WorldWideScience

Sample records for system bf cyg

  1. Individual Photoelectric UBV Observations of the Massive Early-Type Binary System V729 Cyg (Cyg OB2 No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsiashvili, M. I.; Chargeishvili, K. B.

    2017-06-01

    Individual UBV photoelectric observations of the massive eclipsing binary system V729 Cyg, located in the stellar association Cyg OB2, are presented. The spread in the data points exceeds the measurement error. This is clearly the result of active physical processes in the system.

  2. On the parameters of the system Cyg X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Estimations are given of the mass of the supergiant HDE 226868 in the system Cyg X-1 which are made on the basis of interpretation of spectroscopic observations by means of the model-atmosphere method. The importance is pointed out of accounting for deviations from LTE in calculations of equivalent widths and profiles of hydrogen lines by which the acceleration of gravity force on the surface of the optical star of system is determined. Supergiant mass determined in that way turns out to be M*=(16±3)M sun . Provided the zone of formation of the emission He II λ4686 A must be localized near the supergiant surface, the least value of inclination of system orbit plane is estimated: i>or approx. 35 deg. The possibility is pointed out of variability of equivalent widths of He II emission λ4686 A, which is connected with eclipse of the ''spot'', i.e. of area of localization of this emission. It is noted that for large angles (i>or approx. 35 deg) of orbit inclinaion, the mass of the degenerate star in the system Cyg X-1 does not exceed 10 M sun

  3. SEARCH FOR CHAOS IN NEUTRON STAR SYSTEMS: IS Cyg X-3 A BLACK HOLE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Dutta, Jayanta; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2010-01-01

    The accretion disk around a compact object is a nonlinear general relativistic system involving magnetohydrodynamics. Naturally, the question arises whether such a system is chaotic (deterministic) or stochastic (random) which might be related to the associated transport properties whose origin is still not confirmed. Earlier, the black hole system GRS 1915+105 was shown to be low-dimensional chaos in certain temporal classes. However, so far such nonlinear phenomena have not been studied fairly well for neutron stars which are unique for their magnetosphere and kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO). On the other hand, it was argued that the QPO is a result of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic effects in accretion disks. If a neutron star exhibits chaotic signature, then what is the chaotic/correlation dimension? We analyze RXTE/PCA data of neutron stars Sco X-1 and Cyg X-2, along with the black hole Cyg X-1 and the unknown source Cyg X-3, and show that while Sco X-1 and Cyg X-2 are low dimensional chaotic systems, Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 are stochastic sources. Based on our analysis, we argue that Cyg X-3 may be a black hole.

  4. Very High Energy Emission from the Binary System Cyg X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Sinitsyna, V. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Cyg X-3 is actively studied in the entire range of the electromagnetic spectrum from the radio band to ultrahigh energies. Based on the detection of ultrahigh-energy gamma-ray emission, it has been suggested that Cyg X-3 could be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic-ray particles in the Galaxy. We present the results of long-term observations of the Cygnus X-3 region at energies 800 GeV-100 TeV by the SHALON mirror Cherenkov telescope. In 1995 the SHALON observations revealed a new Galactic source of very high energy gamma-ray emission coincident in its coordinates with the microquasar Cyg X-3. To reliably identify the detected source with Cyg X-3, an analysis has been performed and an orbital period of 4.8 h has been found, which is a signature of Cyg X-3. A series of flares in Cyg X-3 at energies >800 GeV and their correlation with the activity in the X-ray and radio bands have been observed. The results obtained in a wide energy range for Cyg X-3, including those during the periods of relativistic jet events, are needed to find the connection and to understand the different components of an accreting binary system.

  5. [Reclaimed water quality control for landscape with GFH + BF treatment system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Li, Na; Zhao, Xuan; Chang, Jiang

    2011-05-01

    In order to control reclaimed water quality for landscape, GFH + BF treatment system was studied. In the experiment, GFH effluent was the inlet water of artificial lake, and BF was used as core process for contaminants removal and lake water supplying. The results showed that GFH could reduce TP, DOM and N very effectively, the removal rates of TP, NH4+ -N, NO2- -N, DOC, UV254 and color were 89.8%, 23.3%, 58.7%, 17.6%, 26.1% and 41.2%, respectively. After GFH effluent flowing into artificial lake, the concentrations of TP and NH4+ -N increased slightly. NO2- -N and NO3- -N were nitrogen source for the growth of cyanobacteria and the removal rates were 68.3% and 84.9% , respectively. Bank filtration removed 33.0% TP, 39.5% NH4+ -N, 42.2% NO3- -N, 26.0% TN, 24.5% DOC, 12.1% UV254 and 33.0% color for landscape water. In conclusion, "GFH + BF" treatment system reduced contaminants greatly from reclaimed water and landscape water, and lake water cycle was achieved, which could avoid eutrophication of landscape effectively.

  6. Semidetached systems of spectral type B: BF Aurigae,. mu. /sup 1/ Scorpii, and V Puppis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D.P.; Darland, J.J.; Leung, K.

    1979-02-01

    The photoelectric observations of BF Aur by Mannino, Bartolini, and Biolchini, ..mu../sup 1/ Sco by Stibbs, and V Pup by Hogg were analyzed with the Wilson and Devinney approach. All three systems were found to have semidetached configurations, and improved absolute dimensions are presented. V Pup and ..mu../sup 1/ Sco are presently in the slow phase of case A mass exchange; the primaries are still on the main sequence. The primary of ..mu../sup 1/ Sco does not appear underluminous as has been reported, while the primary of V Pup may be underluminous by over 1 magnitude. BF Aur is one of the very few systems with the semidetached component being the more massive one. Due to uncertainties in the spectroscopic orbit a unique model cannot be presented, but one with a mass ratio of 0.83 is the most consistent with the observations. Since all three systems are evolved, they have no direct relevance to the theory of stellar fission. Based on a survey of 13 close binaries it is found that classical approaches cannot determine whether such systems are detached, semidetached, or in contact.

  7. On the nature of the symbiotic star BF Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajewska, J.; Mikolajewski, M.; Kenyon, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy of the symbiotic binary BF Cyg obtained during 1979-1988 is discussed. This system consists of a low-mass M5 giant filling about 50 percent of its tidal volume and a hot, luminous compact object similar to the central star of a planetary nebula. The binary is embedded in an asymmetric nebula which includes a small, high-density region and an extended region of lower density. The larger nebula is formed by a slow wind ejected by the cool component and ionized by the hot star, while the more compact nebula is material expelled by the hot component in the form of a bipolar wind. The analysis indicates that disk accretion is essential to maintain the nuclear burning shell of the hot star. 84 refs

  8. Verification of Gamma-ray Sensitivity for BF3 Neutron Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yu Sun; Cho, Jin Bok; Lyou, Seok Jean

    2016-01-01

    The BF3(Boron Tri-Fluorides) gas filled neutron detector(hereafter BF3 Detector) is commonly used for nuclear reactor’s startup channel due to its relatively high neutron efficiency and good discrimination against gamma-ray backgrounds. In order to measure how much this gamma-ray will affect on BF3 neutron detector performance in view of gamma noise discrimination, Multi-Channel Analyzer(MCA) is utilized for spectrum based signal analysis. The pre-test of BF3 Detector should be performed in an area where the ionization does not exceed 2.5 micro Gy/Hr(Ref.1). In this paper, the discrimination level (Voltage Unit) is verified by experimentally measurement if that discrimination level is acceptable within the criteria or not before installation. The maximum discrimination level, so called LLD, is determined by experimentally measurement. This BF3 Detector (LND20372) is insensitive under 540 micro Gy/Hr of gamma ray and 0.3V of LLD could cut off a background and gamma induced signal in a laboratory. MCA could be a convenient tool for spectrum analysis of signals that induced from gamma ray and a time saving tool rather than oscilloscope investigation due to its function to integrate all input signals at a sudden duration

  9. BF*F allotype of the alternative pathway of complement: A marker of protection against the development of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picceli, V F; Skare, T L; Nisihara, R M; Nass, F R; Messias-Reason, I T; Utiyama, S R R

    2016-04-01

    B factor (BF) from the alternative complement pathway seems to participate in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). To study the allotypic variability of BF in SLE and their associations with clinical and autoantibodies profile. BF allotypes were determined by high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis, under constant cooling, followed by immunofixation with anti-human BF antibody, in 188 SLE patients and 103 controls. Clinical and serological data were obtained from medical examination and records. No significant differences of BF variants between patients and controls were found, neither in relation to epidemiologic or clinical manifestations. Associations of phenotype BF SS07 and allotype BF*S07 were found with anticardiolipin IgM (aCl-IgM) antibodies (p = 0.014 and p = 0.009 respectively), but not with aCl-IgG, lupus anticoagulant (LA), anti β2GPI or clinical APS. A significant decrease in BF*F allotype (p = 0.043) and BF SF phenotype (p = 0.018) was detected in patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies as a whole (aCl-IgG, aCl-IgM, LA and anti β2GPI). There is a link between phenotype BF SS07 and allotype BF*S07 with aCl-IgM in SLE patients; BF*F allotype could be considered a marker of protection against the development of antiphospholipid antibodies in these patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. 59 Cyg and OT Gem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-07-23

    Jul 23, 2009 ... rotation of ∼0.80. The radius of the Hα emission region for 59 Cyg is estimated to be Rd/R∗ ∼ 10.0, assuming a Keplerian disk, suggesting that it has a ... found to have a fractional critical rotation of ∼0.30, suggesting that it is either a slow rotator or viewed ...... We thank the support staff at 1.0 m telescope,.

  11. Correlated radio/X-ray behaviour of Cyg X-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tudose, V.; Miller-Jones, J.; Fender, R.; Paragi, Z.; Sakari, C.; Szostek, A.; Garrett, M.; Dhawan, V.; Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.; van der Klis, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to test the recently proposed classification of the radio/X-ray states of the X-ray binary Cyg X-3, we present an analysis of the radio data available for the system at much higher spatial resolutions than used for defining the states. The radio data set consists of archival VLBA data at 5

  12. On chirality transfer in electron donor-acceptor complexes. A prediction for the sulfinimine···BF3 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Joanna E; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz

    2012-01-01

    Stabilization energies of the electron donor-acceptor sulfinimine···BF(3) complexes calculated at either the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ or the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level do not allow to judge, whether the N- or O-atom in sulfinimine is stronger electron-donor to BF(3) . The problem seems to be solvable because chirality transfer phenomenon between chiral sulfinimine and achiral BF(3) is expected to be vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) active. Moreover, the bands associated with the achiral BF(3) molecule are predicted to be the most intense in the entire spectrum. However, the VCD band robustness analyses show that most of the chirality transfer modes of BF(3) are unreliable. Conversely, variation of VCD intensity with change of intermolecular distance, angle, and selected dihedrals between the complex partners shows that to establish the robustness of chirality transfer mode. It is also necessary to determine the influence of the potential energy surface (PES) shape on the VCD intensity. At the moment, there is still no universal criterion for the chirality transfer mode robustness and the conclusions formulated based on one system cannot be directly transferred even to a quite similar one. However, it is certain that more attention should be focused on relation of PES shape and the VCD mode robustness problem. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. IrC2/Bf - A yeast and Borrelia responsive component of the complement system from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Šíma, Radek; Franta, Zdeněk; Hönig-Mondeková, Helena; Grunclová, Lenka; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Jalovecká, Marie; Kopáček, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Ticks possess components of a primordial complement system that presumably play a role in the interaction of the tick immune system with tick-borne pathogens and affect their transmission. Here we characterized a novel complement component, tagged as IrC2/Bf, from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, the principal vector of Lyme disease in Europe. IrC2/Bf is a multi-domain molecule composed of 5-7 CCP modules, varied by alternative splicing, followed by a von Willebrand factor A domain and a C-terminal trypsin-like domain. The primary structure and molecular architecture of IrC2/Bf displays the closest homology to the C3-complement component convertases described in horseshoe crabs. The irc2/bf gene is mainly expressed in the tick fat body associated with the trachea and, as determined by western blotting, the protein is present in low amounts in tick hemolymph. Expression of irc2/bf mRNA was significantly up-regulated in response to the intra-hemocoelic injection of the yeast Candida albicans and all tested Borrelia sp. strains (B. burgdorferi NE5264, B. burgdorferi CB26, B. garinii MSLB, B. afzelii CB43), but was not affected by injection of model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria or the aseptic injection control. In-line with these results, RNAi-mediated silencing of irc2/bf inhibited phagocytosis of B. afzelii and C. albicans but not the other bacteria. Tissue expression profiles, specific responses to microbial challenges, and patterns of phagocytic phenotypes upon RNAi silencing observed for IrC2/Bf match well with the previously reported characteristics of I. ricinus C3-related molecule 1 (IrC3-1). Therefore we presume that IrC2/Bf functions as a convertase in the same complement activation pathway protecting ticks against yeast and Borrelia infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Introducing BF++: AC++ framework for cognitive bio-feedback systems design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, L; Babiloni, F; Cincotti, F; Salinari, S; Marciani, M G

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed the issue of building-up a framework for the realization of several cognitive bio-feedback (CBF) systems. It minimizes the programming effort and maximizes the efficiency and the cross-platform portability so that it can be used with many platforms (either software or hardware). A generic CBF system was decomposed into six modules: acquisition, kernel, feedback rule, patient feedback, operator user interface and persistent storage. The way in which these modules interact was defined by immutable software interfaces in a way that allows to completely substitute a module without the need to modify the others. Three Brain Computer Interface engines were developed with less than 40 lines of C++ code each. They can also be used under virtually any platform that supports an ANSI C++ compiler. A framework for the implementation of a wide range of CBF systems was developed. Compared to the other approaches that are described in the literature, the proposed one is the most efficient, the most protable across different platforms, the most generic and the one that allows the realization of the cheapest final systems.

  15. Modeling of High pressure core spray system (HPCS) with TRAC-BF1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel M, E. Del.

    1993-01-01

    In this work we present a model of the HPCS system of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV) which consist of a condensate storage tank (TAC) a vertical surge pipe (TOS), implemented by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), and the suppression pool (PSP), as well as the associated piping and valves for the HPCS pump suction, to study the system under transient state conditions. The analysis results show that the implemented surge pipe, allows a normal HPCS pump start without automatic inadvertented transfer of the HPCS pump suction from the condensate storage tank to the suppression pool. We briefly mention some problems found during the stimulation and their solution, further we point out some deficiencies of the code for this type of studies. The present model can be used to stimulate other transients with only minor modifications of it. (Author)

  16. Electron collisions with BF{sup +}: bound and continuum states of BF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, K [Department of Mathematics, Scottish Church College, 1 and 3 Urquhart Sq., Kolkata 700006 (India); Schneider, I F [Laboratoire Ondes et Milieux Complexes (LOMC) CNRS-FRE-3102, Universite du Havre, 25, rue Philippe Lebon, BP 540, 76058 Le Havre (France); Tennyson, Jonathan, E-mail: j.tennyson@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower St., London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-14

    Rydberg and continuum states of the BF molecule are studied as a function of geometry using an electron collision formalism in the framework of the R-matrix method. Up to 14 BF{sup +} target states are used in a close-coupling expansion and bound states are searched for as negative energy solutions of the scattering calculation. Potential energy curves and quantum defects are obtained for the excited states of BF. Resonance positions and widths are also calculated for Feshbach resonances in the system. The data obtained can be used to model dissociative recombination of the BF{sup +} molecular ion.

  17. New results from long-term observations of Cyg X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.S.; Boldt, E.A.; Serlemitsos, P.J.; Kaluzienski, L.J.

    1975-08-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6 day modulation of the 3- to 6-keV x-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April--May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the x-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April--May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which was not mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member

  18. New results from long-term observations of Cyg X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.S.; Boldt, E.A.; Serlemitsos, P.J.; Kaluzienski, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6 day modulation of the 3 to 6 keV x-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April to May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the x-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April to May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which had not yet been mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member

  19. The use of AgNO3/BF3.Et2O and HNO3/Al(H2PO43 systems in the synthesis of aryl thiosulfonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Anjos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The thiosulfonates are a class of compounds of great industrial importance. It is worth noting that the aryl thiosulfonates present several biological activities. The synthesis of these compounds is known in the literature although; only a few make use of thiols as the sole starting material. This work shows the use of two reaction systems employed for the synthesis of nitrophenols, AgNO3/BF3.EtO2 (I and HNO3/Al(H2PO43 (II, as an alternative to the preparation of aryl thiosulfonates. The use of system I led to higher yields (72-76% then system II (56-61%. These methodologies have not been reported before for the synthesis of these compounds and the products were obtained with good purity.

  20. Asteroseismology of the solar analogs 16 Cyg A and B from Kepler observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metcalfe, T.; Chaplin, W.J.; Appourchaux, T.; Garcia, R.A.; Basu, S.; Brandão, I.; Creevey, O.L.; Deheuvels, S.; Doğan, G.; Eggenberger, P.; Karoff, C.; Miglio, A.; Stello, D.; Yıldız, M.; Çelik, Z.; Antia, H.M.; Benomar, O.; Howe, R.; Régulo, C.; Salabert, D.; Stahn, T.; Bedding, T.R.; Davies, G.R.; Elsworth, Y.; Gizon, L.; Hekker, S.; Mathur, S.; Mosser, B.; Bryson, S.T.; Still, M.D.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Gilliland, R.L.; Kawaler, S.D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Ibrahim, K.A.; Klaus, T.C.; Li, J.

    2012-01-01

    The evolved solar-type stars 16 Cyg A and B have long been studied as solar analogs, yielding a glimpse into the future of our own Sun. The orbital period of the binary system is too long to provide meaningful dynamical constraints on the stellar properties, but asteroseismology can help because the

  1. Asteroseismology of the Solar Analogs 16 Cyg A and B from Kepler Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Chaplin, W. J.; Appourchaux, T.

    2012-01-01

    The evolved solar-type stars 16 Cyg A and B have long been studied as solar analogs, yielding a glimpse into the future of our own Sun. The orbital period of the binary system is too long to provide meaningful dynamical constraints on the stellar properties, but asteroseismology can help because...

  2. Systemic Responses of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii Following Exposure to the Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin-BF Imply Multiple Intracellular Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunbao Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cathelicidin-BF, derived from the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus, is a typically cationic, amphiphilic and α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP with 30 amino acids that exerts powerful effects on multidrug-resistant (MDR clinical isolates, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but whether it targets plasma membranes or intracellular targets to kill bacteria is still controversial. In the present study, we demonstrated that the disruption of bacterial membranes with high concentrations of cathelicidin-BF was the cause of bacterial death, as with conventional antibiotics at high concentrations. At lower concentrations, cathelicidin-BF did not cause bacterial plasma membrane disruption, but it was able to cross the membrane and aggregate at the nucleoid regions. Functional proteins of the transcription processes of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were affected by sublethal doses of cathelicidin-BF, as demonstrated by comparative proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification and subsequent gene ontology (GO analysis. Analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes showed that cathelicidin-BF mainly interferes with metabolic pathways related to amino acid synthesis, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, metabolism of purine and energy supply, and other processes. Although specific targets of cathelicidin-BF must still be validated, our study offers strong evidence that cathelicidin-BF may act upon intracellular targets to kill superbugs, which may be helpful for further efforts to discover novel antibiotics to fight against them.

  3. Asteroseismic estimate of helium abundance of 16 Cyg A, B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The helium ionization zone in a star leaves a characteristic signature on its oscillation frequencies, which can be used to estimate the helium content in the envelope of the star. We use the oscillation frequencies of 16 Cyg A and B, obtained using 2.5 years of Kepler data, to estimate the envelope helium abundance of these stars. We find the envelope helium abundance to lie in the range 0.231–0.251 for 16 Cyg A and 0.218–0.266 for 16 Cyg B.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RVs and R-band obs. of the EB* V541 Cyg (Torres+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, G.; McGruder, C. D.; Siverd, R. J.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Pepper, J.; Stevens, D. J.; Stassun, K. G.; Lund, M. B.; James, D.

    2017-10-01

    V541 Cyg was observed spectroscopically at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) with the Digital Speedometer (DS) on the 1.5m Tillinghast reflector at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins (AZ). We gathered 72 exposures between 2000 July and 2004 October (R~35000). Observations of V541 Cyg were obtained between 2007 May and 2014 November in the course of the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope transiting planet program (KELT). The passband of these observations resembles that of a very broad R-band filter. The magnitudes given in tables 2 and 3 are instrumental (not referring to a standard photometric system). (3 data files).

  5. PHOTOSPHERIC VARIATIONS OF THE SUPERGIANT γ Cyg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, David F.

    2010-01-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the supergiant γ Cyg (F8 Iab) taken between 2000 and 2008 consistently show strongly reversed-C-shaped bisectors for all unblended spectral lines. Small-amplitude variations in radial velocity and line shapes occur in an irregular manner with time scales ∼100 days and longer. The radial velocities occasionally show changes as large as 2 km s -1 , but much smaller changes are going on continuously. Differential line bisectors show shape changes and Doppler displacement characteristic of radial expansion and contraction. These might arise from non-periodic radial pulsation-like motions or from the appearance of giant convection cells that occupy most of the visible hemisphere of the star. Line-depth ratios are correlated with the line shifts on a seasonal basis and indicate temperature changes ranging up to ∼15 K, with larger temperature occurring during times of most rapid contraction.

  6. V1331 Cyg- An outburst of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arpita; Stecklum, Bringfried; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2013-07-01

    FU Orionis objects are a class of young stars with large brightness outbursts in the optical. The outbursts lead to strong increase in luminosity due to enhanced accretion and dust removal by the accompanying wind. All FUors have large infrared excess emission from circumstellar dust, and some drive bipolar jets and outflows. V1331 Cyg is a pre-outburst FUor candidate: At distance of ~ 550 pc, at the border of the dark cloud LDN 981. It is associated with an arc-like reflection nebula. It has two nested rings of 9000 and 3300 AU radii respectively, encircled by an expanding CO ring. The HST-WFPC2 imaging was done in 2000 and 2009. The first epoch images were obtained for F606W and F814W filters. The second epoch observations were deeper with one more filter, F450W introduced. Wind-driven expansion has an imprint on the colour profile of the ring, the study of which will be the next step to do. There is a missing ring section to the NW not due to extinction by the dark cloud but represent a shadow, originating close to the star. Our PSF -subtracted planetary camera frames disclosed a knot at ~0.4" from the star in the same direction. Also our analysis of archival Subaru coronagraphic H-band imaging reveals scattered light associated with this feature which was not seen before. Both findings suggest increased height of the matter at distances of ~300 AU which casts the shadow. This might be related to planet formation in the circumstellar disk. The scattering knot is associated with two spiral arms which stretch further out. The UKIDSS JHK images show faint reddened stars in the gap, confirming the presence of dense matter from probably both the protostellar environment and the molecular cloud. Herschel and SCUBA data confirm that V1331 Cyg is the most luminous object in the surroundings, ONLY possible young stellar candidate responsible for the outflow. Narrow-band imaging in the Hα and [SII] line revealed a bipolar outflow, presumed to have a substantial

  7. Period Variations for the Cepheid VZ Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirorattanakul, Krittanon; Engle, Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Wells, Mark; Laney, Clifton D.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-12-01

    The Cepheid Period-Luminosity law is a key rung on the extragalactic distance ladder. However, numerous Cepheids are known to undergo period variations. Monitoring, refining, and understanding these period variations allows us to better determine the parameters of the Cepheids themselves and of the instability strip in which they reside, and to test models of stellar evolution. VZ Cyg, a classical Cepheid pulsating at ˜4.864 days, has been observed for over 100 years. Combining data from literature observations, the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) transit survey, and new targeted observations with the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak, we find a period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0642 ± 0.0018 s yr-1. However, when only the recent observations are examined, we find a much higher period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0923 ± 0.0110 s yr-1. This higher rate could be due to an apparent long-term (P ≈ 26.5 years) cyclic period variation. The possible interpretations of this single Cepheid’s complex period variations underscore both the need to regularly monitor pulsating variables and the important benefits that photometric surveys such as KELT can have on the field. Further monitoring of this interesting example of Cepheid variability is recommended to confirm and better understand the possible cyclic period variations. Further, Cepheid timing analyses are necessary to fully understand their current behaviors and parameters, as well as their evolutionary histories.

  8. The progenitor of Nova Cygni 2006 (=V2362 Cyg)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeghs, D.; Greimel, R.; Drew, J.; Irwin, M.; Gaensicke, B.; Groot, P.J.; Knigge, C.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the detection of the likely progenitor to Nova Cygni 2006 = V2362 Cyg (IAUC #8697, #8698, ATel #792) using images from the INT Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS; http://www.iphas.org). The field containing the classical nova was observed as part of our galactic plane survey on Aug. 3rd

  9. Optical flickering of the symbiotic star CH Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, K. A.; Martí, J.; Zamanov, R.; Dimitrov, V. V.; Kurtenkov, A.; Sánchez-Ayaso, E.; Bujalance-Fernández, I.; Latev, G. Y.; Nikolov, G.

    2018-02-01

    Here we present quasi-simultaneous observations of the flickering of the symbiotic binary star CH Cyg in U, B and V bands. We calculate the flickering source parameters and discuss the possible reason for the flickering cessation in the period 2010-2013.

  10. Using hydrophilic ionic liquid, [bmim]BF4-ethylene glycol system as a novel media for the rapid synthesis of copper nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manika Dewan

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a novel method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. We utilize the charge compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF(4 in conjunction with ethylene glycol for providing electro-steric stabilization to copper nanoparticles prepared from copper sulphate using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formed copper nanoparticles showed extended stability over a period of one year. Copper nanoparticles thus prepared were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction measurements (pXRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and quasi elastic light scattering (QELS techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD analysis revealed relevant Bragg's reflection for crystal structure of copper. Powder X-ray diffraction plots also revealed no oxidized material of copper nanoparticles. TEM showed nearly uniform distribution of the particles in methanol and confirmed by QELS. Typical applications of copper nanoparticles include uses in conductive films, lubrication and nanofluids. Currently efforts are under way in our laboratory for using these nanoparticles as catalysts for a variety of organic reactions.

  11. Using hydrophilic ionic liquid, [bmim]BF4-ethylene glycol system as a novel media for the rapid synthesis of copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Manika; Kumar, Ajeet; Saxena, Amit; De, Arnab; Mozumdar, Subho

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. We utilize the charge compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF(4) in conjunction with ethylene glycol for providing electro-steric stabilization to copper nanoparticles prepared from copper sulphate using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formed copper nanoparticles showed extended stability over a period of one year. Copper nanoparticles thus prepared were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction measurements (pXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quasi elastic light scattering (QELS) techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD) analysis revealed relevant Bragg's reflection for crystal structure of copper. Powder X-ray diffraction plots also revealed no oxidized material of copper nanoparticles. TEM showed nearly uniform distribution of the particles in methanol and confirmed by QELS. Typical applications of copper nanoparticles include uses in conductive films, lubrication and nanofluids. Currently efforts are under way in our laboratory for using these nanoparticles as catalysts for a variety of organic reactions.

  12. Is There a Substellar Object Orbiting the Solar-like Stable Contact Binary V2284 Cyg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-J.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Zhang, B.; Zhao, S.-Q.; Yu, J.

    2017-12-01

    V2284 Cyg is a neglected W UMa-type binary star for photometric investigations. Monitored by the Kepler Space Telescope from 2009 to 2013, its light curves are continuously stable, suggesting that both components are inactive during this time interval. Based on the short-cadence observations, we determined the photometric solutions by using the 2013 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. These parameters reveal that V2284 Cyg is a W-type system with a degree of contact factor of f = 39.23% and a mass ratio of q = 2.90. Meanwhile, hundreds of times of minimum light were obtained and applied to analyze the orbital period changes. In the O-C diagram, a small-amplitude cyclic oscillation (A 3 = 0.00030 days and T 3 = 2.06 years) superimposed on a secular decreasing was found. The continuous decreasing may be a result from the mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one. With the long-term decreasing of the orbital period, this binary will evolve into a deeper contact system. Because the light curve is stable, the cyclic variation is plausibly explained as the light-travel time effect (LTTE) due to the presence of an additional body. The mass of the companion is {M}3\\sin i\\prime =0.036(+/- 0.003) {M}⊙ . If the orbital plane inclination is a random distribution, it is a brown dwarf with 66.7% probability. Therefore, the companion of V2284 Cyg is possibly the first candidate of the brown dwarf orbiting around contact binary, where both component are sharing a common convective envelope.

  13. The Skyrme model predictions for the ${\\bf 27}_{J=3/2}$ mass spectrum and the ${\\bf 27}_{3/2}$-$\\bar{\\bf 10}$ mass splittings

    CERN Document Server

    Duplancic, G; Trampetic, J

    2004-01-01

    The ${\\bf 27}_{J=3/2}$-plet mass spectrum and the ${\\bf 27}_{3/2}$-$\\bar{\\bf 10}$ mass splittings are computed in the framework of the minimal SU(3)$_f$ extended Skyrme model. As functions of the Skyrme charge $e$ and the SU(3)$_f$ symmetry breaking parameters the predictions are presented in tabular form. The predicted mass splitting ${\\bf 27}_{3/2}$-$\\bar{\\bf 10}$ is the smallest among all SU(3)$_f$ baryonic multiplets.

  14. What Powers the 2006 Outburst of the Symbiotic Star BF Cygni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Skopal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BF Cygni is a classical symbiotic binary. Its optical light curve occasionally shows outbursts of the Z And-type, whose nature is not well understood. During the 2006 August, BF Cyg underwent the recent outburst, and continues its active phase to the present. The aim of this contribution is to determine the fundamental parameters of the hot component in the binary during the active phase. For this purpose we used a high- and low-resolution optical spectroscopy and the multicolour UBV RCIC photometry. Our photometric monitoring revealed that a high level of the star’s brightness lasts for unusually long time of > 7 years. A sharp violet-shifted absorption component and broad emission wings in the Hα profile developed during the whole active phase. From 2009, our spectra revealed a bipolar ejection from the white dwarf (WD. Modelling the spectral energy distribution (SED of the low-resolution spectra showed simultaneous presence of a warm (< 10 000 K disk-like pseudophotosphere and a strong nebular component of radiation (emission measure of ~1061 cm−3. The luminosity of the hot active object was estimated to > 5−8×103 Lʘ. Such high luminosity, sustained for the time of years, can be understood as a result of an enhanced transient accretion rate throughout a large disk, leading also to formation of collimated ejection from the WD.

  15. NIR observations of V404 Cyg with PANIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. W.; Knigge, C.; Meisenheimer, K.; Ibanez, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    We report on NIR photometry of the black hole X-ray transient, V404 Cyg during its current outburst (GCN #17929). The source was observed between 27 Jun 22:47 UT - 29 Jun UT 02:28 with the PANoramic Near Infrared Camera (PANIC) on the 2.2m telescope at the Centro Astron & oacute;mico Hispano-Alem & aacute;n (CAHA) on Calar Alto, Spain.

  16. Coordinated observations of Cyg X-1 (V1357 Cyg) from 1994 1998 in the commonwealth of independent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karitskaya, E. A.; Voloshina, I. B.; Goranskii, V. P.; Grankin, K. N.; Dzhaniashvili, É. B.; Ezhkova, O. V.; Kochiashvili, N. T.; Kumsiashvili, M. I.; Kusakin, A. V.; Lyutyi, V. M.; Mel'Nikov, S. Yu.; Metlova, N. V.

    2001-05-01

    We present observations of Cyg X-1 obtained during the coordinated international campaign “Optical Monitoring of Unique Astrophysical Objects,” carried out in observatories of CIS countries (Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine) in 1994 1998. The data are presented as a single set, taking into account systematic differences between individual data sets. In total, 2258 UBVR observations were obtained during 407 nights. The observations were carried out simultaneously with X-ray observations at 2 10 keV (ASM/RXTE) and 20 100 keV (BATSE/CGRO), and also with radio observations (in 1997). Our optical data partially overlap the soft X-ray outburst in 1996 (JD 2450200-320) and subsequent hard state, which displayed various types of increases and decreases of the X-ray flux. The 1996 outburst was not accompanied by any optical brightening. However, an orbital light curve corresponding to a tidally distorted star was superimposed on individual flares and brightness dips. For example, in two independent sets of observations, an intense optical flare with amplitude above the quiescent level was detected on JD 2450988, preceding the X-ray flare on JD 2451000-51040. In this time interval, the system displayed chaotic intrinsic variability on a timescale of a day, and flares and brightness dips with amplitude lasting up to several days. The variability power spectra display a predominant secondary period at 147d±2d, which is half the 294d “precessional” period previously found at both X-ray and optical wavelengths. We show that the 147d period dominates in X-ray data (ASM/RXTE) in the quiescent state, or after subtraction of the 1996 outburst radiation from the X-ray light curve. This period is also close to the period of 142d±7d derived from recent radio data. Cross-correlation analysis confirms a significant correlation between the long-term optical and 2 10 keV X-ray variations (without the soft X-ray outburst), with the X-ray variations lagging by

  17. On the Binary Nature of Massive Blue Hypergiants: High-resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy Suggests That Cyg OB2 12 is a Colliding Wind Binary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W.-R.; Shenar, T.; Sander, A. A. C.; Todt, H.; Hainich, R. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Huenemoerder, D. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ignace, R., E-mail: lida@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37663 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The blue hypergiant Cyg OB2 12 (B3Ia{sup +}) is a representative member of the class of very massive stars in a poorly understood evolutionary stage. We obtained its high-resolution X-ray spectrum using the Chandra observatory. PoWR model atmospheres were calculated to provide realistic wind opacities and to establish the wind density structure. We find that collisional de-excitation is the dominant mechanism depopulating the metastable upper levels of the forbidden lines of the He-like ions Si xiv and Mg xii. Comparison between the model and observations reveals that X-ray emission is produced in a dense plasma, which could reside only at the photosphere or in a colliding wind zone between binary components. The observed X-ray spectra are well-fitted by thermal plasma models, with average temperatures in excess of 10 MK. The wind speed in Cyg OB2 12 is not high enough to power such high temperatures, but the collision of two winds in a binary system can be sufficient. We used archival data to investigate the X-ray properties of other blue hypergiants. In general, stars of this class are not detected as X-ray sources. We suggest that our new Chandra observations of Cyg OB2 12 can be best explained if Cyg OB2 12 is a colliding wind binary possessing a late O-type companion. This makes Cyg OB2 12 only the second binary system among the 16 known Galactic hypergiants. This low binary fraction indicates that the blue hypergiants are likely products of massive binary evolution during which they either accreted a significant amount of mass or already merged with their companions.

  18. Photometric and Spectroscopic studies of Ap star Cyg V1584

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Z Jassur

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available   UBV photometric observations of Ap star Cyg V1584 have been presented. To find the rotational period of the star, a sinusoidal wave function has been fitted to the noramal points of UBV filters. Assuming that a circular hot spot located at the magnetic pole of the star is responsible for the observed light variations, both physical an geometrical parameters of the spot have been determined. Finally, the angle between the magnetic and the rotational axis has been calculated from combining the spectroscopic and photometric data and the magnetic structure of the star has been discussed.

  19. Enhanced Iron and Selenium Uptake in Plants by Volatile Emissions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BF06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs released by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are involved in promoting growth and triggering systemic resistance (ISR in plants. Importantly, the release of VOCs by some PGPR strains confers improved plant uptake of nutrient elements from the soil. However, the underlying mechanisms of VOCs-regulated nutrient acquisition remain elusive. In this study, VOCs were extracted and identified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain BF06 using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. BF06 VOCs exposure significantly promoted the growth and photosynthesis of Arabidopsis plants. To explore how microbial VOCs stimulate growth in plants, gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to BF06 VOCs were examined using transcriptomic analyses. In screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs, most upregulated DEGs were found to be related to amino acid transport, iron (Fe uptake and homeostasis, and sulfate transport. Furthermore, BF06 VOCs significantly enhanced Fe absorption in plants under Fe-limited conditions. However, when nitric oxide (NO synthesis was inhibited, BF06 VOCs exposure could not substantially augment Fe acquisition in plants under alkaline stress, indicating that VOCs-mediated plant uptake of Fe was required for induction of root NO accumulation. In addition, BF06 VOCs exposure led to a marked increase in some genes encoding for sulfate transporters, and further increased Se accumulation in plants. Intriguingly, BF06 VOCs exposure failed to increase Se uptake in sultr1;2 mutants, which may indicate that high-level transcription of these sulfate transporters induced by BF06 VOCs was essential for enhancing Se absorption by plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated the potential of VOCs released by this strain BF06 to increase Fe and Se uptake in plants.

  20. Short-term variability of dwarf nova SS Cyg during outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, I; Metlov, V; Rovithis-Livaniou, H

    2009-01-01

    Here we report the results of CCD observations of classical dwarf nova SS Cyg carried out with the two 60-cm telescopes in Crimea during the last years. These observations cover a few outbursts in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Power spectrum analysis of our CCD data clearly shows the existence of rapid periodic oscillations in the light curve of SS Cyg at the stage of decline after maximum. CCD observations of SS Cyg in autumn 2006 outburst revealed oscillations with the two periods 10 s and 76 s, in November 2007 - with 41 s period and in January 2008 with 98 s. We interpret detected variations as quasi-periodic oscillations.

  1. Short-term variability of dwarf nova SS Cyg during outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshina, I; Metlov, V; Rovithis-Livaniou, H, E-mail: vib@sai.msu.r [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Athens University, Zagrafos 15784, Athens (Greece)

    2009-06-01

    Here we report the results of CCD observations of classical dwarf nova SS Cyg carried out with the two 60-cm telescopes in Crimea during the last years. These observations cover a few outbursts in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Power spectrum analysis of our CCD data clearly shows the existence of rapid periodic oscillations in the light curve of SS Cyg at the stage of decline after maximum. CCD observations of SS Cyg in autumn 2006 outburst revealed oscillations with the two periods 10 s and 76 s, in November 2007 - with 41 s period and in January 2008 with 98 s. We interpret detected variations as quasi-periodic oscillations.

  2. High pressure BF3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Masaru; Gotoh, Eiichiro; Kodama, Masahiro

    1978-01-01

    Plateau and pulse characteristics of high pressure BF 3 proportional counter were investigated in terms of counter geometry and gas pressure, in order to develop a small-sized and high-sensitive one. Description is given of the construction of improved gas filling equipment with filling procedure. A tentative brass counter, 67 mm in cathode diameter, 40 micron in anode diameter, filled to 1.2 kg/cm 2 revealed characteristics of 150 volts plateau range, the slope of which being 3% per 100 volts at the operation voltage of around 3.3 kV, and 103% full width at half-maximum in the pulse height distribution. (auth.)

  3. Cyg X-3: Not seen in high-energy gamma rays by COS-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, W.; Bennett, K.; Bignami, G. F.; Bloemen, J. B. G. M.; Buccheri, R.; Caraveo, P. A.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Oezel, M. E.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Strong, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    COS-B had Cyg X-3 within its field of view during 7 observation periods between 1975 and 1982 for in total approximately 300 days. In the skymaps (70 meV E 5000 meV) of the Cyg-X region produced for each of these observations and in the summed map, a broad complex structure is visible in the region 72 deg approximately less than 1 approximately less than 85 deg, approximately less than 5 deg. No resolved source structure is visible at the position of Cyg X-3, but a weak signal from Cyg X-3 could be hidden in the structured gamma-ray background. Therefore, the data has been searched for a 4.8 h timing signature, as well as for a source signal in the sky map in addition to the diffuse background structure as estimated from tracers of atomic and molecular gas.

  4. Curcuminoid–BF2 complexes: Synthesis, fluorescence and optimization of BF2 group cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Weiss

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight difluoroboron complexes of curcumin derivatives carrying alkyne groups containing substituents have been synthesized following an optimised reaction pathway. The complexes were received in yields up to 98% and high purities. Their properties as fluorescent dyes have been investigated. Furthermore, a strategy for the hydrolysis of the BF2 group has been established using aqueous methanol and sodium hydroxide or triethylamine.

  5. Development and performance research of array BF3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhangkui; Tang Zhengyuan; Xu Rongkun; Liu Hangang; Li Bojun; Hu Mengchun; Fan Juan

    2005-01-01

    The array BF 3 detector was designed and developed for measuring DT pulse neutron yields. The detection sensitivity of detector was calibrated by a series of neutron measurement on the accelerator. The relative measuring data and its uncertainty from array BF 3 detection were obtained and compared with that from other measuring methods. Experiment data verifies the reliability of array BF 3 detector to be used for measuring DT pulse neutron. (author)

  6. Observation of short period fluctuation of CygX-1 with balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Michio; Sakurai, Takahisa; Uchida, Masayoshi

    1977-01-01

    CygX-1 presents very complex short period fluctuation of X-ray, therefore the hard X-ray was especially observed in 1972 and 1973 with large balloons, and the data were analyzed. This short period fluctuation and energy spectra of CygX-1 in the normal and flare time bands were compared. The observing apparatuses consisted of the 3 in diameter NaI detector and a high pressure proportional counter. The observing method is to turn the gondora alternately to the directions of source (ON) and background (OFF). As for the data analysis, the events at ON and OFF in the observation data in 1972 and 1973 were plotted for time interval. The background component is in agreement with Poisson's distribution, but source component is not. This difference for Poisson's distribution means the behavior of CygX-1. The power spectrum was analyzed, and the strong power density was observed at 5.4 x 10 -2 Hz in ON, but such power density was not observed in OFF. Accordingly this is presumed to be caused by CygX-1. The events for time interval in flare time are shown. The rise of about 2.9 σ exists at 80 msec. The count rates were compared for photon energy in the normal and flare times. The short period fluctuation of hard X-ray from CygX-1 deviates from Poisson's distribution and is different in the normal and flare times. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. Timing Analysis of V404 Cyg during Its Brightest Outburst with INTEGRAL/SPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodi, J.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    The outburst of V404 Cyg during the summer of 2015 reached unparalleled intensities at X-ray and soft gamma-ray energies with fluxes > 50 Crab in the 20-50 keV energy band. To date, studies in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray energy domain have focused primarily on the energy spectra. In this work, a timing analysis has been performed with INTEGRAL/SPI data in the 20-300 keV energy range for INTEGRAL revolution 1557, which corresponds to the brightest flare of V404 Cyg (on 2015 June 26). The power spectra are fit with broken power-law and multi-Lorentzian models and compared with previously reported results of V404 Cyg flaring activity from 1989 and 2015. Also, we took advantage of the good signal-to-noise ratio obtained above 70 keV to quantify the timing/fast-variability properties of the source as a function of energy. We then point out similarities of V404 Cyg with the black hole transient V4641 Sgr. Like V4641 Sgr, we found that the power spectra of V404 Cyg during high flux periods did not possess the expected flat-top feature typically seen in a hard spectral state. Interpretations are proposed in the framework of the fluctuating-propagation model to explain the observed properties.

  8. Short-term variability of Cyg X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, M.; Doi, K.; Ogawara, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The short-term X-ray variability distinguishes Cyg X-1, which is the most likely candidate for a black hole, from other X-ray sources. The present status of our knowledge on this short-term variation, mainly from the UHURU, the MIT and the GSFC observations, is reviewed. The nature of impulsive variations which compose the time variation exceeding the statistical fluctuation is discussed. There are indications that the energy spectrum of large pulses is harder than the average spectrum, or that the large pulses are the characteristics of the hard component of the spectrum if it is composed of two, soft and hard, components. Features of the variations may be partly simulated by the superposition of random shot-noise pulses with a fraction of a second duration. However, the autocorrelation analysis and the dynamic spectrum analysis indicate that the correlation lasts for several seconds and in the variation are buried some regularities which exhibit power concentrations in several frequency bands; 0.2-0.3, 0.4-0.5, 0.8, 1.2-1.5 Hz. There are several possible interpretations of these results in terms of; e.g. (a) a mixture of shot-noise pulses with two or more constant durations, (b) the shape of the basic shot-noise pulse, (c) bunching of the pulses, (d) superposition of wave-packets or temporal oscillations. But we have not yet reached any definite understandings in the nature of the variabilities. The substructure of the fluctuations on a time scale of milliseconds suggested by two investigations is also discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Short-term variability of CYG X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, M.; Doi, K.; Ogawara, Y.; Takagishi, K.; Wada, M.

    1975-01-01

    The short-term X-ray variability distinguishes Cyg X-1, which is the most likely candidate of the black hole, from other X-ray sources. Present status of our knowledge on this short-term variation mainly from the Uhuru, the MIT and the GSFC observations is reviewed. The nature of impulsive variations which compose the time variation exceeding the statistical fluctuation is discussed. There are indications that the energy spectrum of large pulses is harder than the average spectrum or the large pulses are the characteristics of the hard component of the spectrum if it is composed of two, soft and hard, components. Features of the variations may be partly simulated by the superposition of random short-noise pulses with a fraction of a second duration. However, the autocorrelation analysis and the dynamic spectrum analysis indicate that the correlation lasts for several seconds and in the variation buried are some regularities which exhibit power concentrations in several frequency bands; 0.2 -- 0.3, 0.4 -- 0.5, 0.8, 1.2 -- 1.5 Hz. There are several possible interpretation of these results in terms of: e.g. a) a mixture of short-noise pulses with two or more constant durations, b) the shape of the basic shot-noise pulse, c) bunching of the pulses, d) superposition of wave-packets or temporal oscillations. But we have not yet reached any definite understandings in the nature of the variabilities. The sub-structure of the fluctuations on a time scale of milli-second suggested by two investigations is also discussed. (auth.)

  10. High-energy gamma-rays from Cyg X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Malyshev, Denys; Chernyakova, Maria; Pooley, Guy G.

    2017-11-01

    We have obtained a firm detection of Cyg X-1 during its hard and intermediate spectral states in the energy range of 40 MeV-60 GeV based on observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, confirming the independent results at ≥60 MeV of a previous work. The detection significance is ≃8σ in the 0.1-10 GeV range. In the soft state, we have found only upper limits on the emission at energies ≳0.1 MeV. However, we have found emission with a very soft spectrum in the 40-80 MeV range, not detected previously. This is likely to represent the high-energy cut-off of the high-energy power-law tail observed in the soft state. Similarly, we have detected a γ-ray soft excess in the hard state, which appears to be of similar origin. We have also confirmed the presence of an orbital modulation of the detected emission in the hard state, expected if the γ-rays are from Compton upscattering of stellar blackbody photons. However, the observed modulation is significantly weaker than that predicted if the blackbody upscattering were the dominant source of γ-rays. This argues for a significant contribution from γ-rays produced by the synchrotron self-Compton process. We have found that such strong contribution is possible if the jet is strongly clumped. We reproduce the observed hard-state average broad-band spectrum using a self-consistent jet model, taking into account all the relevant emission processes, e± pair absorption and clumping. This model also reproduces the amplitude of the observed orbital modulation.

  11. Identification of a new HIV type 1 BF intersubtype circulating recombinant form (CRF44_BF) in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Elena; Ríos, Maritza; Fernández, Jorge; Pérez-Alvarez, Lucía; Nájera, Rafael; Thomson, Michael M

    2010-07-01

    HIV-1 BF intersubtype recombinants are frequent in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil, where among a high diversity of BF unique recombinant forms (URFs), eight circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) have been characterized. Here, we describe a new one, designated CRF44_BF, identified in HIV-1 samples from Chile. In a previous report, where partial pol sequences of 136 HIV-1 infections of Chilean subjects were analyzed, a phylogenetic cluster of HIV-1 recombinant BF viruses from 10 individuals, with coincident intersubtype recombination points, was detected. One virus of this cluster had been characterized along its near full-length genome. A second one, from an epidemiologically unlinked HIV-1-infected subject, is described here. Both genomes share identical mosaic structures, consisting of a predominantly subtype F1 genome with three fragments of subtype B. Coincident breakpoints and phylogenetic clustering of the newly identified CRF44_BF with CRF12_BF, CRF17_BF, and CRF38_BF support a common origin of different CRF_BFs identified in Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile.

  12. MCNP to study the BF3 detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Vinicius A.; Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Fedorenko, Giuliana G.; Coelho, Paulo R.P.; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2011-01-01

    One of the main parameters to monitor on the employment of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is the thermal neutron flux. It can be performed by different techniques such as the activation analysis and the detection by a Boron Trifluoride detector (BF 3 ). BF 3 detector is a real time neutron flux detector which retrieves results in real time. It is however necessary to study the efficiency of the BF 3 detectors when they are exposed to fields of different neutron energy spectra. BF 3 is known to have high efficiency for thermal neutrons (with energy up to 0.5 eV) due the presence of 10 B atoms in the detector. However, one must also understand how this detector interacts with other neutron energy ranges (epithermal and fast). This work shows the experiment and a set of associated simulations carried out in order to evaluate the BF 3 detector efficiency dependence on neutron energy spectra. A set of experiments was conducted in which a BF 3 detector was submitted to different mixed fields (field containing gamma rays and neutrons). These fields were generated by the interposition of paraffin layers with distinct thicknesses between the Am-Be source and the BF 3 detector. The BF 3 detector responses were recorded according to the number of paraffin planes used. MCNP simulations were also performed to study the detector responses on such experimental conditions. It has been possible to achieve the intended goal of evaluating the BF 3 detector response to different mixed irradiation fields. (author)

  13. The role of acetone in the [omim][BF4]-mediated adverse effects on tissues of mussels, human lymphocytes and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Goutas, Andreas; Karyda, Anna; Efthimiou, Ioanna; Antonopoulou, Maria; Drosopoulou, Elena; Vlastos, Dimitrios; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2017-07-05

    The present study investigated [omim][BF 4 ]-mediated adverse effects on biological models widely used in toxicological studies. Specifically, mussels of the genus Mytilus, human lymphocytes and fruit flies of the species Drosophila melanogaster, were exposed to [omim][BF 4 ] at concentrations ranging from micro- to milligrams per liter, with or without the presence of acetone as a carrier solvent and thereafter [omim][BF 4 ]-mediated adverse effects were analyzed appropriately (stress indices, such as lipid peroxidation byproducts, acetylcholinesterase/AChE activity and micronucleus/MN formation frequency, in mussel gills, Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus/CBMN assay and SMART test in human lymphocytes and fruit flies respectively). LC-MS-TOF analysis was also performed for elucidating [omim][BF 4 ] mode of action in the presence of the carrier solvent. The results showed the toxic potential of [omim][BF 4 ], as well as acetone's ability to attenuate [omim][BF 4 ]-mediated toxicity in almost all cases, probably due to the significant effect of acetone on the hydrophilic-lipophilic character and the viscosity of [omim][BF 4 ], as well as its interaction and permeability on the cell membranes. The slight involvement of acetone in the attenuation of [omim][BF 4 ]-mediated genotoxic effects on D. melanogaster could be due to species feeding experimental conditions, thus favoring the induction of antioxidant defense system against the [omim][BF 4 ]-mediated effects in all cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: V444 Cyg BV differential light curves (Eris+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, F. Z.; Ekmekci, F.

    2015-04-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic characteristics of the WN5+O6 binary system, V444 Cyg, were studied. The Wilson-Devinney (WD) analysis, using new BV observations carried out at the Ankara University Observatory, revealed the masses, radii, and temperatures of the components of the system as MWR=10.64M⊙, MO=24.68M⊙, RWR=7.19R⊙, RO=6.85R⊙, TWR=31000K, and TO=40000K, respectively. It was found that both components had a full spherical geometry, whereas the circumstellar envelope of the WR component had an asymmetric structure. The O-C analysis of the system revealed a period lengthening of 0.139+/-0.018s/yr, implying a mass loss rate of (6.76+/-0.39)x10-6M_⊙/yr for the WR component. Moreover, 106 IUE-NEWSIPS spectra were obtained from NASA's IUE archive for line identification and determination of line profile variability with phase, wind velocities and variability in continuum fluxes. The integrated continuum flux level (between 1200-2000Å) showed a mild and regular increase from orbital phase 0.00 up to 0.50 and then a decrease in the same way back to phase 0.00. This is evaluated as the O component making a constant and regular contribution to the system's UV light as the dominant source. The CIV line, originating in the circumstellar envelope, had the highest velocity while N IV line, originating in deeper layers of the envelope, had the lowest velocity. The average radial velocity calculated by using the CIV line (wind velocity) was found as 2326km/s. (4 data files).

  15. Observation of Cyg X-1 with the K-10-11 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Tsunenari; Matsuoka, Masaru; Miyamoto, Shigenori; Oda, Minoru; Ogawara, Yoshiaki

    1976-01-01

    The X-ray emission mechanism owing to the mass accretion to compact objects is one of cosmic X-ray sources. White dwarf, neutron star and black hole are considered as the compact objects. The mass of Cyg X-1 has been estimated to be about 10 times as large as the mass of the sun, and Cyg X-1 is only one prominent candidate for the black hole. The observation of the X-ray from Cyg C-1 provides the useful information on the physical state of the black hole. Particularly, the X-ray from Cyg X-1 showed the characteristic time variations which have not been detected in other X-ray sources. They are the intensive time variation over the duration of msec to day, the pulsation of about 1 msec breadth, and the transition between two X-ray emission states. The X-ray detector abroad the K-10-11 rocket is the proportional counter filled with 90% Xe and 10% CO 2 , and covers the 1.5-2.5 kev X-ray energy range. The total detector area is about 950 cm 2 . The observed result showed the characteristic intensive time variation and the msec pulsation. The data analysis is now in progress, and the preliminary result will be reported. (Yoshimori, M.)

  16. Monitoring of Cyg X-3 giant flare with Medicina and the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Giroletti, M.; Righini, S.; Orlati, A.; Iacolina, M. N.; Navarrini, A.; Buttu, M.; Migoni, C.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Vargiu, G. P.; Bachetti, M.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Loru, S.; Marongiu, M.

    2016-09-01

    Following the detection of Cyg X-3 entering in an ultra soft X-ray state, a forthcoming giant flare was predicted by Trushkin et al. (ATel #9416). In fact, a significant radio flux increase was detected three weeks later, on 14-16 September 2016 (ATel #9502).

  17. Light Curve Periodic Variability of Cyg X-1 using Jurkevich Method ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Jurkevich method is a useful method to explore periodic- ity in the unevenly sampled observational data. In this work, we adopted the method to the light curve of Cyg X-1 from 1996 to 2012, and found that there is an interesting period of 370 days, which appears in both low/hard and high/soft states.

  18. Spectral Measurements of Cyg X-3: A Thermal Source Embedded in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The attempts at unified model fitting to explain the spectral variations in Cyg X-3 suggest equally probable fits with a combination of an absorbed blackbody and a separately absorbed power law with an expo- nential cut-off or a composite of absorbed free-free emission with a power law hard X-ray component ...

  19. INTEGRAL/OMC optical photometric observations of multiple flaring from V404 Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, A.; Alfonso-Garzon, J.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Rodriguez, J.; Cadolle Bel, M.

    2015-06-01

    A target of opportunity INTEGRAL observation (PI Rodriguez, ATel #7702) of the black-hole candidate V 404 Cyg, currently in outburst phase (ATel #7646) and showing large variability at different wavelengths, was executed in revolutions 1555 (20-22 June 2015) and 1556 (23-25 June 2015).

  20. Light Curve Periodic Variability of Cyg X-1 using Jurkevich Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Jurkevich method is a useful method to explore periodicity in the unevenly sampled observational data. In this work, we adopted the method to the light curve of Cyg X-1 from 1996 to 2012, and found that there is an interesting period of 370 days, which appears in both low/hard and high/soft states. That period may be ...

  1. The Quantum Description of BF Model in Superspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Dwivedi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the BRST symmetric four-dimensional BF theory, a topological theory, containing antisymmetric tensor fields in Landau gauge and extend the BRST symmetry by introducing a shift symmetry to it. Within this formulation, the antighost fields corresponding to shift symmetry coincide with antifields of standard field/antifield formulation. Furthermore, we provide a superspace description for the BF model possessing extended BRST and extended anti-BRST transformations.

  2. Swift observations of V404 Cyg during the 2015 outburst: X-ray outflows from super-Eddington accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, S. E.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Beardmore, A. P.; Sanna, A.; Page, K. L.; Fender, R.; Altamirano, D.; Charles, P.; Giustini, M.; Knigge, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Oates, S.; Osborne, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    The black hole (BH) binary V404 Cyg entered the outburst phase in 2015 June after 26 yr of X-ray quiescence, and with its behaviour broke the outburst evolution pattern typical of most BH binaries. We observed the entire outburst with the Swift satellite and performed time-resolved spectroscopy of its most active phase, obtaining over a thousand spectra with exposures from tens to hundreds of seconds. All the spectra can be fitted with an absorbed power-law model, which most of the time required the presence of a partial covering. A blueshifted iron-Kα line appears in 10 per cent of the spectra together with the signature of high column densities, and about 20 per cent of the spectra seem to show signatures of reflection. None of the spectra showed the unambiguous presence of soft disc-blackbody emission, while the observed bolometric flux exceeded the Eddington value in 3 per cent of the spectra. Our results can be explained assuming that the inner part of the accretion flow is inflated into a slim disc that both hides the innermost (and brightest) regions of the flow, and produces a cold, clumpy, high-density outflow that introduces the high absorption and fast spectral variability observed. We argue that the BH in V404 Cyg might have been accreting erratically or even continuously at Eddington/super-Eddington rates - thus sustaining a surrounding slim disc - while being partly or completely obscured by the inflated disc and its outflow. Hence, the largest flares produced by the source might not be accretion-driven events, but instead the effects of the unveiling of the extremely bright source hidden within the system.

  3. The Radio Light Curve of the Gamma-Ray Nova in V407 CYG: Thermal Emission from the Ionized Symbiotic Envelope, Devoured from Within by the Nova Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Krauss, Miriam I.; Rupen, Michael P.; Nelson, Thomas; Roy, Nirupam; Sokoloski, Jennifer L.; Mukai, Koji; Munari, Ulisse; Mioduszewski, Amy; Weston, Jeninfer; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present multi-frequency radio observations of the 2010 nova event in the symbiotic binary V407 Cygni, obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and spanning 1.45 GHz and 17.770 days following discovery. This nova.the first ever detected in gamma rays.shows a radio light curve dominated by the wind of the Mira giant companion, rather than the nova ejecta themselves. The radio luminosity grewas the wind became increasingly ionized by the nova outburst, and faded as the wind was violently heated from within by the nova shock. This study marks the first time that this physical mechanism has been shown to dominate the radio light curve of an astrophysical transient. We do not observe a thermal signature from the nova ejecta or synchrotron emission from the shock, due to the fact that these components were hidden behind the absorbing screen of the Mira wind. We estimate a mass-loss rate for the Mira wind of .Mw approximately equals 10(exp -6) Solar mass yr(exp -1). We also present the only radio detection of V407 Cyg before the 2010 nova, gleaned from unpublished 1993 archival VLA data, which shows that the radio luminosity of the Mira wind varies by a factor of 20 even in quiescence. Although V407 Cyg likely hosts a massive accreting white dwarf, making it a candidate progenitor system for a Type Ia supernova, the dense and radially continuous circumbinary material surrounding V407 Cyg is inconsistent with observational constraints on the environments of most Type Ia supernovae.

  4. Possible Reasons for the Slow Rotation of BF Ori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Possible reasons for the very low projected rotation velocity of BF Ori compared to other UX Ori stars are discussed. The hypothesis of a close companion that slows down the star's rotation by a tidal interaction is examined. Based on a theory of synchronization and modern models of evolution, the interaction is calculated numerically for different masses of the companion and values of the semi-major axis. It is shown that in order to obtain the projected velocity observed for BF Ori, the companion must have a mass greater than 0.5M⊙ . Such a large companion should have been discovered observationally. It is suggested that the low rotation velocity of BF Ori is more likely to be related to the distribution of the angular momentum of a protostellar cloud between the angular momentum of the star and the orbital angular momentum of a low-mass companion.

  5. Trace analysis of aerosol bound particulates and noble gases at the BfS in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieringer, J.; Schlosser, C.; Sartorius, H.; Schmid, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) performs trace analysis measurements in both the frameworks of the German Integrated Measuring and Information system as well as of the International Monitoring System for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Therefore, different kinds of measurements of aerosol bound radionuclides as well as of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere are performed. BfS as coordinating laboratory for trace analysis is responsible for the quality control. A quality assurance programme was set up with German institutions and expanded to European laboratories. The existing quality assurance programme of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation for measurements of aerosol bound radionuclides will be extended for noble gas measurements. Applied methods, achieved measurement results and the different kinds of quality assurance are presented and discussed.

  6. Trace analysis of aerosol bound particulates and noble gases at the BfS in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, J; Schlosser, C; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2009-05-01

    The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) performs trace analysis measurements in both the frameworks of the German Integrated Measuring and Information system as well as of the International Monitoring System for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Therefore, different kinds of measurements of aerosol bound radionuclides as well as of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere are performed. BfS as coordinating laboratory for trace analysis is responsible for the quality control. A quality assurance programme was set up with German institutions and expanded to European laboratories. The existing quality assurance programme of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation for measurements of aerosol bound radionuclides will be extended for noble gas measurements. Applied methods, achieved measurement results and the different kinds of quality assurance are presented and discussed.

  7. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The progress report submitted by Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz reveals that this federal radiation protection agency is not only entrusted with the fulfillment of the federal administrative tasks imposed by law but engages in applications-oriented research regarding the operational, metrological and health-related aspects of radiation protection, regarding nuclear safety and radioactive waste management. In addition, BfS takes care of public-relations tasks. The reports submitted by the BfS departments are completed by summaries of the main research results. (DG) [de

  8. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merced Montesinos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.

  9. The hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during the transition in November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, M.; Maurus, H.; Urbach, R.

    1976-01-01

    Some observations are reported of the hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during a transition to the high state in November 1975, made with a balloon-borne X-ray detector. The range covered was 25 to 150 keV. The data obtained appeared to confirm the characteristic spectral time variation, and suggested a single power law spectrum from 3 to 80 keV, with an increasing spectral index during the upward transition to the high state. A power spectrum is expected if it is assumed that the universe Compton effect is the basic mechanism that produces the hard X-ray tail of Cyg X-1. Spectral time variation may be caused by a varying intensity of an inner soft photon source within a stable hot cloud. (U.K.)

  10. MASTER OPTICAL POLARIZATION VARIABILITY DETECTION IN THE MICROQUASAR V404 CYG/GS 2023+33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipunov, Vladimir M.; Kornilov, V.; Vlasenko, D. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Department, Leninskie gory, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetsky pr., 13, Moscow, 119234 (Russian Federation); Krushinskiy, V. [Kourovka Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin ave. 51, Ekaterinburg 620000 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S. [Applied Physics Institute, Irkutsk State University, 20, Gagarin blvd, 664003, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Tlatov, A. [Kislovodsk Solar Station of the Main (Pulkovo) Observatory RAS, P.O. Box 45, ul. Gagarina 100, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation); Rebolo Lopez, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelyan, G.; Lodieu, N. [Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, C/Via Lctea, s/n E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Buckley, D. A. H. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Sergienko, Yu.; Gabovich, A. [Blagoveschensk State Pedagogical University, Lenin str., 104, Amur Region, Blagoveschensk 675000 (Russian Federation); and others

    2016-12-20

    On 2015 June 15, the Swift space observatory discovered that the Galactic black hole candidate V404 Cyg was undergoing another active X-ray phase, after 25 years of inactivity. The 12 telescopes of the MASTER Global Robotic Net located at six sites across four continents were the first ground-based observatories to start optical monitoring of the microquasar after its gamma-ray wake up at 18{sup h} 34{sup m} 09{sup s} U.T. on 2015 June 15. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the discovery of variable optical linear polarization, changing by 4%–6% over a timescale of ∼1 hr, on two different epochs. We can conclude that the additional variable polarization arises from the relativistic jet generated by the black hole in V404 Cyg. The polarization variability correlates with optical brightness changes, increasing when the flux decreases.

  11. Light Curve Periodic Variability of Cyg X-1 using Jurkevich Method ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    binary (Bowyer et al. 1965). Several spectral states have been identified during an outburst (McClintock & Remillard 2006). At both the beginning and the end of a burst,. Cyg X-1 normally stays in a low/hard (LH) state, in the state its emissions are dom- inated by a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 1.5 < < 2.0.

  12. Kepler observations of the high-amplitude δ Scuti star V2367 Cyg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, L. A.; Lenz, P.; Antoci, V.

    2012-01-01

    We analyse Kepler observations of the high-amplitude δ Scuti (HADS) star V2367 Cyg (KIC 9408694). The variations are dominated by a mode with frequency f1= 5.6611 d−1. Two other independent modes with f2= 7.1490 d−1 and f3= 7.7756 d−1 have amplitudes an order of magnitude smaller than f1. Nearly...

  13. Dramatic increase of the near-IR flux of the young source V2492 Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkharov, A. A.; Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.; Vitali, F.; Larionov, V. M.

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of our EXor monitoring program dubbed EXORCISM (EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. 2013 PPVI, Lorenzetti et al. 2007 ApJ 665, 1182; Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056), we are now observing a new increase of the near-IR brightness of the protostar V2492 Cyg, based on data taken at the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy).

  14. Suzaku Observation of the Classical Nova V2491 Cyg in Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemko, P.; Mukai, K.; Orio, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present Suzaku XIS observation of V2491 Cyg (Nova Cyg 2008 No. 2) obtained in quiescence, more than two years after the outburst. The nova was detected as a very luminous source in a wide spectral range from soft to hard X-rays. A very soft blackbody-like component peaking at 0.5 keV indicates that either we observe remaining, localized hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf, or accretion onto a magnetized polar cap. In the second case, V2491 Cyg is a candidate "soft intermediate polar". We obtained the best fit for the X-ray spectra with several components: two of thermal plasma, a blackbody and a complex absorber. The later is typical of intermediate polars. The X-ray light-curve shows a modulation with an approximately 38 min period. The amplitude of this modulation is strongly energy dependent and reaches maximum in the 0.8-2.0 keV range. We discuss the origin of the X-ray emission and pulsations, and the likelihood of the intermediate polar scenario.

  15. BF3-doped polyaniline: A novel conducting polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A detailed procedure for the synthesis of PANI and doping with BF3 has been previously reported [2]. The sample was characterized for complete doping us- ing routine spectroscopic techniques, like UV–visible absorption, FTIR and 11B magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. For the four-probe conductivity. 135 ...

  16. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane genotype BF-162 was released for general use in the Punjab province during 1990, and it became susceptible to red rot. As environmental conditions are not conducive for flowering, so the red rot rectification was tried through somaclonal variation. Protocol for callogenesis and organogenesis was standardized.

  17. B.F. Skinner's Contributions to Education: A Retrospective Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparzo, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of B.F. Skinner's work presents background information and examples of the great amount of misinformation about the work. The article discusses areas in which Skinner made major contributions to education (consequences, A-B-C analysis, rate of response, explanatory fictions, verbal behavior, programed instruction, social criticism, and…

  18. Separation of N2O and CO2 using room-temperature ionic liquid [bmim][BF4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiflett, Mark B; Niehaus, Anne Marie S; Yokozeki, A

    2011-04-07

    We have developed a ternary equation of state (EOS) model for the N(2)O/CO(2)/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF(4)]) system in order to understand separation of these gases using room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The present model is based on a generic RK (Redlich-Kwong) EOS, with empirical interaction parameters for each binary system. The interaction parameters have been determined using our measured VLE (vapor-liquid equilibrium) data for N(2)O/[bmim][BF(4)] and CO(2)/[bmim][BF(4)] and literature data for N(2)O/CO(2). The binary EOS models for the N(2)O/[bmim][BF(4)] and CO(2)/[bmim][BF(4)] systems correctly predicted the liquid-liquid phase separation found in VLLE experiments. The validity of the ternary EOS model has been checked by conducting VLE experiments for the N(2)O/CO(2)/[bmim][BF(4)] system over a range in temperature from 296 to 315 K. With this EOS model, solubility (VLE) behavior has been calculated for various (T, P, and feed compositions) conditions. For both large and small N(2)O/CO(2) feed ratios, the N(2)O/CO(2) gas selectivity [α(N(2)O/CO(2)) = (y(N(2)O)/x(N(2)O))/(y(CO(2))/x(CO(2)))] is α = 1.4-1.5, compared with (α = 0.96-0.98) in the absence of ionic liquid. While the concentration of the ionic liquid does not affect the selectivity, the addition of an ionic liquid provides the only practical means of separating CO(2) and N(2)O.

  19. Characterization, Stability and Biological Activity In Vitro of Cathelicidin-BF-30 Loaded 4-Arm Star-Shaped PEG-PLGA Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueli Bao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BF-30 is a single chain polypeptide of an N-segment with an α-helix from cathelicidin gene encoding, and it contains 30 amino acid residues, with a relative molecular mass and isoelectric point of 3637.54 and 11.79, respectively. Cathelicidin-BF-30 was entrapped in four-arm star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol-b-dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid block copolymers (4-arm-PEG-PLGA by a double-emulsion solvent-evaporation method. Three release phases of cathelicidin-BF-30loaded 4-arm-PEG-PLGA microspheres were observed, including an initial burst-release phase, followed by a lag phase with minimal drug release and finally a secondary zero-order release phase. The delivery system released BF-30 over more than 15 days in vitro. Furthermore, the material for preparing the microspheres has good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Additionally, based on the drug resistance of food pathogenic bacteria, the antibacterial effects of BF-30 on Shigella dysenteriae CMCC 51105 (Sh. dysenteriae CMCC 51105, Salmonella typhi (S. typhi and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus as well as the stability of the in vitro release of the BF-30-loded microspheres were studied. The α-helix secondary structure and antibacterial activity of released BF-30 were retained and compared with native peptide. These BF-30 loaded microspheres presented <10% hemolysis and no toxicity for HEK293T cells even at the highest tested concentration (150 μg/mL, indicating that they are hemocompatible and a promising delivery and protection system for BF-30 peptide.

  20. Bioequivalence of budesonide plus formoterol (BF) Spiromax® and BF Turbohaler® (with and without charcoal block) in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfeld, Lori; Shu, Youyi; Shah, Tushar P

    2015-07-01

    Budesonide formoterol (BF) Spiromax® is a breath-actuated dry-powder inhaler designed to deliver similar combinations of budesonide and formoterol as Symbicort® Turbohaler®. We performed two studies to demonstrate pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence of BF Spiromax with BF Turbohaler. Two single-center, open-label, randomized, 5-period crossover studies were performed. The first study compared BF Spiromax 160/4.5 μg with BF Turbohaler 200/6 μg, while the second study compared BF Spiromax 320/9 μg with BF Turbohaler 400/12 μg. All treatments were administered with and without charcoal. PK parameters were calculated by measuring plasma drug concentrations from blood samples taken pre-dose and up to 24 hours post-dose. In each study, 90 healthy volunteers were randomized. Bioequivalence of BF Spiromax with BF Turbohaler was demonstrated for budesonide and formoterol (AUC0-t and Cmax (90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean between-device ratios for both parameters were within the predefined range of 0.80-1.25 in both studies)). Equivalence was observed without use of charcoal (overall absorption post-inhalation) and with charcoal (pulmonary absorption). There were no major differences between treatments in tmax for either budesonide or formoterol. All study treatments were well tolerated (one treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) in the medium-dose study and four TEAEs in the high-dose study). These studies indicate that BF Spiromax (±charcoal block) is bioequivalent to BF Turbohaler with respect to the PK parameters assessed. Single doses of BF Spiromax were well tolerated; the overall safety profile of BF Spiromax and BF Turbohaler was similar.

  1. An R-matrix study of electron induced processes in BF3 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Song, Mi-Young

    2017-12-01

    An R-matrix formalism is used to study electron collision with the BF3 molecule using Quantemol-N, a computational system for electron molecule collisions which uses the molecular R-matrix method. Several target models are tested for BF3 in its equilibrium geometry, and the results are presented for the best model. Scattering calculations are then performed to yield resonance parameters, elastic, differential, excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. The results for all the cross sections are compared with the experimental and theoretical data, and a good agreement is obtained. The resonances have been detected at 3.79 and 13.58 eV, with the ionization threshold being 15.7 eV. We have also estimated the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section for the F- ion production from BF3, which is a maiden attempt. The peak of the DEA is at around 13.5 eV, which is well supported by the resonance detected at 13.58 eV. The cross sections reported here find a variety of applications in the plasma technology.

  2. The soluble guanylate cyclase CYG12 is required for the acclimation to hypoxia and trophic regimes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düner, Melis; Lambertz, Jan; Mügge, Carolin; Hemschemeier, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Oxygenic phototrophs frequently encounter environmental conditions that result in intracellular energy crises. Growth of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in hypoxia in the light depends on acclimatory responses of which the induction of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow is essential. The microalga cannot grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) in the dark, although it possesses an elaborate fermentation metabolism. Not much is known about how the microalga senses and signals the lack of O 2 or about its survival strategies during energy crises. Recently, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged to be required for the acclimation of C. reinhardtii to hypoxia. In this study, we show that the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) CYG12, a homologue of animal NO sensors, is also involved in this response. CYG12 is an active sGC, and post-transcriptional down-regulation of the CYG12 gene impairs hypoxic growth and gene expression in C. reinhardtii. However, it also results in a disturbed photosynthetic apparatus under standard growth conditions and the inability to grow heterotrophically. Transcriptome profiles indicate that the mis-expression of CYG12 results in a perturbation of responses that, in the wild-type, maintain the cellular energy budget. We suggest that CYG12 is required for the proper operation of the photosynthetic apparatus which, in turn, is essential for survival in hypoxia and darkness. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Accurate Masses, Radii, and Temperatures for the Eclipsing Binary V2154 Cyg, and Tests of Stellar Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jane; Torres, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic observations of the F-type triple system V2154 Cyg, in which two of the stars form an eclipsing binary with a period of 2.6306303 ± 0.0000038 days. We combine the results from our spectroscopic analysis with published light curves in the uvby Strömgren passbands to derive the first reported absolute dimensions of the stars in the eclipsing binary. The masses and radii are measured with high accuracy to better than 1.5% precision. For the primary and secondary respectively, we find that the masses are 1.269 ± 0.017 M⊙ and 0.7542 ± 0.0059 M⊙, the radii are 1.477 ± 0.012 R⊙ and 0.7232 ± 0.0091R⊙, and the temperatures are 6770 ± 150 K and 5020 ± 150 K. Current models of stellar evolution agree with the measured properties of the primary, but the secondary is larger than predicted. This may be due to activity in the secondary, as has been shown for other systems with a star of similar mass with this same discrepancy.The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution. GT acknowledges partial support for this work from NSF grant AST-1509375.

  4. Determination of electron temperature of the envelopes for the A2 Ia supergiants α Cyg and ν Cep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushneva, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the energy distribution data in the spectra of two bright A2 Ia supergiants, α Cyg and ω Cep, the electron temperature of the envelope and the contributions of the star and of the mantle in the continuum formation are determined. It is shown that the temperature obtained on the basis of the observations in the ultraviolet range lambda lambda 3200-3600 A is slightly higher that the effective temperature (Tsub(e) approximately 8500 K), being 12500 K in the case of α Cyg and 11000 K for ν Cep. The analysis of the α Cyg infrared excess shows that the regions with T approximately 10 4 K as well as with higher temperatures (about 2x10 4 K) exist in the envelope

  5. Asteroseismic inference on rotation, gyrochronology and planetary system dynamics of 16 Cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Farr, W. M.

    2014-01-01

    The solar analogs 16 Cyg A and 16 Cyg B are excellent asteroseismic targets in the \\Kepler field of view and together with a red dwarf and a Jovian planet form an interesting system. For these more evolved Sun-like stars we cannot detect surface rotation with the current \\Kepler data but instead...

  6. Effect of adding Ar gas on the pulse height distribution of BF3-filled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for ther- mal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma dis- criminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional ...

  7. Effect of adding Ar gas on the pulse height distribution of BF3-filled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  8. Analysis of interstellar extinction towards the hypergiant Cyg OB2 No. 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryeva, O. V.; Chentsov, E. L.; Goranskij, V. P.; Karpov, S. V.

    The Cyg OB2 stellar association hosts an entire zoo of unique objects, and among them -- an enigmatic star Cyg OB2 No. 12 (Schulte 12, MT 304). MT 304 is enigmatic not only due to its highest luminosity (according to various estimates, it is one of the brightest stars in the Galaxy), but also because its reddening is anomalously large, greater than the mean reddening in the association. To explain the nature of anomalous reddening (AV≃ 10 mag) of MT 304, we carried out spectrophotometric observations of 25 stars located in its vicinity. We mapped interstellar extinction within the 2.5 arcmin radius and found it to increase towards MT 304. According to our results, the two most reddened stars in the association after MT 304 are J203240.35+411420.1 and J203239.90+411436.2, both located about 15 arcsec from it. Interstellar extinction AV towards these stars is about 9 mag. Our results favor the hypothesis of the circumstellar nature of reddening excess. In the second part of the paper we present the results of our modeling of MT 282 (B1 IV) and MT 343 (B1 V), which belong to the older population of the association and have ages greater than 10 Myr.

  9. The period analysis of V418 AQL, SU BOO, RV CVn, CR CAS, GV CYG, V432 PER, and BD+42 2782

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Uhlař, R.

    2014-01-01

    The minimum timings of eclipsing binaries V418 Aql, SU Boo, RV CVn, CR Cas, GV Cyg, V432 Per, and BD+42 2782 were collected and analyzed. Their long-term behavior was studied via period analysis, revealing a periodic term in eclipse times. We derived 576 new times of minimum. Hence, to describe the periodic variation, a third-body hypothesis was proposed and the resulting orbital periods are as follows: 70, 7.4, 53, 37, 27, 53, and 18 yr, respectively. For the system V432 Per an additional 9.5 yr variation was also found. The predicted minimum masses of these distant bodies were calculated and their detectability discussed. The light curves of SU Boo and RV CVn were analyzed using the PHOEBE program, resulting in physical parameters of the components. New variable stars in the field of V418 Aql were discovered.

  10. Duality and dimensional reduction of 5D BF theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, A.; Blasi, A.; Caruso, G.; Maggiore, N.; Magnoli, N. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    A planar boundary introduced a la Symanzik in the 5D topological BF theory, with only the requirements of locality and power counting, allows to uniquely determine a gauge invariant, non-topological 4D Lagrangian. The boundary condition on the bulk fields is interpreted as a duality relation for the boundary fields, in analogy with the fermionization duality which holds in the 3D case. This suggests that the 4D degrees of freedom might be fermionic, although starting from a bosonic bulk theory. The method we propose to dimensionally reduce a Quantum Field Theory and to identify the resulting degrees of freedom can be applied to a generic spacetime dimension. (orig.)

  11. Duality and dimensional reduction of 5D BF theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, A.; Blasi, A.; Caruso, G.; Maggiore, N.; Magnoli, N.

    2013-06-01

    A planar boundary introduced à la Symanzik in the 5D topological BF theory, with only the requirements of locality and power counting, allows to uniquely determine a gauge invariant, non-topological 4D Lagrangian. The boundary condition on the bulk fields is interpreted as a duality relation for the boundary fields, in analogy with the fermionization duality which holds in the 3D case. This suggests that the 4D degrees of freedom might be fermionic, although starting from a bosonic bulk theory. The method we propose to dimensionally reduce a Quantum Field Theory and to identify the resulting degrees of freedom can be applied to a generic spacetime dimension.

  12. A 2007 photometric study and UV spectral analysis of the Wolf-Rayet binary V444 Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriş, F. Z.; Ekmekçi, F.

    2011-07-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic characteristics of the WN5+O6 binary system, V444 Cyg, were studied. The Wilson-Devinney (WD) analysis, using new BV observations carried out at the Ankara University Observatory, revealed the masses, radii, and temperatures of the components of the system as MWR=10.64 M⊙, MO=24.68 M⊙, RWR=7.19 R⊙, RO=6.85 R⊙, TWR=31 000 K, and TO=40 000 K , respectively. It was found that both components had a full spherical geometry, whereas the circumstellar envelope of the WR component had an asymmetric structure. The O-C analysis of the system revealed a period lengthening of 0.139±0.018 s yr-1, implying a mass loss rate of (6.76 ± 0.39) × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 for the WR component. Moreover, 106 IUE-NEWSIPS spectra were obtained from NASA's IUE archive for line identification and determination of line profile variability with phase, wind velocities and variability in continuum fluxes. The integrated continuum flux level (between 1200-2000 \\rA) showed a mild and regular increase from orbital phase 0.00 up to 0.50 and then a decrease in the same way back to phase 0.00. This is evaluated as the O component making a constant and regular contribution to the system's UV light as the dominant source. The C IV line, originating in the circumstellar envelope, had the highest velocity while N IV line, originating in deeper layers of the envelope, had the lowest velocity. The average radial velocity calculated by using the C IV line (wind velocity) was found as 2326 km s-1. Tables 2 and 3 and Figs. 4 and 8 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr or via http:://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/AN/332/616

  13. Furiously fast and red: sub-second optical flaring in V404 Cyg during the 2015 outburst peak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gandhi, P.; Littlefair, S. P.; Hardy, L. K.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Shaw, A. W.; Altamirano, D.; Caballero-García, María Dolores; Casares, J.; Casella, P.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Charles, P. A.; Dallilar, Y.; Eikenberry, S.; Fender, R. P.; Hynes, R. I.; Knigge, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Mooley, K.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Pahari, M.; Rahoui, F.; Russell, D. M.; Hernández Santisteban, J.V.; Shahbaz, T.; Terndrup, D. M.; Tomsick, J.; Walton, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 459, č. 1 (2016), s. 554-572 ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * black holes * V404 Cyg Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  14. Higgsless superconductivity from topological defects in compact BF terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Diamantini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalisable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D−1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact low-energy effective BF theories. In the average field approximation, the corresponding uniform emergent charge creates a gap for the (D−2-dimensional branes via the Magnus force, the dual of the Lorentz force. One particular combination of intrinsic and emergent charge fluctuations that leaves the total charge distribution invariant constitutes an isolated gapless mode leading to superfluidity. The remaining massive modes organise themselves into a D-dimensional charged, massive vector. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D this type of superconductivity is explicitly realised as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  15. Higgsless superconductivity from topological defects in compact BF terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalisable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D - 1)-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact low-energy effective BF theories. In the average field approximation, the corresponding uniform emergent charge creates a gap for the (D - 2)-dimensional branes via the Magnus force, the dual of the Lorentz force. One particular combination of intrinsic and emergent charge fluctuations that leaves the total charge distribution invariant constitutes an isolated gapless mode leading to superfluidity. The remaining massive modes organise themselves into a D-dimensional charged, massive vector. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2) and the topological order (4) are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D this type of superconductivity is explicitly realised as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  16. Isolation and characterization of α-elapitoxin-Bf1b, a postsynaptic neurotoxin from Malaysian Bungarus fasciatus venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad; Tee, Ting Yee; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Othman, Iekhsan; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2014-03-15

    Bungarus fasciatus is one of three species of krait found in Malaysia. Envenoming by B. fasciatus results in neurotoxicity due to the presence of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins. Antivenom, either monovalent or polyvalent, is the treatment of choice in systemically envenomed patients. In this study, we have isolated a postsynaptic neurotoxin which we named α-elapitoxin-Bf1b. This toxin has an approximate molecular weight of 6.9 kDa, with LCMS/MS data showing that it is highly homologous with Neurotoxin 3FTx-RI, a toxin identified in the Bungarus fasciatus venom gland transcriptome. α-Elapitoxin-Bf1b also shared similarity with short-chain neurotoxins from Laticauda colubrina and Pseudechis australis. α-Elapitoxin-Bf1b produced concentration- and time-dependent neurotoxicity in the indirectly-stimulated chick biventer cervicis muscle preparation, an effect partially reversible by repetitive washing of the preparation. The pA2 value for α-elapitoxin-Bf1b of 9.17 ± 0.64, determined by examining the effects of the toxin on cumulative carbacol concentration-response curves, indicated that the toxin is more potent than tubocurarine and α-bungarotoxin. Pre-incubation of Bungarus fasciatus monovalent and neuro polyvalent antivenom failed to prevent the neurotoxic effects of α-elapitoxin-Bf1b in the chick biventer cervicis muscle preparation. In conclusion, the isolation of a postsynaptic neurotoxin that cannot be neutralized by either monovalent and polyvalent antivenoms may indicate the presence of isoforms of postsynaptic neurotoxins in Malaysian B. fasciatus venom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 2011; Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Jahresbericht 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebermann, Lutz (comp.)

    2012-07-01

    The annual report 2011 of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) includes the following main articles: Fukushima and the consequences, new power lines across Germany and the management of radioactive wastes in Germany. Further topics of the BfS were reasonable exposure to sun and skin cancer prevention, individual health assessment of lung cancer with low-dose CT, occupational radiation exposure in medicine, radiation protection at setting up digital radio of security authorities and organizations, importance of laboratory ring experiments for incorporation monitoring, defence against nuclear hazards: cooperation and exercises in 2011, new developments with regard to radioactivity in drinking water, reportable events in nuclear facilities in 2011, decommissioning of a permanently shut down NPP. The environmental research program of the Federal Environmental ministry - research for strengthening nuclear safety and radiation protection: German uranium miners biobank: consequences of uranium mining and radiological impacts, German miners cohort study, health effects of strong magnetic fields of NMR imaging, radiation exposure due to nuclear medical examinations, national survey on the radio-cesium contamination of wild boars.

  18. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gamma rays of energy or = 10(15) eV from Cyg X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kifune, T.; Nishijima, K.; Hara, T.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data of extensive air showers observed at Akeno have been analyzed to detect the gamma ray signal from Cyg X-3. After muon poor air showers are selected, the correlation of data acquisition time with 4.8 hours X-ray period is studied, giving the data concentration near the phase 0.6, the time of X-ray maximum. The probability that uniform backgrounds create the distribution is 0.2%. The time averaged integral gamma ray flux is estimated as (1.1 + or - 0.4)x 10 to the -14th power cm(-2) sec(-1) for Eo 10 to the 15th power eV and (8.8 + or - 5.0)x 10 to the 14th power cm(-2) sec(-1) for Eo 6 x 10 to the 14th power eV

  20. Xylanase Activity of Streptomyces violascences BF 3.10 on Xylan Corncobs and its Xylooligosaccharide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Salupi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the important carbohydrate sources in Indonesia that is mainly used for food and industrial materials. In addition, the byproducts of corn, such as corncobs, have been reported as xylan-containing materials that can be utilized as substrate in xylooligosaccharides (XOS production. XOS are natural prebiotic fibers that can enhance the performance of animal’s digestive system. The main objective of this study was to exploit xylan from corncobs to produce XOS. The research consisted of extraction and production of xylan from corncobs and the synthesis of XOS from corncob-produced xylan. The corncob and Streptomyces violascens BF 3.10 xylanase is a collection of PPSHB IPB Laboratory. Corncobs xylan extracted by using alkaline method and reducting sugar was analyzed by dinitrosalicylic acid method. The xylan extraction from corncobs could produce 7.93% (w/w of xylan. The activity of S. violascens BF 3.10 xylanase on the substrate of concorb-produced xylan was 6.4 U/mL at the optimum temperature of 60 °C in 50 mM phosphate buffer with pH 5.5. The thin layer chromatography analysis indicated that 1% (w/v corn-cob xylan could produce XOS with degree of polymerization (DP 3.92. XOS, with DP ranging from 2-4, could be used as a livestock feed mixture to stimulate the growth of normal microbes in the gastrointestinal tract of livestock.

  1. Young's modulus of BF wood material by longitudinal vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadke, Sushil; Shrivastava, Bhakt Darshan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Dagaonkar, N

    2014-01-01

    All engineered structures are designed and built with consideration of resisting the same fundamental forces of tension, compression, shear, bending and torsion. Structural design is a balance of these internal and external forces. So, it is interesting to calculate the Young's moduli of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood are quite important from the application point of view. The ultrasonic waves are closely related with the elastic and inelastic properties of the materials. In the present study, we measured longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocities in BF wood material by longitudinal vibration method. After measuring ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material, we calculated Young's modulus of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material. We used ultrasonic interferometer for measuring longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material made by Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India in our laboratory. Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material was collected from Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India.

  2. Deep sequencing of HIV-1 near full-length proviral genomes identifies high rates of BF1 recombinants including two novel circulating recombinant forms (CRF) 70_BF1 and a disseminating 71_BF1 among blood donors in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Watanabe, Jaqueline Tomoko; Calabria, Paula; Felix, Alvina Clara; Loureiro, Paula; Sabino, Ester C; Busch, Michael P; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2014-01-01

    The findings of frequent circulation of HIV-1 subclade F1 viruses and the scarcity of BF1 recombinant viruses based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing among blood donors in Pernambuco (PE), Northeast of Brazil, were reported recently. Here, we aimed to determine whether the classification of these strains (n = 26) extends to the whole genome sequences. Five overlapping amplicons spanning the HIV near full-length genomes (NFLGs) were PCR amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 26 blood donors. The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by Illumina paired-end protocol. The prevalence of viral variants containing drug resistant mutations (DRMs) was compared between plasma and PBMCs. Of the 26 samples studied, 20 NFLGs and 4 partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Two distinct BF1 recombinant profiles designated CRF70_BF1 and CRF71_BF1, with 4 samples in profile I and 11 in profile II were detected and thus constitute two novel recombinant forms circulating in PE. Evidence of dual infections was detected in four patients co-infected with distinct HIV-1 subtypes. According to our estimate, the new CRF71_BF1 accounts for 10% of the HIV-1 circulating strains among blood donors in PE. Discordant data between the plasma and PBMCs-virus were found in 15 of 24 donors. Six of these strains displayed major DRMs only in PBMCs and four of which had detectable DRMs changes at prevalence between 1-20% of the sequenced population. The high percentage of the new RF71_BF1 and other BF1 recombinants found among blood donors in Pernambuco, coupled with high rates of transmitted DRMs and dual infections confirm the need for effective surveillance to monitor the prevalence and distribution of HIV variants in a variety of settings in Brazil.

  3. 8-13 μm spectrophotometry of V1016 Cyg and the shape of the 'silicate' feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.K.; Roche, P.F.; Spenser, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    8 to 13μm spectrophotometry of V1016 Cyg shows a broad emission feature attributed to radiation from silicate grains. This emission feature more closely resembles that of the circumstellar shells of oxygen-rich supergiants than the more dilute feature, typical of the interstellar medium, which is observed from the Trapezium source in the Orion nebula. It appears to be possible to distinguish the evolutionary status of an object from the form of its silicate excess. (author)

  4. BF066, a novel dual target antiplatelet agent without significant bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangE Pan

    Full Text Available In this study, we report BF066, a novel adenine derivative, inhibits platelet activation and thrombosis via the adenosine receptor (A(2A activation and phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibition. BF066 inhibits platelet aggregation and ATP releasing induced by multiple platelet agonists in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of BF066 on ADP-induced aggregation is potentiated by adenosine and can be dramatically antagonized by the A(2A antagonist SCH58261. BF066 also inhibits the PDE activity and platelet spreading on fibrinogen. In FeCl(3-injured mouse mesenteric arterial thrombosis model, BF066 prevents thrombus formation effectively, similar to clopidogrel. Intriguingly, at dose achieving similar antithrombotic effect compared to clopidogrel, BF066 does not increase bleeding significantly. Taken together, these results suggest that BF066 may be an effective and safe antiplatelet agent targeting both PDE and A(2A. Considering the successful use of combined antiplatelet therapy, BF066 may be further developed as a novel dual target antiplatelet agent.

  5. BF066, a Novel Dual Target Antiplatelet Agent without Significant Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianqin; Liu, Guangda; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Yan; Du, Hongguang; Ding, Zhongren

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report BF066, a novel adenine derivative, inhibits platelet activation and thrombosis via the adenosine receptor (A2A) activation and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition. BF066 inhibits platelet aggregation and ATP releasing induced by multiple platelet agonists in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of BF066 on ADP-induced aggregation is potentiated by adenosine and can be dramatically antagonized by the A2A antagonist SCH58261. BF066 also inhibits the PDE activity and platelet spreading on fibrinogen. In FeCl3-injured mouse mesenteric arterial thrombosis model, BF066 prevents thrombus formation effectively, similar to clopidogrel. Intriguingly, at dose achieving similar antithrombotic effect compared to clopidogrel, BF066 does not increase bleeding significantly. Taken together, these results suggest that BF066 may be an effective and safe antiplatelet agent targeting both PDE and A2A. Considering the successful use of combined antiplatelet therapy, BF066 may be further developed as a novel dual target antiplatelet agent. PMID:22815749

  6. Model Atmosphere Spectrum Fit to the Soft X-Ray Outburst Spectrum of SS Cyg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Suleimanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray spectrum of SS Cyg in outburst has a very soft component that can be interpreted as the fast-rotating optically thick boundary layer on the white dwarf surface. This component was carefully investigated by Mauche (2004 using the Chandra LETG spectrum of this object in outburst. The spectrum shows broad ( ≈5 °A spectral features that have been interpreted as a large number of absorption lines on a blackbody continuum with a temperature of ≈250 kK. Because the spectrum resembles the photospheric spectra of super-soft X-ray sources, we tried to fit it with high gravity hot LTE stellar model atmospheres with solar chemical composition, specially computed for this purpose. We obtained a reasonably good fit to the 60–125 °A spectrum with the following parameters: Teff = 190 kK, log g = 6.2, and NH = 8 · 1019 cm−2, although at shorter wavelengths the observed spectrum has a much higher flux. The reasons for this are discussed. The hypothesis of a fast rotating boundary layer is supported by the derived low surface gravity.

  7. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Sendai (Japan); Furumoto, Shozo [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tsuboi, Yoshio [Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Fukuoka (Japan); Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki [Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Division of Brain Sciences, Sendai (Japan); Iwata, Ren [Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Kudo, Yukitsuka [Tohoku University, Innovation of New Biomedical Engineering Center, Sendai (Japan); Doh-ura, Katsumi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Prion Research, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [{sup 11}C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  8. In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [11C]BF-227 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito; Furumoto, Shozo; Tashiro, Manabu; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Ren; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Doh-ura, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [ 11 C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [ 11 C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)

  9. Systematic study of spin crossover and structure in [Co(terpyRX)2](Y)2 systems (terpyRX = 4'-alkoxy-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, X = 4, 8, 12, Y = BF4(-), ClO4(-), PF6(-), BPh4(-))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia; Nielsen, Hans Toftlund; Bond, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    (6))(2) x 3 H(2)O, at 123 K, revealed compressed octahedral low spin Co(II) environments and showed varying extents of disorder in the alkyl tail portions of the terpyRX ligands. The magnetic and EPR studies were focused on the BF(4)(-) family and, for polycrystalline solid samples, revealed...... that the spin transition onset temperature (from low to high spin) decreased as the alkyl chain lengthened. EPR studies of polycrystalline powder samples confirmed these results, showing signals only due to the low spin state at the temperatures seen in magnetic measurements. Further to this, simultaneous...

  10. R-matrix calculation of electron collisions with the BF{sup +} molecular ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, K [Department of Mathematics, Scottish Church College, 1 and 3 Urquhart Sq, Kolkata 700006 (India); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-28

    Electron collisions with the BF{sup +} molecular ion are studied using the framework of the diatomic version of the UK molecular R-matrix codes. A configuration-interaction calculation is performed for BF{sup +} to obtain potential energy curves and target properties for 14 lowest doublet and quartet states. Scattering calculations are performed which yield resonance parameters and excitation cross sections in the energy range 0-20 eV. Cross sections for rotational excitations and an approximate calculation for the electron impact dissociation cross section for BF{sup +} are also presented.

  11. Ontogenic appearance of MHC class I (B-F) antigens during chicken embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K

    1990-01-01

    .5 of embryogenesis. B-F cell-surface expression first becomes detectable in hemopoietic organs by day 10-12 of embryogenesis and somewhat later in nonhemopoietic organs. Flow cytometry analysis of hemopoietic cells throughout embryogenesis revealed B-Fhi and B-Flo cell populations. The percentage of B-F+ cells......Expression of chicken MHC class I (B-F) antigens during ontogeny was determined by binding of anticlass I antibody and appearance of B-F transcripts by Northern blotting in chicken organs during embryogenesis until 2 weeks after hatching. MHC class I transcripts first become detectable in day 6...... in spleen and bone marrow decreased around hatching, which could reflect either cell flows in these organs during this period or the sensitivity of hemopoietic cells to hatching stress. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-null...

  12. What Kinds of Reinforcement Can Cognitive-Behavior Therapists Receive from B.F. Skinner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    1972-01-01

    Proceeeding through each chapter of B.F. Skinner's book, Beyond Freedom and Dignity, the author presents selected quotations and then discusses Skinner's main contribution to cognitive-behavior therapy. (CB)

  13. Warm H2O and OH Disk Emission in V1331 Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppmann, Greg W.; Najita, Joan R.; Carr, John S.; Graham, James R.

    2011-09-01

    We present high-resolution (R = 24, 000) L-band spectra of the young intermediate-mass star V1331 Cyg obtained with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. The spectra show strong, rich emission from water and OH that likely arises from the warm surface region of the circumstellar disk. We explore the use of the new BT2 water line list in fitting the spectra, and we find that it does a much better job than the well-known HITRAN water line list in the observed wavelength range and for the warm temperatures probed by our data. By comparing the observed spectra with synthetic disk emission models, we find that the water and OH emission lines have similar widths (FWHM ~= 18 km s-1). If the line widths are set by disk rotation, the OH and water emission lines probe a similar range of disk radii in this source. The water and OH emission are consistent with thermal emission for both components at a temperature ~1500 K. The column densities of the emitting water and OH are large, ~1021 cm-2 and ~1020 cm-2, respectively. Such a high column density of water is more than adequate to shield the disk midplane from external UV irradiation in the event of complete dust settling out of the disk atmosphere, enabling chemical synthesis to continue in the midplane despite a harsh external UV environment. The large OH-to-water ratio is similar to expectations for UV irradiated disks, although the large OH column density is less easily accounted for. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory from telescope time allocated to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the agency's scientific partnership with the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  14. Pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of the BF3-CO complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Evangelisti, Luca; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Caminati, Walther

    2017-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex between BF3 and CO was studied using a pulse jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, which renewed the electric resonance spectroscopic measurements by Klemperer et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100 (1978) 8074]. The spectral measurements have been considerably extended and the newly assigned rotational spectrum of the isotopologue BF3-C18O allowed for a precise structural analysis confirming the effective collinearity of the atoms B, C and O in the complex.

  15. Living on a Flare: Relativistic Reflection in V404 Cyg Observed by NuSTAR during Its Summer 2015 Outburst

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Dominic James; Mooley, K; King, AL; Tomsick, JA; Miller, JM; Dauser, T; García, JA; Bachetti, M; Brightman, M; Fabian, Andrew Christopher; Forster, K; Fürst, F; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, BW; Harrison, FA

    2017-01-01

    We present first results from a series of $\\textit{NuSTAR}$ observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg obtained during its summer 2015 outburst, primarily focusing on observations during the height of this outburst activity. The $\\textit{NuSTAR}$ data show extreme variability in both the flux and spectral properties of the source. This is partly driven by strong and variable line-of-sight absorption, similar to previous outbursts. The latter stages of this observation are dominated ...

  16. From lattice BF gauge theory to area-angle Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzom, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    We consider Riemannian 4D BF lattice gauge theory, on a triangulation of spacetime. Introducing the simplicity constraints which turn BF theory into simplicial gravity, some geometric quantities of Regge calculus, areas, and 3D and 4D dihedral angles, are identified. The parallel transport conditions are taken care of to ensure a consistent gluing of simplices. We show that these gluing relations, together with the simplicity constraints, contain the constraints of area-angle Regge calculus in a simple way, via the group structure of the underlying BF gauge theory. This provides a precise road from constrained BF theory to area-angle Regge calculus. Doing so, a framework combining variables of lattice BF theory and Regge calculus is built. The action takes a form a la Regge and includes the contribution of the Immirzi parameter. In the absence of simplicity constraints, the standard spin foam model for BF theory is recovered. Insertions of local observables are investigated, leading to Casimir insertions for areas and reproducing for 3D angles known results obtained through angle operators on spin networks. The present formulation is argued to be suitable for deriving spin foam models from discrete path integrals and to unravel their geometric content.

  17. Narrow groove and restricted anchors of MHC class I molecule BF2*0401 plus peptide transporter restriction can explain disease susceptibility of B4 chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Yong; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, Feng; Liu, Yanjie; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Xuyu; Kaufman, Jim; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F

    2012-11-01

    The MHC has genetic associations with many diseases, often due to differences in presentation of antigenic peptides by polymorphic MHC molecules to T lymphocytes of the immune system. In chickens, only a single classical class I molecule in each MHC haplotype is expressed well due to coevolution with the polymorphic TAPs which means that resistance and susceptibility to infectious pathogens are particularly easy to observe. Previously, structures of chicken MHC class I molecule BF2*2101 from B21 haplotype showed an unusually large peptide-binding groove that accommodates a broad spectrum of peptides to present as epitopes to CTLs, explaining the MHC-determined resistance of B21 chickens to Marek's disease. In this study, we report the crystal structure of BF2*0401 from the B4 (also known as B13) haplotype, showing a highly positively charged surface hitherto unobserved in other MHC molecules, as well as a remarkably narrow groove due to the allele-specific residues with bulky side chains. Together, these properties limit the number of epitope peptides that can bind this class I molecule. However, peptide-binding assays show that in vitro, BF2*0401 can bind a wider variety of peptides than are found on the surface of B4 cells. Thus, a combination of the specificities of the polymorphic TAP and the MHC results in a very limited set of BF2*0401 peptides with negatively charged anchors to be presented to T lymphocytes.

  18. Mixing thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] with water and with an alkan-1ol (methanol to pentanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Vreekamp, R.; Penco, E.; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    This article presents a study of the behaviour in solution of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] in water and in the first five alkanols of the series methanol to pentan-1-ol. The excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E} and volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} were determined at the temperatures (298.15 and 318.15) K. At these temperatures, the [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] was completely miscible in water, methanol, and ethanol, but only partially miscible in the other alkanols. A solubility study was carried out and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ([b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] + alkanol) systems were experimentally determined, evaluating zones of complete miscibility and determining the UCST in each case. The mixtures with water gave positive values of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E}, being also positive the changes of these quantities with temperature. The mixtures with alkanols gave values of H{sub m}{sup E}>0 and V{sub m}{sup E}<0, and for these binary mixtures (dH{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}>0 and (dV{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}<0. For all cases, results were interpreted and compared with data obtained in mixtures with another isomer [b3mpy][BF{sub 4}]. Excess properties were correlated with a suitable equation and the area and volume parameters were calculated for [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}].

  19. Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagram of (TMTSF){sub 2}BF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yeon Jung [Dept. of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    (TMTSF){sub 2}BF{sub 4} containing non-centrosymmetric anions is well known to exhibit a metal insulator transition around 37 K by ordering of the anions with a q{sub 2}=(1/2, 1/2, 1/2) wave vector. We established pressure-temperature phase diagram of the (TMTSF){sub 2}BF{sub 4} compound and showed that it can belong to the general phase diagram of the (TMTSF){sub 2}X family. Application of hydrostatic pressure decreases the anion ordering transition temperature and the superconducting state is finally stabilized below 3.77 K under 7.7 kbar. Magnetoresistance measurement on the (TMTSF){sub 2}BF{sub 4} under 7.8 kbar is performed but neither the field-induced spin-density-wave state nor the rapid oscillation is observed up to 9 T.

  20. Assessment of the turbine trip transient in Cofrentes NPP with TRAC-BF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillo, F.; Gomez, A.; Gallego, I.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of the assessment of TRAC-BF1 (G1-J1) code with the model of C. N. Cofrentes for simulation of the transient originated by the manual trip of the main turbine. C. N. Cofrentes is a General Electric designed BWR/6 plant, with a nominal core thermal power of 2894 Mwt, in commercial operation since 1985, owned and operated by Hidroelectrica Espanola, S. A. The plant incorporates all the characteristics of BWR/6 reactors, with two turbine driven FW pumps. As a result of this assessment a model of C. N. Cofrentes has been developed for TRAC-BF1 that fairly reproduces operational transient behavior of the plant. A special purpose code was generated to obtain reactivity coefficients, as required by TRAC-BF1, from the 3D simulator

  1. On the precession of the optical star in the Cyg X-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylov, I.M.; Sokolov, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Some results are analysed of previoUs spectroscopic investigation of the supergiant HDE 226868 (based on six-year observations at the 6-m telescope) with the puspose of searching for possible variations in the spectrum connected with the precession of the rotation axis of the star upper layers. It is noted that spectral type and HeI lambda 4471 line halfwidth show a coordinated behaviour with the phase of the 39-day period in the frame of the precession hypothesis. Nonuniform distribution of CNO anomalies over the star latitude seems to be possible

  2. HST/COS FUV Spectrophotometry of the Key Binary Solar Twins 16 Cyg A&B: Astrophysical Laboratories for the Future Sun and Older Solar Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward

    2014-10-01

    The fortuitous location of the wide G1.5V/G2.5V binary 16 Cyg A&B as the brightest stars in the Kepler Field is a "game changer," permitting the determination of the stars' fundamental properties from asteroseismolgy analyses. Recent studies returned precise determinations of the stars' basic properties including masses and age (6.8+/-0.4 Gyr), along with the rotation periods. Thus, 16 Cyg A&B are now the oldest solar-mass analogs with reliable ages and physical properties. Only the Sun has better determined physical properties. 16 Cyg A&B now serve as old-age anchors for Rotation-Age-Activity-Irradiance relations (and Gyrochronology studies) for solar-type stars. Extensive Ca II HK spectrophotometry reveals low levels of chromospheric emission are below the lowest values for our Sun. These stars serve as critical test beds for studying solar/stellar dynamos for stars less active than the Sun. These advances have catapulted 16 Cyg A&B into a prominent place in solar/stellar astrophysics for studying the evolution, internal structure, magnetic dynamos, angular momentum loss, and FUV irradiances of old solar-mass stars. Although 16 Cyg has been observed from X-ray - IR, there are no observations in the FUV region where most of the crucial diagnostic chromospheric & transition region emissions occur. We request COS FUV medium resolution (G130M, G160M) spectra (six orbits/star). This permits the important FUV (1150-1750A) line emission strengths, profiles and Doppler shifts to be analyzed and compared with the Sun and other solar-analogs. This program is complemented by Ca II HK, high precision uvby observations, and by proposed Chandra X-ray coronal observations.

  3. LINK codes TRAC-BF1/PARCSv2.7 in LINUX without external communication interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, T.; Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Concejal, A.; Solar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The TRAC-BF1 code is still widely used by the nuclear industry for safety analysis. The plant models developed using this code are highly validated, so it is advisable to continue improving this code before migrating to another completely different code. The coupling with the NRC neutronic code PARCSv2.7 increases the simulation capabilities in transients in which the power distribution plays an important role. In this paper, the procedure for the coupling of TRAC-BF1 and PARCSv2.7 codes without PVM and in Linux is presented. (Author)

  4. Covariant Canonical Method for Yang-Mills Theory Expressed as a Constrained BF-Like Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante, Alberto; García, Irving

    2012-01-01

    The covariant canonical analysis for Yang-Mills theory expressed as a BF-like action is performed. We study a BF-like action, that in spite of being the coupling of two topological terms, yield, on shell to Yang-Mills action. In addition, by using the results obtained in the covariant canonical approach we study the symmetries of the action, in particular we calculate its energy-momentum tensor obtaining the same tensor found for Yang-Mills theory; then we confirm those results by using Noeth...

  5. Covariant Canonical Method for Yang-Mills Theory Expressed as a Constrained BF-Like Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Escalante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The covariant canonical analysis for Yang-Mills theory expressed as a BF-like action is performed. We study a BF-like action, that in spite of being the coupling of two topological terms, yield, on shell to Yang-Mills action. In addition, by using the results obtained in the covariant canonical approach we study the symmetries of the action, in particular we calculate its energy-momentum tensor obtaining the same tensor found for Yang-Mills theory; then we confirm those results by using Noether's theorem.

  6. BF3-doped polyaniline: A novel conducting polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review the unusual structural, transport and magnetic properties of highly conducting polyaniline, doped with boron trifluoride. Our studies establish the unique conducting state of this system, which is in distinct contrast with the conventional proton-doped polyaniline samples.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Asterosismology for solar analogues 16 Cyg A/B (Davies+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Farr, W. M.; Garcia, R. A.; Lund, M. N.; Mathis, S.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Appourchaux, T.; Basu, S.; Benomar, O.; Campante, T. L.; Ceillier, T.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R.; Salabert, D.; Stello, D.

    2017-11-01

    Both 16 Cyg A and B are brighter (V~6) than the saturation limit for which Kepler observations were designed. However, it was possible to capture the full stellar flux by using custom photometric aperture masks. Thus, 928 d of short-cadence observations (Gilliland et al. 2010ApJ...713L.160G) - from Quarter 7 to 16 - were generated using simple aperture photometry (Jenkins et al. 2010ApJ...713L..87J) and then corrected for instrumental perturbations following the methods described by Garcia et al. (2011MNRAS.414L...6G). The final light curves used for asteroseismic analyses were high-pass filtered using a triangular smooth of 4 d width and have a duty cycle of 90.5 per cent. The power density spectra were computed using a Lomb-Scargle algorithm. (2 data files).

  8. Kepler Observations and Asteroseismology of θ Cyg, the Brightest StarObservable in the Kepler Field of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzik, Joyce A.; Houdek, G.; Chaplin, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    -March 2011). We present analyses of the solar-like oscillations first discovered in the Q6 data [1, 2]. We use observational constraints from the literature and recent ground-based observations including angular diameters from optical interferometry in conjunction with the frequency data to derive stellar...... properties (e.g., mass, age, metallicity, extent of convection zones). We also discuss the prospects for detecting longer period gravity-mode pulsations as seen in gamma Doradus variable stars of spectral type A-F, given these constraints. With an effective temperature near 6500 K and near ‘solar’ element....... The calculated envelope convection zone depth depends on the element abundance mixtures adopted for the stellar models [2]. Asteroseismic studies of θ Cyg therefore have potential to shed light on the solar abundance problem [3, 4], as well as to put constraints on the presence and detectability of g...

  9. Conversion of the input of teach bottom of TRAC-BF1 to trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambrina, A.; Mesado, C.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.

    2013-01-01

    The presented work explains the methodology followed to translate a model from TRAC-BF1 to TRACE. This methodology is not exclusive to the PBTT model; You can also use, taking into account minor modifications, to translate other models, whenever the codes of departure and goal are the same.

  10. Characterization of plasticized PMMA–LiBF4 based solid polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The formation of polymer–salt complex has been confirmed by. FTIR spectral studies. The temperature dependence of conductivity of polymer films seems to obey the VTF re- lation. Values of conductivities of the polymer complexes are presented and discussed. Keywords. Polymer electrolyte; PMMA–LiBF4–DBP; FTIR; ...

  11. Improvement of TRAC-BF1 code to analyze the Ingress of Coolant Event (ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajima, Toshio; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Seki, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Kasahara, Fumio; Yamauchi, Michinori

    1997-08-01

    JAERI is performing the Ingress of Coolant Event (ICE) preliminary experiment as one of the technology R and D tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) was improved and arranged as the ICE experimental analysis code. The TRAC-BF1 code was originally developed for the thermal hydraulics safety analysis of the boiling water reactor (BWR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in USA. We partially modified the code to be applicable for the ICE analysis such as adding the heat transfer model in the VESSEL element plane surface, individual appointment of thermal transfer calculation mesh in VESSEL element. Moreover, the IPLOT program and the GCONV program was introduced to the engineering workstation (EWS) for plotting calculation outputs of TRAC-BF1 code. This paper describes a summary of the improved TRAC-BF1 code, and verification results of the modification of the TRAC-BF1 code, and ICE experimental analyzed result. (author)

  12. B.F. Skinner and Carl R. Rogers on Behavior and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Eugene E.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the theories of B.F. Skinner and Carl R. Rogers. In sections 2 and 3, the author discusses the Skinnerian and Rogerian theories by selecting and explicating key elements and delineating the general, comprehensive, theoretical position of each. Sections 4 and 5 present each man's…

  13. Characterization of plasticized PMMA–LiBF4 based solid polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Characterization of plasticized PMMA–LiBF4 based solid polymer electrolytes. S RAJENDRAN* ... rechargeable lithium batteries. Among the most promising examples are gel-type electrolytes obtained .... Sekhon S S, Pradeep and Agnihotry S A 1998 in Solid state ionics science and technology (eds) B V R Chowdari et al.

  14. Investigation of toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with or without the presence of conventional solvents, such as acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Belavgeni, Alexia; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects of two commonly used imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [omim][BF4] (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well as whether acetone could mediate their toxic profile. In this context, mussels were firstly exposed to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4] or [omim][BF4], with or without the presence of acetone (at a final concentration of 0.06% v/v), for a period of 96h, in order to determine the concentration that causes 50% mussel mortality (LC50 values) in each case. Thereafter, mussels were exposed to sub- and non-lethal concentrations of ILs for investigating their ability to cause lysosomal membrane impairment (with the use of neutral red retention assay/NRRT), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation byproduct (malondialdehyde/MDA) formation, as well as DNA damage and formation of nuclear abnormalities in hemocytes. The results showed that [omim][BF4] was more toxic than [bmim][BF4] in all cases, while the presence of acetone resulted in a slight attenuation of its toxicity. The different toxic behavior of ILs was further revealed by the significantly lower levels of NRRT values observed in [omim][BF4]-treated mussels, compared to those occurring in [bmim][BF4] in all cases. Similarly, [bmim][BF4]-mediated oxidative and genotoxic effects were observed only in the highest concentration tested (10mgL(-1)), while [omim][BF4]-mediated effects were enhanced at lower concentrations (0.01-0.05mgL(-1)). Overall, the present study showed that [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4] could induce not only lethal but also nonlethal effects on mussel M. galloprovincialis. The extent of [bmim][BF4] and/or [omim][BF4]-mediated effects could be ascribed to the length of each IL alkyl chain, as well as to their lipophilicity. Moreover, the role of acetone on the obtained toxic effects of the specific ILs was

  15. Co-injection of basic fluxes or BF flue dust with PC into a BF charged with 100% pellets:effects on slag formation and coal combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena

    2004-01-01

    Based on 100% pellets operation at BF No. 3 at SSAB Tunnplåt in Luleå a new pellet with CaO/SiO2=1 was developed during early nineties. The pellet showed good results in metallurgical laboratory test but caused slag formation problems in the bosh. A high basicity slag was formed during interaction with basic fluxes and its melting point was increased when the slag was finally reduced. By injection of basic fluxes, the slag formation problems in the bosh can be avoided. Without a sinter plant,...

  16. Characterization of BF4− in terms of its effect on water by the 1-propanol probing methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Takeshi; Ayako, Nitta; Nishikawa, Keilo

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common constituent anions for room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), BF4−, was characterized in terms of its effect on H2O using the so-called 1-propanol (1P) probing methodology developed by us earlier [PCCP, 15(2013) 14548-14565]. The results indicated that BF4− is quantitatively...

  17. A wide dynamic range BF{sub 3} neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, M., E-mail: michele.ferrarini@polimi.i [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Fondazione CNAO, via Caminadella 16, 20123 Milano (Italy); Varoli, V. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Caresana, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF{sub 3} neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  18. Electrodes for the hydrogen through water electrolysis using BMI.BF{sub 4} as electrolyte; Eletrodos para a producao de hidrogenio via eletrolise da agua utilizando BMI.BF{sub 4} como eletrolito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botton, Janine Padilha; Martini, Emilse M.A.; Souza, Michele Oberson de; Souza, Roberto Fernando de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Eletroquimica e Catalise]. E-mail: janine@iq.ufrgs.br; Loget, Gabriel [Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France). Lab. de Eletroquimica Molecular e Macromolecular. UMR CNRS 6510

    2008-07-01

    The hydrogen production by water electrolysis was tested with different electrocatalysts (nickel, iron alloys containing nickel, chromium and manganese, and molybdenum) in the ionic liquid electrolyte, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF{sub 4}), 10 vol.% in water. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) worked at room temperature with a platinum quasi-reference electrode (PtQRE) applying a -1.7 V potential. The experimental conditions used were determined in previous work and such parameters of operation were confirmed with the electrocatalysts employed in this work. A Hoffman cell apparatus was used to perform the water electrolysis. The current density values, j, obtained were between 3.0 mA cm{sup -2} and 77.5 mA cm{sup -2}. The system efficiency was very high for all electrocatalysts tested, between 97.0% and 99.2%. The molybdenum (Mo) electrode was better than others showing the highest current density value in HER. This behavior has been explained by the lower value of activation energy for the electrolysis reaction when Mo is employed comparing with Pt electrode. The energy activation of the HER using platinum (Pt) as electrocatalyst in an aqueous solution of BMI.BF{sub 4} 10 vol.% was 23.40 kJ mol{sup -1}, whereas with electrode of Mo in the same conditions , was 9.22 kJ mol{sup -1}. In an alkaline aqueous electrolyte (usual medium for such reaction), Mo is less efficient than Pt explaining the lack of published citation using pure Mo as cathode for the HER. The excellent results obtained with a Mo electrode employing ionic liquid as electrolyte show that the hydrogen production can be carried out with cheap electrode material at room temperature, which makes this method economically attractive. (author)

  19. Theoretical prediction of rare gas containing hydride cations: HRgBF+ (Rg = He, Ar, Kr, and Xe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohiwal, Abhishek; Manna, Debashree; Ghosh, Ayan; Jayasekharan, Thankan; Ghanty, Tapan K

    2013-10-17

    The existence of rare-gas-containing hydride ions of boron (HRgBF(+)) has been predicted by using ab initio quantum chemical methods. The HRgBF(+) ions are obtained by inserting a rare gas (Rg) atom in between the H and B atoms of a HBF(+) ion, and the geometries are optimized for minima as well as transition states using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), density functional theory (DFT), and coupled-cluster theory (CCSD(T)) based techniques. The predicted HRgBF(+) ions are found to be metastable, and they exhibit a linear structure at the minima and a nonlinear planar structure at the transition state, corresponding to C∞v and Cs symmetries, respectively. All of the predicted HRgBF(+) ions show negative binding energies with respect to the two-body dissociation channel, leading to global minima (HBF(+) + Rg) on the singlet potential energy surface. In contrast, the dissociation energies corresponding to another two-body dissociation channel leading to HRg(+) + BF and two three-body dissociation channels corresponding to the dissociation into H + Rg + BF(+) and H(+) + Rg + BF show very high positive energies. Apart from positive dissociation energies, the predicted ions show finite barrier heights corresponding to the transition states involving a H-Rg-B bending mode, leading to the global minima products (HBF(+) + Rg). The finite barrier heights in turn would prevent the metastable HRgBF(+) species from transforming to global minima products. Structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies, stability, and Mulliken and natural bonding orbital (NBO) charge distribution values for all of the species are reported using the MP2 and DFT methods. Furthermore, the intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis confirms that the metastable minimum-energy structure and the global minimum products are connected through the corresponding transition state for each of the species on the respective singlet potential energy surface. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) analysis

  20. Electrodeposition of tin from EMI⋅BF4⋅Cl room temperature molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morimitsu M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemistry of Sn(II was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate molten salt containing free chloride ions (EMI ⋅BF4 ⋅Cl originated from the mixture of EMIC and NaBF4 (60:40 mol%. The well defined redox waves for the electro deposition and dissolution of tin were observed on a platinum electrode at 303 K. The deposition of tin proceeded through a quasi-reversible step with two electron transfer, and the deposited tin was sufficiently recovered during oxidation. The experimental current-time transient coincided with the theory based on one-dimensional diffusion control.

  1. Cartan's equations define a topological field theory of the BF type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, Vladimir; Montesinos, Merced

    2007-01-01

    Cartan's first and second structure equations together with first and second Bianchi identities can be interpreted as equations of motion for the tetrad, the connection and a set of two-form fields T I and R J I . From this viewpoint, these equations define by themselves a field theory. Restricting the analysis to four-dimensional spacetimes (keeping gravity in mind), it is possible to give an action principle of the BF type from which these equations of motion are obtained. The action turns out to be equivalent to a linear combination of the Nieh-Yan, Pontrjagin, and Euler classes, and so the field theory defined by the action is topological. Once Einstein's equations are added, the resulting theory is general relativity. Therefore, the current results show that the relationship between general relativity and topological field theories of the BF type is also present in the first-order formalism for general relativity

  2. BF3/nano-γ-Al2O3 Promoted Knoevenagel Condensation at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Mirjalili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with barbituric acid, dimedone and malononitrile occurred in the presence of BF3/nano-γ-Al2O3 at room temperature in ethanol. This catalyst is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS.

  3. Optimal PID control of a brushless DC motor using PSO and BF techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E.A. Ibrahim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique and bacterial foraging (BF technique for determining the optimal parameters of (PID controller for speed control of a brushless DC motor (BLDC where the (BLDC motor is modeled in simulink in Matlab. The proposed technique was more efficient in improving the step response characteristics as well as reducing the steady-state error, rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot.

  4. Optimal PID control of a brushless DC motor using PSO and BF techniques

    OpenAIRE

    H.E.A. Ibrahim; F.N. Hassan; Anas O. Shomer

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique and bacterial foraging (BF) technique for determining the optimal parameters of (PID) controller for speed control of a brushless DC motor (BLDC) where the (BLDC) motor is modeled in simulink in Matlab. The proposed technique was more efficient in improving the step response characteristics as well as reducing the steady-state error, rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot.

  5. BfR removes anthraquinone from its list of recommendations for food packaging

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2013-01-01

    The substance anthraquinone is used in the production of paper and cardboard, including food packaging. Anthraquinone contained in the packaging can contaminate food. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) took the publication of an expert opinion of the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) published in 2012 as an opportunity to reassess the use of anthraquinone in the manufacture of paper intended for food contact. In its opinion on anthraquinone as an active pesticide ingredient,...

  6. Quantum Gravity as a Broken Symmetry Phase of a BF Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Miković

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We explain how General Relativity with a cosmological constant arises as a broken symmetry phase of a BF theory. In particular we show how to treat de Sitter and anti-de Sitter cases simultaneously. This is then used to formulate a quantisation of General Relativity through a spin foam perturbation theory. We then briefly discuss how to calculate the effective action in this quantization procedure.

  7. Cathelicidin-BF, a snake cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide, could be an excellent therapeutic agent for acne vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Wang

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides acting as multifunctional effector molecules in innate immunity. Cathelicidin-BF has been purified from the snake venoms of Bungarus fasciatus and it is the first identified cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide in reptiles. In this study, cathelicidin-BF was found exerting strong antibacterial activities against Propionibacterium acnes. Its minimal inhibitory concentration against two strains of P. acnes was 4.7 µg/ml. Cathelicidin-BF also effectively killed other microorganisms including Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was possible pathogen for acne vulgaris. Cathelicidin-BF significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory factors secretion in human monocytic cells and P. acnes-induced O2.- production of human HaCaT keratinocyte cells. Observed by scanning electron microscopy, the surfaces of the treated pathogens underwent obvious morphological changes compared with the untreated controls, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide exerts its action by disrupting membranes of microorganisms. The efficacy of cathelicidin-BF gel topical administering was evaluated in experimental mice skin colonization model. In vivo anti-inflammatory effects of cathelicidin-BF were confirmed by relieving P. acnes-induced mice ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects combined with potent antimicrobial activities and O2.- production inhibition activities of cathelicidin-BF indicate its potential as a novel therapeutic option for acne vulgaris.

  8. Investigation of toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF{sub 4}] and [omim][BF{sub 4}], on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with or without the presence of conventional solvents, such as acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Belavgeni, Alexia; Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The toxic effects of [bmim][BF{sub 4}] and [omim][BF{sub 4}] on mussels were investigated. • Both ILs could induce lethal and nonlethal effects on Mytilus galloprovincialis. • Different extent of IL-mediated adverse effects was observed in mussel hemocytes. • The alkyl chain length and lipophilicity of ILs are crucial for their toxicity. • Acetone influences the oxidative and genotoxic effects of [omim][BF{sub 4}]. - Abstract: This study investigated the cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects of two commonly used imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF{sub 4}] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [omim][BF{sub 4}] (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well as whether acetone could mediate their toxic profile. In this context, mussels were firstly exposed to different concentrations of [bmim][BF{sub 4}] or [omim][BF{sub 4}], with or without the presence of acetone (at a final concentration of 0.06% v/v), for a period of 96 h, in order to determine the concentration that causes 50% mussel mortality (LC{sub 50} values) in each case. Thereafter, mussels were exposed to sub- and non-lethal concentrations of ILs for investigating their ability to cause lysosomal membrane impairment (with the use of neutral red retention assay/NRRT), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation byproduct (malondialdehyde/MDA) formation, as well as DNA damage and formation of nuclear abnormalities in hemocytes. The results showed that [omim][BF{sub 4}] was more toxic than [bmim][BF{sub 4}] in all cases, while the presence of acetone resulted in a slight attenuation of its toxicity. The different toxic behavior of ILs was further revealed by the significantly lower levels of NRRT values observed in [omim][BF{sub 4}]-treated mussels, compared to those occurring in [bmim][BF{sub 4}] in all cases. Similarly, [bmim][BF{sub 4}]-mediated oxidative and genotoxic effects were observed only in the highest

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ionic liquid (EMImBF4)/Li+ - chitosan membranes for ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaribu, Marvin H.; Arcana, I Made; Wahyuningrum, Deana

    2015-01-01

    Lithium ion battery has been currently developed and produced because it has a longer life time, high energycapacity, and the efficient use of lithium ion battery that is suitable for storing electrical energy. However, this battery has some drawbacks such as use liquid electrolytes that are prone to leakage and flammability during the battery charging process in high temperature. In this study, an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) containing Li + ions was synthesized and combined with chitosan polymer host as a polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium-ion batteries to solve this problems. This ionic liquid was obtained from the anion metathesis reaction between EMImBr and LiBF4 salt, while EMImBr was synthesized from the reaction between 1-methylimidazole and ethyl bromide utilizing Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The ionic liquid obtained was characterized by microstructure analysis with using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The polymer electrolyte membrane was characterized by analysis functional groups (FTIR), ionic conductivity (EIS), and surface morphology (SEM). The analysis results of ion conductivity by the EIS method showed the increase the ionic conductivity value of membranes from 1.30 × 10 −2 S cm −1 for chitosan to 1.30 × 10 −2 S cm −1 for chitosan with EMImBF4/Li + , and this result was supported by analysis the surface morphology (SEM)

  10. Comparison of proteomics profiles of Campylobacter jejuni strain Bf under microaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramila Christiane Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the atypical clinical C. jejuni Bf strain was shown by its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, modulation of the main enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake and regulation and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection.

  11. Stanley Kubrick and B.F. Skinner : Is a Teaching Machine a Monolith ?

    OpenAIRE

    浜野, 保樹; ハマノ, ヤスキ; Yasuki, Hamano

    1990-01-01

    The teaching machine invented by B.F. Skinner was recog-nized as one of few clear achievements of scientific pedagogy and even appeared in SF. Arthur C. Clarke who wrote the script of the SF movie "2001: A Space Odyssey" with Stanley Kubrick wanted to scientifically define a monolith to be a God who had given intelligence to our ancestors. In other words, he wanted to describe a monolith as a teaching machine as well as a God. However Kubrick did not want to make clear about what a monolith i...

  12. Negative charge induced degradation of PMOSFETs with BF2-implanted p+-poly gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.Y.; Sung, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new degradation phenomenon on thin gate oxide PMOS-FETs with BF 2 implanted p + -poly gate has been demonstrated and investigated. The cause of this type of degradation is a combination of the boron penetration through the gate oxide and charge trap generation due to the presence of fluorine in the gate oxide and some other processing-induced effects. The negative charge-induced degradation other than enhanced boron diffusion has been studied in detail here. The impact of this process-sensitive p + -poly gate structure on deep submicron CMOS process integration has been discussed. (author)

  13. Neutron sensitivity and detection efficiency of 3He and 10BF3 counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokonov, A. Kh.; Savoiskii, Yu. V.; Kamarzaev, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    An analytic relationship between the efficiency, sensitivity, and the coefficient of working-isotope utilization is established for gas-filled cylindrical thermal-neutron counters. This dependence is expressed in terms of the ratio of the characteristic length of a counter to its diameter. The characteristic size is introduced as the ratio of the total absorption cross section to the length of the counter. The parameters of basic 3 He and 10 BF 3 counters used in NM-64 neutron monitors are calculated.

  14. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Monick L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Materials and methods Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005. These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37 and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay. The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Results Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5% samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%. Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. Conclusion HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70

  15. The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Monick L; Velarde-Dunois, Ketty G; Segurondo, David; Morgado, Mariza G

    2012-01-16

    Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005). These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt) and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37) and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay). The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5%) samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%). Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70.0%) or BF1 recombinant (23.8% vs 30.0%) samples from Bolivia.

  16. Extensive Broadband X-Ray Monitoring During the Formation of a Giant Radio Jet Base in Cyg X-3 with AstroSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J. S.; Verdhan Chauhan, Jai; Rawat, Divya; Misra, Ranjeev; Agrawal, P. C.; Chandra, Sunil; Bagri, Kalyani; Jain, Pankaj; Manchanda, R. K.; Chitnis, Varsha; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2018-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral and timing behavior of Cyg X-3 as observed by AstroSat during the onset of a giant radio flare on 2017 April 1–2. Within a timescale of a few hours, the source shows a transition from the hypersoft state (HPS) to a more luminous state (we termed as the very high state), which coincides with the time of the steep rise in radio flux density by an order of magnitude. Modeling the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) and Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) spectra jointly in 0.5–70.0 keV, we found that the first few hours of the observation is dominated by the HPS with no significant counts above 17 keV. Later, an additional flat power-law component suddenly appeared in the spectra that extends to very high energies with the power-law photon index of {1.49}-0.03+0.04. Such a flat power-law component has never been reported from Cyg X-3. Interestingly the fitted power-law model in 25–70 keV, when extrapolated to the radio frequency, predicts the radio flux density to be consistent with the trend measured from the RATAN-600 telescope at 11.2 GHz. This provides direct evidence of the synchrotron origin of flat X-ray power-law component and the most extensive monitoring of the broadband X-ray behavior at the moment of decoupling the giant radio jet base from the compact object in Cyg X-3. Using SXT and LAXPC observations, we determine the giant flare ejection time as MJD 57845.34 ± 0.08 when 11.2 GHz radio flux density increases from ∼100 to ∼478 mJy.

  17. Two-dimensional topological field theories coupled to four-dimensional BF theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, Merced; Perez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional BF theory admits a natural coupling to extended sources supported on two-dimensional surfaces or string world sheets. Solutions of the theory are in one to one correspondence with solutions of Einstein equations with distributional matter (cosmic strings). We study new (topological field) theories that can be constructed by adding extra degrees of freedom to the two-dimensional world sheet. We show how two-dimensional Yang-Mills degrees of freedom can be added on the world sheet, producing in this way, an interactive (topological) theory of Yang-Mills fields with BF fields in four dimensions. We also show how a world sheet tetrad can be naturally added. As in the previous case the set of solutions of these theories are contained in the set of solutions of Einstein's equations if one allows distributional matter supported on two-dimensional surfaces. These theories are argued to be exactly quantizable. In the context of quantum gravity, one important motivation to study these models is to explore the possibility of constructing a background-independent quantum field theory where local degrees of freedom at low energies arise from global topological (world sheet) degrees of freedom at the fundamental level

  18. Electroreduction Property and MD Simulation of Nitrobenzene in Ionic Liquid [BMim][Tf2N]/[BMim][BF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Jianping; Zhang, Yinxu; Sun, Ruyao; Chen, Song

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The two different common accessible ionic liquids are mixed in a simple and economic way. • In some compound ratios, the dynamic performance of nitrobenzene is superior to either of ionic liquids. • Modification and functionalization of ionic liquids in electrochemical field is feasible. • The mass transfer of diffusion of nitrobenzene in ionic liquids can be simulated with molecular dynamics. • Molecular dynamics explains the improvement of nitrobenzene in composite ionic liquids. - Abstract: The two different common accessible ionic liquids [BMim][BF 4 ] and [BMim][Tf 2 N] were mixed each other in a simple and economic way. In some compound ratios, the dynamic performance of nitrobenzene in electric reduction was superior to that of any single kind of ionic liquid has been appeared. The interaction and mass transfer of diffusion of nitrobenzene in composite ionic liquids with different volume ratios were studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The improvement of the electroreduction performance of nitrobenzene in composite ionic liquids was verified and was tried to explain. This provides a new idea for the modification and functionalization of ionic liquids in electrochemical field. The experimental results showed that kinematic viscosity and electroconductibility of different ionic liquid systems display a regular change. And the change law has been basically unchanged after adding water. The two different functional ionic liquids were complemented each other in a simple and economic way, which has compensated for the disadvantage of mono-component ionic liquids. At 25 °C, electroreduction property of V [BMim][BF4] :V [BMim][Tf2N] = 1:1 is the best in cyclic voltammetry experiments of nitrobenzene in different composite ionic liquids. Its electrochemical behavior is significantly affected by scan rate, temperature, concentration of nitrobenzene and concentration of water. The MD simulation results showed most of interaction

  19. Self-aggregation of ionic liquid 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C4mmim][BF4] in aqueous media: A conductometric, volumetric and spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Amalendu; Pillania, Ankita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-aggregation behaviour of [C 4 mmim][BF 4 ] has been studied using various techniques. • Thermodynamic parameters showing aggregation is an entropy-driven process. • Volumetric analysis indicates aggregation is influenced by solute–solvent interactions. • 1 H NMR revealed formation of loosely bound aggregates in the system. - Abstract: Aggregation behaviour of ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C 4 mmim][BF 4 ] in aqueous media has been studied by electrical conductivity, density and speed of sound measurements across temperature range (288.15–308.15) K. The critical aggregation concentration (cac), the standard Gibb’s free energy of aggregation, ΔG° agg , adiabatic compressibility, β S and changes in the adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation, Δβ S,agg for the IL in aqueous solution have been derived from the experimental data. Further to get the deeper insights into the aggregation process spectroscopic study using 1 H NMR measurements have been carried out. The aggregation behaviour observed from conductance and volumetric approaches has been found to be in good agreement with each other. NMR study revealed the formation of loosely bound ion associates as aggregates in the system upon aggregation

  20. SEM, XRD and electrical conductivity studies of PVDF-HFP-LiBF4 -EC plasticized gel polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Mallikarjun, A.; Jaipal Reddy, M.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2017-07-01

    Micro porous gel type polymer electrolytes composed of 80 Wt% PVDF-HFP polymer - 20 Wt% LiBF4 salt in different concentrations of EC plasticizer (10Wt% - 70 Wt %) plasticizer have been synthesized by Solution cast technique. The effect of plasticizer in polymer-salt matrix, structural, morphological and ionic conductivity is studied. Structural and morphological studies showed increase in amorphous nature and recrystallization after a certain limit of EC plasticizer. The highest ionic conductivity of 1.510 × 10-3 Cm-1 is found for 40 Wt% of EC plasticizer at 303K. Addition of plasticizer increase free volume enables segmental motion of polymer and free mobility of ions. Also it provides more number of charge carriers in turn enhances the ionic conductivity up to certain limit of 40 Wt% of EC plasticizer. Further increase of plasticizer content creates ion-pair aggregation and recrystallization which reduces the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity obeys the VTF relationship for Gel type polymer electrolyte system.

  1. LINK codes TRAC-BF1/PARCSv2.7 in LINUX without external communication interface; Acoplamiento de los codigos TRAC-BF1/PARCSv2.7 en Linux sin interfaz externa de comunicacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, T.; Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Concejal, A.; Solar, A.

    2014-07-01

    The TRAC-BF1 code is still widely used by the nuclear industry for safety analysis. The plant models developed using this code are highly validated, so it is advisable to continue improving this code before migrating to another completely different code. The coupling with the NRC neutronic code PARCSv2.7 increases the simulation capabilities in transients in which the power distribution plays an important role. In this paper, the procedure for the coupling of TRAC-BF1 and PARCSv2.7 codes without PVM and in Linux is presented. (Author)

  2. Capillary evaporation of the ionic liquid [EMIM][BF4] in nanoscale solvophobic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, Gourav; Remsing, Richard C.; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2018-05-01

    Solvent density fluctuations play a crucial role in liquid-vapor transitions in solvophobic confinement and can also be important for understanding solvation of polar and apolar solutes. In the case of ionic liquids (ILs), density fluctuations can be used to understand important processes in the context of nanoscale aggregation and colloidal self-assemblies. In this article, we explore the nature of density fluctuations associated with capillary evaporation of the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]) in the confined region of model solvophobic nanoscale sheets by using molecular dynamics simulations combined with non-Boltzmann sampling techniques. We demonstrate that density fluctuations of the confined IL play an important role in capillary evaporation, suggesting analogies to dewetting transitions involving water. Significant changes in the interfacial structure of the IL are also detailed and suggested to underlie a non-classical (non-parabolic) dependence of the free energy barrier to evaporation on the degree of confinement.

  3. Observations of zodiacal light of the isolated Herbig BF Ori Ae star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.Kh.; AN Tadzhikskoj SSR, Dushanbe

    1989-01-01

    The isolated Herbig BF Ori Ae-star belongs to the subclass of young irreguLar variables with non-periodic Algol-type brightness variations. In the course of polarization and photometrical patrol observations carried out in 1987-88 in the Crimea and Sanglock, high linear polarization has been observed in deep minima. The analysis of the observations show, that the most probably a source of polarization is the scattered light from the circumstellar dust disklike envelope that is the analogue of the solar zodiacal light. It is concluded that the bimodal distribution oF positional angles of linear polarization in L 1641 reflects a complex structure of the magnetic field in this giant cloud

  4. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures produced with [DMIm]BF{sub 4} using ultrasonic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, I. B. Abdul; Ayob, M. T. M.; Ishak, I. S.; Mohd Lawi, R. L.; Isahak, W. N. R. W.; Hamid, M. H. N. Abd; Othman, N. K.; Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Chemistry and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2012-11-27

    Great interests in metallic oxides have emerged because of the promising properties of these materials for various applications such as solar cells and sensors. ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were successfully synthesized from Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} Bullet 2H{sub 2}O, NaOH and room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] with ultrasound irradiation. Parameters such as the effect of sonication time (30, 60 and 90 minutes) and Zn(Ac){sub 2} precursor to [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] ratios of 3:5, 5:5 and 5:3 were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the ZnO nanocrystals were hexagonal zincite crystalline in structure. The band gap energies (E{sub g}) were estimated to be 3.35-3.55 eV from the UV-Visible spectrum. The solution with the highest ratio of Zn was analysed with photoluminescence spectroscopy, which exhibited peaks at 362, 403, 468 and 539 nm, at room temperature. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesis products were spherical (30-60 nm), spindle ({approx}10 Multiplication-Sign 70 nm for width Multiplication-Sign length) and whisker-like (100-200 nm), with their dimensions decreasing systematically with increased sonication time. Chemical compositions were approximated at 1:1 for Zn and O, estimated by electron dispersive x-ray spectrum.

  5. Implementation and assessment of improved models and options in TRAC-BF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.Th.

    1996-07-01

    A summary of modifications and options introduced in TRAC-BF1 is presented and it is shown that the predicting capabilities of the modified version of the core are greatly improved. These changes include the introduction of a different heat transfer package during reflooding, the implementation of a simple single-phase limit procedure for forcing the two phases to acquire the same velocity if one phase disappears, a close assessment of the annular flow interfacial shear correlation, implementation of a simple radiation model which seems to alleviate some numerical-oscillations problems induced by the existing highly complex model. Furthermore, different options were introduced and tested like upwinding some terms of the momentum equations (which seems to solve a number of problems reported in the past), the second upwind scheme for the convective terms of the phasic momentum equations and the implementation and assessment of a completely different annular flow interfacial shear correlation. The modified TRAC-BF1 is assessed against some bottom-flooding separate-effect experiments, a 'benchmark' top flooding simulation as well as against the TLTA test Nr. 6423. In the process of this task, the different options are assessed and discussed and is shown that the predictions of the modified code are physically sound and close to the measurements, while almost all the predicted variables are free of unphysical spurious oscillations. The modifications introduced solve a number of problems associated with the frozen version of the code and result in a version which can be confidently used for LB-LOCA analyses. (author) 19 figs., 16 refs

  6. Effect of ZrO2 on conductivity of PVC–PMMA–LiBF4–DBP polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PMMA–LiBF4–DBP for different concentrations of ZrO2 have been investigated. FTIR studies indicate complex formation between the polymers, salt and plasticizer. The electrical conductivity values measured by a.c. impedance spectroscopy is ...

  7. Membrane fouling mechanism of biofilm-membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR): Pore blocking model and membrane cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Wenxiang; Tang, Bing; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Zhien

    2018-02-01

    Biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) is considered as an important wastewater treatment technology that incorporates advantages of both biofilm and MBR process, as well as can alleviate membrane fouling, with respect to the conventional activated sludge MBR. But, to be efficient, it necessitates the establishment of proper methods for the assessment of membrane fouling. Four Hermia membrane blocking models were adopted to quantify and evaluate the membrane fouling of BF-MBR. The experiments were conducted with various operational conditions, including membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Good agreement between cake formation model and experimental data was found, confirming the validity of the Hermia models for assessing the membrane fouling of BF-MBR and that cake layer deposits on membrane. Moreover, the influences of membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure on the Hermia pore blocking coefficient of cake layer were investigated. In addition, the permeability recovery after membrane cleaning at various operational conditions was studied. This work confirms that, unlike conventional activated sludge MBR, BF-MBR possesses a low degree of membrane fouling and a higher membrane permeability recovery after cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diversity of HIV-1 subtype B: implications to the origin of BF recombinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Leal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in Brazil is peculiar because of the high frequency of isolates having the GWGR tetramer at V3 loop region. It has been suggested that GWGR is a distinct variant and less pathogenic than other subtype B isolates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-four percent of the HIV-1 subtype B worldwide sequences (7689/8131 obtained from the Los Alamos HIV database contain proline at the tetramer of the V3 loop of the env gene (GPGR and only 0.74% (60/8131 have tryptophan (GWGR. By contrast, 48.4% (161/333 of subtype B isolates from Brazil have proline, 30.6% (102/333 contain tryptophan and 10.5% (35/333 have phenylalanine (F at the second position of the V3 loop tip. The proportion of tryptophan and phenylalanine in Brazilian isolates is much higher than in worldwide subtype B sequences (chi-square test, p = 0.0001. The combined proportion of proline, tryptophan and phenylalanine (GPGR+GWGR+GFGR of Brazilian isolates corresponds to 89% of all amino acids in the V3 loop. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that almost all subtype B isolates in Brazil have a common origin regardless of their motif (GWGR, GPGR, GGGR, etc. at the V3 tetramer. This shared ancestral origin was also observed in CRF28_BF and CRF29_BF in a genome region (free of recombination derived from parental subtype B. These results imply that tryptophan substitution (e.g., GWGR-to-GxGR, which was previously associated with the change in the coreceptor usage within the host, also occurs at the population level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the current findings and previous study showing that tryptophan and phenylalanine in the V3 loop are related with coreceptor usage, we propose that tryptophan and phenylalanine in subtype B isolates in Brazil are kept by selective mechanisms due to the distinct coreceptor preferences in target cells of GWGR, GFGR and GFGR viruses.

  9. BF3 x Et2O-mediated cascade cyclizations: synthesis of schweinfurthins F and G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Nolan R; Neighbors, Jeffrey D; Wiemer, David F

    2008-10-17

    The total synthesis of the natural stilbene (+)-schweinfurthin G (8) has been accomplished through a sequence based on an efficient cationic cascade cyclization. This cascade process is initiated by Lewis acid promoted ring opening of an epoxide and terminated through a novel reaction with a phenolic oxygen "protected" as its MOM ether. Several Lewis acids have been examined for their ability to induce this new reaction, and BF3 x Et2O was found to be the most effective. The only major byproduct under these conditions was one where the expected secondary alcohol was found as its MOM ether derivative (e.g., 30). While this byproduct could be converted to the original target compound through hydrolysis, it also could be employed as a protected alcohol to allow preparation of a benzylic phosphonate (43) without dehydration of the secondary alcohol. The resulting phosphonate was employed in a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensation with an aldehyde representing the right half of the target compounds, an approach complementary to previous studies based on condensation of a right-half phosphonate and a left-half aldehyde.

  10. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. I. Revised Parameters for the Component Stars of the Kepler Low-mass Eclipsing Binary T-Cyg1-12664

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eunkyu; Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Swift, Jonathan J. [The Thacher School, 5025 Thacher Road Ojai, CA 93023 (United States); Baranec, Christoph; Atkinson, Dani [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaiì at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [McDonald Observatory and The University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); DeFelippis, Daniel, E-mail: eunkyuh@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Several low-mass eclipsing binary stars show larger than expected radii for their measured mass, metallicity, and age. One proposed mechanism for this radius inflation involves inhibited internal convection and starspots caused by strong magnetic fields. One particular eclipsing binary, T-Cyg1-12664, has proven confounding to this scenario. Çakırlı et al. measured a radius for the secondary component that is twice as large as model predictions for stars with the same mass and age, but a primary mass that is consistent with predictions. Iglesias-Marzoa et al. independently measured the radii and masses of the component stars and found that the radius of the secondary is not in fact inflated with respect to models, but that the primary is, which is consistent with the inhibited convection scenario. However, in their mass determinations, Iglesias-Marzoa et al. lacked independent radial velocity measurements for the secondary component due to the star’s faintness at optical wavelengths. The secondary component is especially interesting, as its purported mass is near the transition from partially convective to a fully convective interior. In this article, we independently determined the masses and radii of the component stars of T-Cyg1-12664 using archival Kepler data and radial velocity measurements of both component stars obtained with IGRINS on the Discovery Channel Telescope and NIRSPEC and HIRES on the Keck Telescopes. We show that neither of the component stars is inflated with respect to models. Our results are broadly consistent with modern stellar evolutionary models for main-sequence M dwarf stars and do not require inhibited convection by magnetic fields to account for the stellar radii.

  11. Comparison of the local binding motifs in the imidazolium-based ionic liquids [EMIM][BF{sub 4}] and [EMMIM][BF{sub 4}] through cryogenic ion vibrational predissociation spectroscopy: Unraveling the roles of anharmonicity and intermolecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Joseph A.; Wolke, Conrad T.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Johnson, Mark A., E-mail: mark.johnson@yale.edu, E-mail: mccoy@chemistry.ohio-state.edu [Sterling Chemistry Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); McCoy, Anne B., E-mail: mark.johnson@yale.edu, E-mail: mccoy@chemistry.ohio-state.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    We clarify the role of the critical imidazolium C{sub (2)}H position (the central C between N atoms in the heterocycle) in the assembly motif of the [EMIM][BF{sub 4}] ionic liquid by analyzing the vibrational spectra of the bare EMIM{sup +} ion as well as that of the cationic [EMIM]{sub 2}[BF{sub 4}]{sup +} (EMIM{sup +} = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}N{sub 2}{sup +}) cluster. Vibrational spectra of the cold, mass-selected ions are obtained using cryogenic ion vibrational predissociation of weakly bound D{sub 2} molecules formed in a 10 K ion trap. The C{sub (2)}H behavior is isolated by following the evolution of key vibrational features when the C{sub (2)} hydrogen, the proposed binding location of the anion to the imidazolium ring, is replaced by either deuterium or a methyl group (i.e., in the EMMIM{sup +} analogue). Strong features in the ring CH stretching region of the bare ion are traced to Fermi resonances with overtones of lower frequency modes. Upon incorporation into the EMIM{sup +} ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ BF{sub 4}{sup −} ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ EMIM{sup +} ternary complex, the C{sub (2)}H oscillator strength is dramatically increased, accounting for the much more complicated patterns derived from the EMIM{sup +} ring CH stretches in the light isotopomer, which are strongly suppressed in the deuterated analogue. Further changes in the spectra that occur when the C{sub (2)}H is replaced by a methyl group are consistent with BF{sub 4}{sup −} attachment directly to the imidazolium ring in an arrangement that maximizes the electrostatic interaction between the molecular ions.

  12. Recrystallization of implanted amorphous silicon layers. I. Electrical properties of silicon implanted with BF+2 or Si++B+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.Y.; Streetman, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical properties of recrystallized amorphous silicon layers, formed by BF + 2 implants or Si + +B + implants, have been studied by differential resistivity and Hall-effect measurements. Electrical carrier distribution profiles show that boron atoms inside the amorphized Si layers can be fully activated during recrystallization at 550 0 C. The mobility is also recovered. However, the tail of the B distribution, located inside a damaged region near the original amorphous-crystalline interface, remains inactive. This inactive tail has been observed for all samples implanted with BF + 2 . Only in a thicker amorphous layer, formed for example by Si + predamage implants, can the entire B profile be activated. The etch rate of amorphous silicon in HF and the effect of fluorine on the recrystallization rate are also reported

  13. New data from a BfR human study - no cyanide risk resulting from the consumption of marzipan and persipan

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2015-01-01

    A human study conducted by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) enables more differentiated risk assessment of cyanide exposure following the consumption of bitter apricot kernels, persipan, linseed or manioc (cassava). The study results have now been published in the scientific journal “Archives of Toxicology” (DOI 10.1007/s00204-015-1479-8, open access). Bitter apricot kernels, linseeds and manioc contain, as natural plant substances, cyanogenic glycosides in relatively high...

  14. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in São Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Iamarino

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.

  15. BF3.SiO2: an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of azo dyes at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Bi Fatemeh Mirjalili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A rapid one-pot method has been developed for the synthesis of azo dyes via ‎sequential diazotization–diazo coupling of aromatic amines with coupling agents at room ‎temperature in the presence of BF3.SiO2 as acidic catalyst. The obtained aryl diazonium salts bearing silica supported boron tri-flouride counter ion‎ was sufficiently stable to be kept at room ‎temperature in the dry state.‎

  16. FTIR Spectroscopic and DC Ionic conductivity Studies of PVDF-HFP: LiBF4: EC Plasticized Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Mallikarjun, A.; Jaipal Reddy, M.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper; the FTIR and Temperature dependent DC Ionic conductivity studies of polymer (80 Wt% PVDF-HFP) with inorganic lithium tetra fluoroborate salt (20 Wt% LiBF4) as ionic charge carrier and plasticized with various weight ratios of Ethylene carbonate plasticizer (10 Wt% to 70 Wt% EC) as gel polymer electrolytes. Solution casting method is used for the preparation of plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte films. FTIR analysis shows the good complexation between PVDF-HFP: LiBF4 and the presence of functional groups in the plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte membrane. Also the analysis and results show that the highest DC ionic conductivity of 1.66 × 10-3 SCm -1 was found at 373 K for a particular concentration of 80 Wt% PVDF-HFP: 20 Wt% LiBF4: 40 Wt% EC porous gel type polymer-salt plasticized porous membrane. Increase of temperature results expansion and segmental motion of polymer chain that generates free volume in turn promotes hopping of the lithium ions satisfying Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of Cofrentes NPP Scram-61 to different thermalhydraulic-neutronic core mappings with trac-BF1/valkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.M.; Miro, R.; Rosello, O.; Verdu, G.; Ginestar, D.; Gomez, A.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this analysis is to check out the coupled code TRAC-BF1/VALKIN capabilities against complex 3-D coupled neutronic-thermal hydraulics, transients performing a sensitivity study using different core thermal-hydraulic models. This study is a continuation of a series of analyses with different transients and reactors using this coupled code. This transient has been selected because the peak power is concentrated in one quadrant, the analysis of the nodalization of this quadrant will allow to assess the core response and to evaluate the capability of the code TRAC-BF1/VALKIN to simulate these types of transients. A methodology for choosing the optimal core mapping is needed in order to reduce the Cpu time with an acceptable accuracy. There are some parameters that affect this distribution depending on the transient and the behavior of the core. Scram-61 in Cofrentes NPP is a transient where the control rods insertion takes place asymmetrically only in three quadrants. The core produces a non homogeneous power distribution where a quadrant produces most of the power after the scram. TRAC-BF1/VALKIN is able to reproduce the Cofrentes Scram 61 transient with 3-D kinetics. The 3-D analysis allows us to detect a possible LPRM (Local Power Range Monitor) measure overflow due to the fact that the peak power is concentrated in one quadrant. (authors)

  18. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies of cytochrome b-563 in isolated cytochrome b/f complex and in thylakoid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hind, G.; Clark, R.D.; Houchins, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive studies, performed principally by Hauska, Hurt and collaborators, have shown that a cytochrome (cyt) b/f complex isolated from photosynthetic membranes of spinach or Anabaena catalyzes electron transport from plastoquinol (PQH/sub 2/) to plastocyanin or algal cyt c-552. The complex from spinach thylakoids generated a membrane potential when reconstituted into liposomes, and although the electrogenic mechanism remains unknown, a key role for cyt b-563 is widely accepted. Electrogenesis by a Q-cycle mechanism requires a plastoquinone (PQ) reductase to be associated with the stromal side of the thylakoid b/f complex though this activity has yet to be demonstrated. It seemed possible that more gentle isolation of the complex might yield a form containing additional polypeptides, perhaps including a PQ reductase or a component involved in returning electrons from reduced ferredoxin to the complex in cyclic electron flow. Optimization of the isolation of cyt b/f complex for Hybrid 424 spinach from a growth room was also required. The procedure we devised is compared to the protocol of Hurt and Hauska (1982). 13 references.

  19. Effects of the New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Benzofuroxane Derivative BF-5m on High Glucose Induced Prolongation of Cardiac QT Interval and Increase of Coronary Perfusion Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of the new aldose reductase inhibitor benzofuroxane derivative 5(6-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylmethoxybenzofuroxane (BF-5m on the prolongation of cardiac QT interval and increase of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP in isolated, high glucose (33.3 mM D-glucose perfused rat hearts. BF-5m was dissolved in the Krebs solution at a final concentration of 0.01 μM, 0.05 μM, and 0.1 μM. 33.3 mM D-glucose caused a prolongation of the QT interval and increase of CPP up to values of 190 ± 12 ms and 110 ± 8 mmHg with respect to the values of hearts perfused with standard Krebs solution (11.1 mM D-glucose. The QT prolongation was reduced by 10%, 32%, and 41%, respectively, for the concentration of BF-5m 0.01 μM, 0.05 μM, and 0.1 μM. Similarly, the CPP was reduced by 20% for BF-5m 0.05 μM and by 32% for BF-5m 0.1 μM. BF-5m also increased the expression levels of sirtuin 1, MnSOD, eNOS, and FOXO-1, into the heart. The beneficial actions of BF-5m were partly abolished by the pretreatment of the rats with the inhibitor of the sirtuin 1 activity EX527 (10 mg/kg/day/7 days i.p. prior to perfusion of the hearts with high glucose + BF-5m (0.1 μM. Therefore, BF-5m supplies cardioprotection from the high glucose induced QT prolongation and increase of CPP.

  20. The roles of the analogy with natural selection in B.F. Skinner's philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terry L

    2018-02-17

    Beginning in the 1950s, B.F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner's other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called "selection by consequences." He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting. This argument dismisses ordinary explanations of action, and has implications not only for cognitive science but also for morals. Skinner cited the latter implications to counter objections to the application of behavior analysis to the reform of society and its institutions. Skinner's critique, however, rests upon empirical assumptions that have been criticized by other behavior analysts. Although for Skinner the major role of the analogy was to propose an empirical thesis, it also can play a metaphysical role-namely, to demonstrate the possibility of ontogenetic adaptation without reference to agents who have reasons for acting. These two roles, empirical and metaphysical, are the mirror image of the empirical and metaphysical roles of the computer analogy for cognitive science. That analogy also can be (and has been) interpreted as an empirical thesis. Its empirical implications, however, have been difficult to confirm. It also, however, has played a metaphysical role-namely, to demonstrate the possibility that a physical process could perform logical operations on states having propositional content. Neither analogy provides a well-confirmed, general answer to the question of how to explain the process of ontogenetic adaptation. But together they show there are two metaphysically coherent, but conflicting, answers to this question. Depending upon one's epistemology, the analogy with natural selection may provide a

  1. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, ν). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m 3 . The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  2. X-Ray Emission from an Asymmetric Blast Wave and a Massive White Dwarf in the Gamma Ray Emitting Nova V407 CYG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Thomas; Donato, Davide; Mukai, Koji; Sokoloski, Jennifer; Chomiuk, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Classical nova events in symbiotic stars, although rare, offer a unique opportunity to probe the interaction between ejecta and a dense environment in stellar explosions. In this work, we use X-ray data obtained with Swift and Suzaku during the recent classical nova outburst in V407 Cyg to explore such an interaction. We find evidence of both equilibrium and non-equilibrium ionization plasmas at the time of peak X-ray brightness, indicating a strong asymmetry in the density of the emitting region. Comparing a simple model to the data, we find that the X-ray evolution is broadly consistent with nova ejecta driving a forward shock into the dense wind of the Mira companion. We detect a highly absorbed soft X-ray component in the spectrum during the first 50 days of the outburst that is consistent with supersoft emission from the nuclear burning white dwarf. The high temperature and short turn off time of this emission component, in addition to the observed breaks in the optical and UV lightcurves, indicate that the white dwarf in the binary is extremely massive. Finally, we explore the connections between the X-ray and GeV-ray evolution, and propose that the gamma ray turn-off is due to the stalling of the forward shock as the ejecta reach the red giant surface.

  3. OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY OUTER DISK: NEWLY DISCOVERED AND UNSTUDIED CLUSTERS IN THE SPITZER GLIMPSE-360, CYG-X, AND SMOG SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasowski, G.; Beaton, R. L.; Hamm, K. K.; Majewski, S. R.; Patterson, R. J.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B. A.; Benjamin, R. A.; Watson, C.

    2013-01-01

    Open stellar clusters are extremely valuable probes of Galactic structure, star formation, kinematics, and chemical abundance patterns. Near-infrared (NIR) data have enabled the detection of hundreds of clusters hidden from optical surveys, and mid-infrared (MIR) data are poised to offer an even clearer view into the most heavily obscured parts of the Milky Way. We use new MIR images from the Spitzer GLIMPSE-360, Cyg-X, and SMOG surveys to visually identify a large number of open cluster candidates in the outer disk of the Milky Way (65° < l < 265°). Using NIR color-magnitude diagrams, stellar isochrones, and stellar reddening estimates, we derive cluster parameters (metallicity, distance, reddening) for those objects without previous identification and/or parameters in the literature. In total, we present coordinates and sizes of 20 previously unknown open cluster candidates; for 7 of these we also present metallicity, distance, and reddening values. In addition, we provide the first estimates of these values for nine clusters that had been previously cataloged. We compare our cluster sizes and other derived parameters to those in the open cluster catalog of Dias et al. and find strong similarities except for a higher mean reddening for our objects, which signifies our increased detection sensitivity in regions of high extinction. The results of this cluster search and analysis demonstrate the ability of MIR imaging and photometry to augment significantly the current census of open clusters in the Galaxy

  4. Safety of laboratory analyzers for infection testing - results of the market surveillance by the BfArM until end 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekmeier R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The European Directive 98/79/EC on in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVD stipulates the marketing and post market surveillance of IVD in the European Economic Area. In cases of issues and field corrective actions, the manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authorities (CA. In Germany, the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM is the responsible CA for most IVD, with a small subset of IVD for immune hematological and infectiological testing as well as tissue typing as specified in Annex II of the Directive, being within the responsibility of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute (PEI. In this study, all issues regarding laboratory analyzers for infection testing and their consumables, but not reagents, kits and general culture media, reported to the BfArM between begin 1999 and end of 2007 were analyzed in respect to the sources of report, the underlying product failure and the performed corrective actions. Within the observation period a total of 1471 reports for IVD were received of which 73 related to the IVD for infection testing were included in our study. Reports were predominantly received from manufacturers (56 and competent authorities (15. Affected products were most frequently those for immunological analysis (42 whereas those based on culturing techniques (17 and molecular biological techniques (14 played only minor roles. In all these groups, laboratory analyzers (55 were more frequently affected than their consumables (18. Investigations of the manufacturers were able to identify the underlying root causes of product failures in 62 cases (84.9%. In 2 cases (2.7% the root cause remained unclear and in 9 cases (12.3% a product failure was excluded or a user error was the underlying cause. Product failures in laboratory analyzers were most frequently caused by software errors (31 and constructional faults (8 whereas the predominant cause of product failure in consumables were errors in production and

  5. The Addition of Simple Biological Filters of Different Capacity to Semi‑Recirculating Fish Rearing System and Its Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Lang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, accounting for around 50 % of the world’s food fish production. Limited resources, together with climatic change, have stimulated the search for solutions to support and sustain the production of fish as a source of protein for human consumption. The integration of a biological filtration (BF into a semi-recirculating fish rearing system can increase its carrying capacity and increase system efficiency compared to its’ energy consumption with minimum changes of system composition and minimal costs. Question is the capacity of the BF installed to a system and how it affects water quality. Two different amounts of BF media (surface added to semi-recirculating rearing system compared with the same system without BF were tested in case of this study. The results have shown that if the BF capacity is insufficient, BF can have negative effects to the quality of water environment. The insufficient amount of BF media caused 4 times reduction of ammonia nitrogen (N-NH4+ in system with BF compared to non BF system so it increased the system capacity for feed load 4 times. On the other hand it also increased nitrite nitrogen concentrations permanently more than 5.8 times for BF system compared to non BF system and increased rearing costs because the need of adding chlorides to the system to protect fish from nitrites toxicity. When the BF was dimensioned properly (next year there were almost no N-NH4+ in a system (0.10 mg.l−1 and the concentration of N-NO2− was kept at low levels too (0.150 mg .l−1. The nitrates (N‑NO3− concentration reached the level of 5.37 and 8.65 mg.l−1 in 2012 and 2013 respectively.

  6. A modified method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging using [11C]BF-227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analyses have been widely used in dementia imaging studies. However, 3D-SSP sometimes shows paradoxical results on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) analyses. This is thought to be caused by errors in anatomical standardization (AS) based on an 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) template. We developed a new method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging, and used it to analyze 11 C-labeled 2-(2-[2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl]ethenyl)-6-(2-[fluoro]ethoxy) benzoxazole (BF-227) PET images of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects were 20 with MCI, 19 patients with AD, and 17 healthy controls. Twelve subjects with MCI were followed up for 3 years or more, and conversion to AD was seen in 6 cases. All subjects underwent PET with both FDG and BF-227. For AS and 3D-SSP analyses of PET data, Neurostat (University of Washington, WA, USA) was used. Method 1 involves AS for BF-227 images using an FDG template. In this study, we developed a new method (Method 2) for AS: First, an FDG image was subjected to AS using an FDG template. Then, the BF-227 image of the same patient was registered to the FDG image, and AS was performed using the transformation parameters calculated for AS of the corresponding FDG images. Regional values were normalized by the average value obtained at the cerebellum and values were calculated for the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. For statistical comparison of the 3 groups, we applied one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. For statistical comparison between converters and non-converters, the t test was applied. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Among the 56 cases we studied, Method 1 demonstrated slight distortions after AS of the image in 16 cases and heavy distortions in 4 cases in which the distortions were not observed with Method 2. Both methods demonstrated that the

  7. Self-aggregation of ionic liquid 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C{sub 4}mmim][BF{sub 4}] in aqueous media: A conductometric, volumetric and spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu, E-mail: palchem21@gmail.com; Pillania, Ankita

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Self-aggregation behaviour of [C{sub 4}mmim][BF{sub 4}] has been studied using various techniques. • Thermodynamic parameters showing aggregation is an entropy-driven process. • Volumetric analysis indicates aggregation is influenced by solute–solvent interactions. • {sup 1}H NMR revealed formation of loosely bound aggregates in the system. - Abstract: Aggregation behaviour of ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C{sub 4}mmim][BF{sub 4}] in aqueous media has been studied by electrical conductivity, density and speed of sound measurements across temperature range (288.15–308.15) K. The critical aggregation concentration (cac), the standard Gibb’s free energy of aggregation, ΔG°{sub agg}, adiabatic compressibility, β{sub S} and changes in the adiabatic compressibility upon aggregation, Δβ{sub S,agg} for the IL in aqueous solution have been derived from the experimental data. Further to get the deeper insights into the aggregation process spectroscopic study using {sup 1}H NMR measurements have been carried out. The aggregation behaviour observed from conductance and volumetric approaches has been found to be in good agreement with each other. NMR study revealed the formation of loosely bound ion associates as aggregates in the system upon aggregation.

  8. Different features of the MHC class I heterodimer have evolved at different rates. Chicken B-F and beta 2-microglobulin sequences reveal invariant surface residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Andersen, R; Avila, D

    1992-01-01

    of small exons in the cytoplasmic region. The cDNA sequences were compared to turkey beta 2m, the apparent allele B-F12 alpha and other vertebrate homologs, using the 2.6 A structure of the human HLA-A2 molecule as a model. Both chicken alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains resemble mammalian classical class I......Chicken beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and class I (B-F19 alpha chain) cDNA clones were isolated and the sequences compared to those of B-F Ag isolated from chicken E. These clones represent the major expressed class I molecules on E, with B-F alpha size variants evidently due to alternative use...... composition in B-F compared to class I molecules from other taxa. Many of the surface residues are quite diverged, particularly in alpha 3 and beta 2m. There are fewer changes in intra- and interdomain contact sites. Some residues with important functions are invariant, including seven residues that bind...

  9. Utility of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF) in the Measurement of Maladaptive Personality and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Salekin, Randall T

    2016-11-07

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition (DSM-5) Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup developed the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) for the assessment of the alternative trait model for DSM-5 Along with this measure, the American Psychiatric Association published an abbreviated version, the PID-5-Brief form (PID-5-BF). Although this measure is available on the DSM-5 website for use, only two studies have evaluated its psychometric properties and validity and no studies have examined the U.S. version of this measure. The current study evaluated the reliability, factor structure, and construct validity of PID-5-BF scale scores. This included an evaluation of the scales' associations with Section II PDs, a well-validated dimensional measure of personality psychopathology, and broad externalizing and internalizing psychopathology measures. We found support for the reliability of PID-5-BF scales as well as for the factor structure of the measure. Furthermore, a series of correlation and regression analyses showed conceptually expected associations between PID-5-BF and external criterion variables. Finally, we compared the correlations with external criterion measures to those of the full-length PID-5 and PID-5-Short form. Intraclass correlation analyses revealed a comparable pattern of correlations across all three measures, thereby supporting the use of the PID-5-BF as a screening measure of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Theoretical investigation of force field and vibrational spectrum of BF3 molecule by MO LCAO SCF method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozerova, V.M.; Solomonik, V.G.; Krasnov, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Non-empirical calculations of equilibrium internuclear distances, force constants, frequencies of normal vibrations, isotope shifts and vibration intensities in IR spectrum of BF 3 molecule have been made by MO LCAO SCF method using three bases of grouped gauss functions: DZ (9s5p/4s2p), TZ(10s6p/5s3p) and TZ+P (10s6p1d/5s3p1d). All the three bases lead to the results which are in good agreement with the experimental data. For instance, theoretical values of vibration frequencies differ from the experimental ones by average 3.2; 2.4 and 7.0% in the bases DZ, TZ and TZ+P respectively

  11. Variations in the cytoplasmic region account for the heterogeneity of the chicken MHC class I (B-F) molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, L B; Kaufman, J; Verland, S

    1991-01-01

    . Unlike the parent proteins, the Mr 36,000 fragment derived from isolated variants yielded identical, simple patterns in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identical finger prints in peptide mapping. This, together with N-terminal amino acid sequencing, as well as comparison of hydrophobicity...... comprised by several isoelectric focusing variants. This heterogeneity could not be reduced by enzymatic deglycosylation. By contrast, proteolytic removal of a small (Mr 1000-4000) fragment from the alpha chain resulted in the generation of a Mr 36,000 fragment, common to all the molecular mass variants...... properties of fragments obtained by gradual proteolytic digestion, indicated that the small peptide responsible for the major B-F heterogeneity was situated in the intracellular, C-terminal part. Udgivelsesdato: 1991-null...

  12. B.F. Skinner and the auditory inkblot: The rise and fall of the verbal summator as a projective technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-11-01

    Behaviorist B.F. Skinner is not typically associated with the fields of personality assessment or projective testing. However, early in his career Skinner developed an instrument he named the verbal summator, which, at one point, he referred to as a device for "snaring out complexes," much like an auditory analogue of the Rorschach inkblots. Skinner's interest in the projective potential of his technique was relatively short lived, but whereas he used the verbal summator to generate experimental data for his theory of verbal behavior, several other clinicians and researchers exploited this potential and adapted the verbal summator technique for both research and applied purposes. The idea of an auditory inkblot struck many as a useful innovation, and the verbal summator spawned the tautophone test, the auditory apperception test, and the Azzageddi test, among others. This article traces the origin, development, and eventual demise of the verbal summator as an auditory projective technique.

  13. T-cell immune responses against Env from CRF12_BF and subtype B HIV-1 show high clade-specificity that can be overridden by multiclade immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C Mónaco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extreme genetic diversity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 poses a daunting challenge to the generation of an effective AIDS vaccine. In Argentina, the epidemic is characterized by the high prevalence of infections caused by subtype B and BF variants. The aim of this study was to characterize in mice the immunogenic and antigenic properties of the Env protein from CRF12_BF in comparison with clade B, employing prime-boost schemes with the combination of recombinant DNA and vaccinia virus (VV vectors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As determined by ELISPOT from splenocytes of animals immunized with either EnvBF or EnvB antigens, the majority of the cellular responses to Env were found to be clade-specific. A detailed peptide mapping of the responses reveal that when there is cross-reactivity, there are no amino acid changes in the peptide sequence or were minimal and located at the peptide ends. In those cases, analysis of T cell polifunctionality and affinity indicated no differences with respect to the cellular responses found against the original homologous sequence. Significantly, application of a mixed immunization combining both clades (B and BF induced a broader cellular response, in which the majority of the peptides targeted after the single clade vaccinations generated a positive response. In this group we could also find significant cellular and humoral responses against the whole gp120 protein from subtype B. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work has characterized for the first time the immunogenic peptides of certain EnvBF regions, involved in T cell responses. It provides evidence that to improve immune responses to HIV there is a need to combine Env antigens from different clades, highlighting the convenience of the inclusion of BF antigens in future vaccines for geographic regions where these HIV variants circulate.

  14. Effects of acetaminophen on mitochondrial complex I activity in the rat liver and kidney: a PET study with 18F-BCPP-BF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Masakatsu; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Tsukada, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, 2-tert-butyl-4-chloro-5-[6-(4- 18 F-fluorobutoxy)-pyridin-3-ylmethoxy]-2H-pyridazin-3-one ( 18 F-BCPP-BF), a PET probe for mitochondrial complex I (MC-I), was used to validate whether MC-I is a useful biomarker for detecting acetaminophen-induced dysfunctions in the liver and kidney. The kinetic and distribution of 18 F-BCPP-BF were assessed in rats using high-resolution animal PET in vivo. The binding specificity of 18 F-BCPP-BF to MC-I in the liver and kidney was confirmed by the pre-administration of rotenone, a specific MC-I inhibitor. The effects of acetaminophen on MC-I activity were assessed 2 and 24 h after the administration of vehicle or acetaminophen at a dose of 100 or 300 mg/kg. Biochemical parameters in plasma and urine were assessed 2, 6, and 24 h after the administration of vehicle or acetaminophen. The uptake of 18 F-BCPP-BF by the liver and kidney was significantly inhibited by the pre-administration of rotenone. Two and more hours after the administration of acetaminophen, the uptake of 18 F-BCPP-BF was dose-dependently reduced in the liver, even at 100 mg/kg, and in the kidney at 300 mg/kg, whereas biological parameters started to be affected 6 h or later at doses of 300 mg/kg. The present study demonstrated that 18 F-BCPP-BF has potential as a PET probe for the quantitative imaging of hepatic and renal dysfunction as impaired MC-I activity in the early phase of the treatment for an overdose of acetaminophen in the living body with PET.

  15. Framework for feasibility assessment and performance analysis of riverbank filtration systems for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2012-03-01

    Bank filtration (BF) is an attractive, robust and reliable water treatment technology. It has been used in Europe and USA for a long time; however experience with this technology so far is site specific. There are no guidelines or tools for transfer of this technology to other locations, specifically to developing countries. A four-step methodology was developed at UNESCO-IHE to analyse feasibility and to predict the performance of BF for water treatment. This included (i) hydraulic simulation using MODFLOW; (ii) determination of share of bank filtrate using NASRI BF simulator; (iii) prediction of water quality from a BF system using the water quality guidelines developed and (iv) comparison of the costs of BF systems and existing conventional surface water treatment systems for water treatment. The methodology was then applied to assess feasibility of BF in five cities in Africa. It was found that in most of the cities studied BF is a feasible and attractive option from hydraulic, water quality as well as operational cost considerations. Considerable operational and maintenance costs saving can be achieved and water quality can be further improved by switching from conventional chemical-based surface water treatment to BF or at least by replacing some of the treatment units with BF systems. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  16. Thermally Tunable Dual Emission of the d8–d8 Dimer [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4–

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofbeck, T.; Lam, Y.; Ch.; Kalbáč, Martin; Záliš, Stanislav; Vlček, Antonín; Yersin, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2016), s. 2441-2449 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13015; GA MŠk LD14129; GA MŠk LL1301 Grant - others:COST(XE) cm1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : High-resolution fluorescence * phosphorescence spectra * [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4− (Pt(pop-BF2)) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  17. Thermally Tunable Dual Emission of the d8–d8 Dimer [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4–

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofbeck, T.; Lam, Y.; Ch.; Kalbáč, Martin; Záliš, Stanislav; Vlček, Antonín; Yersin, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2016), s. 2441-2449 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13015; GA MŠk LD14129; GA MŠk LL1301 Grant - others:COST(XE) cm1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : High-resolution fluorescence * phosphorescence spectra * [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4− (Pt( pop -BF2)) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  18. Hybrid biofilm-membrane bioreactor (Bf-MBR) for minimization of bulk liquid-phase organic substances and its positive effect on membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison between a conventional membrane bioreactor (C-MBR and a biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Subtil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of biofilm carriers in a MBR on the performance of organic matter and nitrogen removal and the influence on membrane fouling were evaluated. The configurations studied included a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (C-MBR and a Biofilm Membrane Bioreactor (BF-MBR operated in parallel, both fed with domestic wastewater. Regarding organic matter removal, no statistically significant differences were observed between C-MBR and BF-MBR, producing an effluent with a Soluble COD concentration of 27 ± 9.0 mgO2/L and 26 ±1.0 mgO2/L and BOD concentration of 6.0 ± 2.5 mgO2/L and 6.2 ± 2.1 mgO2/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BF-MBR produced a permeate with lower ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations, which resulted in a removal efficiency of 98% and 73%, respectively. It was also observed that the fouling rate was about 35% higher in the C-MBR than that for the BF-MBR, which also presented a reduction of total membrane resistance, about 29%, and increased operational cycle length around 7 days, compared to C-MBR.

  20. Cerebral Syphilitic Gumma Can Arise Within Months of Reinfection: A Case of Histologically Proven Treponema pallidum Strain Type 14b/f Infection With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yusuke; Watabe, Takeya; Ota, Yasunori; Nakayama, Shu-Ichi; Asai, Nobuhiro; Hagihara, Mao; Yamagishi, Yuka; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Takayasu, Masakazu; Ohnishi, Makoto; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2018-02-01

    A 44-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus positivity developed cerebral gumma 6 months after appropriate therapy for secondary syphilis. It was surgically resected and histologically, Treponema pallidum (14b/f, a relatively rare strain type) was proven. A complete set of modern techniques was performed to depict rare complication of this classic disease.

  1. Crystal structure and characterization of the novel NH+⋯N hydrogen bonded polar crystal [NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaś, M.; Gaģor, A.; Czupiński, O.; Medycki, W.; Jakubas, R.

    2012-03-01

    Dielectric properties and phase transitions of the piperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4], abbreviated as PFB) crystal are related to the one-dimensional arrangement of the cations linked by the bistable NH+⋯N hydrogen bonds and molecular motions of the [BF4]- units. The crystal structure of [NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4] is monoclinic at room temperature with the polar space group Pn. The polar/acentric properties of the room temperature phase IV have been confirmed by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements. DSC measurements show that the compound undergoes three first-order structural phase transitions: at 421/411 K (heating/cooling), at 386/372 K and at 364/349 K. 1H and 19F NMR measurements indicate the reorientational motions of [BF4]- anions and piperazinium(+) cations as well as the proton motion in the hydrogen-bonded chains of piperazine along the [001] direction. Over the phase I the isotropic reorientational motions or even self-diffusion of the cations and anions are expected. The conductivity measurements in the vicinity of the II-I PT indicate a superionic phase over the phase I.

  2. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy with BF2-chelated Tetraaryl-Azadipyrromethene agents: a multi-modality molecular imaging approach to therapeutic assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, A T

    2009-11-03

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for a range of diseases including cancer. The BF(2)-chelated tetraaryl-azadipyrromethenes (ADPMs) are an emerging class of non-porphyrin PDT agent, which have previously shown excellent photochemical and photophysical properties for therapeutic application. Herein, in vivo efficacy and mechanism of action studies have been completed for the lead agent, ADMP06.

  3. Performance enhancement of Ge-on-Insulator tunneling FETs with source junctions formed by low-energy BF2 ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Takumi; Matsumura, Ryo; Takaguchi, Ryotaro; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    To clarify the process of formation of source regions of high-performance Ge n-channel tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), p+-n junctions formed by low-energy ion implantation (I/I) of BF2 atoms are characterized. Here, the formation of p+-n junctions with steep B profiles and low junction leakage is a key issue. The steepness of 5.7 nm/dec in profiles of B implanted into Ge is obtained for BF2 I/I at 3 keV with a dose of 4 × 1014 cm-2. Ge-on-insulator (GOI) n-TFETs with the source tunnel junctions formed by low-energy B and BF2 I/I are fabricated on GOI substrates and the device operation is confirmed. Although the performance at room temperature is significantly degraded by the source junction leakage current, an I on/I off ratio of 105 and the minimum sub-threshold swing (S.S.) of 130 mV/dec are obtained at 10 K. It is found that GOI n-TFETs with steeper B profiles formed by BF2 I/I have led to higher on current and a lower sub-threshold slope, demonstrating the effectiveness of steep B profiles in enhancing the GOI TFET performance.

  4. Crystal structure and characterization of the novel NH+⋯N hydrogen bonded polar crystal [NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaś, M.; Gagor, A.; Czupiński, O.; Medycki, W.; Jakubas, R.

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties and phase transitions of the piperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ], abbreviated as PFB) crystal are related to the one-dimensional arrangement of the cations linked by the bistable NH + ⋯N hydrogen bonds and molecular motions of the [BF 4 ] − units. The crystal structure of [NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ] is monoclinic at room temperature with the polar space group Pn. The polar/acentric properties of the room temperature phase IV have been confirmed by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements. DSC measurements show that the compound undergoes three first-order structural phase transitions: at 421/411 K (heating/cooling), at 386/372 K and at 364/349 K. 1 H and 19 F NMR measurements indicate the reorientational motions of [BF 4 ] − anions and piperazinium(+) cations as well as the proton motion in the hydrogen-bonded chains of piperazine along the [001] direction. Over the phase I the isotropic reorientational motions or even self-diffusion of the cations and anions are expected. The conductivity measurements in the vicinity of the II–I PT indicate a superionic phase over the phase I. - Graphical abstract: It must be emphasized that the titled compound represents the first organic–inorganic simple salt containing the single-protonated piperazinium cation which was studied by means of the wide variety of experimental techniques. A survey of Cambridge Structural Database (CSD version 5.32 (November 2010) and updates (May 2011)) for structure containing the piperazinium cations yields 248 compounds with the doubly protonated piperazinium(2+) cations and only eight compounds with the singly protonated piperazinium(+) cations. Among these structures only one is the hybrid organic–inorganic material. This is piperazinium nitrate characterized structurally. The crystal packing of [NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ], phase IV. The dashed lines stand for the hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bonds to BF4 groups are not included for

  5. One dimensional neutron kinetics in the TRAC-BF1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, W.L. III; Wagner, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    The TRAC-BWR code development program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is developing a version of the TRAC code for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to provide a best-estimate analysis capability for the simulation of postulated accidents in boiling water reactor (BWR) power systems and related experimental facilities. Recent development efforts in the TRAC-BWR program have focused on improving the computational efficiency through the incorporation of a hybrid Courant- limit-violating numerical solution scheme in the one-dimensional component models and on improving code accuracy through the development of a one-dimensional neutron kinetics model. Many other improvements have been incorporated into TRAC-BWR to improve code portability, accuracy, efficiency, and maintainability. This paper will describe the one- dimensional neutron kinetics model, the generation of the required input data for this model, and present results of the first calculations using the model

  6. Bauhinia forficata lectin (BfL) induces cell death and inhibits integrin-mediated adhesion on MCF7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana C C; de Paula, Cláudia A A; Ferreira, Joana G; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Vaz, Angela M S F; Sampaio, Misako U; Correia, Maria Tereza S; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2014-07-01

    Plant lectins have attracted great interest in cancer studies due to their antitumor activities. These proteins or glycoproteins specifically and reversibly bind to different types of carbohydrates or glycoproteins. Breast cancer, which presents altered glycosylation of cell surface glycoproteins, is one of the most frequent malignant diseases in women. In this work, we describe the effect of the lectin Bauhinia forficata lectin (BfL), which was purified from B. forficata Link subsp. forficata seeds, on the MCF7 human breast cancer cellular line, investigating the mechanisms involved in its antiproliferative activity. MCF7 cells were treated with BfL. Viability and adhesion alterations were evaluated using flow cytometry and western blotting. BfL inhibited the viability of the MCF7 cell line but was ineffective on MDA-MB-231 and MCF 10A cells. It inhibits MCF7 adhesion on laminin, collagen I and fibronectin, decreases α1, α6 and β1 integrin subunit expression, and increases α5 subunit expression. BfL triggers necrosis and secondary necrosis, with caspase-9 inhibition. It also causes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, which leads to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and a decrease in the expression of the regulatory proteins pRb and p21. BfL shows selective cytotoxic effect and adhesion inhibition on MCF7 breast cancer cells. Cell death induction and inhibition of cell adhesion may contribute to understanding the action of lectins in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the determination of the spin of the black hole in Cyg X-1 from X-ray reflection spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, A. C.; Wilkins, D. R.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Cackett, E. M.; Nowak, M. A.; Pooley, G. G.; Pottschmidt, K.; Sanders, J. S.; Ross, R. R.; Wilms, J.

    2012-07-01

    The spin of Cygnus X-1 is measured by fitting reflection models to Suzaku data covering the energy band 0.9-400 keV. The inner radius of the accretion disc is found to lie within 2 gravitational radii (rg=GM/c2), and a value of ? is obtained for the dimensionless black hole spin. This agrees with recent measurements using the continuum fitting method by Gou et al. and of the broad iron line by Duro et al. The disc inclination is measured at ?, which is consistent with the recent optical measurement of the binary system inclination by Orosz et al. of 27°± 0?8. We pay special attention to the emissivity profile caused by irradiation of the inner disc by the hard power-law source. The X-ray observations and simulations show that the index q of that profile deviates from the commonly used, Newtonian, value of 3 within 3rg, steepening considerably within 2rg, as expected in the strong gravity regime.

  8. On the Determination of the Spin of the Black Hole in Cyg X-1 from X-Ray Reflection Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, A. C.; Wilkins, D.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Cackett, E. M.; Nowak, M. A.; Pooley, G.; Pottschmidt, K.; Sanders, J. S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The spin of Cygnus X-I is measured by fitting reflection models to Suzaku data covering the energy band 0.9-400 keY. The inner radius of the accretion disc is found to lie within 2 gravitational radii (rg = GM/c(exp 2)) and a value for the dimensionless black hole spin is obtained of 0.97(sup .0.14) (sup -0.02). This agrees with recent measurements using the continuum fitting method by Gou et al. and of the broad iron line by Duro et al. The disc inclination is measured at 23.7(sup +6.7) (sup -5.4) deg. which is consistent with the recent optical measurement of the binary system inclination by Orosz et al of 27+/- 0.8 deg. We pay special attention to the emissivity profile caused by irradiation of the inner disc by the hard power-law source. 1be X-ray observations and simulations show that the index q of that profile deviates from the commonly used, Newtonian, value of 3 within 3r(sub g), steepening considerably within 2r(sub g). as expected in the strong gravity regime.

  9. Nuclear inelastic scattering and density functional theory studies of a one-dimensional spin crossover [Fe(1,2,4-triazole)2(1,2,4-triazolato)](BF4) molecular chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Kevin; Scherthan, Lena; Faus, Isabelle; Marx, Jennifer; Strohm, Cornelius; Herlitschke, Marcus; Wille, Hans-Christian; Würtz, Peter; Schünemann, Volker; Wolny, Juliusz A

    2017-07-26

    Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) experiments have been performed in order to study the vibrational dynamics of the low- and high-spin states of the polynuclear 1D spin crossover compound [Fe(1,2,4-triazole) 2 (1,2,4-triazolato)](BF 4 ) (1). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the functional B3LYP* and the basis set CEP-31G for heptameric and nonameric models of the compound yielded the normal vibrations and electronic energies for high-spin and low-spin isomers of three models differing in the distribution of anionic trz - ligands and BF 4 - anions. On the basis of the obtained energies a structural model with a centrosymmetric Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 coordination core of the mononuclear unit of the chain is proposed. The obtained distribution of the BF 4 - counteranions in the proposed structure is similar to that obtained on the basis of X-ray powder diffraction studies by Grossjean et al. (Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2013, 796). The NIS data of the system diluted to 10% Fe(ii) content in a 90% Zn(ii) matrix (compound (2)) show a characteristic change of the spectral pattern of the low-spin centres, compared to the low-spin phase of the parent Fe(ii) complex (1). DFT calculations reveal that this is caused by a change of the structure of the neighbours of the low-spin centres. The spectral pattern of the high-spin centres in (2) is within a good approximation identical to that of the high-spin Fe(ii) isomer of (1). The inspection of the molecular orbitals of the monomeric model systems of [Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 ] and [Fe(trzH) 6 ], together with calculations of spin transition energies, point towards the importance of an electrostatic effect caused by the negatively charged ligands. This results in the stabilisation of the low-spin state of the complex containing the anionic ligand and shortening of the Fe-N(trz - ) compared to the Fe-N(trzH) bond in high-spin, but not in low-spin [Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 ].

  10. [Validation of a French translation of Krueger's personality inventory for DSM-5 in its brief form (PID-5 BF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaluzier, S; Gouvernet, B; Menant, F; Rezrazi, A

    2018-02-01

    Since the publication of the DSM-5 (APA, 2013), the dimensional conception of the personality disorders is co-existing with the classical categorical paradigm. Tools have been proposed for the evaluations of five big pathological factors to be explored further according to the APA (negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism). Despite numerous works using these questionnaires (30 works in 3 years according to Al-Adjani et al., 2015), none of them have yet been translated into French. Also, the main objective of the paper is to present a French translation of the Personality Inventory for DSM -5 by Kruegger et al. (2013) in its brief form of 25 items (PID-5 BF). To reach this goal, we have employed the classic translation-retranslation method (Vallerand, 1989) and tested the consistence and the validity of this French version among a non-clinical sample (n=216) of young adults (age=31.4, SD=4.8), in joining some other questionnaires in their short forms to study the external validity of the PID-5 about the psychological distress (SCL-10, Nguyen, 1983), the categorical diagnosis of personality disorders (SAPAS, Moran et al., 2003) and the classical Big Five dimensions of the personality (BDI 10, Ramamstedt and John, 2007). The internal consistency of this translation has been studied through the classical outcomes on factor analysis for the dimensional repartitions of the items in 5 scales and Cronbach's alpha for the consistency of each found dimensions. The external validity has been explored by studying Pearson's correlations between the outcomes on each dimension of the PID-5 BF and both the clinical dimensions of SCL-10, personality dimensions of the BFI-10 or personality disorders (SAPAS). Factor analysis led to the same repartition of the 25 items as the original versions. Each of the dimensions is consistent enough (α>.65) to be taken into account as clinically significant. The items of the French version of the PID-5 BF follow

  11. [Dietary exposure assessment of substances in foods : The BfR MEAL study - the first German total diet study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvan, Irmela; Bürgelt, Michaela; Lindtner, Oliver; Greiner, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    The dietary exposure of a population to chemical substances is estimated based on representative consumption data and data on the occurrence of substances in foods. Consumption data in Germany for different age groups are provided by the National Nutrition Survey ll, VELS, EsKiMo and the ongoing KiESEL study. The data for the levels of substances in foods is currently obtained from the German food monitoring programme (Lebensmittel-Monitoring) and the German Food Composition Table (Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel) and is not sufficient for a comprehensive evaluation of dietary exposure in Germany. More data is needed and, in particular, the range of analysed substances should be broadened to reduce the uncertainties of the exposure assessment. A representative data basis for concentrations of substances in foods will be established with the first German total diet study, called the BfR MEAL study. The study will markedly reduce major uncertainties in the dietary exposure assessment through its wide coverage of substances in food groups, the inclusion of prepared foods, the orientation on low measurement limits as well as the analysis of substances without a reliable data basis.

  12. Characterization and frequency of a newly identified HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype circulating recombinant form in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Walter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV circulating recombinant forms (CRFs play an important role in the global and regional HIV epidemics, particularly in regions where multiple subtypes are circulating. To date, several (>40 CRFs are recognized worldwide with five currently circulating in Brazil. Here, we report the characterization of near full-length genome sequences (NFLG of six phylogenetically related HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype recombinants (five from this study and one from other published sequences representing CRF46_BF1. Methods Initially, we selected 36 samples from 888 adult patients residing in São Paulo who had previously been diagnosed as being infected with subclade F1 based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing. Proviral DNA integrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was amplified from the purified genomic DNA of all 36-blood samples by five overlapping PCR fragments followed by direct sequencing. Sequence data were obtained from the five fragments that showed identical genomic structure and phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared with previously published sequences. Genuine subclade F1 sequences and any other sequences that exhibited unique mosaic structures were omitted from further analysis Results Of the 36 samples analyzed, only six sequences, inferred from the pol region as subclade F1, displayed BF1 identical mosaic genomes with a single intersubtype breakpoint identified at the nef-U3 overlap (HXB2 position 9347-9365; LTR region. Five of these isolates formed a rigid cluster in phylogentic trees from different subclade F1 fragment regions, which we can now designate as CRF46_BF1. According to our estimate, the new CRF accounts for 0.56% of the HIV-1 circulating strains in São Paulo. Comparison with previously published sequences revealed an additional five isolates that share an identical mosaic structure with those reported in our study. Despite sharing a similar recombinant structure, only one sequence appeared to

  13. HIGHLY VARIABLE EXTINCTION AND ACCRETION IN THE JET-DRIVING CLASS I-TYPE YOUNG STAR PTF 10nvg (V2492 Cyg, IRAS 20496+4354)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Miller, Adam A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Covey, Kevin R. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 226 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We report extensive new photometry and spectroscopy of the highly variable young stellar object PTF 10nvg (also known as IRAS 20496+4354 and V2492 Cyg), including optical and near-infrared time-series data as well as mid-infrared and millimeter data. Following the previously reported 2010 rise to R{sub PTF} {approx}<13.{sup m}5 and subsequent fade, during 2011 and 2012 the source underwent additional episodes of brightening, followed by several magnitude dimming events including prolonged faint states at R{sub PTF} {approx}> 20{sup m}. The observed high-amplitude variations are largely consistent with extinction changes ({Delta}A{sub V} up to 30 mag) having a {approx}220 day quasi-periodic signal. However, photometry measured when the source was near maximum brightness in mid-2010 as well as in late-2012 does not phase well to this period. Spectral evolution includes not only changes in the spectral slope but also correlated variation in the prominence of TiO/VO/CO bands and atomic line emission, as well as anti-correlated variation in forbidden line emission which, along with H{sub 2}, dominates optical and infrared spectra at faint epochs. Notably, night-to-night variations in several forbidden doublet strengths and ratios are observed. High-dispersion spectra were obtained in a variety of photometric states and reveal time-variable line profiles. Neutral and singly ionized atomic species are likely formed in an accretion flow and/or impact while the origin of zero-velocity atomic Li I {lambda}6707 in emission is unknown. Forbidden lines, including several rare species, exhibit blueshifted emission profiles and likely arise from an outflow/jet. Several of these lines are also seen spatially offset from the continuum source position, presumably in a shocked region of an extended jet. Blueshifted absorption components of the Na I D doublet, K I {lambda}{lambda}7665, 7669 doublet, and the O I 7774 triplet, as well as blueshifted absorption components seen against

  14. A NLTE line formation for neutral and singly-ionised calcium in model atmospheres of B-F stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnova, T. M.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Ryabchikova, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation calculations for Ca I and Ca II in B-F stars. The sign and the magnitude of NLTE abundance corrections depend on line and stellar parameters. We determine calcium abundances for nine stars with reliable stellar parameters. For all stars, where the lines of both species could be measured, the NLTE abundances are found to be consistent within the error bars. We obtain consistent NLTE abundances from Ca II lines in the visible and near infra-red (IR, 8912-27, 9890 Å) spectrum range, in contrast with LTE, where the discrepancy between the two groups of lines ranges from -0.5 dex to 0.6 dex for different stars. Our NLTE method reproduces the Ca II 8912-27, 9890 Å lines observed in emission in the late B-type star HD 160762 with the classical plane-parallel and LTE model atmosphere. NLTE abundance corrections for lines of Ca I and Ca II were calculated in a grid of model atmospheres with 7000 K ≤ Teff ≤ 13000 K, 3.2 ≤ log g ≤ 5.0, -0.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤0.5, ξt= 2.0 km s-1. Our NLTE results can be applied for calcium NLTE abundance determination from Gaia spectra, given that accurate continuum normalisation and proper treatment of the hydrogen Paschen lines are provided. The NLTE method can be useful to refine calcium underabundances in Am stars and to provide accurate observational constraints on the models of diffusion.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a presynaptic neurotoxin, P-elapitoxin-Bf1a from Malaysian Bungarus fasciatus venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad; Yee, Tee Ting; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Hodgson, Wayne C; Othman, Iekhsan

    2014-10-01

    Presynaptic neurotoxins are one of the major components in Bungarus venom. Unlike other Bungarus species that have been studied, β-bungarotoxin has never been isolated from Bungarus fasciatus venom. It was hypothesized that the absence of β-bungarotoxin in this species was due to divergence during evolution prior to evolution of β-bungarotoxin. In this study, we have isolated a β-bungarotoxin isoform we named P-elapitoxin-Bf1a by using gel filtration, cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography from Malaysian B. fasciatus venom. The toxin consists of two heterogeneous subunits, subunit A and subunit B. LCMS/MS data showed that subunit A was homologous to acidic phospholipase A2 subunit A3 from Bungarus candidus and B. multicinctus venoms, whereas subunit B was homologous with subunit B1 from B. fasciatus venom that was previously detected by cDNA cloning. The toxin showed concentration- and time-dependent reduction of indirect-twitches without affecting contractile responses to ACh, CCh or KCl at the end of experiment in the chick biventer preparation. Toxin modification with 4-BPB inhibited the neurotoxic effect suggesting the importance of His-48. Tissue pre-incubation with monovalent B. fasciatus (BFAV) or neuro-polyvalent antivenom (NPV), at the recommended titer, was unable to inhibit the twitch reduction induced by the toxin. This study indicates that Malaysian B. fasciatus venom has a unique β-bungarotoxin isoform which was not neutralized by antivenoms. This suggests that there might be other presynaptic neurotoxins present in the venom and there is a variation in the enzymatic neurotoxin composition in venoms from different localities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Concentration of Catalyst (BF3-Diethyl Etherate on Synthesis of Polyester From Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renita Manurung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD can be used as raw material for synthesis polyester. The aim of this research is to synthesis of polyester and to determine the effect of concentration of catalyst on polymerization methyl ester PFAD. The esterification stage was done at temperature 70oC, reaction time 120 minute, reactant ratio 1:8 (PFAD: methanol, concentration of catalyst (H2SO4 1% (w/w PFAD; polymerization stage was done at temperature 126-132°C, polymerization reaction time 4 hours; variation of concentration of catalyst (BF3-diethyl etherate 0%, 6.9%, 9.2%, 11.5% (w/w methyl ester; and polyesterification stage was done at temperature 175-200 oC, reactant ratios (w/w 1:1 (polymerized ME : ethylene glycol, reaction time 4 hours and all of stage was stirred at 150 rpm. The results showed, in the esterification stage was obtained methyl ester with iodine value 77.29 g I2/100 g, viscosity 6.90 cP, density 859.91 kg/m3 and analysis by using GC-MS showed that the purity of methyl ester was 82.23% and molecular weight 267.97 g/mol. Decreasing in iodine value from 77.29 I2 g/100 g to 74.97-59.99 g I2/100 g indicated that the polymerization process had taken place. In polyesterification stage was obtained light brown colored

  17. Calorimetric, spectroscopic and structural investigations of phase polymorphism in [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolega, Diana, E-mail: dolega@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Mikuli, Edward, E-mail: mikuli@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Inaba, Akira, E-mail: inaba@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Structural Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gorska, Natalia, E-mail: gorska@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Structural Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Holderna-Natkaniec, Krystyna, E-mail: natkanie@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Nitek, Wojciech, E-mail: nitek@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    Four crystalline phases of the coordination compound [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 3} are identified by adiabatic calorimetry. Three phase transitions, one at T{sub C3}(IV{yields}III)=30.7 K, the second at T{sub C2}(III{yields}II)=91.7 K (both accompanied by comparable entropy changes 3.0 and 3.1 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, respectively) and the third at T{sub C1}(II{yields}I)=241.6 K (accompanied by an entropy change of 8.1 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) were discovered. X-ray single crystal diffraction (at 293 K) demonstrates that phase I is a highly dynamic disordered cubic phase (Fm3{sup Macron }m, No. 225) with two types of BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions differing in a degree of disorder. In phase II (at 170 K) the structure remains cubic (Ia3{sup Macron }, No. 206), with two different types of cations and four different types of anions. Splitting of certain IR bands connected with NH{sub 3} ligands at the observed phase transitions suggests a lowering of the symmetry of the [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+} complex cation. Both NH{sub 3} ligands and BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions perform fast reorientations ({tau}{sub R} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -12} s), which are significantly slowed down below the phase transition at T{sub C3}. {sup 1}H NMR studies led to estimate the values of the activation energy of NH{sub 3} ligands reorientation in the phases II and I as equal to {approx}8 kJ mol{sup -1}. In phase I the whole hexammineruthenium(III) cations reorientation as a tumbling process can be noticed. The activation energy value of this motion is {approx}24 kJ mol{sup -1}. {sup 19}F NMR studies give the values of the activation energy of BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions reorientation as {approx}6 kJ mol{sup -1}. Above the phase transition temperature half of BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions perform a tumbling motion with E{sub a} Almost-Equal-To 8 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Graphical abstract: A series of complementary methods, such as Adiabatic Calorimetry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Fourier

  18. Formation of oxygen-related defects enhanced by fluorine in BF{sub 2}{sup +}-implanted Si studied by a monoenergetic positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kawano, Takao; Nagai, Ryo; Umeda, Kazunori

    1995-12-01

    Defects in 25-keV BF{sub 2}{sup +}- or As{sup +}-implanted Si specimens were probed by a monoenergetic positron beam. For the As{sup +}-implanted specimen, the depth profile of defects was obtained from measurements of Doppler broadening profiles as a function of incident positron energy. The major species of the defects was identified as divacancies. For ion-implanted specimens after annealing treatment, oxygen-related defects were found to be formed. For the BF{sub 2}{sup +}-implanted specimen before annealing treatment, such defects were formed in the subsurface region, where oxygen atoms were implanted by recoil from oxide films. This was attributed to enhanced formation of oxygen-related defects by the presence of F atoms. (author)

  19. Green synthesis of 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazoles/ 2,3-dimethylindoles catalyzed by [bmim (BF 4] ionic liquid in methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamatakallu O. Shrungesh Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim (BF 4] ionic liquid has been used as catalyst for the synthesis of tetrahydrocarbazoles and 2, 3-dimethylindoles with excellent yields in a shorter reaction time. The results show that the [bmim (BF 4] ionic liquid is very efficient in the Fischer indole synthesis due to its operational simplicity, high yields, dual catalyst-solvent properties and reused for five consecutive reactions without significant loss of catalytic efficiency. The applicability of the methodology for large-scale reaction highlights its potentiality for industrial scale synthesis. The main advantage of this procedure is that the products could be obtained in pure form after filtration and evaporation of MeOH solvent.

  20. Light-induced phase separation (LIPS) in [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2 spin-crossover single crystals: Experimental data revisited through optical microscope investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varret, Francois; Chong, Christian; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Goujon, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the available experimental data for light-induced phase separation (LIPS) in the spin-crossover crystal [Fe(ptz) 6 ](BF 4 ) 2 . They are found in qualitative agreement with a spinodal instability process described by a macroscopic mean-field master equation. Sizable discrepancies with the model are discussed in terms of diffusion of light due to structural transformations of the crystal.

  1. Insight into the intermolecular interactions in [Bmim]BF4/[Amim]Cl-ethanol-water mixtures by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Huaping

    2009-09-10

    In this contribution, we examined the effect of ethanol on the structural organization of aqueous solution of ionic liquids (ILs) using the near-infrared (NIR) technique and two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectra. The ILs used here are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim]BF(4)) and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). It was easily found, from the distinct change tendency of NIR spectra for their aqueous solution, that the added ethanol exerted a different effect on the solution structure of [Bmim]BF(4) and [Amim]Cl. For [Amim]Cl/H(2)O, it was deduced that ethanol molecules prefer to compete with water by interacting with imidazolium C(2)-H rather than C(4,5)-H groups, accompanied by the formation of C(2)-H...O interactions with ethanol molecules, while ethanol molecules do not interact specifically with any imidazolium C-H groups for [Bmim]BF(4). Furthermore, it was shown that the nonpolar tail of [Amim]Cl is more sensitive to the decrease of polarity or dielectric constant of solvents than its polar head, whereas the converse is true for [Bmim]BF(4). However, for both ILs, ethanol molecules were capable of changing the interaction between cations and water, anions and water by introduction of C-H...O interactions with cations, as well as the strong hydrogen-bond interactions between the anions and the hydroxyls of the ethanol. This information is suggestive for recycling the hydrophilic ILs by distillation from their aqueous diluted solutions, as well as for purifying hygroscopic ILs.

  2. Empirical parameters for solvent acidity, basicity, dipolarity, and polarizability of the ionic liquids [BMIM][BF4] and [BMIM][PF6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, J C; García Blanco, F; Catalán, J

    2015-04-02

    The empirical solvent scales for polarizability (SP), dipolarity (SdP), acidity (SA), and basicity (SB) have been successfully used to interpret the solvatochromism of compounds dissolved in organic solvents and their solvent mixtures. Providing that the published solvatochromic parameters for the ionic liquids 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [BMIM][BF4] and 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [BMIM][PF6], are excessively widespread, their SP, SdP, SA, and SB values are measured herein at temperatures from 293 to 353 K. Four key points are emphasized herein: (i) the origin of the solvatochromic solvent scales--the gas phase, that is the absence of any medium perturbation--; (ii) the separation of the polarizability and dipolarity effects; (iii) the simplification of the probing process in order to obtain the solvatochromic parameters; and (iv) the SP, SdP, SA, and SB solvent scales can probe the polarizability, dipolarity, acidity, and basicity of ionic liquids as well as of organic solvents and water-organic solvent mixtures. From the multiparameter approach using the four pure solvent scales one can draw the conclusion that (a) the solvent influence of [BMIM][BF4] parallels that of formamide at 293 K, both of them miscible with water; (b) [BMIM][PF6] shows a set of solvatochromic parameters similar to that of chloroacetonitrile, both of them water insoluble; and (c) that the corresponding solvent acidity and basicity of the ionic liquids can be explained to a great extent from the cation species by comparing the empirical parameters of [BMIM](+) with those of the solvent 1-methylimidazole. The insolubility of [BMIM][PF6] in water as compared to [BMIM][BF4] is tentatively connected to some extent to the larger molar volume of the anion [PF6](-), and to the difference in basicity of [PF6](-) and [BF4](-).

  3. A new methodology to obtain the 1D cross-sections for TRAC-BF1 code. Application to Peach Bottom NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Collazo, I.; Gonzalez, R.; Concejal, A.; Ortego, R.; Melara, J.

    2010-01-01

    In TRAC-BF1 the cross-sections are specified in the input deck in a polynomial form. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the coefficients of this polynomial expansion. One of the methods proposed in the literature is the KINPAR methodology. This methodology uses the results from different perturbations of the original state to obtain the coefficients of the polynomial expansion. The simulations are performed using the SIMULATE3 code. In this work, a new methodology to obtain the cross-sections sets in 1D is presented. The first step consists of the application of the SIMTAB methodology, developed in UPV, to obtain the 3D cross-sections sets from CASM04/SIMULATE3. These 3D cross-sections sets are collapsed to ID using as a weighting factor, the 3D thermal and rapid neutron fluxes obtained from SIMULATE3. With this new methodology it is not necessary to perform simulations of different perturbations of the original state, and also the variation range of the moderator density can be higher than using the KINPAR methodology. This is important for the simulation of severe accidents in which the variables vary in a wide range. This new methodology is applied to the simulation of the turbine trip transient in Peach Bottom NPP using the TRAC-BF1 code. The results of the steady state in TRAC-BF1 using the KINPAR methodology and the new methodology are compared with the reference SIMULATE3 results. (authors)

  4. Quantitative kinetic analysis of PET amyloid imaging agents [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidahara, Miho; Watabe, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Furumoto, Shozo; Watanuki, Shoichi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arakawa, Yuma; Funaki, Yoshihito; Iwata, Ren; Gonda, Kohsuke; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare two amyloid imaging agents, [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT (derivative from [ 11 C]BF227) through quantitative pharmacokinetics analysis in human brain. Methods: Positron emission tomography studies were performed on six elderly healthy control (HC) subjects and seven probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with [ 11 C]BF227 and 10 HC subjects and 10 probable AD patients with [ 18 F]FACT. Data from nine regions of interest were analyzed by several approaches, namely non-linear least-squared fitting methods with arterial input functions (one-tissue compartment model(1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM)), Logan plot, and linearized methods with reference region (Reference Logan plot (RefLogan), MRTM0, MRTM2). We also evaluated SUV and SUVR for both tracers. The parameters estimated by several approaches were compared between two tracers for detectability of differences between HC and AD patients. Results: For [ 11 C]BF227, there were no significant difference of V T (2TCM, 1TCM) and SUV in all regions (Student t-test; p < 0.05) and significant differences in the DVRs (Logan, RefLogan, and MRTM2) and SUVRs in six neocortical regions (p < 0.05) between the HC and AD groups. For [ 18 F]FACT, significant differences in DVRs (RefLogan, MRTM0, and MRTM2) were observed in more than four neocortical regions between the HC and AD groups (p < 0.05), and the significant differences were found in SUVRs for two neocortical regions (inferior frontal coretex and lateral temporal coretex). Our results showed that both tracers can clearly distinguish between HC and AD groups although the pharmacokinetics and distribution patterns in brain for two tracers were substantially different. Conclusion: This study revealed that although the PET amyloid imaging agents [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT have similar chemical and biological properties, they have different pharmacokinetics, and caution must be paid for usage of the

  5. Short-term, daily intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24384) does not affect colonic transit time in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert

    2014-01-28

    The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately.

  6. Investigation of Structure and Transport in Li-Doped Ionic Liquid Electrolytes: [pyr14][TFSI], [pyr13][FSI] and [EMIM][BF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Bennett, William R.; Hernandez-Lugo, Dione M.; Wu, James; Borodin, Oleg; Monk, Joshua D.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Lawson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes have been proposed as a means of improving the safety and cycling behavior of advanced lithium batteries; however, the properties of these electrolytes under high lithium doping are poorly understood. Here, we employ both polarizable molecular dynamics simulation and experiment to investigate the structure, thermodynamics and transport of three potential electrolytes, N-methyl-Nbutylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsufonyl)imide ([pyr14][TFSI]), N- methyl-Npropylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosufonyl)imide ([pyr13][FSI]), and 1-ethyl-3-- methylimidazolium boron tetrafluoride ([EMIM][BF4]), as a function of Li-salt concentration and temperature. Structurally, Li(+) is shown to be solvated by three anion neighbors in [pyr14][TFSI] and four anion neighbors in both [pyr13][FSI] and [EMIM][BF4], and at all levels of x(sub Li) we find the presence of lithium aggregates. Furthermore, the computed density, diffusion, viscosity, and ionic conductivity show excellent agreement with experimental data. While the diffusion and viscosity exhibit a systematic decrease and increase, respectively, with increasing x(sub Li), the contribution of Li(+) to ionic conductivity increases until reaching a saturation doping level of x(sub Li) is approximately 0.10. Comparatively, the Li(+) conductivity of [pyr14][TFSI] is an order of magnitude lower than that of the other liquids, which range between 0.1 - 0.3 mS/cm. The differences in Li(+) transport are reflected in the residence times of Li(+) with the anions, which are revealed to be much larger for [pyr14][TFSI] (up to 100 ns at the highest doping levels) than in either [EMIM][BF4] or [pyr13][FSI]. Finally, we comment on the relative kinetics of Li(+) transport in each liquid and we present strong evidence for transport through anion exchange (hopping) as opposed to the net motion of Li(+) with its solvation shell (vehicular).

  7. Investigation of Structure and Transport in Li-Doped Ionic Liquid Electrolytes: [pyr14][TFSI], [pyr13][FSI], [EMIM][BF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Bennett, William R.; Wu, James J.; Hernandez, Dionne M.; Borodin, Oleg; Monk, Joshua D.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Lawson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes have been proposed as a means of improving the safety and cycling behavior of advanced lithium batteries; however, the properties of these electrolytes under high lithium doping are poorly understood. Here, we employ both polarizable molecular dynamics simulation and experiment to investigate the structure, thermodynamics and transport of three potential electrolytes, N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsufonyl)imide ([pyr14][TFSI]), N- methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosufonyl)imide ([pyr13][FSI]), and 1-ethyl-3-- methylimidazolium boron tetrafluoride ([EMIM][BF4]), as a function of Li (-) salt concentration and temperature. Structurally, Li(+) is shown to be solvated by three anion neighbors in [pyr14][TFSI] and four anion neighbors in both [pyr13][FSI] and [EMIM][BF4], and at all levels of xLi we find the presence of lithium aggregates. Furthermore, the computed density, diffusion, viscosity, and ionic conductivity show excellent agreement with experimental data. While the diffusion and viscosity exhibit a systematic decrease and increase, respectively, with increasing xLi, the contribution of Li(+) to ionic conductivity increases until reaching a saturation doping level of xLi 0.10. Comparatively, the Li(+) conductivity of [pyr14][TFSI] is an order of magnitude lower than that of the other liquids, which range between 0.1-0.3 mScm. The differences in Li(+) transport are reflected in the residence times of Li(+) with the anions, which are revealed to be much larger for [pyr14][TFSI] (up to 100 ns at the highest doping levels) than in either [EMIM][BF4] or [pyr13][FSI]. Finally, we comment on the relative kinetics of Li(+) transport in each liquid and we present strong evidence for transport through anion exchange (hopping) as opposed to the net motion of Li(+) with its solvation shell (vehicular).

  8. Avaliação do processo adsortivo utilizando mesocarpo de coco verde para remoção do corante cinza reativo BF-2R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otidene Rossiter Sá da Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work used green coconut mesocarp as a bioadsorbent to remove Reactive Gray BF-2R dye. A 2³ factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of the variables adsorbent mass, particle size and stirring speed on the adsorptive process. Kinetic and adsorption equilibrium studies were performed. Results showed that the kinetic equilibrium was reached after 150 min. Using the Langmuir model, a q max of 21.9 mg g-1 and k of 0.30 L g-1 was obtained. The mesocarp of coconut, a residue of agribusiness, proved to be an effective alternative technique for the removal of dye in this study.

  9. Recent Transmission Clustering of HIV-1 C and CRF17_BF Strains Characterized by NNRTI-Related Mutations among Newly Diagnosed Men in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeni, Lavinia; Alteri, Claudia; Orchi, Nicoletta; Gori, Caterina; Bertoli, Ada; Forbici, Federica; Montella, Francesco; Pennica, Alfredo; De Carli, Gabriella; Giuliani, Massimo; Continenza, Fabio; Pinnetti, Carmela; Nicastri, Emanuele; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Girardi, Enrico; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2015-01-01

    Increased evidence of relevant HIV-1 epidemic transmission in European countries is being reported, with an increased circulation of non-B-subtypes. Here, we present two recent HIV-1 non-B transmission clusters characterized by NNRTI-related amino-acidic mutations among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected men, living in Rome (Central-Italy). Pol and V3 sequences were available at the time of diagnosis for all individuals. Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic-trees with bootstrap and Bayesian-probability supports defined transmission-clusters. HIV-1 drug-resistance and V3-tropism were also evaluated. Among 534 new HIV-1 non-B cases, diagnosed from 2011 to 2014, in Central-Italy, 35 carried virus gathering in two distinct clusters, including 27 HIV-1 C and 8 CRF17_BF subtypes, respectively. Both clusters were centralized in Rome, and their origin was estimated to have been after 2007. All individuals within both clusters were males and 37.1% of them had been recently-infected. While C-cluster was entirely composed by Italian men-who-have-sex-with-men, with a median-age of 34 years (IQR:30-39), individuals in CRF17_BF-cluster were older, with a median-age of 51 years (IQR:48-59) and almost all reported sexual-contacts with men and women. All carried R5-tropic viruses, with evidence of atypical or resistance amino-acidic mutations related to NNRTI-drugs (K103Q in C-cluster, and K101E+E138K in CRF17_BF-cluster). These two epidemiological clusters provided evidence of a strong and recent circulation of C and CRF17_BF strains in central Italy, characterized by NNRTI-related mutations among men engaging in high-risk behaviours. These findings underline the role of molecular epidemiology in identifying groups at increased risk of HIV-1 transmission, and in enhancing additional prevention efforts.

  10. Recent Transmission Clustering of HIV-1 C and CRF17_BF Strains Characterized by NNRTI-Related Mutations among Newly Diagnosed Men in Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Fabeni

    Full Text Available Increased evidence of relevant HIV-1 epidemic transmission in European countries is being reported, with an increased circulation of non-B-subtypes. Here, we present two recent HIV-1 non-B transmission clusters characterized by NNRTI-related amino-acidic mutations among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected men, living in Rome (Central-Italy.Pol and V3 sequences were available at the time of diagnosis for all individuals. Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic-trees with bootstrap and Bayesian-probability supports defined transmission-clusters. HIV-1 drug-resistance and V3-tropism were also evaluated.Among 534 new HIV-1 non-B cases, diagnosed from 2011 to 2014, in Central-Italy, 35 carried virus gathering in two distinct clusters, including 27 HIV-1 C and 8 CRF17_BF subtypes, respectively. Both clusters were centralized in Rome, and their origin was estimated to have been after 2007. All individuals within both clusters were males and 37.1% of them had been recently-infected. While C-cluster was entirely composed by Italian men-who-have-sex-with-men, with a median-age of 34 years (IQR:30-39, individuals in CRF17_BF-cluster were older, with a median-age of 51 years (IQR:48-59 and almost all reported sexual-contacts with men and women. All carried R5-tropic viruses, with evidence of atypical or resistance amino-acidic mutations related to NNRTI-drugs (K103Q in C-cluster, and K101E+E138K in CRF17_BF-cluster.These two epidemiological clusters provided evidence of a strong and recent circulation of C and CRF17_BF strains in central Italy, characterized by NNRTI-related mutations among men engaging in high-risk behaviours. These findings underline the role of molecular epidemiology in identifying groups at increased risk of HIV-1 transmission, and in enhancing additional prevention efforts.

  11. The reaction of Cs{sub 2}[Tc(NO)F{sub 5}] with BF{sub 3} in acetonitrile. Formation and structure of [{Tc(NO)(CH_3CN)_4}{sub 2}(μ-F)](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasekaran, Samundeeswari Mariappan [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hagenbach, Adelheid; Spandl, Johann; Abram, Ulrich [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2017-10-04

    The deep blue, paramagnetic Cs{sub 2}[Tc{sup II}(NO)F{sub 5}] is formed during reactions of pertechnetate, acetohydroxamic acid, and CsF in aqueous HF. A reaction of Cs{sub 2}[Tc(NO)F{sub 5}] with BF{sub 3}.MeOH in acetonitrile gives yellow blocks of the fluorido-bridged dimer [{Tc"I(NO)(CH_3CN)_4}{sub 2}F](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}. The compound is stable as solid and in acetonitrile solutions. The complex cation contains a bent μ-F{sup -} ligand and two linear nitrosyl groups. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. [Current cases of falsified medicinal products within the competence of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) : Case studies and extent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittstock, Marcus; Paeschke, Norbert

    2017-11-01

    The nature of a falsification of a medicinal product can vary a lot. Therefore the means to detect them and the potential risk to patient safety can also be very different. The whole range of falsification will be described using observed cases from the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM).Based on the relatively low number of detected cases of falsified medicines, the legal supply chain can still be regarded as safe. It has to be assumed that in the illegal supply chain, e. g. illegal internet trade, the majority of the offered medicinal products are not only falsifications due to illegal trade but because they are completely falsified. Therefore there is an especially high risk for the consumer to be harmed by medicinal products that do not fulfil the required specifications.The trend indicates that increased efforts will be necessary to keep the legal supply chain safe and to contain illegal trade with falsifications. The higher federal authorities BfArM, PEI and BVL are involved in this task by coordinating and ensuring the flow of information to the concerned authorities and stakeholders as well as informing the public. Increased efforts are also necessary due to the rising involvement of organised crime in the falsification of medicinal products. A package of measures was enacted with the Falsified Medicines Directive 2011/62/EU to protect the legal supply chain from falsified medicinal products.

  13. Models for B12-conjugated radiopharmaceuticals. Cobaloxime binding to new fac-[Re(CO)3(Me2bipyridine)(amidine)]BF4 complexes having an exposed pyridyl nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nerissa A; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2014-10-20

    New mononuclear amidine complexes, fac-[Re(CO)3(Me2bipy)(HNC(CH3)(pyppz))]BF4 [(4,4'-Me2bipy (1), 5,5'-Me2bipy (2), and 6,6'-Me2bipy (3)] (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine), were synthesized by treating the parent fac-[Re(I)(CO)3(Me2bipy)(CH3CN)]BF4 complex with the C2-symmetrical amine 1-(4-pyridyl)piperazine (pyppzH). The axial amidine ligand has an exposed, highly basic pyridyl nitrogen. The reaction of complexes 1-3 with a B12 model, (py)Co(DH)2Cl (DH = monoanion of dimethylglyoxime), in CH2Cl2 yielded the respective dinuclear complexes, namely, fac-[Re(CO)3(Me2bipy)(μ-(HNC(CH3)(pyppz)))Co(DH)2Cl]BF4 [(4,4'-Me2bipy (4), 5,5'-Me2bipy (5), and 6,6'-Me2bipy (6)]. (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis of all compounds and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic data for 2, 3, 5, and 6 established that the amidine had only the E configuration in both the solid and solution states and that the pyridyl group is bound to Co in 4-6. Comparison of the NMR spectra of 1-3 with spectra of 4-6 reveals an unusually large "wrong-way" upfield shift for the pyridyl H2/6 signal for 4-6. The wrong-way H2/6 shift of (4-Xpy)Co(DH)2Cl (4-Xpy = 4-substituted pyridine) complexes increased with increasing basicity of the 4-Xpy derivative, a finding attributed to the influence of the magnetic anisotropy of the cobalt center on the shifts of the (1)H NMR signals of the pyridyl protons closest to Co. Our method of employing a coordinate bond for conjugating the fac-[Re(I)(CO)3] core to a vitamin B12 model could be extended to natural B12 derivatives. Because B12 compounds are known to accumulate in cancer cells, such an approach is a very attractive method for the development of (99m)Tc and (186/188)Re radiopharmaceuticals for targeted tumor imaging and therapy.

  14. Electronic and structural aspects of spin transitions observed by optical microscopy. The case of [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Christian; Mishra, Haritosh; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Denise, Stéphane; Bouchez, Guillaume; Collet, Eric; Ameline, Jean-Claude; Naik, Anil D; Garcia, Yann; Varret, François

    2010-02-11

    The colorimetric analysis of images recorded with an optical microscope during the onset of the spin crossover transformation allows monitoring separately the involved electronic and structural aspects, through the separation of resonant absorption and scattering effects. Complementary information can also be obtained by using the polarized modes of the microscope. These potentialities are illustrated by the observation of [Fe(ptz)(6)](BF(4))(2) single crystals during the onset of the thermal transitions in the 110-140 K range. We characterized the interplay between the electronic (HS LS) and structural (order disorder) transformations. Elastic stresses and mechanical effects (hopping, self-cleavage) generated by the volume change upon electronic transition are also illustrated, with their impact on the photoswitching properties of the crystals.

  15. Recent Advances in the Application of SelectfluorTMF-TEDA-BF4 as a Versatile Mediator or Catalyst in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Stavber

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available SelectfluorTM F-TEDA-BF4 (1-chloromethyl-4-fluoro-1,4-diazoniabicyclo [2.2.2]octane bis(tetrafluoroborate is not only one of the most efficient and popular reagents for electrophilic fluorination, but as a strong oxidant is also a convenient mediator or catalyst of several “fluorine-free” functionalizations of organic compounds. Its applications as a mediator in transformations of oxidizable functional groups or gold-catalyzed C-C and C-heteroatom oxidative coupling reactions, a catalyst in formation of various heterocyclic rings, a reagent or catalyst of various functionalizations of electron-rich organic compounds (iodination, bromination, chlorination, nitration, thiocyanation, sulfenylation, alkylation, alkoxylation, a catalyst of one-pot-multi-component coupling reactions, a catalyst of regioselective ring opening of epoxides, a deprotection reagent for various protecting groups, and a mediator for stereoselective rearrangement processes of bicyclic compounds are reviewed and discussed.

  16. FTIR spectroscopic study of Li+ solvation in the solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and their mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Li, Yantao; Hou, Baorong

    2017-07-01

    Ionic solvation in solutions of lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) in propylene carbonate (PC) + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures has been studied using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Dimerization of DMSO molecules in the solutions was taken into account. The obtained results are discussed with respect to the electrolyte concentration and properties of the cations of the electrolyte. Band changes due to solvation interaction were detected in the region of the C=O stretching vibrations and ring deformation for PC, and the S=O stretching vibrations and C-S-C skeleton stretching modes for DMSO, indicating that there is a strong interaction between lithium cations and solvent molecules. In addition, Li+ was preferentially solvated by DMSO in these binary solvents as a result of the large difference in their donor number (DN) values. The structures of PC, DMSO, Li+-PC, Li+-DMSO, and Li+-PC+DMSO were given.

  17. Bifidobacterial recombinant thymidine kinase-ganciclovir gene therapy system induces FasL and TNFR2 mediated antitumor apoptosis in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changdong; Ma, Yongping; Hu, Qiongwen; Xie, Tingting; Wu, Jiayan; Zeng, Fan; Song, Fangzhou

    2016-01-01

    Directly targeting therapeutic suicide gene to a solid tumor is a hopeful approach for cancer gene therapy. Treatment of a solid tumor by an effective vector for a suicide gene remains a challenge. Given the lack of effective treatments, we constructed a bifidobacterial recombinant thymidine kinase (BF-rTK) -ganciclovir (GCV) targeting system (BKV) to meet this requirement and to explore antitumor mechanisms. Bifidobacterium (BF) or BF-rTK was injected intratumorally with or without ganciclovir in a human colo320 intestinal xenograft tumor model. The tumor tissues were analyzed using apoptosis antibody arrays, real time PCR and western blot. The colo320 cell was analyzed by the gene silencing method. Autophagy and necroptosis were also detected in colo320 cell. Meanwhile, three human digestive system xenograft tumor models (colorectal cancer colo320, gastric cancer MKN-45 and liver cancer SSMC-7721) and a breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) model were employed to validate the universality of BF-rTK + GCV in solid tumor gene therapy. The survival rate was evaluated in three human cancer models after the BF-rTK + GCV intratumor treatment. The analysis of inflammatory markers (TNF-α) in tumor indicated that BF-rTK + GCV significantly inhibited TNF-α expression. The results suggested that BF-rTK + GCV induced tumor apoptosis without autophagy and necroptosis occurrence. The apoptosis was transduced by multiple signaling pathways mediated by FasL and TNFR2 and mainly activated the mitochondrial control of apoptosis via Bid and Bim, which was rescued by silencing Bid or/and Bim. However, BF + GCV only induced apoptosis via Fas/FasL signal pathway accompanied with increased P53 expression. We further found that BF-rTK + GCV inhibited the expression of the inflammatory maker of TNF-α. However, BF-rTK + GCV did not result in necroptosis and autophagy. BF-rTK + GCV induced tumor apoptosis mediated by FasL and TNFR2 through the mitochondrial control of apoptosis via Bid and Bim

  18. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale: The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo textile dye (C.I. Reactive Red 195 (3BF)) in aqueous solution over copper cobaltite nanocomposite coated on glass by Doctor Blade method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Rezvani, Zoya

    2015-08-05

    The degradation of C.I. Reactive Red 195 (3BF) in aqueous solution using copper cobaltite nanocomposite coated on glass by Doctor Blade method was studied. Structural, optical and morphological properties of nanocomposite coatings were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The nanoparticles exhibit a particle size of 31 nm, showing a good nanoscale crystalline morphology. The photocatalytic activity of copper cobaltite nanocomposite coated on glass was studied by performing the photocatalytic degradation of 3BF at different irradiation time. The effect of irradiation time on the degradation of 3BF was studied and the results showed that more than 85% of the 3BF was degraded in 45 min of irradiation. The pseudo-first-order kinetic models were used and the rate constants were evaluated with pseudo first order rate constants of 4.10 × 10(-2) min(-1). The main advantage of the photocatalyst coated on glass overcomes the difficulties in separation and recycle of photocatalyst suspensions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inner-Sphere versus Outer-Sphere Coordination of BF4– in a NHC-Gold(I) Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Veenboer, Richard M. P.

    2017-07-20

    The role of counterions in chemistry mediated by gold complexes stretches much further than merely providing charge balance to cationic gold species. Interplay between their basicities and coordination strengths influences interactions with both the gold center and substrates in catalysis. Actual monogold(I) active species are generally believed to be monocoordinated species, formed from the abstraction or the decoordination of a second ligand from precursor complexes, but only a small amount of experimental evidence exists to underpin the existence of these transient species. The formation of a bench-stable neutral IPrCl-gold(I) tetrafluoroborate complex is reported herein. Experimental studies by X-ray diffraction analysis and NMR spectroscopy and theoretical studies by DFT calculations were conducted to determine the composition, structure, and behavior of this complex. The absence of an auxiliary ligand resulted in inner-sphere coordination of the counterion in the solid state. In solution, an equilibrium between two conformations was found with the counterion occupying inner-sphere and outer-sphere positions, respectively. Stoichiometric and catalytic reactivity studies with the tetrafluoroborate complex have been conducted. These confirmed the lability of the inner-sphere coordinating counterion that gives the IPrCl-gold(I) fragment behavior similar to that of related systems.

  1. A methodology for the coupling of RAMONA-3B neutron kinetics and TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Arsenio Procopio; Morales Sandoval, Jaime B.

    2005-01-01

    The initial objective of this project was to directly couple the RAMONA and TRAC codes running on different PCs. The idea was to use the best part of each one and eliminate some of their limitations and widen the applicability of these codes to simulate different BWR and system components. It was required to try to minimize the amount of changes to present code subroutines and calculation procedures. If possible, just substitute values obtained in the parallel code. Preliminary results indicated that using a CHAN component of TRAC to model thermal-hydraulic phenomena for each neutronic channel modeled in RAMONA is rather difficult. Large amounts of CPU time consumption are obtained and lots of PCs would make this solution difficult, besides considerable large transients are introduced by the differences in thermal-hydraulic results of these codes. The substitution of the thermal-hydraulics of RAMONA, by the TRAC channel calculations, is possible but simulation of a null transient on both codes must be planed and a gradual change must be controlled by an additional supervisory subroutine. An indirect coupling of these codes, it is therefore proposed, in order to eliminate most of these limitations. In this indirect coupling, a thermal-hydraulic model of the average tube in a bundle and the global channel cooling fluid dynamics is programmed for each neutronic channel while the global reactor vessel and core is modeled by TRAC with just four channels and four rings. Results are more reliable, coupling is simpler and faster simulations are possible

  2. Different features of the MHC class I heterodimer have evolved at different rates. Chicken B-F and beta 2-microglobulin sequences reveal invariant surface residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Andersen, R; Avila, D

    1992-01-01

    molecules and the MHC-encoded nonclassical molecules more than CD1 or the class I-like FcR. In contrast, the chicken alpha 3 domain is equally homologous to all alpha 3 domains, to beta 2m and to class II beta 2 domains. For each pair of extracellular domains (alpha 1 vs alpha 2, alpha 3 vs beta 2m...... of small exons in the cytoplasmic region. The cDNA sequences were compared to turkey beta 2m, the apparent allele B-F12 alpha and other vertebrate homologs, using the 2.6 A structure of the human HLA-A2 molecule as a model. Both chicken alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains resemble mammalian classical class I...... the ends of the peptide, two residues that bind CD8, and three residues that are phosphorylated. The positions of the allelic residues are conserved. There are other patches of invariant residues on alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta 2m; these might bind TCR or other molecules involved in class I function...

  3. Unsymmetrical urea and thiourea derivatives: An efficient nano BF 3-SiO 2 catalyzed PEG-400 mediated sonochemical synthesis and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Janakiramudu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and green approach has been developed for the synthesis of (substituted phenyl-3-(4-(4-nitrophenylthiophenylurea/thiourea derivatives 6(a-j using non-hazardous green solvent, PEG-400 under ultrasound irradiation conditions in the presence of a reusable silica-supported Lewis acid catalyst, nano-BF 3-SiO 2via simple addition reaction of 4-(4-nitrophenylthioaniline (4 with substituted phenyl isocyanates/isothiocyanates 5 (a-j. The advantages of developed method are convenient, offered higher yield of products with purity, less reaction time, easy work-up and reusability of the catalyst. Structures of the title products were established by IR, NMR ( 1H, 13C, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. Antimicrobial activity of the newly synthesized compounds was tested and the bio-screening data disclosed that urea derivatives, 6a and 6d, and thiourea derivatives, 6f, 6i and 6j showed potential antimicrobial activity against the growth of selected microorganisms.

  4. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G.; Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J.; Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M.; Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T.; Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y.; Demidchik, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  5. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  6. IL-12 and GM-CSF in DNA/MVA immunizations against HIV-1 CRF12_BF Nef induced T-cell responses with an enhanced magnitude, breadth and quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez

    Full Text Available In Argentina, the HIV epidemic is characterized by the co-circulation of subtype B and BF recombinant viral variants. Nef is an HIV protein highly variable among subtypes, making it a good tool to study the impact of HIV variability in the vaccine design setting. We have previously reported a specific cellular response against NefBF with low cross-reactivity to NefB in mice. The aim of this work was to analyze whether the co-administration of IL-12 and GM-CSF, using DNA and MVA vaccine vectors, could improve the final cellular response induced. Mice received three DNA priming doses of a plasmid that express NefBF plus DNAs expressing IL-12 and/or GM-CSF. Afterwards, all the groups were boosted with a MVAnefBF dose. The highest increase in the magnitude of the NefBF response, compared to that induced in the control was found in the IL-12 group. Importantly, a response with higher breadth was detected in groups which received IL-12 or GM-CSF, evidenced as an increased frequency of recognition of homologous (BF and heterologous (B Nef peptides, as well as a higher number of other Nef peptide pools representing different viral subtypes. However, these improvements were lost when both DNA cytokines were simultaneously administered, as the response was focused against the immunodominant peptide with a detrimental response towards subdominant epitopes. The pattern of cytokines secreted and the specific-T-cell proliferative capacity were improved in IL-12 and IL-12+GM-CSF groups. Importantly IL-12 generated a significant higher T-cell avidity against a B heterologous peptide.This study indicates that the incorporation of DNA expressing IL-12 in DNA/MVA schemes produced the best results in terms of improvements of T-cell-response key properties such as breadth, cross-reactivity and quality (avidity and pattern of cytokines secreted. These relevant results contribute to the design of strategies aimed to induce T-cell responses against HIV antigens with

  7. Light-induced excited spin state transition in the [Fe(ptz)6 ](BF4 )2 observed with X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, T.; Osawa, H.; Shin, S.; Tanaka, K.; Isozumi, Y.; Iwazumi, T.; Nozowa, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:[Fe(ptz) 6 ](BF 4 ) 2 (ptz = 1-propyltetrazole) is one of the well-known iron(II) spin- crossover complexes. Thermal- and photo-induced phase transitions have been widely reported since 1985. According to Decurtines' report, this material shows only thermal-induced spin phase transition, low-spin (LS, S = 0) high-spin (HS, S = 2), at critical temperatures of 135 (in warming process) and 128 K (in cooling process), but also photo-indused (PI) phase transition below ∼ 50 K. In this study, we observed thermal- and photo-induced phase transition by X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at BL-28B of Photon Factory (PF), Institute of Materials Structure Science. The incident photons, provided by elliptical multipole wiggler, were fixed at 7300 eV using an Si(111) double crystal monochromator. Emitted X- rays from this sample were analyzed by a cylindrically bent Ge (440) crystal, and detected by a position-sensitive proportional counter (PSPC). We used a frequency-doubled Nd : YVO 4 laser (λ = 532 nm) for excitation light source from LS state to PI phase. 20-mW power was directed to the sample at a 9-mm diameter beam spot. The figure shows Fe 3p-1s XES spectra for 160 K (HS), 30 K (LS) and PI phase during (PI1) and after (PI2) Laser irradiation. PI2 was measured 30 minutes later from laser-off. PI1 shows the transition from LS state to PI phase similar to HS and the change from PI1 to PI2 means a decay process from the the PI phase to the LS state. Each spectrum could be described with the superposition of those of the HS and LS state

  8. BF2.649 [1-{3-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine, hydrochloride], a nonimidazole inverse agonist/antagonist at the human histamine H3 receptor: Preclinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligneau, X; Perrin, D; Landais, L; Camelin, J-C; Calmels, T P G; Berrebi-Bertrand, I; Lecomte, J-M; Parmentier, R; Anaclet, C; Lin, J-S; Bertaina-Anglade, V; la Rochelle, C Drieu; d'Aniello, F; Rouleau, A; Gbahou, F; Arrang, J-M; Ganellin, C R; Stark, H; Schunack, W; Schwartz, J-C

    2007-01-01

    Histamine H3 receptor inverse agonists are known to enhance the activity of histaminergic neurons in brain and thereby promote vigilance and cognition. 1-{3-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine, hydrochloride (BF2.649) is a novel, potent, and selective nonimidazole inverse agonist at the recombinant human H3 receptor. On the stimulation of guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding to this receptor, BF2.649 behaved as a competitive antagonist with a Ki value of 0.16 nM and as an inverse agonist with an EC50 value of 1.5 nM and an intrinsic activity approximately 50% higher than that of ciproxifan. Its in vitro potency was approximately 6 times lower at the rodent receptor. In mice, the oral bioavailability coefficient, i.e., the ratio of plasma areas under the curve after oral and i.v. administrations, respectively, was 84%. BF2.649 dose dependently enhanced tele-methylhistamine levels in mouse brain, an index of histaminergic neuron activity, with an ED50 value of 1.6 mg/kg p.o., a response that persisted after repeated administrations for 17 days. In rats, the drug enhanced dopamine and acetylcholine levels in microdialysates of the prefrontal cortex. In cats, it markedly enhanced wakefulness at the expense of sleep states and also enhanced fast cortical rhythms of the electroencephalogram, known to be associated with improved vigilance. On the two-trial object recognition test in mice, a promnesiant effect was shown regarding either scopolamine-induced or natural forgetting. These preclinical data suggest that BF2.649 is a valuable drug candidate to be developed in wakefulness or memory deficits and other cognitive disorders.

  9. IrC2/Bf - A yeast and Borrelia responsive component of the complement system from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, V.; Hajdušek, O.; Šíma, R.; Franta, Z.; Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Grunclová, L.; Bartošová-Sojková, P.; Jalovecká, M.; Kopáček, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 76, FEB 2018 (2018), s. 86-94 ISSN 0145-305X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Borrelia * C3-complement convertase * Factor B Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.218, year: 2016

  10. Synthesis of the compound tetrakis (2- methoxy isobutyl isonitrile) copper (I) tetrafluoroborate -(Cu[MIBI]4BF4): substance used in the production of the radiopharmaceutical sestamibi 99m Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Katia Suzi da Silveira

    2005-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical SESTAMIBI- 99m Tc presents interest and application in the clinical routine in Nuclear Medicine, especially for evaluation of the myocardium function and in the diagnosis of some tumors types, and the Center of Radiopharmacy of the IPEN has interest in the development of this radiopharmaceutical for attendance of the nuclear medicine class necessities. In this work it was demonstrated the synthesis and characterization of the active compound tetrakis (2- methoxy isobutyl isonitrile) copper (I) tetrafluoroborate - Cu[MIBI] 4 BF 4 - to be used in the preparation of lyophilized reagents for labeling with technetium- 99m as well as labeling studies and biological distribution. The synthesis of the reagent Cu[MIBI] 4 BF 4 was carried out in accordance with previously described procedures, in 5 steps and the compounds were characterized for infra-red, magnetic nuclear resonance, melting point and thin layer chromatography. The characterization of the chelate of MIBI -Cu[MIBI] 4 BF 4 - was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography, compared with a standard sample of the product and presented similar results, as described in literature. The lyophilized reagent was prepared and labeled with technetium- 99m , showing high radiochemical purity, higher than 97%, with high stability. Biological distribution in different animals showed good uptake in the heart, in time compatible with the acquisition of scintigraphy images, demonstrating the applicability of the reagent synthesized in the attainment of cardiac scintigraphy images. (author)

  11. Different strain relaxation mechanisms in strained Si/Si sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x /Si heterostructures by high dose B sup + and BF sub 2 sup + doping

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C C; Zhang, S L; Zhu, D Z; Vantomme, A

    2002-01-01

    Strained Si/Si sub 0 sub . sub 8 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 2 /Si heterostructures are implanted at room temperature with 7.5 keV B sup + and 33 keV BF sub 2 sup + ions to a high dose of 2x10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 2 , respectively. The samples are subsequently subjected to three-step anneals (spacer anneal, oxidation anneal and rapid thermal anneal), which are used to simulate a real fabrication process of SiGe-based MOSFET devices. The damage induced by implantation and its recovery are characterized by 2 MeV sup 4 He sup + RBS/channeling spectrometry. A damage layer on the surface is induced by B sup + implantation, but BF sup + sub 2 ion implantation amorphizes the surface of Si/Si sub 0 sub . sub 8 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 2 /Si heterostructure. Channeling angular scans along the axial direction demonstrate that the strain stored in the SiGe layer could be nearly completely retained for the B sup + implanted and subsequently annealed sample. However, the strain in the BF sub 2 sup + implanted/annealed SiGe layer has...

  12. Photometric Analysis and Modeling of Five Mass-Transferring Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Emily; Beaky, Matthew; Jamison, Kate

    2018-01-01

    In overcontact eclipsing binary systems, both stellar components have overfilled their Roche lobes, resulting in a dumbbell-shaped shared envelope. Mass transfer is common in overcontact binaries, which can be observed as a slow change on the rotation period of the system.We studied five overcontact eclipsing binary systems with evidence of period change, and thus likely mass transfer between the components, identified by Nelson (2014): V0579 Lyr, KN Vul, V0406 Lyr, V2240 Cyg, and MS Her. We used the 31-inch NURO telescope at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona to obtain images in B,V,R, and I filters for V0579 Lyr, and the 16-inch Meade LX200GPS telescope with attached SBIG ST-8XME CCD camera at Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania to image KN Vul, V0406 Lyr, V2240 Cyg, and MS Her, also in B,V,R, and I.After data reduction, we created light curves for each of the systems and modeled the eclipsing binaries using the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs to determine their fundamental physical parameters for the first time. Complete light curves and preliminary models for each of these neglected eclipsing binary systems will be presented.

  13. Superbasic amidine monodentate ligands in fac-[Re(CO)3(5,5'-Me2bipy)(amidine)]BF4 complexes: dependence of amidine configuration on the remote nitrogen substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Theshini; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Patricia A; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2010-08-02

    Addition of various RNH(2) to fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(CH(3)CN)]BF(4) (1) converts the acetonitrile ligand to the amidine ligand (a superbase) in fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NHR)]BF(4) products. Each complex has four conceivable isomers (E, E', Z, and Z') because the amidine CN bonds have double-bond character, and the two remote NHR group substituents are different. The reaction of 1 in acetonitrile is complete in 6 to 96 h (25 degrees C) and forms fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NHR)]BF(4) E' and Z isomers. Only the E' isomer formed crystals (R = methyl, isopropyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, and benzyl). Upon dissolution of such crystals in acetonitrile-d(3), NMR spectra with highly dominant E' signals gradually changed (approximately 15 min at room temperature) to spectra with signals for an equilibrium mixture of E' and Z isomers. Such slow E'-to-Z isomer interchange is also indicated by 2D ROESY NMR data used primarily to assign solution structure. Equilibrium ratios (E':Z) of approximately 65:35 for R = methyl, isopropyl, and isobutyl and 83:17 for R = tert-butyl demonstrate that increasing the remote NHR group steric bulk above a threshold size favors the E' isomer. Consistent with this trend, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NH(2))]BF(4), with a remote NH(2) (low bulk) group, favors the Z isomer. In contrast, although the remote NH(benzyl) group in fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NH(CH(2)C(6)H(5))]BF(4) has only moderate bulk, the E' isomer has high abundance as a result of favorable 5,5'-Me(2)bipy/benzyl stacking, evidence for which is present in both solid and solution states. The fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NHR)]BF(4) E isomer can be detected in solvents of low polarity. However, the Z' isomer was not observed, undoubtedly because unfavorable remote-group clashes with the equatorial ligands destabilize this isomer. Challenge studies with a 5-fold excess of 4-dimethylaminopyridine in acetonitrile-d(3

  14. Crystal structure and characterization of the novel NH{sup +} Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis N hydrogen bonded polar crystal [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtas, M., E-mail: maciej.wojtas@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Gagor, A. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Science, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Czupinski, O. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Medycki, W. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Jakubas, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2012-03-15

    Dielectric properties and phase transitions of the piperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}], abbreviated as PFB) crystal are related to the one-dimensional arrangement of the cations linked by the bistable NH{sup +} Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis N hydrogen bonds and molecular motions of the [BF{sub 4}]{sup -} units. The crystal structure of [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}] is monoclinic at room temperature with the polar space group Pn. The polar/acentric properties of the room temperature phase IV have been confirmed by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements. DSC measurements show that the compound undergoes three first-order structural phase transitions: at 421/411 K (heating/cooling), at 386/372 K and at 364/349 K. {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F NMR measurements indicate the reorientational motions of [BF{sub 4}]{sup -} anions and piperazinium(+) cations as well as the proton motion in the hydrogen-bonded chains of piperazine along the [001] direction. Over the phase I the isotropic reorientational motions or even self-diffusion of the cations and anions are expected. The conductivity measurements in the vicinity of the II-I PT indicate a superionic phase over the phase I. - Graphical abstract: It must be emphasized that the titled compound represents the first organic-inorganic simple salt containing the single-protonated piperazinium cation which was studied by means of the wide variety of experimental techniques. A survey of Cambridge Structural Database (CSD version 5.32 (November 2010) and updates (May 2011)) for structure containing the piperazinium cations yields 248 compounds with the doubly protonated piperazinium(2+) cations and only eight compounds with the singly protonated piperazinium(+) cations. Among these structures only one is the hybrid organic-inorganic material. This is piperazinium nitrate characterized structurally. The crystal packing of [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}], phase IV. The

  15. Performance of the ALICE VZERO system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abbas, E.; Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Čepila, J.; Křelina, M.; Krus, M.; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Mareš, Jiří A.; Pachr, M.; Petráček, V.; Petráň, M.; Polák, Karel; Pospíšil, V.; Šmakal, R.; Šumbera, Michal; Tlustý, D.; Wagner, V.; Zach, Č.; Závada, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, OCT (2013), P10016 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ALICE * LHC * VZERO system Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013

  16. New monodentate amidine superbasic ligands with a single configuration in fac-[Re(CO)3(5,5'- or 6,6'-Me2bipyridine)(amidine)]BF4 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhayawardhana, Pramuditha; Marzilli, Patricia A; Perera, Theshini; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2012-07-02

    Treatment of two precursors, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(L)(CH(3)CN)]BF(4) [L = 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (5,5'-Me(2)bipy) (1) and 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (6,6'-Me(2)bipy) (2)], with five C(2)-symmetrical saturated heterocyclic amines yielded 10 new amidine complexes, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(L)(HNC(CH(3))N(CH(2)CH(2))(2)Y)]BF(4) [Y = CH(2), (CH(2))(2), (CH(2))(3), NH, or O]. All 10 complexes possess the novel feature of having only one isomer (amidine E configuration), as established by crystallographic and (1)H NMR spectroscopic methods. We are confident that NMR signals of the other possible isomer (amidine Z configuration) would have been detected, if it were present. Isomers are readily detected in closely related amidine complexes because the double-bond character of the amidine C-N3 bond (N3 is bound to Re) leads to slow E to Z isomer interchange. The new fac-[Re(CO)(3)(L)(HNC(CH(3))N(CH(2)CH(2))(2)Y)]BF(4) complexes have C-N3 bonds with essentially identical double-bond character. However, the reason that the Z isomer is so unstable as to be undetectable in the new complexes is undoubtedly because of unfavorable clashes between the equatorial ligands and the bulky N(CH(2)CH(2))(2)Y ring moiety of the axial amidine ligand. The amidine formation reactions in acetonitrile (25 °C) proceeded more easily with 2 than with 1, indicating that the distortion in 6,6'-Me(2)bipy resulting from the proximity of the methyl substituents to the inner coordination sphere enhanced the reactivity of the coordinated CH(3)CN. Reaction times for 1 and 2 exhibited a similar dependence on the basicity and ring size of the heterocyclic amine reactants. Moreover, when the product of the reaction of 1 with piperidine, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))N(CH(2)CH(2))(2)CH(2))]BF(4), was challenged in acetonitrile-d(3) or CDCl(3) with a 5-fold excess of the strong 4-dimethylaminopyridine ligand, there was no evidence for replacement of the amidine ligand after two months, thus establishing

  17. Li + solvation and kinetics of Li+BF4-/PF 6 - ion pairs in ethylene carbonate. A molecular dynamics study with classical rate theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin–Parkside, Kenosha, Wisconsin 53141, USA; Dang, Liem X. [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 93352, USA

    2017-10-28

    Using our polarizable force-field models and employing classical rate theories of chemical reactions, we examine the ethylene carbonate (EC) exchange process between the first and second solvation shells around Li+ and the dissociation kinetics of ion pairs Li+-[BF4] and Li+-[PF6] in this solvent. We calculate the exchange rates using transition state theory and correct them with transmission coefficients computed by the reactive flux; Impey, Madden, and McDonald approaches; and Grote-Hynes theory. We found the residence times of EC around Li+ ions varied from 70 to 450 ps, depending on the correction method used. We found the relaxation times changed significantly from Li+-[BF4] to Li+-[PF6] ion pairs in EC. Our results also show that, in addition to affecting the free energy of dissociation in EC, the anion type also significantly influence the dissociation kinetics of ion pairing. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  19. Calculation of the reaction rate and response matrix of a neutron spectroscopy consisting of a water sphere of variable diameter and BF3 detector using the MCNP5-beta code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albashir, K.; Nahili, M.; Al-Zawahera, S.

    2015-01-01

    The MCNP5-beta code was used to calculate the reaction rate 1 0B(n,α) 7 Li and the neutron energy response matrix of a neutron spectrometer consisting of a water sphere with variable diameter and detector BF 3 using point and disk neutron sources 2 41Am-Be. The reaction rate and the response matrix of disk neutron source shows higher value than these obtained from the point neutron source. The response of the matrix disk neutron source in the energy range from 4.14x10 - 7 to 11.09 MeV show a maximum value for sphere of 12 inch diameter, where the response with point neutron source stile increasing calculated value in this condition .The calculated values of neutron energy responses for a disk neutron source agreed well with published results. (author)

  20. Theory of collisions between an atom and a diatomic molecule in the body-fixed coordinate system.)/sup a/ I. Coupled differential equation and asymptotic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.H.; Poe, R.T.; Tang, K.T.

    1978-01-01

    The body-fixed (BF) formulation for atom--diatom scatterings is developed to the extent that one can use it to perform accurate close-coupling calculation, without introducing further approximation except truncating a finite basis set of the target molecular wave function, on the same ground as one use the space-fixed (SF) formulation. In this formulation, the coupled differential equations are solved an the boundary conditions matched entirely in the BF coordinate system. A unitary transformation is used to obtain both the coupled differential equation and the boundary condition in BF system system from SF system. All properties of the solution with respect to parity are derived entirely from the transformation, without using the parity eignfunctions of the BF frame. Boundary conditions that yield the scattering (S) matrix and the reactance (R) matrix are presented for each parity in both the far asymptotic region (where the interaction and the centrifugal potentials are both negligible) and the near asymptotic region (where the interaction potential is negligible but the centrifugal potential is not). While our differential equations are the same as those derived by others with different methods, our asymptotic boundary conditions disagree with some existing ones. With a given form of the BF coupled differential equations, the acceptable boundary conditions are discussed

  1. Schorl: a novel catalyst in mineral-catalyzed Fenton-like system for dyeing wastewater discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan-Yan; Prasad, Murari; Liu, Yu

    2009-06-15

    Mineral-catalyzed Fenton-like system has been found to be effective for the discoloration of dyeing wastewater. In our present study, schorl has been successfully developed as a novel heterogeneous catalyst for discoloration of an active commercial dye, Argazol blue (BF-BR), in an aqueous solution. Through a number of batch discoloration experiments under various conditions, it was found that the reactivity of the system increased by, respectively, increasing schorl dosage, temperature, hydrogen peroxide starting concentration and by decreasing the pH. At the condition of pH 2, T=55 degrees C, [BF-BR](0)=200mg/L, [H(2)O(2)](0)=48.5 mmol/L and schorl dosage=10 g/L, 100% of discoloration ratio can be achieved in less than 4 min, and 72% of total organic carbon (TOC) can be removed in less than 200 min. The reaction kinetics analysis shows that the discoloration of BF-BR follows the first-order kinetics. The schorl samples after BF-BR discoloration was tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the results rule out the possibility of formation of new solid phases during BF-BR discoloration. The content of Fe ion leaching in the solution was also measured using inductively coupling plasma-atomic emission spectra (ICP-AES). A mechanism proposed herein indicates adsorption and Fenton-like reaction (heterogeneous and homogeneous) are responsible for the discoloration of BF-BR.

  2. Schorl: A novel catalyst in mineral-catalyzed Fenton-like system for dyeing wastewater discoloration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Huanyan, E-mail: xhy7587@yahoo.com.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, 150040 (China); Prasad, Murari [Environmental Chemistry Division, Advanced Materials and Processing Research Institute (C.S.I.R.), Hoshangabad Road, Habibganj Naka, Bhopal 462006 (India); Liu Yu [College of Zijin Mining Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350108 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Mineral-catalyzed Fenton-like system has been found to be effective for the discoloration of dyeing wastewater. In our present study, schorl has been successfully developed as a novel heterogeneous catalyst for discoloration of an active commercial dye, Argazol blue (BF-BR), in an aqueous solution. Through a number of batch discoloration experiments under various conditions, it was found that the reactivity of the system increased by, respectively, increasing schorl dosage, temperature, hydrogen peroxide starting concentration and by decreasing the pH. At the condition of pH 2, T = 55 {sup o}C, [BF-BR]{sub 0} = 200 mg/L, [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sub 0} = 48.5 mmol/L and schorl dosage = 10 g/L, 100% of discoloration ratio can be achieved in less than 4 min, and 72% of total organic carbon (TOC) can be removed in less than 200 min. The reaction kinetics analysis shows that the discoloration of BF-BR follows the first-order kinetics. The schorl samples after BF-BR discoloration was tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the results rule out the possibility of formation of new solid phases during BF-BR discoloration. The content of Fe ion leaching in the solution was also measured using inductively coupling plasma-atomic emission spectra (ICP-AES). A mechanism proposed herein indicates adsorption and Fenton-like reaction (heterogeneous and homogeneous) are responsible for the discoloration of BF-BR.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of streptococci from various indications of swine, horses, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Alesík, Eva; Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Werckenthin, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A total of 500 streptococci from two indications of swine (beta-haemolytic streptococci from infections of the urinary/genital tract including strains from the mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome as well as S. suis from infections of the central nervous system and the musculoskeletal system), two indications of horses (S. equi from respiratory tract infections and beta-haemolytic streptococci from infections of the genital tract), as well as three indications of dogs and cats (beta-haemolytic streptococci from infections of the respiratory tract, the urinary/genital tract, and skin/ear/mouth) were investigated for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Regardless of the animal origin and indication, the most frequently detected resistance properties were resistances against sulfamethoxazole (20-78%), tetracycline (17-93%) as well as gentamicin (14-79%). Resistance to penicillins or cephalosporins was very rarely detected - if at all.

  4. Diversity and Multiplexing Technologies by 3D Beams in Polarized Massive MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive multiple input, multiple output (M-MIMO technologies have been proposed to scale up data rates reaching gigabits per second in the forthcoming 5G mobile communications systems. However, one of crucial constraints is a dimension in space to implement the M-MIMO. To cope with the space constraint and to utilize more flexibility in 3D beamforming (3D-BF, we propose antenna polarization in M-MIMO systems. In this paper, we design a polarized M-MIMO (PM-MIMO system associated with 3D-BF applications, where the system architectures for diversity and multiplexing technologies achieved by polarized 3D beams are provided. Different from the conventional 3D-BF achieved by planar M-MIMO technology to control the downtilted beam in a vertical domain, the proposed PM-MIMO realizes 3D-BF via the linear combination of polarized beams. In addition, an effective array selection scheme is proposed to optimize the beam-width and to enhance system performance by the exploration of diversity and multiplexing gains; and a blind channel estimation (BCE approach is also proposed to avoid pilot contamination in PM-MIMO. Based on the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A specification, the simulation results finally confirm the validity of our proposals.

  5. Molecular Orbital and Density Functional Study of the Formation, Charge Transfer, Bonding and the Conformational Isomerism of the Boron Trifluoride (BF3 and Ammonia (NH3 Donor-Acceptor Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal C. Ghosh

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the F3B–NH3 supermolecule by chemical interaction of its fragment parts, BF3 and NH3, and the dynamics of internal rotation about the ‘B–N’ bond have been studied in terms of parameters provided by the molecular orbital and density functional theories. It is found that the pairs of frontier orbitals of the interacting fragments have matching symmetry and are involved in the charge transfer interaction. The donation process stems from the HOMO of the donor into the LUMO of the acceptor and simultaneously, back donation stems from the HOMO of acceptor into the LUMO of the donor. The density functional computation of chemical activation in the donor and acceptor fragments, associated with the physical process of structural reorganization just prior to the event of chemical reaction, indicates that BF3 becomes more acidic and NH3 becomes more basic, compared to their separate equilibrium states. Theoretically it is observed that the chemical reaction event of the formation of the supermolecule from its fragment parts is in accordance with the chemical potential equalization principle of the density functional theory and the electronegativity equalization principle of Sanderson. The energetics of the chemical reaction, the magnitude of the net charge transfer and the energy of the newly formed bond are quite consistent, both internally and with the principle of maximum hardness, PMH. The dynamics of the internal rotation of one part with respect to the other part of the supermolecule about the ‘B–N’ bond mimics the pattern of the conformational isomerism of the isostructural ethane molecule. It is also observed that the dynamics and evolution of molecular conformations as a function of dihedral angles is also in accordance with the principle of maximum hardness, PMH. Quite consistent with spectroscopic predictions, the height of the molecule

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli from swine, horses, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Alesík, Eva; Schwarz, Stefan; Wallmann, Jürgen; Werckenthin, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H

    2007-01-01

    A total of 417 isolates of Escherichia coli collected from five animal species/organ system combinations from swine [urinary/genital tract (UGT) incl. mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome], horses [genital tract (GT)] and dogs/cats [respiratory tract (RT), UGT and gastrointestinal tract (GIT)] were analysed quantitatively for their susceptibility against different antimicrobial agents by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Regardless of which animal species the strains originated from, resistance appeared most frequently against sulfamethoxazole (18-59%), tetracycline (14-54 %), and ampicillin (14-39%). High percentages of intermediate isolates were observed for cephalothin (39-46 %). In general, low prevalences of resistance were detected for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1-4%), gentamicin (1-9%), and cefazolin (0-11%). Generally speaking, the antimicrobial resistance situation among E. coli isolates from horses and small animals is relatively good.

  7. Correction: MurCSS: A Tool for Standardized Evaluation of Decadal Hindcast Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Illing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article details a correction to the article: Illing S, Kadow C, Oliver K, Cubasch U. MurCSS: A Tool for Standardized Evaluation of Decadal Hindcast Systems. Journal of Open Research Software. 2014; 2(1: e24. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/jors.bf

  8. Carbohydrates-tailored phase tunable systems composed of ionic liquids and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuhaun; Wang Yige; Cheng Qingyan; Liu Xiaoli; Zhang Suojiang

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrates were found to have substantial effects on tailoring phase tunable of ionic liquids (ILs) and water. Phase behaviors of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives [C n mim]X (n = 2 to 10, X = Cl - , Br - , BF 4 - )-carbohydrate-H 2 O were systemically investigated. For hydrophilic ILs, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C n mim]BF 4 (n = 3, 4), the homogeneous aqueous solution can be induced to separate two aqueous phases by addition of carbohydrate. For hydrophobic ILs, [C n mim]BF 4 (n = 5 to 10), the mutual solubility with water can be lowered by addition of carbohydrate. While 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([C n mim]Cl, n = 2 to 10) and 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide ([C n mim]Br, n = 2 to 10) aqueous solutions never form aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) with carbohydrate in the investigated temperatures ranging from (242.15 to 373.15) K. The high partitioning behavior of phenol in [C n mim]BF 4 (n = 3 to 10) (1) + carbohydrate (2) + H 2 O (3) shows that carbohydrate-tailored {IL + H 2 O} systems are feasible to be used as extraction systems, especially in biological and environmental engineering.

  9. Assessment of MSIV full closure for Santa Maria de Garona Nuclear Power Plant using TRAC-BF1 (G1J1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document presents a spurious Main Steam Isolation Value (MSIV) closure analysis for Santa Maria de Garorta Nuclear Power Plan describing the problems found when comparing calculated and real data. The plant is a General Electric Boiling Water Reactor 3, containment type Mark 1. It is operated by NUCLENOR, S.A. and was connected to the grid in 1971. The analysis has been performed by the Apphed Physics Department from the University of Cantabria and the Analysis and Operation Section from NUCLENOR, S.A. as a part of an agreement for developing an engineering simulator of operational transients and accidents for Santa Maria de Gamma Power Plant. The analysis was performed using the frozen version of TRAC-BFI (GlJl) code and is the second of two NUCLENOR contributions to the International Code Applications and Assessment Program (ICAP). The code was run in a Cyber 932 with operating system NOS/VE, property of NUCLENOR, S.A.. A programming effort was carried out in order to provide suitable graphics from the output file

  10. Improvement of cement plant dust emission by bag filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Purnomo, Chandra; Budhijanto, Wiratni; Alfisyah, Muziibu; Triyono

    2018-03-01

    The limestone quarry in PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa (ITP) in Cirebon is considered as a complex quarry in terms of chemical composition and material hardness. From the beginning of the plant operation up to the end of 2015, the dust removal was rely on electrostatic precipitator (EP) system. Whenever limestone from specific quarry zones were incorporated into Raw Mill (RM) feed or there was an upset condition, the dust emission increased significantly. Beside higher demand of electricity, an EP system requires lower gas inlet temperature in order to remove the dust effectively which requires larger cooling water in the previous gas conditioning tower to cool down gas from 400 °C to about 100 °C. By considering the drawbacks, the EP system was replaced by a bag filter (BF) system. The BF allows higher temperature of gas inlet and it has higher dust removal efficiency. In this study, the efficiency of the two different dust removal systems is compared. The effect of process variables i.e. RM feed, kiln feed, inlet temperature and pressure, and small size particle fraction to the dust emission are studied by multivariate linier regression analysis. It is observed that the BF system can reduce significantly the dust emission from 30 to 6 mg/m3 and in the same time reducing CO2 emission by 0.24 ton/year from the electricity consumption saving.

  11. Crossed-beam experiment for the scattering of low- and intermediate-energy electrons from BF{sub 3}: A comparative study with XF{sub 3} (X = C, N, and CH) molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M., E-mail: masami-h@sophia.ac.jp; Suga, A.; Kato, H.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Limão-Vieira, P. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, F. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-14

    Absolute differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron interaction with BF{sub 3} molecules have been measured in the impact energy range of 1.5–200 eV and recorded over a scattering angle range of 15°–150°. These angular distributions have been normalized by reference to the elastic DCSs of the He atom and integrated by employing a modified phase shift analysis procedure to generate integral cross sections (ICSs) and momentum transfer cross sections (MTCSs). The calculations of DCSs and ICSs have been carried out using an independent atom model under the screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The present elastic DCSs have been found to agree well with the results of IAM-SCAR calculation above 20 eV, and also with a recent Schwinger multichannel calculation below 30 eV. Furthermore, in the comparison with the XF{sub 3} (X = B, C, N, and CH) molecules, the elastic DCSs reveal a similar angular distribution which are approximately equal in magnitude from 30 to 200 eV. This feature suggests that the elastic scattering is dominated virtually by the 3-outer fluorine atoms surrounding the XF{sub 3} molecules. The vibrational DCSs have also been obtained in the energy range of 1.5–15 eV and vibrational analysis based on the angular correlation theory has been carried out to explain the nature of the shape resonances. Limited experiments on vibrational inelastic scattering confirmed the existence of a shape resonance with a peak at 3.8 eV, which is also observed in the vibrational ICS. Finally, the estimated elastic ICSs, MTCSs, as well as total cross sections are compared with the previous cross section data available.

  12. Solvent-dependent dihydrogen/dihydride stability for [Mo(CO)(Cp*)H(2)(PMe(3))(2)](+)[BF(4)](-) determined by multiple solvent...anion...cation non-covalent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dub, Pavel A; Belkova, Natalia V; Filippov, Oleg A; Daran, Jean-Claude; Epstein, Lina M; Lledós, Agustí; Shubina, Elena S; Poli, Rinaldo

    2010-01-04

    Low-temperature (200 K) protonation of [Mo(CO)(Cp*)H(PMe(3))(2)] (1) by Et(2)OHBF(4) gives a different result depending on a subtle solvent change: The dihydrogen complex [Mo(CO)(Cp*)(eta(2)-H(2))(PMe(3))(2)](+) (2) is obtained in THF, whereas the tautomeric classical dihydride [Mo(CO)(Cp*)(H)(2)(PMe(3))(2)](+) (3) is the only observable product in dichloromethane. Both products were fully characterised (nu(CO) IR; (1)H, (31)P, (13)C NMR spectroscopies) at low temperature; they lose H(2) upon warming to 230 K at approximately the same rate (ca. 10(-3) s(-1)), with no detection of the non-classical form in CD(2)Cl(2), to generate [Mo(CO)(Cp*)(FBF(3))(PMe(3))(2)] (4). The latter also slowly decomposes at ambient temperature. One of the decomposition products was crystallised and identified by X-ray crystallography as [Mo(CO)(Cp*)(FHFBF(3))(PMe(3))(2)] (5), which features a neutral HF ligand coordinated to the transition metal through the F atom and to the BF(4) (-) anion through a hydrogen bond. The reason for the switch in relative stability between 2 and 3 was probed by DFT calculations based on the B3LYP and M05-2X functionals, with inclusion of anion and solvent effects by the conductor-like polarisable continuum model and by explicit consideration of the solvent molecules. Calculations at the MP4(SDQ) and CCSD(T) levels were also carried out for calibration. The calculations reveal the key role of non-covalent anion-solvent interactions, which modulate the anion-cation interaction ultimately altering the energetic balance between the two isomeric forms.

  13. Radial Velocities of CH CYG Just as the Jets Appeared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaszak, E.; Mikolajewski, M.

    The period of maximum brightness of CH Cygni which started in mid 1981 finished at the end of July 1984, when sudden drop by about 1 mag was observed. At the same time a radio outburst has occurred and the jet structure has developed (Taylor et al., 1986). The Toruń Observatory has recorded the spectra of CH Cygni just at this moment. Significant spectral variations, especially development of wide wings in Balmer emission lines have been found (Mikołajewski and Tomov, 1985).

  14. Optical Spectroscopic Observations of Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yan, Y.; Liu, Q.; Hadrava, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 2 (2008), s. 631-640 ISSN 0004-6256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0041; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binaries * spectroscopic * early-type stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.769, year: 2008

  15. Space-Time Block Coding with Beamforming for Triple-Polarized Uniform Linear Array Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, space-time block coding (STBC and beamforming (BF gains cannot be obtained simultaneously because the former performs well under a low correlated MIMO channel, and the latter works efficiently in an environment with high correlation. However, array systems with antenna polarization have the potential to achieve gains with both techniques simultaneously because the cross-branch links in the system are usually uncorrelated. The cross-array links, on the other hand, can be highly correlated by setting the array element space equal to, or less than, a half-wavelength. This paper proposes a scheme to explore STBC and BF simultaneously via a triple-polarized uniform linear array (TPULA system. The proposed scheme was verified based on the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A specification under a polarized MIMO (PMIMO channel model, and therewith, the simulation results confirmed the validity of our proposed scheme.

  16. The detector control system of the ATLAS SemiConductor tracker during macro-assembly and integration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdesselam, A.; Barr, A.; Basiladze, S.; Böhm, Jan; Šťastný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2008), P02007/1-P02007/29 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032; GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : solid state detectors * large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * detector control systems Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2008

  17. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF THE SOLAR TWINS 16 CYGNI A AND B: CONSTRAINING PLANET FORMATION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Ghezzi, Luan; King, Jeremy R.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Boesgaard, Ann Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Results of a detailed abundance analysis of the solar twins 16 Cyg A and 16 Cyg B based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectroscopy are presented. 16 Cyg B is known to host a giant planet while no planets have yet been detected around 16 Cyg A. Stellar parameters are derived directly from our high-quality spectra, and the stars are found to be physically similar, with ΔT eff = +43 K, Δlog g = -0.02 dex, and Δξ = +0.10 km s -1 (in the sense of A - B), consistent with previous findings. Abundances of 15 elements are derived and are found to be indistinguishable between the two stars. The abundances of each element differ by ≤0.026 dex, and the mean difference is +0.003 ± 0.015 (σ) dex. Aside from Li, which has been previously shown to be depleted by a factor of at least 4.5 in 16 Cyg B relative to 16 Cyg A, the two stars appear to be chemically identical. The abundances of each star demonstrate a positive correlation with the condensation temperature of the elements (T c ); the slopes of the trends are also indistinguishable. In accordance with recent suggestions, the positive slopes of the [m/H]-T c relations may imply that terrestrial planets have not formed around either 16 Cyg A or 16 Cyg B. The physical characteristics of the 16 Cyg system are discussed in terms of planet formation models, and plausible mechanisms that can account for the lack of detected planets around 16 Cyg A, the disparate Li abundances of 16 Cyg A and B, and the eccentricity of the planet 16 Cyg B b are suggested.

  18. Technical Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Čepila, J.; Ferencei, Jozef; Hladký, Jan; Křelina, M.; Křížek, Filip; Krus, M.; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Mareš, Jiří A.; Pachr, M.; Petráček, V.; Petráň, M.; Pospíšil, V.; Schulc, M.; Šmakal, R.; Špaček, M.; Šumbera, Michal; Vajzer, Michal; Wagner, V.; Zach, Č.; Závada, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2014), 087002 ISSN 0954-3899 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ALICE * heavy ion collisions * Inner Tracking System Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.777, year: 2014

  19. Modeling and analysis of anti-scatter grids for analogical and digital systems using MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Samanda C.A.; Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used for modeling of the antiscatter grids. The performance analysis of grid was investigated for analogical and digital systems by calculation of contrast improvement factor (CIF), bucky factor (BF) and signal improvement factor (SIF). The accuracy of simulation of the grids was validated through comparison with measured results demonstrating good agreement, thus increasing the reliability of the results presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Black holes and neutron stars: evolution of binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of neutron stars and black holes in binary systems has been reviewed, and the following summarizes the current situation: (1) No statistically significant case has been made for the proposition that black holes and/or neutron stars contribute to the population of unseen companions of ordinary spectroscopic binaries; (2) Plausible evolutionary scenarios can be advanced that place compact X-ray sources into context as descendants of several common types of mass-exchange binaries. The collapse object may be a black hole, a neutron star, or a white dwarf, depending mostly on the mass of the original primary; (3) The rotating neutron star model for the pulsating X-ray sources Her X-1 and Cen X-3 is the simplest interpretation of these objects, but the idea that the pulsations result from the non-radial oscillations of a white dwarf cannot be altogether dismissed. The latter is particularly attractive in the case of Her X-1 because the total mass of the system is small; (4) The black hole picture for Cyg X-1 represents the simplest model that can presently be put forward to explain the observations. This does not insure its correctness, however. The picture depends on a long chain of inferences, some of which are by no means unassailable. (Auth.)

  1. Haptic-based perception-empathy biofeedback system for balance rehabilitation in patients with chronic stroke: Concepts and initial feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Saichi, Kenta; Kaibuki, Naomi; Harashima, Hiroaki; Iwata, Hiroyasu

    2018-04-14

    Most individuals have sensory disturbances post stroke, and these deficits contribute to post-stroke balance impairment. The haptic-based biofeedback (BF) system appears to be one of the promising tools for balance rehabilitation in patients with stroke, and the BF system can increase the objectivity of feedback and encouragement than that provided by a therapist. Studies in skill science indicated that feedback or encouragement from a coach or trainer enhances motor learning effect. Nevertheless, the optimal BF system (or its concept) which would refine the interpersonal feedback between patients and therapist has not been proposed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a haptic-based perception-empathy BF system which provides information regarding the patient's center-of-foot pressure (CoP) pattern to the patient and the physical therapist to enhance the motor learning effect and validate the feasibility of this balance-training regimen in patients with chronic stroke. This study used a pre-post design without control group. Nine chronic stroke patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 9.2 years) received a balance-training regimen using this BF system twice a week for 4 weeks. Testing comprised quantitative measures (i.e., CoP) and clinical balance scale (Berg Balance Scale, BBS; Functional Reach Test, FRT; and Timed-Up and Go test, TUG). Post training, patients demonstrated marginally reduced postural spatial variability (i.e., 95% confidence elliptical area), and clinical balance performance significantly improved at post-training. Although the changes in FRT and TUG exceeded the minimal detectable change (MDC), changes in BBS did not reach clinical significance (i.e., smaller than MDC). These results may provide initial knowledge (i.e., beneficial effects, utility and its limitation) of the proposed BF system in designing effective motor learning strategies for stroke rehabilitation. More studies are required addressing limitations due to research design and

  2. The relationship between reorientational molecular motions and phase transitions in [Mg(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, studied with the use of {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F NMR and FT-MIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuli, Edward, E-mail: mikuli@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Hetmańczyk, Joanna [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Grad, Bartłomiej [Department of Forest Pathology, Faculty of Forestry, Agricultural University of Cracow, Aleja 29 listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków (Poland); Kozak, Asja; Wąsicki, Jan W.; Bilski, Paweł; Hołderna-Natkaniec, Krystyna [Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Medycki, Wojciech [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-02-14

    A {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance study of [Mg(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} has confirmed the existence of two phase transitions at T{sub c1} ≈ 257 K and T{sub c2} ≈ 142 K, detected earlier by the DSC method. These transitions were reflected by changes in the temperature dependences of both proton and fluorine of second moments M{sub 2}{sup H} and M{sub 2}{sup F} and of spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1}{sup H} and T{sub 1}{sup F}. The study revealed anisotropic reorientations of whole [Mg(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} cations, reorientations by 180° jumps of H{sub 2}O ligands, and aniso- and isotropic reorientations of BF{sub 4}{sup −} anions. The activation parameters for these motions were obtained. It was found that the phase transition at T{sub c1} is associated with the reorientation of the cation as a whole unit around the C{sub 3} axis and that at T{sub c2} with isotropic reorientation of the BF{sub 4}{sup −} anions. The temperature dependence of the full width at half maximum value of the infrared band of ρ{sub t}(H{sub 2}O) mode (at ∼596 cm{sup −1}) indicated that in phases I and II, all H{sub 2}O ligands in [Mg(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} perform fast reorientational motions (180° jumps) with a mean value of activation energy equal to ca 10 kJ mole{sup −1}, what is fully consistent with NMR results. The phase transition at T{sub c1} is associated with a sudden change of speed of fast (τ{sub R} ≈ 10{sup −12} s) reorientational motions of H{sub 2}O ligands. Below T{sub c2} (in phase III), the reorientations of certain part of the H{sub 2}O ligands significantly slow down, while others continue their fast reorientation with an activation energy of ca 2 kJ mole{sup −1}. This fast reorientation cannot be evidenced in NMR relaxation experiments. Splitting of certain IR bands connected with H{sub 2}O ligands at the observed phase transitions suggests a reduction of the symmetry of the octahedral [Mg(H{sub 2}O

  3. Synthesis, characterization, structure and properties of heterobimetallic complexes [CuNi(μ-OAc) (μ-OH) (μ-OH2) (bpy)2] (BF4)2 and [CuNi(bz)3(bpy)2] ClO4 from 2,2‧ bipyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbah, Sunshine D.; Kumar, A.; Syiemlieh, I.; Dey, A. K.; Lal, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Heterobimetallic complexes of the composition [CuNi(bpy)2 (μ-OAc) (μ-OH) (μ-OH2)](BF4)2 (1) and [CuNi(bz)3 (bpy)2]ClO4 (2) were synthesized in moderate yield through solid state reaction and have been characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, mass spectra, magnetic moment, EPR, UV-Vis, IR spectroscopies and cyclic voltammetry. The ground state in complex (1) is doublet while that in complex (2), the ground state is a mixture of doublet and quartet, respectively. The structure of the complexes has been established by X-ray crystallography. The electron transfer reactions of the complexes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry.

  4. Research activities in radiation protection. Programme report 1997. Report on the departmental research programme of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU), performed under the scientific and administrative project management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Goedde, R.; Thieme, M.

    1998-03-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Departmental Research Programme of the year 1997. (orig.) [de

  5. Design of a system for neutrons dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceron, P.; Rivera, T.; Paredes G, L.; Azorin, J.; Sanchez, A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    At the present time diverse systems of detection of neutrons exist, as proportional counters based on BF 3 , He 3 and spectrometers of Bonner spheres. However, the cost and the complexity of the implementation of these systems put them far from the reach for dosimetric purposes. For these reasons a system of neutrons detection composed by a medium paraffin moderator that forms a 4π (spheres) arrangement and of several couples of thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 600/TLD 700. The response of the system presents a minor repeatability to 5% in several assays when being irradiated with a 239 PuBe source and a deviation of 13.8% in the Tl readings of four different spheres. The calibration factor of the system with regard to the neutrons source which was of 56.2 p Sv/nc also was calculated. These detectors will be used as passive monitors of photoneutrons in a radiotherapy room with lineal accelerator of high energy. (Author)

  6. The ancestral complement system in sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L C; Clow, L A; Terwilliger, D P

    2001-04-01

    The origin of adaptive immunity in the vertebrates can be traced to the appearance of the ancestral RAG genes in the ancestral jawed vertebrate; however, the innate immune system is more ancient. A central subsystem within innate immunity is the complement system, which has been identified throughout and seems to be restricted to the deuterostomes. The evolutionary history of complement can be traced from the sea urchins (members of the echinoderm phylum), which have a simplified system homologous to the alternative pathway, through the agnathans (hagfish and lamprey) and the elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) to the teleosts (bony fish) and tetrapods, with increases in the numbers of complement components and duplications in complement pathways. Increasing complexity in the complement system parallels increasing complexity in the deuterostome animals. This review focuses on the simplest of the complement systems that is present in the sea urchin. Two components have been identified that show significant homology to vertebrate C3 and factor B (Bf), called SpC3 and SpBf, respectively. Sequence analysis from both molecules reveals their ancestral characteristics. Immune challenge of sea urchins indicates that SpC3 is inducible and is present in coelomic fluid (the body fluids) in relatively high concentrations, while SpBf expression is constitutive and is present in much lower concentrations. Opsonization of foreign cells and particles followed by augmented uptake by phagocytic coelomocytes appears to be a central function for this simpler complement system and important for host defense in the sea urchin. These activities are similar to some of the functions of the homologous proteins in the vertebrate complement system. The selective advantage for the ancestral deuterostome may have been the amplification feedback loop that is still of central importance in the alternative pathway of complement in higher vertebrates. Feedback loop functions would quickly coat

  7. Atmospheric emissions modeling of energetic biomass alternatives using system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarka, N.; University of Concepcion; Kakucs, O.; Wolfbauer, J.; Bezama, A.

    2008-01-01

    To simulate the quantitative effects of regional biomass alternatives for energetic purpose (BfE) on air pollutant emissions, a system dynamics model was developed and applied for the EuRegion Austrian-Hungarian cross-border area. The dynamic simulation program Vensim R was used to build an overall regional model with economic, social and environmental sectors. Within this model, the here-introduced regional air pollution sub-model (RegAir) includes the important human-made emissions of 10 pollutants resulting from all relevant source sectors within the region investigated. Emissions from activities related to biomass production, transport, conversion and final energy consumption were built in detail. After building and calibrating the RegAir model, seven quantitative test scenarios were defined and implemented into the world. Through the scenarios simulation, effects on air emissions were followed and compared over time. The results of these simulations show a significant reduction of CO 2 emission, especially in cases where fossil fuel displacement in heating devices is achieved on the largest scale. On the contrary, traditional air pollutants increase by most BfE options. The results of the RegAir model simulations of BfE alternatives over two decades provide useful quantifications of various air emissions and identify the less pollutant BfE alternatives in the dynamic context of the relevant air pollution sources of the region. After minor structural modification and appropriate calibration, RegAir can be applied to other regions as well. However, it is stated that, to finally decide on the overall most-appropriate options at a regional level, other environmental as well as economic and social effects must be taken into consideration, being the latter the goal of the mentioned overall regional model which serves as a model frame to the RegAir tool. (author)

  8. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  9. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  10. Impacts of the Load Models on Optimal Planning of Distributed Generation in Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Kumar Bohre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal planning (sizing and siting of the distributed generations (DGs by using butterfly-PSO/BF-PSO technique to investigate the impacts of load models is presented in this work. The validity of the evaluated results is confirmed by comparing with well-known Genetic Algorithm (GA and standard or conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO. To exhibit its compatibility in terms of load management, an impact of different load models on the size and location of DG has also been presented in this work. The fitness evolution function explored is the multiobjective function (FMO, which is based on the three significant indexes such as active power loss, reactive power loss, and voltage deviation index. The optimal solution is obtained by minimizing the multiobjective fitness function using BF-PSO, GA, and PSO technique. The comparison of the different optimization techniques is given for the different types of load models such as constant, industrial, residential, and commercial load models. The results clearly show that the BF-PSO technique presents the superior solution in terms of compatibility as well as computation time and efforts both. The algorithm has been carried out with 15-bus radial and 30-bus mesh system.

  11. An automated neutron monitor maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Odell, D.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron detectors are commonly used by the nuclear materials processing industry to monitor fissile materials in process vessels and tanks. The proper functioning of these neutron monitors must be periodically evaluated. We have developed and placed in routine use a PC-based multichannel analyzer (MCA) system for on-line BF3 and He-3 gas-filled detector function testing. The automated system: 1) acquires spectral data from the monitor system, 2) analyzes the spectrum to determine the detector's functionality, 3) makes suggestions for maintenance or repair, as required, and 4) saves the spectrum and results to disk for review. The operator interface has been designed to be user-friendly and to minimize the training requirements of the user. The system may also be easily customized for various applications

  12. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Brockett

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose S={{Xnj,   j=1,2,…,kn}} is an infinitesimal system of random variables whose centered sums converge in law to a (necessarily infinitely divisible distribution with Levy representation determined by the triple (γ,σ2,M. If {Yj,   j=1,2,…} are independent indentically distributed random variables independent of S, then the system S′={{YjXnj,j=1,2,…,kn}} is obtained by randomizing the scale parameters in S according to the distribution of Y1. We give sufficient conditions on the distribution of Y in terms of an index of convergence of S, to insure that centered sums from S′ be convergent. If such sums converge to a distribution determined by (γ′,(σ′2,Λ, then the exact relationship between (γ,σ2,M and (γ′,(σ′2,Λ is established. Also investigated is when limit distributions from S and S′ are of the same type, and conditions insuring products of random variables belong to the domain of attraction of a stable law.

  13. A experimental system for the checking of the absorption of E.C.A.G. graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Vidal, R.

    1958-01-01

    A system is described for measuring the mean absorption cross section in thermal neutrons of graphite. This system consists of a graphite stack containing a Ra-Be source and a BF3 counter. A cavity in the stack receives the graphite to be studied or the graphite standard. By comparing the counting rates their absorption ratio can be deduced. The measurement is performed on graphite rods which have been machined before being placed in the pile. It provides the possibility of detecting over a batch of 1 ton of graphite, in a single measurement, a difference in absorption of 0.1 milli barn. (author) [fr

  14. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  15. BF3-doped polyaniline: A novel conducting polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the past two decades, both fundamental and applied research in conducting polymers has grown enormously [1]. Polyaniline (PANI) owing to its ease of synthe- sis, remarkable environmental stability, and high conductivity in the doped form, has remained one of the most thoroughly studied conducting polymers.

  16. Effect bf Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on the Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness or otherwise of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in reducing the level of general and examination anxieties with a view to fostering better academic performance in English Language among students who had failed this subject at least once. Ninety eight students in ...

  17. EVALUATION bF THE INFANT AT RISK FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of tests of infant motor development have been described. These include the Milani-Comparetti Motor. Development Screening Test,15 the Chandler Movement. Assessment of Infants Screening Test,,. the Infant Motor. Screen,17 the Infant Neurological International Battery!S and the. Alberta Infant Motor Scale.

  18. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    2007). Saponins Production in Shoot and Callus Cultures of Gypsophila Paniculata. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 3(10): 1045-1049. Hussnain Z, Afghan S (2006). Impact of major cane diseases on sugarcane yield and sugar recovery.

  19. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Baksha R, Alam R, Karim MZ, Paul SK, Hossain MA, Miah MAS,. Rahman ABMM (2002). In vitro Shoot Tip Culture of Sugarcane. (Saccharum officinarum) Variety Isd 28. Int. Quarterly J. Biotech. 1: 67-72. Brisibe E, Miyake AH, Taniguchi T, Maeda E (1994). Regulation of somatic embryogenesis in long-term ...

  20. Amorphous silicon films doped with BF3 and PF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, A.; Muhl, S.; Sanchez, A.; Monroy, R.; Pickin, W.

    1984-01-01

    By using gaseous discharge process, thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) were produced. This process consists of Silane (SiH 4 ) decomposition at low pressure, in a chamber. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. B.F. Skinner's position on aversive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J C; Paisey, T J; Stark, M T; Emerson, J H

    1988-07-01

    In September 1987, an edited videotaped interview with B. F. Skinner was shown at the second annual Symposium on the Advancement of Nonaversive Behavioral Technology. Articles subsequently appeared headlining that Skinner opposed use of punishment. In a letter of response to the senior author's inquiry regarding his position on aversive treatment in dealing with behavior problems. Skinner stated, "I have been distressed by the way in which my name has been used by those who are opposed to all forms of aversive treatment in dealing with behavior problems no matter how severe." His response appears here in its entirety. His comments were presented within a pragmatic framework.

  2. Calculation and Verification of a Planar Pencil Beam Kernel Through the Hankel Transform of Measured OARs for a Radiosurgery System with Cones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Verdesoto, Milton X.; Alvarez Romero, Jose T.

    2010-01-01

    A planar multienergetic pencil beam kernel with rotational symmetry is calculated for a stereotactic radiosurgery system, SRS, BrainLAB with cones, employing the deconvolution method of the off axis ratio profile, OAR, corresponding to the cone of 35 mm in diameter for a 6 MV photon beam produced by a linear accelerator Varian 2100 C/D. Before the deconvolution, the experimental OAR is corrected for beam divergence and variations of the spectral fluence Φ, using a boundary function BF. The function BF and the fluence Φ are transformed to the conjugate space with the zero order Hankel function, which is the appropriate transform due to the radial symmetry of the circular beams generated by the cones. The kernel in the conjugate space is obtained as the ratio of the transform of BF to the transform of Φ, therefore the kernel in the real space is calculated as the inverse transform of the kernel in the conjugate space. To validate the kernel in the real space, it is convolved with the fluence of the cones of 7.5, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 30 and 35 mm in diameter. The comparison of the OARs calculated and measured shows a maximum difference of 4.5% in the zones of high gradient of dose, and a difference less than 2% in the regions of low gradient of dose. Finally, the expanded uncertainty of the kernel is estimated and reported.

  3. Structure and bonding of transition metal-boryl compounds. Theoretical study of [(PH3)2(CO)ClOs-BR2] and [(PH3)2(CO)2ClOs-BR2] (BR2 = BH2, BF2, B(OH)2, B(OCH=CHO), Bcat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giju, K T; Bickelhaupt, F M; Frenking, G

    2000-10-16

    Quantum chemical DFT calculations using the B3LYP functionals have been carried out for the electronically unsaturated 16 VE five-coordinate osmium boryl-complexes [(PH3)2(CO)ClOs-BR2] and the 18 VE six-coordinate complexes [(PH3)2(CO)2ClOs-BR2] with BR2 = BH2, BF2, B(OH)2, B(OHC=CHO), and Bcat (cat = catecholate O2C6H4). The bonding situation of the Os-BR2 bond was analyzed with the help of the NBO partitioning scheme. The Os-B bond dissociation energies of the 16 VE complexes are very high, and they do not change very much for the different boryl ligands. The 18 VE complexes have only slightly lower bond energies than the 16 VE species. The Os-B bond in both classes of compounds is provided by a covalent sigma-bond which is polarized toward osmium and by strong charge attraction. Os-->B pi-donation is not important for the Os-B binding interactions, except for the Os-BH2 complexes. The stability of the boryl complexes [Os]-BR2 comes mainly from BB pi-donation. The intraligand charge distribution of the BR2 group changes little when the Os-B bond is formed, except for BH2. The CO ligand in [(PH3)2(CO)2ClOs-BR2] which is trans to BR2 has a relatively weak bond to the osmium atom.

  4. Enantioselective disruption of the endocrine system by Cis-Bifenthrin in the male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Pan, Xiuhong; Miao, Wenyu; Lin, Xiaojian; Wang, Linggang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-07-01

    Bifenthrin (BF), as a chiral pyrethroid, is widely used to control field and household pests in China. At present, the commercial BF is a mixed compound containing cis isomers (cis-BF) including two enantiomers of 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. In the present study, the two individual cis-BF enantiomers were separated by a preparative supercritical fluid chromatography. Then, four week-old adolescent male ICR mice were orally administered 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF separately daily for 3 weeks at doses of 0, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively. Results showed that the transcription status of some genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and transport as well as testosterone (T) synthesis in the testes were influenced by cis-BF enantiomers. Especially, we observed that the transcription status of key genes on the pathway of T synthesis including cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P45017α)) were selectively altered in the testis of mice when treated with 1S-cis-BF, suggesting that it is the possible reason to explain why the lower serum T concentration in 1S-cis-BF treated group. Taken together, it concluded that both of the cis-BF enantiomers have the endocrine disruption activities, while 1S-cis-BF was higher than 1R-cis-BF in mice when exposed during the puberty. The data was helpful to understand the toxicity of cis-BF in mammals under enantiomeric level. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Precision Measurements of Lifetime and $\\bf CP$ Violation Phase in the $\\bf B^{0}_{s}$ Meson with the DØ Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Ortega, Jorge [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Inst., Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-01

    The Standard Model of Partice Physics (SM) is probably the most successful theory, regarding to his predictions. The SM prediction for $CP$ violation is not enough to explain the overwhelming asymmetry among the matter and anti-matter abundance. Measuring some process where $CP$ violation is different to the one predicted by the SM would be a clear signal for Physics Beyond the Standard Model. The SM prediction for the $CP$ violation phase, $\\phi_{s}$, in the $B^{0}_{s}$ meson is practically equal to zero for the current experiments. This means that measuring a deviation from zero in $\\phi_{s}$ could be an indication for Physics Beyond the SM. On the other hand, the approximation based on the ``heavy quark symmetry'' let approximated calculations of the fundamental quantities of those hadrons containing a heavy quark, $c,b,t$. These calculations are expressed as expansions on inverse powers of the heavy quark mass in such hadron. This formalism is called `` Heavy Quark Effective Theory'' (HQET), and has been successful predicting some properties of the heavy hadrons. The HQET prediction for the lifetime ratio the $B^{0}_{d}$ and $B^{0}_{s}$ is practically equal to one. So, measuring with good precision the $B^{0}_{s}$ lifetime is also a way to test an approximation based on the SM. In this thesis it is detailed presented the method to measure the $\\phi_{s}$ and the lifetime ratio of the $B^{0}_{d}$ and $B^{0}_{s}$, among other quantities, with the DØ located in the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, in the United States.

  6. Party System Nationalization and Non-Uniform Vote Switching: Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš; Lyons, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 375-399 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/07/1395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : party system nationalisation * vote switching * ecological inference Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2010 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/uploads/c926357558e5bf662b62f54b2ba9293933f542c6_LinekLyonssoccas2010-3.pdf

  7. The prototype opto-mechanical system for the Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandát, Dušan; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Nozka, L.; Hrabovský, M.; Horvath, P.; Fujii, T.; Privitera, P.; Malacari, M.; Farmer, J.; Galimova, A.; Matalon, A.; Merolle, M.; Ni, X.; Bellido, J.A.; Matthews, J.N.; Thomas, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, Jul (2017), 1-10, č. článku T07001. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA MŠk LE13012 Grant - others:OP VVV - AUGER-CZ(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001402 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * particle detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  8. Using Fuzzy Logic Decision Support System to Predict the Lifted Weight for Students at Weightlifting Class

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Abdulghani Taha; Mohammad Abdulghani Taha

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at being acquainted with the using the body fat percentage (%BF) with body Mass Index (BMI) as input parameters in fuzzy logic decision support system to predict properly the lifted weight for students at weightlifting class lift according to his abilities instead of traditional manner. The sample included 53 male students (age = 21.38 ± 0.71 yrs, height (Hgt) = 173.17 ± 5.28 cm, body weight (BW) = 70.34 ± 7.87.6 kg, Body mass index (BMI) 23.42 ± 2.06 kg.m...

  9. The German quality system for waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS)--Federal Office for Radiation protection--has to guarantee that the requirements resulting from different regulations concerning planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a waste repository are fulfilled. In addition, the results of the safety assessments lead to nuclear-specific requirements on the design of the plant as well as to requirements on the radioactive waste packages intended to be disposed of. Therefore, the implementation of a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) system is an essential task in order to ensure that the designed quality is achieved so that the necessary precaution against damage is taken. In this paper, a detailed description of QA and QC to be applied to the planned Konrad repository as well as the basic principles and the present status of the waste package QC are indicated and discussed

  10. Meat physical quality and muscle fibre properties of rabbit meat as affected by the sire breed, season, parity order and gender in an organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dalle Zotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate some meat physical quality and muscle fibre properties of rabbit meat when considering 2 sire breeds (SB: Vienna Blue [VB]; Burgundy Fawn [BF]; both coloured and slow-growing breeds, several parity orders (P: 1, 2, ≥3, gender (G, and 2 slaughter seasons (SS: spring, summer in an organic production system. The effect of storage time (ST at frozen state (2 mo at –20°C of Longissimus lumborum (LL meat was also evaluated. Animals were slaughtered when they reached 2.8 kg of live weight. Then, pH and L*a*b* colour values of Biceps femoris (BF and LL muscles, water loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force of LL and hind leg (HL meat, and the fibre typing and enzymatic activity of LL muscle were analysed. LL meat from females showed higher b* values than males (0.04 vs. –1.25; P<0.05. Significant (P<0.05 SB×P, SB×G and P×G interactions were observed for the b* value of LL: VB and BF crossbreds presented a higher b* value when born as P≥3 and P2 respectively, VB females showed higher b* value than VB males, and P2 and P≥3 produced males with a significantly lower b* value. HL thawing losses were significantly (P<0.05 higher in rabbits slaughtered in summer than in those slaughtered in spring, whereas the opposite result was obtained for LL meat (P<0.01. Cooking loss of LL meat was significantly lower in P2 group than P≥3 group (P<0.05. The lactate dehydrogenase activity in LL muscle was higher in VB than in BF crossbreds (930 vs. 830 IU; P<0.05, albeit not supported by differences in fibre type distribution. The ST significantly (P<0.01 reduced pH, a* and b* colour values, and increased lightness of LL meat. It was concluded that the crossbreeds derived from VB and BF genotypes and farmed organically did not show remarkable sexual dimorphism, considering their elder slaughter age than rabbits reared under intensive conditions. Physical quality of meat was mainly affected by slaughter season, indicating

  11. Effects of systemic and local phenylephrine and arginine vasopressin infusions in conscious postnatal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Roy, Timothy; Despain, Kevin; Rosenfeld, Charles R

    2005-07-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases after birth, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Systemic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusions increase MAP in newborn sheep, but the direct effects of ANG II on peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) are minimal. Thus, its systemic pressor effects may reflect release of other pressor agents, e.g. alpha-agonists and/or AVP, suggesting they contribute to postnatal regulation of MAP and PVR. To address this, we performed studies in conscious sheep at 7-14, 15-21, and 22-35 d postnatal, infusing phenylephrine (PE) or AVP systemically or intra-arterially into the hindlimb while measuring MAP, heart rate (HR), and femoral blood flow (FmBF). Basal MAP and FmBF rose, whereas HR and femoral vascular resistance (FmVR) fell (p sheep. Moreover, FmVR increases more than MAP at all doses, suggesting these agonists may contribute to postnatal MAP regulation and could mediate the effects of systemic ANG II on postnatal MAP.

  12. Evidence for an approx.300 day period in Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priedhorsky, W.C.; Terrell, J.; Holt, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    We present the time history of X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 over an 11 year period, with 10 day resolution. The data were obtained by experiments on the Vela 5B (1969--1979) and Ariel 5 (1974--1980) satellites. Cyg X-1 varies by approx.25% with a 294 +- 4 day period. This modulation is apparently unrelated to the known transitions between the source high and low states. Flux minima occur at 1974.05+nP. The observed period is within the possible range for the precession period of an accretion disk, or of the companion star HDE 226868, in the Cyg X-1 system

  13. Removal of Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms from surface water and groundwater by household water treatment devices/systems: a sustainable solution for improving water quality in rural communities of the Southern African development community region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabi, Jocelyne K; Mamba, Bhekie B; Momba, Maggy N B

    2012-01-01

    There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS) are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S); biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z); bucket filter (BF); ceramic candle filter (CCF); and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP)] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S), 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z), 2 to 11 NTU (BF), and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF) and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log(10) (99% to 100%) of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9%) of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log(10), 100%) was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  14. 1D and 2D assembly structures by imidazole···chloride hydrogen bonds of iron(II) complexes [Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))3]Cl·Y (HL(n-Pr) = 2-methylimidazol-4-yl-methylideneamino-n-propyl; Y = AsF6, BF4) and their spin states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Takeshi; Nishi, Koshiro; Matsumoto, Naohide; Iijima, Seiichiro; Halcrow, Malcolm A; Sunatsuki, Yukinari; Kojima, Masaaki

    2011-12-07

    Two Fe(II) complexes fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)]Cl·Y (Y = AsF(6) (1) and BF(4) (2)) were synthesized, where HL(n-Pr) is 2-methylimidazole-4-yl-methylideneamino-n-propyl. Each complex-cation has the same octahedral N(6) geometry coordinated by three bidentate ligands and assumes facial-isomerism, fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) with Δ- and Λ-enantiomorphs. Three imidazole groups per Δ- or Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) are hydrogen-bonded to three Cl(-) ions or, from the viewpoint of the Cl(-) ion, one Cl(-) ion is hydrogen-bonded to three neighbouring fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) cations. The 3 : 3 NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds between Δ- or Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) and Cl(-) generate two kinds of assembly structures. The directions of the 3 : 3 NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds and hence the resulting assembly structures are determined by the size of the anion Y, though Y is not involved into the network structure and just accommodated in the cavity. Compound 1 has a 1D ladder structure giving a larger cavity, in which the Δ- and Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) enantiomorphs are bridged by two NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds. Compound 2 has a 2D network structure with a net unit of a cyclic trimer of {fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+)···Cl(-)}(3) giving a smaller cavity, in which Δ- or Λ-fac-[Fe(II)(HL(n-Pr))(3)](2+) species with the same chirality are linked by NH···Cl(-) hydrogen bonds to give a homochiral 2D network structure. Magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectral measurements demonstrated that compound 1 showed an abrupt one-step spin crossover with 4.0 K thermal hysteresis of T(c↓) = 125.5 K and T(c↑) = 129.5 K and compound 2 showed no spin transition and stayed in the high-spin state over the 5-300 K temperature range.

  15. An automatic system for the detection of dairy cows lying behaviour in free-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the automatic detection of dairy cow lying behaviour in free-stall barns is proposed. A computer visionbased system (CVBS composed of a video-recording system and a cow lying behaviour detector based on the Viola Jones algorithm was developed. The CVBS performance was tested in a head-to-head free stall barn. Two classifiers were implemented in the software component of the CVBS to obtain the cow lying behaviour detector. The CVBS was validated by comparing its detection results with those generated from visual recognition. This comparison allowed the following accuracy indices to be calculated: the branching factor (BF, the miss factor (MF, the sensitivity, and the quality percentage (QP. The MF value of approximately 0.09 showed that the CVBS missed one cow every 11 well detected cows. Conversely, the BF value of approximately 0.08 indicated that one false positive was detected every 13 well detected cows. The high value of approximately 0.92 obtained for the sensitivity index and that obtained for QP of about 0.85 revealed the ability of the proposed system to detect cows lying in the stalls.

  16. Determination and verification of a 2D pencil-beam kernel for a radiosurgery system with cones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Verdesoto, Milton Xavier, E-mail: mxvv2003@hotmail.com [Centro Oncológico de Chihuahua, Hacienda de la Esperanza, Chihuahua, México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Edo. De México, México (Mexico); Álvarez-Romero, José Trinidad [SSDL, Instituto Nacional de Invesigaciones Nucleares, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, México (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    The quality and correctness of dosimetric data of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) depends significantly on the election of the detector employed in the measurements. This work provides an independent method of verification of these data through the determination of a polyenergetic 2-dimensional pencil-beam kernel for a BrainLAB SRS system with cones, employing the deconvolution/convolution of a reference experimental off-axis ratio (OAR) profile (cone diameter c{sub 0} = 35 mm). The kernel in real space k{sub c{sub 0}}(r,z{sub 0}) is convolved with the ideal fluence Φ for the cones 7.5 to 35 mm in diameter to obtain the OAR profiles, and the total scatter factors, S{sub t}, which are compared with experimental values of the same quantities. The experimental OARs and S{sub t} factors are measured in water with a PTW 60003 diamond detector. Additionally, the reference OAR is corrected for beam divergence and spectral fluence fluctuations defining a function of boundary correction factors (BF). The BF and Φ functions are transformed to the conjugate space with the zeroth-order Hankel transform, appropriated to the radial symmetry of the cones. Therefore, the kernel in real space k{sub c{sub 0}}(r,z{sub 0}) is the inverse Hankel transform of the ratio of the Hankel transforms of BF and Φ. Finally, an uncertainty analysis according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement is carried out for 3 different values of k{sub c{sub 0}}(r,z{sub 0}). Calculated and measured OARs agree within the dose/distance-to-agreement criteria of 2%/0.12 mm; while, S{sub t} factors agree within 2%. This procedure supplies an independent method to validate the dosimetric data necessary to feed treatment planning systems for SRS with cones.

  17. Long-Term Photometry of Very Slow Novae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chochol D.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term photographic, photoelectric and recent CCD photometry of the classical nova V723 Cas and symbiotic novae V1329 Cyg, PU Vul, V1016 Cyg and HM Sge were used to find their orbital periods. The arguments in favor of the presence of the third components in these systems are given. Physical processes, responsible for the brightness variations, are discussed.

  18. Infrared, radio, and x-ray observations of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becklin, E.E.; Hawkins, F.J.; Mason, K.O.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Packman, D.; Sanford, P.W.; Schupler, B.; Stark, A.; Wynn-Williams, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    The x-ray source Cygnus X-3 has been interpreted as being a binary system on the basis of extensive x-ray observations of periodic variability. At radio wavelengths, the source displays erratic outbursts. Cyg x-3 has not been detected visually but at infrared wavelengths periodic variations in phase with the x-ray variations have been reported. Infrared, x-ray and radio observations of Cyg X-3 made during 1973 through 1973 October are presented. (U.S.)

  19. Spectral Measurements of Cyg X-3: A Thermal Source Embedded in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    that the viewing angle must be < β with respect to the rotation axis. Acknowledgements. I thank Sarvashri J. A. R. D'Silva, P. P. Madhwani, N. V. Bhagat, B. G. Bagade and. Ms. N. Kamble for their support in the fabrication of the payload and flight support. I also thank the staff at the TIFR balloon facility, Hyderabad for ...

  20. Light Curve Periodic Variability of Cyg X-1 using Jurkevich Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  1. Infrared observations of HDE 226868/Cyg X-1 and HDE 245770/AO535+26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persi, P.; Toniolo, M.F.; Spada, G.

    1979-01-01

    It is known from Copernicus ultraviolet observations that all O type stars are losing mass by stellar wind. The ionized expanding circumstellar envelope formed by the stellar wind is emitting through free-free and bound-free radiation processes. This radiation is detectable at the infrared wavelengths where the stellar continuum is negligible. The measurement of the IR excess (defined as the difference between the total flux and the stellar continuum at a given wavelength) and the knowledge of the terminal velocity of the envelope, allow one to derive for OB stars the mass loss rate. From the analysis of Ir observations of two O stars, HDE 226868 and HDE 245770, identified as optical counterpart of X-ray sources, an estimate is given of their mass loss rate. (Auth.)

  2. The FU Orionis outburst as a thermal accretion event: Observational constraints for protostellar disk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. R.; Lin, D. N. C.; Hartmann, L. W.; Kenyon, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the time-dependent disk models developed in Bell & Lin are compared with observed properties of FU Orionis variables. Specific models are fit to the light curves of Fu Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1057 Cyg. The slow risetime of V1515 Cyg can be matched by a self-regulated outburst model. The rapid risetimes of FU Ori and V1057 Cyg can be fitted with the application of modest perturbations to the disk surface density. Model disks display spectral features characteristic of observed objects. The color evolution of V1057 Cyg is naturally explained if mass flux drops in the inner disk (r less than 1/4 AU) while remaining steady in the outer disk. The decrease in optical line width (rotational velocity) observed during the decay of V1057 Cyg may be accounted for by an outward-propagating ionization front. We predict that before final decay to the quiescent phase, short-wavelength line widths (lambda less than 1.5 microns) will again increase. It is suggested that FU Orionis outbursts primarily occur to systems during the embedded phase with ages less than several times 10(exp 5) yr.

  3. National Genetic Evaluation (System of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hanwoo (Also known as Korean native cattle; Bos taurus coreanae have been used for transportation and farming for a long time in South Korea. It has been about 30 yrs since Hanwoo improvement began in earnest as beef cattle for meat yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the trend of improvement as well as to estimate genetic parameters of the traits being used for seedstock selection based on the data collected from the past. Hanwoo proven bulls in South Korea are currently selected through performance and progeny tests. National Hanwoo genetic evaluations are implemented with yearling weight (YW, carcass weight (CW, eye muscle area (EMA, backfat thickness (BF and marbling score (MS. Yearling weights and MS are used for selecting young bulls, and EMA, BF, and MS are used for selecting proven bulls. One individual per testing room was used for performance tests, and five individuals per room for progeny tests. Individuals tested were not allowed to graze pasture, but there was enough space for them to move around in the testing room. Feeds including roughages and minerals were fed ad libitum, and concentrates were provided at the rate of about 1.8% of individual weight. Overall means of the traits were 352.8±38.56 kg, 335.09±44.61 kg, 77.85±8.838 cm2, 8.6±3.7 mm and 3.293±1.648 for YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS. Heritabilities estimated in this study were 0.30, 0.30, 0.42, 0.50 and 0.63 in YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS, respectively, which are similar to results from previous research. Yearling weight was 315.54 kg in 1998, and had increased to 355.06 kg in 2011, resulting in about 40 kg of improvement over 13 yrs. YW and CW have improved remarkably over the past 15 yrs. Breeding values between 1996 and 2000 decreased or did not change much, but have moved in a desirable direction since 2001. These improvements correspond with the substantial increase in use of animal models since the late 1990s in Korea. Hanwoo testing programs have

  4. pVT-Second Virial Coefficients B(T ), Viscosity η(T ), and Self-Diffusion ρD(T) of the Gases: BF3, CF4, SiF4, CCl4, SiCl4, SF6, MoF6, WF6, UF6, C(CH3)4, and Si(CH3)4 Determined by Means of an Isotropic Temperature-Dependent Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkova, L.; Hohm, U.

    2002-03-01

    We present results on self-consistent calculations of second pVT-virial coefficients B(T), viscosity data η(T), and diffusion coefficients ρD(T) for eleven heavy globular gases: boron trifluoride (BF3), carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), molybdenum hexafluoride (MoF6), tungsten hexafluoride (WF6), uranium hexafluoride (UF6), tetramethyl methane (C(CH3)4, TMM), and tetramethyl silane (Si(CH3)4, TMS). The calculations are performed mainly in the temperature range between 200 and 900 K by means of isotropic n-6 potentials with temperature-dependent separation rm(T) and potential well depth ɛ(T). The potential parameters at T=0 K (ɛ, rm, n) and the enlargement of the first level radii δ are obtained solving an ill-posed problem of minimizing the squared deviations between experimental and calculated values normalized to their relative experimental error. The temperature dependence of the potential is obtained as a result of the influence of vibrational excitation on binary interactions. This concept of the isotropic temperature-dependent potential (ITDP) is presented in detail where gaseous SF6 will serve as an example. The ITDP is subsequently applied to all other gases. This approach and the main part of the results presented here have already been published during 1996-2000. However, in some cases the data are upgraded due to the recently improved software (CF4, SF6) and newly found experimental data (CF4, SiF4, CCl4, SF6).

  5. The effect of different attachment systems with implant-retained overdentures on maximum bite force and EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçankale, Mert; Akoğlu, Burçin; Ozkan, Yaşar; Ozkan, Yasemin Kulak

    2012-03-01

    To compare the effect of different attachment systems with implant-retained overdentures on maximum bite force and muscle activity using electromyography (EMG). Denture retention and stability is of considerable interest in prosthetic dentistry. Thirty-five patients were examined: 15 edentulous patients treated with mandibular implant-retained overdentures (MIRO) and maxillary dentures (MCD) (two implant-ball attachment) (BC); 10 edentulous patients treated with MIRO and MCD (four implants-bar attachments) (BRC); 10 patients with edentulous mandibular treated with MIRO and maxillary fixed partial dentures (MFPD) (two implant-ball attachments) (BF). Before implant placement all patients received new dentures. After using these dentures for 3 months the maximum bite force and electrical activity of masseter muscle were measured. Two or four implants were then inserted into the intraforaminal region. After osseointegration periods, patients were treated with MIRO which duplicated their dentures and after three months the measurements were repeated. The data were collected and statistically analysed. Muscle activity and chewing ability increased in the second period of measurements. Also chewing time was significantly decreased at the first measurements. The highest muscle activity was observed in the group of patients treated with group BF. The EMG values of the masseter muscle significantly increased when an implant attachments was used in the overdenture. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system with ionic-liquid/refrigerant mixture as a working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Jo; Kim, Sarah; Joshi, Yogendra K.; Fedorov, Andrei G.; Kohl, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamics of an ionic-liquid (IL) based absorption refrigeration system has been numerically analyzed. It provides an alternative to the normally toxic working fluids, such as the ammonia in conventional absorption systems. The use of ILs also eliminates crystallization and metal-compatibility problems of the water/LiBr system. Mixtures of refrigerants and imidazolium-based ILs are theoretically explored as the working fluid pairs in a miniature absorption refrigeration system, so as to utilize waste-heat to power a refrigeration/heat pump system for electronics cooling. A non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model was built and used to predict the solubility of the mixtures. Saturation temperatures at the evaporator and condenser were set at 25 °C and 50 °C, respectively, with the power dissipation of 100 W. Water in combination with [emim][BF 4 ] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) gave the highest coefficient of performance (COP) around 0.9. The refrigerant/IL compatibility indicated by the circulation ratio, alkyl chain length of the IL, and thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants, such as latent heat of evaporation were proven to be important factors in determining the performance of the absorption system. The negative effect of high viscosity was mitigated by dilution of the IL with the refrigerant and the use of slightly larger microfluidic channel heat exchangers. -- Highlights: ► Mixtures of refrigerant/ionic-liquid are studied for absorption system. ► We carry out comprehensive theoretical thermodynamic analysis. ► The essential factors of refrigerant/IL affecting the performance are identified. ► Water/[emim][BF 4 ] showed the best performance of COP. ► The effects of high viscosity ILs on the system performance are not significant.

  7. Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell during initial stage of shell expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafyeva Liudmila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell, created under laser heating of nanoparticle in water, were theoretically investigated. Vapor shell expansion leads to decreasing up to one to two orders of magnitude in comparison with initial values of scattering and extinction of the radiation with wavelengths 532 and 633 nm by system while shell radius is increased up to value of about two radii of nanoparticle. Subsequent increasing of shell radius more than two radii of nanoparticle leads to rise of scattering and extinction properties of system over initial values. The significant decrease of radiation scattering and extinction by system of nanoparticle-vapor shell can be used for experimental detection of the energy threshold of vapor shell formation and investigation of the first stages of its expansion. PACS: 42.62.BE. 78.67. BF

  8. On the mixed problem for the semilinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman PDE system in Besov spaces on creased Lipschitz domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutt, Robert; Kohr, Mirela; Mikhailov, Sergey E.; Wendland, Wolfgang L.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary value problem for the semilinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman system in $L_p$-based Besov spaces on a bounded Lipschitz domain in ${\\mathbb R}^3$, with $p$ in a neighborhood of $2$. This system is obtained by adding the semilinear term $|{\\bf u}|{\\bf u}$ to the linear Brinkman equation. {First, we provide some results about} equivalence between the Gagliardo and non-tangential traces, as well as between the weak canonical conormal derivatives and the non-tangential conormal derivatives. Various mapping and invertibility properties of some integral operators of potential theory for the linear Brinkman system, and well posedness results for the Dirichlet and Neumann problems in $L_p$-based Besov spaces on bounded Lipschitz domains in ${\\mathbb R}^n$ ($n\\geq 3$) are also presented. Then, employing integral potential operators, we show the well-posedness in $L_2$-based Sobolev spaces for the mixed problem of Dirichlet-Neumann type for the linear Brinkman system on a bounded Lipschitz domain in ${\\mathbb R}^n$ $(n\\geq 3)$. Further, by using some stability results of Fredholm and invertibility properties and exploring invertibility of the associated Neumann-to-Dirichlet operator, we extend the well-posedness property to some $L_p$-based Sobolev spaces. Next we use the well-posedness result in the linear case combined with a fixed point theorem in order to show the existence and uniqueness for a mixed boundary value problem of Dirichlet and Neumann type for the semilinear Darcy-Forchheimer-Brinkman system in $L_p$-based Besov spaces, with $p\\in (2-\\varepsilon ,2+\\varepsilon)$ and some parameter $\\varepsilon >0$.

  9. Survey of detection systems and electronics for I.L.L. experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobe, J.

    1976-01-01

    Various systems of counting and sensing which have been developed are described. The first generation of these instruments consists of conventional detectors filled with 3 He at high pressure. Different types of BF 3 Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs) have been developed. For powder studies we have a 400-cell curved detector (Banana) with 5 mm resolution in one dimension, angular aperture 80 and radius of curvature 1.5 m. For small angle scattering we use an area detector with 4000 and 160000 cells, position sensing in two dimensions with 5 mm of resolution and active detection diameter of 64 cm. The new high pressure 3 He PSDs are developed with 2 mm of resolution and the new electronics use the hybrid circuit technique for analogue channel

  10. Infinite differentiability for one-dimensional spin system with long range random interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandro, M.; Olivieri, E.; Tirozzi, B.

    1982-06-01

    We consider one-dimensional spin systems with Hamiltonian: 220_2005_Article_BF01218562_TeX2GIFE1.gif Hleft( {σ _Λ } right) = - sumlimits_{t,t' in Λ } {{\\varepsilon _{tt'} }/{left| {t - t' right|^α }}σ _t σ _{t'} - hsumlimits_{t in Λ } {σ _t } } , where ɛ tt' are independent random variables and, using decimation and the cluster expansion, we show that, when α>3/2 and E(ɛ tt' )=0, for any magnetic field h and inverse temperature β, the correlation functions and the free energy are C ∞ both in h and β. Moreover we discuss an example, obtained by a particular choice of the probability distribution of the ɛ tt' 's, where the quenched magnetization is C ∞ but fails to be analytic in h for suitable h and β.

  11. Unraveling Multiple MHC Gene Associations with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Model Choice Indicates a Role for HLA Alleles and Non-HLA Genes in Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David L.; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Fernando, Michelle M.A.; Nititham, Joanne; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Cotsapas, Chris; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Graham, Robert R.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Harley, John B.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Hom, Geoffrey; Langefeld, Carl D.; Noble, Janelle A.; Rioux, John D.; Seldin, Michael F.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Vyse, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed a meta-analysis of the major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) region in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to determine the association with both SNPs and classical human-leukocyte-antigen (HLA) alleles. More specifically, we combined results from six studies and well-known out-of-study control data sets, providing us with 3,701 independent SLE cases and 12,110 independent controls of European ancestry. This study used genotypes for 7,199 SNPs within the MHC region and for classical HLA alleles (typed and imputed). Our results from conditional analysis and model choice with the use of the Bayesian information criterion show that the best model for SLE association includes both classical loci (HLA-DRB1∗03:01, HLA-DRB1∗08:01, and HLA-DQA1∗01:02) and two SNPs, rs8192591 (in class III and upstream of NOTCH4) and rs2246618 (MICB in class I). Our approach was to perform a stepwise search from multiple baseline models deduced from a priori evidence on HLA-DRB1 lupus-associated alleles, a stepwise regression on SNPs alone, and a stepwise regression on HLA alleles. With this approach, we were able to identify a model that was an overwhelmingly better fit to the data than one identified by simple stepwise regression either on SNPs alone (Bayes factor [BF] > 50) or on classical HLA alleles alone (BF > 1,000). PMID:23084292

  12. Adhesive Systems as an Alternative Material for Color Masking of White Spot Lesions: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Ana Júlia Farias; da Silva Ávila, Daniele Mara; Borges, Alessandra Buhler; Pucci, Cesar Rogerio; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the color masking effect of infiltration treatment of artificial white spot lesions (AWSL) using a dedicated resin in comparison to different adhesive systems. Enamel/dentin specimens were obtained from bovine incisors and baseline color was assessed using a reflectance spectrophotometer, according to the CIE L*a*b* system. AWSL were produced using a buffered acid solution and a new color evaluation was performed. The specimens were divided into 8 groups: control: artificial saliva changed daily for 7 days; IC: infiltrating resin Icon; EC: EquiaCoat; FU: Futurabond U; SBU: Single Bond U; SBMP: Scotchbond MP; OB: OptibondFL; BF: Bioforty. After the treatments, the color was evaluated again and the values for the parameters ΔL (change in lightness), Δa (change in chroma), Δb (change in hue), and ΔE (general color difference) were calculated in relation to baseline. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. After treatment, ANOVA showed significant differences for all parameters (p = 0.001). Tukey's test showed the greatest lightness reduction (ΔL) for the IC group, followed by EC, FU, and SBU. The SBMP, OB, and BF groups were similar to the control. For Δb values, all groups showed differences in relation to the control, with no differences between them. In relation to ΔE, all groups showed differences in relation to the control (ΔE = 5.24), with no significant differences between them. ΔE values after application of all resinous materials were lower than the threshold of 3.7, indicating effective color masking. The Icon infiltrant produced a greater lightness reduction of white lesions (ΔL). For general color difference (ΔE), all the resinous materials tested were able to color mask artificial AWSL.

  13. On the formation of new reverse micelles: a comparative study of benzene/surfactants/ionic liquids systems using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, R Darío; Correa, N Mariano; Silber, Juana J

    2009-09-15

    The microenvironment of the polar core generated in different ionic liquid reverse micelle (IL RM) systems were investigated using the solvatochromic behavior of 1-methyl-8-oxyquinolinium betaine (QB) as an absorption probe and dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. The novel RM systems consist of two different ILs--1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (bmimTf2N)--sequestrated by two different surfactants--Triton X-100 (TX-100) and benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BHDC)--in order to make IL/surfactant/benzene RMs. The effect of the variation of Ws (Ws=[IL]/[surfactant]) on the QB spectroscopy was used to characterize these nonaqueous RMs. DLS results confirm the formation of these IL RM systems because increasing Ws increases the droplet sizes. Moreover it is demonstrated that the structure of the sequestrated ILs depends strongly on the type of surfactant use to create the RMs.

  14. Singular and interactive effects of blowdown, salvage logging, and wildfire in sub-boreal pine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, A.W.; Fraver, S.; Palik, B.J.; Bradford, J.B.; Patty, L.

    2011-01-01

    The role of disturbance in structuring vegetation is widely recognized; however, we are only beginning to understand the effects of multiple interacting disturbances on ecosystem recovery and development. Of particular interest is the impact of post-disturbance management interventions, particularly in light of the global controversy surrounding the effects of salvage logging on forest ecosystem recovery. Studies of salvage logging impacts have focused on the effects of post-disturbance salvage logging within the context of a single natural disturbance event. There have been no formal evaluations of how these effects may differ when followed in short sequence by a second, high severity natural disturbance. To evaluate the impact of this management practice within the context of multiple disturbances, we examined the structural and woody plant community responses of sub-boreal Pinus banksiana systems to a rapid sequence of disturbances. Specifically, we compared responses to Blowdown (B), Fire (F), Blowdown-Fire, and Blowdown-Salvage-Fire (BSF) and compared these to undisturbed control (C) stands. Comparisons between BF and BSF indicated that the primary effect of salvage logging was a decrease in the abundance of structural legacies, such as downed woody debris and snags. Both of these compound disturbance sequences (BF and BSF), resulted in similar woody plant communities, largely dominated by Populus tremuloides; however, there was greater homogeneity in community composition in salvage logged areas. Areas experiencing solely fire (F stands) were dominated by P. banksiana regeneration, and blowdown areas (B stands) were largely characterized by regeneration from shade tolerant conifer species. Our results suggest that salvage logging impacts on woody plant communities are diminished when followed by a second high severity disturbance; however, impacts on structural legacies persist. Provisions for the retention of snags, downed logs, and surviving trees as part

  15. Validity and Reliability of Surface Electromyography Measurements from a Wearable Athlete Performance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Lynn, Casey M. Watkins, Megan A. Wong, Katherine Balfany, Daniel F. Feeney

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Athos ® wearable system integrates surface electromyography (sEMG electrodes into the construction of compression athletic apparel. The Athos system reduces the complexity and increases the portability of collecting EMG data and provides processed data to the end user. The objective of the study was to determine the reliability and validity of Athos as compared with a research grade sEMG system. Twelve healthy subjects performed 7 trials on separate days (1 baseline trial and 6 repeated trials. In each trial subjects wore the wearable sEMG system and had a research grade sEMG system’s electrodes placed just distal on the same muscle, as close as possible to the wearable system’s electrodes. The muscles tested were the vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM, and biceps femoris (BF. All testing was done on an isokinetic dynamometer. Baseline testing involved performing isometric 1 repetition maximum tests for the knee extensors and flexors and three repetitions of concentric-concentric knee flexion and extension at MVC for each testing speed: 60, 180, and 300 deg/sec. Repeated trials 2-7 each comprised 9 sets where each set included three repetitions of concentric-concentric knee flexion-extension. Each repeated trial (2-7 comprised one set at each speed and percent MVC (50%, 75%, 100% combination. The wearable system and research grade sEMG data were processed using the same methods and aligned in time. The amplitude metrics calculated from the sEMG for each repetition were the peak amplitude, sum of the linear envelope, and 95th percentile. Validity results comprise two main findings. First, there is not a significant effect of system (Athos or research grade system on the repetition amplitude metrics (95%, peak, or sum. Second, the relationship between torque and sEMG is not significantly different between Athos and the research grade system. For reliability testing, the variation across trials and averaged across speeds was 0.8%, 7

  16. X-ray properties of accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray signatures of Cyg X-1 and IMC X-3 have been taken as templates of binary systems which include a black hole component. Cyg X-1 exhibits rapid flickering on a time scale varying from 0.001-1 sec and bimodal spectral behavior in its X-ray emissions. Similar emissions from IMC X-3 have been detected, along with an absence of X-ray eclipses. Taking three characteristics, i.e., flickering, bimodal spectra and the estimated masses of the X ray components, of assumed black hole companions for Cyg X-1 and IMC X-3, an estimate is made of the number of black holes a whole sky survey would reveal, based on data from the HEAO-1 and Einstein Observatory satellites. Cin X-1, BX 339-4 and LMC X-1 are concluded to probably be accreting black holes. Eleven other objects are identified as possible candidates, as are active galactic nuclei

  17. New results from long-term observations of Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.S.; Boldt, E.A.; Serlemitsos, P.J.; Kaluzienski, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between 1974 October and 1975 July reveal a persistent 5/subd/./sub /6 modulation of the 3--6 keV X-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the 1975 April--May increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of 1975 April--May may have represented the depletion of accreting material which had not yet been mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member

  18. Design of a system for neutrons dosimetry; Diseno de un sistema para dosimetria de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron, P.; Rivera, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez, A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: victceronr@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    At the present time diverse systems of detection of neutrons exist, as proportional counters based on BF{sub 3}, He{sub 3} and spectrometers of Bonner spheres. However, the cost and the complexity of the implementation of these systems put them far from the reach for dosimetric purposes. For these reasons a system of neutrons detection composed by a medium paraffin moderator that forms a 4π (spheres) arrangement and of several couples of thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 600/TLD 700. The response of the system presents a minor repeatability to 5% in several assays when being irradiated with a {sup 239}PuBe source and a deviation of 13.8% in the Tl readings of four different spheres. The calibration factor of the system with regard to the neutrons source which was of 56.2 p Sv/nc also was calculated. These detectors will be used as passive monitors of photoneutrons in a radiotherapy room with lineal accelerator of high energy. (Author)

  19. A CHALLENGING VIEW OF THE 2015 SUMMER V404 CYG OUTBURST AT HIGH ENERGY WITH INTEGRAL /SPI: THE FINALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, Elisabeth; Roques, Jean-Pierre; Rodi, James

    2017-01-01

    During its strong outburst of 2015 June/July, the X-ray transient V404 Cygni (=GS2023+338) was observed up to a level of 50 Crab in the hard X-ray domain. We focus here on a particularly intense episode preceeding a definitive decline of the source activity. We benefit from large signal-to-noise ratios to investigate the source spectral variability, on a timescale of five minutes. A hardness–intensity study of three broad bands reveals clearly different behaviors at low and high energy (below and above ∼100 keV). In particular, on two occasions, the source intensity varies by a factor of 3–4 in amplitude while keeping the same spectral shape. On the other hand, at the end of the major flare, the emission presents a clear anticorrelation between flux and hardness. These behaviors strongly suggest the presence of two spectral components related to emission processes varying in a largely independent way. The first component ( E < 100–150 keV) is classically identified with a Comptonizing thermal electron population, and requires either an unusual seed photon population or a specific geometry with strong absorbing/reflecting material. The second component is modeled by a cutoff power-law, which could correspond to a second hotter Comptonizing population or another mechanism (synchrotron, non-thermal Comptonization...). In the framework of such a model, hardness–intensity and flux–flux diagrams clearly demonstrate that the source evolution follows a well-organized underlying scheme. They reveal unique information about the hard X-ray emission processes and connections between them.

  20. BfR recommends measures to reduce salt content in food

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2009-01-01

    The daily salt intake of Germans is too high. In particular, men, children and adolescents consume particularly high amounts of salt. The addition of salt to food prepared in the home is the lesser evil. Most foods are no longer conceivable without salt as it would seem they only acquire the “right taste” through salt. Especially foods like bread, meat and sausage products, dairy products and non-alcoholic beverages have high levels of salt. But the love of salty food is not hereditary: infan...

  1. Application of omics data in regulatory toxicology: report of an international BfR expert workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Stoelting, P; Braeuning, A; Buhrke, T; Lampen, A; Niemann, L; Oelgeschlaeger, M; Rieke, S; Schmidt, F; Heise, T; Pfeil, R; Solecki, R

    2015-11-01

    Advances in omics techniques and molecular toxicology are necessary to provide new perspectives for regulatory toxicology. By the application of modern molecular techniques, more mechanistic information should be gained to support standard toxicity studies and to contribute to a reduction and refinement of animal experiments required for certain regulatory purposes. The relevance and applicability of data obtained by omics methods to regulatory purposes such as grouping of chemicals, mode of action analysis or classification and labelling needs further improvement, defined validation and cautious expert judgment. Based on the results of an international expert workshop organized 2014 by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Berlin, this paper is aimed to provide a critical overview of the regulatory relevance and reliability of omics methods, basic requirements on data quality and validation, as well as regulatory criteria to decide which effects observed by omics methods should be considered adverse or non-adverse. As a way forward, it was concluded that the inclusion of omics data can facilitate a more flexible approach for regulatory risk assessment and may help to reduce or refine animal testing.

  2. Implementação de um modelo de recursos humanos na BF consultores

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Maria Inês Correia

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de mestrado em Estudos de Gestão Vivemos numa era em que o avanço tecnológico, as fortes oscilações no mercado e as pressões da concorrência representam fatores que influenciam determinantemente o negócio de uma empresa. Assim, torna-se muito relevante a importância dos Recursos Humanos enquanto potenciais fatores de diferenciação, dinamização e sucesso de uma organização. Estes representam uma fonte de vantagem competitiva inegável e, quando correta e eficazmente ...

  3. Application of Bf-EVALPSN to Real-time Process Order Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi; Akama, Seiki; Abe, Jair M.

    2009-01-01

    We have already proposed a paraconsistent annotated logic program called EVALPSN. In this paper, EVALPSN is developed to deal with before-after relations between two processes (time intervals), and its application to real-time process order control based on logical safety verification.

  4. The Energy Variation of the Sensitivity of a Polyethylene Moderated BF3 Proportional Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraeki, R.; Leimdoerfer, M.; Malmskog, S.

    1962-11-01

    The variation with neutron energy of the sensitivity of a polyethylene moderated boron counter has been investigated experimentally at 2.3 MeV, 550 keV, 210 keV, 110 keV, 340 eV and 5 eV, and theoretically by the multigroup diffusion method in the same range. Different moderator thicknesses up to 10 cm were considered Results show good agreement between experimental and theoretical sensitivities for the keV and MeV energies, while a discrepancy of the order of a factor 2 at the most is obtained in the eV region

  5. The Crow Creek Site (39BF11) Massacre: A Preliminary Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    to individual vertebrae or groups of vertebrae, but nothing was found which suggested ankylosing spondylitis . Classical Marie-Strumple disease has been...preferentially take up 12C over 13C from their immediate environments in order to metabolize energy through three major pathways : C3 (Calvin), C4 (Hatch...Slack), and CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) (Throughton 1972). Most non- desert plants have the Calvin or C3 pathway with a 3-carbon struc- 300

  6. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-part report that describes the AJ10-221, a high performance iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000 F) (2200 C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units were welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for flight qualification.

  7. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the AJ10-221, a high performance Iridium-coated Rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000F) (2200C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was fabricated matching the preferred design and was demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for flight qualification.

  8. ANALISIS PERBANDINGAN PEMIKIRAN PENDIDIKAN ANTARA AL-GHAZALI DENGAN B.F. SKINNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Setyaningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sumber belajar adalah segala sesuatu yang dapat digunakan untuk mendapatkan informasi dan segala kemudahan dalam belajar. Sumber belajar tersebut dapat berupa Manusia (People, Lingkungan (setting, Tekhnik (Technique, Alat (Device, dan Pesan-pesan (massages, guru adalah salah satu sumber belajar yang memilikiperan strategis dalam mendorong terjadinya kegiatan belajar pada peserta didik. Pusat sumber belajar adalah suatu bangunan dan lembaga yang terdiri atas kepala dan staf yang diatur secara khusus dengan tujuan menyimpan,merawat, mengembangkan dan memanfaatkan sumber belajar dalam berbagai bentuknya baik individusl msupun kelompok untuk memberikan layanan informasi dan pengetahuan kepada peserta didik. Kelengkapan berbagai layanan informasi dan pengetahuan (sumber belajar kepada peserta didik dipastikan akan memberukaj nilai positif terhadap peningkatan mutu pendidikan pada suatu lembaga pendidikan tertentu. Mutu merupakan suatu kumpulan pemikiran seseorang tetapi merupakan pemikiran yang kolektif. Artinya setiap orang yan g terlibat, dilibatkan dalam menghasilkan sesuatu yang terbaik. Dan mutu sebagai kualitas, didefinisikan sebagai konsistensi dalam menghasilkan produk atau jasa. Dalam kaitannya dengan kondisi peserta didik, maka peserta didik pun berhak mendapatkan pelayanan yang memadai dansesuai dengan apa yang pernah ditaearkan oleh pihak sekolah

  9. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY OF AROMATIC AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN BLUEGILL SUNFISH BF-2 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toluene (methylbenzene) is a common environmental pollutant that is found in many hazardous waste sites and it is an aquifer contaminant. A concern is the potential risk to human and ecosystem health due to exposure to toluene and its major biotransformation products. The cytotox...

  10. Understanding B.F. Skinner: Building Emotional Competence in Students with Diverse Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle; Sapp, Marty; Obiakor, Festus E.

    2014-01-01

    Not all children and youth will respond the same way to scripted interventions. Children and youth require intervention strategies that are designed to meet their wide-ranging needs in order to be successful during and after school years. Yet, educators and counselors apply behavior strategies to promote prosocial behavior without exploring…

  11. Personal influences on professional work: an empirical case study of B.F. Skinner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, A P; Siegel, P F

    1996-03-01

    This study addresses the hypothesis that individuals have characteristic ways of looking at the world that are revealed not only in their life story but also in their professional work. It seeks to provide the first empirical test of this hypothesis using systematic methods for data selection, interpretation, and matching, as applied to the case of B. F. Skinner. Using the salience identifier "primacy" (Alexander, 1990), Skinner's first research design and the first paragraph of his autobiography were selected for analysis. Adopting a personological approach to interpretation, "scripts" (Tomkins, 1987) were derived from these materials by blind and independent coders. A matching task (Allport, 1961) then indicated that the scripts derived from Skinner's work and life were substantially similar and significantly more similar than random pairs of scripts . A search through other autobiographical and professional writings by Skinner revealed that the elements of the discovered script appear recurrently in his imagery.

  12. A density functional theory study on the interactions between dibenzothiophene and tetrafluoroborate-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin; Lü, Renqing; Wu, Chongchong; Xiao, Ye; Liang, Fei; Famakinwa, Temilola

    2017-04-01

    The interactions between dibenzothiophene (DBT) and N-butyl-N-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF 4 ]), N-butyl-N-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmmorpholinium][BF 4 ]), N-butyl-N-methylpiperdinium tetrafluoroborate ([BMPiper][BF 4 ]), N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate ([BMPyrro][BF 4 ]), and N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([BPY][BF 4 ]) were investigated using density functional theory approach. Geometric, electron, and topological properties were analyzed using natural bond orbital, atoms in molecules theory, and noncovalent interaction methods in order to understand intermolecular interactions between DBT and ionic liquids. The result shows that hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions are widespread in all the ionic liquids-DBT systems. Ion-π interactions between DBT and cation or anion are also observed, while π + -π interactions are only found in the [BMIM][BF 4 ]-DBT and [BPY][BF 4 ]-DBT systems. The order of interaction energy is [BPY][BF4]-DBT > [BMIM][BF 4 ]-DBT > [BMPiper][BF 4 ]-DBT > [BMPyrro][BF 4 ]-DBT > [BMmorpholinum][BF 4 ]-DBT. The energies between DBT and the two ionic liquids containing aromatic cations are significantly higher.

  13. Results of a self-triggered prototype system for radio-detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acounis, S.; Charrier, D.; Garçon, T.; Rivière, C.; Staassi, P.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2012), s. 1-28 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB111003; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : antennas * large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/7/11/P11023/pdf/1748-0221_7_11_P11023.pdf

  14. A Application of WD Model to EB Type Contact Binary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Oh

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The EB type contact binaries show large temperature difference ( T 1,000K between two components. Thus we have modified the mode 3 of the WD program to adjust albedos, limb darkening coefficients and gravity darkening exponents for both components of such binaries, while the values for those parameters should be same for both components in the original WD program. Both of the modified and the original versions have been applied to the EB type contact binaries such as DO Cas, GO Cyg, and FS Lup. The computed light curves with modified version fit better to the observations.

  15. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  16. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  17. Tests for 'cold fusion' in the Pd-D2 and Ti-D2 systems at 40-380 MPa and -196-27C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blencoe, J.G.; Naney, M.T.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Perey, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted on the Pd-D 2 and Ti-D 2 systems at 40-380 MPa and -196-27 C to investigate the possibility that cold fusion occurs in palladium and titanium deuterides generated by reaction with high-pressure D 2 gas. In experiments completed to date, reactions between high-purity Pd or Ti and D 2 were monitored with: (1) an array of three BF 3 neutron detectors, (2) an internal, type-K sample thermocouple, and (3) and internal, type-K reference thermocouple located approximately 10 cm above the sample thermocouple. Using a 252 Cf source, the efficiency of the BF 3 detector array was determined to be approximately 6%. During experimentation, the three neutron detectors were immersed in a water bath thermostated at 27C. The neutron count rate, D 2 pressure, sample and reference thermocouple readings, and bath temperature were recorded continuously at time intervals ranging from 6 seconds to 10 minutes. Experimental results obtained so far range from negative to potentially significant. No sustained heat production has been observed in any experiment. Thermal pulses that persist briefly after pressurizing Pd with D 2 gas are attributable to small amounts of chemical heat released when Pd and D 2 react to form palladium deuteride. No sustained neutron flux above background was observed in any Pd-D 2 experiment. On the other hand, in a Ti-D 2 experiment just completed, potentially significant results were obtained. During this experiment, there was a period of 5 consecutive hours when count rates rose to approximately 60 counts/hour above the average background rate. This detector count rate corresponds nominally to 1,000 neutrons/hour emitted from the Ti-D 2 sample. However, due to several deficiencies in detection methods and equipment, the authors cannot demonstrate conclusively that their experimental data are valid. They are upgrading their neutron detection equipment

  18. Black hole candidates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...

  19. Long-term cycles in old Novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shara, M.M.; Potter, M.; Shara, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Three of the oldest recovered novae were monitored with a CCD camera almost nightly for six weeks. The cyclic variability reported by Della Valle and Rosino (1987) for Nova Oph 1848 is confirmed. A similar variability is also suggested for Nova Cyg 1876, though this system exhibits more random flickering than Nova Oph. No secular variability is seen in Nova Sge 1783. 12 refs

  20. Velocity Curve Studies of Spectroscopic Binary Stars V380 Cygni ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Using measured radial velocity data of five double lined spectroscopic binary systems V380 Cygni, V401 Cyg, V523 Cas, V373 Cas and V2388 Oph, we find corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements via the method introduced by Karami & Mohebi (2007) and Karami &. Teimoorinia (2007). Our numerical ...

  1. The Geometry and Structural Properties of the 4,8,12-Trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyrene System in the Cationic State. Structures of a Planar Organic Cation with Various Monovalent- and Divalent Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Laursen, Bo W.; Johannsen, Ib

    1999-01-01

    The geometry of the 4,8,12-trioxa-4,8,12,12c- tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyrene system in the cationic state was established by X-ray structural resolution of the salts formed between the cationand various anions. The geometry was found to be planar for the 4,8,12-trioxa-4,8,12,12c- tetrahydrodibenzo...... [cd,mn]pyrenylium and 2,6,10-tri (tert-butyl)-4,8,12-trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyre nylium cations with the monovalentanions I-, BF4-, PF6- AsF6-, HNO3. NO3- and CF3SO3-, and the divalent anions S2O62- and Mo6Cl142-. The salts were found to crystallize in distinct space groups...

  2. Reactivity control system of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wols, F.J., E-mail: f.j.wols@tudelft.nl; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A worth of over 15,000 pcm ensures achieving long-term cold shutdown in thorium PBR. • Control rod worth in side reflector is insufficient due to low-power breeder zone. • 20 control rods, just outside the driver zone, can achieve long-term cold shutdown. • BF{sub 3} gas can be inserted for reactor shutdown, but only in case of emergency. • Perturbation theory accurately predicts absorber gas worth for many concentrations. - Abstract: This work investigates the neutronic design of the reactivity control system for a 100 MW{sub th} passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor (PBR), a conceptual design introduced previously by the authors. The thorium PBR consists of a central driver zone of 100 cm radius, surrounded by a breeder zone with 300 cm outer radius. The fissile content of the breeder zone is low, leading to low fluxes in the radial reflector region. Therefore, a significant decrease of the control rod worth at this position is anticipated. The reactivity worth of control rods in the side reflector and at alternative in-core positions is calculated using different techniques, being 2D neutron diffusion, perturbation theory and more accurate 3D Monte Carlo models. Sensitivity coefficients from perturbation theory provide a first indication of effective control rod positions, while the 2D diffusion models provide an upper limit on the reactivity worth achievable at a certain radial position due to the homogeneous spreading of the absorber material over the azimuthal domain. Three dimensional forward calculations, e.g. in KENO, are needed for an accurate calculation of the total control rod worth. The two dimensional homogeneous calculations indicate that the reactivity worth in the radial reflector is by far insufficient to achieve cold reactor shutdown, which requires a control rod worth of over 15 000 pcm. Three dimensional heterogeneous KENO calculations show that placing 20 control rods just outside the driver channel

  3. Automated information system for analysis and prediction of production situations in blast furnace plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, V. V.; Spirin, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in modern science and technology are inherently connected with the development, implementation, and widespread use of computer systems based on mathematical modeling. Algorithms and computer systems are gaining practical significance solving a range of process tasks in metallurgy of MES-level (Manufacturing Execution Systems - systems controlling industrial process) of modern automated information systems at the largest iron and steel enterprises in Russia. This fact determines the necessity to develop information-modeling systems based on mathematical models that will take into account the physics of the process, the basics of heat and mass exchange, the laws of energy conservation, and also the peculiarities of the impact of technological and standard characteristics of raw materials on the manufacturing process data. Special attention in this set of operations for metallurgic production is devoted to blast-furnace production, as it consumes the greatest amount of energy, up to 50% of the fuel used in ferrous metallurgy. The paper deals with the requirements, structure and architecture of BF Process Engineer's Automated Workstation (AWS), a computer decision support system of MES Level implemented in the ICS of the Blast Furnace Plant at Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. It presents a brief description of main model subsystems as well as assumptions made in the process of mathematical modelling. Application of the developed system allows the engineering and process staff to analyze online production situations in the blast furnace plant, to solve a number of process tasks related to control of heat, gas dynamics and slag conditions of blast-furnace smelting as well as to calculate the optimal composition of blast-furnace slag, which eventually results in increasing technical and economic performance of blast-furnace production.

  4. A microprocessor based area monitor system for neutron and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.; Heusser, G.

    1980-01-01

    The conventional electronics of the area monitors at the MPI-Heidelberg accelerators have been replaced by a microprocessor system consisting of individual detector-microprocessors and a central microcomputer. The detector microprocessors convert the count rates of BF3 and GM counter tubes into dose rates and control three different radiation thresholds (failure, low and high level). Different warning signals are operated directly by the detector processors, whereas the dose rates are transferred to the central microcomputer. Here the data are processed for recording on tape and displaying on TV monitors. The detector as well as the central processors have been developed on the basis of a 16-bit microprocessor. In the control rooms the dose rates of the individual monitors are displayed and on an indicator board showing the different locations, the high radiation level and the state of the doors (open, locked, and closed, locked but open) are sianaled by different LED. If a high radiation threshold is surpassed, the doors adjacent to that area can be locked either by switches on the indicator board or automatically. Within the experimental area, the low and high radiation level is indicated by acoustic and light signals. The whole concept permits keeping the absorbed doses of the personnel as low as possible without affecting the flexibility of the experimental operations. The independence of the microprocessor driven area monitors guarantees a high reliability. Compared to conventional electronics the advantages of the system are its reliability and cost. (Author)

  5. Characteristic analysis of the lower limb muscular strength training system applied with MR dampers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Piao, Young Jun; Kim, Kyung; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    A new training system that can adjust training intensity and indicate the center pressure of a subject was proposed by applying controlled electric current to the Magneto-Rheological damper. The experimental studying on the muscular activities were performed in lower extremities during maintaining and moving exercises, which were processed on an unstable platform with Magneto rheological dampers and recorded in a monitor. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the eight muscles in lower extremities were recorded and analyzed in certain time and frequency domain. Muscles researched in this paper were rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), vastuslateralis (VL), vastusmedialis (VM), gastrocnemius (Ga), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (So). Differences of muscular activities during four moving exercises were studied in our experimental results. The rate of the increment of the muscular activities was affected by the condition of the unstable platform with MR dampers, which suggested the difference of moving exercises could selectively train each muscle with varying intensities. Furthermore, these findings also proposed that this training system can improve the ability of postural balance.

  6. Integrated removal of organic load, P, N, on a filters serial system, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic on dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Mauricio Andres; Sierra, Jorge Humberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the results obtained during the operation under dynamic conditions of a three biofilters serial system, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic at lab scale to evaluate the N, P, and organic matter removal. The reactors were continuously fed for 200 days, including the adherence and stability periods, with hydraulic retention time among 2,27 and 0,66 d. for the ANABF and among 1,5 and 0,5 d. for the ANXBF. The adherence period was followed by a control of SSV and the DQO removal in each BF. After good results of adherence the system was fed with an initial average volumetric organic load of 0,441 kg DQO/m 3 /d. and gradually increase during the results of DQO removal over the 50%, until the achievement of the system stability for a maximum organic load of 1,5 kg. The reactor control was made by DQO, PO 4 3 , NTK, NO 2 , NO 3 , SS and alkalinity, determined at enter and exit of each reactor. The removal results for the system of growing adherence was among 90-96% for DQO, 80-90% for total P, and 65-70% for total N

  7. Ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossler

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. (orig./RW)

  8. Performance of the ATLAS trigger system in 2015

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Hladík, Ondřej; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Penc, Ondřej; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2017), s. 1-53, č. článku 317. ISSN 1434-6044 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CERN LHC Coll * programming * trigger: upgrade * data analysis method * 13000 GeV-cms Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 5.331, year: 2016

  9. The sensitivity studies of a landmine explosive detection system based on neutron backscattering using Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hamda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a Monte Carlo simulation of a landmine detection system, using the MCNP5 code, for the detection of concealed explosives such as trinitrotoluene and cyclonite. In portable field detectors, the signal strength of backscattered neutrons and gamma rays from thermal neutron activation is sensitive to a number of parameters such as the mass of explosive, depth of concealment, neutron moderation, background soil composition, soil porosity, soil moisture, multiple scattering in the background material, and configuration of the detection system. In this work, a detection system, with BF3 detectors for neutrons and sodium iodide scintillator for g-rays, is modeled to investigate the neutron signal-to-noise ratio and to obtain an empirical formula for the photon production rate Ri(n,γ= SfGfMf(d,m from radiative capture reactions in constituent nuclides of trinitrotoluene. This formula can be used for the efficient landmine detection of explosives in quantities as small as ~200 g of trinitrotoluene concealed at depths down to about 15 cm. The empirical formula can be embedded in a field programmable gate array on a field-portable explosives' sensor for efficient online detection.

  10. Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes on the VPP500 system (porting). Progress report fiscal 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuki, Shigeru; Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Wataru; Watanabe, Hideo; Tanabe, Hidenobu; Kawasaki, Nobuo; Adachi, Masaaki; Ogasawara, Shinobu; Kume, Etsuo

    1999-05-01

    Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system and/or the AP3000 system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 14 codes in fiscal 1997. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization part, the parallelization part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the porting. In this porting part, the porting of transient reactor analysis code TRAC-BF1 and Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP4A on the AP3000 are described. In addition, a modification of program libraries for command-driven interactive data analysis plotting program IPLOT is described. In the vectorization part, the vectorization of multidimensional two-fluid model code ACE-3D for evaluation of constitutive equations, statistical decay code SD and three-dimensional thermal analysis code for in-core test section (T2) of HENDEL SSPHEAT are described. In the parallelization part, the parallelization of cylindrical direct numerical simulation code CYLDNS44N, worldwide version of system for prediction of environmental emergency dose information code WSPEEDI, extension of quantum molecular dynamics code EQMD and three-dimensional non-steady compressible fluid dynamics code STREAM are described. (author)

  11. Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes on the VPP500 system (vectorization). Progress report fiscal 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Nobuo; Ogasawara, Shinobu; Adachi, Masaaki; Kume, Etsuo; Ishizuki, Shigeru; Tanabe, Hidenobu; Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Wataru; Watanabe, Hideo

    1999-05-01

    Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system and/or the AP3000 system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 14 codes in fiscal 1997. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization part, the parallelization part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization. In this vectorization part, the vectorization of multidimensional two-fluid model code ACE-3D for evaluation of constitutive equations, statistical decay code SD and three-dimensional thermal analysis code for in-core test section (T2) of HENDEL SSPHEAT are described. In the parallelization part, the parallelization of cylindrical direct numerical simulation code CYLDNS44N, worldwide version of system for prediction of environmental emergency dose information code WSPEEDI, extension of quantum molecular dynamics code EQMD and three-dimensional non-steady compressible fluid dynamics code STREAM are described. In the porting part, the porting of transient reactor analysis code TRAC-BF1 and Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP4A on the AP3000 are described. In addition, a modification of program libraries for command-driven interactive data analysis plotting program IPLOT is described. (author)

  12. Outbursts of symbiotic novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Truran, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    We discuss possible conditions under which thermonuclear burning episodes in the hydrogen-rich envelopes of accreting white dwarfs give rise to outbursts similar in nature to those observed in the symbiotic stars AG Peg, RT Ser, RR Tel, AS 239, V1016 Cyg, V1329 Cyg, and HM Sge. In principle, thermonuclear runaways involving low-luminosity white dwarfs accreting matter at low rates produce configurations that evolve into A--F supergiants at maximum visual light and which resemble the outbursts of RR Tel, RT Ser, and AG peg. Very weak, nondegenerage hydrogen shell flashes on white dwarfs accreting matter at high rates (M> or approx. =10 -8 M/sub sun/ yr -1 ) do not produce cool supergiants at maximum, and may explain the outbursts in V1016 Cyg, V1329 Cyg, and HM Sge. The low accretion rates demanded for systems developing strong hydrogen shell flashes on low-luminsoity white dwarfs are not compatible with observations of ''normal'' quiescent symbiotic stars. The extremely slow outbursts of symbiotic novae appear to be typical of accreting white dwarfs in wide binaries, which suggests that the outbursts of classical novae may be accelerated by the interaction of the expanding white dwarf envelope with its close binary companion

  13. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  14. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  15. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  16. Analysis of 3D Doppler Tomography of the X-ray Binary System Cygnus X-1 from Spectral Observations in 2007 in the HeII λ 4686 Å Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, M. I.; Karitskaya, E. A.; Sharova, O. I.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Zharikov, S. V.; Butenko, G. Z.; Bondar', A. V.; Bubukin, I. T.

    2018-03-01

    This is the second paper in a series dedicated to studies of the X-ray binary Cyg X-1 in the HeII λ 4686 Å line using 3D Doppler tomography. A detailed analysis of the tomogram constructed has made it possible for the first time to obtain information about the motions of gaseous flows including all three velocity components. The observations were obtained in June 2007 at the Terskol Branch of the Institute of Astronomy (Russia) and the National Astronomical Observatory of Mexico. The correctness of the tomographic results and their discussion is analyzed. The results are compared with a 2D Doppler tomogram reconstruction. Model-atmosphere computations of HeII λ 4686 Å line profiles are used to estimate the influence of absorption features of the Osupergiant on the emission structure in the tomogram. The correctness of the 3D solutions is confirmed by the good agreement between the original sequence of spectral data and a control data set computed using the constructed 3D Doppler tomogram. Tomograms constructed using the data of each of the two observatories are compared. The results of the reconstruction for inclinations of the system of 40° and 45° essentially coincide. The maximum absorption (corresponding to the O supergiant) and emission structural features in the 3D tomogram are located in its central ( V x , V y ) section, where the velocity component perpendicular to the orbital plane V z is zero. The emission is generated mainly in the outer part of the accretion structure, close to the supergiant. A gaseous stream from the Lagrangian point L1 with its motion close to the orbital plane can be distinguished. Its maximum velocity reaches 800 km/s. The identification of an emission structure with V z 300 km/s and with V x , V y in the velocity interval corresponding to the donor star was unexpected. Its presence may indicate, for example, an outflow of matter from a magnetic pole of the supergiant.

  17. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  18. K voprosu ocenki aktivnosti vegetativnoj nervnoj sistemy u sportsmenov [To a question of an estimation of activity of autonomic nervous system at sportsmen

    OpenAIRE

    Romanchuk, AP

    2015-01-01

    At simultaneous research of heart rhythm variability and frequency of breath at highly skilled sportsmen we establish regress between parameters ТР (ms) and BF which has allowed to establish, that parameters ТР describing autonomic activity, at BF is lower 14 and higher 19 in a minute have close interrelation with frequency of breath. On the basis of the received data it has been constructed nomogramma estimations of autonomic activity.

  19. A customizable system for real-time image processing using the Blackfin DSProcessor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Stephen; Connell, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a development platform for real-time image processing based on the ADSP-BF533 Blackfin processor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time operating system (RTOS). MicroC/OS-II is a completely portable, ROMable, pre-emptive, real-time kernel. The Blackfin Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), incorporating the Analog Devices/Intel Micro Signal Architecture (MSA), are a broad family of 16-bit fixed-point products with a dual Multiply Accumulate (MAC) core. In addition, they have a rich instruction set with variable instruction length and both DSP and MCU functionality thus making them ideal for media based applications. Using the MicroC/OS-II for task scheduling and management, the proposed system can capture and process raw RGB data from any standard 8-bit greyscale image sensor in soft real-time and then display the processed result using a simple PC graphical user interface (GUI). Additionally, the GUI allows configuration of the image capture rate and the system and core DSP clock rates thereby allowing connectivity to a selection of image sensors and memory devices. The GUI also allows selection from a set of image processing algorithms based in the embedded operating system.

  20. Grey relational analysis for evaluating the effects of different rates of wine lees-derived biochar application on a plant-soil system with multi-metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhu, Qihong; Wu, Jun; He, Yan; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaoyu; Peng, Hong; Wang, Lilin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, grey relational analysis (GRA) was used to investigate the effects of different application rates of wine lees-derived biochar on a plant-soil system with multi-metal contamination. A pot experiment was conducted to determine rice growth in multi-metal-contaminated soil amended with samples of wine lees-derived biochar, and 47 indicators (including soil properties, microbial activity, and plant physiology) were selected as evaluation indexes to assess the plant-soil system. The results indicated that higher wine lees-derived biochar application rates (2% W/W) were favorable for soil fertility, the bioconcentration factor (BF), and the mobility factor (MF, %) (with the exception of Cr, Zn, and Hg), but an application of 1% produced the highest plant growth, enzymatic activities, and bacterial diversity. The richness of the bacterial communities was reduced in the soil amended with the wine lees-derived biochar. According to the GRA assessment, the 1% application rate of wine lees-derived biochar was more suitable for restoring the holistic plant-soil system than were the application rates of 0, 0.5, and 2% (W/W). Furthermore, this study shows that GRA is a useful method for evaluating plant-soil systems.

  1. Closure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kube, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates generally to gas-cooled nuclear reactor systems and, more particularly, to an improved closure system for a pressure vessel in such a system wherein a penetration is provided for accommodating a heat exchanger. (author)

  2. Lymph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic system ... neck, under the arms, and groin. The lymph system includes the: Tonsils Adenoids Spleen Thymus ... JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ...

  3. NOVAE WITH LONG-LASTING SUPERSOFT EMISSION THAT DRIVE A HIGH ACCRETION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Collazzi, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    We identify a new class of novae characterized by the post-eruption quiescent light curve being more than roughly a factor of 10 brighter than the pre-eruption light curve. Eight novae (V723 Cas, V1500 Cyg, V1974 Cyg, GQ Mus, CP Pup, T Pyx, V4633 Sgr, and RW UMi) are separated out as being significantly distinct from other novae. This group shares a suite of uncommon properties, characterized by the post-eruption magnitude being much brighter than before eruption, short orbital periods, long-lasting supersoft emission following the eruption, a highly magnetized white dwarf (WD), and secular declines during the post-eruption quiescence. We present a basic physical picture which shows why all five uncommon properties are causally connected. In general, novae show supersoft emission due to hydrogen burning on the WD in the final portion of the eruption, and this hydrogen burning will be long-lasting if new hydrogen is poured onto the surface at a sufficient rate. Most novae do not have adequate accretion for continuous hydrogen burning, but some can achieve this if the companion star is nearby (with short orbital period) and a magnetic field channels the matter onto a small area on the WD so as to produce a locally high accretion rate. The resultant supersoft flux irradiates the companion star and drives a higher accretion rate (with a brighter post-eruption phase), which serves to keep the hydrogen burning and the supersoft flux going. The feedback loop cannot be perfectly self-sustaining, so the supersoft flux will decline over time, forcing a decline in the accretion rate and the system brightness. We name this new group after the prototype, V1500 Cyg. V1500 Cyg stars are definitely not progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. The V1500 Cyg stars have similar physical mechanisms and appearances as predicted for nova by the hibernation model, but with this group accounting for only 14% of novae.

  4. INIS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokalski, A.

    1982-01-01

    History, organizational structure and operation principles of INIS system are presented. The preparation of input, checking and data processing as well as output production, computer forms of files and information retrieval systems are described in detail. The active participation of Poland in the system is emphasized. The possible ways of system development are presented. (author)

  5. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  6. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...

  7. Electrochemical studies in molten sodium fluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau, M.; Wagner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Physical properties of sodium fluoroborate are recalled and first results obtained during experimental study of molten NaBF 4 are exposed. The system Cu/CuF is used as an indicator of fluoride ion activity and dissociation constant of the solvent is determined by adding NaF to NaBF 4 saturated with BF 3 at a pressure of 1 atm and found equal to 2.7x10 -3 [fr

  8. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  9. Measurement of jet quenching with semi-inclusive hadron-jet distributions in central Pb-Pb collisions at ${\\sqrt{\\bf{s}_{\\mathrm {\\bf{NN}}}}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Zhang, Chunhui; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Kamal; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Masui, Hiroshi; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-09-24

    We report the measurement of a new observable of jet quenching in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV, based on the semi-inclusive rate of charged jets recoiling from a high transverse momentum (high-$p_{\\rm T}$) charged hadron trigger. Jets are measured using collinear-safe jet reconstruction with infrared cutoff for jet constituents of 0.15 GeV/$c$, for jet resolution parameters $R = 0.2$, 0.4 and 0.5. Underlying event background is corrected at the event-ensemble level, without imposing bias on the jet population. Recoil jet spectra are reported in the range $20 < p_\\mathrm{T,jet}^\\mathrm{ch} < 100$ GeV/$c$. Reference distributions for pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV are calculated using Monte Carlo and NLO pQCD methods, which are validated by comparing with measurements in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. The recoil jet yield in central Pb-Pb collisions is found to be suppressed relative to that in pp collisions. No significant medium-induced broadening of the intra...

  10. Elastic and anharmonic properties of pyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([C{sub 5}NH{sub 6}]{sup +}[BF{sub 4}]{sup -{identical_to}}PyBF{sub 4}): light scattering study of the phase transitions at various pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecolivet, C.; Beaufils, S.; Girard, A. [Groupe Matiere Condensee et Materiaux - UMR CNRS 6626, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Czarnecki, P.; Wasicki, J.; Bobrowicz-Sarga, L. [Institute of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland)

    2001-07-30

    The vibrational properties of pyridinium tetrafluoroborate crystals were studied by means of Brillouin scattering at atmospheric pressure, Raman scattering and neutron diffraction under high pressure. It is shown that the elastic properties strongly reflect the molecular anisotropy of the pyridinium ions. The compressibility obtained from the Brillouin scattering study is in reasonable agreement with the results from neutron crystallography under pressure. Brillouin spectra reveal a small quasielastic component at room temperature, which is described by a coupled-susceptibilities formalism applied to the longitudinal mode and a relaxation mode. The mode Grueneisen parameters for all three phases that are found are determined from the pressure and temperature dependence of the Raman spectra and from neutron experiments. (author)

  11. Exploration of mechanisms regulating ectomycorrhizal colonization of boron-fertilized pine. [Pisolithus tinctorius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, H.E.; Sword, M.A.

    1991-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal association is a naturally occurring symbiotic relationship existing between ectomycorrhizal-forming fungi and the root system of some plants, including many coniferous species. Since boron fertilization (BF) has been reported to increase fungal colonization of clover and alfalfa, the effect of BF on fungal colonization and growth of shortleaf pine was examined. Inoculation of seedlings was shown to increase growth responses in boron treated plants. BF increases root sucrose concentrations required for fungal development and improves the nutritional balance of the plant. Mycorrhizae increase auxin levels in root (possibly increasing root primordial development) while BF decreases root auxin (possibly increasing root elongation). BF reduces phenolic concentrations in the root. BF enhances mycorrhizae and root development, and results in increased tree seedling growth. 36 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Intelligent Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more decisions...

  13. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  14. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  15. Tear System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and symptoms may result from the tear drainage system becoming obstructed at any point from the puncta ... specializes in the eyelids, orbit, and tear drain system. It’s also important that he or she is ...

  16. Biliary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum . This helps the body digest food. It also assists ... from the liver to the duodenum. The biliary system includes: The gallbladder Bile ducts and certain cells ...

  17. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  18. Watchdog System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Jensen, Morten Bornø

    This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data. Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4.2 - the watchdog system. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remov...

  19. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system programmers should take into consideration all possi- bilities and write programs that do not fail. Responsiveness: Embedded systems should respond to events as soon as possible. For example, a patient monitoring system should process the patient'S heart signals quickly and immedi- ately notify if any abnormality ...

  20. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  1. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...

  2. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  3. Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Digestive System KidsHealth / For Parents / Digestive System What's in this ... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  4. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sumer electronic systems, they are cost sensitive. Thus their cost must be low. Robustness: Embedded systems should be robust since they operate in a harsh environment. They should endure vibrations, power supply fluctuations and excessive heat. Due to limited power supply in an embedded system, the power ...

  5. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  6. Multifunction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wauthier, J.; Fiori, R.

    1990-01-01

    The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system is used on the RBES laboratory pipes, at Marcoule. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit function by replacing only one component. The following elements form the multifunction system: a fixed base, which is part of the tube, a removable piece, which is inserted into the base, a cover plate and its locking system. The material, chosen among commercial trade marks, required small modifications in order to be used in the circuit [fr

  7. Effect of ZrO2 on conductivity of PVC–PMMA–LiBF4–DBP polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ZrO2 powder) was suspended in the solution and stirred for about 24 h before the electrolyte films were cast on finely polished Teflon supports. The films formed were again dried in a vacuum oven at 323 K with a pressure of 10–3 torr for 24 h.

  8. Protoporphyrin IX formation after topical application of methyl aminolaevulinate and BF-200 aminolaevulinic acid declines with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a popular treatment modality in dermatology. The effect of PDT in epidermal cells depends on formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). A variety of physiological changes in epidermal function occur with increasing age....... The volunteers were divided into two age groups: a young group under 55 years (range 18-54) and an older group over 55 years (range 65-85). PpIX formation was measured noninvasively every hour from 1-5 h, and after 18, 21 and 24 h. Skin phototype, stratum corneum hydration and ultraviolet (UV) damage were also...... the standard application time of 3 h (P hydration and UV damage were not associated with PpIX formation. The treatment efficacy of BCCs 3 months after MAL-PDT was higher in young patients (P =  0·012). CONCLUSIONS: PpIX formation in human skin...

  9. Direct Probing into the Electrochemical Interface Using a Novel Potential Probe: Au(111) Electrode/NaBF4 Solution Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Dae Ha; Yoo, Jung Suk; Park, Su Moon; Jeon, Il C.; Kang, Heon

    2004-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the miniaturized potential probe can measure the local potential of the solution and the electrochemical interface with subnanometer spatial resolution. The present result is the first measurement of the interface potential made in real space. The result would stimulate both experimentalists and theorists to further develop new tools for similar measurements as well as relevant theories for a better understanding of the electrified interfaces. In a narrow region of an electrode/electrolyte interface, an electrical double layer (EDL) exists in which ions with an opposite charge to the electrode line up in an excess concentration. The EDL is believed to be extremely thin, and the internal electric field strength can exceed 10 7 V/m in routine electrochemical environments. Since its presence was first predicted by theory in the early 20th century, understanding of the EDL has been a key to the subjects of practical and fundamental importance such as electrochemistry, corrosion, and the stability of colloidal particles

  10. 77 FR 15148 - Order Granting an Application of BF Enterprises, Inc. Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... private--e.g., through a management buyout or sale to a third party--rather than ``go dark.'' \\11... the company deregistering under the Exchange Act, ``it is no surprise that there is only limited...

  11. Effect of ZrO2 on conductivity of PVC–PMMA–LiBF4–DBP polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    eds) P Vashishta, J N Mundy and G. Shenoy (Amsterdam: North Holland) p.131. Armand M 1994 Solid State Ionics 69 309. Capeano F, Croce F and Scrosati B 1991 J. Electrochem. Soc. 138 1918. Croce F, Panero S and Scrosati B 1991 Mater.

  12. BfR recommends the establishment of a European maximum level for uranium in drinking and mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is a widespread, radioactive heavy metal on earth. It is to be found in varying concentrations and states in various rocks and minerals as well as in water, soil and air. Uranium may also reach the environment anthropogenically for instance in mineral phosphate fertilisers. Because of its widespread presence traces of uranium can also be detected in foods like drinking and mineral water. Uranium is not essential for humans. The ongoing intake of higher uranium concentration...

  13. Variations in the cytoplasmic region account for the heterogeneity of the chicken MHC class I (B-F) molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, L B; Kaufman, J; Verland, S

    1991-01-01

    . Unlike the parent proteins, the Mr 36,000 fragment derived from isolated variants yielded identical, simple patterns in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identical finger prints in peptide mapping. This, together with N-terminal amino acid sequencing, as well as comparison of hydrophobicity...... comprised by several isoelectric focusing variants. This heterogeneity could not be reduced by enzymatic deglycosylation. By contrast, proteolytic removal of a small (Mr 1000-4000) fragment from the alpha chain resulted in the generation of a Mr 36,000 fragment, common to all the molecular mass variants...

  14. Learning effects of dynamic postural control by auditory biofeedback versus visual biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Naoya; Takeda, Kenta; Sakuma, Moe; Mani, Hiroki; Maejima, Hiroshi; Asaka, Tadayoshi

    2017-10-01

    Augmented sensory biofeedback (BF) for postural control is widely used to improve postural stability. However, the effective sensory information in BF systems of motor learning for postural control is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning effects of visual versus auditory BF training in dynamic postural control. Eighteen healthy young adults were randomly divided into two groups (visual BF and auditory BF). In test sessions, participants were asked to bring the real-time center of pressure (COP) in line with a hidden target by body sway in the sagittal plane. The target moved in seven cycles of sine curves at 0.23Hz in the vertical direction on a monitor. In training sessions, the visual and auditory BF groups were required to change the magnitude of a visual circle and a sound, respectively, according to the distance between the COP and target in order to reach the target. The perceptual magnitudes of visual and auditory BF were equalized according to Stevens' power law. At the retention test, the auditory but not visual BF group demonstrated decreased postural performance errors in both the spatial and temporal parameters under the no-feedback condition. These findings suggest that visual BF increases the dependence on visual information to control postural performance, while auditory BF may enhance the integration of the proprioceptive sensory system, which contributes to motor learning without BF. These results suggest that auditory BF training improves motor learning of dynamic postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective an...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities.......The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...

  16. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  17. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  18. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  19. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  20. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  1. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  2. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  3. The impact of ambient dose rate measuring network and precipitation radar system for detection of environmental radioactivity released by accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, M; Stoehlker, U.

    2003-01-01

    For the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, the German measuring network of BfS consists of more than 2000 stations where the ambient gamma dose rate is continuously measured. This network is a helpful tool to detect and localise enhanced environmental contamination from artificial radionuclides. The threshold for early warning is so low, that already an additional dose rate contribution of 0,07 μGy/h is detectable. However, this threshold is frequently exceeded due to precipitation events caused by washout of natural activity in air. Therefore, the precipitation radar system of the German Weather Service provides valuable information on the problem, whether the increase of the ambient dose rate is due to natural or man-made events. In case of an accidental release, the data of this radar system show small area precipitation events and potential local hot spots not detected by the measuring network. For the phase of cloud passage, the ambient dose rate measuring network provides a reliable database for the evaluation of the current situation and its further development. It is possible to compare measured data for dose rate with derived intervention levels for countermeasures like ''sheltering''. Thus, critical regions can be identified and it is possible to verify implemented countermeasures. During and after this phase of cloud passage the measured data of the monitoring network help to adapt the results of the national decision support systems PARK and RODOS. Therefore, it is necessary to derive the actual additional contribution to the ambient dose rate. Map representations of measured dose rate are rapidly available and helpful to optimise measurement strategies of mobile systems and collection strategies for samples of agricultural products. (orig.)

  4. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  5. DETECTION OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS, OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS, AND STELLAR MODELS FOR θ CYG, THE BRIGHTEST STAR OBSERVED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzik, J. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, XTD-NTA, MS T-082, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Houdek, G.; Chaplin, W. J.; Antoci, V.; Bedding, T. R.; Huber, D.; Kjeldsen, H. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Smalley, B. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Kurtz, D. W. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gilliland, R. L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mullally, F.; Rowe, J. F. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bryson, S. T.; Still, M. D. [NASA Ames Research Center, Bldg. 244, MS-244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Universitè de Paris Sud–CNRS, Batiment 121, F-91405 ORSAY Cedex (France); Basu, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Benomar, O. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DRF—CNRS—Univ. Paris Diderot—IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Latham, D. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Metcalfe, T. S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    θ Cygni is an F3 spectral type magnitude V = 4.48 main-sequence star that was the brightest star observed by the original Kepler spacecraft mission. Short-cadence (58.8 s) photometric data using a custom aperture were first obtained during Quarter 6 (2010 June–September) and subsequently in Quarters 8 and 12–17. We present analyses of solar-like oscillations based on Q6 and Q8 data, identifying angular degree l = 0, 1, and 2 modes with frequencies of 1000–2700 μ Hz, a large frequency separation of 83.9 ± 0.4 μ Hz, and maximum oscillation amplitude at frequency ν {sub max} = 1829 ± 54 μ Hz. We also present analyses of new ground-based spectroscopic observations, which, combined with interferometric angular diameter measurements, give T {sub eff} = 6697 ± 78 K, radius 1.49 ± 0.03 R {sub ⊙}, [Fe/H] = -0.02 ± 0.06 dex, and log g = 4.23 ± 0.03. We calculate stellar models matching these constraints using the Yale Rotating Evolution Code and the Asteroseismic Modeling Portal. The best-fit models have masses of 1.35–1.39 M {sub ⊙} and ages of 1.0–1.6 Gyr. θ Cyg’s T {sub eff} and log g place it cooler than the red edge of the γ Doradus instability region established from pre- Kepler ground-based observations, but just at the red edge derived from pulsation modeling. The pulsation models show γ Dor gravity modes driven by the convective blocking mechanism, with frequencies of 1–3 cycles per day (11 to 33 μ Hz). However, gravity modes were not seen in Kepler data; one signal at 1.776 cycles per day (20.56 μ Hz) may be attributable to a faint, possibly background, binary.

  6. Vacuum system

    OpenAIRE

    Gröbner, Oswald

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum system of a particle accelerator must provide the necessary conditions for the high energy beam to avoid loss of particles and deterioration of the beam quality. In this talk we will review basic design concepts, vacuum components and procedures required for an accelerator vacuum system.

  7. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs to do: B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses ... like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has ... that invades the body is called an antigen (pronounced: AN-tih-jun). ...

  8. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...

  9. GEOMASS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2009-03-01

    As a part of the research and development regarding characterisation of deep geological environment, the GEOMASS (GEOLOGICAL MODELLING ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION SOFTWARE) system has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to carry out geological and hydrogeological modelling and groundwater flow simulation and so on. The GEOMASS system integrates a commercial geological interpretation system (EarthVision), which is used for geological modelling and visualisation, with a proprietary code for groundwater flow (FracAffinity). This integrated system allows users to make rapid improvement of models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulation due to the capability of modelling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock mass. This paper consists of 'Overview of GEOMASS system', FracAffinity Theoretical Background' and 'FracAffinity User Guide' and is edited as a GEOMASS system manual. 'Overview of GEOMASS system' describes the outline of this system. 'FracAffinity Theoretical Background' describes the information of technical background of FracAffinity software. FracAffinity User Guide' describes the structure of the FracAffinity input files, the usage of FracAffinity Interface and flow-solver. Updating of the FracAffinity has been continued as needed and FracAffinity version3.3 is the latest version at present (July 2008). (author)

  10. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Suresh Babu is currently a fourth year undergraduate student in the Department of. Computer Science and. Engineering, Narayana. Engineering College,. Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. He would like to work in operating systems, computer networks and also in Internet security concepts. Keywords. Operating systems, file sys-.

  11. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The process concept and concurrency are at the heart of modern operating systems (OS). A process is the unit of work in a computer system. A process must be in main memory during execution. To improve the utilization of central processing unit. (CPU) as well as the speed of its response to its users, the computer must ...

  12. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  13. Nitrogen removal from landfill leachate using a sequential biological passive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Suarez García

    2013-01-01

    el intercambio gaseoso con el entorno sin requerir fuentes externas de energía. Los resultados experimentales confirmaron que el sistema Bf es una alternativa económica y eficiente para la remoción de amonio, haciéndolo ideal para pequeñas comunidades.

  14. Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Yoichi

    1987-01-10

    In the wake of the oil shock in 1973, the need for developing more effective energy systems has been mounting. The dominant views and topics for power generation systems in terms of scale merit shifted from the advocacy of centralization/scaling-up of facilities to the soft energy path theory insisting on the efficiency of dispersed small-scale plants, followed by the recent holonic path theory which maintains that large and small scale plants should be centralized or dispersed in an optimum manner. At the same time, an autonomous-type system concept has emerged which points out that the energy systems can be operated efficiently through mutual coordination and cooperation between the suppliers and users to find a balance point that meets the market principle, while abolishing the conventional suppliers-governed system. As a result, the load management system based on time-of-use pricing or adaptive pricing is expected to be adopted widely in near future. All these new theories are aimed at developing flexible and reasonable system structures that can be adapted to the changing circumstances. (4 figs, 17 refs)

  15. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a two dimensional imaging system in which a pattern of radiation falling on the system is detected to give electrical signals for each of a plurality of strips across the pattern. The detection is repeated for different orientations of the strips and the whole processed by compensated back projection. For a shadow x-ray system a plurality of strip x-ray detectors are rotated on a turntable. For lower frequencies the pattern may be rotated with a Dove prism and the strips condensed to suit smaller detectors with a cylindrical lens. (author)

  16. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  17. Kaonic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oset E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I make a short review of the situation of the kaonic systems, with novel information supporting the two Λ(1405 states from the K-d → nπΣ reaction. A review is made of the K¯$ar K$NN system with recent calculations converging to smaller bindings and larger widths. Novel systems involving two kaons and one nucleon or three kaons are also reported and finally a short discussion is made of the analogous state DNN for which recent studies find a large binding and a small width.

  18. Saturn Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U Rehman, Habib; McKee, Nida A; McKee, Michael L

    2016-01-15

    Several ring systems (Saturn systems) have been studied using DFT methods that include dispersion effects. Comparison with X-ray structures are made with three systems, and the agreement is quite good. Binding enthalpies and binding free energies in dichloromethane and toluene have been computed. The effect of an encapsulated lithium cation is accessed by comparing C60 @(C6 H4 )10 and [Li@C60 @(C6 H4 )10 ](+). The [Li@C60 ](+) cation is a much better acceptor than C60 which leads to greater donor-acceptor interactions and larger charge transfer from the ring to [Li@C60 ](+). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Testing the Hibernation Model for Cataclysmic Variable Evolution with Very-Long Very-Well-Sampled Light Curves of Old Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2014-06-01

    The Hibernation Model for the evolution of cataclysmic variables predicts that old novae should be fading at a rate of order one-magnitude-per-century or so, with no mechanism for the accretion rate to significantly increase. This old prediction has been basically impossible to test due to the absence of very long term light curves where all the magnitudes have been placed onto a single consistent photometric system. However, in the past year, I have created very-long and very-well sampled light curves for old novae with the magnitudes fully corrected into the Johnson B & V system. I have these long light curves for Q Cyg (Nova Cyg 1876), V603 Aql (Nova Aql 1918), GK Per (Nova Per 1901), BT Mon (Nova Mon 1939), and QZ Aur (Nova Aur 1964) plus its orbital period change across its 1964 eruption. The comparison with the Hibernation prediction is mixed.

  20. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  1. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  2. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  3. Dryland systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the current condition of dryland systems with respect to the services they provide and the drivers that determine trends in their provision. Within the context of the mounting global concern caused by land degradation...

  4. Nanorobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Dong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies towards the realization of nanotechnology have been presented, i.e., top-down and bottom up. The former one is mainly based on nanofabrication and includes technologies such as nano-lithography, nano-imprint, and etching. Presently, they are still 2D fabrication processes with low resolution. The later one is an assembly-based technique. At present, it includes such items as self-assembly, dip-pen lithography, and directed self-assembly. These techniques can generate regular nano patterns in large scales. To fabricate 3D complex nano devices there are still no effective ways by so far. Here we show our effort on the development of a nano laboratory, a prototype nanomanufacturing system, based on nanorobotic manipulations. In which, we take a hybrid strategy as shown in Fig. 1. In this system, nano fabrication and nano assembly can be performed in an arbitrary order to construct nano building blocks and finally nano devices. The most important feature in this system is that the products can be fed back into the system to shrink the system part by part leading to nanorobots. Property characterization can be performed in each intermediate process. Due to the nanorobotic manipulation system, dynamic measurement can be performed rather than conventional static observations.

  5. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  6. System-of-Systems Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Kopetz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The global availability of communication services makes it possible to interconnect independently developed systems, called constituent systems, to provide new synergistic services and more efficient economic processes. The characteristics of these new Systems-of-Systems are qualitatively different from the classic monolithic systems. In the first part of this presentation we elaborate on these differences, particularly with respect to the autonomy of the constituent systems, to dependability, continuous evolution, and emergence. In the second part we look at a SoS from the point of view of cognitive complexity. Cognitive complexity is seen as a relation between a model of an SoS and the observer. In order to understand the behavior of a large SoS we have to generate models of adequate simplicity, i.e, of a cognitive complexity that can be handled by the limited capabilities of the human mind. We will discuss the importance of properly specifying and placing the relied-upon message interfaces between the constituent systems that form an open SoS and discuss simplification strategies that help to reduce the cognitive complexity.

  7. A new technology of fabricating ohmic metal-silicon contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snitovsky, Yu.P.; Senko, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    Results of performing dry cleaning, doping of silicon in BF 3 +H 2 and BF 3 +H 2 +CF 4 plasma during fabrication of ohmic constants in equipment having the same hardware configuration have been considered based on the concept of a closed manufacturing system

  8. Systems Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  9. Survey for δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries and new correlations between pulsation frequency and fundamental stellar characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, A.; Niarchos, P.; Soydugan, E.; Zasche, P.

    2012-05-01

    CCD observations of 68 eclipsing binary systems, candidates for containing δ Scuti components, were obtained. Their light curves are analysed using the PERIOD04 software for possible pulsational behaviour. For the systems QY Aql, CZ Aqr, TY Cap, WY Cet, UW Cyg, HL Dra, HZ Dra, AU Lac, CL Lyn and IO UMa, complete light curves were observed due to the detection of a pulsating component. All of them, except QY Aql and IO UMa, are analysed with modern astronomical softwares in order to determine their geometrical and pulsational characteristics. Spectroscopic observations of WY Cet and UW Cyg were used to estimate the spectral class of their primary components, while for HZ Dra radial velocities of its primary were measured. O - C diagram analysis was performed for the cases showing peculiar orbital period variations, namely CZ Aqr, TY Cap, WY Cet and UW Cyg, with the aim of obtaining a comprehensive picture of these systems. An updated catalogue of 74 close binaries including a δ Scuti companion is presented. Moreover, a connection between orbital and pulsation periods, as well as a correlation between evolutionary status and dominant pulsation frequency for these systems, is discussed.

  10. Fiscal system analysis - contractual systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Production sharing contracts are one of the most popular forms of contractual system used in petroleum agreements around the world, but the manner in which the fiscal terms and contract parameters impact system measures is complicated and not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of private and market uncertainty in contractual fiscal systems. A meta-modelling approach is employed that couples the results of a simulation model with regression analysis to construct numerical functionals that quantify the fiscal regime. Relationships are derived that specify how the present value, rate of return, and take statistics vary as a function of the system parameters. The deepwater Girassol field development in Angola is taken as a case study. (author)

  11. Intravenous Administration Is an Effective and Safe Route for Cancer Gene Therapy Using the Bifidobacterium-Mediated Recombinant HSV-1 Thymidine Kinase and Ganciclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huicong Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV TK/GCV system is one of the best studied cancer suicide gene therapy systems. Our previous study showed that caspase 3 expression was upregulated and bladder tumor growth was significantly reduced in rats treated with a combination of Bifidobacterium (BF and HSV TK/GCV (BF-rTK/GCV. However, it was raised whether the BF-mediated recombinant thymidine kinase combined with ganciclovir (BF-rTK/GCV was safe to administer via venous for cancer gene therapy. To answer this question, the antitumor effects of BF-rTK/GCV were mainly evaluated in a xenograft nude mouse model bearing MKN-45 gastric tumor cells. The immune response, including analysis of cytokine profiles, was analyzed to evaluate the safety of intramuscular and intravenous injection of BF-rTK in BALB/c mice. The results suggested that gastric tumor growth was significantly inhibited in vivo by BF-rTK/GCV. However, the BF-rTK/GCV had no effect on mouse body weight, indicating that the treatment was safe for the host. The results of cytokine profile analysis indicated that intravenous injection of a low dose of BF-rTK resulted in a weaker cytokine response than that obtained with intramuscular injection. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed that intravenous administration did not affect the expression of immune-associated TLR2 and TLR4. Finally, the BF-rTK/GCV inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in mouse model, which is helpful for inhibiting of tumor angiogenesis. That meant intravenous administration of BF-rTK/GCV was an effective and safe way for cancer gene therapy.

  12. Computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  13. Microbiology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  14. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...... data from computation, allowing for decidable type checking. The data level is LF [Robert Harper, Furio Honsell, and Gordon Plotkin. A framework for defining logics. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 40(1):143-184, January 1993], which allows for the specification of deductive systems...

  15. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.

  16. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  17. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    areas in which this type is useful are multimedia, virtual reality, and advanced scientific projects such as undersea exploration and planetary rovers. Because of the expanded uses for soft real-time functionality, it is finding its way into most current operating systems, including major versions of Unix and Windows NT OS.

  18. Solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    "Using the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the My World of Science series provides the earliest readers with background on key STEM concepts. Solar System explores basic planetary astronomy in a simple, engaging way that will help readers develop word recognition and reading skills. Includes a glossary and index."-- Provided by publisher.

  19. Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  20. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  1. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  2. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  3. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  4. Fusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aschbacher, Michael; Oliver, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey article on the theory of fusion systems, a relatively new area of mathematics with connections to local finite group theory, algebraic topology, and modular representation theory. We first describe the general theory and then look separately at these connections.

  5. Glymphatic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2016-01-01

    a so-called glymphatic pathway which comprise the peri-vascular space and acuaporin-4 water channels on astroglial endfeet. As such the glymphatic pathway can be perceived as a hitherto overlooked compartment of the extracellular space of the central nervous system which is involved in clearance...

  6. Leuconostoc mesenteroides growth in food products: prediction and sensitivity analysis by adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS was compared with an artificial neural network (ANN in terms of accuracy in predicting the combined effects of temperature (10.5 to 24.5°C, pH level (5.5 to 7.5, sodium chloride level (0.25% to 6.25% and sodium nitrite level (0 to 200 ppm on the growth rate of Leuconostoc mesenteroides under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. METHODS: THE ANFIS AND ANN MODELS WERE COMPARED IN TERMS OF SIX STATISTICAL INDICES CALCULATED BY COMPARING THEIR PREDICTION RESULTS WITH ACTUAL DATA: mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, root mean square error (RMSE, standard error of prediction percentage (SEP, bias factor (Bf, accuracy factor (Af, and absolute fraction of variance (R (2. Graphical plots were also used for model comparison. CONCLUSIONS: The learning-based systems obtained encouraging prediction results. Sensitivity analyses of the four environmental factors showed that temperature and, to a lesser extent, NaCl had the most influence on accuracy in predicting the growth rate of Leuconostoc mesenteroides under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The observed effectiveness of ANFIS for modeling microbial kinetic parameters confirms its potential use as a supplemental tool in predictive mycology. Comparisons between growth rates predicted by ANFIS and actual experimental data also confirmed the high accuracy of the Gaussian membership function in ANFIS. Comparisons of the six statistical indices under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions also showed that the ANFIS model was better than all ANN models in predicting the four kinetic parameters. Therefore, the ANFIS model is a valuable tool for quickly predicting the growth rate of Leuconostoc mesenteroides under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  7. Leuconostoc mesenteroides growth in food products: prediction and sensitivity analysis by adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hue-Yu; Wen, Ching-Feng; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Lee, I-Nong; Kao, Hao-Yun; Lee, I-Chen; Ho, Wen-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was compared with an artificial neural network (ANN) in terms of accuracy in predicting the combined effects of temperature (10.5 to 24.5°C), pH level (5.5 to 7.5), sodium chloride level (0.25% to 6.25%) and sodium nitrite level (0 to 200 ppm) on the growth rate of Leuconostoc mesenteroides under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. THE ANFIS AND ANN MODELS WERE COMPARED IN TERMS OF SIX STATISTICAL INDICES CALCULATED BY COMPARING THEIR PREDICTION RESULTS WITH ACTUAL DATA: mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), root mean square error (RMSE), standard error of prediction percentage (SEP), bias factor (Bf), accuracy factor (Af), and absolute fraction of variance (R (2)). Graphical plots were also used for model comparison. The learning-based systems obtained encouraging prediction results. Sensitivity analyses of the four environmental factors showed that temperature and, to a lesser extent, NaCl had the most influence on accuracy in predicting the growth rate of Leuconostoc mesenteroides under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The observed effectiveness of ANFIS for modeling microbial kinetic parameters confirms its potential use as a supplemental tool in predictive mycology. Comparisons between growth rates predicted by ANFIS and actual experimental data also confirmed the high accuracy of the Gaussian membership function in ANFIS. Comparisons of the six statistical indices under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions also showed that the ANFIS model was better than all ANN models in predicting the four kinetic parameters. Therefore, the ANFIS model is a valuable tool for quickly predicting the growth rate of Leuconostoc mesenteroides under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  8. A Novel Polyaniline-Coated Bagasse Fiber Composite with Core-Shell Heterostructure Provides Effective Electromagnetic Shielding Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Qiu, Munan; Yu, Ying; Wen, Bianying; Cheng, Lele

    2017-01-11

    A facile route was proposed to synthesize polyaniline (PANI) uniformly deposited on bagasse fiber (BF) via a one-step in situ polymerization of aniline in the dispersed system of BF. Correlations between the structural, electrical, and electromagnetic properties were extensively investigated. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm that the PANI was coated dominantly on the BF surface, indicating that the as-prepared BF/PANI composite adopted the natural and inexpensive BF as its core and the PANI as the shell. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggest significant interactions between the BF and PANI shell, and a high degree of doping in the PANI shell was achieved. X-ray diffraction results reveal that the crystallization of the PANI shell was improved. The dielectric behaviors are analyzed with respect to dielectric constant, loss tangent, and Cole-Cole plots. The BF/PANI composite exhibits superior electrical conductivity (2.01 ± 0.29 S·cm -1 ), which is higher than that of the pristine PANI with 1.35 ± 0.15 S·cm -1 . The complex permittivity, electromagnetic interference (EMI), shielding effectiveness (SE) values, and attenuation constants of the BF/PANI composite were larger than those of the pristine PANI. The EMI shielding mechanisms of the composite were experimentally and theoretically analyzed. The absorption-dominated total EMI SE of 28.8 dB at a thickness of 0.4 mm indicates the usefulness of the composite for electromagnetic shielding. Moreover, detailed comparison of electrical and EMI shielding properties with respect to the BF/PANI, dedoped BF/PANI composite, and the pristine PANI indicate that the enhancement of electromagnetic properties for the BF/PANI composite was due to the improved conductivity and the core-shell architecture. Thus, the composite has potential commercial applications for high-performance electromagnetic shielding materials and also could be used as a conductive filler to endow polymers with electromagnetic shielding

  9. Regulation of human skeletal muscle perfusion and its heterogeneity during exercise in moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka H; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    Although many effects of both acute and chronic hypoxia on the circulation are well characterized, the distribution and regulation of blood flow (BF) heterogeneity in skeletal muscle during systemic hypoxia is not well understood in humans. We measured muscle BF within the thigh muscles of nine......, the results show that increased BF during one-leg exercise in moderate hypoxia is confined only to the contracting muscles, and the working muscle hyperemia appears not to be directly mediated by adenosine. Increased flow heterogeneity in noncontracting muscles likely reflects sympathetic nervous constraints...... of aminophylline. Systemic hypoxia reduced oxygen extraction of the limb but increased muscle BF, and this flow increment was confined solely to the exercising quadriceps femoris muscle. Exercising muscle BF heterogeneity was reduced from rest (P = 0.055) but was not affected by hypoxia. Adenosine receptor...

  10. Polar Order Evolutions near the Rhombohedral to Pseudocubic and Tetragonal to Pseudocubic Phase Boundaries of the BiFeO3-BaTiO3 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxing Wei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid solutions of (1-xBiFeO3-xBaTiO3 (BF-BT, 0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.98 were prepared and characterized. It was found that the dielectric constant εm, remnant polarization Pr and piezoelectric coefficient d33 reach their maximum values near the rhombohedral–pseudocubic phase boundary. In particular, the 0.7BF-0.3BT composition shows large polarization (Pr > 20 μC/cm2 and a temperature-stable piezoelectric property (d33 > 100 pC/N when the annealing temperature is lower than ~400 °C. Near the tetragonal–pseudocubic phase boundary, εm and Pr decrease, and the piezoelectric property vanishes when the BF content reaches 4 mol %.

  11. Bricks / Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions range...... from an undulating masonry wall at the University of Virginia erected by then-U.S. President Thomas Jefferson to agile robotic manufacturing processes and computational solver strategies based on graph networks. Conversely, the focus of this anthology is expressed directly in the title: bricks...... and systems. The basis for this theme is the work conducted at the Utzon(x) Research Group at Aalborg University, in combination with the rich tradition and implementation of masonry work in Denmark, which has attracted increasing attention from architectural practitioners and researchers alike. How should...

  12. TUBO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, H.J.C.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Toledo, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings recently incorporated to TUBO system like the seismic analysis and the stress verification acccording to ASME-Boiler Rule and Pressure Vessel Code-section III are presented. The seismic analysis comprehend the consideration of uniform motion of the support, its multiple excitation, and the attainment of the spectral response for both cases. The module for stress verification uses stresses resulting fromthe combination of the loads specified by the user, in the automatic verification of permissible stresses for the pipings class 1 and 2, based on criteria NB-3650 and NC-3650 of ASME. The implementation of these proceedings in the TUBO system are discussed and a numerical example that covers the different phases of a stress analysis in a piping is presented [pt

  13. Systemic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    This is a manual investigating the subject of urban ecology and systemic development from the perspective of architectural design. It sets out to explore two main goals: to discuss the contemporary relevance of a systemic practice to architectural design, and to share a toolbox of informational...... design protocols developed to describe the city as a territory of self-organization. Collecting together nearly a decade of design experiments by the authors and their practice, ecoLogicStudio, the book discusses key disciplinary definitions such as ecologic urbanism, algorithmic architecture, bottom......-up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto...

  14. Bilateral system. The ABACC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    After relating the antecedents of the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the paper describes the common system of accounting and control set up by Argentina and Brazil. The organization of ABACC is also outlined

  15. Physical system requirements: Overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Direct subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. This approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. The functional analysis approach recognizes that just the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being

  16. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  17. Security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  18. Systemic Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    early lifecycle phases will have intended quality outcomes. Requirements and Quality Validation Develop requirements elicitation and management...gradients within a system. That is, there are attack surfaces at internal APIs and service interfaces. The complexity also arises from particular features...interoperation (compatibility and support for with SoS APIs and practices), as well as a diverse range of ilities (evolvability/extensibility

  19. CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  20. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  1. Revised Ephemerides for V1776 Cygni and QU Vulpeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Michael; Shafter, A. W.; Misselt, K. A.; Reed, J. K.; Warren, S. R.

    2006-12-01

    Time-resolved CCD observations of two eclipsing cataclysmic variables: the novalike variable V1776 Cyg (Lanning 90), and the classical nova, QU Vul (Nova Vulpeculae 1984#2) are presented. Eclipse timings (a total of four for V1776 Cyg and five for QU Vul) have been measured in order to update the orbital ephemerides of these systems. After including eclipse timings from the literature, the following updated ephemerides have been determined. For V1776 Cyg: T_min = HJD 2,446,716.6795(3) + 0.16473866(1) E, and for QU Vul: T_min = HJD 2,449,514.8780(2) + 0.111764743(7) E. QU Vul is a particularly interesting system, being the archetypal "neon nova" (Gehrz et al. 1985 ApJL, 298, L47) with a period near the middle of the 2-3 hr "gap" in the orbital period distribution for cataclysmic variables. Our most recent observations show that QU Vul is continuing to fade following its outburst in 1984. Specifically, we found QU Vul at V=19.4 on 02-Sep-2005 UT, which is 1.5 mag fainter than the value of V=17.9 measured by Shafter et al. (1995 ApJL, 448, L33) roughly a decade earlier. This work has been supported in part through an REU grant (AST-0453609) to SDSU.

  2. Measurement of the relative width difference of the B0-B¯0 system with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Penc, Ondřej; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 6 (2016), s. 1-38, č. článku 081. ISSN 1029-8479 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : B physics * Hadron-Hadron scattering (experiments) * ATLAS * CERN LHC Coll * experimental results Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016

  3. Advanced coupling of nuclear reactor-gas laser systems. Technical progress report, August 31, 1974--August 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeyen, J.T.; Miley, G.H.; Wells, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Research progress on the development of direct nuclear pumped (DNP) lasers is reported. Most of the work was on a Ne--N 2 DNP laser. Some work is reported on He--Ne--O 2 , He--Hg, and the chemical lasers BF 3 --CH 4 and SF 6 --CH 4 . (U.S.)

  4. Evaluation Study of the Tactical Atmospheric Modeling System/Real-Time (TAMS-RT) at NPMOC San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    H. Wash, Thesis Advisor Wendell A. Nuss, Second Reader Robert L. Haney, Chairman Department of Meteorology in THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...operational database. Wea. Forecasting, 7, 250-261. Bond, N.A., C.F. Mass, B.F. Smull, R.A. Houze , M. Yang, B.A. Colle, S.A. Braun, M. A. Shapiro, B.R

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the immune system of the chick embryo and the induction of tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harateh, M.; Okla, S.; Rizk, H.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of low doses of gamma ray (1, 2.5 and 5 gray) irradiation on the lymphoid organs (bursa of fabricius - BF-, the thymus- Thy - and the bone marrow) of the developing chick were investigated.The embryos were irradiated at stage 34 (about 8 days of incubation)

  6. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, George D

    1927-01-01

    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  7. Videobasierte Systeme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Peter

    Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

  8. Linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bourlès, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe

  9. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  10. Sterilization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  11. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  12. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  13. THE 2010 MAY FLARING EPISODE OF CYGNUS X-3 IN RADIO, X-RAYS, AND γ-RAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Peter K. G.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Pooley, Guy G.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rodriguez, Jerome; Wilms, Joern; Migliari, Simone; Trushkin, Sergei A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) became the first microquasar to be detected in the GeV γ-ray regime, via the satellites Fermi and AGILE. The addition of this new band to the observational toolbox holds promise for building a more detailed understanding of the relativistic jets of this and other systems. We present a rich data set of radio, hard and soft X-ray, and γ-ray observations of Cyg X-3 made during a flaring episode in 2010 May. We detect a ∼3 day softening and recovery of the X-ray emission, followed almost immediately by a ∼1 Jy radio flare at 15 GHz, followed by a 4.3σ γ-ray flare (E > 100 MeV) ∼1.5 days later. The radio sampling is sparse, but we use archival data to argue that it is unlikely the γ-ray flare was followed by any significant unobserved radio flares. In this case, the sequencing of the observed events is difficult to explain in a model in which the γ-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the companion star's radiation field. Our observations suggest that other mechanisms may also be responsible for γ-ray emission from Cyg X-3.

  14. Booking System

    OpenAIRE

    Jersák, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Cílem studie je definovat možné směry dalšího vývoje nové aplikace pro potřeby cestovního ruchu, online rezervačního systému Booking System. Tohoto cíle je dosaženo jednak zkoumáním dosavadního vývoje aplikace a zásadních inovací, které přináší, a dále analýzou socioekonomického prostředí a konkurenčních služeb.

  15. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for posting hazardous materials into and out of an enclosure, such as a glovebox, through a port in a wall of the enclosure. The port is normally closed by a door which cooperates with a removable end closure, on a container or the like when the latter is presented to and secured at the port. The container is secured in position at the port by means of a rotatable coupling ring. A single interlock ensures that the door cannot be opened in the absence of a container at the port and also that the container cannot be removed from the port when the door is open. In place of the container, a glove secured to a rigid sleeve may be used to enable the operator to perform a work function within the glovebox. (author)

  16. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  17. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  18. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    A posting system for the movement of equipment, such as a manipulator, into and out of an enclosure e.g. a cell or glovebox, for toxic or radioactive materials has the manipulator arranged within a collapsible bellows-like container with an end of the container cooperating with a port entry to the enclosure. The collapsible container isolates the manipulator from the environment outside the enclosure and allows the manipulator to enter and leave the contaminated enclosure without breach of the containment. A particular construction of cell for use with radioactive material is described, having a thick wall of shielding material such as concrete provided with a door normally closed by a Pb shutter and having a cylindrical gamma shield block located over the shutter on the exterior of the wall. (author)

  19. Gut microbiome may contribute to insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in obese rodents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Na; Baker, Susan S; Nugent, Colleen A; Tsompana, Maria; Cai, Liting; Wang, Yong; Buck, Michael J; Genco, Robert J; Baker, Robert D; Zhu, Ruixin; Zhu, Lixin

    2018-01-26

    A number of studies have associated obesity with altered gut microbiota, although results are discordant regarding compositional changes in the gut microbiota of obese animals. Herein we aimed to obtain an unbiased evaluation of structural and functional changes of the gut microbiota in diet-induced obese rodents using a meta-analysis. The raw sequencing data of nine studies generated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rodent models were processed with QIIME to obtain gut microbiota compositions. Biological functions were predicted and annotated with KEGG pathways using PICRUSt. No significant difference was observed for alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes (B/F) ratio between obese and lean rodents. Bacteroidia, Clostridia, Bacilli and Erysipelotrichi were dominant classes but gut microbiota compositions varied among studies. Meta-analysis of the nine microbiome datasets identified 15 differential taxa and 57 differential pathways between obese and lean rodents. In obese rodents, increased abundance was observed for Dorea, Oscillospira, and Ruminococcus, known for fermenting polysaccharide into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Decreased Turicibacter and increased Lactococcus are consistent with elevated inflammation in the obese status. Differential functional pathways of the gut microbiome in obese rodents included enriched pyruvate metabolism, butanoate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid biosynthesis and glycerolipid metabolism pathways. These pathways converge in the function of carbohydrate metabolism, SCFAs metabolism and biosynthesis of lipid. HFD-induced obesity results in structural and functional dysbiosis of gut microbiota. The altered gut microbiome may contribute to obesity development by promoting insulin resistance and systemic inflammation.

  20. Characterization and expression analysis of a complement component gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Zhou, Zunchun; Yang, Aifu; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2015-12-01

    The complement system plays a crucial role in the innate immune system of animals. It can be activated by distinct yet overlapping classical, alternative and lectin pathways. In the alternative pathway, complement factor B (Bf) serves as the catalytic subunit of complement component 3 (C3) convertase, which plays the central role among three activation pathways. In this study, the Bf gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), termed AjBf, was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of AjBf was 3231 bp in length barring the poly (A) tail. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2742 bp encoding 913 amino acids, a 105 bp 5'-UTR (5'-terminal untranslated region) and a 384 bp 3'-UTR. AjBf was a mosaic protein with six CCP (complement control protein) domains, a VWA (von Willebrand factor A) domain, and a serine protease domain. The deduced molecular weight of AjBf protein was 101 kDa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expression level of AjBf in A. japonicus was obviously higher at larval stage than that at embryonic stage. Expression detection in different tissues showed that AjBf expressed higher in coelomocytes than in other four tissues. In addation, AjBf expression in different tissues was induced significantly after LPS or PolyI:C challenge. These results indicated that AjBf plays an important role in immune responses to pathogen infection.