were developed to improve the main control room in nuclear power plant. Establishing the new hierachical information structure of plant operation data, plant overview status board(POSB) and digital indicator(DI) were designed and manufactured. The prototype advanced alarm system which employed the new alarm logics and algorithm compared with the conventional alarm system were developed and its effectiveness was proved. Optical communication system which has multi-drop feature and capability of upgrading to large-scale system by using BITBUS communication protocol which is proven technology, were developed. Reliability of that system was enhanced by using distributed control. (Author)

  12. Combining hydrologic and groundwater modelling to characterize a regional aquifer system within a rift setting (Gidabo River Basin, Main Ethiopian Rift)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Steffen; Mechal, Abraham; Wagner, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried; Mogessie, Aberra

    2016-04-01

    The development of groundwater resources within the Ethiopian Rift is complicated by the strong physiographic contrasts between the rift floor and the highland and by the manifold hydrogeological setting composed of volcanic rocks of different type and age that are intersected by numerous faults. Hydrogeochemical and isotope data from various regions within the Ethiopian Rift suggest that the aquifers within the semi-arid rift floor receive a significant contribution of groundwater flow from the humid highland. For example, the major ion composition of groundwater samples from Gidabo River Basin (3302 km²) in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift reveals a mixing trend from the highland toward the rift floor; moreover, the stable isotopes of water, deuterium and O-18, of the rift-floor samples indicate a component recharged in the highland. This work aims to assess if the hydrological and hydrogeological data available for Gidabo River Basin is consistent with these findings and to characterize the regional aquifer system within the rift setting. For this purpose, a two-step approach is employed: First, the semi-distributed hydrological model SWAT is used to obtain an estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge within the watershed; second, the numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW is employed to infer aquifer properties and groundwater flow components. The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using discharge data from three stream gauging stations within the watershed (Mechal et al., Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.09.001). The resulting recharge distribution exhibits a strong decrease from the highland, where the mean annual recharge amounts to several hundred millimetres, to the rift floor, where annual recharge largely is around 100 mm and below. Using this recharge distribution as input, a two-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model was calibrated to hydraulic

  13. Searching for gas giant planets on Solar system scales - a NACO/APP L'-band survey of A- and F-type main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, T.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Reggiani, M.; Quanz, S. P.; Mamajek, E. E.; Meyer, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report the results of a direct imaging survey of A- and F-type main-sequence stars searching for giant planets. A/F stars are often the targets of surveys, as they are thought to have more massive giant planets relative to solar-type stars. However, most imaging is only sensitive to orbital separations >30 au, where it has been demonstrated that giant planets are rare. In this survey, we take advantage of the high-contrast capabilities of the Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph on NACO at the Very Large Telescope. Combined with optimized principal component analysis post-processing, we are sensitive to planetary-mass companions (2-12 MJup) at Solar system scales (≤30 au). We obtained data on 13 stars in the L' band and detected one new companion as part of this survey: an M6.0 ± 0.5 dwarf companion around HD 984. We re-detect low-mass companions around HD 12894 and HD 20385, both reported shortly after the completion of this survey. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine new constraints on the low-mass (<80 MJup) companion frequency, as a function of mass and separation. Assuming solar-type planet mass and separation distributions, normalized to the planet frequency appropriate for A-stars, and the observed companion mass-ratio distribution for stellar companions extrapolated to planetary masses, we derive a truncation radius for the planetary mass companion surface density of <135 au at 95 per cent confidence.

  14. Induction of Sca-1 via activation of STAT3 system in the duct cells of the mouse submandibular gland by ligation of the main excretory duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanti, Nunuk; Karabasil, Mileva Ratko; Matsuo, Shinsuke; Chen, Gang; Javkhlan, Purevjav; Azlina, Ahmad; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Yao, Chenjuan; Akamatsu, Tetsuya; Hosoi, Kazuo

    2011-11-01

    To examine the very initial step that takes place immediately after tissue injury and is linked to tissue regeneration, we employed the submandibular gland (SMG), which was injured by ligation of its main excretory duct (MED). Ligation of the MED of the SMG in mice induced the expression of Sca-1, a protein marker of hematopoietic stem cells. In the normal gland, a low level of Sca-1 was expressed, which was localized predominantly in the excretory duct cells. At 1 day after ligation, Sca-1 expression increased prominently in almost all of cells in the duct system, but not in the acinar cells. The level of Sca-1 mRNA had begun to increase at 6 h after ligation and continuously rose thereafter until it reached a plateau, which occurred ∼12 h after ligation. STAT3 phosphorylated at its tyrosine-705 (p-STAT3) in the ligated gland increased immediately after ligation, and it was localized in the nuclei of all duct cells. The results of an EMSA revealed the specific binding of a nuclear extract to the sequence of the γ-interferon activation site (GAS) present in the Sca-1 promoter and confirmed that such binding increased after ligation. Thus the present study suggests that STAT3, having been phosphorylated following MED ligation, was transferred to the nucleus, where it bound to the GAS element in the promoter of Sca-1 gene, resulting in promotion of Sca-1 gene expression. Actual prevention of STAT3 phosphorylation reduced the ligation-induced Sca-1 elevation.

  15. Changes in mountain glacier systems and the distribution of main climatic parameters on the territory of Russia (second part of the XX -beginning of the XXI century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, K.; Nosenko, G.; Popova, V.; Muraviev, A.; Nikitin, S.; Chernova, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain glaciers are vital sources of water worldwide to many densely-populated regions. Most glaciers are now shrinking, resulting in variable water supplies and sustained sea level rise. Rapid glacier change threatens water, energy and food security. Further glacier mass loss is likely in response to recent climate change, driven by global increases in air temperatures and the production of atmospheric pollutants. However, high altitudes and rugged topography generate regional weather systems that complicate the investigation of the relationship between climate and glacier change. Predictive models need to move beyond the state-of-the-art to couple advanced climate models with accurate representations of glacier processes, and more detailed and reliable data describing the state of mountain glaciers are required to constrain these models, both from monitoring individual glaciers and regional remote-sensing observations. Glaciation exists on the territory of Russia for thousands of years. At present both mountain glaciers and continental ice sheets are present there. Continental ice sheets are located on islands and archipelagoes of Russian Arctic region and mountain glaciers are wide-spread on continental part of the country where it currently covers the area of about 3,480,000 km². Now there are 18 mountain glacier regions on the territory of Russia. We present recent data on glaciers state and changes in mountain regions of Russia based on remote sensing and in situ studies and distribution of main climatic parameters that affect the existence of glaciers: summer air temperature, winter precipitations and maximum value of snow thickness. Acknowledgements. This presentation includes the results of research project № 0148-2014-0007 of the Research Plan of the Institute of Geography, RAS and research project supported by the Russian Geographical Society (grant number 05/2017/RGS-RFBR).

  16. The main cubioid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokh, Alexander; Oversteegen, Lex; Ptacek, Ross; Timorin, Vladlen

    2014-01-01

    The connectedness locus in the parameter space of quadratic polynomials is called the Mandelbrot set. A good combinatorial model of this set is due to Thurston. By definition, the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set consists of parameter values, for which the corresponding quadratic polynomials have an attracting fixed point. The closure of the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set is called the main cardioid. Its topology is completely described by Thurston's model. Less is known about the connectedness locus in the parameter space of cubic polynomials. In this paper, we discuss cubic analogues of the main cardioid and establish relationships between them. (paper)

  17. Principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el año 2003 Main results of the Cuban System of Drug Surveillance in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Debesa García

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el funcionamiento y principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia durante el 2003 en todos los niveles de salud de Cuba. Durante 12 meses, los casos se identificaron mediante el sistema de notificación voluntaria de sospecha de reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Se recibieron en la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovilancia 12 601 notificaciones de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM que contenían 25 348 sospechas de RAM, para una tasa de notificación de 1 119 reportes x 1 000 000 de habitantes. El 66 % de las RAM correspondió al sexo femenino y el 34 % al masculino. En cuanto al nivel de asistencia, la atención primaria es la que más notifica con 83,5 %. Fueron resultados alentadores que en este año la relación de reacciones leves con respecto a las moderadas y graves resultó del 55,3/44,7 %, que continúa con un balance bastante bueno en relación con el reporte por severidad. Se reportaron 54 reacciones con desenlace fatal, para el 0,2 %. Las notificaciones recibidas en nuestro unidad permitieron cuantificar y caracterizar las RAM, teniendo además un gran valor para generar alertas y vigilar la seguridad de los medicamentos que circulan en nuestro país.The functioning and the main results of the Cuban Drug Surveillance System at all the health levels, in 2003, are described. During 12 months, the cases were identified by the volunteer notification system of suspicion of adverse drug reactions. 12 601 notifications of adverse drug reactions (DAR containing 25 348 DAR suspicions were received at the National Coordinating Unit of Drug Surveillance for a notification rate of 1 119 reports x 1 000 000 inhabitants. 66 % of the ADRs corresponded to females and 34 % to males. As regards the assistance level, the primary care level notifies the most with 83.5 %. It was considered as encouraging the fact that the relation of mild adverse reactions with respect to the moderate and severe was 55.3 %/44

  18. Consequências sistêmicas da cirurgia bariátrica e suas repercussões na saúde bucal Systemic consequences of bariatric surgery and its repercussions on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Garcia Moura-Grec

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O controle da obesidade mórbida pode ser realizado através da cirurgia bariátrica que leva à restrição e/ou à má-absorção de alimentos. O objetivo dessa revisão foi identificar consequências desse procedimento e suas repercussões na saúde bucal. MÉTODO: Foi realizada busca na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, sendo incluídos artigos com relação direta ou indireta entre cirurgia bariátrica e saúde bucal e publicados nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se algumas complicações decorrentes dessa operação, como regurgitação crônica e deficiências nutricionais, que podem trazer repercussões na cavidade bucal como erosão dentária, perda óssea e cárie dentária. Por outro lado, existem consequências positivas como controle da diabetes, da apnéia e melhora da auto-estima, que tornam os pacientes menos susceptíveis à complicações na cavidade oral, como xerostomia e doença periodontal. CONCLUSÃO: A manutenção da saúde bucal adequada em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica contribui para o sucesso após a operação, resguardando os benefícios e minimizando os efeitos colaterais.INTRODUCTION: Morbid obesity control can be done by bariatric surgery that restricts or reduces the amount of food absorption. The objective of this review was to identify the consequences of bariatric surgery and its repercussions on oral health. METHOD: It was used the Virtual Library of Health, which included articles that had any direct or indirect connection between bariatric surgery and oral health, and published in the last ten years. RESULTS: Some complications of the surgery are chronicle reflux and nutritional deficiency, which may bring repercussions on the oral cavity, such as tooth erosion, bone loss and dental caries. On the other hand, there are also positive impacts, such as the decrease of diabetes, apnea and improvement on self-esteem, that makes the patients less vulnerable to complications

  19. Ladybugs of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  20. Main designations and attributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the main designations and attributions of the LNMRI - Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, the Cooperative Center in Radiation Protection and Medical Preparations for Accidents with Radiation; the Treaty for fully banning of nuclear tests and the Regional Center for Training of IAEA

  1. Main facts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations

  2. Main facts 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  3. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Maine single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  4. Main clinical factors influencing early mortality in a cohort of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis, and evaluation trough ROC curves of different prognostic scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Higuera-de la Tijera

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The development of HE is the main factor associated to early mortality. Coexistence of cirrhosis is a factor that worsen the prognosis. Lille score is the most accurate for predict early mortality.

  5. The hypothalomo-pituitary-adrenal system in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences: summing up the seven-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitryaeva, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system was studied over time (1986-1993) in 500 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences with external exposure dose of 250 mSv. The concentrations of hydrocortisone, ACTH, and β-endorphine in the peripheral blood were radioimmunoassayed at rest and during functional loading. Glucocorticoids were measured in the urine by thin-layer chromatography. The number of glucocorticoid receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed by the radioreceptor method. Stable hypercorticalism in the presence of reduced β-endorphine and increased ACTH levels was observed in the majority of examinees during the first years after the accident. Six years after the accident the above parameters were normal at rest, although during functional loading disorders in the reserve potential of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system were observed, which deteriorated its adaptation to changes int he environment. It is advisable to single out high risk groups of subjects with disadaptation disorders for regular check-ups among the liquidators. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  6. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  7. Main applications of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Brunet, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, the world market of superconductivity reached 3.65 billion euros and was mainly concerning the NbTi-type superconductors. The high critical temperature superconductors (HCTS) have not reached the industrial maturity yet, both in terms of efficiency and cost, but this situation may change at medium term. Superconductors are mainly used in the industry today to create moderated to high inductions (1.5 to more than 20 T) inside volumes up to several hundreds of m 3 . This article treats of the present day industrial applications of NbTi and Nb 3 Sn superconductors: 1 - specificities of superconductors: persisting mode, AC losses, protection of a superconducting magnet, dimensioning of a superconducting coil; 2 -industrial magnets: NMR imaging, spectroscopy, proton cyclotron; 3 - magnets for research: high energy physics (accelerators-colliders, detectors), fusion facilities (reaction, magnetic confinement, tokamak, ITER), laboratory magnets; 4 - magnets for specific applications: magnetic separation, magnetic levitated train, MHD. (J.S.)

  8. Project evaluation: main characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Moutinho, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    — The evaluation process of real investment projects must consider not only the traditional financial approach, but also non-financial aspects. Non financial analysis can provide additional relevant information about projects. We investigate financial and non-financial areas most relevant in project appraisal. We present main critical success factors and areas of analysis that lead to the perception of project success. Finally, companies are segmented to verify its financial and non-financial...

  9. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  10. Epidemiology of four main nosocomial infections in Iran during March 2007 - March 2008 based on the findings of a routine surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Eshrati, Babak; Masoumi Asl, Hosein; Pezeshki, Zahra

    2012-12-01

    Annually, around six million patients are admitted to hospitals in Iran. Information about the prevalence of nosocomial infections (NIs) is necessary for both appropriate management and establishment of preventative measures in hospitals. This article is based on the findings of the Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NISS) which has been providing information on NIs in Iran since March 2007.  NISS covers 95 hospitals throughout Iran, each with over 200 beds. There are four main infections: urinary tract infection (UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), bloodstream infection (BSI) and pneumonia (PNEU) included in NISS. Reports are completed on forms that have been provided based on national guidelines. In all selected hospitals there is one designated nurse who conducts infection control activities and is trained in the detection and reporting of NIs based on NISS guidelines. During March 2007 - March 2008, a total of 1,879,356 patients were admitted to the selected hospitals. The total detected NIs were 10557 with a prevalence of 0.57%. Of these, UTI was the most prevalent infection (32.2%) and BSI was the least (16.3%). Based on gender, females had more UTI, whereas PNEU was the highest in males. Of reported NIs, 9% were detected in children less than five years of age and included BSI (45%), PNEU (20%), SSI (19%) and UTI (16%). There were 26% reported NIs in the age group over 65 years, of which the most prevalent infections were UTI (42%) followed by PNEU (31%), SSI (15%) and BSI (12%). NIs were most often detected in intensive care units (ICUs; 26.7%), followed by surgery wards (12.8%). In comparison with other studies and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the rate of NIs appears to be less according to NISS. NISS has the capability to provide basic information for efficient management and control measures, in addition to indicating variations in NIs based on gender, age and location (hospital ward). In order to have a more realistic estimate

  11. Macromammalian faunas, biochronology and palaeoecology of the early Pleistocene Main Quarry hominin-bearing deposits of the Drimolen Palaeocave System, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Justin W; Rovinsky, Douglass S; Herries, Andy I R; Menter, Colin G

    2016-01-01

    The Drimolen Palaeocave System Main Quarry deposits (DMQ) are some of the most prolific hominin and primate-bearing deposits in the Fossil Hominids of South Africa UNESCO World Heritage Site. Discovered in the 1990s, excavations into the DMQ have yielded a demographically diverse sample of Paranthropus robustus (including DNH 7, the most complete cranium of the species recovered to date), early Homo, Papio hamadryas robinsoni and Cercopithecoides williamsi. Alongside the hominin and primate sample is a diverse macromammalian assemblage, but prior publications have only provided a provisional species list and an analysis of the carnivores recovered prior to 2008. Here we present the first description and analysis of the non-primate macromammalian faunas from the DMQ, including all 826 taxonomically identifiable specimens catalogued from over two decades of excavation. We also provide a biochronological interpretation of the DMQ deposits and an initial discussion of local palaeoecology based on taxon representation.The current DMQ assemblage consists of the remains of minimally 147 individuals from 9 Orders and 14 Families of mammals. The carnivore assemblage described here is even more diverse than established in prior publications, including the identification of Megantereon whitei, Lycyaenops silberbergi, and first evidence for the occurrence of Dinofelis cf. barlowi and Dinofelis aff. piveteaui within a single South African site deposit. The cetartiodactyl assemblage is dominated by bovids, with the specimen composition unique in the high recovery of horn cores and dominance of Antidorcas recki remains. Other cetartiodactyl and perissodactyl taxa are represented by few specimens, as are Hystrix and Procavia; the latter somewhat surprisingly so given their common occurrence at penecontemporaneous deposits in the region. Equally unusual (particularly given the size of the sample) is the identification of single specimens of giraffoid, elephantid and aardvark

  12. Macromammalian faunas, biochronology and palaeoecology of the early Pleistocene Main Quarry hominin-bearing deposits of the Drimolen Palaeocave System, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W. Adams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Drimolen Palaeocave System Main Quarry deposits (DMQ are some of the most prolific hominin and primate-bearing deposits in the Fossil Hominids of South Africa UNESCO World Heritage Site. Discovered in the 1990s, excavations into the DMQ have yielded a demographically diverse sample of Paranthropus robustus (including DNH 7, the most complete cranium of the species recovered to date, early Homo, Papio hamadryas robinsoni and Cercopithecoides williamsi. Alongside the hominin and primate sample is a diverse macromammalian assemblage, but prior publications have only provided a provisional species list and an analysis of the carnivores recovered prior to 2008. Here we present the first description and analysis of the non-primate macromammalian faunas from the DMQ, including all 826 taxonomically identifiable specimens catalogued from over two decades of excavation. We also provide a biochronological interpretation of the DMQ deposits and an initial discussion of local palaeoecology based on taxon representation.The current DMQ assemblage consists of the remains of minimally 147 individuals from 9 Orders and 14 Families of mammals. The carnivore assemblage described here is even more diverse than established in prior publications, including the identification of Megantereon whitei, Lycyaenops silberbergi, and first evidence for the occurrence of Dinofelis cf. barlowi and Dinofelis aff. piveteaui within a single South African site deposit. The cetartiodactyl assemblage is dominated by bovids, with the specimen composition unique in the high recovery of horn cores and dominance of Antidorcas recki remains. Other cetartiodactyl and perissodactyl taxa are represented by few specimens, as are Hystrix and Procavia; the latter somewhat surprisingly so given their common occurrence at penecontemporaneous deposits in the region. Equally unusual (particularly given the size of the sample is the identification of single specimens of giraffoid, elephantid

  13. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  14. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  15. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 3, Consequences of Prolonged Drought on Urban Water System Resilience: Case Study from Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course focuses on water system adaptation to short-term and long-term climate and hydrologic stressors that affect water availability, water quality, security, and resilience. The course is organized into 15 sequential modules. The lectures will be augmented by weekly assign...

  16. Identifying potential consequences of natural perturbations and management decisions on a coastal fishery social-ecological system using qualitative loop analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca G. Martone

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Managing for sustainable development and resource extraction requires an understanding of the feedbacks between ecosystems and humans. These feedbacks are part of complex social-ecological systems (SES, in which resources, actors, and governance systems interact to produce outcomes across these component parts. Qualitative modeling approaches offer ways to assess complex SES dynamics. Loop analysis in particular is useful for examining and identifying potential outcomes from external perturbations and management interventions in data poor systems when very little is known about functional relationships and parameter values. Using a case study of multispecies, multifleet coastal small-scale fisheries, we demonstrate the application of loop analysis to provide predictions regarding SES responses to perturbations and management actions. Specifically, we examine the potential ecological and socioeconomic consequences to coastal fisheries of different governance interventions (e.g., territorial user rights, fisheries closures, market-based incentives, ecotourism subsidies and environmental changes. Our results indicate that complex feedbacks among biophysical and socioeconomic components can result in counterintuitive and unexpected outcomes. For example, creating new jobs through ecotourism or subsidies might have mixed effects on members of fishing cooperatives vs. nonmembers, highlighting equity issues. Market-based interventions, such as ecolabels, are expected to have overall positive economic effects, assuming a direct effect of ecolabels on market-prices, and a lack of negative biological impacts under most model structures. Our results highlight that integrating ecological and social variables in a unique unit of management can reveal important potential trade-offs between desirable ecological and social outcomes, highlight which user groups might be more vulnerable to external shocks, and identify which interventions should be further tested

  17. Summary of main points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In conjunction with its 6. annual meeting, the WPDD in close co-operation with the FSC held a Topical session on 'Stakeholder Involvement in Decommissioning' on November 14, 2005. The session was attended by 36 participants totally representing 14 NEA member countries and 2 international organisations. Two keynote addresses were given at the Topical Session. The first one treated of what is needed for robust decisions and how to bring all stakeholders into the debate. In the second keynote address a summary was made on what have been said on stakeholder involvement in decommissioning during earlier meetings of the WPDD. The main part of the session was then devoted to views from different stakeholders regarding their role and their involvement. This part contained viewpoints from local communities (Kaevlinge in Sweden and Port Hope in Canada), authorities (Scottish Executive and CSNC) and operators (EDF from France and EWN from Germany). Case studies from the decommissioning of Dounrey in the UK and from Trojan and Main Yankee in the USA were presented in the end part of the Topical session followed by a summary and lessons learnt report by the Rapporteur. A detailed programme of the Topical session can be seen in Appendix 1

  18. The five roads. Main report from the project Energy Crossroads; The roads to a sustainable energy system; De fem vaegvalen. Huvudrapport fraan projektet Vaegval energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-09-15

    companies. Energy Crossroads is aimed at decision-makers who are in a position to influence energy policy. The main idea has been to use analysis and discussion to identify the measures that provide the most climate benefits for the money. We have identified five areas - or directions - which we believe are the most important. Direction 1. Prioritise energy efficiency as the overall energy policy instrument. Sweden can save 15 TWh by improving energy efficiency with the control mechanisms currently in place. With 'market pricing' for emissions the most cost-effective measures will be implemented first. Instead of detailed regulation and costly initiatives, we will have a long-term reduction in total energy consumption. Energy efficiency improvement is also saleable internationally, profitable from a public finances perspective and a concrete concept for energy consumers. There is still great potential for the use of residual heat by our industries, for both internal and external use. Direction 2. Invest in measures that are the most beneficial for the climate. Increasing the percentage of energy we get from renewable sources does not automatically lower greenhouse gas emissions. We should increase the percentage of renewable energy, but a forced expansion would be unreasonably expensive. If implemented with today's support systems, the renewable energy objective and today's plans for expanding wind power up to 30 TWh would be costly for Sweden's electricity consumers unless alternative financing is found. Expanding wind power requires investment in the power grid, expanding reserve power (hydropower) and raising subsidies. Expanding wind power too much could lead to sur surplus electricity and wind power exporting - paid for by Sweden's electricity consumers. There are more cost-effective ways of reducing greenhouse gases. The renewable energy goal should steer us towards reducing the use of fossil fuels - not a one-sided investment in a single

  19. Consequences of energy conservation violation: late time solutions of Λ(T)CDM subclass of f(R,T) gravity using dynamical system approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Hamid [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, Amir Hadi [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Kahnooj Branch, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Very recently, Josset and Perez (Phys. Rev. Lett. 118:021102, 2017) have shown that a violation of the energy-momentum tensor (EMT) could result in an accelerated expansion state via the appearance of an effective cosmological constant, in the context of unimodular gravity. Inspired by this outcome, in this paper we investigate cosmological consequences of a violation of the EMT conservation in a particular class of f(R,T) gravity when only the pressure-less fluid is present. In this respect, we focus on the late time solutions of models of the type f(R,T) = R + βΛ(-T). As the first task, we study the solutions when the conservation of EMT is respected, and then we proceed with those in which violation occurs. We have found, provided that the EMT conservation is violated, that there generally exist two accelerated expansion solutions of which the stability properties depend on the underlying model. More exactly, we obtain a dark energy solution for which the effective equation of state depends on the model parameters and a de Sitter solution. We present a method to parametrize the Λ(-T) function, which is useful in a dynamical system approach and has been employed in the model. Also, we discuss the cosmological solutions for models with Λ(-T) = 8πG(-T){sup α} in the presence of ultra-relativistic matter. (orig.)

  20. The main principles of medical rehabilitation of the injured persons in the system of organization of medical aid after radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadezhina, N.M.; Lelyuk, V.G.; Galstyan, I.A.; Uvacheva, I.V.; Chubchenkova, Zh.N.; Kutuzova, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Results of clinical examination of participants of liquidation of the after-effects of the accident (LAA) at Chernobyl for several years are presented. For participants of LAA with an acute radial disease of various degree of severity, a great importance is attached to the aspect of local radial injuries (LRI). The following principles of their medical rehabilitation have been elaborated; generally roborant treatment along with psycho-therapeutic correction, therapy of radial cataract (surgical); prophylaxis and therapy of late manifestations of LRI; treatment and prophylaxis of concomitant somatic diseases; efficient provision of employment of patients and their return to active social position in family and society life. The complex of rehabilitation measures for participants of LAA exposed to radiation without development of acute radial disease should contain generally accepted principles; thorough and timely diagnostics and treatment of general somatic diseases; correction of the consequences of mental stress, sanitation of life regimen with rational nutrition and physical strain. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  1. A Proposal Of Simulation Model Of A Wind-Steering System For Sailing Yachts, Based On Single-Stage Servo-Pendulum Coupled With Main Rudder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętak Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible application of fast design prototyping methods for wind-steering systems used in offshore sailing yachts. The development of such methods would help to speed up the construction work and reduce the scope of necessary experimental research, prior to implementation of the system. In the present work, based on an analysis of existing designs of windvane systems, a preliminary selection of the system configuration has been undertaken, in terms of a compromise between efficiency, performance, and design complexity. Construction design of a single-stage, servo – pendulum system, has been developed by using the Autodesk Inventor design package. Next, based on the design data, a simulation model of the system, has been produced by using Matlab - Simulink software and SimMechanics library. The model was further verified in terms of kinematics mapping with the use of Matlab visualization tools.

  2. Consequences of gestosis (preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Perfilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the results of an analysis of the data available in the Russian and foreign literature, which show that severe gestosis (preeclampsia is a main cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Severe gestosis leads to impaired fetal growth and development, premature births, the development of perinatal hypoxic lesions of the central nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, respiratory, and other systems, which adversely affects the health status of children in their later life. Women with a history of preeclampsia or eclampsia are further at increased risk for cardiovascular (atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial diseases, and hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, abnormalities of the kidney and organs of vision, diabetes, and memory impairments.

  3. The consequences of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Madero, Carlos.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of the Chernobyl IV Reactor its operation and safety system. The following issues are analyzed; 1: the errors of the operators that produced the accident in april 26, 1986; 2: the fallout caused by the first explosions, that has mainly incorporated I and Cs in the food chain; 3: the path of the Chernobyl cloud, its passing across the north and south of Europe, and the middle east; 4: measures to stop the accident, fire control, plant stabilization and recovery of the place; 5: a sarcophagus, a technical novelty, had to be built due to the difficulties of monitoring; 6: the problematic decontamination of the forested places, caused interesting programs to be developed. Afterwords the effects produced by high and low doses in the population, were studied. A group of experts, reached the conclusion that no corrective or improvement measures for the occidental safety mechanisms, were required. (M.E.L.) [es

  4. The consequences of the heterosexual norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Johansson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians may exclude people accidentally. This is so because there is a widespread use of classifications and subject headings reflecting the heterosexual norm. Critical classification theory tackles this norm for the reason that it affects the retrieval of gay literature. In order to allow a reconsideration of this exclusive practice in the LIS community I challenge two main questions: Firstly, how does the heterosexual norm appear in classification systems and subject headings lists? And secondly, what are the consequences of that practice for the retrieval of gay literature?This paper focuses on the professional practise in Swedish public libraries. If subject cataloguing prevents Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT finding their literatures, then Swedish public libraries are upholders of the exclusive heterosexual norm in society.

  5. The consequences of piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Schroth, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Maritime piracy decreased significantly around 2012, but recently made the news again. What are the wider consequences of piracy and what is being done on an international level to protect this important transportation sector?

  6. A galactic disk as a two-fluid system: Consequences for the critical stellar velocity dispersion and the formation of condensations in the gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jog, C.J.; Solomon, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    We examine the consequences of treating a galactic disk as a two-fluid system for the stability of the entire disk and for the stability and form of the gas in the disk. We find that the existence of even a small fraction of the total disk surface density in a cold fluid (that is, the gas) makes it much harder to stabilize the entire two-fluid disk. (C/sub s/,min)/sub 2-f/, the critical stellar velocity dispersion for a two-fluid disk in an increasing function of μ/sub g//μ/sub s/, the gas fraction, and μ/sub t//kappa, where μ/sub g/, μ/sub s/, and μ/sub t/ are the gaseous, stellar, and total disk surface densities and kappa is the epicyclic frequency. In the Galaxy, we find that (C/sub s/,min)/sub 2-f/ as a function of R peaks when μ/sub t//kappa peaks-at galactocentric radii of Rapprox.5-7 kpc; two-fluid instabilities are most likely to occur in this region. This region is coincident with the peak in the molecular cloud distribution in the Galaxy. At the higher effective gas density resulting from the growth of a two-fluid instability, the gas may become unstble, even when originally the gas by itself is stable. The wavelength of a typical (induced) gas instability in the inner galaxy is approx.400 pc, and it contains approx.10 7 M/sub sun/ of interstellar matter; these instabilities may be identified with clusters of giant molecular clouds. We suggest that many of the spiral features seen in gas-rich spiral galaxies may be material arms or arm segments resulting from sheared two-fluid gravitational instabilities. The analysis presented here is applicable to any general disk galaxy consisting of stars and gas

  7. Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yehia Fahim

    Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

  8. Accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, W.; Cooper, P.J.; Underwood, B.Y.; Peckover, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The essential elements of an analysis of the radiological consequences of accidental atmospheric releases from nuclear plant are identified and the modelling approaches currently used briefly outlined. For the model description attention is focused on the techniques used within the context of a probabilistic risk assessment. This is followed by a brief outline of current research and development work in the field, allowing an indication of the nature of the next generation of consequence assessment methods. (author)

  9. Sorghum root-system classification in contrasting P environments reveals three main rooting types and root-architecture-related marker-trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Londono, Sebastian; Kavka, Mareike; Samans, Birgit; Snowdon, Rod; Wieckhorst, Silke; Uptmoor, Ralf

    2018-02-12

    Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions. RSA phenotyping is a challenging task and essential for understanding root development. In this study, 19 traits describing RSA were analysed in a diversity panel comprising 194 sorghum genotypes, fingerprinted with a 90-k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and grown under low and high P availability. Multivariate analysis was conducted and revealed three different RSA types: (1) a small root system; (2) a compact and bushy rooting type; and (3) an exploratory root system, which might benefit plant growth and development if water, nitrogen (N) or P availability is limited. While several genotypes displayed similar rooting types in different environments, others responded to P scarcity positively by developing more exploratory root systems, or negatively with root growth suppression. Genome-wide association studies revealed significant quantitative trait loci (P system development on chromosomes SBI-02 and SBI-03. Sorghum genotypes with a compact, bushy and shallow root system provide potential adaptation to P scarcity in the field by allowing thorough topsoil foraging, while genotypes with an exploratory root system may be advantageous if N or water is the limiting factor, although such genotypes showed highest P uptake levels under the artificial conditions of the present study. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Validating accident consequence assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.; Kelly, G.N.; Nixon, W.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the predictions of participating codes for a range of postulated accidental releases and to assess the significance of any differences observed. Seven codes from various countries participated in the exercise: ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), MECA2 (Spain) and OSCAAR (Japan). They calculated a wide range of consequences, for example: collective doses, early and late health effects, economic costs and the effect of countermeasures on people and agriculture. In each case, the probability distributions predicted by the codes were compared. (author)

  11. The role of Main Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H Thomas R; Chabanet, Didier; Rakar, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    of the different chapters of the book are addressed in more detail in the academic papers, reports and publications available on the project website www.fp7-efeseiis.eu. Each chapter of the book briefly tackles one of the main subjects addressed during the research, as follows: - The first chapter presents......), in many countries the need emerged to understand the best methods to promote their establishment and continued success. In order to understand these issues, to contribute to the academic debate on SEs and to give useful policy advice on a truly enabling ecosystem, in November 2013 a consortium of 11...... organisations started an ambitious three-year research project covering 10 countries: Albania, Austria, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Serbia, Scotland and The Netherlands. The EFESEIIS research project had four main objectives: to identify the features of an “Enabling Eco-System for Social...

  12. Consequence Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Consequence reasoning is a major element for operation support system to assess the plant situations. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how Multilevel Flow Models can be used to reason about consequences of disturbances in complex engineering systems. MFM is a modelling methodology...... for representing process knowledge for complex systems. It represents the system by using means-end and part-whole decompositions, and describes not only the purposes and functions of the system but also the causal relations between them. Thus MFM is a tool for causal reasoning. The paper introduces MFM modelling...... syntax and gives detailed reasoning formulas for consequence reasoning. The reasoning formulas offers basis for developing rule-based system to perform consequence reasoning based on MFM, which can be used for alarm design, risk monitoring, and supervision and operation support system design....

  13. Recent flow regime and sedimentological evolution of a fluvial system as the main factors controlling spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater (Red River, Vietnam)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Larsen, F.; Jakobsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    sediments was partially eroded during the Holocene and covered by sand and clay deposited in fluvial environments. Sedimentary processes lead to the development of two flow systems. Shallow groundwater discharges either to the local surface water bodies or, in the areas where low permeable sediments...... isolating Pleistocene and Holocene aquifers were eroded, to the deep groundwater flow system discharging to Red River. Previously reported pattern of arsenic groundwater concentrations decreasing with an increasing sediment age is modified by the observed flow regime. Connection of the younger and older...

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Shaft Sealing System Compliance Submittal Design Report. Volume 1 and 2: Main report, appendices A, B, C, and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a shaft sealing system design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The system is designed to limit entry of water and release of contaminants through the four existing shafts after the WIPP is decommissioned. The design approach applies redundancy to functional elements and specifies multiple, common, low-permeability materials to reduce uncertainty in performance. The system comprises 13 elements that completely fill the shafts with engineered materials possessing high density and low permeability. Laboratory and field measurements of component properties and performance provide the basis for the design and related evaluations. Hydrologic, mechanical, thermal, and physical features of the system are evaluated in a series of calculations. These evaluations indicate that the design guidance is addressed by effectively limiting transport of fluids within the shafts, thereby limiting transport of hazardous material to regulatory boundaries. Additionally, the use or adaptation of existing technologies for placement of the seal components combined with the use of available, common materials assure that the design can be constructed

  15. ABCC6-mediated ATP secretion by the liver is the main source of the mineralization inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate in the systemic circulation-brief report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Robert S.; Duijst, Suzanne; Mahakena, Sunny; Sommer, Daniela; Szeri, Flóra; Váradi, András; Plomp, Astrid; Bergen, Arthur A.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Borst, Piet; van de Wetering, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in ABCC6 underlie the ectopic mineralization disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and some forms of generalized arterial calcification of infancy, both of which affect the cardiovascular system. Using cultured cells, we recently showed that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 6

  16. ABCC6-mediated ATP secretion by the liver is the main source of the mineralization inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate in the systemic circulation-brief report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Robert S; Duijst, Suzanne; Mahakena, Sunny; Sommer, Daniela; Szeri, Flóra; Váradi, András; Plomp, A.S.; Bergen, Arthur A; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Borst, Piet; van de Wetering, Koen

    OBJECTIVE: Mutations in ABCC6 underlie the ectopic mineralization disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and some forms of generalized arterial calcification of infancy, both of which affect the cardiovascular system. Using cultured cells, we recently showed that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Shaft Sealing System Compliance Submittal Design Report. Volume 1 and 2: Main report, appendices A, B, C, and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a shaft sealing system design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The system is designed to limit entry of water and release of contaminants through the four existing shafts after the WIPP is decommissioned. The design approach applies redundancy to functional elements and specifies multiple, common, low-permeability materials to reduce uncertainty in performance. The system comprises 13 elements that completely fill the shafts with engineered materials possessing high density and low permeability. Laboratory and field measurements of component properties and performance provide the basis for the design and related evaluations. Hydrologic, mechanical, thermal, and physical features of the system are evaluated in a series of calculations. These evaluations indicate that the design guidance is addressed by effectively limiting transport of fluids within the shafts, thereby limiting transport of hazardous material to regulatory boundaries. Additionally, the use or adaptation of existing technologies for placement of the seal components combined with the use of available, common materials assure that the design can be constructed.

  18. ONKALO - Main drawings in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    The first overall site characterisation programme for a Finnish repository of spent nuclear fuel was introduced in 1982. This programme already suggested that the site confirmation for a detailed repository design and safety assessment should include characterisation performed in an underground rock characterisation facility (URCF). This idea was confirmed during the detailed site characterisation. International views have also emphasised the importance of underground characterisation before the final decision to construct the repository is taken. The underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) is excavated at Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. ONKALO should be constructed to allow characterisation work for site confirmation without jeopardising long-term safety of the repository site. It should also be possible to link ONKALO later to the repository as to a part of it. The construction of ONKALO was started in 2004 and will be completed in 2014. The characterisation work has started in ONKALO and will focus on the disposal depth. In the main drawings stage, ONKALO was described at the level of detail needed for a construction permit in 2003. This meant description of the location, final structures and final systems. This summary report describes the development of design to updated main drawings in 2007 at the same level of detail (no temporary arrangements are described). The main changes are the added exhaust air shaft and advancing the controlled area's inlet air shaft to the ONKALO phase. Also the layout and the depth of the characterisation levels have been updated according to the current bedrock information. Some buildings on the surface will house sets of equipment directly connected with underground facility and this equipment is described in this report. No buildings or other equipment are described in this report, because they are not directly connected with the underground facility. The main element of ONKALO is a system of

  19. Consequences of radioactive deposition on aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suolanen, V.

    1994-12-01

    The publication concentrates on the analyses of the main effects of radioactive deposition on Nordic aquatic environments. A modelling approach is applied for predicting the temporal behaviour of concentrations in fish of inland freshwater ecosystems. The observed values are considered in parallel with the calculations. The time-integrated consequences, the radiation doses are estimated for the relatively significant dose pathways. After a preliminary study of various lake environments in Nordic countries, three representative examples of lake systems were selected for closer consideration: small forest lake, medium-sized forest lake and mountain lake. The effects of changes in the trophic levels of lakes are also tentatively accounted for. The results of the analyses indicate that the radiological consequences of shallow forest lakes are greater than those of mountain lakes which usually have shorter turnover times compared to forest lakes. In long-term consideration, the fish ingestion pathway may in general become important and, in addition to the external exposure, has a high contribution to the expected doses. (orig.) (8 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.)

  20. PASSI d'Argento (Silver Steps): the main features of the new nationwide surveillance system for the ageing Italian population, Italy 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contoli, Benedetta; Carrieri, Patrizia; Masocco, Maria; Penna, Luana; Perra, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Italy is particularly concerned by population ageing. The costs for society are substantial. In this context a national, representative surveillance system, Passi D'Argento (PDA), was implemented in 2009 to monitor "active aging" and health status in people aged over 64 and to develop preventive health programs to reduce frailty. PDA recruited a representative sample of 24 129 individuals (March 2012-January 2013) aged over 64 who were interviewed by trained staff using a standardized questionnaire. The PDA collects information about participation in society and employment, independent living, health conditions, safety and living environment. Indicator values are used to obtain population health profiles and to compare different LHUs' profiles within the same region or between different regions. The PDA surveillance system proved to be feasible and to be a powerful and innovative local and national tool for monitoring health status, frailty in Italy's elderly population and the essential levels of care currently provided to the elderly.

  1. Conceptual Design of Main Cooling System for a Fusion Power Reactor with Water Cooled Lithium-Lead Blanket. TW1-TRP-PPCS1, Deliverable 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natalizio, Antonio; Collen, Jan

    2002-06-01

    The HTS (Heat Transfer System) conceptual design developed for the PPCS (Power-Plant Conceptual Study) plant model is compliant with the single failure criterion - i.e., the failure of a single active component (e.g., pump) will not cause the reactor to shutdown. The system effective availability (capacity factor), however, is only marginally better than that of the SEAFP design, as the number of loops could not be decreased further, due to coolant inventory limitations. The PPCS Plant Model A has about 70 % more fusion power than the SEAFP model. Therefore, keeping the same number of loops as in the SEAFP model would have implied a 70 % larger inventory. To improve plant availability and safety, however, the number of blanket and first wall loops have been reduced from eight to six, implying a further increase in loop inventory of about 25 %. For these and other reasons, the coolant inventory, at risk from a loss-of-coolant accident, has increased significantly, relative to the SEAFP design ({approx}130 vs. 50 m{sup 3}). The proposed heat transport system conceptual design meets, or exceeds, all project specifications.

  2. Addressing the main challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century – Contributions of the conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Guzović, Zvonimir; Piacentino, Antonio; Schlör, Holger; Lund, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards energy systems based on variable renewables; Electrifying the transport and some industrial processes; Liberalizing and extending the energy markets; Integrating energy sectors to Smart Energy Systems; Making the cities and communities smart; Diversifying the energy sources; and Building more biorefineries. Presenting the contributions of selected conference papers published in the special issues of leading scientific journals (including all the papers from the current Energy special issue), this review demonstrates the capacity of the Conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems for generation of knowledge which could serve as the centrepiece of a pertinent response to those challenges. - Highlights: • Top ten challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century identified. • Selected SDEWES contributions analysed against the identified challenges. • The role of SDEWES as knowledge generator towards addressing the identified challenges credibly demonstrated.

  3. Detector of Optical Vortices as the Main Element of the System of Data Transfer: Principles of Operation, Numerical Model, and Influence of Noise and Atmospheric Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Aksenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed of optical vortex topological charge detection along with a design of a corresponding detector. The developed technique is based on measurements of light field intensity. Mathematical model simulating performance of the detector is described in the paper, and results of numerical experiments are presented which illustrate recognition of a vortex in a turbulent medium and in the presence of amplitude and phase noise in the registered radiation. Influence of shifts of the system optical axis on precision of registration is also considered in the paper.

  4. Is multiset consequence trivial?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Paoli, F.

    First Online : 08 September 2016 (2018) ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : contraction-free logics * multiset consequence * substructural logics * multiple conclusions Subject RIV: BA - Gen eral Mathematics Impact factor: 0.855, year: 2016

  5. Acromegaly : irreversible clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Monica Johanna Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term consequences of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in patients cured from acromegaly for a mean duration of 17 years. Regarding the considerable prevalence of diverse morbidity in these patients, during the active phase of the disease but even

  6. Is multiset consequence trivial?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Paoli, F.

    First Online: 08 September 2016 (2018) ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : contraction-free logics * multiset consequence * substructural logics * multiple conclusions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.855, year: 2016

  7. Boundaries, Thresholds, and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl R.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights issues in the debate concerning Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) special education legislation as it relates to student discipline and incarcerated juveniles. Focuses on assessment issues and thresholds for diagnosable conditions. Looks at debates surrounding IDEA and some of the consequences of new legislation. (RJM)

  8. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-05-24

    Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP) and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD), by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS.

  9. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Mantuanelli Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD, by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronuclei (MN frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS.

  10. Using IEC 61850 GOOSE Service for Adaptive ANSI 67/67N Protection in Ring Main Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Silos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are electricity networks that use digital technology to co-ordinate the needs and capabilities of all generators, grid operators, end users and electricity market stakeholders in such a way that it can optimize asset utilization and operation while maintaining system reliability, resilience and stability. However, Smart Grids are increasingly proposing a much more distributed architecture with the integration of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs that demand different control and protection schemes. In that sense, the implementation of standards such as IEC 61850 and the integration with Ethernet-based communication networks provide novel tools to manage DER efficiently. This paper analyses the potential usage and benefits of ANSI 67/67N protection in combination with Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE communication service, from the standard 61850 of the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC, for providing adaptive network protection, specifying the configuration and implementation and exposing the obtained results.

  11. The initial development of the 'Cancer Caregiving Tasks, Consequences and Needs Questionnaire' (CaTCoN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Grønvold, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    To develop a questionnaire for cancer patients' informal caregivers, measuring the caregiving tasks and consequences, and the caregivers' needs with a main focus on the interaction with the health care professionals. Such an instrument is needed to evaluate the efforts directed towards caregivers...... in the health care system....

  12. Survey of energy efficiency programs for motor systems in the industry and the main results of PROCEL Info; Levantamento dos programas de eficiencia energetica para sistemas motrizes na industria e os principais resultados do PROCEL Info

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (GPESE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Recursos Hidricos, Energeticos e Ambientais. Grupo de Planejamento Energetico e Sistemas Eletricos; Menezes, Taciana de V.; Perrone, Fernando Pinto Dias; Lepetitgaland, Karla Kwiatkowski [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article has as objective to compare the actual energy efficiency programs for the motor driven systems of Brazil, United States and European Community. This comparison will be restricted to the action of each program, considering that the countries present distinct economical, political and social aspects. The main results of PROCEL Info will be presented. (author)

  13. Ilex paraguariensis and its main component chlorogenic acid inhibit fructose formation of advanced glycation endproducts with amino acids at conditions compatible with those in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Yasmin; Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have previously shown that Ilex paraguariensis extracts have potent antiglycation actions. Associations of excess free fructose consumption with inflammatory diseases have been proposed to be mediated through in situ enteral formation of fructose AGEs, which, after being absorbed may contribute to inflammatory diseases via engagement of RAGE. In this proof of principle investigation we show fluorescent AGE formation between amino acids (Arg, Lys, Gly at 10-50mM) and fructose (10-50mM) under time, temperature, pH and concentrations compatible with the digestive system lumen and its inhibition by Ilex paraguariensis extracts. Incubation of amino acids with fructose (but not glucose) leads to a time dependent formation of AGE fluorescence, already apparent after just 1h incubation, a time frame well compatible with the digestive process. Ilex paraguariensis (mate tea) inhibited AGE formation by 83% at 50μl/ml (pacid and cholorogenic acid were as potent as aminoguanidine-a specific antiglycation agent: IC50 of 0.9mM (pacids at times and concentrations plausibly found in the intestines. The reaction is inhibited by mate tea and its individual phenolics (caffeic acid and chlorogenic acids). The study provides the first evidence for the proposed mechanism to explain epidemiological correlations between excess fructose consumption and inflammatory diseases. Enteral fructose-AGE formation would be inhibited by co-intake of Ilex paraguariensis, and potentially other beverages, fruits and vegetables that contain comparable concentrations of phenolics as in IP (mate tea). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Road map for district heating. The role of district heating in the energy system. Main report; Denmark; Roadmap for fjernvarmen. Fjernvarmens rolle i energisystemet. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, M.; Aabye Moeller, A.; Eggert, A.; Bjerregaard, M. (Fjernvarmens Udviklingscenter, AArhus (Denmark)); Dyrelund, A. (Ramboell, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); OErsted Pedersen, H. (Ea Energianalyse, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); Lund, H. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years many studies of how Denmark can be fossil free by 2050 it is agreed that district heating will play a crucial role. District heating is an important factor of phasing out fossil fuels in an energy-and cost-effective way. But the future energy supply without fossil fuels poses new requirements for district heating. In the future, district heating shall provide energy for low-energy houses, have low distribution losses and use a variety of heat sources such as geothermal, solar, waste, surplus heat, CHP and various biomass con-version processes. In addition, it must all be done in an energy efficient way and in an active interaction with production of electricity and electricity consumption and, through integration of electricity from wind, solar and wave power. Low temperature, use of heat pumps and the interaction with electricity and biomass will be keywords. It is not only in Denmark we will need an active development of future technologies and systems. Large parts of Europe and many other parts of the world need the same development, and today Denmark has a significant export in the market - an export that has risen sharply, despite the recent economic recession. There is thus a double need to actively promote the development of future district heating technologies. We will partly need the technology development to realize the goal of a fossil free society and secondly because it is necessary to maintain and expand the export. This report contains a number of proposals for concrete actions - a roadmap for the development of district heating. The project is anchored at the District Energy Development Center that will work for an implementation of the concrete project ideas after the project completion. There is a need to increase the activity level for development of district heating. There is therefore a need to ensure financing of this development. We suggest that this can be done by creating an opportunity for a more sustained funding, for

  15. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment.

  16. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  17. Cognitive Consequences of Trilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Scott R; Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks. Results were considered within a framework of cognitive plasticity, which took into account several factors that may affect plasticity, including the age of learning a third language and the extent to which additional cognitive resources are needed to learn the third language. A mixed pattern of results was observed. In some cases, such as cognitive reserve in older adults, trilinguals showed larger advantages than bilinguals. On other measures, for example inhibitory control in children and younger adults, trilinguals were found to exhibit the same advantages as bilinguals. In still other cases, like memory generalization in infants and toddlers, trilinguals did not demonstrate the advantages seen in bilinguals. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of how learning a third language affects the cognitive abilities that are modified by bilingual experience, and the first to propose a cognitive plasticity framework that can explain and predict trilingual-bilingual differences. This research shows that the cognitive consequences of trilingualism are not simply an extension of bilingualism's effects; rather, trilingualism has distinct consequences, with theoretical

  18. The Consequences of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -to-face interaction • Language contact in society and in the world, and social hierarchies between languages: consequences of (mobility driven) language spread, and the ensuing processes of redefining linguistic differences and identities: language competition, language promotion and language discrimination...... • The complex relationship between language and culture: how can we envisage mobility and language spread across cultural areas without conceptualizing language as culturally neutral? (cp. the frequent conceptualization of English as culturally neutral) • Language contact in the individual: multiple language...

  19. The multi-period solution of a linear system of equations with the operator of differentiation along the main diagonal of the space of independent variables and delayed arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartabanov, Zhaishylyk A.

    2017-09-01

    A new approach to the study of periodic by all independent variables system of equations with a differentiation operator solutions along the direction of the main diagonal and with delayed arguments is proposed. The essence of the approach is to reduce the study of the multi-periodic solution of a linear inhomogeneous system to the construction of a solution of a simpler linear differential-difference system on the basis of the method of variating arbitrary constants of the complete integral of a homogeneous system. An integral representation of the unique multiperiodic solution of an inhomogeneous system is presented, expressed by a functional series of terms given by multiple repeated integrals. An estimate is given for the norm of a multi-periodic solution.

  20. Psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyankov, I.

    2009-01-01

    The psychological consequences caused by eventual nuclear terrorist act are believed to be some of the most: serious. in this article are presented the issues concerning psychological effects as psychological suffering, alteration of risk estimation, changes of individual and social behavior, etc. The most common psychological consequences as a result of the most popular large-scale nuclear accidents in Chernobyl, TMI (USA), Goiania (Brazil) are described. Some of the main factors, such as sex, age, health status, social status and etc, are analyzed. These factors determine the expression of psychological reactions provoked by nuclear accidents or eventual act of nuclear terrorism. In addition, the main precautions to cope with psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism are listed