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Sample records for system absorb 2-year

  1. Risk and timing of clinical events according to diabetic status of patients treated with everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds versus everolimus-eluting stent: 2-year results from a propensity score matched comparison of ABSORB EXTEND and SPIRIT trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos M; Caixeta, Adriano; Franken, Marcelo; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Whitbourn, Robert J; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Li Paul Kao, Hsien; Rosli, Mohd Ali; Carrie, Didier; De Bruyne, Bernard; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W; Abizaid, Alexandre

    2018-02-15

    to compare the occurrence of clinical events in diabetics treated with the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb BVS; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) versus everolimus-eluting metal stents (EES; XIENCE V; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) BACKGROUND: There are limited data dedicated to clinical outcomes of diabetic patients treated with bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) at 2-year horizon. The present study included 812 patients in the ABSORB EXTEND study in which a total of 215 diabetic patients were treated with Absorb BVS. In addition, 882 diabetic patients treated with EES in pooled data from the SPIRIT clinical program (SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III and SPIRIT IV trials) were used for comparison by applying propensity score matching using 29 different variables. The primary endpoint was ischemia driven major adverse cardiac events (ID-MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemia driven target lesion revascularization (ID-TLR). After 2 years, the ID-MACE rate was 6.5% in the Absorb BVS vs. 8.9% in the Xience group (P = 0.40). There was no difference for MACE components or definite/probable device thrombosis (HR: 1.43 [0.24,8.58]; P = 0.69). The occurrence of MACE was not different for both diabetic status (insulin- and non-insulin-requiring diabetes) in all time points up to the 2-year follow-up for the Absorb and Xience groups. In this largest ever patient-level pooled comparison on the treatment of diabetic patients with BRS out to two years, individuals with diabetes treated with the Absorb BVS had a similar rate of MACE as compared with diabetics treated with the Xience EES. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Shock absorber system for nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, J.F.; Rudd, G.E.; Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.; Lippincott, H.W.; Sutherland, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A shock absorber system was designed to absorb the energy imparted to doors in a nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment as they swing rapidly to an open position. Each shock absorber which is installed on a wall adjacent to each door is large and must absorb up to about 40,000 foot pounds of energy. The basic shock absorber component comprises foam enclosed in a synthetic fabric bag having a volume about twice the foam volume. A stainless steel knitted mesh bag of the same volume as the fabric bag, contains the fabric bag and its enclosed foam. To protect the foam and bags during construction activities at the reactor site and from the shearing action of the doors, a protective sheet metal cover is installed over the shock absorber ends and the surface to be contacted by the moving door. With the above shock absorber mounted on a wall behind each door, as the door is forcibly opened by steam pressure and air resulting from a pipe break in the reactor compartment, it swings at a high velocity into contact with the shock absorber, crushes the foam and forces it into the fabric bag excess material thus containing the foam fragmented particles, and minimizes build-up of pressure in the bag as a result of the applied compressive force

  3. Absorbed energy for radiation crosslinking in stabilized PE systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, Lj.; Gal, O.; Charlesby, A.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative consideration on the absorbed energy consumption in various γ-irradiated polyethylene systems is given. On the base of the increased gel dose values for the PE systems containing antioxidant, relative to the gel doses for the pure polymers, the surplus of the absorbed energy due to the presence of the particular antioxidant is calculated. The increasing of the energy consumption in the stabilized systems depends on both the type and the content of the basic polymer. The surplus in the absorbed energy decreases with the radiation dose increasing, reflecting both the diminishing of the antioxidant concentration in the irradiating PE systems and the crosslinking level. The findings can be of interest in the estimation of the absorbed doses for the specific radiation crosslinking processes. (author)

  4. Absorbed energy for radiation crosslinking in stabilized PE systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, Lj; Gal, O [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Charlesby, A

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative consideration on the absorbed energy consumption in various {gamma}-irradiated polyethylene systems is given. On the base of the increased gel dose values for the PE systems containing antioxidant, relative to the gel doses for the pure polymers, the surplus of the absorbed energy due to the presence of the particular antioxidant is calculated. The increasing of the energy consumption in the stabilized systems depends on both the type and the content of the basic polymer. The surplus in the absorbed energy decreases with the radiation dose increasing, reflecting both the diminishing of the antioxidant concentration in the irradiating PE systems and the crosslinking level. The findings can be of interest in the estimation of the absorbed doses for the specific radiation crosslinking processes. (author).

  5. Absorbing CAD system geometries into GEANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womersley, J.; Dragovitsch, P.; Youssef, S.

    1991-01-01

    The simulation community has for many years discussed the possibility of direct conversion of geometrical detector models from computer- aided design and engineering systems (CAD systems) to the simulation packages (which we shall assume means GEANT). This would allow fast and simultaneous optimization of the physics performance and structural integrity of detector designs. The benefit that this would offer is the avoidance of such problems as the late discovery of the rather thick cryostats in the D-Zero detector. Recent progress in the absorption of CAD geometries into GEANT models is reviewed, including descriptions of the additions to the I-DEAS solid modeller package developed for the EMPACT SSC proposal, the COGENT CAD-to-GEANT interpreter developed by Quantum Research Services, and the OCTAGON package for representing arbitrary shapes in GEANT. Likely future directions of development are described. 2 refs., 7 figs

  6. Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders

    2003-01-01

    A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar....... The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 μm and 1000 μm were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements...

  7. Integrity of neutron-absorbing components of LWR fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Berting, F.M.

    1991-03-01

    A study of the integrity and behavior of neutron-absorbing components of light-water (LWR) fuel systems was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The components studies include control blades (cruciforms) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and rod cluster control assemblies for pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). The results of this study can be useful for understanding the degradation of neutron-absorbing components and for waste management planning and repository design. The report includes examples of the types of degradation, damage, or failures that have been encountered. Conclusions and recommendations are listed. 84 refs

  8. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, M W [Precision Manufacturing and Inspection Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H G [Department of Automotive Engineering, Daeduk College, Daejeon, 305-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  9. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B; Cho, M W; Lee, H G

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  10. Integration of regenerative shock absorber into vehicle electric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxiao; Li, Peng; Xing, Shaoxu; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Regenerative/Energy harvesting shock absorbers have a great potential to increase fuel efficiency and provide suspension damping simultaneously. In recent years there's intensive work on this topic, but most researches focus on electricity extraction from vibration and harvesting efficiency improvement. The integration of electricity generated from regenerative shock absorbers into vehicle electric system, which is very important to realize the fuel efficiency benefit, has not been investigated. This paper is to study and demonstrate the integration of regenerative shock absorber with vehicle alternator, battery and in-vehicle electrical load together. In the presented system, the shock absorber is excited by a shaker and it converts kinetic energy into electricity. The harvested electricity flows into a DC/DC converter which realizes two functions: controlling the shock absorber's damping and regulating the output voltage. The damping is tuned by controlling shock absorber's output current, which is also the input current of DC/DC converter. By adjusting the duty cycles of switches in the converter, its input impedance together with input current can be adjusted according to dynamic damping requirements. An automotive lead-acid battery is charged by the DC/DC converter's output. To simulate the working condition of combustion engine, an AC motor is used to drive a truck alternator, which also charges the battery. Power resistors are used as battery's electrical load to simulate in-vehicle electrical devices. Experimental results show that the proposed integration strategy can effectively utilize the harvested electricity and power consumption of the AC motor is decreased accordingly. This proves the combustion engine's load reduction and fuel efficiency improvement.

  11. Plumbing system shock absorbers as a source of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Z A; Oxley, C; Contant, J; Garber, G E

    1992-12-01

    Water distribution systems have been demonstrated to be a major source of nosocomial legionellosis. We describe an outbreak in our institution in which a novel source of Legionella pneumophila was identified in the plumbing system. After an outbreak of 10 cases of legionellosis in our hospital, recommended measures including superheating of the hot water to 80 degrees C, hyperchlorination to 2 ppm, and flushing resulted in no new cases in the following 5 years. Recently, despite these control measures, three new cases occurred. Surveillance cultures of shower heads and water tanks were negative; cultures of tap water samples remained positive. This prompted a search for another reservoir. Shock absorbers installed within water pipes to decrease noise were suspected. One hundred twenty-five shock absorbers were removed and cultured. A total of 13 (10%) yielded heavy growth of L. pneumophila (serogroup 1). Since their removal, no new cases have been found and the percentage of positive results of random tap water culture has dropped from 20% to 5%. This is the first report that identifies shock absorbers as a possible reservoir for L. pneumophila. We recommend that institutions with endemic legionellosis assess the water system for possible removal of shock absorbers.

  12. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  13. Autonomic nervous system activity and anxiety and depressive symptoms in mothers up to 2 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mie; Manabe, Emiko; Uematsu, Sayo; Watanabe, Ayako; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression for the first 2 years postpartum. A total of 108 participants within 2 years postpartum underwent physiological measurements of ANS activity using the heart rate variability (HRV) power spectrum and self-reported questionnaires (14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score). The cutoff points for anxiety and depressive symptom scores in this questionnaire were as follows: 7 or less, non-cases; 8-10, doubtful cases; 11 or more, definite cases. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 at University Hospital in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine and a nearby obstetrics and gynecology department clinic in Japan. Anxiety and depression non-cases accounted for 67.6% (n = 73) of subjects, anxiety non-cases and depression doubtful and definite cases 7.4% (n = 8), anxiety doubtful and definite cases and depression non-cases 8.3% (n = 9), and anxiety and depression doubtful and definite cases 16.7% (n = 18). Findings were similar for women with anxiety or depression, with total power (TP), low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV among doubtful and definite cases significantly lower than among non-cases for both anxiety (p = 0.006, 0.034, 0.029, respectively) and depression (p = 0.001, 0.004, 0.007). Significant correlations were observed between TP, LF and HF and anxiety and depression scores (respective values for anxiety: rs = -0.331, p <0.001; rs = -0.286, p = 0.003; rs = -0.269, p = 0.005; and depression: rs = -0.389, rs = -0.353, rs = -0.337, all p <0.001). The present study demonstrated that mothers with anxiety or depressive symptoms had significantly lower HRV (HF, LF and TP) than those without.

  14. Gaseous saturable absorbers for the Helios CO2 laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Nowak, A.V.; Czuchlewski, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Saturable absorbers are widely used to suppress parasitic oscillations in large-aperture, high-power CO 2 fusion-laser systems. We report experimental results on SF 6 -based gaseous saturable absorbers used for parasitic suppression in the eight-beam, 10 kJ Helios fusion-laser system. The gas mix effectively quenches self-lasing in the 9 and 10 μm branches of the CO 2 laser spectrum while simultaneously allowing high transmission of subnanosecond multiwavelength pulses for target-irradiation experiments. The gas isolator now in use consists of SF 6 and the additional fluorocarbons: 1, 1-difluoroethane (FC-152a); dichlorodifluoromethane (FC-12); chloropentafluoroethane (FC-115); 1,1-dichloro 2,2-difluoroethylene (FC-1112a); chlorotrifluoroethylene (FC-1113); and perfluorocyclobutane (FC-C318). The saturation of the mix was studied as a function of incident fluence, pressure, cell length, and incident wavelength. Experimental results are presented on the saturation properties of pure SF 6 and FC-152a and compared with the saturation behavior of CO 2 at 400 0 C

  15. Optimal design of sound absorbing systems with microperforated panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nicholas Nakjoo

    As the development of technology makes economic prosperity and life more convenient, people now desire a higher quality of life. This quality of life is based not only on the convenience in their life but also on clean and eco-friendly environments. To meet that requirement, much research is being performed in many areas of eco-friendly technology, such as renewable energy, biodegradable content, and batteries for electronic vehicles. This tendency is also obvious in the acoustics area, where there are continuing attempts to replace fiber-glass sound absorbers with fiber-free materials. The combination of microperfoated panels (MPP) (one of the fiber-free sound absorbing materials), usually in the form of a thin panel with small holes, and an air backing may be one of the preferred solutions. These panels can be designed in many ways, and usually feature many small (sub-millimeter) holes and typically surface porosities on the order of 1 percent. The detailed acoustical properties of MPPs depend on their hole shape, the hole diameter, the thickness of the panel, the overall porosity of the perforated film, the film's mass per unit area, and the depth of the backing air cavity. Together, these parameters control the absorption peak location and the magnitude of the absorption coefficient (and the magnitude of the transmission loss in barrier applications). By an appropriate choice of these parameters good absorption performance can be achieved in a frequency range one or two octaves wide. That kind of solution may be adequate when it is necessary to control sound only in a specified frequency range (in the speech interference range, for example). However, in order to provide appropriate noise control solutions over a broader range of frequencies, it is necessary to design systems featuring multiple-layers of MPPs, thus creating what amounts to a multi-degree-of-freedom system and so expanding the range over which good absorption can be obtained. In this research

  16. Air Pollutants Minimalization of Pollutant Absorber with Condensation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhiat, Yayat; Wibowo, Firmanul Catur; Oktarisa, Yuvita

    2017-01-01

    Industrial development has implications for pollution, one of it is air pollution. The amount of air pollutants emitted from industrial depend on several factors which are capacity of its fuel, high chimneys and atmospheric stability. To minimize pollutants emitted from industries is created a tool called Pollutant Absorber (PA) with a condensing system. Research and Development with the approach of Design for Production was used as methodology in making PA. To test the function of PA, the simulation had been done by using the data on industrial emissions Cilegon industrial area. The simulation results in 15 years period showed that the PA was able to minimize the pollutant emissions of SO2 by 38% NOx by 37% and dust by 64%. Differences in the absorption of pollutants shows the weakness of particle separation process in the separator. This condition happen because the condensation process is less optimal during the absorption and separation in the separator. (paper)

  17. Thermoelectric System Absorbing Waste Heat from a Steel Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Meng, Xiangning; Zhu, Miaoyong; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-06-01

    China's iron and steel industry has made great progress in energy savings and emission reductions with the application of many waste heat recovery technologies. However, most of the medium and low temperature waste heat and radiant waste heat has not been effectively utilized. This paper proposes a thermoelectric system that generates electricity by absorbing the radiant heat from the surface of steel ladles in a steel plant. The thermoelectric behavior of modules in this system is analyzed by a numerical simulation method. The effects of external resistance and module structure on thermoelectric performance are also discussed in the temperature range of the wall surface of a steel ladle. The results show that the wall temperature has a significant influence on the thermoelectric behavior of the module, so its uniformity and stability should be considered in practical application. The ratio of the optimum external resistance to the internal resistance of the thermoelectric module is in the range of 1.6-2.0, which indicates the importance of external load optimization for a given thermoelectric system. In addition, the output power and the conversion efficiency of the module can be significantly improved by increasing the length of the thermoelectric legs and adopting a double-layer structure. Finally, through the optimization of external resistance and structure, the power output can reach 83-304 W/m2. This system is shown to be a promising approach for energy recovery.

  18. Measuring neuronal avalanches in disordered systems with absorbing states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi-Schappo, M.; Tragtenberg, M. H. R.

    2018-04-01

    Power-law-shaped avalanche-size distributions are widely used to probe for critical behavior in many different systems, particularly in neural networks. The definition of avalanche is ambiguous. Usually, theoretical avalanches are defined as the activity between a stimulus and the relaxation to an inactive absorbing state. On the other hand, experimental neuronal avalanches are defined by the activity between consecutive silent states. We claim that the latter definition may be extended to some theoretical models to characterize their power-law avalanches and critical behavior. We study a system in which the separation of driving and relaxation time scales emerges from its structure. We apply both definitions of avalanche to our model. Both yield power-law-distributed avalanches that scale with system size in the critical point as expected. Nevertheless, we find restricted power-law-distributed avalanches outside of the critical region within the experimental procedure, which is not expected by the standard theoretical definition. We remark that these results are dependent on the model details.

  19. Integrated radwaste treatment system lessons learned from 2 1/2 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Fussner, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a pretreatment scheme to reduce the amount of salts in the high-level radioactive waste (vitrification) stream. Following removal of cesium-137 (Cs-137) by ion-exchange in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS), the radioactive waste liquid is volume-reduced by evaporation. Trace amounts of Cs-137 in the resulting distillate are removed by ion-exchange, then the distillate is discharged to the existing plant water treatment system. The concentrated product, 37 to 41 percent solids by weight, is encapsulated in cement producing a stable, low-level waste form. The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) operated in this mode from May 1988 through November 1990, decontaminating 450,000 gallons of high-level waste liquid; evaporating and encapsulating the resulting concentrates into 10,393 71-gallon square drums. A number of process changes and variations from the original operating plan were required to increase the system flow rate and minimize waste volumes. This report provides a summary of work performed to operate the IRTS, including system descriptions, process highlights, and lessons learned

  20. Progress on the MICE Liquid Absorber Cooling and Cryogenic Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Drumm, P.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Ishimoto, S.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Lau, W.W.; Yang, S.Q.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the progress made on the design of the cryogenic cooling system for the liquid absorber for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The absorber consists of a 20.7-liter vessel that contains liquid hydrogen (1.48 kg at 20.3 K) or liquid helium (2.59 kg at 4.2 K). The liquid cryogen vessel is located within the warm bore of the focusing magnet for the MICE. The purpose of the magnet is to provide a low beam beta region within the absorber. For safety reasons, the vacuum vessel for the hydrogen absorber is separated from the vacuum vessel for the superconducting magnet and the vacuum that surrounds the RF cavities or the detector. The absorber thin windows separate the liquid in the absorber from the absorber vacuum. The absorber vacuum vessel also has thin windows that separate the absorber vacuum space from adjacent vacuum spaces. Because the muon beam in MICE is of low intensity, there is no beam heating in the absorber. The absorber can use a single 4 K cooler to cool either liquid helium or liquid hydrogen within the absorber

  1. An efficient absorbing system for spectrophotometric determination of nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveeshwar, Rachana; Amlathe, Sulbha; Gupta, V. K.

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide using o-nitroaniline as an efficient absorbing, as well as diazotizing, reagent is described. o-Nitroaniline present in the absorbing medium is diazotized by the absorbed nitrite ion to form diazonium compound. This is later coupled with 1-amino-2-naphthalene sulphonic acid (ANSA) in acidic medium to give red-violet-coloured dye,having λmax = 545 nm. The isoamyl extract of the red azo dye has λmax = 530 nm. The proposed reagents has ≈ 100% collection efficiency and the stoichiometric ratio of NO 2:NO 2- is 0.74. The other important analytical parameters have been investigated. By employing solvent extraction the sensitivity of the reaction was increased and up to 0.03 mg m -3 nitrogen dioxide could be estimated.

  2. Experimental Study of Heat Energy Absorber with Porous Medium for Thermoelectric Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric conversion system usually consists of the heat absorber, the thermoelectric generator (TEG and the heat sink, while the heat absorber collects the heat to increase the temperature on the hot surface of TEG and enhances the generating electricity. This study experimentally investigated the performance of the brass-beads packed-bed heat absorber for the thermoelectric conversion system. The packed-bed heat absorber is installed in a square channel with the various flow orientation systems and the small ratio of channel width to bead diameter. The flow orientation systems included the straight flow and jet flow systems. This study showed the local and average heat transfer characteristics for various parameters. The experimental results can be the base of designs for the novel porous heat absorber of the thermoelectric conversion system.

  3. Comparative technical-economical analysis of solar systems with liquid absorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloyanov, N.; Popova, I.

    2005-01-01

    An analyses of solar water heating systems with two types liquid absorbent is presented. A system with classic collector design is used for comparison. The dependence between the value of the collectors active area and the absorbent type, collectors slope and design parameters is discussed. Two economic indexes (payback period and index of actual net value, based on the electricity price) are used for comparison of the different variants of the system. The presented results shown that: 1) the payback period can be reduced twice if the collectors with liquid absorbent are used; 2) the index of actual net value of the systems using the collectors with fluid absorbent is about four times higher than this one with classic collectors; 3) the systems using distilled water like a liquid absorbent can not fulfil the requirements for the positive economic indicators

  4. Research on ration selection of mixed absorbent solution for membrane air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Song; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Xiao; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We derive models of the membrane air-conditioning system with mixed absorbents. • We make analysis on system COP, cost-effectiveness and economy. • The paper provides a new method for ideal absorbent selection. • The solutes concentration of 50% achieves the best cost-effectiveness and the economy. - Abstract: Absorption air-conditioning system is a good alternative to vapor compression system for developing low carbon society. To improve the performance of the traditional absorption system, the membrane air-conditioning system is configured and its COP can reach as high as 6. Mixed absorbents are potential for cost reduction of the membrane system while maintaining a high COP. On the purpose of finding ideal mixed absorbent groups, this paper makes analysis on COP, cost-effectiveness and economy of the membrane system with mixed LiBr–CaCl 2 absorbent solution. The models of the system have been developed for the analysis. The results show the COP is higher for the absorbent groups with lower concentration of the total solute and higher concentration ratio of LiBr. It also reveals when the total solutes concentration is about 50%, it achieves the best cost-effectiveness and the economy. The process of the analysis provides a useful method for mixed absorbents selection

  5. A Comprehensive Review of the Techniques on Regenerative Shock Absorber Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the current technologies of the regenerative shock absorber systems have been categorized and evaluated. Three drive modes of the regenerative shock absorber systems, namely the direct drive mode, the indirect drive mode and hybrid drive mode are reviewed for their readiness to be implemented. The damping performances of the three different modes are listed and compared. Electrical circuit and control algorithms have also been evaluated to maximize the power output and to deliver the premium ride comfort and handling performance. Different types of parameterized road excitations have been applied to vehicle suspension systems to investigate the performance of the regenerative shock absorbers. The potential of incorporating nonlinearity into the regenerative shock absorber design analysis is discussed. The research gaps for the comparison of the different drive modes and the nonlinearity analysis of the regenerative shock absorbers are identified and, the corresponding research questions have been proposed for future work.

  6. [Personal computer-based computer monitoring system of the anesthesiologist (2-year experience in development and use)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buniatian, A A; Sablin, I N; Flerov, E V; Mierbekov, E M; Broĭtman, O G; Shevchenko, V V; Shitikov, I I

    1995-01-01

    Creation of computer monitoring systems (CMS) for operating rooms is one of the most important spheres of personal computer employment in anesthesiology. The authors developed a PC RS/AT-based CMS and effectively used it for more than 2 years. This system permits comprehensive monitoring in cardiosurgical operations by real time processing the values of arterial and central venous pressure, pressure in the pulmonary artery, bioelectrical activity of the brain, and two temperature values. Use of this CMS helped appreciably improve patients' safety during surgery. The possibility to assess brain function by computer monitoring the EEF simultaneously with central hemodynamics and body temperature permit the anesthesiologist to objectively assess the depth of anesthesia and to diagnose cerebral hypoxia. Automated anesthesiological chart issued by the CMS after surgery reliably reflects the patient's status and the measures taken by the anesthesiologist.

  7. Development of the electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber for portable life support system application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R. R.; Heppner, D. B.; Marshall, R. D.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    As the length of manned space missions increase, more ambitious extravehicular activities (EVAs) are required. For the projected longer mission the use of expendables in the portable life support system (PLSS) will become prohibited due to high launch weight and volume requirements. Therefore, the development of a regenerable CO2 absorber for the PLSS application is highly desirable. The paper discusses the concept, regeneration mechanism, performance, system design, and absorption/regeneration cycle testing of a most promising concept known as ERCA (Electrochemically Regenerable CO2 Absorber). This concept is based on absorbing CO2 into an alkaline absorbent similar to LiOH. The absorbent is an aqueous solution supported in a porous matrix which can be electrochemically regenerated on board the primary space vehicle. With the metabolic CO2 recovery the ERCA concept results in a totally regenerable CO2 scrubber. The ERCA test hardware has passed 200 absorption/regeneration cycles without performance degradation.

  8. Parameter optimization method for longitudinal vibration absorber of ship shaft system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jinlin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal vibration of the ship shaft system is the one of the most important factors of hull stern vibration, and it can be effectively minimized by installing a longitudinal vibration absorber. In this way, the vibration and noise of ships can be brought under control. However, the parameters of longitudinal vibration absorbers have a great influence on the vibration characteristics of the shaft system. As such, a certain shafting testing platform was studied as the object on which a finite model was built, and the relationship between longitudinal stiffness and longitudinal vibration in the shaft system was analyzed in a straight alignment state. Furthermore, a longitudinal damping model of the shaft system was built in which the parameters of the vibration absorber were non-dimensionalized, the weight of the vibration absorber was set as a constant, and an optimizing algorithm was used to calculate the optimized stiffness and damping coefficient of the vibration absorber. Finally, the longitudinal vibration frequency response of the shafting testing platform before and after optimizing the parameters of the longitudinal vibration absorber were compared, and the results indicated that the longitudinal vibration of the shafting testing platform was decreased effectively, which suggests that it could provide a theoretical foundation for the parameter optimization of longitudinal vibration absorbers.

  9. Absorbed power distribution in the whole-body system of a tractor operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kromulski

    2016-06-01

    The concept of absorbed power as a measurement for evaluation of WBV exposure opens a new area for research. The important character of absorbed power is that it has physical significance and therefore can be measured as well as computed analytically. The absorbed power relates to dissipation of energy attributed to relative motions of the visco-elastic tissues, muscles and skeletal system, which under prolonged exposures could lead to physical damage in the musculoskeletal system. A structural model of the human operator allows determination of the dynamic characteristics of the model, and study of the energy flow between the elements of the model.

  10. RESEARCH ABSORBING STATES OF THE SYSTEM USING MARKOV CHAINS AND FUNDAMENTAL MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Мефодіївна ОЛЕХ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use Markov chains to research models that reflect the essential properties of systems, including methods of measuring the parameters of projects and assess their effectiveness. In the study carried out by its decomposition system for certain discrete state and create a diagram of transitions between these states. Specificity displays various objects Markov homogeneous chains with discrete states and discrete time determined by the method of calculation of transition probabilities. A model of success criteria for absorbing state system that is universal for all projects. A breakdown of passages to the matrix submatrices. The variation elements under matrix Q n with growth linked to the definition of important quantitative characteristics of absorbing circuits: 1 the probability of achieving the status of absorbing any given; 2 the mean number of steps needed to achieve the absorbing state; 3 the mean time that the system spends in each state to hit irreversible system in absorbing state. Built fundamental matrix that allowed calculating the different characteristics of the system. Considered fundamental matrix for supposedly modeled absorbing Markov chain, which gives the forecast for the behavior of the system in the future regardless of the absolute value of the time elapsed from the starting point. This property illustrates the fundamental matrix Markov process that characterizes it as a process without aftereffect.

  11. Absorbed dose measurement by the MIRD system in the 131-I treated Thyroid Cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woon; Lim, Sang Mu; Kim, Chang Hui; Kim, Ki Sub; Cho, Jong Sio; Jeong, Jin Sung; Park, Heung Kyu; Kwon, Oh Jin [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Medical Internal Radiation Dose(MIRD) schema was developed for calculating the absorbed dose from the administrated radiopharmaceuticals. With the biological distribution data and physical properties of the radionuclide, we can estimated the absorbed dose by the MIRD schema. For the thyroid cancer patients received high dose 131-I therapy, the absorbed dose to the bone marrow is limiting factor to the administered dose and the duration of admission is determined by the retained activity in the whole body. To the monitoring of whole body radioactivity, we used Eberline Smart 200 system using ionization chamber as a detector. With the time activity (Author).

  12. Blood compounds irradiation process: assessment of absorbed dose using Fricke and Thermoluminescent dosimetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela de Amorim; Squair, Peterson Lima; Pinto, Fausto Carvalho; Belo, Luiz Claudio Meira; Grossi, Pablo Andrade [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: gas@cdtn.br, e-mail: pls@cdtn.br, e-mail: fcp@cdtn.br, e-mail: lcmb@cdtn.br, e-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    The assessment of gamma absorbed doses in irradiation facilities allows the quality assurance and control of the irradiation process. The liability of dose measurements is assign to the metrological procedures adopted including the uncertainty evaluation. Fricke and TLD 800 dosimetric systems were used to measure absorbed dose in the blood compounds using the methodology presented in this paper. The measured absorbed doses were used for evaluating the effectiveness of the irradiation procedure and the gamma dose absorption inside the irradiation room of a gamma irradiation facility. The radiation eliminates the functional and proliferative capacities of donor T-lymphocytes, preventing Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a possible complication of blood transfusions. The results show the applicability of such dosimetric systems in quality assurance programs, assessment of absorbed doses in blood compounds and dose uniformity assign to the blood compounds irradiation process by dose measurements in a range between 25 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  13. Blood compounds irradiation process: assessment of absorbed dose using Fricke and Thermoluminescent dosimetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Gabriela de Amorim; Squair, Peterson Lima; Pinto, Fausto Carvalho; Belo, Luiz Claudio Meira; Grossi, Pablo Andrade

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of gamma absorbed doses in irradiation facilities allows the quality assurance and control of the irradiation process. The liability of dose measurements is assign to the metrological procedures adopted including the uncertainty evaluation. Fricke and TLD 800 dosimetric systems were used to measure absorbed dose in the blood compounds using the methodology presented in this paper. The measured absorbed doses were used for evaluating the effectiveness of the irradiation procedure and the gamma dose absorption inside the irradiation room of a gamma irradiation facility. The radiation eliminates the functional and proliferative capacities of donor T-lymphocytes, preventing Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a possible complication of blood transfusions. The results show the applicability of such dosimetric systems in quality assurance programs, assessment of absorbed doses in blood compounds and dose uniformity assign to the blood compounds irradiation process by dose measurements in a range between 25 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the Autoparametric Pendulum Vibration Absorber for a Duffing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamın Vazquez-Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the frequency and dynamic response of a damped Duffing system attached to a parametrically excited pendulum vibration absorber. The multiple scales method is applied to get the autoparametric resonance conditions and the results are compared with a similar application of a pendulum absorber for a linear primary system. The approximate frequency analysis reveals that the nonlinear dynamics of the externally excited system are suppressed by the pendulum absorber and, under this condition, the primary Duffing system yields a time response almost equivalent to that obtained for a linear primary system, although the absorber frequency response is drastically modified and affected by the cubic stiffness, thus modifying the jumps defined by the fixed points. In the absorber frequency response can be appreciated a good absorption capability for certain ranges of nonlinear stiffness and the internal coupling is maintained by the existing damping between the pendulum and the primary system. Moreover, the stability of the coupled system is also affected by some extra fixed points introduced by the cubic stiffness, which is illustrated with several amplitude-force responses. Some numerical simulations of the approximate frequency responses and dynamic behavior are performed to show the steady-state and transient responses.

  15. PROCESSES OF HEAT-MASS-TRANSFER IN APPARATUS OF SOLAR ABSORBING REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideology of development of the solar refrigeration systems and systems of air-conditioning, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution, is presented in the article. The processes of joint heat-mass-transfer are considered in the direct and indirect types of evaporated coolers taking into account the phenomenon of re-condensation of aquatic steams at the low temperature evaporated cooling of environments. The pre-liminary analysis of possibilities of the solar systems is executed as it applies in relation to the tasks of cooling of envi-ronments and air-conditioning systems.

  16. An experimental study of an energy absorbing restrainer for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, A.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, in the seismic design methodology of the piping systems in nuclear power plants, new and improved design criteria and calculation techniques which will lead to more reliable and cost saving design products have been investigated. For instance, problems for reducing the snubbers in nuclear power plants which provide high costs for their inspections and maintenances and related flexible design problems for the dynamic piping systems have been investigated. Thus, in order to replace snubbers, various types of alternative supporting devices such as dynamic absorbers, gapped support and energy absorbing support devices have been proposed. A number of energy absorbing restrainers have been designed in Japan and United-States by allowing yield to occur during strong earthquakes. Advantages and disadvantages of these restrainers were examined analytically and experimentally. In order to overcome the disadvantages, the authors introduced new absorbing material LSPZ (laminated super plastic zinc) in which SPZ is expected to have reliable ductility and also efficient energy absorbability still under the normal temperature condition. This paper is devoted to an experimental works for this updated absorbing restrainer

  17. Absorber and regenerator models for liquid desiccant air conditioning systems. Validation and comparison using experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, M.; Heinzen, R.; Jordan, U.; Vajen, K. [Kassel Univ., Inst. of Thermal Engineering, Kassel (Germany); Saman, W.; Halawa, E. [Sustainable Energy Centre, Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Solar assisted air conditioning systems using liquid desiccants represent a promising option to decrease high summer energy demand caused by electrically driven vapor compression machines. The main components of liquid desiccant systems are absorbers for dehumidifying and cooling of supply air and regenerators for concentrating the desiccant. However, high efficient and validated reliable components are required and the design and operation have to be adjusted to each respective building design, location, and user demand. Simulation tools can help to optimize component and system design. The present paper presents new developed numerical models for absorbers and regenerators, as well as experimental data of a regenerator prototype. The models have been compared with a finite-difference method model as well as experimental data. The data are gained from the regenerator prototype presented and an absorber presented in the literature. (orig.)

  18. Application of Time-Delay Absorber to Suppress Vibration of a Dynamical System to Tuned Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganaini, W A A; El-Gohary, H A

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of the time delay absorber effects on the control of a dynamical system represented by a cantilever beam subjected to tuned excitation forces. Cantilever beam is one of the most widely used system in too many engineering applications, such as mechanical and civil engineering. The main aim of this work is to control the vibration of the beam at simultaneous internal and combined resonance condition, as it is the worst resonance case. Control is conducted via time delay absorber to suppress chaotic vibrations. Time delays often appear in many control systems in the state, in the control input, or in the measurements. Time delay commonly exists in various engineering, biological, and economical systems because of the finite speed of the information processing. It is a source of performance degradation and instability. Multiple time scale perturbation method is applied to obtain a first order approximation for the nonlinear differential equations describing the system behavior. The different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the steady-state solution at the selected worst resonance case is investigated applying Runge-Kutta fourth order method and frequency response equations via Matlab 7.0 and Maple11. Time delay absorber is effective, but within a specified range of time delay. It is the critical factor in selecting such absorber. Time delay absorber is better than the ordinary one as from the effectiveness point of view. The effects of the different absorber parameters on the system behavior and stability are studied numerically. A comparison with the available published work showed a close agreement with some previously published work.

  19. Research of Control System and Fault Diagnosis of the Sound-absorbing Board Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Xiao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmable Logic Controller is the core of the control system of the sound- absorbing board production line and the design of fault diagnosis is an essential modules in the sound- absorbing board production line. The article discourses the application of PLC in the control system of the production line, and designs the methods of grading treatment and prevention of troubles, which makes use of PLC’S logic functions. The method has good expansibility, and has good guidance to the fault diagnosis in other automation equipments.

  20. Absorbing Gas around the WASP-12 Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Bohlender, D.; Kochukhov, O.; Flöer, L.

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index (log R^{{\\prime }}_{HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Rechereche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del

  1. Experimental assessment of an absorption cooling system utilizing a falling film absorber and generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez-Inzunza, L.A.; Hernández-Magallanes, J.A.; Soto, P.; Jiménez, C.; Gutiérrez-Urueta, G.; Rivera, W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new prototype of an absorption cooling system using NH_3/LiNO_3 was developed. • Falling films shell and tubes heat exchangers were used as absorber and generator. • Evaporator temperatures as low as 4 °C were achieved. • The COP varied between 0.27 and 0.62 depending on the system temperatures. • A flow recirculation in the absorber was implemented showing an increase in COP. - Abstract: This study presents the results of the evaluation of an ammonia/lithium nitrate absorption cooling system. The generator and the absorber are shell and tubes falling film heat exchangers while the rest of the components are compact plate heat exchangers. A parametric study was carried out in order to determine the coefficients of performance and cooling capacities at different operating conditions. Also, an analysis was carried out to determine the influence of the absorber solution recirculation on the system performance. The generator temperatures varied between 80 °C and 100 °C, while the cooling water temperatures varied from 20 °C to 34 °C. Cooling capacities up to 4.5 kW and evaporator temperatures as low as 4 °C were achieved with the system. The internal coefficients of performance varied between 0.3 and 0.62 depending on the system operating temperatures. The system also showed good stability and repeatability.

  2. A mechanical analysis of woodpecker drumming and its application to shock-absorbing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang-Hee; Park, Sungmin

    2011-01-01

    A woodpecker is known to drum the hard woody surface of a tree at a rate of 18 to 22 times per second with a deceleration of 1200 g, yet with no sign of blackout or brain damage. As a model in nature, a woodpecker is studied to find clues to develop a shock-absorbing system for micromachined devices. Its advanced shock-absorbing mechanism, which cannot be explained merely by allometric scaling, is analyzed in terms of endoskeletal structures. In this analysis, the head structures (beak, hyoid, spongy bone, and skull bone with cerebrospinal fluid) of the golden-fronted woodpecker, Melanerpes aurifrons, are explored with x-ray computed tomography images, and their shock-absorbing mechanism is analyzed with a mechanical vibration model and an empirical method. Based on these analyses, a new shock-absorbing system is designed to protect commercial micromachined devices from unwanted high-g and high-frequency mechanical excitations. The new shock-absorbing system consists of close-packed microglasses within two metal enclosures and a viscoelastic layer fastened by steel bolts, which are biologically inspired from a spongy bone contained within a skull bone encompassed with the hyoid of a woodpecker. In the experimental characterizations using a 60 mm smoothbore air-gun, this bio-inspired shock-absorbing system shows a failure rate of 0.7% for the commercial micromachined devices at 60 000 g, whereas a conventional hard-resin method yields a failure rate of 26.4%, thus verifying remarkable improvement in the g-force tolerance of the commercial micromachined devices.

  3. Basic concepts about application of dual vibration absorbers to seismic design of nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, F.; Seto, K.

    1987-01-01

    The design value of damping for nuclear piping systems is a vital parameter in ensuring safety in nuclear plants during large earthquakes. Many experiments and on-site tests have been undertaken in nuclear-industry developed countries to determine rational design values. However damping value in nuclear piping systems is so strongly influenced by many piping parameters that it shows a tremendous dispersion in its experimental values. A new trend has recently appeared in designing nuclear pipings, where they attempt to use a device to absorb vibration energy induced by seismic excitation. A typical device is an energy absorbing device, made of a special material having a high capacity of plasticity, which is installed between the piping and the support. This paper deals with the basic study of application of dual vibration absorbers to nuclear piping systems to accomplish high damping value and reduce consequently seismic response at resonance frequencies of a piping system, showing their effectiveness from not only numerical calculation but also experimental evaluation of the vibration responses in a 3D model piping system equipped with dual two vibration absorbers

  4. Mathematical Model of a Lithium-Bromide/Water Absorption Refrigeration System Equipped with an Adiabatic Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem M. Osta-Omar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system equipped with an adiabatic absorber using a lithium-bromide/water (LiBr/water pair as the working fluid. The working temperature of the generator, adiabatic absorber, condenser, evaporator, the cooling capacity of the system, and the ratio of the solution mass flow rate at the circulation pump to that at the solution pump are used as input data. The model evaluates the thermodynamic properties of all state points, the heat transfer in each component, the various mass flow rates, and the coefficient of performance (COP of the cycle. The results are used to investigate the effect of key parameters on the overall performance of the system. For instance, increasing the generator temperatures and decreasing the adiabatic absorber temperatures can increase the COP of the cycle. The results of this mathematical model can be used for designing and sizing new LiBr/water absorption refrigeration systems equipped with an adiabatic absorber or for optimizing existing aforementioned systems.

  5. Numerical simulation of shock absorbers heat load for semi-active vehicle suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demić Miroslav D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modelling, has a significant role during to the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first design stages, when relevant parameters are to be defined. Shock absorber, as an executive part of a semi-active suspension system, is exposed to thermal loads which can lead to its damage and degradation of characteristics. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze a conversion of mechanical work into heat energy by use of a method of dynamic simulation. The issue of heat dissipation from the shock absorber has not been taken into consideration.

  6. Neutronic analysis of absorbing materials for the control rod system in reactor ALLEGRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajko, Frantisek; Secansky, Michal; Chrebet, Tomas; Zajac, Radoslav; Darilek, Petr [VUJE, a.s., Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-09-15

    Experimental reactor ALLEGRO is a gas cooled fast reactor in the design stage. The current design of its reactivity control system is based on control rods filled with boron carbide as the absorber. Because of disadvantages connected to high boron enrichment a possibility of using other absorbent materials was explored to lower the boron enrichment and increase the worth of the control rods. The results of neutronic Monte-Carlo analyses in a computational supercell are presented in this paper. Three absorbent materials most suitable for a use in reactor ALLEGRO (B{sub 4}C, EuB{sub 6} and ReB{sub 2}) have been analysed also in a full core model. A possible benefit of a neutron trap concept is explored as well but materials with satisfactory neutronic properties proved to be not suitable for expected high temperatures in the reactor.

  7. Use of CAE-Systems at Evaluation of Shock Absorbers for Metallurgical Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiukh Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Work presents results of strength calculations of absorber elastic element that were done by CAE-system and standard method of calculating. It is shown, that use of FEM software allows studying thoroughly the distribution of appropriate stresses on surfaces of elastic element.

  8. Experimental and simulation study on the plate absorber for hybrid heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seung Sun; Jung, Chung Woo; Kang, Yong Tae [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Sung; Park, Seong Ryong [KIER, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chae Dong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This research conducts an experiment for a hybrid heat pump system, using ammonia-water as a working fluid, to obtain a hot water of about 80 .deg. C. The hybrid heat pump system is the combination of vapor compression cycle and absorption cycle to improve the performance of the heat pump system. The hybrid heat pump system uses a low temperature heat source of about 50 .deg. C from the industrial waste heat. The system consists of absorber, desorber, solution heat exchanger, oil heat exchanger, rectifier, compressor and a solution pump. Parametric analysis is carried out experimentally and numerically for the key parameters such as the capacity of the absorber, the internal pressure change. From the present experimental study, it is found that the maximum hot water temperature is obtained to be 79.33 .deg. C.

  9. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution's concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the 'Poisoned Tube Tank' because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service

  10. Active-passive vibration absorber of beam-cart-seesaw system with piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Huang, C. J.; Chang, Julian; Wang, S.-W.

    2010-09-01

    In contrast with fully controllable systems, a super articulated mechanical system (SAMS) is a controlled underactuated mechanical system in which the dimensions of the configuration space exceed the dimensions of the control input space. The objectives of the research are to develop a novel SAMS model which is called beam-cart-seesaw system, and renovate a novel approach for achieving a high performance active-passive piezoelectric vibration absorber for such system. The system consists of two mobile carts, which are coupled via rack and pinion mechanics to two parallel tracks mounted on pneumatic rodless cylinders. One cart carries an elastic beam, and the other cart acts as a counterbalance. One adjustable counterweight mass is also installed underneath the seesaw to serve as a passive damping mechanism to absorb impact and shock energy. The motion and control of a Bernoulli-Euler beam subjected to the modified cart/seesaw system are analyzed first. Moreover, gray relational grade is utilized to investigate the sensitivity of tuning the active proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to achieve desired vibration suppression performance. Consequently, it is shown that the active-passive vibration absorber can not only provide passive damping, but can also enhance the active action authority. The proposed software/hardware platform can also be profitable for the standardization of laboratory equipment, as well as for the development of entertainment tools.

  11. The Norwegian system for implementing the IAEA code of practice based on absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) SSDL recommended in 2000 the use of absorbed dose to water as the quality for calibration and code of practice in radiotherapy. The absorbed dose to water standard traceable to BIPM was established in Norway in 1995. The international code of practice, IAEA TRS 398 was under preparation. As a part of the implementation of the new dosimetry system the SSDL went to radiotherapy departments in Norway in 2001. The aim of the visit was to: Prepare and support the users in the implementation of TRS 398 by teaching, discussions and measurements on-site; Gain experience for NRPA in the practical implementation of TRS 398 and perform comparisons between TRS 277 and TRS 398 for different beam qualities; Report experience from implementation of TRS 398 to IAEA. The NRPA 30x30x30 cm 3 water phantom is equal to the BIPM calibration phantom. This was used for the photon measurements in 16 different beams. NRPA used three chambers: NE 2571, NE 2611 and PR06C for the photon measurements. As a quality control the set-up was compared with the Finnish site-visit equipment at University Hospital of Helsinki, and the measured absorbed dose to water agreed within 0.6%. The Finnish SSDL calibrated the Norwegian chambers and the absorbed dose to water calibration factors given by the two SSDLs for the three chambers agreed within 0.3%. The local clinical dosimetry in Norway was based on TRS 277. For the site-visit the absorbed dose to water was determined by NRPA using own equipment including the three chambers and the hospitals reference chamber. The hospital determined the dose the same evening using their local equipment. For the 16 photon beams the deviations between the two absorbed dose to water determinations for TRS 277 were in the range -1,7% to +4.0%. The uncertainty in the measurements was 1% (k=1). The deviation was explained in local implementation of TRS 277, the use of plastic phantoms, no resent calibration of

  12. Research status on hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying system in HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianjin; Zhang He; Huang Zhiyong; Q, Weiwei; Bo Hanliang

    2014-01-01

    The absorber sphere pneumatic conveying system in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor was a special application of pneumatic conveying technique. The whole conveying process was an intermittent circulation of absorber spheres between the side reflector boring and the sphere storage vessel in the reactor. The absorber spheres were designed to drop into the reflector borings by its own gravity when the sphere discharge valve was opened by the driving mechanism. The absorber spheres in the reflector boring were transported back to the sphere storage vessel when the reactor needs to be started up. The hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior characteristics of the absorber spheres were very important for the design and operation of this special pneumatic conveying system. The whole conveying process of absorber spheres was consisted of four subprocesses, i.e. the spheres discharge from the sphere storage vessel and the side reflector boring, entrainment of spheres in the feeder, conveying of spheres in the transport pipe, gas-solid separation and pile of spheres in the sphere storage vessel. The research status on hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior of the absorber spheres in the pneumatic conveying system of HTR-PM were introduced mainly from the viewpoint of granular flow and gas-solid flow. The experimental systems and apparatus constructed and numerical simulation work conducted for absorber sphere pneumatic conveying process investigation were introduced. Some typical experimental and numerical simulation results of the hydrodynamics and particle motion behavior characteristics of the absorber spheres conveying were briefly reported. (author)

  13. Thermo-active building systems and sound absorbers: Thermal comfort under real operation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Benjamin; Rage, Nils; Chigot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Radiant systems are established today and have a high ecological potential in buildings while ensuring thermal comfort. Free-hanging sound absorbers are commonly used for room acoustic control, but can reduce the heat exchange when suspended under an active slab. The aim of this study...... is to evaluate the impact on thermal comfort of horizontal and vertical free-hanging porous sound absorbers placed in rooms of a building cooled by Thermo-Active Building System (TABS), under real operation conditions. A design comparing five different ceiling coverage ratios and two room types has been...... implemented during three measurement periods. A clear correlation between increase of ceiling coverage ratio and reduction of thermal comfort could not be derived systematically for each measurement period and room type, contrarily to what was expected from literature. In the first two monitoring periods...

  14. Stable optical soliton in the ring-cavity fiber system with carbon nanotube as saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bang-Qing; Ma, Yu-Lan; Yang, Tie-Mei

    2018-01-01

    Main attention focuses on the theoretical study of the ring-cavity fiber laser system with carbon nanotubes (CNT) as saturable absorber (SA). The system is modelled as a non-standard Schrödinger equation with the coefficients blended real and imaginary numbers. New stable exact soliton solution is constructed by the bilinear transformation method for the system. The influences of the key parameters related to CNTs and SA on the optical pulse soliton are discussed in simulation. The soliton amplitude and phase can be tuned by choosing suitable parameters.

  15. Nuclear fuel assembly with a shock absorber system especially for seismic shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    Hydraulic system for absorbing impacts imparted to fuel assemblies. Internal buffers that brace the fuel assemblies so as to restrain their longitudinal displacement, rest against mobile spring buffers. Some of these spring buffers have plungers sliding in hollow tubular guide uprights provided with longitudinal slots. The end of each upright is closed by a plate fitted with an orifice. When an earthquake forces the plunger and spring buffer assemblies to move, the water under pressure in the upright guide tubes stop this movement. This water, which gushes from the holes in the plates, enables the displacement to take place at a controlled rate at which the forces applied are absorbed in complete safety. The plungers gradually close up the slots in the guide uprights, thereby progressively reducing the section through which the water inside the guide upright can flow out. The resistance increases progressively and protects the structure of the reactor core [fr

  16. Multifunctional Solar Systems Based On Two-Stage Regeneration Absorbent Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of multifunctional dehumidification solar systems, heat supply, cooling, and air conditioning based on the open absorption cycle with direct absorbent regeneration developed. The solar systems based on preliminary drainage of current of air and subsequent evaporated cooling. The solar system using evaporative coolers both types (direct and indirect. The principle of two-stage regeneration of absorbent used in the solar systems, it used as the basis of liquid and gas-liquid solar collectors. The main principle solutions are designed for the new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors. Analysis of the heat losses in the gas-liquid solar collectors, due to the mechanism of convection and radiation is made. Optimal cost of gas and liquid, as well as the basic dimensions and configuration of the working channel of the solar collector identified. Heat and mass transfer devices, belonging to the evaporative cooling system based on the interaction between the film and the gas stream and the liquid therein. Multichannel structure of the polymeric materials used to create the tip. Evaporative coolers of water and air both types (direct and indirect are used in the cooling of the solar systems. Preliminary analysis of the possibilities of multifunctional solar absorption systems made reference to problems of cooling media and air conditioning on the basis of experimental data the authors. Designed solar systems feature low power consumption and environmental friendliness.

  17. Study of neutron absorbing microspheres in research reactors - Metal systems wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gana Watkins, Ignacio A.; Silin, Nicolas; Prado, Miguel O.; Mazufri, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Now-a-days, it is increasingly common for nuclear power plants, as well as research reactors, to be designed and built with an alternative safety system aside from control rods. The acids and/or salts in solution injection systems is most frequently used. However, these systems present several implementation and operation problems due to the physical and chemical properties of the used compounds. After analyzing these drawbacks, we developed a new alternative safety system that contains the absorbing element isolated from the aqueous medium. In this context, it's proposed the use of aluminum borosilicate microspheres. The current paper presents erosion wear experiments to determine under which conditions microspheres can be considered as a potential component of a secondary shut down system in a nuclear facility (author))

  18. Some neutron absorbing elements and devices for fast nuclear reactors regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervalishvili, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that performed technological, physical-mechanical and radiation tests clearly indicate the prospects of using Neutron Absorbing Elements (NAE) based on B-10 and some rare-earth compounds during the creation of highly effective Control and Safety System (CSS) rods for fast neutron nuclear energetic reactors. Particular attention was paid to the development of new and upgrading of existing computing and real technologies for designing and preparing the optimizing NAE items characterized by all physical and strength properties for obtaining desirable operational parameters of CSS rods on their base

  19. Investigation of reliability indicators of information analysis systems based on Markov’s absorbing chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, I. R.; Kirpichnikov, A. P.

    2017-09-01

    In the result of study of the algorithm of the functioning of the early detection module of excessive losses, it is proven the ability to model it by using absorbing Markov chains. The particular interest is in the study of probability characteristics of early detection module functioning algorithm of losses in order to identify the relationship of indicators of reliability of individual elements, or the probability of occurrence of certain events and the likelihood of transmission of reliable information. The identified relations during the analysis allow to set thresholds reliability characteristics of the system components.

  20. Quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers - II. Correlation analysis and relationship with other absorption line systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Zhao, Yinan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, Honglin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the cold neutral content (H I and C I gas) of 13 quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers (2DAs) at z = 1.6-2.5 to investigate the correlation between the presence of the UV extinction bump with other physical characteristics. These 2DAs were initially selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys I-III and followed up with the Keck-II telescope and the Multiple Mirror Telescope as detailed in our Paper I. We perform a correlation analysis between metallicity, redshift, depletion level, velocity width, and explore relationships between 2DAs and other absorption line systems. The 2DAs on average have higher metallicity, higher depletion levels, and larger velocity widths than Damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) or subDLAs. The correlation between [Zn/H] and [Fe/Zn] or [Zn/H] and logΔV90 can be used as alternative stellar mass estimators based on the well-established mass-metallicity relation. The estimated stellar masses of the 2DAs in this sample are in the range of ˜109 to ˜2 × 1011 M⊙ with a median value of ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. The relationship with other quasar absorption line systems can be described as (1) 2DAs are a subset of Mg II and Fe II absorbers, (2) 2DAs are preferentially metal-strong DLAs/subDLAs, (3) More importantly, all of the 2DAs show C I detections with logN(C I) > 14.0 cm-2, and (4) 2DAs can be used as molecular gas tracers. Their host galaxies are likely to be chemically enriched, evolved, massive (more massive than typical DLA/subDLA galaxies), and presumably star-forming galaxies.

  1. Robust design method and thermostatic experiment for multiple piezoelectric vibration absorber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Yohsuke; Takashima, Toshihide; Inagaki, Akiya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of connecting multiplexing shunt circuits composed of inductors and resistors to piezoelectric transducers so as to improve the robustness of a piezoelectric vibration absorber (PVA). PVAs are well known to be effective at suppressing the vibration of an adaptive structure; their weakness is low robustness to changes in the dynamic parameters of the system, including the main structure and the absorber. In the application to space structures, the temperature-dependency of capacitance of piezoelectric ceramics is the factor that causes performance reduction. To improve robustness to the temperature-dependency of the capacitance, this paper proposes a multiple-PVA system that is composed of distributed piezoelectric transducers and several shunt circuits. The optimization problems that determine both the frequencies and the damping ratios of the PVAs are multi-objective problems, which are solved using a real-coded genetic algorithm in this paper. A clamped aluminum beam with four groups of piezoelectric ceramics attached was considered in simulations and experiments. Numerical simulations revealed that the PVA systems designed using the proposed method had tolerance to changes in the capacitances. Furthermore, experiments using a thermostatic bath were conducted to reveal the effectiveness and robustness of the PVA systems. The maximum peaks of the transfer functions of the beam with the open circuit, the single-PVA system, the double-PVA system, and the quadruple-PVA system at 20 °C were 14.3 dB, −6.91 dB, −7.47 dB, and −8.51 dB, respectively. The experimental results also showed that the multiple-PVA system is more robust than a single PVA in a variable temperature environment from −10 °C to 50 °C. In conclusion, the use of multiple PVAs results in an effective, robust vibration control method for adaptive structures. (paper)

  2. Control of base-excited dynamical systems through piezoelectric energy harvesting absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, H.; Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Wang, L.

    2017-09-01

    The spring-mass absorber usually offers a good control to dynamical systems under direct base excitations for a specific value of the excitation frequency. As the vibrational energy of a primary dynamical system is transferred to the absorber, it gets dissipated. In this study, this energy is no longer dissipated but converted to available electrical power by designing efficient energy harvesters. A novel design of a piezoelectric beam installed inside an elastically-mounted dynamical system undergoing base excitations is considered. A design is carried out in order to determine the properties and dimensions of the energy harvester with the constraint of simultaneously decreasing the oscillating amplitudes of the primary dynamical system and increasing the harvested power of the energy harvesting absorber. An analytical model for the coupled system is constructed using Euler-Lagrange principle and Galerkin discretization. Different strategies for controlling the primary structure displacement and enhancing the harvested power as functions of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the beam substrate are performed. The linear polynomial approximation of the system’s key parameters as a function of the beam’s substrate thickness is first carried out. Then, the gradient method is applied to determine the adequate values of the electrical load resistance and thickness of the substrate under the constraints of minimizing the amplitudes of the primary structure or maximizing the levels of the harvested power. After that, an iterative strategy is considered in order to simultaneously minimize the amplitudes of the primary structure and maximize the levels of the harvested power as functions of the thickness of the substrate and electrical load resistance. In addition to harmonic excitations, the coupled system subjected to a white noise is explored. Through this analysis, the load resistance and thickness of the substrate of the piezoelectric energy harvester

  3. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  4. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effects of Acoustic Sound Absorbers on the Cooling Performance of Thermally Active Building Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, L. Marcos; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Rage, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Free-hanging horizontal and vertical sound absorbers are commonly used in buildings for room acoustic control; however, when these sound absorbers are used in combination with Thermally Active Building Systems, they will decrease the cooling performance of Thermally Active Building Systems...... and this will affect the thermal indoor environment in that space. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to quantify and model these effects in the design phase. This study quantifies experimentally the effects of horizontal and vertical free-hanging sound absorbers on the cooling performance of Thermally Active......%, respectively. With vertical sound absorbers, the decrease in cooling performance was 8%, 12%, and 14% for the corresponding cases, respectively. The numerical model predicted closely the cooling performance reduction, air temperatures and ceiling surface temperatures in most cases, while there were differences...

  5. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTOR WATER HEATER SYSTEM FITTED WITH NAIL TWISTED TAPES ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SYED JAFAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance data for water flowing through the absorber tube fitted with two different twisted tape configurations in parabolic trough collector (PTC are presented. In the present work, a relative experimental study is carried out to investigate the performance of a PTC influenced by heat transfer through fluidabsorber wall mixing mechanism. The major findings of this experiment show that heat transport enhancement in the nail twisted tape collector perform significantly better than plain twisted tapes and also show that the smallest twisted tape ratio enhances the system performance remarkably maximizing the collector efficiency. The results suggest that the twisted tape and nail twisted tape would be a better option for high thermal energy collection in laminar region of the PTC system.

  6. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  7. Nearshore Tests of the Tidal Compensation System for Point-Absorbing Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The power production of the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University is affected by variations of mean sea level. The reason is that these variations change the distance between the point absorber located on the surface and the linear generator located on the seabed. This shifts the average position of the translator with respect to the center of the stator, thereby reducing the generator output power. A device mounted on the point absorber that compensates for tides of small range by regulating the length of the connection line between the buoy at the surface and the linear generator has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the electro-mechanical, measurement, communication and control systems installed on the buoy and shows the results obtained before its connection to the generator. The adjustment of the line was achieved through a linear actuator, which shortens the line during low tides and vice versa. The motor that drives the mechanical device was activated remotely via SMS. The measurement system that was mounted on the buoy consisted of current and voltage sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges and inductive and laser sensors. The data collected were transferred via Internet to a Dropbox server. As described within the paper, after the calibration of the sensors, the buoy was assembled and tested in the waters of Lysekil harbor, a few kilometers from the Uppsala University research site. Moreover, the performance of the sensors, the motion of the mechanical device, the power consumption, the current control strategy and the communication system are discussed.

  8. Design and performance simulation of a segmented-absorber based muon detection system for high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bhaduri, P.P.; Jahan, H.; Senger, A.; Adak, R.; Samanta, S.; Prakash, A.; Dey, K.; Lebedev, A.; Kryshen, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Senger, P.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Ghosh, S.K.; Raha, S.; Irfan, M.; Ahmad, N.; Farooq, M.; Singh, B.

    2015-01-01

    A muon detection system (MUCH) based on a novel concept using a segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments. The system consists of 6 hadron absorber blocks and 6 tracking detector triplets. Behind each absorber block a detector triplet is located which measures the tracks of charged particles traversing the absorber. The performance of such a system has been simulated for the CBM experiment at FAIR (Germany) that is scheduled to start taking data in heavy ion collisions in the beam energy range of 6–45 A GeV from 2019. The muon detection system is mounted downstream to a Silicon Tracking System (STS) that is located in a large aperture dipole magnet which provides momentum information of the charged particle tracks. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits measured by the muon detector triplets behind the absorber segments. This method allows the identification of muon tracks over a broad range of momenta including tracks of soft muons which do not pass through all the absorber layers. Pairs of oppositely charged muons identified by MUCH could therefore be combined to measure the invariant masses in a wide range starting from low mass vector mesons (LMVM) up to charmonia. The properties of the absorber (material, thickness, position) and of the tracking chambers (granularity, geometry) have been varied in simulations of heavy-ion collision events generated with the UrQMD generator and propagated through the setup using the GEANT3, the particle transport code. The tracks are reconstructed by a Cellular Automaton algorithm followed by a Kalman Filter. The simulations demonstrate that low mass vector mesons and charmonia can be clearly identified in central Au+Au collisions at beam energies provided by the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

  9. Effect of long-term (2 years) exposure of mouse brains to global system for mobile communication (GSM) radiofrequency fields on astrocytic immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court-Kowalski, Stefan; Finnie, John W; Manavis, Jim; Blumbergs, Peter C; Helps, Stephen C; Vink, Robert

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to determine whether long-term (2 years) brain exposure to mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) fields produces any astrocytic activation as these glia react to a wide range of neural perturbations by astrogliosis. Using a purpose-designed exposure system at 900 MHz, mice were given a single, far-field whole body exposure at a specific absorption rate of 4 W/kg on five successive days per week for 104 weeks. Control mice were sham-exposed or freely mobile in a cage to control any stress caused by immobilization in the exposure module. Brains were perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and three coronal levels immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These brain slices were then examined by light microscopy and the amount of this immunomarker quantified using a color deconvolution method. There was no change in astrocytic GFAP immunostaining in brains after long-term exposure to mobile telephony microwaves compared to control (sham-exposed or freely moving caged mice). It was concluded that long-term (2 years) exposure of murine brains to mobile telephone RF fields did not produce any astrocytic reaction (astrogliosis) detectable by GFAP immunostaining. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Safety Analysis of the Movable Absorber TCDQ in the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2009-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System nominally dumps the beam synchronously with the passage of the particle free beam abort gap at the beam dump extraction kickers. In the case of an asynchronous beam dump the TCDQ absorber protects the machine aperture. It is a single sided collimator, positioned close to the beam and it has to follow the beam position and beam size during the energy ramp. This report assesses the different failure scenarios of TCDQ positioning and their likelihood. The failure probability for the two TCDQ systems together is estimated to be 3.6 E-05 (mean value) for one year of LHC operation. This corresponds to a SIL4 safety level, which is considered sufficient. The three dominant failure modes are highlighted. The calculated failure probability refers to scenarios that are generated and developed inside the TCDQ system. Potential failure sources not included are the interaction with external systems: the transmission of the start signal to the PLC from a dedicated timing card and the manual opti...

  11. Absorbant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quetier, Monique.

    1978-11-01

    Absorbants play a very important part in the nuclear industry. They serve for the control, shut-down and neutron shielding of reactors and increase the capacity of spent fuel storage pools and of special transport containers. This paper surveys the usual absorbant materials, means of obtainment, their essential characteristics relating to their use and their behaviour under neutron irradiation [fr

  12. A Monte Carlo program converting activity distribution to absorbed dose distributions in a radionuclide treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    In systemic radiation therapy, the absorbed dose distribution must be calculated from the individual activity distribution. A computer code has been developed for the conversion of an arbitrary activity distribution to a 3-D absorbed dose distribution. The activity distribution can be described either analytically or as a voxel based distribution, which comes from a SPECT acquisition. Decay points are sampled according to the activity map, and particles (photons and electrons) from the decay are followed through the tissue until they either escape the patient or drop below a cut off energy. To verify the calculated results, the mathematically defined MIRD phantom and unity density spheres have been included in the code. Also other published dosimetry data were used for verification. Absorbed fraction and S-values were calculated. A comparison with simulated data from the code with MIRD data shows good agreement. The S values are within 10-20% of published MIRD S values for most organs. Absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in spheres (masses between 1 g and 200 kg) are within 10-15% of those published. Radial absorbed dose distributions in a necrotic tumor show good agreement with published data. The application of the code in a radionuclide therapy dose planning system, based on quantitative SPECT, is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Development of a Solar Assisted Drying System Using Double-Pass Solar Collector with Finned Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M. S. M.; Othman, M. Y.; Sopian, K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Majid, Z. A. A.; Fudholi, A.; Yasin, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Group, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia and Yayasan FELDA has designed and constructed a solar assisted drying system at OPF FELDA Factory, Felda Bukit Sagu 2, Kuantan, Pahang. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 480 cm and a width of 120 cm. The first channel depth is 3.5 cm and the second channel depth is 7 cm. Longitudinal fins made of angle aluminium, 0.8 mm thickness were attached to the bottom surface of the absorber plate. The solar collectors are arranged as two banks of three collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. Air enters through the first channel and then through the second channel of the collector. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation condition. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 70-75 °C can be achieved at solar radiation range of 800-900 W/m2 and flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The average thermal efficiency of a solar collector is approximately 37%.

  14. Development of a Solar Assisted Drying System Using Double-Pass Solar Collector with Finned Absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, M S M; Sopian, K; Ruslan, M H; Fudholi, A; Majid, Z A A; Yasin, J M; Othman, M Y

    2012-01-01

    The Solar Energy Research Group, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia and Yayasan FELDA has designed and constructed a solar assisted drying system at OPF FELDA Factory, Felda Bukit Sagu 2, Kuantan, Pahang. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 480 cm and a width of 120 cm. The first channel depth is 3.5 cm and the second channel depth is 7 cm. Longitudinal fins made of angle aluminium, 0.8 mm thickness were attached to the bottom surface of the absorber plate. The solar collectors are arranged as two banks of three collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. Air enters through the first channel and then through the second channel of the collector. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation condition. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 70–75 °C can be achieved at solar radiation range of 800–900 W/m 2 and flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The average thermal efficiency of a solar collector is approximately 37%.

  15. Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chihhui; Neuner III, Burton; Shvets, Gennady; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept of a solar thermo-photovoltaic (STPV) collection system based on a large-area, nanoimprint-patterned film of plasmonic structures acting as an integrated solar absorber/narrow-band thermal emitter (SANTE). The SANTE film concept is based on integrating broad-band solar radiation absorption with selective narrow-band thermal IR radiation which can be efficiently coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) cell for power generation. By employing a low reflectivity refractory metal (e.g., tungsten) as a plasmonic material, we demonstrate that the absorption spectrum of the SANTE film can be designed to be broad-band in the visible range and narrow-band in the infrared range. A detailed balance calculation demonstrates that the total STPV system efficiency exceeds the Shockley–Queisser limit for emitter temperatures above T e = 1200 K, and achieves an efficiency as high as 41% for T e = 2300 K. Emitter temperatures in this range are shown to be achievable under modest sun concentrations (less than 1000 suns) due to the thermal insulation provided by the SANTE film. An experimental demonstration of the wide-angle, frequency-selective absorptivity is presented

  16. Addition of soluble and insoluble neutron absorbers to the reactor coolant system of TMI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, R.F.; Silverman, J.; Queen, S.P.; Ryan, R.F.; Austin, W.E.

    1984-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of six elements were studied and combined with cost estimates to determine the feasibility of adding them to the TMI-2 reactor coolant to depress k/sub eff/ to less than or equal to 0.95. Both soluble and insoluble forms of the elements B, Cd, Gd, Li, Sm, and Eu were examined. Criticality calculations were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the absorber concentration required to meet the 0.95 k/sub eff/ criterion. The conclusion reached is that all elements with the exception of boron have overriding disadvantages which preclude their use in this reactor. Solubility experiments in the reactor coolant show that boron solubility is the same as that of boron in pure aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and boric acid; consequently, solubility is not a limiting factor in reaching the k/sub eff/ criterion. Examination of the effect of pH on sodium requirements and costs for processing to remove radionuclides revealed a sharp dependence; small decreases in pH lead to a large decrease in both sodium requirements and processing costs. Boron addition to meet any contemplated reactor safety requirements can be accomplished with existing equipment; however, this addition must be made with the reactor coolant system filled and pressurized to ensure uniform boron concentration

  17. Verification of absorbed dose calculation with XIO Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokulic, T.; Budanec, M.; Frobe, A.; Gregov, M.; Kusic, Z.; Mlinaric, M.; Mrcela, I.

    2013-01-01

    Modern radiotherapy relies on computerized treatment planning systems (TPS) for absorbed dose calculation. Most TPS require a detailed model of a given machine and therapy beams. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends acceptance testing for the TPS (IAEA-TECDOC-1540). In this study we present customization of those tests for measurements with the purpose of verification of beam models intended for clinical use in our department. Elekta Synergy S linear accelerator installation and data acquisition for Elekta CMS XiO 4.62 TPS was finished in 2011. After the completion of beam modelling in TPS, tests were conducted in accordance with the IAEA protocol for TPS dose calculation verification. The deviations between the measured and calculated dose were recorded for 854 points and 11 groups of tests in a homogenous phantom. Most of the deviations were within tolerance. Similar to previously published results, results for irregular L shaped field and asymmetric wedged fields were out of tolerance for certain groups of points.(author)

  18. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Pat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC and augmented RIC (aRIC models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B and post- bronchodilation (post-B conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI. The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp and peripheral resistance (Rp tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle" showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In

  19. Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahimu Mdala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (≥5 mm after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1 scaling+root planing (SRP; (2 periodontal surgery (SURG+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX+systemic metronidazole (MET; (3 SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET; (4 SURG; (5 AMOX+MET+TET; (6 AMOX+MET; (7 TET; and (8 SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB generalized estimating equation (NB GEE model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results: We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions: Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

  20. Liquid carbon dioxide absorbents, methods of using the same, and related system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert James; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona; O'Brien, Michael Joseph; Lewis, Larry Neil; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert; Kniajanski, Sergei; Hancu, Dan

    2018-05-01

    A carbon dioxide absorbent composition is described, including (i) a liquid, nonaqueous silicon-based material, functionalized with one or more groups that either reversibly react with CO2 or have a high-affinity for CO2, and (ii) a hydroxy-containing solvent that is capable of dissolving both the silicon-based material and a reaction product of the silicon-based material and CO2. The absorbent may be utilized in methods to reduce carbon dioxide in an exhaust gas, and finds particular utility in power plants.

  1. System for determining absorbed dose and its distribution for high-energy electron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegewald, H.; Wulff, W.

    1977-01-01

    Taking into account the polarization effect, the dose determination for high-energy electron radiation from particle accelerators depends on the knowledge of the energy dependence of the mass stopping power. Results obtained with thermoluminescent dosemeters agree with theoretical values. For absorbed dose measurements the primary energy of electron radiation has been determined by nuclear photoreactions, and the calculation of the absorbed dose from charge measurements by means of the mass stopping power is described. Thus the calibration of ionization chambers for high-energy electron radiation by absolute measurements with the Faraday cage and chemical dosemeters has become possible. (author)

  2. Liquid carbon dioxide absorbents, methods of using the same, and related systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Michael Joseph; Perry, Robert James; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Kniajanski, Sergei; Lewis, Larry Neil; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona; Hancu, Dan

    2016-09-13

    A carbon dioxide absorbent composition is described, including (i) a liquid, nonaqueous silicon-based material, functionalized with one or more groups that either reversibly react with CO.sub.2 or have a high-affinity for CO.sub.2; and (ii) a hydroxy-containing solvent that is capable of dissolving both the silicon-based material and a reaction product of the silicon-based material and CO.sub.2. The absorbent may be utilized in methods to reduce carbon dioxide in an exhaust gas, and finds particular utility in power plants.

  3. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... and they serve as valuable rehearsals for future social encounters. They’ll also help you appreciate the ...

  4. Calculation of isotope burn-up and change in efficiency of absorbing elements of WWER-1000 control and protection system during burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, O.A.; Kurakin, K.U.

    2006-01-01

    The report deals with fast and thermal neutron flows distribution in structural elements of WWER-1000 fuel assembly and absorbing rods, determination of absorbing isotope burn-up and worth variation in WWER reactor control and protection system rods. Simulation of absorber rod burn-up is provided using code package SAPPHIRE 9 5 end RC W WER allowing detailed description of the core segment spatial model. Maximum burn-up of absorbing rods and respective worth variation of control and protection system rods is determined on the basis of a number of calculations considering known characteristics of fuel cycles (Authors)

  5. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  6. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System: 2-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2007-01-01

    This study is a 2-year follow-up of girls with serious and chronic delinquency who were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial conducted from 1997 to 2002 comparing multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC) and group care (N = 81). Girls were referred by juvenile court judges and had an average of over 11 criminal referrals when they entered…

  7. Standard specification for boron-Based neutron absorbing material systems for use in nuclear spent fuel storage racks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines criteria for boron-based neutron absorbing material systems used in racks in a pool environment for storage of nuclear light water reactor (LWR) spent-fuel assemblies or disassembled components to maintain sub-criticality in the storage rack system. 1.2 Boron-based neutron absorbing material systems normally consist of metallic boron or a chemical compound containing boron (for example, boron carbide, B4C) supported by a matrix of aluminum, steel, or other materials. 1.3 In a boron-based absorber, neutron absorption occurs primarily by the boron-10 isotope that is present in natural boron to the extent of 18.3 ± 0.2 % by weight (depending upon the geological origin of the boron). Boron, enriched in boron-10 could also be used. 1.4 The materials systems described herein shall be functional – that is always be capable to maintain a B10 areal density such that subcriticality Keff <0.95 or Keff <0.98 or Keff < 1.0 depending on the design specification for the service...

  8. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  9. Serial Multimodality Imaging and 2-Year Clinical Outcomes of the Novel DESolve Novolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Coronary Scaffold System for the Treatment of Single De Novo Coronary Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abizaid, Alexandre; Costa, Ricardo A; Schofer, Joachim; Ormiston, John; Maeng, Michael; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Botelho, Roberto V; Costa, J Ribamar; Chamié, Daniel; Abizaid, Andrea S; Castro, Juliana P; Morrison, Lynn; Toyloy, Sara; Bhat, Vinayak; Yan, John; Verheye, Stefan

    2016-03-28

    This study sought to report the late multimodality imaging and clinical outcomes of the novel poly-l-lactic-acid-based DESolve novolimus-eluting bioresorbable coronary scaffold for the treatment of de novo coronary lesions. Bioresorbable scaffolds are an alternative to drug-eluting metallic stents and provide temporary vascular scaffolding, which potentially may allow vessel restoration and reduce the risk of future adverse events. Overall, 126 patients were enrolled at 13 international sites between November 2011 and June 2012. The primary endpoint was in-scaffold late lumen loss at 6 months. Major adverse cardiac events, the main safety endpoint, were defined as the composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically indicated target lesion revascularization. All patients underwent angiography at 6 months. Serial intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography were performed in a subset of patients. The scaffold device success rate was 97% (n = 122 of 126), and procedural success was 100% (n = 122 of 122). The major adverse cardiac event rate was 3.3% (n = 4 of 122) at 6 months and 7.4% (n = 9 of 122) at 24 months, including 1 probable stent thrombosis within the first month. At 6-month angiographic follow-up, in-scaffold late lumen loss was 0.20 ± 0.32 mm. Paired intravascular ultrasound analysis demonstrated a significant increase in vessel, lumen and scaffold dimensions between post-procedure and 6-month follow-up, and strut-level optical coherence tomography analysis showed full strut coverage in 99 ± 1.7%. Our results showed favorable performance of the DESolve scaffold, effective inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia, and for the first time, early luminal and scaffold growth at 6 months with sustained efficacy and safety through 2 years. (Elixir Medical Clinical Evaluation of the DESolve Novolimus Eluting Bioresorbable Coronary Scaffold System-The DESolve Nx Trial; NCT02086045). Copyright © 2016 American College of

  10. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds in a hybrid system composed of a molecular catalyst and visible light-absorbing semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Li, Fei; Li, Xiaona; Li, Hua; Wang, Yong; Sun, Licheng

    2015-01-14

    Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds proceeded efficiently in a hybrid system with ruthenium aqua complexes as catalysts, BiVO4 as a light absorber, [Co(NH3)5Cl](2+) as a sacrificial electron acceptor and water as an oxygen source. The photogenerated holes in the semiconductor are used to oxidize molecular catalysts into the high-valent Ru(IV)=O intermediates for 2e(-) oxidation.

  11. MODERATE C IV ABSORBER SYSTEMS REQUIRE 1012 M☉ DARK MATTER HALOS AT z ∼ 2.3: A CROSS-CORRELATION STUDY OF C IV ABSORBER SYSTEMS AND QUASARS IN SDSS-III BOSS DR9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas, Shailendra; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Lundgren, Britt; Ross, Nicholas P.; Myers, Adam D.; AlSayyad, Yusra; York, Donald G.; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Snedden, Stephanie; Ge, Jian; Muna, Demitri; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We measure the two-point cross-correlation function of C IV absorber systems and quasars, using spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS; Data Release 9). The 19,701 quasars and 6149 C IV ''moderate'' absorbers, 0.28 Å 2 and represent a factor of two increase in sample size over previous investigations. We find a correlation scale length and slope of the redshift-space cross-correlation function of s 0 = 8.46 ± 1.24 Mpc, γ = 1.68 ± 0.19, in the redshift-space range 10 0 = 7.76 ± 2.80 Mpc, γ = 1.74 ± 0.21. We measure the combined quasar and C IV bias to be b QSO b C I V = 8.81 ± 2.28. Using an estimate of b QSO from the quasar auto-correlation function we find b CIV = 2.38 ± 0.62. This b CIV implies that EW > 0.28 Å C IV absorbers at z ∼ 2.3 are typically found in dark matter halos that have masses ≥10 11.3 -10 13.4 M ☉ at that redshift. The complete BOSS sample will triple the number of both quasars and absorption systems and increase the power of this cross-correlation measurement by a factor of two.

  12. Ultrahigh precision nonlinear reflectivity measurement system for saturable absorber mirrors with self-referenced fluence characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsila, Lasse; Härkönen, Antti; Hyyti, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of nonlinear optical reflectivity of saturable absorber devices is discussed. A setup is described that enables absolute accuracy of reflectivity measurements better than 0.3%. A repeatability within 0.02% is shown for saturable absorbers with few-percent modulation depth. The setup incorporates an in situ knife-edge characterization of beam diameters, making absolute reflectivity estimations and determination of saturation fluences significantly more reliable. Additionally, several measures are discussed to substantially improve the reliability of the reflectivity measurements. At its core, the scheme exploits the limits of state-of-the-art digital lock-in technology but also greatly benefits from a fiber-based master-oscillator power-amplifier source, the use of an integrating sphere, and simultaneous comparison with a linear reflectivity standard.

  13. Flow-Cell-Induced Dispersion in Flow-through Absorbance Detection Systems: True Column Effluent Peak Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Shelor, Charles Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde Florence; Kraiczek, Karsten G

    2018-02-06

    Following a brief overview of the emergence of absorbance detection in liquid chromatography, we focus on the dispersion caused by the absorbance measurement cell and its inlet. A simple experiment is proposed wherein chromatographic flow and conditions are held constant but a variable portion of the column effluent is directed into the detector. The temporal peak variance (σ t,obs 2 ), which increases as the flow rate (F) through the detector decreases, is found to be well-described as a quadratic function of 1 / F . This allows the extrapolation of the results to zero residence time in the detector and thence the determination of the true variance of the peak prior to the detector (this includes contribution of all preceding components). This general approach should be equally applicable to detection systems other than absorbance. We also experiment where the inlet/outlet system remains the same but the path length is varied. This allows one to assess the individual contributions of the cell itself and the inlet/outlet system.to the total observed peak. The dispersion in the cell itself has often been modeled as a flow-independent parameter, dependent only on the cell volume. Except for very long path/large volume cells, this paradigm is simply incorrect.

  14. Optimal control of transient processes in an oscillating system with an electrorheological shock-absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizina, G N [National Technical University, 65 Nezavisimosti Avenue, Minsk, 220013 (Belarus); Korobko, E V; Bilyk, V A [Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of NASB, 15 P Brovki Street, Minsk, 220072 (Belarus); Efremov, V L; Binshtok, A E [Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant, 150 Partizanskii Avenue, Minsk, 220021 (Belarus)], E-mail: eva@itmo.by

    2009-02-01

    The problem of optimal control of the oscillation of a driver's seat with ER shock absorber is discussed in application to vehicles based on the principle of maximum. Coordinates of a vector of the control parameter and vertical motions of a seat are obtained. Test experimental investigations on working regimes for the driver's seat model depending on the controlling impact of the electrical signal (the intensity of the electric field) were performed.

  15. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, H; Kuranishi, H; Ueda, K; Takuma, H

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to be useful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturation characteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a 20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2 mJ/cm(2) and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross section of 6.25:1.

  16. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H.; Kuranishi, H.; Ueda, K.; Takuma, H.

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to beuseful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturationcharacteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2mJ/cm/sup 2/ and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross sectionof 6.25:1.

  17. A 2-year RSA study of the Vanguard CR total knee system: A randomized controlled trial comparing patient-specific positioning guides with conventional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øhrn, Frank-David; Van Leeuwen, Justin; Tsukanaka, Masako; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2018-05-09

    Background and purpose - There is some concern regarding the revision rate of the Vanguard CR TKA in 1 registry, and the literature is ambiguous about the efficacy of patient-specific positioning guides (PSPGs). The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of the cemented Vanguard CR Total Knee using 2 different surgical techniques. Our hypothesis was that there is no difference in migration when implanting the Vanguard CR with either PSPGs or conventional technique. We hereby present a randomized controlled trial of 2-year follow-up with radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Patients and methods - 40 TKAs were performed between 2011 and 2013 with either PSPGs or the conventional technique and 22 of these were investigated with RSA. Results - The PSPG (8 knees) and the conventional (14 knees) groups had a mean maximum total point motion (MTPM) (95% CI) of 0.83 (0.48-1.18) vs. 0.70 (0.43-0.97) mm, 1.03 (0.60-1.43) vs. 0.86 (0.53-1.19), and 1.46 (1.07-1.85) vs. 0.80 (0.52-1.43) at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively (p = 0.1). 5 implants had either an MTPM >1.6 mm at 12 months and/or a migration of more than 0.2 mm between 1- and 2-year follow-ups. 2 of these also had a peripheral subsidence of more than 0.6 mm at 2 years. Interpretation - 5 implants (3 in the PSPG group) were found to be at risk of later aseptic loosening. The PSPG group continuously migrated between 12 and 24 months. The conventional group had an initial high migration between postoperative and 3 months, but seemed more stable after 1 year. Although the difference was not statistically significant, we think the migration in the PSPG group is of some concern.

  18. Serum Levels of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase 2 in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis With Duration More Than 2 Years: Correlation With Cardiac and Pulmonary Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Shahin

    2006-01-01

    with elevated TIMP-2 levels was significantly higher than dSSc patients with normal levels (P=.013. Four patients out of five with elevated TIMP-2 levels showed diastolic dysfunction (80%, compared to 2 out of 15 lSSc patients with normal levels (13.3%, with P=.014. Our research, though involving a small group of patients, points to the probable role of TIMP-2 in the development of pulmonary lesions in dSSc patients and cardiac lesions in lSSc patients with duration equal to or more than 2 years.

  19. Hormone regulation system and cyclic nucleotids in the Chernobyl accident liquidators with doses absorbed less then 1 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    During 6 years after the accident (1987-1992) a functional state of endocrine system that regulate the adaptation, reproduction, metabolism, vessels tonicity and water-electrolyte balance were investigated in 249 liquidators with doses absorbed less then 1 Gy. The changes of these systems activity in state of basal secretion and peculiarities of their reactions under influence of perturbation (adrenaline, insulin) were revealed. Post-irradiation endocrinopathy was characterized and its role in decrease of the organism's adaptation and in mechanism of sanogenesis and pathogenesis was found. (author)

  20. Two-stage absorber systems - Economically viable combined heat and cold generation; Wirtschaftlicher Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Verbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biniossek, H. [Giesecke und Devrient, Muenchen (Germany); Schmid, W. [Technische Gebaeudeausruestung, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at how the possibilities of optimising power, heat and cold generation for the German Giesecke and Devrient company were examined and implemented. The company, which produces banknotes and chip-cards, chose the combination of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Unit and a two-stage absorber refrigeration system. The company's old system is briefly described and the reasons for replacing it are discussed. The careful dimensioning of the new system and the search for appropriate equipment are described. Intelligent power flows and a cooling system with two different temperature levels are described. Costs saved and emergency power generation are also looked at, as are the complex demands placed on the control of the system. The system's functioning is briefly described.

  1. Time evolution of photon-pulse propagation in scattering and absorbing media: The dynamic radiative transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, A.; Politopoulos, K.; Georgiou, E.

    2018-03-01

    A new dynamic-system approach to the problem of radiative transfer inside scattering and absorbing media is presented, directly based on first-hand physical principles. This method, the Dynamic Radiative Transfer System (DRTS), employs a dynamical system formality using a global sparse matrix, which characterizes the physical, optical and geometrical properties of the material-volume of interest. The new system state is generated by the above time-independent matrix, using simple matrix-vector multiplication for each subsequent time step. DRTS is capable of calculating accurately the time evolution of photon propagation in media of complex structure and shape. The flexibility of DRTS allows the integration of time-dependent sources, boundary conditions, different media and several optical phenomena like reflection and refraction in a unified and consistent way. Various examples of DRTS simulation results are presented for ultra-fast light pulse 3-D propagation, demonstrating greatly reduced computational cost and resource requirements compared to other methods.

  2. Validation of a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining the absorbed and effective radiation doses in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, A-L; Kotiaho, A; Nikkinen, J; Nieminen, M T

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to validate a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining absorbed and effective doses (EDs) in the dose and energy range used in diagnostic radiology. Energy dependence, dose linearity and repeatability of the dosemeter were examined. The absorbed doses (ADs) were compared at anterior-posterior projection and the EDs were determined at posterior-anterior, anterior-posterior and lateral projections of thoracic imaging using an anthropomorphic phantom. The radiation exposures were made using digital radiography systems. This study revealed that the MOSFET system with high sensitivity bias supply set-up is sufficiently accurate for AD and ED determination. The dosemeter is recommended to be calibrated for energies 80 kVp. The entrance skin dose level should be at least 5 mGy to minimise the deviation of the individual dosemeter dose. For ED determination, dosemeters should be implanted perpendicular to the surface of the phantom to prevent the angular dependence error. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Seasonal Evolution and Interannual Variability of the Local Solar Energy Absorbed by the Arctic Sea Ice-Ocean System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Markus, Thorsten; Schwieger, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The melt season of the Arctic sea ice cover is greatly affected by the partitioning of the incident solar radiation between reflection to the atmosphere and absorption in the ice and ocean. This partitioning exhibits a strong seasonal cycle and significant interannual variability. Data in the period 1998, 2000-2004 were analyzed in this study. Observations made during the 1997-1998 SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) field experiment showed a strong seasonal dependence of the partitioning, dominated by a five-phase albedo evolution. QuikSCAT scatterometer data from the SHEBA region in 1999-2004 were used to further investigate solar partitioning in summer. The time series of scatterometer data were used to determine the onset of melt and the beginning of freezeup. This information was combined with SSM/I-derived ice concentration, TOVS-based estimates of incident solar irradiance, and SHEBA results to estimate the amount of solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system for these years. The average total solar energy absorbed in the ice-ocean system from April through September was 900 MJ m(sup -2). There was considerable interannual variability, with a range of 826 to 1044 MJ m(sup -2). The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the ice and ocean was strongly related to the date of melt onset, but only weakly related to the total duration of the melt season or the onset of freezeup. The timing of melt onset is significant because the incident solar energy is large and a change at this time propagates through the entire melt season, affecting the albedo every day throughout melt and freezeup.

  4. DEM study of granular discharge rate through a vertical pipe with a bend outlet in small absorber sphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianjin, E-mail: tjli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, He; Liu, Malin; Huang, Zhiyong; Bo, Hanliang; Dong, Yujie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The work concerns granular flow in a vertical pipe with a bend. • Discharge rate fluctuation in vertical pipe are mainly from velocity fluctuation. • Steady discharge rate decreases rapidly and saturates with μ{sub s} increasing. • Steady discharge rate W{sub s} still obey the 5/2 power law of pipe internal diameter. • A correlation developed for steady discharge rate for this new geometry. - Abstract: Absorber sphere pneumatic conveying is a special application of pneumatic conveying technique in the pebble bed High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR or HTR). Granular discharge through a vertical pipe with a bend outlet is one of the control modes to determine solid mass flowrate which is an important parameter for the design of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying. Granular discharge rate through the vertical pipe with a bend outlet in the small absorber sphere system are investigated by discrete element method simulation. The effect of geometry parameters on discharge rate, the discharge rate fluctuation in the vertical pipe, and the effect of friction on steady discharge rate (W{sub s}) are analyzed and discussed. The phenomena of discharge rate fluctuation in the vertical pipe are observed, which are mainly resulted from the evolution of the average downward granular velocity. The steady discharge rate decreases rapidly with sliding friction coefficient increasing from 0.125 to 0.5, and gradually saturates with the friction coefficient further increasing from 0.5 to 1. It is interesting that the linear relation between W{sub s}{sup 2/5} and pipe internal diameter D with zero intercept are found for the vertical pipe discharge with a bend outlet, which is different from the orifice discharge through a hopper or silo with none-zero intercept. A correlation similar to Beverloo’s correlation is developed to predict the steady discharge rate through the vertical pipe with a bend outlet. These results are helpful for the design of sphere

  5. A comparative performance study of a photovoltaic concentrator system with discrete mirror and continuos profile for two different absorber shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H, Saiful; Rezau, K.M [University of Dhaka, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2000-07-01

    Profiles of parabolic concentrators of discrete mirror and continuos surface mirror have been designed for combined electrical thermal photovoltaic systems. In the design the changes of concentration ratio, effect of reflection, angle of incidence over the absorber have been taken into account for maximum energy collection. The performances of the system are studied for solar cells of modified grid finger for illuminations from 1-10 sun. The local concentration ratio (LCR) distribution over the absorbers for both the concentrator, the optical efficiency, thermal efficiency, electrical and thermal power output and overall efficiency have been evaluated for different values of beam radiation concentration ratio and focal distance. [Spanish] Se han disenado perfiles de concentradores parabolicos de espejo discreto y de superficie continua para sistemas fotovoltaicos combinados electricos y termicos. En el diseno los cambios de la proporcion de concentracion, del efecto de la reflexion, del angulo de incidencia sobre el observador se han tenido en cuenta para una maxima recoleccion de energia. Los rendimientos del sistema se han estudiado para celdas solares de parrilla modificada para iluminaciones solares de 1-10. Han sido evaluados para diferentes valores de la proporcion de la concentracion de la radiacion en el rayo y la distancia focal la proporcion de concentracion local (LCR) de la distribucion en los absorbedores, para el concentrador la eficiencia optica, la eficiencia termica, electrica, la produccion de energia termica y electrica y la eficiencia total.

  6. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  7. 1 1/2 years of experience with a 10 MeV self-shielded on-line e-beam sterilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron; Tang, Fuh-Wei; Riggs, Brian; Allen, Thomas; Williams, C.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Vascular Intervening Group of the Guidant Corporation (Guidant IV) has been operating a self-shielded, 10 MeV 4 kW, electron beam sterilization system since July of 1988. The system was designed, built and installed in a 70 square meter area in an existing Guidant manufacturing facility by Titan Scan Corporation and performance of the system was validated in conformance with 1S0-11137 standards. The goal of this on-site e-beam system was 'just in time' JIT, sterilization, i.e. the ability to manufacture, sterilize and ship, high intrinsic value medical devices in less than 24 hours. The benefits of moving from a long gas sterilization cycle of greater than one week to a JIT process were envisioned to be a) speed to market with innovated new products b) rapid response to customer requirements c) reduced inventory carrying costs and finally manufacturing and quality system efficiency. The ability of Guidant to realize these benefits depended upon the ability of the Guidant VI business units to adapt to the new sterilization modality and functionality and on the overall system reliability. This paper reviews the operating experience to date and the overall system reliability. (author)

  8. Comparison Between Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber WEC Using Linear Power Take-Off System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2012-01-01

    systems into a central wave to wire model. The power production then depends on the control strategy which is applied to the device. The objective of this paper is to develop numerical methods for motion analysis of marine structures with a special emphasis on wave energy converters. Two different time...... domain models are applied to a point absorber system working in pitch mode only. The device is similar to the well-known Wavestar prototype located in the Danish North Sea. A laboratory model has been set up in order to validate the numerical simulations of the dynamics. Wave Excitation force...... interaction assumption and linearized equation of motion. The region over which the numerical model is valid will be presented in terms of non-dimensional parameters describing the different wave states....

  9. Return on Investment Analysis of Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth: A 2-Year Review of the Navy's Newest Teleconsultation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Andrew H; Welstead, Bethany L; Morey, Brittany L; Mahnke, C Becket; Cole, Jacob H; Johnston, Michael G

    2017-05-01

    Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth (HELP) is a web-based teleconsultation system launched in June 2014 to facilitate communication between specialists at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth and providers assigned to both the fleet forces and primary care clinics across the eastern United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Specialist consultations through the HELP system purport to improve access to care for patients who otherwise might be referred to the civilian network or medically evacuated (MEDEVACed) to Naval Medical Center Portsmouth for specialized care. If HELP-facilitated communications help avoid civilian referrals or MEDEVACs, the associated costs of that care should be reduced. We evaluated cost savings associated with prevented MEDEVACs by analyzing both tangible savings (prevented costs of flights, per diems, and consults) and intangible savings (reduced lost productivity time). We compared these savings to the costs of maintaining and utilizing the HELP system: startup costs, administrative costs, and provider time costs. We used patient and provider data from the HELP database to evaluate clinical consult cases. Before this analysis, a panel of 3 physicians associated with HELP reviewed each consult to determine whether a case qualified as a prevented MEDEVAC. Data from the Military Health System (MHS) Management and Analysis Reporting Tool and the MHS Data Repository were used to estimate costs associated with provider time, patient time, and direct care medical encounters. The HELP program delivered measurable, positive returns on investment (ROIs) between June 2014 and December 2015. In that time frame, 559 consult cases occurred in the HELP system. Of the 559 total consult cases, 50 consults prevented MEDEVACs. Incorporating only tangible savings, HELP produced an 80% ROI on the basis of prevented medical evacuations; the addition of intangible savings such as reduced lost productivity increased the ROI to 250%. The dollar values of these savings

  10. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  11. Standard practice for qualification and acceptance of boron based metallic neutron absorbers for nuclear criticality control for dry cask storage systems and transportation packaging

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides procedures for qualification and acceptance of neutron absorber materials used to provide criticality control by absorbing thermal neutrons in systems designed for nuclear fuel storage, transportation, or both. 1.2 This practice is limited to neutron absorber materials consisting of metal alloys, metal matrix composites (MMCs), and cermets, clad or unclad, containing the neutron absorber boron-10 (10B). 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Multilevel analysis of clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahimu Mdala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Find the periodontal treatment that best maintained clinical results over time evaluated by changes in pocket depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Methods: 229 patients with chronic periodontitis from USA (n=134 and Sweden (n=95 were randomly assigned to eight groups receiving 1 scaling+root planing (SRP alone or combined with 2 surgery (SURG+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX+systemic metronidazole (MET; 3 SURG+local tetracycline (TET; 4 SURG; 5 AMOX+MET+TET; 6 AMOX+MET; 7 TET; and 8 SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately after SRP. Plaque, gingival redness, bleeding on probing, suppuration, PD, and CAL were recorded at baseline and after 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Treatment effects were evaluated by linear multilevel regression and logistic multilevel regression models. We considered only data from sites with a baseline PD of at least 5 mm of 187 patients completing the study. Results: Surgically treated patients experienced most CAL loss. Adjunctive therapy including SURG was most effective in reducing PD. Combining SURG with AMOX, MET, and TET gave significant clinical benefits. Past and current smoking habits were significant predictors of deeper PD. Only current smoking was a significant predictor of CAL loss. Bleeding, accumulation of plaque, gingival redness, and suppuration were significant predictors of further CAL loss and deeper PD. Conclusions: Both surgical and non-surgical therapies can be used to arrest chronic periodontitis. SURG+AMOX+MET+TET gave best maintenance of clinical results.

  13. Lipophilic super-absorbent swelling gels as cleaners for use on weapons systems and platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasingly stringent environmental regulations on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) demand the development of disruptive technologies for cleaning weapons systems and platforms. Currently employed techniques such as vapor degreasing, solvent, aqueous, or blast c...

  14. Damped Lyα system toward QSO1854+116: A new type of absorber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A puzzle of the low-redshift damped Lyα absorption system toward QSO 1854+116 is presented. Problems which conventional intepretation of damped Lyα systems encounters in this case are sketched and a possible explanation, based on transience of the phenomenon, is suggested. It is shown that the detailed Hα tomography can observationally resolve the controversy in the very near future.

  15. Light-Absorbing Aerosol during NASA GRIP: Overview of Observations in the Free Troposphere and Associated with Tropical Storm Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Corr, C. A.; Craig, L.; Dhaniyala, S.; Dibb, J. E.; Hudgins, C. H.; Ismail, S.; Latham, T.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols play a significant role in regulating Earth’s climate. Absorbing aerosols typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute significantly to direct and indirect climate forcing depending on size, mixing state, concentration, chemical composition, and vertical and spatial distribution. Aerosols may also significantly affect tropical storm/hurricane dynamics through direct light absorption and activation as cloud nuclei. An extensive suite of instrumentation measuring aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties was deployed aboard the NASA DC-8 to characterize aerosol during the NASA GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes; August-September 2010) mission. The majority of flight time was spent at high altitude (greater than 9 km) and thus much of the sampling was done in the free troposphere, including extensive sampling in the vicinity of tropical storm systems and more diffuse cirrus clouds. With operations based in Fort Lauderdale, FL and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, a large geographic region was sampled including much of the Gulf of Mexico and tropical Atlantic Ocean. Observations are reported for light-absorbing carbon aerosol (mainly black carbon, BC) primarily using a single particle soot photometer (SP2). The SP2 employs single-particle laser-induced incandescence to provide a mass-specific measurement not subject to scattering interference that is optimal for the low concentration environments like those encountered during GRIP. BC mass concentrations, 100-500 nm size distributions, and mixing state (i.e. coating thickness of scattering material) are presented. Total and sub-micron aerosol absorption coefficients (principally from BC and dust aerosol) are reported using a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) along with comparisons with calculated absorption coefficients derived from SP2 observations in various conditions. In addition, dust aerosol is specifically identified using optical and

  16. Multipath Suppression with an Absorber for UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2017-01-01

    The deflection of a wind turbine blade can be monitored with an ultra-wideband (UWB) deflection sensing system which consists of one transmitting antenna at the blade tip and two receiving antennas at the blade root. The blade deflection is calculated by two estimated tip-root antenna distances...... verifications of the proposed method are carried out with different full-blade measurements. From all the results, it is found that the proposed technique can efficiently suppress multipath for the in-blade tip antenna, and improve the pulse wave front fidelity, so that the UWB sensing system can also...

  17. System Identification of a Heaving Point Absorber: Design of Experiment and Device Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Bacelli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirically based modeling is an essential aspect of design for a wave energy converter. Empirically based models are used in structural, mechanical and control design processes, as well as for performance prediction. Both the design of experiments and methods used in system identification have a strong impact on the quality of the resulting model. This study considers the system identification and model validation process based on data collected from a wave tank test of a model-scale wave energy converter. Experimental design and data processing techniques based on general system identification procedures are discussed and compared with the practices often followed for wave tank testing. The general system identification processes are shown to have a number of advantages, including an increased signal-to-noise ratio, reduced experimental time and higher frequency resolution. The experimental wave tank data is used to produce multiple models using different formulations to represent the dynamics of the wave energy converter. These models are validated and their performance is compared against one another. While most models of wave energy converters use a formulation with surface elevation as an input, this study shows that a model using a hull pressure measurement to incorporate the wave excitation phenomenon has better accuracy.

  18. Analysis of nuclear piping system seismic tests with conventional and energy absorbing supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; DeGrassi, G.; Hofmayer, C.; Bezler, P.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    Large-scale models of main steam and feedwater piping systems were tested on the shaking table by the Nuclear Power Engineering Cooperation (NUPEC) of Japan, as part of the Seismic Proving Test Program. This paper describes the linear and nonlinear analyses performed by NRC/BNL and compares the results to the test data

  19. Precious metals in SDSS quasar spectra. II. Tracking the evolution of strong, 0.4 < z < 2.3 Mg II absorbers with thousands of systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyffert, Eduardo N.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Cooksey, Kathy L.; O'Meara, John M.; Kao, Melodie M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of over 34,000 Mg II doublets at 0.36 < z < 2.29 in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 quasar spectra; the catalog, advanced data products, and tools for analysis are publicly available. The catalog was divided into 14 small redshift bins with roughly 2500 doublets in each and from Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate 50% completeness at rest equivalent width W r ≈ 0.8 Å. The equivalent width frequency distribution is described well by an exponential model at all redshifts, and the distribution becomes flatter with increasing redshift, i.e., there are more strong systems relative to weak ones. Direct comparison with previous SDSS Mg II surveys reveals that we recover at least 70% of the doublets in these other catalogs, in addition to detecting thousands of new systems. We discuss how these surveys came by their different results, which qualitatively agree but because of the very small uncertainties, differ by a statistically significant amount. The estimated physical cross section of Mg II-absorbing galaxy halos increased approximately threefold from z = 0.4 to z = 2.3, while the W r ≥ 1 Å absorber line density, dN MgII /dX, grew by roughly 45%. Finally, we explore the different evolution of various absorber populations—damped Lyα absorbers, Lyman limit systems, strong C IV absorbers, and strong and weaker Mg II systems—across cosmic time (0 < z < 6).

  20. Critical behavior in reaction-diffusion systems exhibiting absorbing phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Ódor, G

    2003-01-01

    Phase transitions of reaction-diffusion systems with site occupation restriction and with particle creation that requires n>1 parents and where explicit diffusion of single particles (A) exists are reviewed. Arguments based on mean-field approximation and simulations are given which support novel kind of non-equilibrium criticality. These are in contradiction with the implications of a suggested phenomenological, multiplicative noise Langevin equation approach and with some of recent numerical analysis. Simulation results for the one and two dimensional binary spreading 2A -> 4A, 4A -> 2A model display a new type of mean-field criticality characterized by alpha=1/3 and beta=1/2 critical exponents suggested in cond-mat/0210615.

  1. Photostabilisation of the 'wood-clearcoatings' systems with UV absorbers: correlation with their effect on the glass transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloui, F; Ahajji, A; Irmouli, Y; George, B; Charrier, B; Merlin, A

    2006-01-01

    In an application-oriented study, the effective transition temperature T g of organic wood-clearcoatings between a hard, glassy state and a viscoelastic and rubbery state is measured. The value of T g is important in the eventual development of cracks and a thermomechanical analysis is used to study the photostabilisation performance of some UV absorbers. A weathering exposure test suggests that certain organic UV absorbers have quite a low T g and may inhibit the crack formation, in contrast with inorganic UV absorbers

  2. Adjustable Shock Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Adamiec, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...

  3. The Effects of UV Light on the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of a Transparent Epoxy-Diamine System in the Presence of an Organic UV Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nikafshar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite several excellent properties including low shrinkage, good chemical resistance, curable at low temperatures and the absence of byproducts or volatiles, epoxy resins are susceptible to ultra violet (UV damage and their durability is reduced substantially when exposed to outdoor environments. To overcome this drawback, UV absorbers have been usually used to decrease the rate of UV degradation. In this present study, the effects of UV light on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of cured epoxy structure, as well as the effect of an organic UV absorber, Tinuvin 1130, on the epoxy properties were investigated. Chemical changes in a cured epoxy system as a result of the presence and absence of Tinuvin 1130 were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analyses. The effect of Tinuvin 1130 on the surface morphology of the epoxy systems was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM imaging. Additionally, the glass transition temperatures (Tg before and during UV radiation were measured. After an 800 h UV radiation, mechanical test results revealed that the lack of the UV absorber can lead to a ~30% reduction in tensile strength. However, in the presence of Tinuvin 1130, the tensile strength was reduced only by ~11%. It was hypothesized that the use of Tinuvin 1130, as an organic UV absorber in the epoxy-amine system, could decrease the undesirable effects, arising from exposure to UV light.

  4. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  5. Differential impact of five coronary devices on plaque size: insights from the ABSORB and SPIRIT trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Héctor M; Serruys, Patrick W; Campos, Carlos M; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2014-08-20

    Coronary plaque size modification, by either local (device) or systemic treatments, has been the target for many years. From ABSORB Cohort A (Absorb BVS 1.0), ABSORB Cohort B (Absorb BVS 1.1), SPIRIT FIRST (Multi-Link Vision vs. Xience V) & SPIRIT II (Xience V vs. Taxus), we calculated the total plaque area (vessel minus lumen area - thus it comprises both compartments - the plaque behind struts and the neointima.) changes by IVUS. A total of 313 patients were included. Comparison-at-6-month follow-up: All devices induced an increase in the total plaque area. The largest increase occurred with Vision and Taxus stents as compared to other devices [Absorb BVS (1.0 and 1.1) and Xience V], (p=0.0002). Comparison-at-2-year follow-up: Absorb BVS 1.1 had a larger increase from post procedure in total plaque compared to Absorb BVS 1.0, Xience V and Taxus (p=0.0499). However, in Absorb BVS 1.1 total plaque showed a reduction of 2.2% from 1 to 3 years. Specifically, the total plaque in the sequential cohorts of Absorb BVS 1.1 increased 16.2% from baseline to 2 years (Cohort B1) while at 3 years this increase is only 5% compared to baseline (Cohort B2). Local devices affect coronary plaque size differently and it depends on the platform (metallic vs. polymeric) and on whether it is a bare - or drug eluting stent. Coronary scaffolds appear to be a promising alternative to metallic stents since they allow plaque regression at long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conceptual design of a two-phase flow absorber system for neutron flux regulation in a CANDU-PHW-1250 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepp, R.M.; Moeck, E.O.

    1979-07-01

    A two-phase absorber control (TOPAC) system has been under development at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to meet the need for improved spatial neutron flux control for future CANDU power reactors. Aspects of the conceptual design study presented in this paper include system controllability, in-reactor noise sensitiity, the effect of equipment malfunctions on plant operation, and a comparison with competing systems. The TOPAC system is shown to be a viable alternative to existing and future neutron flux regulating systems based on liquid H 2 O zone compartments. (auth)

  7. Control of the sidewall angle of an absorber stack using the Faraday cage system for the change of pattern printability in EUVL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Il-Yong; Huh, Sung-Min; Moon, Seong-Yong; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Lee, Jin-Kwan; Moon, Sang Heup; Cho, HanKu

    2008-10-01

    A patterned TaN substrate, which is candidate for a mask absorber in extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL), was etched to have inclined sidewalls by using a Faraday cage system under the condition of a 2-step process that allowed the high etch selectivity of TaN over the resist. The sidewall angle (SWA) of the patterned substrate, which was in the shape of a parallelogram after etching, could be controlled by changing the slope of a substrate holder that was placed in the Faraday cage. The performance of an EUV mask, which contained the TaN absorber of an oblique pattern over the molybdenum/silicon multi-layer, was simulated for different cases of SWA. The results indicated that the optical properties, such as the critical dimension (CD), an offset in the CD bias between horizontal and vertical patterns (H-V bias), and a shift in the image position on the wafer, could be controlled by changing the SWA of the absorber stack. The simulation result showed that the effect of the SWA on the optical properties became more significant at larger thicknesses of the absorber and smaller sizes of the target CD. Nevertheless, the contrast of the aerial images was not significantly decreased because the shadow effect caused by either sidewall of the patterned substrate cancelled with each other.

  8. Shock absorbing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  9. Your Child's Development: 2 Years (24 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Years (24 Months) Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 años (24 meses) Tired ... and circular scribbles feeds himself or herself well Social and Emotional Development plays alongside other children fears ...

  10. PROPERTIES OF QSO METAL-LINE ABSORPTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: NATURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE ABSORBERS AND NEW EVIDENCE ON ESCAPE OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boksenberg, Alec [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W., E-mail: boksy@ast.cam.ac.uk [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Using Voigt-profile-fitting procedures on Keck High Resolution Spectrograph spectra of nine QSOs, we identify 1099 C IV absorber components clumped in 201 systems outside the Lyman forest over 1.6 ≲ z ≲ 4.4. With associated Si IV, C II, Si II  and N V where available, we investigate the bulk statistical and ionization properties of the components and systems and find no significant change in redshift for C IV and Si IV while C II, Si II  and N V change substantially. The C IV components exhibit strong clustering, but no clustering is detected for systems on scales from 150 km s{sup –1} out to 50,000 km s{sup –1}. We conclude that the clustering is due entirely to the peculiar velocities of gas present in the circumgalactic media of galaxies. Using specific combinations of ionic ratios, we compare our observations with model ionization predictions for absorbers exposed to the metagalactic ionizing radiation background augmented by proximity radiation from their associated galaxies and find that the generally accepted means of radiative escape by transparent channels from the internal star-forming sites is spectrally not viable for our stronger absorbers. We develop an active scenario based on runaway stars with resulting changes in the efflux of radiation that naturally enable the needed spectral convergence, and in turn provide empirical indicators of morphological evolution in the associated galaxies. Together with a coexisting population of relatively compact galaxies indicated by the weaker absorbers in our sample, the collective escape of radiation is sufficient to maintain the intergalactic medium ionized over the full range 1.9 < z ≲ 4.4.

  11. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  12. Heterogeneous neutron absorbers development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, Aldo; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego; Perez, Edmundo

    1987-01-01

    The use of solid burnable absorber materials in power light water reactors has increased in the last years, specially due to improvements attained in costs of generated electricity. The present work summarizes the basic studies made on an alumina-gadolinia system, where alumina is the inert matrix and gadolinia acts as burnable poison, and describes the fabrication method of pellets with that material. High density compacts were obtained in the range of concentrations used by cold pressing and sintering at 1600 deg C in inert (Ar) atmosphere. Finally, the results of the irradiation experiences made at RA-6 reactor, located at the Bariloche Atomic Center, are given where variations on negative reactivity caused by introduction of burnable poison rods were measured. The results obtained from these experiences are in good agreement with those coming from calculation codes. (Author)

  13. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T system against conventional photovoltaic (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the overall field system involved 15 stand-alone PV panels and 15 retrofitted PV/T panels. The laboratory testing results demonstrated the PV/T panel could achieve the electrical efficiency of about 16.8% (relatively 5% improvement comparing with the stand-alone PV panel, and yield an extra amount of heat with thermal efficiency of nearly 65%. The field testing results indicated that the hybrid PV/T panel could enhance the electrical return of PV panels by nearly 3.5%, and increase the overall energy output by nearly 324.3%. Further opportunities and challenges were then discussed from aspects of different PV/T stakeholders to accelerate the development. It is expected that such technology could become a significant solution to yield more electricity, offset heating load freely and reduce carbon footprint in contemporary energy environment.

  14. The Fukushima accident, 2 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Didier; Cessac, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Two experts of the French radiation protection and nuclear safety institute (IRSN) gave this presentation at the French Embassy in Tokyo, 2 years after the Fukushima accident. Their presentation focus in particular on the environmental situation and the food safety which raised many question at the time

  15. Stability of midface fracture repair using absorbable plate and screw system pilot holes drilled and pin placement at angles other than 90°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Michael A; Zuliani, Giancarlo; Pereira, Lucio; Abuhamdan, Maher; Thibault, Adrianna; Dau, Nathan; Bir, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Conventional plating systems use titanium plates for fixation of fractures, with benefits of strength and biocompatibility. However, titanium plates require that screws be placed at a 90° angle to the pilot holes. In the midface, this becomes extremely difficult. Today, a variety of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis systems are available, including resorbable plating systems. Specifically, the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system ultrasonically fuses the plate and the head of the pin when placed and will fill the pilot hole grooves completely even at less than 90° angles, which provides a tremendous advantage in midface fracture repair. To determine if the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system provides plate-screw construct stability in human heads even when placed at acute angles at the midface buttresses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SPECIMENS: Twenty cadaveric head specimens with the mandible removed were prepared by creating osteotomies in the midface buttresses bilaterally. Specimens were defleshed and placed in a 2-part testing rig to hold and position the head for testing in a standard material testing system. Testing was performed at the Wayne State University Bioengineering test laboratories, Detroit, Michigan, using an Instron device and high-speed camera. Specimens were plated on one side of the midface using the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system with pilot holes and pins placed at 90° angles. On the contralateral side, the buttresses were plated with the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system at 60°, 45°, and 30° angles. Data were collected using the TDAS data acquisition system and were compared with matched pairs within each specimen. Ultrasonically vibrated pins placed into absorbable mini-plates at less than 90° angles with the KLS Martin Sonic Weld system were compared with the same amount of stress as the system placed at a 90° angle before demonstrating plate-screw construct failure. RESULTS Fifty-seven paired tests were collected, with 114 total tests. Twenty failures were

  16. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  17. Increased migration of uncemented acetabular cups in female total hip arthroplasty patients with low systemic bone mineral density. A 2-year RSA and 8-year radiographic follow-up study of 34 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnilä, Sami; Moritz, Niko; SvedströM, Erkki; Alm, Jessica J; Aro, Hannu T

    2016-02-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) may jeopardize the initial component stability and delay osseointegration of uncemented acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We measured the migration of uncemented cups in women with low or normal BMD. We used radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to measure the migration of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium alloy cups with alumina-on-alumina bearings in THA of 34 female patients with a median age of 64 (41-78) years. 10 patients had normal BMD and 24 patients had low systemic BMD (T-score ≤ -1) based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Cup migration was followed with RSA for 2 years. Radiographic follow-up was done at a median of 8 (2-10) years. Patients with normal BMD did not show a statistically significant cup migration after the settling period of 3 months, while patients with low BMD had a continuous proximal migration between 3 and 12 months (p = 0.03). These differences in cup migration persisted at 24 months. Based on the perceived risk of cup revision, 14 of the 24 cases were "at risk" (proximal translation of 0.2 to 1.0 mm) in the low-BMD group and 2 of the 10 cases were "at risk" in the normal-BMD group (odds ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI: 1.3-48). The radiographic follow-up showed no radiolucent lines or osteolysis. 2 cups have been revised for fractures of the ceramic bearings, but none for loosening. Low BMD contributed to cup migration beyond the settling period of 3 months, but the migrating cups appeared to osseointegrate eventually.

  18. Absorber rod drive for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acher, H.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a further addition to the invention of DE 33 42 830 A1. The free contact of the hollow piston with the nut due to hydraulic pressure is replaced by a hydraulic or spring attachment. The pressure system required to produce the hydraulic pressure is therefore omitted, and the electrical power required for driving the pump or the mass flow is also omitted. The absorber rod slotted along its longitudinal axis is replaced by an absorber rod, in the longitudinal axis of which a hollow piston is connected together with the absorber rod. This makes the absorber rod more stable, and assembly is simplified. (orig./HP) [de

  19. The Use of Sound Absorbing Shading Systems for the Attenuation of Noise on Building Façades. An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Zuccherini Martello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of solar irradiation in building façades with large windows is often solved with the use of external shading devices, such as brise-soleil systems, but their potential acoustic effects on building façades are usually neglected. The purpose of this work is a preliminary consideration of the acoustic behaviour of brise-soleil systems and, furthermore, the evaluation of the possibility to improve their performances, in terms of Sound Pressure Level (SPL abatement over glass surfaces. The paper reports the results of a study on two portions of the same office building, with shading devices installed in front of large windows. Both airborne sound insulation measurements and SPL measurements over the glass surfaces of the windows were carried out to compare different situations, with or without louvers, and with sound absorbing experimental louvers as well. Results show that the louvers' presence can produce an increase in the SPL over the glass surface as a consequence of the reflection of the sound. Results further show that sound absorbing louvers improve the noise protection of the system, in terms of the SPL reduction, over glass surfaces, cancelling out the negative effect of the standard shading devices.

  20. Sci-Sat AM: Brachy - 03: Feasibility study of the determination of absorbed dose to water using a fricke based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, I El; Cojocaru, C; Ross, C; Marchington, D; McEwen, M

    2012-07-01

    By measuring the dose to water directly a metrology standard, independent of air kerma, can be developed to make the basis of HDR brachytherapy dosimetry consistent with current dosimetry methods for external radiation beams. The Fricke dosimeter system, a liquid chemical dosimeter, provides a means of measuring the absorbed dose rate to water directly by measuring the radiation-induced change in absorption of the Fricke solution. In an attempt to measure the absorbed dose to water directly for a 192 Ir HDR brachytherapy source a ring shaped Fricke holder was constructed from PMMA, essentially following the work of Austerlitz et al. (Med. Phys. 2008). Benchmark measurements conducted in a 60 Co beam yielded a standard uncertainty in the absorption reading of 0.16 %, comparable with previous results in the literature. Measurements of the standard uncertainty of the control (unirradiated) solution using the holder yielded 0.2 %, indicating good process control and minimal contamination from the holder itself. However, it was found that the holder sealing method (to allow measurements in a water phantom) significantly contaminated the Fricke solution, resulting in an excessive background reading. Irradiations were therefore conducted in air to determine the feasibility of the procedure. Irradiations with a 17 GBq source gave a standard uncertainty of approximately 0.5 %, indicating that the target uncertainty of 1.5% for the measurement of absorbed dose to water using a Fricke-based primary standard is achievable. This would be comparable with calorimeter-based systems currently being developed. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is

  2. PWR burnable absorber evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Weader, R.J.; Malone, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative neurotic efficiency and fuel cycle cost benefits of PWR burnable absorbers. Establishment of reference low-leakage equilibrium in-core fuel management plans for 12-, 18- and 24-month cycles. Review of the fuel management impact of the integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA), erbium and gadolinium. Calculation of the U 3 O 8 , UF 6 , SWU, fuel fabrication, and burnable absorber requirements for the defined fuel management plans. Estimation of fuel cycle costs of each fuel management plan at spot market and long-term market fuel prices. Estimation of the comparative savings of the different burnable absorbers in dollar equivalent per kgU of fabricated fuel. (author)

  3. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  4. A Two-Step Absorber Deposition Approach To Overcome Shunt Losses in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Using Tin Sulfide as a Proof-of-Concept Material System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, Vera; Chakraborty, Rupak; Rekemeyer, Paul H.; Hartman, Katy; Brandt, Riley E.; Polizzotti, Alex; Yang, Chuanxi; Moriarty, Tom; Gradečak, Silvija; Gordon, Roy G.; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-08-31

    As novel absorber materials are developed and screened for their photovoltaic (PV) properties, the challenge remains to reproducibly test promising candidates for high-performing PV devices. Many early-stage devices are prone to device shunting due to pinholes in the absorber layer, producing 'false-negative' results. Here, we demonstrate a device engineering solution toward a robust device architecture, using a two-step absorber deposition approach. We use tin sulfide (SnS) as a test absorber material. The SnS bulk is processed at high temperature (400 degrees C) to stimulate grain growth, followed by a much thinner, low-temperature (200 degrees C) absorber deposition. At a lower process temperature, the thin absorber overlayer contains significantly smaller, densely packed grains, which are likely to provide a continuous coating and fill pinholes in the underlying absorber bulk. We compare this two-step approach to the more standard approach of using a semi-insulating buffer layer directly on top of the annealed absorber bulk, and we demonstrate a more than 3.5x superior shunt resistance Rsh with smaller standard error ..sigma..Rsh. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements indicate a lower density of pinholes in the SnS absorber bulk when using the two-step absorber deposition approach. We correlate those findings to improvements in the device performance and device performance reproducibility.

  5. Energy analysis of a diffusion absorption cooling system using lithium nitrate, sodium thiocyanate and water as absorbent substances and ammonia as the refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuña, A.; Velázquez, N.; Cerezo, J.

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion absorption cooling system is analyzed to determine the appropriate fluid for the unit, based on the coefficient of performance (COP) and operating conditions, by comparing lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ), sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) and water (H 2 O) as absorbent substances and by using ammonia (NH 3 ) as the refrigerant. The presence of crystallization in the system is analyzed as a function of the generator and absorber temperatures. Additionally, the effects on the efficiency of the system from adding the inert gas helium (He) or hydrogen (H 2 ) are studied. A mathematical model is developed and compared to experimental studies reported in the literature. At an evaporator temperature of −15 °C, a generator temperature of 120 °C and absorber and condenser temperatures of 40 °C, the results show that the best performance is achieved by the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, with a COP of 0.48. This mixture performs 27–46% more efficient than the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. The NH 3 –H 2 O mixture is 52–69% less efficient than the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture. However, when the evaporator runs at 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture achieves a more efficient COP than does the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, and the NH 3 –NaSCN–He and NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixtures achieve the same COP when the evaporator is at 10 °C. At temperatures below 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –NaSCN–He mixture achieves a higher COP than does the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture. The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture shows crystallization at higher temperatures in the generator than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. Moreover, at the same evaporator temperature, the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture works at activation temperatures lower than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. -- Highlights: ► We studied a diffusion absorption cooling system with different working mixtures. ► The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture showed more efficiency than NH 3 –H 2 O mixture and NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. ► The generator and absorber temperature

  6. Neutron absorbing article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooher, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron absorbing article, in flat plate form and suitable for use in a storage rack for spent fuel, includes boron carbide particles, diluent particles and a solid, irreversibly cured phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix binding the boron carbide and diluent particles. The total conent of boron carbide and diluent particles is a major proportion of the article and the content of cured phenolic polymer present is a minor proportion. By regulation of the ratio of boron carbide particles to diluent particles, normally within the range of 1:9 and 9:1 and preferably within the range of 1:5 to 5:1, the neutron absorbing activity of the product may be controlled, which facilitates the manufacture of articles of particular absorbing activities best suitable for specific applications

  7. Burnable neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, K.C.; Carlson, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron-absorber body for use in burnable poison rods in a nuclear reactor. The body is composed of a matrix of Al 2 O 3 containing B 4 C, the neutron absorber. Areas of high density polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 particles are predominantly encircled by pores in some of which there are B 4 C particles. This body is produced by initially spray drying a slurry of A1 2 O 3 powder to which a binder has been added. The powder of agglomerated spheres of the A1 2 O 3 with the binder are dry mixed with B 4 C powder. The mixed powder is formed into a green body by isostatic pressure and the green body is sintered. The sintered body is processed to form the neutron-absorber body. In this case the B 4 C particles are separate from the spheres resulting from the spray drying instead of being embedded in the sphere

  8. Mechanical shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  9. Neutron absorbing article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooker, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    A neutron-absorbing article suitable for use in spent fuel racks is described. It comprises boron carbide particles, diluent particles, and a phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix. The diluent may be silicon carbide, graphite, amorphous carbon, alumina, or silica. The combined boron carbide-diluent phase contains no more than 2 percent B 2 O 3 , and the neutron-absorbing article contains from 20 to 40 percent phenol resin. The ratio of boron carbide to diluent particles is in the range 1:9 to 9:1

  10. Effects of Free-Hanging Horizontal Sound Absorbers on the Cooling Performance of Thermally Activated Building Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacarte, Luis Marcos Domínguez; Rage, Nils; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2017-01-01

    Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have proven to be an energy-efficient solution to provide buildings with an optimal indoor thermal environment. This solution uses the structure of the building to store heat, reduce the peak loads, and decrease the primary energy demand. TABS require t...

  11. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  12. MODERATE C IV ABSORBER SYSTEMS REQUIRE 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} DARK MATTER HALOS AT z {approx} 2.3: A CROSS-CORRELATION STUDY OF C IV ABSORBER SYSTEMS AND QUASARS IN SDSS-III BOSS DR9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikas, Shailendra; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael [Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Lundgren, Britt [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); AlSayyad, Yusra [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); York, Donald G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brinkmann, J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Snedden, Stephanie [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Ge, Jian [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Paris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick, E-mail: skv4@pitt.edu [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2013-05-01

    We measure the two-point cross-correlation function of C IV absorber systems and quasars, using spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS; Data Release 9). The 19,701 quasars and 6149 C IV ''moderate'' absorbers, 0.28 A < rest-frame equivalent width (EW) < 5 A, in our study cover a redshift range of 2.1 < z < 2.5 over 3300 deg{sup 2} and represent a factor of two increase in sample size over previous investigations. We find a correlation scale length and slope of the redshift-space cross-correlation function of s{sub 0} = 8.46 {+-} 1.24 Mpc, {gamma} = 1.68 {+-} 0.19, in the redshift-space range 10 < s < 100 Mpc. We find a projected cross-correlation function of C IV absorption systems and quasars of r{sub 0} = 7.76 {+-} 2.80 Mpc, {gamma} = 1.74 {+-} 0.21. We measure the combined quasar and C IV bias to be b{sub QSO} b{sub C{sub IV}} = 8.81 {+-} 2.28. Using an estimate of b{sub QSO} from the quasar auto-correlation function we find b{sub CIV} = 2.38 {+-} 0.62. This b{sub CIV} implies that EW > 0.28 A C IV absorbers at z {approx} 2.3 are typically found in dark matter halos that have masses {>=}10{sup 11.3}-10{sup 13.4} M{sub Sun} at that redshift. The complete BOSS sample will triple the number of both quasars and absorption systems and increase the power of this cross-correlation measurement by a factor of two.

  13. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  14. Performance evaluation of the QC-6PLUS quality control system in terms of photons and electrons absorbed doses to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Flavia Cristina da Silva

    2004-06-01

    The quality of the treatment in radiotherapy depends on the necessary knowledge of the liberated dose in the tumor and of several other physical parameters and dosimetric that characterize the profile of the radiation field. Worrying about the reliability of some commercial equipment that aim at determining the main parameters of a radiation field in a practical way for daily checks in an institution with radiotherapy service, in this work a study of the performance of the quality assurance system, QC6-Plus manufactured by PTW-Freiburg for daily checks, was developed, in order to assure the use of this equipment with larger reliability level in the routine of quality assurance of the hospitals as well as to make possible its use in the Program of Regulatory Inspections of the Services of Radiotherapy of the Country accomplished by IRD/CNEN. The found results indicate that the system QC6-Plus is perfectly adapted and practical for relative measures of daily and weekly control of the main parameters of clinical beans in agreement with reference values recommended in TECDOC 1151. However for measurements of absolute dose it should not be used because, for beams of electrons the system does not present the necessary characteristics to execute this measure type in agreement with the reference protocol, TRS 398, and for photons of energy 15 MV presented a deviation in relation to the conventional method of absolute dosimetry of 7,7%, that it is a lot above the expected in agreement with TRS 398. (author)

  15. Adaptation of penelope Monte Carlo code system to the absorbed dose metrology: characterization of high energy photon beams and calculations of reference dosimeter correction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurier, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis has been performed in the framework of national reference setting-up for absorbed dose in water and high energy photon beam provided with the SATURNE-43 medical accelerator of the BNM-LPRI (acronym for National Bureau of Metrology and Primary standard laboratory of ionising radiation). The aim of this work has been to develop and validate different user codes, based on PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system, to determine the photon beam characteristics and calculate the correction factors of reference dosimeters such as Fricke dosimeters and graphite calorimeter. In the first step, the developed user codes have permitted the influence study of different components constituting the irradiation head. Variance reduction techniques have been used to reduce the calculation time. The phase space has been calculated for 6, 12 and 25 MV at the output surface level of the accelerator head, then used for calculating energy spectra and dose distributions in the reference water phantom. Results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements. The second step has been devoted to develop an user code allowing calculation correction factors associated with both BNM-LPRI's graphite and Fricke dosimeters thanks to a correlated sampling method starting with energy spectra obtained in the first step. Then the calculated correction factors have been compared with experimental and calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code system. The good agreement, between experimental and calculated results, leads to validate simulations performed with the PENELOPE code system. (author)

  16. GEOMETRICAL OPTIMIZATION OF VEHICLE SHOCK ABSORBERS WITH MR FLUID

    OpenAIRE

    ENGIN, Tahsin; PARLAK, Zekeriya; ŞAHIN, Ismail; ÇALLI, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) shock absorber have received remarkable attention in the last decade due to being a potential technology to conduct semi-active control in structures and mechanical systems in order to effectively suppress vibration. To develop performance of MR shock absorbers, optimal design of the dampers should be considered. The present study deals with optimal geometrical modeling of a MR shock absorber. Optimal design of the present shock absorber was carried out by using Taguch...

  17. Design and Control of the PowerTake-Off System for a Wave Energy Converter with Multiple Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    waves. This enables a comparison of the performance of the wave power extraction methods according to PTO requirements. The framework also allows comparing performance of fundamentally different PTOs. The idea of reactive control for increasing power absorption dates back to the 1970’s, and today its...... techniques. The research leads to three potential PTO systems, where one is a magnetic gear based PTO. The gear is based on implementing the function of a screw and nut magnetically by placing permanent magnets in a helical pattern. A PTO layout with the magnetic lead screw is found and analysed using...... simulations. The feasibility leads to having a group of master students designing a working prototype at a scale of 17kN with a half meter stroke. The magnetic lead screw is able to directly convert a linear motion of 0.5m/s to a rotational motion above 1000rpm, driving a conventional generator. Two other...

  18. Comparison Between Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber WEC Using Linear Power Take-Off System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2012-01-01

    and the response of the device for regular and irregular waves were measured. Good correspondence is found between the numerical and the physical model for relatively mild wave conditions. For higher waves the numerical model seems to underestimate the response of the device due to its linear fluidstructure......Currently, a number of wave energy converters are being analyzed by means of numerical models in order to predict the electrical power generation under given wave conditions. A common characteristic of this procedure is to integrate the loadings from the hydrodynamics, power take-off and mooring...... systems into a central wave to wire model. The power production then depends on the control strategy which is applied to the device. The objective of this paper is to develop numerical methods for motion analysis of marine structures with a special emphasis on wave energy converters. Two different time...

  19. Absorbing Markov Chain Models to Determine Optimum Process Target Levels in Production Systems with Dual Correlated Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saber Fallah Nezhad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For a manufacturing organization to compete effectively in the global marketplace, cutting costs and improving overall efficiency is essential.  A single-stage production system with two independent quality characteristics and different costs associated with each quality characteristic that falls below a lower specification limit (scrap or above an upper specification limit (rework is presented in this paper. The amount of reworks and scraps are assumed to be depending on the process parameters such as process mean and standard deviation thus the expected total profit is significantly dependent on the process parameters. This paper develops a Markovian decision making model for determining the process means. Sensitivity analyzes is performed to validate, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed model. The results showed that the optimal process means extremely effects on the quality characteristics’ parameters.

  20. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  1. The preparation of highly absorbing cellulosic copolymers -the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, V.; Guthrie, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A series of copolymers based on the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system has been prepared under radiation-induced control. These copolymers have been assessed for their water-retention capacity both in an unmodified state and after ''decrystallization'' or ''neutralization'' treatments. The grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulose acetate/propionate had little effect on the water retention power of the cellulose acetate/propionate. However, improvements to the water retentivity was obtained after ''decrystallization'' procedures had been carried out on the copolymers using selected alkali metal salts with methanol as the continuous medium. The water-retentivity of the copolymers increased with increase in the extent of grafting, though the effect is less pronounced at high graft levels. Neutralization of the functional groups of the grafted branches provided a route to obtaining a marked increase in the level of water retentivity. Excessive salt concentrations gave reduced levels of water retentivity. Cesium carbonate and sodium carbonate have been shown to be effective in providing marked improvements in the water-retaining capacity of the copolymers. Maxima in performance are shown with respect to the treatment conditions. (author)

  2. A van der Waals DFT study of PtH_2 systems absorbed on pristine and defective graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Corral, Ignacio; Piriz, Sebastián; Faccio, Ricardo; Juan, Alfredo; Avena, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed DFT calculations including van der Waals interactions. • Kubas-type Pt-H2 complex is stable on defective graphene. • Carbon vacancy decreases the reactivity of the metal decoration. • The interaction between σ-H and π-C states favors the Kubas-type complex. - Abstract: We used a density functional that incorporates van der Waals interactions to study hydrogen adsorption onto Pt atoms attached to carbon-vacancies on graphene layers, considering molecular and dissociated hydrogen-platinum coordination structures. PtH_2 complexes adsorbed on several sites of pristine graphene were also studied for comparison. Our results indicate that both a Kubas-type dihydrogen complex and a classic hydride without H−H bond are the preferential PtH_2 systems on the vacancy site of graphene. In contrast, the Kubas complex is unstable onto pristine graphene and the hydride is obtained at all adsorption sites. Our simulations suggest that the C-vacancy decreases the reactivity of the metal decoration, allowing a non-dissociative hydrogen adsorption. The H_2 molecule is oriented almost perpendicular to the outermost C−Pt bond, interacting also with the graphene surface through σ-H and π-C states. This stabilization of the Kubas-type complex could play a very important role for hydrogen storage in Pt-decorated carbon adsorbents with vacancies.

  3. Photostabilisation of the 'wood-clearcoatings' systems with UV absorbers: correlation with their effect on the glass transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloui, F [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Ahajji, A [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Irmouli, Y [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); George, B [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Charrier, B [IUT des Pays de l' Adour, Departement SGM-Bois, 371, rue du ruisseau, 40004 Mont de Marsan (France); Merlin, A [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherches sur le Materiau Bois LERMAB UMR-A1093 INRA/ENGREF/UHP - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 239 - 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2006-05-15

    In an application-oriented study, the effective transition temperature T{sub g} of organic wood-clearcoatings between a hard, glassy state and a viscoelastic and rubbery state is measured. The value of T{sub g} is important in the eventual development of cracks and a thermomechanical analysis is used to study the photostabilisation performance of some UV absorbers. A weathering exposure test suggests that certain organic UV absorbers have quite a low T{sub g} and may inhibit the crack formation, in contrast with inorganic UV absorbers.

  4. Kinetic energy absorbing pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricmont, R.J.; Hamilton, P.A.; Ming Long Ting, R.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors, fuel processing plants etc incorporate pipes and conduits for fluids under high pressure. Fractures, particularly adjacent to conduit elbows, produce a jet of liquid which whips the broken conduit at an extremely high velocity. An enormous impact load would be applied to any stationary object in the conduit's path. The design of cellular, corrugated metal impact pads to absorb the kinetic energy of the high velocity conduits is given. (U.K.)

  5. Burnable neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, K.C.; Carlson, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    This patent deals with the fabrication of pellets for neutron absorber rods. Such a pellet includes a matrix of a refractory material which may be aluminum or zirconium oxide, and a burnable poison distributed throughout the matrix. The neutron absorber material may consist of one or more elements or compounds of the metals boron, gadolinium, samarium, cadmium, europium, hafnium, dysprosium and indium. The method of fabricating pellets of these materials outlined in this patent is designed to produce pores or voids in the pellets that can be used to take up the expansion of the burnable poison and to absorb the helium gas generated. In the practice of this invention a slurry of Al 2 O 3 is produced. A hard binder is added and the slurry and binder are spray dried. This powder is mixed with dry B 4 C powder, forming a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is pressed into green tubes which are then sintered. During sintering the binder volatilizes leaving a ceramic with nearly spherical high-density regions of

  6. Estimation of Absorbed Dose in Occlusal Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Young Ah; Choi, Karp Shick; Lee, Sang Han

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed dose of each important anatomic site of phantom (RT-210 Head and Neck Section R, Humanoid Systems Co., U.S.A.) head in occlusal radiography. X-radiation dosimetry at 12 anatomic sites in maxillary anterior topography, maxillary posterior topography, mandibular anterior cross-section, mandibular posterior cross-section, mandibular anterior topographic, mandibular posterior topographic occlusal projection was performed with calcium sulfate thermoluminescent dosimeters under 70 Kvp and 15 mA, 1/4 second (8 inch cone ) and 1 second (16 inch cone) exposure time. The results obtained were as follows: Skin surface produced highest absorbed dose ranged between 3264 mrad and 4073 mrad but there was little difference between projections. In maxillary anterior topographic occlusal radiography, eyeballs, maxillary sinuses, and pituitary gland sites produced higher absorbed doses than those of other sites. In maxillary posterior topographic occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site produced high absorbed doses. In mandibular anterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, all sites were produced relatively low absorbed dose except eyeball sites. In Mandibular posterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site were produced relatively higher absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular anterior topographic occlusal radiography, maxillary sinuses, submandibular glands, and thyroid gland sites produced high absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular posterior topographic occlusal radiography, submandibular gland site of the exposed side produced high absorbed dose than other sites and eyeball site of the opposite side produced relatively high absorbed dose.

  7. Energy absorbers as pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the exception of springs, pipe supports currently in use are designed with the intent of maintaining their rigidity under load. Energy dissipation mechanisms in these pipe supports result in system damping on the order presented by Code Case N-411 of ASME Section III code. Examples of these energy dissipation mechanisms are fluids and gaps in snubbers, gaps in frame supports, and friction in springs and frame supports. If energy absorbing supports designed in accordance with Code Case N-420 are used, higher additional damping will result

  8. Randomized trial of a comparison of the efficacy of TVT-O and single-incision tape TVT SECUR systems in the treatment of stress urinary incontinent women--2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masata, Jaromir; Svabik, Kamil; Zvara, Karel; Drahoradova, Petra; El Haddad, Rachid; Hubka, Petr; Martan, Alois

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the use of tension-free vaginal tape obturator (TVT-O) and single-incision TVT SECUR, hammock and U approach (TVT-S, H and U), in the treatment of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This single-center randomized three-arm trial compared the objective and subjective efficacy and early failure rate of the TVT-O and TVT-S H and U approach by objective criteria (cough test) and subjective criteria using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire--Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF). The objective efficacy rate was defined as the number of patients with a negative cough stress test. Subjective cure was defined by no stress leakage of urine after surgery based on the evaluation of ICIQ-UI SH (when patients ticked "Never"/"Urine does not leak" in answer to question 6: When does urine leak?). Objective and subjective efficacy were evaluated using Last Failure Carried Forward analysis, i.e., final analysis also included patients with early failure. To describe outcome at different time points, the Last Observation Carried Forward method was also implemented. One hundred ninety-seven women with proven SUI were randomized into three groups--TVT-O (n = 68), TVT-S H (n = 64), and TVT-S U (n = 65). Each patient allocated to a treatment group received the planned surgery. There were no differences in each group in preoperative characteristics. Median follow-up after surgery was 2 years (SD, 0.8; range, 0.1 to 3.8 years). Of the subjects, 92.6% in the TVT-O group, 68.8% in the TVT-S H group, and 69.2% in the TVT-S U group had negative stress test (p TVT-O group, 68.8% in the TVT-S H group, and 61.5% in the TVT-S U group were subjectively continent (p = 0.02). Our study demonstrated a significantly lower subjective and objective cure rate in the single-incision TVT group compared to the TVT-O group.

  9. Study of an optimization of regeneration for an absorbent used in the solar desiccant cooling system; Taiyonetsu riyo desiccant reibo ni mochiirareru kyushuzai saisei tokusei no saitekika ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y [Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A desiccant cooling system uses concentrated aqueous solution of an absorbent to reduce humidity, hence the resultant absorbent solution becomes dilute. Regeneration of the dilute solution uses solar heat, where the regeneration characteristics are affected by solution temperature, vapor pressure, water content, air-liquid flow rate, and other factors. Therefore, mutual relationship among these different factors were investigated, and an optimum operating condition was discussed. The regeneration characteristics of the absorbent is strongly affected by temperature of triethylene glycol (TEG). This is because vapor pressure, Ps, in the TEG aqueous solution increases as the TEG temperature rises. This means that preheating the solution is effective in regenerating the absorbent. As the regeneration progresses, the water content, Ww, decreases, and the regeneration rate decreases. This is because of reduction in the Ps in association with decrease in the Ww of the TEG. This suggests that it is important in the absorbent regeneration to reduce flow rate of the TEG aqueous solution as low as possible. Raised air temperature reduces difference in vapor partial pressure between the TEG and the air, resulting in reduced regeneration rate. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Measuring the absorbed radioactivity during a flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the new system SIEVERT developed by the General Direction of the Civil Aviation (DGAC) to measure the radiations doses absorbed from cosmic radiation. The system is available on the Internet site: www.sievert-system.org. (A.L.B.)

  11. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  12. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  13. Thermal study of a residential water solar heating system with two different absorbing surface configurations; Estudo termico de um sistema solar de aquecimento de agua residencial para duas configuracoes de superficie absorvedora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Rivaldo Ferreira

    2009-10-15

    A solar collector to be used in a system for heating water for bathing, whose main characteristics are its low cost and easy manufacturing and assembly is presented. The absorbing surface of the collector is formed by an aluminum plate with eight flaps where they lodge PVC pipes. The catchment area of solar radiation corresponds to 1.3 meters. The collector box was made of wood, it is covered by transparent glass and thermal insulation of tire chips and expanded polystyrene (EPS). Absorber tubes were connected in parallel through the use of PVC fittings and fixed to the plate by the use of metal poles and rivets. The entire absorber received paint fiat black for better absorption of sunlight. The system worked on a thermosyphon assembly and absorber of the collector has been tested in two configurations: with the tubes facing up, directly exposed to the impact of sunlight and facing down, exchanging heat with the plate by conduction. The most efficient configuration for the connect purpose was determined. The solar collector was connected to a thermal reservoir, also alternative, low-cost forming the system of solar water heating. We evaluated thermal parameters that proved the viability of the heating system studied. (author)

  14. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  15. Feynman Integrals with Absorbing Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a formulation of an absorbing boundary for a quantum particle. The formulation is based on a Feynman-type integral over trajectories that are confined to the non-absorbing region. Trajectories that reach the absorbing wall are discounted from the population of the surviving trajectories with a certain weighting factor. Under the assumption that absorbed trajectories do not interfere with the surviving trajectories, we obtain a time dependent absorption law. Two examples are worked ...

  16. Frequency Tuning of Vibration Absorber Using Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Swapnil Subhash

    A tuned mass absorber is a system for reducing the amplitude in one oscillator by coupling it to a second oscillator. If tuned correctly, the maximum amplitude of the first oscillator in response to a periodic driver will be lowered, and much of the vibration will be 'transferred' to the second oscillator. The tuned vibration absorber (TVA) has been utilized for vibration control purposes in many sectors of Civil/Automotive/Aerospace Engineering for many decades since its inception. Time and again we come across a situation in which a vibratory system is required to run near resonance. In the past, approaches have been made to design such auxiliary spring mass tuned absorbers for the safety of the structures. This research focuses on the development and optimization of continuously tuned mass absorbers as a substitute to the discretely tuned mass absorbers (spring- mass system). After conducting the study of structural behavior, the boundary condition and frequency to which the absorber is to be tuned are determined. The Modal analysis approach is used to determine mode shapes and frequencies. The absorber is designed and optimized using the topology optimization tool, which simultaneously designs, optimizes and tunes the absorber to the desired frequency. The tuned, optimized absorber, after post processing, is attached to the target structure. The number of the absorbers are increased to amplify bandwidth and thereby upgrade the safety of structure for a wide range of frequency. The frequency response analysis is carried out using various combinations of structure and number of absorber cell.

  17. Solar radiation absorbing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  18. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding solid food ... per day, but will eat more at each feeding than the first 6 months. If you feed ...

  19. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The periodic-metamaterial-based perfect absorber has been studied broadly. Conversely, if the unit cell in the metamaterial-based absorber is arranged aperiodically (aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber, how does it perform? Inspired by this, here we present a systematic study of the aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber. By investigating the response of metamaterial absorbers based on periodic, Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and quasicrystal lattices, we found that aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorbers could display similar absorption behaviors as the periodic one in one hand. However, their absorption behaviors show different tendency depending on the thicknesses of the spacer. Further studies on the angle and polarization dependence of the absorption behavior are also presented.

  1. Actis Total Hip System 2 Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Osteoarthritis; Traumatic Arthritis; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Congenital Hip Dysplasia; Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head; Acute Traumatic Fracture of the Femoral Head or Neck; Certain Cases of Ankylosis; Non-union of Femoral Neck Fractures; Certain High Sub-Capital & Femoral Neck Fractures in Elderly

  2. Neutron absorbing element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron absorbing element of a neutron shielding member used for an LMFBR type reactor. The inside of a fuel can sealed at both of the upper and the lower ends thereof with plugs is partitioned into an upper and a lower chambers by an intermediate plug. A discharging hole is disposed at the upper end plug, which is in communication with the outside. A communication tube is disposed at the intermediate end plug and it is in communication with the lower chamber containing B 4 C pellets. A cylindrical support member having three porous plugs connected in series is disposed at the lower surface of the discharging hole provided at the upper end plug. Further, the end of the discharging hole is sealed with high temperature solder and He atmosphere is present at the inside of the fuel can. With such a constitution, the supporting differential pressure of the porous plugs can be made greater while discharging He gases generated from B 4 C to the outside. Further, the porous plugs can be surely wetted by coolants. Accordingly, it is possible to increase life time and shorten the size. (I.N.)

  3. The MIRD method of estimating absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed radiation dose from internal emitters provides the information required to assess the radiation risk associated with the administration of radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system of dose calculation provides a systematic approach to combining the biologic distribution data and clearance data of radiopharmaceuticals and the physical properties of radionuclides to obtain dose estimates. This tutorial presents a review of the MIRD schema, the derivation of the equations used to calculate absorbed dose, and shows how the MIRD schema can be applied to estimate dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine

  4. Tribology Aspect of Rubber Shock Absorbers Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a very flexible material with many desirable properties Which enable its broad use in engineering practice. Rubber or rubber-metal springs are widely used as anti-vibration or anti-shock components in technical systems. Rubber-metal springs are usually realized as a bonded assembly, however especially in shock absorbers, it is possible to realize free contacts between rubber and metal parts. In previous research it authors was observed that friction between rubber and metal in such case have a significant influence on the damping characteristics of shock absorber. This paper analyzes the development process of rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers realized free contacts between the constitutive parts, starting from the design, construction, testing and operation, with special emphasis on the development of rubber-metal springs for the buffing and draw gear of railway vehicles.

  5. Burnable absorber coated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, W.; Radford, K.C.; Parks, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear fuel body which is at least partially covered by a burnable neutron absorber layer is provided with a hydrophobic overcoat generally covering the burnable absorber layer and bonded directly to it. In a method for providing a UO 2 fuel pellet with a zirconium diboride burnable poison layer, the fuel body is provided with an intermediate niobium layer. (author)

  6. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  7. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  8. Absorbing rods for nuclear fast neutron reactor absorbing assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, M.; Ballagny, A.; Haze, R.

    1986-01-01

    The invention proposes a neutron absorber rod for neutron absorber assembly of a fast neutron reactor. The assembly comprises a bundle of vertical rods, each one comprising a stack of pellets made of a neutron absorber material contained in a long metallic casing with a certain radial play with regard to this casing; this casing includes traps for splinters from the pellets which may appear during reactor operation, at the level of contact between adjacent pellets. The present invention prevents the casing from rupture involved by the disintegration of the pellets producing pieces of boron carbide of high hardness [fr

  9. Development of an innovative solar absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Gavin

    Solar thermal systems have great potential to replace or reduce the dependence of conventional fossil fuel based heating technologies required for space and water heating. Specifically solar domestic hot water systems can contribute 50-75% of the annual thermal load. To date residential users have been slow to purchase and install systems, primarily due to the large monetary investment required to purchase and install a system. Recent innovations in materials design and manufacturing techniques, offer opportunities for the development of absorber plate designs that have the potential to reduce cost, increase efficiency and reduce payback periods. Consequently, this design study was conducted in conjunction with industrial partners to develop an improved absorber based on roll bond manufacturing that can be produced at reduced cost with comparable or greater thermal efficiency.

  10. Contributions to the Study of Dynamic Absorbers, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Balcau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic absorbers are used to reduce torsional vibrations. This paper studies the effect of a dynamic absorber attached to a mechanical system formed of three reduced masses which are acted on by one, two or three order x harmonics of a disruptive force.

  11. Photoelectron antibunching and absorber theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    The recently detected photoelectron antibunching effect is considered to be evidence for the quantised electromagnetic field, i.e. for the existence of photons. Direct-action quantum absorber theory, on the other hand, has been developed on the basis that the quantised field is illusory, with quantisation being required only for atoms. In this paper it is shown that photoelectron antibunching is readily explicable in terms of absorber theory and in fact is directly attributable to the quantum nature of the emitting and detecting atoms alone. The physical nature of the reduction of the wavepacket associated with the detection process is briefly discussed in terms of absorber theory. (author)

  12. Liquid metal reactor absorber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1990-10-01

    The selection of boron carbide as the reference liquid metal reactor absorber material is supported by results presented for irradiation performance, reactivity worth compatibility, and benign failure consequences. Scram response requirements are met easily with current control rod configurations. The trend in absorber design development is toward larger sized pins with fewer pins per bundle, providing economic savings and improved hydraulic characteristics. Very long-life absorber designs appear to be attainable with the application of vented pin and sodium-bonded concepts. 3 refs., 3 figs

  13. Research on a new rubber's absorber system for cable-stayed bridges. PC shachokyoyo shazai teichakubu shindo kyushuyo boshin gomu no shinkiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, K.; Kibe, H.; Ohashi, W. (SE Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-09-30

    Cable-stayed bridges are being constructed increasingly and their maximum effective span length is becoming longer to the extent that it is about to reach the limit, thereby diagonal members which, by nature, tend to vibrate become much longer, hence problems concerning vibration have drawn attention. In this article, regarding vibration insulating rubber for absorbing vibrations to be set at an anchorage of diagonal members, a new mechanism has been invented and its analysis as well as demonstration experiment have been conducted. This mechanism is based on the concept that the vibration insulating rubber has been set beforehand at the time of installing the diagonal members, adheres to the diagonal members immediately after the diagonal members are stretched, but its adherence is released simply when tension adjustment is needed, and the spring constant of the rubber can be calculated simply within the range of practical use. The results obtained from the above analysis and demonstration experiment are as follows; it is necessary to set vibration insulating rubber in the vicinity of the anchorage of diagonal members in order to absorb vibrations of the members and the method to make its setting simple and secure has been confirmed. Also the calculation method of spring constant of vibration insulating rubber necessary for estimating the secondary bending stress of diagonal member has been confirmed, thereby designing of vibration insulating rubber has become easy. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Recovering With Acquired Apraxia of Speech: The First 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L; Shafer, Jennifer N; Harmon, Tyson G; Jacks, Adam

    2016-12-01

    This study was intended to document speech recovery for 1 person with acquired apraxia of speech quantitatively and on the basis of her lived experience. The second author sustained a traumatic brain injury that resulted in acquired apraxia of speech. Over a 2-year period, she documented her recovery through 22 video-recorded monologues. We analyzed these monologues using a combination of auditory perceptual, acoustic, and qualitative methods. Recovery was evident for all quantitative variables examined. For speech sound production, the recovery was most prominent during the first 3 months, but slower improvement was evident for many months. Measures of speaking rate, fluency, and prosody changed more gradually throughout the entire period. A qualitative analysis of topics addressed in the monologues was consistent with the quantitative speech recovery and indicated a subjective dynamic relationship between accuracy and rate, an observation that several factors made speech sound production variable, and a persisting need for cognitive effort while speaking. Speech features improved over an extended time, but the recovery trajectories differed, indicating dynamic reorganization of the underlying speech production system. The relationship among speech dimensions should be examined in other cases and in population samples. The combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis methods offers advantages for understanding clinically relevant aspects of recovery.

  15. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    -free mass (FFM) were measured using air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth. Linear regression models were applied to study the relationship between BC at birth and HAZ at 24 months (±3 months). RESULTS: A total of 268 children with height assessment at 2 years were included. Mean±s.d. HAZ...... at 2 years of age was -1.2±1.2, with 25.8% classified as stunted (HAZFFM at birth was positively associated with HAZ at 2 years, independent of length at birth. When adjusted for potential confounders, HAZ at 2 years was 0.73 higher for each additional kg FFM at birth (β=0.73, 95%CI (0.08, 1.......38). FM was not associated with HAZ at 2 years in any model. CONCLUSION: The FFM component of birth weight, independent of length, explains variability in HAZ at 2 years. Further studies are required to explore how changes in early infant BC are associated with linear growth.Pediatric Research accepted...

  16. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Dublin, OH; Litt, Robert D [Westerville, OH; Dongming, Qiu [Dublin, OH; Silva, Laura J [Plain City, OH; Lamont, Micheal Jay [Plain City, OH; Fanelli, Maddalena [Plain City, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Plain city, OH; Perry, Steven [Galloway, OH

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  17. Absorber materials in CANDU PHWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.G.; Boss, C.R.; Novak, W.Z.; Fong, R.W.L.

    1995-03-01

    In a CANDU reactor the fuel channels are arranged on a square lattice in a calandria filled with heavy water moderator. This arrangement allows five types of tubular neutron absorber devices to be located in a relatively benign environment of low pressure, low temperature heavy water between neighbouring rows of columns of fuel channels. This paper will describe the roles of the devices and outline the design requirements of the absorber component from a reactor physics viewpoint. Nuclear heating and activation problems associated with the different absorbers will be briefly discussed. The design and manufacture of the devices will be also discussed. The control rod absorbers and shut off materials are cadmium and stainless steel. In the tubular arrangement, the cadmium is sandwiched between stainless steel tubes. This type of device has functioned well, but there is now concern over the availability and expense of cadmium which is used in two types of CANDU control devices. There are also concerns about the toxicity of cadmium during the fabrication of the absorbers. These concerns are prompting AECL to study alternatives. To minimize design changes, pure boron-10 alloyed in stainless steel is a favoured option. Work is underway to confirm the suitability of the boron-loaded steel and identify other encapsulated absorber materials for practical application. Because the reactivity devices or their guide tubes span the calandria vessel, the long slender components must be sufficiently rigid to resist operational vibration and also be seismically stable. Some of these components are made of Zircaloy to minimize neutron absorption. Slow irradiation growth and creep can reduce the spring tension, and periodic adjustments to the springs are required. Experience with the control absorber devices has generally been good. In one instance liquid zone controllers had a problem of vibration induced fretting but a designed back-fit resolved the problem. (author). 3 refs., 1

  18. Radiation and shielding around beam absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, A.; Maas, R.

    1978-12-01

    During operational conditions it is anticipated that a fair amount of the total available beam power is dumped in either the slit system on one of the beam dumps. Thses beam absorbers therefore become strong radioactive sources. The radiation level due to the absorption of a 100 kW electron beam is estimated and the problem of residual activity is treated. Proposed shielding materials are discussed. (C.F.)

  19. Gas-phase absorbents for trapping radioactive iodine and iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This standard covers granular absorbents (activated carbon, mineral base, polymer, etc.) for use in air and gas treatment systems. The absorbents are used in both thin-bed absorber cells and deep-bed systems. The standard includes docuent list, technical requirements, quality assurance requirements, and preparation for delivery. Test and sampling procedures are given

  20. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  1. SECKEL SYNDROME IN A - 2 YEAR OLD GIRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanuel Yulius Malino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is a frequent autosomal recessive that cause microcephalic osteodysplastic dwarfisms. It characterized with proportionate dwarfism of prenatal onset, dysmorphic features including severe microcephaly and “bird-headed” like appearance, mental retardation and autosomal recessive inheritance, becausedefect on chromosome 3q22.1-q24 (SCKL1, chromosome 18p11.31-q11.2 (SCKL2 and chromosome 14q23 (SCKL3. We reported, 2 years, 8 months female with intrauterine growth restriction, severe proportionately short stature, a “bird-headed” profile with receding forehead, large eyes, breaks like protrusion of the nose, narrow face, receding lower jaw and micrognathia and from bone survey we found a retarded bone age on which was appropriate for 6 months of age.There was no other systems dissorder have been found and no specific medication has been given. Patient was hospitalized to establish diagnosis and was dischargedafter ten days of hospitalization Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Neutron-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoi, K.I.; Arabei, L.B.; Gryaznov, G.M.; Levi, L.I.; Lunin, G.L.; Kozhukhov, V.M.; Markov, J.M.; Fedotov, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the production of an alloy consiting of 1 to 20% In, 0.5 to 15% Sm, and from 3 to 18% Hf, the balance being Ni. Such alloys show a good absorption capacity for thermal and intermediate neutrons, good neutron capture efficiency, and good corrosion resistance, and find application in nuclear reactor automatic control and safety systems. The Hf provides for the maintenance of a reasonably high order of neutron capture efficiency throughout the lifetime of a reactor. The alloys are formed in a vacuum furnace operating with an inert gas atmosphere at 280 to 300 mm.Hg. They have a corrosion resistance from 3 to 3.5 times that of the Ag-based alloys commonly employed, and a neutron capture efficiency about twice that of the Ag alloys. Castability and structural strength are good. (U.K.)

  3. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  4. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  5. Piston-rotaxanes as molecular shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, E M; Williams, D R M

    2010-04-20

    We describe the thermomechanical response of a new molecular system that behaves as a shock absorber. The system consists of a rodlike rotaxane connected to a piston and tethered to a surface. The response of this system is dominated by the translational entropy of the rotaxane rings and can be calculated exactly. The force laws are contrasted with those for a rigid rod and a polymer. In some cases, the rotaxanes undergo a sudden transition to a tilted state when compressed. These piston-rotaxanes provide a potential motif for the design of a new class of materials with a novel thermomechanical response.

  6. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)

  7. Complications and 2-year valve survival following Ahmed valve implantation during the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, F; Al-Mobarak, F; Khan, A O

    2009-06-01

    To report complications and 2-year valve survival following Ahmed valve implantation during the first 2 years of life. Retrospective institutional case series. Forty-two eyes of 36 patients with Ahmed valve implantation (without prior drainage device surgery) during the first 2 years of life and 2 years' postsurgical follow-up were identified. Most eyes had primary congenital glaucoma (28/42, 66.7%), aphakic glaucoma (5/42, 11.9%) or Peters anomaly (5/42, 11.9%). All but three eyes had prior ocular surgery. Surgery was at a mean age of 11.83 months (m) (SD 5.63). The most common significant postoperative complications were tube malpositioning requiring intervention (11/42, 26.2%), endophthalmitis (3/42, 7.1%; one with tube exposure) and retinal detachment (3/42, 7.1%). Thirty-six eyes (85.8%) required resumption of antiglaucoma medications to maintain intraocular pressure (IOP) valve survival (IOPendophthalmitis and retinal detachment are known potential complications following any incisional surgery for advanced buphthalmos; however, tube exposure is a unique potential problem following aqueous shunt implantation that can lead to intraocular infection. Cumulative valve survival 2 years following implantation was 63.3%.

  8. Clinico-Electroencephalography Pattern and Determinant of 2-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinico-Electroencephalography Pattern and Determinant of 2-year Seizure Control in Patients with Complex Partial Seizure Disorder in Kano, Northwestern ... Ability to predict seizure control on first diagnosis can be very useful in the management of patients with CPS. ... Data were analyzed using STATA version 10.

  9. Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Brouwer, E.M.; Rest, van de O.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Enneman, A.W.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Swart, K.M.A.; Velde, van der N.; Schoor, van N.M.; Cammen, van der T.J.M.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years

  10. TVT versus TOT, 2-year prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadie, Bassem S; El-Hefnawy, Ahmed S; Elhefnawy, Ahmed S

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate in a comprehensive way TVT in comparison with TOT, the results of a single-center RCT are presented. Many studies addressed efficacy and safety of TVT and TOT. Women included were adults having predominant SUI with positive stress test. They were randomized to get either TVT (Gynecare(®)) or TOT (Aris(®)). All women were seen 1 week, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Seventy-one women completed 2-year follow-up. Median age was 47 (range 33-60 years). Mean ± SD BMI in TVT group was 34 ± 5 while in TOT group was 32 ± 5 kg/m(2). POP of any degree was seen in 50 % (35 women). At 1 year, pad test-negative women were 31 and 29 for TVT and TOT, respectively. At 2 years, figures became 28 in TVT group and 27 in TOT. At 1 year, UDI 6 and IIQ 7 decreased by 78.5 and 81 % for TVT and by 69 % and 75 % for TOT group. At 2 year, comparable percentages were 73 and 79 % for TVT and 69 and 82 % for TOT. Fifteen unique patients had adverse events, 10 of them had TOT. Both tapes have similar efficacy, regarding cure of incontinence. TVT is more effective, albeit insignificantly, than TOT at 2 years. However, serious adverse events were more frequent with TVT, yet TOT has more unique adverse events.

  11. Thermal expansion absorbing structure for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    A thermal expansion absorbing structure for a pipeline is disposed to the end of pipelines to form a U-shaped cross section connecting a semi-circular torus shell and a short double-walled cylindrical tube. The U-shaped longitudinal cross-section is deformed in accordance with the shrinking deformation of the pipeline and absorbs thermal expansion. Namely, since the central lines of the outer and inner tubes of the double-walled cylindrical tube deform so as to incline, when the pipeline is deformed by thermal expansion, thermal expansion can be absorbed by a simple configuration thereby enabling to contribute to ensure the safety. Then, the entire length of the pipeline can greatly be shortened by applying it to the pipeline disposed in a high temperature state compared with a method of laying around a pipeline using only elbows, which has been conducted so far. Especially, when it is applied to a pipeline for an FBR-type reactor, the cost for the construction of a facility of a primary systems can greater be reduced. In addition, it can be applied to a pipeline for usual chemical plants and any other structures requiring absorption of deformation. (N.H.)

  12. Nuclear reactor control device by vertical displacement of neutron absorber scram rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defaucheux, Jacques; Pasqualini, Gilbert; Wiart, Albert; Martin, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactor control system by vertical displacement of an assembly absorbing the neutrons inside a reactor core and drop of the absorbing assembly in maximum insertion position under the effect of its own weight for emergency shutdown. The absorbing assembly is secured to the bottom end of a vertical control rod, the displacement of which is actuated by an electro-magnetic device [fr

  13. Radiation sterilization of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Oka, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Akira; Ishiwata, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    The bioburden of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze and their physical and chemical characteristics after irradiation are investigated. The survey conducted on contaminants of 1890 cotton samples from 53 lots and 805 gauze samples from 56 lots showed maximum numbers of microbes per g of the cotton and gauze were 859 (an average of 21.4) and 777 (an average of 42.2), respectively. Isolation and microbiological and biochemical tests of representative microbes indicated that all of them, except one, were bacilli. The sterilization dose at 10 -6 of sterlity assurance level was found to be 2.0 Mrad when irradiated the spores loaded on paper strips and examined populations having graded D values from 0.10 to 0.28 Mrad. The sterilization dose would be about 1.5 Mrad if subjected the average numbers of contaminants observed in this study to irradiation. No significant differences were found between the irradiated samples and control up to 2 Mrad in tensile strength, change of color, absorbency, sedimentation rate, soluble substances, and pH of solutions used for immersion and other tests conventionally used. These results indicate that these products can be sterilized by irradiation. (author)

  14. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  15. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gołdasz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  16. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  17. Absorbency of Superabsorbent Polymers in Cementitious Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2012-01-01

    Optimal use of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in cement-based materials relies on knowledge on how SAP absorbency is influenced by different physical and chemical parameters. These parameters include salt concentration in the pore fluid, temperature of the system and SAP particle size. The present...... work shows experimental results on this and presents a new technique to measure the swelling of SAP particles. This new technique is compared with existing techniques that have been recently proposed for the measurement of pore fluid absorption by superabsorbent polymers. It is seen...

  18. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA, early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP. Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] and CDVA (logMAR was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061 and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 mm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8% case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7% cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate.

  19. Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameau, Anaïs; Anand, Sumeet M; Nguyen, Lily H

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

  20. The MuCool/MICE LH2 Absorber Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, Mary Anne

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen absorber R and D for the MuCool Collaboration is actively pushing ahead on two parallel and complementary fronts. The continuing LH2 engineering and technical developments by the MuCool group, conducted by ICAR institutions (NIU, IIT and UIUC), the University of Mississippi and Oxford University in cooperation with Fermilab, are summarized here, including plans for the first tests of an absorber prototype from Osaka University and KEK cooled by internal convection at the newly constructed FNAL MuCool Test Area (MTA). Designs for the high-power test of another absorber prototype (employing external heat exchange) are complete and the system will be installed by summer 2004. A convection-cooled absorber design is being developed for the approved MICE cooling demonstration at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

  1. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhno, Igor L.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Tropin, Igor S.

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system - all with corresponding radiation shielding - was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options. (authors)

  2. Application of computational fluid dynamics for the simulation of cryogenic molecular sieve bed absorber of hydrogen isotopes recovery system for Indian LLCB-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri Devi, V.; Sircar, A.; Sarkar, B. [Institute of Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarar (India)

    2015-03-15

    One of the most challenging tasks in the design of the fuel cycle system lies in the effective design of Tritium Extraction System (TES) which involves proper extraction and purification of tritium in the fuel cycle of the fusion reactor. Indian Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (LLCB-TBM) would extract hydrogen isotopes through Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB) adsorber system. A prototype Hydrogen Isotopes Recovery System (HIRS) is being developed to validate the concepts for tritium extraction by adsorption mass transfer mechanism. In this study, a design model has been developed and analyzed to simulate the adsorption mass transfer kinetics in a fixed bed adsorption column. The simulation leads primarily to effective design of HIRS, which is a state-of-the-art technology. The paper describes the process simulation approach and the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The effects of different operating conditions are studied to investigate their influence on the hydrogen isotopes adsorption capacity. The results of the present simulation study would be used to understand the best optimized transport phenomenon before realizing the TES as a system for LLCB-TBM. (authors)

  3. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon

  4. 2-year patient-related versus stent-related outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Christiansen, Evald Høj

    2012-01-01

    years were further assessed with specific focus on patient-related composite (all death, all MI, or any revascularization) and stent-related composite outcomes (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or symptom-driven target lesion revascularization). A total of 1,390 patients were assigned to receive the EES......, and 1,384 patients were assigned to receive the SES. RESULTS: At 2 years, the composite primary endpoint occurred in 8.3% in the EES group and in 8.7% in the SES group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 1.22). The patient-related outcome: 15.0% in the EES group versus 15.......80). CONCLUSIONS: At 2-year follow-up, the EES was found to be noninferior to the SES with regard to both patient-related and stent-related clinical outcomes. (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials With Clinical Outcome IV [SORT OUT IV]; NCT00552877)....

  5. Piezooptic effect of absorbing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Рудяк

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of piezooptic effect of absorbing environment for the definition of the parameter of stress deformation state was examined. The analysis of dielectric permeability tensor of imaginary parts was done. It is shown that changes in the real part dielectric permeability tensor mainly the indicator of fracture was fixed by means of mechanics interference methods and the changes in the imaginary part (α – real rate of absorption can be measured by means of analysis of light absorption and thus stress deformation state can be determined

  6. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies, Inc., 3542 N. Geronimo Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85705 (United States); College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Yang, H.-J.; Scheller, M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-02-07

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to study the influence of strong sub-picosecond pulses on the carrier distributions and corresponding optical response in saturable absorbers used for mode-locking—semiconductor (quantum well) saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and single layer graphene based saturable absorber mirrors (GSAMs). Unlike in GSAMs, the saturation fluence and recovery time in SESAMs show a strong spectral dependence. While the saturation fluence in the SESAM is minimal at the excitonic bandgap, the optimal recovery time and least pulse distortion due to group delay dispersion are found for excitation higher in the first subband. For excitation near the SESAM bandgap, the saturation fluence is about one tenth of that in the GSAM. At energies above the bandgap, the fluences in both systems become similar. A strong dependence of the saturation fluence on the pulse width in both systems is caused by carrier relaxation during the pulse. The recovery time in graphene is found to be about two to four times faster than that in the SESAMs. The occurrence of negative differential transmission in graphene is shown to be caused by dopant related carriers. In SESAMs, a negative differential transmission is found when exciting below the excitonic resonance where excitation induced dephasing leads to an enhancement of the absorption. Comparisons of the simulation data to the experiment show a very good quantitative agreement.

  7. Tetanus trismus in a 2 year old child: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar, Vadakut Krishnan Parvathy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. It occurs in children mainly in the unimmunized, due to parental ignorance and objection to vaccination. This potentially fatal disease caused by a neurotoxin, tetanospasmin released from wounds infected with Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic gram–positive bacillus. As tetanus becomes less common, cases are likely to be misdiagnosed or go unrecognized. In this case report, we present a case of tetanus in a partially immunized 2 year old girl who presented with trismus. She was treated with the recent recommendations and adequate supportive care. Detection of tetanus at a very early stage can favor lifesaving interventions. Trismus, infected wound and partially immunized/unimmunized status of a child were the key features leading to the prompt diagnosis and early treatment.

  8. Psychopathology 8 1/2 years post parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, S; Fitzgerald, M; Greene, V T

    1999-01-01

    There are few long-term follow-up studies of parasuicides incorporating face-to-face interviews. To date no study has evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity at long-term follow-up of parasuicides using diagnostic rating scales, nor has any study examined parental bonding issues in this population. We attempted a prospective follow-up of 85 parasuicide cases an average of 8 1/2 years later. Psychiatric morbidity, social functioning, and recollections of the parenting style of their parents were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule, the Social Maladjustment Scale, and the Parental Bonding Instrument, respectively. Thirty-nine persons in total were interviewed, 19 of whom were well and 20 of whom had psychiatric morbidity. Five and died during the follow-up period, 3 by suicide. Migration, refusals, and untraceability were common. Parasuicide was associated with parental overprotection during childhood. Long-term outcome is poor, especially among those who engaged in repeated parasuicides.

  9. Environmental assessment of PSS, feedback on 2 years of experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Romain; Gobert, Julie

    2018-05-01

    This communication details the sustainability assessment of the partial transition of business model from selling products to product renting for small household equipment (SHE). Perceived by the French SHE manufacturer as a strategic opportunity to meet customers' expectations and environmental regulation, 2-years experimentation was performed on a specific territory with the support of a network of new competencies (B-to-B-to-C market). Researchers were mandated for the sustainability assessment of such a transition but this communication focuses on the environmental performance of the experimentation. The results of the comparative LCA are presented and the main environmental impacts linked to this business model transition are specified and discussed. Then, different eco-design scenarios are explored and recommendations for this specific case are proposed.

  10. Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Ping

    2016-05-18

    The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  11. Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Ping; Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  12. [Absorbable coronary stents. New promising technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbel, Raimund; Böse, Dirk; Haude, Michael; Kordish, Igor; Churzidze, Sofia; Malyar, Nasser; Konorza, Thomas; Sack, Stefan

    2007-06-01

    Coronary stent implantation started in Germany 20 years ago. In the beginning, the progress was very slow and accelerated 10 years later. Meanwhile, coronary stent implantation is a standard procedure in interventional cardiology. From the beginning of permanent stent implantation, research started to provide temporary stenting of coronary arteries, first with catheter-based systems, later with stent-alone technology. Stents were produced from polymers or metal. The first polymer stent implantation failed except the Igaki-Tamai stent in Japan. Newly developed absorbable polymer stents seem to be very promising, as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated. Temporary metal stents were developed based on iron and magnesium. Currently, the iron stent is tested in peripheral arteries. The absorbable magnesium stent (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) was tested in peripheral arteries below the knee and meanwhile in the multicenter international PROGRESS-AMS (Clinical Performance and Angiographic Results of Coronary Stenting with Absorbable Metal Stents) study. The first magnesium stent implantation was performed on July 30, 2004 after extended experimental testing in Essen. The magnesium stent behaved like a bare-metal stent with low recoil of 5-7%. The stent struts were absorbed when tested with IVUS. Stent struts were not visible by fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). That means, that the magnesium stent is invisible and therefore CT and MRI can be used for imaging of interventions. Only using micro-CT the stent struts were visible. The absorption process could be demonstrated in a patient 18 days after implantation due to suspected acute coronary syndrome, which was excluded. IVUS showed a nice open lumen. Stent struts were no longer visible, but replaced by tissue indicating the previous stent location. Coronary angiography after 4 months showed an ischemia-driven target lesion

  13. High-Resolution Modeling of the Predictability of Convective Systems, and Influences by Absorbing Aerosols Over Northern India and the Himalayas Foothills During Boreal Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K.-M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shi, Jainn; Tan, Qian; Chin, Mian; Matsui, Toshihisa; Bian, Huisheng

    2011-01-01

    The Himalayas foothills region (HFR) is an important component of the South Asian monsoon. To the south, the HFR borders the fertile, populous, and heavily polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). To the north, it rises to great height (approx. 4-5 km) to the Tibetan Plateau over a distance of less than 100 km. The HFR itself consists of complex mountainous terrain, with strong orographic forcing for precipitation. During the late spring and early summer, dust aerosol from the Thar and Middle East deserts , as well as moisture from the Arabian Sea were transported to the western part of the western part of the IGP and foothills spurs pre-monsoon severe thunderstorm over the region. During the monsoon season (mid June -August) convection from the Bay of Bengal, spread along the foothills northwestward to northern Pakistan. Recent climate model studies and preliminary observations have indicted not only the importance of dynamical forcing of precipitation in the HFR, but also possible strong impacts by the dense aerosols, from both local sources, and remote transport, that blanket the IGP from late spring up to the onset of the monsoon in June, and during monsoon breaks in July. In this work, we use the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (Nu-WRF) model to study the predictability ( 1-7 days) South Asian monsoon rainfall system. Results of 7 -day forecast experiments using an embedded domain of 27 km and 9 km resolution were conducted for the period June 11- July 15, 2008, with and without aerosol forcing are carried out to assess the intrinsic predictability of rainfall over the HFR, and possible impacts by aerosol direct effect, and possible connection of large-scale South Asian monsoon system.

  14. PRECIOUS METALS IN SDSS QUASAR SPECTRA. I. TRACKING THE EVOLUTION OF STRONG, 1.5 < z < 4.5 C IV ABSORBERS WITH THOUSANDS OF SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooksey, Kathy L.; Kao, Melodie M.; Simcoe, Robert A.; O'Meara, John M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    We have vastly increased the C IV statistics at intermediate redshift by surveying the thousands of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data-Release 7. We visually verified over 16,000 C IV systems with 1.46 r ≈ 0.6 Å. We analyzed the sample as a whole and in 10 small redshift bins with approximately 1500 doublets each. The equivalent width frequency distributions f(W r ) were well modeled by an exponential, with little evolution in shape. In contrast with previous studies that modeled the frequency distribution as a single power law, the fitted exponential gives a finite mass density for the C IV ions. The comoving line density dN CIV /dX evolved smoothly with redshift, increasing by a factor of 2.37 ± 0.09 from z = 4.55-1.96, then plateauing at dN CIV /dX∼0.34 for z = 1.96-1.46. Comparing our SDSS sample with z 5 (infrared) surveys, we see an approximately 10-fold increase in dN CIV /dX over z ≈ 6 → 0, for W r ≥ 0.6 Å. This suggests a monotonic and significant increase in the enrichment of gas outside galaxies over the 12 Gyr lifetime of the universe.

  15. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Scrivner, Christine M [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  16. Modelling and validation of electromechanical shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoli, Andrea; Amati, Nicola; Girardello Detoni, Joaquim; Galluzzi, Renato; Gasparin, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    Electromechanical vehicle suspension systems represent a promising substitute to conventional hydraulic solutions. However, the design of electromechanical devices that are able to supply high damping forces without exceeding geometric dimension and mass constraints is a difficult task. All these challenges meet in off-road vehicle suspension systems, where the power density of the dampers is a crucial parameter. In this context, the present paper outlines a particular shock absorber configuration where a suitable electric machine and a transmission mechanism are utilised to meet off-road vehicle requirements. A dynamic model is used to represent the device. Subsequently, experimental tests are performed on an actual prototype to verify the functionality of the damper and validate the proposed model.

  17. Corundum-based transparent infrared absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-10-01

    Hypothetical corundum-based compounds are studied by electronic structure calculations. One quarter of the Al atoms in Al2O3 is replaced by a 3d transition metal from the M = Ti, ..., Zn (d1, ..., d9) series. Structure optimisations are performed for all the M-Al2O3 compounds and the electronic states are evaluated. Due to the M substitutes, narrow partially filled bands are formed at the Fermi energy. Beyond, for M = Ni and M = Cu the optical properties of Al2O3 in the visible range are conserved, while for M = Ti, ..., Co the systems form high accuracy optical filters. Since the compounds absorb the infrared radiation, the M = Ni and M = Cu systems are good candidates for heat-protective coatings. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transport in coherently absorbing or amplifying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    We study electronic transport in a one-dimensional ordered chain in the presence of either absorption or amplification at each site (the site-potential having an imaginary positive or negative part) within a single-band tightbinding Hamiltonian. The spectrum in either case for the isolated (closed) quantum system is found to become broader compared to the regular Bloch case where there is no absorption or amplification at any site. Interestingly for the transport through an infinitely long ordered chain (open quantum system), the reflectance saturates to a value greater (lesser) than unity in the amplifying (absorbing) case and the transmittance decays to zero in either case. This fact implies that the transmittance does not grow indefinitely even for an ordered, amplifying (active or lasing) medium and that it is not necessary to have any disorder or interaction induced confining mechanism on the transmitted wave, so as to achieve an amplification in the backscattered wave. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  19. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  20. Possible Quantum Absorber Effects in Cortical Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Uwe

    The Wheeler-Feynman transactional "absorber" approach was proposed originally to account for anomalous resonance coupling between spatio-temporally distant measurement partners in entangled quantum states of so-called Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradoxes, e.g. of spatio-temporal non-locality, quantum teleportation, etc. Applied to quantum brain dynamics, however, this view provides an anticipative resonance coupling model for aspects of cortical synchronization and recurrent visual action control. It is proposed to consider the registered activation patterns of neuronal loops in so-called synfire chains not as a result of retarded brain communication processes, but rather as surface effects of a system of standing waves generated in the depth of visual processing. According to this view, they arise from a counterbalance between the actual input's delayed bottom-up data streams and top-down recurrent information-processing of advanced anticipative signals in a Wheeler-Feynman-type absorber mode. In the framework of a "time-loop" model, findings about mirror neurons in the brain cortex are suggested to be at least partially associated with temporal rather than spatial mirror functions of visual processing, similar to phase conjugate adaptive resonance-coupling in nonlinear optics.

  1. Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chan, Weibo; Bue, Grant C.

    2012-01-01

    For decades advanced spacesuit developers have pursued a regenerable, robust nonventing system for heat rejection. Toward this end, this paper investigates linking together two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). Heat from a liquid cooled garment is transported to SWME that provides cooling through evaporation. This water vapor is then captured by solid LiCl in the LCAR with a high enthalpy of absorption, resulting in sufficient temperature lift to reject heat to space by radiation. After the sortie, the LCAR would be heated up and dried in a regenerator to drive off and recover the absorbed evaporant. A engineering development prototype was built and tested in vacuum conditions at a sink temperature of 250 K. The LCAR was able to stably reject 75 W over a 7-hour period. A conceptual design of a full-scale radiator is proposed. Excess heat rejection above 240 W would be accomplished through venting of the evaporant. Loop closure rates were predicted for various exploration environment scenarios.

  2. Study of different absorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of 99Mo - 99mTc and 188W-188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Amongst some currently radioisotopes, 99m Tc and 188 Re present adequate decay properties for use in Nuclear Medicine. In the current times the most diagnosis examinations are performed with 99m Tc and 188 Re is one radioisotope of potential use in therapy techniques. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molybdenum and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of 99 Mo- 99m Tc and 188 W- 188 Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum and tungsten were percolated through different chromatographic columns containing different commercial adsorbent materials such as: PZC (poly-zirconium compound), acid alumina and calcinated alumina used in the routine preparation of 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators at IPEN. The tungsten ( 188 W), as well the PZC used in this project, supplied by Russia and Japan, respectively, through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and used without any previous preparation. Also trace amounts of 99 Mo and 188 W were added to the initial solutions and the generators were assembled. The 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators were then eluted with known volumes of 0.9% NaCl solution every 24 hours whereas the 188 W- 188 Re generators were eluted every 48 hours. The eluted samples were analyzed by Gamma Spectroscopy and later submitted to quality control evaluation. The results showed that the PZC presents superior retention capacity for Mo of 97.50mg Mo/gPZC, higher than in acid and calcinated alumina, however the elution efficiency at lower pHs is not so high. With regards to the experiments carried out with 188 W and alumina, it was verified that the elution efficiency of 188 Re was not reproducible and the retention capacity of W was 90.23mgW/gAl 2 O 3 at pH 7. (author)

  3. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment aged for 2 years to carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S. Y.; Li, J. Y.; Jia, X. M.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) existing in sediment for years, the accumulation of PBDEs in sediment aged for 2 years to fish was investigated. Simulated aquatic system microcosms were conducted with PBDE contaminated sediment aged for 2 years and carps were cultured in the microcosms for 20 days. PBDE concentrations in carp tissues were analyzed to estimate the bioavailability of aged PBDEs in carps. The main spiked PBDE congeners were detected in sediment even though the contaminated sediment was aged for 2 years. Similarly, the five PBDE (BDE-28, 47, 100, 153 and 154) congeners which probably were bioaccumulated by carp were detected in fish tissues, indicating that PBDEs could be bioaccumulated after aging for 2 years. The PBDEs distribution revealed that the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in tissues of Cyprinus carpio is in this order of magnitude: gut > liver > gill > fillet. The PBDEs concentrations in fillet were as high as 67.9 ng/g dry wt, in which BDE-47 contributed almost 50% in profile.

  4. Study of different absorbent materials for the preparation of generator systems of {sup 99}Mo - {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: paulinhacorain@usp.b, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Amongst some currently radioisotopes, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re present adequate decay properties for use in Nuclear Medicine. In the current times the most diagnosis examinations are performed with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re is one radioisotope of potential use in therapy techniques. The objective of this work consists of determining the capacity of some adsorbent materials for retention of molybdenum and tungsten, aiming the optimization of generator systems of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re with suitable characteristics for application in Nuclear Medicine. Known amounts, in mass, of molybdenum and tungsten were percolated through different chromatographic columns containing different commercial adsorbent materials such as: PZC (poly-zirconium compound), acid alumina and calcinated alumina used in the routine preparation of {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators at IPEN. The tungsten ({sup 188}W), as well the PZC used in this project, supplied by Russia and Japan, respectively, through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and used without any previous preparation. Also trace amounts of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 188}W were added to the initial solutions and the generators were assembled. The {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators were then eluted with known volumes of 0.9% NaCl solution every 24 hours whereas the {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generators were eluted every 48 hours. The eluted samples were analyzed by Gamma Spectroscopy and later submitted to quality control evaluation. The results showed that the PZC presents superior retention capacity for Mo of 97.50mg Mo/gPZC, higher than in acid and calcinated alumina, however the elution efficiency at lower pHs is not so high. With regards to the experiments carried out with {sup 188}W and alumina, it was verified that the elution efficiency of {sup 188}Re was not reproducible and the retention capacity of W was 90.23mgW/gAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} at pH 7. (author)

  5. Oxalate: Effect on calcium absorbability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, R.P.; Weaver, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption of calcium from intrinsically labeled Ca oxalate was measured in 18 normal women and compared with absorption of Ca from milk in these same subjects, both when the test substances were ingested in separate meals and when ingested together. Fractional Ca absorption from oxalate averaged 0.100 +/- 0.043 when ingested alone and 0.140 +/- 0.063 when ingested together with milk. Absorption was, as expected, substantially lower than absorption from milk (0.358 +/- 0.113). Nevertheless Ca oxalate absorbability in these women was higher than we had previously found for spinach Ca. When milk and Ca oxalate were ingested together, there was no interference of oxalate in milk Ca absorption and no evidence of tracer exchange between the two labeled Ca species

  6. More than 2 years' experience with computer-aided irradiation planning in clinical routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, H.; Rathje, J.

    1976-01-01

    This is a report on an irradiation planning system which has been used for about 2 years in the department of radiotherapy in the general hospital in Altona. Hard- and software as well as the mathematical model for the description of the dose distribution are described. The compromise between the required accuray of the irradiation plan and the investment in computer-technical activities and computer time is discussed. (orig./LN) [de

  7. Mechanic- and hydraulic shock-absorbers - layout, construction, operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, M.

    1981-01-01

    The problem lies in the protection of the flexible supported power plant components against undesired sudden movements. Various shock absorbing systems are at disposal in this case: Mechanical and hydraulic shock absorbers, whose functioning systems are shown in figures. The operation experience showed a series of deficiencies, as demonstrated on various figures. In order to avoid them, some important recommendations are given. Requirements and layout are demonstrated according to todays' state-of-the-art. The admissible stresses, resulting from the summary of various specifications for the analytical evidence will be described. Development and construction will be explained in detail by means of pictures with cross sections of original shock absorbers. Todays' construction characteristics will be summarized. The final remark includes a request for generally valid guidelines. (orig.) [de

  8. Metabolic syndrome 2 years after laparoscopic gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Lizbeth; Ortiz, Cristian J; Espinosa, Omar; Sepúlveda, Elisa M; Piña, Tatiana; Joo, Paul; Zerrweck, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The latest diabetes consensus identified obesity as key component of the metabolic syndrome. The role of bariatric surgery over such syndrome has been less explored with a lack of long term studies, and especially among Mexicans. Retrospective study including patients with metabolic syndrome submitted to laparoscopic gastric bypass at a single institution with complete data after 24 months. The objective was to analyze the improvement of the syndrome and each component. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters were analyzed at 12 and 24 months. Secondarily weight loss and other parameters were also analyzed. Finally, an analysis of syndrome improvement related to weight loss was performed. Sixty-three patients were included. The 2 most common components associated with obesity were reduced HDL and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes. There was a significant improvement of metabolic syndrome and its components, as well as for the rest of the analyzed data, from the first check point and throughout follow-up. Prevalence of such syndrome was 6.3% at 12 and 24 months. Hypertension and raised glucose or Type 2 diabetes were the components with the greatest and fastest improvement; HDL levels and obesity were the least improved. There was a direct relationship between percentage of excess weight loss or percentage of excess BMI loss, and syndrome's improvement. Patients with metabolic syndrome improved after gastric bypass, with results lasting after 2 years; other metabolic parameters important for cardiovascular risk were also positively affected. There was a relationship between the amount of weight loss and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neonatal Glycemia and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Christopher J D; Alsweiler, Jane M; Ansell, Judith M; Anstice, Nicola S; Chase, J Geoffrey; Gamble, Gregory D; Harris, Deborah L; Jacobs, Robert J; Jiang, Yannan; Paudel, Nabin; Signal, Matthew; Thompson, Benjamin; Wouldes, Trecia A; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E

    2015-10-15

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause neurologic impairment, but evidence supporting thresholds for intervention is limited. We performed a prospective cohort study involving 528 neonates with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks who were considered to be at risk for hypoglycemia; all were treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). We intermittently measured blood glucose for up to 7 days. We continuously monitored interstitial glucose concentrations, which were masked to clinical staff. Assessment at 2 years included Bayley Scales of Infant Development III and tests of executive and visual function. Of 614 children, 528 were eligible, and 404 (77% of eligible children) were assessed; 216 children (53%) had neonatal hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration, Hypoglycemia, when treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter, was not associated with an increased risk of the primary outcomes of neurosensory impairment (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.20; P=0.67) and processing difficulty, defined as an executive-function score or motion coherence threshold that was more than 1.5 SD from the mean (risk ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.51; P=0.74). Risks were not increased among children with unrecognized hypoglycemia (a low interstitial glucose concentration only). The lowest blood glucose concentration, number of hypoglycemic episodes and events, and negative interstitial increment (area above the interstitial glucose concentration curve and below 47 mg per deciliter) also did not predict the outcome. In this cohort, neonatal hypoglycemia was not associated with an adverse neurologic outcome when treatment was provided to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others.).

  10. An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Cui Tiejun; Jiang Weixiang; Cai Bengeng

    2010-01-01

    In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 041106) an optical omnidirectional light absorber based on metamaterials was proposed, in which theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all optical waves hitting the absorber are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber in the microwave frequency. The proposed device is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99 per cent in the microwave frequency. The all-directional full absorption property makes the device behave like an 'electromagnetic black body', and the wave trapping and absorbing properties simulate, to some extent, an 'electromagnetic black hole.' We expect that such a device could be used as a thermal emitting source and to harvest electromagnetic waves.

  11. Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Stephan, Ryan; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 m2 radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduces the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  12. Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  13. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associated with a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This report describes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world, to the absorber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and then into helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for free convection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber

  14. Absorbed dose by a CMOS in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C. Y.; Guzman G, K. A.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Paredes G, L. C.

    2011-10-01

    Absorbed dose by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit as part of a pacemaker, has been estimated using Monte Carlo calculations. For a cancer patient who is a pacemaker carrier, scattered radiation could damage pacemaker CMOS circuits affecting patient's health. Absorbed dose in CMOS circuit due to scattered photons is too small and therefore is not the cause of failures in pacemakers, but neutron calculations shown an absorbed dose that could cause damage in CMOS due to neutron-hydrogen interactions. (Author)

  15. Multiband Negative Permittivity Metamaterials and Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and characteristics of multiband negative permittivity metamaterial and its absorber configuration are presented in this paper. The proposed multiband metamaterial is composed of a novel multibranch resonator which can possess four electric resonance frequencies. It is shown that, by controlling the length of the main branches of such resonator, the resonant frequencies and corresponding absorbing bands of metamaterial absorber can be shifted in a large frequency band.

  16. Preparation of super absorbent by irradiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Fengjun; Tan Chunhong; Qian Mengping

    1995-01-01

    A kind of absorbent is prepared by gamma-rays irradiated by reversed-phase suspension polymerization. Drying particles have 1400 (g/g) absorbency in de-ionic water. Effects of reactive conditions, e.g.: dose-rate, dose, monomer concentration, degree of monomer neutralization and crosslinking agents on absorbency in de-ionic water are discussed. The cause of absorbing de-ionic water by polymer is related to its network structure and ionic equilibrium in particle. Accordingly, a suit reactive condition is chosen for preparation of hydro gel spheres

  17. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-01-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET

  18. Cross connecting absorber module inlets of multiple boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, A.J.; Sperber, P.K.; Belavadi, V.N.; Mukherji, A.

    1991-01-01

    The retrofitting of scrubbers downstream of existing balanced draft boilers is often accomplished by the addition of induced draft (ID) booster fans. By creating a common plenum between the ID fans and the ID booster fans of two or more boiler-absorber trains, absorber module capacity may be shared among multiple boiler units. At Harrison Power Station, three (3) 4,900,000 lb/hour boilers (640 MWe Gross) will be linked through a common plenum. This sharing capability precludes the need to add standby module capacity, thereby saving capital dollars and keeping project critical path schedules, which typically run through absorber procurement and construction, to a minimum. Through damper placement in the ductwork cross connections, unitized boiler-absorber module operation or common plenum operation may be obtained, thus providing both operational flexibility and reliability. Additionally, open plenum operation allows the removal of an absorber unit from service, while keeping its associated boiler on line, thereby precluding 'cold starts' and maintaining overall unit availabilities. As either unitized or common plenum operation is possible with the cross connection, the furnace draft control systems of each boiler must be examined for varying load operation and trip conditions. This paper addresses the means by which to analyze such cross connection operational scenarios while maintaining compliance with furnace flame out safety guidelines, and will discuss the physical design considerations, ramifications and benefits of same, with select emphasis on what is being implemented at the Harrison Power Station

  19. Gaseous carbon dioxide absorbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashina, Heihachi.

    1994-01-01

    The absorbing column of the present invention comprises a cyclone to which CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 are blown to form CaCO 3 , a water supply means connected to an upper portion of the cyclone for forming a thin water membrane on the inner wall thereof, and a water processing means connected to a lower portion of the cyclone for draining water incorporating CaCO 3 . If a mixed fluid of CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 is blown in a state where a flowing water membrane is formed on the inner wall of the cyclone, formation of CaCO 3 is promoted also in the inside of the cyclone in addition to the formation of CaCO 3 in the course of blowing. Then, formed CaCO 3 is discharged from the lower portion of the cyclone together with downwardly flowing water. With such procedures, solid contents such as CaCO 3 separated at the inner circumferential wall are sent into the thin water membrane, adsorbed and captured, and the solid contents are successively washed out, so that a phenomenon that the solid contents deposit and grow on the inner wall of the cyclone can be prevented effectively. (T.M.)

  20. Radiation absorbed doses in cephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, S.; Julin, P.; Richter, S.; Stenstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation absorbed doses to different organs in the head and neck region in lateral (LAT) and postero-anterior (PA) cephalography were investigated. The doses were measured by thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on a tissue equivalent phantom head. Lanthanide screens in speed group 4 were used at 90 and 85 k Vp. A near-focus aluminium dodger was used and the radiation beam was collimated strictly to the face. The maximum entrance dose from LAT was 0.25 mGy and 0.42 mGy from a PA exposure. The doses to the salivary glands ranged between 0.2 and 0.02 mGy at LAT and between 0.15 and 0.04 mGy at PA exposures. The average thyroid gland dose without any shielding was 0.11 mGy (LAT) and 0.06 mGy (PA). When a dodger was used the dose was reduced to 0.07 mGy (LAT). If the thyroid gland was sheilded off, the dose was further reduced to 0.01 mGy and if the thyroid region was collimated out of the primary radiation field the dose was reduced to only 0.005 mGy. (authors)

  1. Power Absorption by Closely Spaced Point Absorbers in Constrained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of an array of closely spaced point absorbers is numerically assessed in a frequency domain model Each point absorber is restricted to the heave mode and is assumed to have its own linear power take-off (PTO) system Unidirectional irregular incident waves are considered......, representing the wave climate at Westhinder on the Belgian Continental Shelf The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption is evaluated and optimal PTO parameters are determined For multiple bodies optimal control parameters (CP) are not only dependent on the incoming waves...

  2. The dynamics analysis of a ferrofluid shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jie; Chang, Jianjun; Li, Decai; Yang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a shock absorber using three magnets as the inertial mass. Movement of the inertial mass inside a cylindrical body filled with ferrofluid will lead to a viscous dissipation of the oscillating system energy. The influence of a dumbbell-like ferrofluid structure on the energy dissipation is considered and the magnetic restoring force is investigated by experiment and theoretical calculation. A theoretical model of the hydrodynamics and energy dissipation processes is developed, which includes the geometrical characteristics of the body, the fluid viscosity, and the external magnetic field. The theory predicts the experimental results well under some condition. The shock absorber can be used in spacecraft technology. - Highlights: • We study a ferrofluid shock absorber. • The mechanical model of the flow of the ferrofluid has been built. • The theoretical model of the energy dissipation processes is developed. • The magnetic restoring force between the body and the magnets has been measured.

  3. The dynamics analysis of a ferrofluid shock absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jie; Chang, Jianjun [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Li, Decai, E-mail: dcli@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yang, Xiaolong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou, Guangxi 545006 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The paper presents a shock absorber using three magnets as the inertial mass. Movement of the inertial mass inside a cylindrical body filled with ferrofluid will lead to a viscous dissipation of the oscillating system energy. The influence of a dumbbell-like ferrofluid structure on the energy dissipation is considered and the magnetic restoring force is investigated by experiment and theoretical calculation. A theoretical model of the hydrodynamics and energy dissipation processes is developed, which includes the geometrical characteristics of the body, the fluid viscosity, and the external magnetic field. The theory predicts the experimental results well under some condition. The shock absorber can be used in spacecraft technology. - Highlights: • We study a ferrofluid shock absorber. • The mechanical model of the flow of the ferrofluid has been built. • The theoretical model of the energy dissipation processes is developed. • The magnetic restoring force between the body and the magnets has been measured.

  4. A checkerboard selective absorber with excellent spectral selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liu, E-mail: optyang@zju.edu.cn [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Electrical, Computer, and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Mo, Lei; Chen, Tuo [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Forsberg, Erik [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Sailing [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Electromagnetic Engineering, JORCEP, Roy Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-11-14

    A selective absorber with excellent spectral selectivity is proposed and analyzed. The absorber is based on a germanium (Ge) checkerboard on top of a tantalum (Ta) substrate. At wavelengths shorter than the 1.2 μm cutoff, a very high absorption is achieved due to strong cavity resonances in the Ge nanosquares, and their interactions with adjacent nanocavities and the bottom Ta substrate. At longer wavelengths, absorption is greatly suppressed due to destructive interference between the transparent checkerboard layer and the highly reflective Ta substrate. To better describe the superior selectivity of our configuration, a new figure of merit (FOM) is introduced. We observe a FOM value of 0.88 compared to 0.69 for its planar counterpart. We also conduct a thermal analysis to verify the excellent selectivity of our absorber. A high temperature can be achieved and maintained, promising good potential for applications in solar thermophotovoltaic systems.

  5. Optical architecture design for detection of absorbers embedded in visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Robert; Florence, James; MacFarlane, Duncan

    2014-05-01

    Optically absorbing ducts embedded in scattering adipose tissue can be injured during laparoscopic surgery. Non-sequential simulations and theoretical analysis compare optical system configurations for detecting these absorbers. For absorbers in deep scattering volumes, trans-illumination is preferred instead of diffuse reflectance. For improved contrast, a scanning source with a large area detector is preferred instead of a large area source with a pixelated detector.

  6. Absorbable magnesium-based stent: physiological factors to consider for in vitro degradation assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Juan; Smith, Christopher E.; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung; Huang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Absorbable metals have been widely tested in various in vitro settings using cells to evaluate their possible suitability as an implant material. However, there exists a gap between in vivo and in vitro test results for absorbable materials. A lot of traditional in vitro assessments for permanent materials are no longer applicable to absorbable metallic implants. A key step is to identify and test the relevant microenvironment and parameters in test systems, which should be adapted according ...

  7. Dynamical study of a laser with a saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignowity, D; RamIrez, R [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    The study of a laser including a saturable absorber is presented. The non-linear system describing the complex dynamics of the laser is presented. The laser is shown to operate in several regimes depending on the parameters used. It is also shown how the control of the laser is possible depending on the operating regime parameters.

  8. Practical design of a nonlinear tuned vibration absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappasonni, C.; Habib, G.; Detroux, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to develop a new nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA) capable of mitigating the vibrations of nonlinear systems which are known to exhibit frequency-energy-dependent oscillations. A nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method is proposed to ensure equa...

  9. Burnable absorber for the PIK reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostev, V.V.; Smolskii, S.L.; Tchmshkyan, D.V.; Zakharov, A.S.; Zvezdkin, V.S.; Konoplev, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    In the reactor PIK design a burnable absorber is not used and the cycle duration is limited by the rods weight. Designed cycle time is two weeks and seams to be not enough for the 100 MW power research reactor equipped by many neutron beams and experimental facilities. Relatively frequent reloading reduces the reactor time on full power and in this way increases the maintenance expenses. In the reactor core fuel elements well mastered by practice are used and its modification was not approved. We try to find the possibilities of installation in the core separate burnable elements to avoid poison of the fuel. It is possible to replace a part of the fuel elements by absorbers, since the fuel elements are relatively small (diameter 5.15mm, uranium 235 content 7.14g) and there are more then 3800 elements in the core. Nevertheless, replacing decreases the fuel burnup and its consumption. In the PIK fuel assembles a little part of the volume is occupied by the dumb elements to create a complete package of the assembles shroud, that is necessary in the hydraulic reasons. In the presented report the assessment of such a replacement is done. As a burnable material Gadolinium was selected. The measurements or the beginning of cycle were performed on the critical facility PIK. The burning calculation was confirmed by measurements on the 18MW reactor WWR-M. The results give the opportunity to twice the cycle duration. The proposed modification of the fuel assembles does not lead to alteration in the other reactor systems, but it touch the burned fuel reprocessing technology. (author)

  10. Absorbing Property of Multi-layered Short Carbon Fiber Absorbing Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhaohui; Tao, Rui; Ban, Guodong; Luo, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The radar absorbing coating was prepared with short carbon fiber asabsorbent and waterborne polyurethane (WPU) as matrix resin. The coating’s absorbing property was tested with vectornetwork analyzer, using aramid honeycomb as air layer which was matched withcarbon fiber coating. The results demonstrate that the single-layered carbonfiber absorbing coating presented relatively poor absorbing property when thelayer was thin, and the performance was slightly improved after the matched airlayer ...

  11. Absorber element for fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verset, L.

    1987-01-01

    This absorber element is characterized by a new head which avoids an accident disconnection of the mobil absorber. This head is made by a superior piece which can take shore up an adjusting ring on an adjusting bearing on the inferior piece. The intermediate piece is catched at the superior piece by a link of chain [fr

  12. Analysis of absorbing times of quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Hirotada; Imai, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Quantum walks are expected to provide useful algorithmic tools for quantum computation. This paper introduces absorbing probability and time of quantum walks and gives both numerical simulation results and theoretical analyses on Hadamard walks on the line and symmetric walks on the hypercube from the viewpoint of absorbing probability and time

  13. Absorber transmissivities in 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.

    1985-01-01

    Some useful relations are derived for the polarization dependent optical index of 57 Fe Moessbauer absorbers. Real rotation matrices are extensively used and, besides wave-direction dependence, their properties simplify also the treatment of texture and f-anisotropy. The derivation of absorber transmissivities from the optical index is discussed with a special emphasis on line overlapping. (Auth.)

  14. Five-year clinical and functional multislice computed tomography angiographic results after coronary implantation of the fully resorbable polymeric everolimus-eluting scaffold in patients with de novo coronary artery disease: the ABSORB cohort A trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Yoshinobu; Dudek, Dariusz; Thuesen, Leif; Webster, Mark; Nieman, Koen; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Ormiston, John A; Serruys, Patrick W

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to demonstrate the 5-year clinical and functional multislice computed tomography angiographic results after implantation of the fully resorbable everolimus-eluting scaffold (Absorb BVS, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California). Multimodality imaging of the first-in-humans trial using a ABSORB BVS scaffold demonstrated at 2 years the bioresorption of the device while preventing restenosis. However, the long-term safety and efficacy of this therapy remain to be documented. In the ABSORB cohort A trial (ABSORB Clinical Investigation, Cohort A [ABSORB A] Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System Clinical Investigation), 30 patients with a single de novo coronary artery lesion were treated with the fully resorbable everolimus-eluting Absorb scaffold at 4 centers. As an optional investigation in 3 of the 4 centers, the patients underwent multislice computed tomography (MSCT) angiography at 18 months and 5 years. Acquired MSCT data were analyzed at an independent core laboratory (Cardialysis, Rotterdam, the Netherlands) for quantitative analysis of lumen dimensions and was further processed for calculation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) at another independent core laboratory (Heart Flow, Redwood City, California). Five-year clinical follow-up is available for 29 patients. One patient withdrew consent after 6 months, but the vital status of this patient remains available. At 46 days, 1 patient experienced a single episode of chest pain and underwent a target lesion revascularization with a slight troponin increase after the procedure. At 5 years, the ischemia-driven major adverse cardiac event rate of 3.4% remained unchanged. Clopidogrel was discontinued in all but 1 patient. Scaffold thrombosis was not observed in any patient. Two noncardiac deaths were reported, 1 caused by duodenal perforation and the other from Hodgkin's disease. At 5 years, 18 patients underwent MSCT angiography. All scaffolds were patent, with a median minimal lumen area of 3

  15. Liquid absorber experiments in ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.

    1975-07-01

    A set of liquid absorber experiments was performed in ZED-2 to provide data with which to test the adequacy of calculational methods for zone controller and refuelling studies associated with advanced reactor concepts. The absorber consisted of a full length aluminum tube, containing either i)H 2 O, ii)H 2 O + boron (2.5 mg/ml) or iii)H 2 O + boron (8.0 mg/ml). The tube was suspended vertically at interstitial or in-channel locations. A U-tube absorber was also simulated using two absorber tubes with appropriate spacers. Experiments were carried out at two different square lattice pitches, 22.86 and 27.94 cm. Measurements were made of the reactivity effects of the absorbers and, in some cases, of the detailed flux distribution near the perturbation. The results from one calculational method, the source-sink approach, were compared with the data from selected experiments. (author)

  16. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  17. On the Optimization of Point Absorber Buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Sjökvist

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A point absorbing wave energy converter (WEC is a complicated dynamical system. A semi-submerged buoy drives a power take-off device (PTO, which acts as a linear or non-linear damper of the WEC system. The buoy motion depends on the buoy geometry and dimensions, the mass of the moving parts of the system and on the damping force from the generator. The electromagnetic damping in the generator depends on both the generator specifications, the connected load and the buoy velocity. In this paper a velocity ratio has been used to study how the geometric parameters buoy draft and radius, assuming constant generator damping coefficient, affects the motion and the energy absorption of a WEC. It have been concluded that an optimal buoy geometry can be identified for a specific generator damping. The simulated WEC performance have been compared with experimental values from two WECs with similar generators but different buoys. Conclusions have been drawn about their behaviour.

  18. Absorbing multicultural states in the Axelrod model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Federico; Redner, Sidney

    2005-03-01

    We determine the ultimate fate of a limit of the Axelrod model that consists of a population of leftists, centrists, and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (similarly for a centrist and a rightist), but leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. The constraint between extremists can lead to a frustrated final state where the system consists of only leftists and rightists. In the mean field limit, we can view the evolution of the system as the motion of a random walk in the 3-dimensional space whose coordinates correspond to the density of each species. We find the exact final state probabilities and the time to reach consensus by solving for the first-passage probability of the random walk to the corresponding absorbing boundaries. The extension to a larger number of states will be discussed. This approach is a first step towards the analytic solution of Axelrod-like models.

  19. Assessment of the psychometric properties of the Short-Form Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) following surgical placement of Prolift+M: a transvaginal partially absorbable mesh system for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sanjoy; Mohandas, Anita; Coyne, Karin; Gelhorn, Heather; Gauld, Judi; Sikirica, Vanja; Milani, Alfredo L

    2012-04-01

    Impairment of sexual function is a significant problem among women suffering from pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Because anatomical measures of POP do not always correspond with patients' subjective reports of their condition, patient-reported outcome measures may provide additional valuable information regarding the experiences of women who have undergone surgery. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) is a validated, widely used condition-specific questionnaire focused on sexual function among patients with POP or urinary incontinence. This study aims to report sexual function outcomes as measured by PISQ-12 and to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire following surgical mesh implant for the treatment of POP. The PISQ-12 was used to measure sexual function, while a set of other measures, namely, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, Patient Global Impression of Change, Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and Surgical Satisfaction Questionnaire, was used for validation. Data for the study were collected from a prospective multicenter, single-arm study of surgical POP repair via the transvaginal placement of a partially absorbable mesh system. For baseline, month 3, and month 12 following POP surgery, several psychometric properties of the PISQ-12 were evaluated, including internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. As measured by the PISQ-12 questionnaire, statistically significant improvements were observed in the composite summary score as well as all three subscale scores at 1 year. The PISQ-12 generally demonstrated good psychometric properties including internal consistency reliability, validity, and responsiveness. The PISQ-12 items had good distributional properties at baseline, with substantial ceiling effects at follow-up visits reflecting improvements experienced by the patients. The PISQ-12 is a valid

  20. Analysis of solar water heater with parabolic dish concentrator and conical absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, G.; Kumar, P.; Anwar, M.; Mohanraj, T.

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on developing novel technique for a solar water heating system. The novel solar system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, conical absorber and water heater. In this system, the conical absorber tube directly absorbs solar radiation from the sun and the parabolic dish concentrator reflects the solar radiations towards the conical absorber tube from all directions, therefore both radiations would significantly improve the thermal collector efficiency. The working fluid water is stored at the bottom of the absorber tubes. The absorber tubes get heated and increases the temperature of the working fluid inside of the absorber tube and causes the working fluid to partially evaporate. The partially vaporized working fluid moves in the upward direction due to buoyancy effect and enters the heat exchanger. When fresh water passes through the heat exchanger, temperature of the vapour decreases through heat exchange. This leads to condensation of the vapour and forms liquid phase. The working fluid returns to the bottom of the collector absorber tube by gravity. Hence, this will continue as a cyclic process inside the system. The proposed investigation shows an improvement of collector efficiency, enhanced heat transfer and a quality water heating system.

  1. Method of absorbing UF6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferty, R.H.; Smiley, S.H.; Radimer, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for recovering UF 6 from gaseous mixtures by absorption in a liquid. The liquid absorbent must have a relatively low viscosity and at least one component of the absorbent is an alkamine having less than 3 carbon atoms bonded to the amino nitrogen, less than 2 of the carbon atoms other than those bonded to the amino nitrogen are free of the hydroxy radical and precipitate the absorbed uranium from the absorbent. At least one component of the absorbent is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2

  2. Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft² prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

  3. On the definition of absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before. - Highlights: • A stringent definition of absorbed dose is given. • This requires the definition of an irradiation and a suitable probability space. • A stringent definition is important for an understanding of the concept absorbed dose

  4. Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Central Research Labs.); Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake

    1989-05-01

    For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and /sup 125/I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author).

  5. Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao; Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake.

    1989-01-01

    For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and 125 I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author)

  6. Optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake absorber for torsional vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B

    2012-01-01

    This research presents an optimal design of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft. Firstly, the configuration of an MR brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft system is proposed. Then, the braking torque of the MR brake is derived based on the Bingham plastic model of the MR fluid. By assuming that the behaviour of the MR brake absorber is similar to that of a dry friction torsional damper, the optimal braking torque to control the torsional vibration is determined and validated by simulation. The optimal design problem of the MR brake absorber is then developed and a procedure to solve the optimal problem is proposed. Based on the proposed optimal design procedure, the optimal design of a specific rotating shaft system is performed. Vibration control performance of the shaft system employing the optimized MR brake absorber is then investigated through simulation and discussion on the results is given. (paper)

  7. Optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake absorber for torsional vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2012-02-01

    This research presents an optimal design of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft. Firstly, the configuration of an MR brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft system is proposed. Then, the braking torque of the MR brake is derived based on the Bingham plastic model of the MR fluid. By assuming that the behaviour of the MR brake absorber is similar to that of a dry friction torsional damper, the optimal braking torque to control the torsional vibration is determined and validated by simulation. The optimal design problem of the MR brake absorber is then developed and a procedure to solve the optimal problem is proposed. Based on the proposed optimal design procedure, the optimal design of a specific rotating shaft system is performed. Vibration control performance of the shaft system employing the optimized MR brake absorber is then investigated through simulation and discussion on the results is given.

  8. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...

  9. Absorbed dose by a CMOS in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C. Y.; Guzman G, K. A.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L. C., E-mail: candy_borja@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Absorbed dose by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit as part of a pacemaker, has been estimated using Monte Carlo calculations. For a cancer patient who is a pacemaker carrier, scattered radiation could damage pacemaker CMOS circuits affecting patient's health. Absorbed dose in CMOS circuit due to scattered photons is too small and therefore is not the cause of failures in pacemakers, but neutron calculations shown an absorbed dose that could cause damage in CMOS due to neutron-hydrogen interactions. (Author)

  10. Energy Absorbing Effectiveness – Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotełko Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the study of different crashworthiness indicators used to evaluate energy absorbing effectiveness of thin-walled energy absorbers is presented. Several different indicators are used to assess an effectiveness of two types of absorbing structures, namely thin-walled prismatic column with flaws and thin-walled prismatic frustum (hollow or foam filled in both cases subjected to axial compressive impact load. The indicators are calculated for different materials and different geometrical parameters. The problem of selection of the most appropriate and general indicators is discussed.

  11. Graphene and Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, due to the possibility to tune its conductivity, is the promising material for a range of the terahertz (THz) applications, such as tunable reflectors, absorbers, modulators, filters and polarization converters. Subwavelength structuring of graphene in order to form metamaterials allows...... for even more control over the THz waves. In this poster presentation I will show an elegant way to describe the graphene metamaterials and the design of graphene based absorbers. I will also present our recent experimental results on the graphene absorbers characterization....

  12. Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.

  13. Sudden death in the first 2 years of life following immunization in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Kim, Jong-Hee; Son, Hyun Jin; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Lee, Duk-hyoung

    2012-12-01

    Because the peak age for incidence of sudden deaths in infancy temporally coincides with the age of infant primary immunization, some have raised the question as to whether immunization is a risk factor for sudden death in infancy. Recent occurrence of two sudden deaths in infants in Korea has renewed concerns about the causal association between immunization and sudden deaths in infants. We carried out a retrospective review of data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Events Following Immunization Surveillance System and Vaccine Compensation programs. From 1994 to 2011, a total of 45 cases of sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life following immunization were reported in Korea. The causes of death were classified as follows: infectious diseases (n= 13); accidental injuries (n= 7); congenital abnormalities (n= 2); and malignancy (n= 1). Of 20 sudden deaths in infancy, nine deaths met Brighton Collaboration case definition level I and II, and therefore were classified as possible sudden infant death syndrome cases. Hepatitis B vaccine (n= 13) was the most frequent vaccine with temporal association with sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life. Few sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life following immunization have been reported, despite the use of universal immunization in Korea. The majority of deaths in infancy did not meet case definition for sudden infant death syndrome. Encouraging investigators to perform thorough investigation, including postmortem autopsy and death scene examination, may promote data comparability and provide guidance on decision-making in the vaccine-safety monitoring and response system in Korea. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Development of methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power for low energy conversion electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of absorbed dose in the case of external and internal contamination due to radionuclides is sometimes hard, because of the difficulties in the assessment of the absorbed dose caused by electrons with energy less than 100 KeV in mucous membrane. In this work, a methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power in VYNS (co-polymer of polivinyl chloride - acetate) absorbers, for the 62.5 KeV and 84-88 KeV energy 109 Cd conversion electrons, working with a 4 π proportional pressurized detector, is presented. In order to assure the reproducibility of measurement conditions, one of the detector halves has been used to obtain a spectrum of a thin 109 Cd source, without absorber. The other half of the detector was used in concomitance to obtain spectra with different thicknesses if absorber. The absorbed energy was obtained subtracting each spectrum with absorber from the spectrum without absorber, which were stored in a microcomputer connected to signal processing systems by ACE type interface. The VYNS weight and thickness were evaluated using common radionuclide metrology procedures. As VYNS has characteristics similar to a tissue equivalent material, the results obtained are consistent with dosimetric concepts and have a good agreement with those of the literature. (author)

  15. SMOS after 2 YEARS and a half in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Y.; Richaume, P.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Waldteufel, P.; Mecklenburg, S.; Cabot, F.; Boutin, J.; Font, J.; Reul, N.

    2012-04-01

    finely the characteristics of the complete system in terms of stability, drift etc. Some anomalies such as the ascending descending temperature differences, temporal drifts or land sea contamination were used to infer issues and improve data quality. The modeling has to account for several perturbing factors 'galactic reflection, sea state, atmospheric path and Faraday rotation etc…as the useful signal is quite small when compared to the perturbing factors impact as well as the instrument sensitivity. Over sea ice several studies showed that it was possible to infer thin ice (first year ice, 50 cm or less) from SMOS measurements. Other studies focused on the Antarctic plateau with also very interesting new results. This presentation will show in detail the SMOS in flight results. The retrieval schemes have been developed to reach science requirements, that is to derive the surface soil moisture over continental surface with an accuracy better than 0,04m3/m3. Over the ocean the goals are not yet satisfied but results are already getting close to the requirements.

  16. Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal is to build and test a rigid Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR) coupon based on honeycomb geometry that would be applicable for EVA and...

  17. Full-flow absorbers. Every centimetre counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    New absorbers with a maximised area for heat exchange with the thermal medium are significantly more efficient than the presently typical designs. Both the industry and researchers are working to revive an old idea. (orig.)

  18. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon modes that destructively interfere with the dipolar mode and generate electromagnetically induced absorption. (ii) The patterned graphene layers biased at different gate voltages backedup with dielectric substrates are stacked on top of each other. The resulting absorber is polarization dependent but has an ultra-broadband of operation. (iii) Graphene\\'s damping factor is increased by lowering its electron mobility to 1000cm 2=Vs. Indeed, numerical experiments demonstrate that with only three layers, bandwidth of 90% absorption can be extended upto 7THz, which is drastically larger than only few THz of bandwidth that can be achieved with existing metallic/graphene absorbers. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  19. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-02-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges.

  20. Selective wave-transmitting electromagnetic absorber through composite metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian; Feng, Yijun

    2017-11-01

    Selective wave-transmitting absorbers which have one or more narrow transmission bands inside a wide absorption band are often demanded in wireless communication and radome applications for reducing the coupling between different systems, improving anti-jamming capability, and reducing antennas' radar cross section. Here we propose a feasible method that utilizing composite of two metasurfaces with different polarization dependent characteristics, one works as electromagnetic polarization rotator and the other as a wideband polarization dependent electromagnetic wave absorber. The polarization rotator produces a cross polarization output in the wave-transmitting band, while preserves the polarization of the incidence outside the band. The metasurface absorber works for certain linear polarization with a much wider absorption band covering the wave-transmitting frequency. When combining these two metasurfaces properly, the whole structure behaves as a wideband absorber with a certain frequency transmission window. The proposal may be applied in radome designs to reduce the radar cross section of antenna or improving the electromagnetic compatibility in communication devices.

  1. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-01-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges. (paper)

  2. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  3. Report on the results of the FY 1998 hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Survey on the R and D of technologies for hydrogen transport and storage by hydrogen absorbing alloys (V. Development of the distributed transport/storage use hydrogen absorbing alloys); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (V. bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The paper described the FY 1998 results of the development of hydrogen distributed transport/storage use absorbing alloys in the WE-NET project. Study was made of improvement of hydrogen desorption characteristics by substituting Ca for part of Mg of Mg-Ni alloys and substituting Cr for part of Ni. It is necessary to shift the state of atomic bond by H atom and metal atom in alloys from the ionic bond to the metallic bond, and to change from the amorphous state to the BCC type crystal structure. It was found out that it was possible to do it by improving the composition and heat treatment. The addition of Cu to LaMg{sub 2} alloys shifts the bond with hydrogen to the bond with metal. Easy hydrogen desorption and large absorbing capacity can be expected. It was found out that LaMg{sub 2}Cu{sub 2} synthesized by the reaction sintering method has reversible hydrogen absorbing desorption characteristics. The absorbing amount is 2.4 wt%, the desorption amount 1.2 wt%, and the desorption temperature 190 degrees C. Those are still far from WE-NET targeted values, but a clue to the search was obtained. It was found out that by applying doping technology by Ti, etc. to NaAlH{sub 4}, characteristics can be expected of the desorption amount, 4.5 wt%, of the hydrogen desorption starting temperature from 100 degrees C to 200 degrees C. (NEDO)

  4. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  5. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast THz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths.......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths....

  6. Actual behaviour of a ball vibration absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2002), s. 987-1005 ISSN 0167-6105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GV103/96/K034 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : TV towers * wind-excited vibrations * vibration absorbers * pendulum absorber Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2002 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167610502002155#

  7. A Wedge Absorber Experiment at MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.

    2017-05-01

    Emittance exchange mediated by wedge absorbers is required for longitudinal ionization cooling and for final transverse emittance minimization for a muon collider. A wedge absorber within the MICE beam line could serve as a demonstration of the type of emittance exchange needed for 6-D cooling, including the configurations needed for muon colliders, as well as configurations for low-energy muon sources. Parameters for this test are explored in simulation and possible experimental configurations with simulated results are presented.

  8. Food production and nutrition for the crew during the first 2-year closure of Biosphere 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, S E

    1997-01-01

    Biosphere 2's finite natural resources: atmosphere, plants, water, and soil, and its unique increased rate of nutrient cycling, mandated a design for the agriculture that emphasized sustainability and high productivity. The results of the initial 2-year test of the agriculture system showed that it could provide a diet that was both nutritionally adequate and pleasing to the palate of the eight-member crew from September 1991 to September 1993. The agriculture design was developed from 1985 to 1991 at the Space Biospheres research greenhouses with consulting from the Institute of Ecotechnics (London) from its experiments in New Mexico, Australia, and France and the Environmental Research Laboratory (University of Arizona). During the 2-year mission this research was continued with the close collaboration of outside scientific consultants, particularly in the area of soil management and integrated pest management. The 2000-m2 cropping area provided approximately 81% of the overall nutritional needs of the crew. Initial results showed light to be the main limiting factor and the additional electric light was added after the first 2-year mission to increase the productivity for future experiments. The diet was primarily vegetarian supplemented with daily amounts of milk, and weekly meals of meat and eggs from the system's domestic goats, pigs, and chickens. Nontoxic methods of pest and disease control were used. The main pest problems were broad mite and root knot nematode. Inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes, and human waste water were successfully processed for nutrient return to the soil. Eighty-six varieties of crops were grown in Biosphere 2. Major staple crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals producing on average 1.14 kg of milk per day. The diet averaged 2200 calories, 73 g of protein, and 32 g of fat per person per day over the 2 years. The crew had a 10

  9. Performance of an absorbing concentrating solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imadojemu, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparison of the efficiency of an absorbing fluid parabolic trough concentrating solar collector and a traditional concentrating collector that was made. In the absorbing fluid collector, black liquid flows through a glass tube absorber while the same black liquid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber while the same black fluid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber in the traditional collector. After a careful study of the properties of available black liquids, a mixture of water and black ink was chosen as the black absorbing medium or transfer fluid. In the black liquid glass collector there is a slightly improved efficiency based on beam radiation as a result of the direct absorption process and an increase in the effective transmittance absorptance. At worst the efficiency of this collector equals that of the traditional concentrating collector when the efficiency is based on total radiation. The collector's reflecting surfaces were made of aluminum sheet, parabolic line focus and with cylindrical receivers. The ease of manufacture and reduced cost per unit energy collected, in addition to the clean and pollution free mode of energy conversion, makes it very attractive

  10. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  11. Basic Student Charges at Postsecondary Institutions: Academic Year 1994-95. Tuition and Required Fees and Room and Board Charges at 4-Year, 2-Year, and Public Less-Than-2-Year Institutions. Statistical Analysis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbett, Samuel F.; And Others

    This document lists the typical tuition and required fees and room and board charges assessed to college students in 1994-95 based on a national "Institutional Characteristics" survey which is part of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. The data were collected from over 5,000 of the 5,775 4-year, 2-year, and public…

  12. An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2007-02-14

    In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.

  13. Analysis and simulation of centrifugal pendulum vibration absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Emma

    2015-01-01

    When environmental laws are constricted and downsizing of engines has become the reality of the vehicle industry, there needs to be a solution for the rise in torsion vibrations in the drivetrain. These increased levels of torsion vibrations are mostly due to excitations from the firing pulses, which in turn have become increased due to higher cylinder pressures. One of the solutions for further dampening the system is to add a centrifugal pendulum absorber to the flywheel, and predicting the...

  14. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  15. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  16. Fiscal 2000 report on the Phase II R and D of the international hydrogen utilization clean energy network system technology (WE-NET). Task 11. Distributed transportation of hydrogen/hydrogen absorbing alloy for hydrogen storage; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 11. Suiso bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies were conducted to find out hydrogen absorbing alloys with an effective hydrogen absorption rate of 3 mass % or more, hydrogen discharge temperature of 100 degrees C or lower, hydrogen absorbing capacity after 5,000 cycles not less than 90% of the initial capacity, applicable to stationary and mobile systems. The V-based alloy that achieved an effective hydrogen absorption rate of 2.6 mass % in the preceding fiscal year was subjected to studies relating to safety and durability. Since V is costly, efforts were exerted to develop TiCrMo alloys to replace the V-based alloy. In the search for novel high-performance alloys, endeavors centered on novel ternary alloys, novel alloys based on Mg and Ti, and novel intermetallic compounds of the Mg-4 family. In the study of guidelines for developing next-generation high-performance alloys, methods for creating hydrides with an H/M (hydrogen/metal) ratio far higher than 2 were discussed. Mentioned as techniques to produce such hydrides were the utilization of the hole regulated lattice, novel alloys based on the ultrahigh pressure hydride phase, new substances making use of the cooperative phenomenon in the coexistent multiple-phase structure, and the like. (NEDO)

  17. Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, G.; Schalch, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, J.; Averitt, R. D.; Zhang, X.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the conditions that result in unity absorption in metamaterial absorbers to guide the design and optimization of this important class of functional electromagnetic composites. Multilayer absorbers consisting of a metamaterial layer, dielectric spacer, and ground plane are specifically considered. Using interference theory, the dielectric spacer thickness and resonant frequency for unity absorption can be numerically determined from the functional dependence of the relative phase shift of the total reflection. Further, using transmission line theory in combination with interference theory we obtain analytical expressions for the unity absorption resonance frequency and corresponding spacer layer thickness in terms of the bare resonant frequency of the metamaterial layer and metallic and dielectric losses within the absorber structure. These simple expressions reveal a redshift of the unity absorption frequency with increasing loss that, in turn, necessitates an increase in the thickness of the dielectric spacer. The results of our analysis are experimentally confirmed by performing reflection-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy on fabricated absorber structures covering a range of dielectric spacer thicknesses with careful control of the loss accomplished through water absorption in a semiporous polyimide dielectric spacer. Our findings can be widely applied to guide the design and optimization of the metamaterial absorbers and sensors.

  18. Effectiveness of the light absorber on different parts of beta-spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakovets, N.V.; Gorshkov, D.V.; Zhukovskij, A.M.; Khadzhinov, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the researches of absorbent characteristics of integument tissues. This question is dominant on the stage of elaboration of algorithm of determination of physical characteristics of heterogeneous system - humans skull. (authors)

  19. Neutron absorbed dose in a pacemaker CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Paredes G, L.

    2012-01-01

    The neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), has been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Eventually a person with a pacemaker becomes an oncology patient that must be treated in a linear accelerator. Pacemaker has integrated circuits as CMOS that are sensitive to intense and pulsed radiation fields. Above 7 MV therapeutic beam is contaminated with photoneutrons that could damage the CMOS. Here, the neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a CMOS cell was calculated, also the spectra were calculated in two point-like detectors in the room. Neutron spectrum in the CMOS cell shows a small peak between 0.1 to 1 MeV and a larger peak in the thermal region, joined by epithermal neutrons, same features were observed in the point-like detectors. The absorbed dose in the CMOS was 1.522 x 10 -17 Gy per neutron emitted by the source. (Author)

  20. Neutron absorbed dose in a pacemaker CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    The neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), has been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Eventually a person with a pacemaker becomes an oncology patient that must be treated in a linear accelerator. Pacemaker has integrated circuits as CMOS that are sensitive to intense and pulsed radiation fields. Above 7 MV therapeutic beam is contaminated with photoneutrons that could damage the CMOS. Here, the neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a CMOS cell was calculated, also the spectra were calculated in two point-like detectors in the room. Neutron spectrum in the CMOS cell shows a small peak between 0.1 to 1 MeV and a larger peak in the thermal region, joined by epithermal neutrons, same features were observed in the point-like detectors. The absorbed dose in the CMOS was 1.522 x 10{sup -17} Gy per neutron emitted by the source. (Author)

  1. Quantum walk with one variable absorbing boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feiran; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Ruifeng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli

    2017-01-01

    Quantum walks constitute a promising ingredient in the research on quantum algorithms; consequently, exploring different types of quantum walks is of great significance for quantum information and quantum computation. In this study, we investigate the progress of quantum walks with a variable absorbing boundary and provide an analytical solution for the escape probability (the probability of a walker that is not absorbed by the boundary). We simulate the behavior of escape probability under different conditions, including the reflection coefficient, boundary location, and initial state. Moreover, it is also meaningful to extend our research to the situation of continuous-time and high-dimensional quantum walks. - Highlights: • A novel scheme about quantum walk with variable boundary is proposed. • The analytical results of the survival probability from the absorbing boundary. • The behavior of survival probability under different boundary conditions. • The influence of different initial coin states on the survival probability.

  2. A wideband absorber for television studios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M. D. M.

    The acoustic treatment in BBC television has taken various forms to date, all of which have been relatively expensive, some of which provide inadequate absorption. An investigation has been conducted into the possibilities of producing a new type of wideband absorber which would be more economic, also taking installation time into account, than earlier designs. This Report describes the absorption coefficient measurements made on various combinations of materials, from which a wideband sound absorber has been developed. The absorber works efficiently between 50 Hz and 10 kHz, is simple and easy to construct using readily available materials, and is fire resistant. The design lends itself, if necessary, to on-site fine tuning, and savings in the region of 50 percent can be achieved in terms of cost and space with respect to previous designs.

  3. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  4. Aluminum alloy excellent in neutron absorbing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Tetsuya; Tamamura, Tadao; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Ken-ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structural materials made of aluminum alloys having favorable neutron absorbing performance and excellent in the performance as structural materials such as processability and strength. Constitution: Powder of Gd 2 O 3 as a gadolinium compound or metal gadolinium is uniformly mixed with the powder of aluminum or aluminum alloy. The amount of the gadolinium compound added is set to 0.1 - 30 % by weight. No sufficient neutron absorbing performance can be obtained if it is less than 0.1 % by weight, whereas the processability and mechanical property of the alloy are degraded if it exceeds 30 % by weight. Further, the grain size is set to less about 50 μm. Further, since the neutron absorbing performance varies greatly if the aluminum powder size exceeds 100 μm, the diameter is set to less than about 100 μm. These mixtures are molded in a hot press. This enables to obtain aimed structural materials. (Takahashi, M.)

  5. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Neutron Absorber Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedd Lister; Ron Mizia; Sandra Birk; Brent Matteson; Hongbo Tian

    2006-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) has been directed by DOE-RW to develop a new repository waste package design based on the transport, aging, and disposal canister (TAD) system concept. A neutron poison material for fabrication of the internal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) baskets for these canisters needs to be identified. A material that has been used for criticality control in wet and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel is borated stainless steel. These stainless products are available as an ingot metallurgy plate product with a molybdenum addition and a powder metallurgy product that meets the requirements of ASTM A887, Grade A. A new Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy has been developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with its research partners (Sandia National Laboratory and Lehigh University) with DOE-EM funding provided by the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). This neutron absorbing alloy will be used to fabricate the SNF baskets in the DOE standardized canister. The INL has designed the DOE Standardized Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister for the handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository of DOE owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A corrosion testing program is required to compare these materials in environmental conditions representative of a breached waste canister. This report will summarize the results of crevice corrosion tests for three alloys in solutions representative of ionic compositions inside the waste package should a breech occur. The three alloys in these tests are Neutronit A978 (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb 304B4 Grade A (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), and Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled)

  6. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  7. Method for manufacture of neutron absorbing articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, D.

    1980-01-01

    A one-step curing method for the manufacture of a neutron absorbing article which comprises irreversibly curing, in desired article form, a form-retaining mixture of boron carbide particles, curable phenolic resin in solid state and in particula te form and a minor proportion of a liquid medium, which boils at a temperature below 200*c., at an elevated temperature so as to obtain bonding of the irreversibly cured phenolic polymer resulting to the boron carbide particles and production of the neutron absorbing article in desired form

  8. LINEAR MODEL FOR NON ISOSCELES ABSORBERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.

    2003-05-12

    Previous analyses have assumed that wedge absorbers are triangularly shaped with equal angles for the two faces. In this case, to linear order, the energy loss depends only on the position in the direction of the face tilt, and is independent of the incoming angle. One can instead construct an absorber with entrance and exit faces facing rather general directions. In this case, the energy loss can depend on both the position and the angle of the particle in question. This paper demonstrates that and computes the effect to linear order.

  9. Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Keiser, George R.; Cao, Lingyue

    2014-01-01

    response of resonant metamaterials continues to be a challengingendeavor. Resonant perfect absorbers have flourished as one of the mostpromising metamaterial devices with applications ranging from power har-vesting to terahertz imaging. Here, an optically modulated resonant perfectabsorber is presented....... Utilizing photo-excited free carriers in silicon padsplaced in the capacitive gaps of split ring resonators, a dynamically modu-lated perfect absorber is designed and fabricated to operate in reflection.Large modulation depth (38% and 91%) in two absorption bands (with 97%and 92% peak absorption...

  10. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...

  11. Multilayer detector for skin absorbed dose measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanov, D.P.; Panova, V.P.; Shaks, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    A method for skin dosimetry based on utilization of multilayer detectors and permitting to estimate distribution of absorbed dose by skin depth is described. The detector represents a set of thin sensitive elements separated by tissue-equivalent absorbers. Quantitative evaluation and forecasting the degree of radiation injury of skin are determined by the formula based on determination of the probability of the fact that cells are not destroyed and they can divide further on. The given method ensures a possibility of quantitative evaluation of radiobiological effect and forecasting clinical consequences of skin irradiation by results of corresponding measurements of dose by means of the miultilayer detector

  12. Optimization of Perfect Absorbers with Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Voti, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    We study wide-angle and broadband perfect absorbers with compact multilayer structures made of a sequence of ITO and TiN layers deposited onto a silver thick layer. An optimization procedure is introduced for searching the optimal thicknesses of the layers so as to design a perfect broadband absorber from 400 nm to 750 nm, for a wide range of angles of incidence from 0{°} to 50{°}, for both polarizations and with a low emissivity in the mid-infrared. We eventually compare the performances of several optimal structures that can be very promising for solar thermal energy harvesting and collectors.

  13. Device for absorbing seismic effects on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xercavins, Pierre; Pompei, Michel.

    1979-01-01

    Device for absorbing seismic effects. The construction or structure to be protected rests on its foundations through at least one footing formed of a stack of metal plates interlinked by layers of adhesive material, over at least a part of their extent, this material being an elastomer that can distort, characterized in that at least part of the area of some metal plates works in association with components which are able to absorb at least some of the energy resulting from friction during the relative movements of the metal plates against the distortion of the elastomer [fr

  14. Field theory of absorbing phase transitions with a non-diffusive conserved field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor-Satorras, R.; Vespignani, A.

    2000-04-01

    We investigate the critical behavior of a reaction-diffusion system exhibiting a continuous absorbing-state phase transition. The reaction-diffusion system strictly conserves the total density of particles, represented as a non-diffusive conserved field, and allows an infinite number of absorbing configurations. Numerical results show that it belongs to a wide universality class that also includes stochastic sandpile models. We derive microscopically the field theory representing this universality class. (author)

  15. Absorbers for combined heating and cooling permit new concepts; Absorber zum Kuehlen und Heizen gestatten neue Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-05-01

    Direct-fuelled absorption-type refrigerators are recently being used not only for cold generation but also for heat generation with a flow temperature of 80 C. They can cool, heat, or cool and heat simultaneously, eah with a 50% share. This opens up new fields of application, either as a stand-alone system or combined with a gas engine cogeneration unit and absorber for cold generation. Two examples are presented, i.e. a hotel and a shopping mall. (orig.) [Deutsch] Direktbefeuerte Absorptionskaeltemaschinen erzeugen neuerdings nicht nur Kaelte, sondern auch Heizungswaerme mit 80 C Vorlauftemperatur. Sie koennen kuehlen, heizen oder - bis je 50% der Leistung - beides gleichzeitig. Der Teillastwirkungsgrad beim Kuehlbetrieb ist hoeher als bekannt. Das eroeffnet neue Moeglichkeiten des Einsatzes solcher Geraete, sei es allein oder zusammen mit Gasmotor-BHKW und Absorber zur Kaelteerzeugung. Zwei Beispiele - ein Hotel und ein Einkaufszentrum - werden vorgestellt. (orig.)

  16. Vibration control of ultrasonic cutting via dynamic absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Y.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)]. E-mail: yasser31270@yahoo.com

    2007-08-15

    Ultrasonic machining (USM) is one of the most effective non-conventional techniques. Its application especially to hard-to-machine material (HTM) is growing rapidly. The main operation condition of USM is at resonance where an exciter derives a tuned blade or a tool. In this paper, the coupling of two non-linear oscillators of the main system and absorber representing ultrasonic cutting process are investigated. This leads to a two-degree-of-freedom Duffing's oscillator in which such non-linear effects can be neutralized under certain dynamic conditions. The aim of this work is the control of the system behavior at principal parametric resonance condition where the system damage is probable. An approximate solution is derived up to the second order for the coupled system. A threshold value of linear damping has been obtained, where the system vibration can be reduced dramatically. The stability of the system is investigated applying both phase-plane and frequency response techniques. The effects of the different parameters of the absorber on system behavior are studied numerically. Comparison with the available published work is reported.

  17. The Cooling of a Liquid Absorber using a Small Cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Liggins, N.

    2005-01-01

    This report discusses the use of small cryogenic coolers for cooling the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) liquid cryogen absorbers. Since the absorber must be able contain liquid helium as well liquid hydrogen, the characteristics of the available 4.2 K coolers are used here. The issues associated with connecting two-stage coolers to liquid absorbers are discussed. The projected heat flows into an absorber and the cool-down of the absorbers using the cooler are presented. The warm-up of the absorber is discussed. Special hydrogen safety issues that may result from the use of a cooler on the absorbers are also discussed

  18. Transition metal atoms absorbed on MoS2/h-BN heterostructure: stable geometries, band structures and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbing; Huang, Zongyu; Liu, Huating; He, Chaoyu; Xue, Lin; Qi, Xiang; Zhong, Jianxin

    2018-06-15

    We have studied the stable geometries, band structures and magnetic properties of transition-metal (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) atoms absorbed on MoS2/h-BN heterostructure systems by first-principles calculations. By comparing the adsorption energies, we find that the adsorbed transition metal (TM) atoms prefer to stay on the top of Mo atoms. The results of the band structure without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction indicate that the Cr-absorbed systems behave in a similar manner to metals, and the Co-absorbed system exhibits a half-metallic state. We also deduce that the V-, Mn-, Fe-absorbed systems are semiconductors with 100% spin polarization at the HOMO level. The Ni-absorbed system is a nonmagnetic semiconductor. In contrast, the Co-absorbed system exhibits metallic state, and the bandgap of V-absorbed system decreases slightly according to the SOC calculations. In addition, the magnetic moments of all the six TM atoms absorbed on the MoS2/h-BN heterostructure systems decrease when compared with those of their free-standing states.

  19. Serendipitous discovery of warm absorbers in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IRAS 18325-5926

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuinai; Gu Qiusheng; Peng Zhixin; Ji Li

    2011-01-01

    Warm absorption is a common phenomenon in Seyfert 1s and quasars, but is rare in Seyfert 2s. We report the detection of warm absorbers with high energy resolution in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IRAS 18325-5926 for the first time with Chandra HETGS spectra. An intrinsic absorbing line system with an outflow velocity ∼ 400 km s -1 was found, which is contributed by two warm absorbers with FWHM of 570 km s -1 and 1360 km s -1 , respectively. The two absorbers were adjacent, and moving transversely across our line of sight. We constrained the distance between the center and the absorbers to be a small value, suggesting that the absorbers may originate from the highly ionized accretion disk wind ejected five years ago. The perspective of this type 2 Seyfert provides the best situation in which to investigate the vertical part of the funnel-like outflows. Another weak absorbing line system with zero redshift was also detected, which could be due to Galactic absorption with very high temperature or an intrinsic outflow with a very high velocity ∼ 6000 km s -1 . (research papers)

  20. Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface plasmon. These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented.

  1. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  2. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  3. Shock absorbing structure for nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    A hydraulic apparatus is described that absorbs shocks that may be applied to fuel assemblies. Spring pads mounted on the upper end fittings of the fuel assemblies have plungers that move within hollow guide posts attached to the upper grids of the fuel assemblies. (L.L.)

  4. Absorbance and fluorescence studies on porphyrin Nanostructures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study some photophysical properties of PNR for application as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells. These properties included absorbance, fluorescence, and fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. The results of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images showed the formation of ...

  5. Proposal concerning the absorbed dose conversion factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiragai, A [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1978-03-01

    New definitions of the absorbed dose conversion factors Csub(lambda) and Csub(E) are proposed. The absorbed dose in water is given by the product of absorbed dose conversion factor, exposure calibration factor, ionisation chamber reading, cap displacement correction factor and perturbation correction factor. At exposure calibration the material of the build-up cap must be the same as that of the chamber wall. An ionisation chamber of which the wall material is water-equivalent or air-equivalent may be used. In the latter case the wall must be thin. For these two cases absorbed dose conversion factors are introduced and it is recommended that either of the two sets should be adopted. Furthermore, if the chamber wall is neither water- nor air-equivalent, the factor by which these currently defined values should be multiplied is also given: again the wall must be thin. The ICRU definitions of Csub(lambda) and Csub(E) are inconsistent, as recently pointed out, while the definitions presented here are consistent.

  6. Fabrication of high efficacy selective solar absorbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tile, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency tandem selective solar absorber materials of carbon in nickel oxide (C-NiO) composite were fabricated on an aluminium substrate using a simple and cost effective sol-gel process. The process involved preparation of carbon and nickel...

  7. Strain absorbent modules for cavity filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Strain absorbent modules made from weldmesh panels and helical steel binders can be used, together with timber packing, to support the roof and sides of cavities instead of softwood and hardwood nogs. A description of these modules and a series of load tests and underground trials carried out on the modules is given.

  8. Electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of hollow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bandwidth below −10 dB and minimum RL decrease with increasing thickness of HCNSs/paraffin composites. Keywords. Nanomaterials; nanospheres; CVD; electric; magnetic; microwave absorption properties. 1. Introduction. In recent years, microwave absorbing materials have attracted considerable attention because it ...

  9. Coupler for nuclear reactor absorber rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerz, K.

    1984-01-01

    A coupler is described for absorber rods being suspended during operation of nuclear reactors which includes plurality of actuating elements being movable for individually and jointly releasing the coupler, the movement of each of the actuating elements for releasing the coupler being independently controllable

  10. Development of absorber rod drive mechanisms for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerasamy, R.; Dash, S.K.; Natarajan, S.; Rajan, M.; Prabhakar, R.; Kale, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor has two independent, diverse and fast acting shutdown systems each having its own neutron detectors, logic circuits, drive mechanisms and absorber rods. The respective drive mechanisms are called the control and safety rod drive mechanism and the diverse safety rod drive mechanism. The reliability of the shutdown systems has a direct bearing on the safety of the reactor. Hence a lot of development and testing efforts are required to optimise the design of the drive mechanisms and finally to qualify the same for reactor application. (author)

  11. Development of a prototype regeneration carbon dioxide absorber. [for use in EVA conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P. S.; Baker, B. S.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber was developed to maintain the environmental quality of the portable life support system. The absorber works on the alkali metal carbonate-bicarbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The prototype sorber module was designed, fabricated, and tested at simulated extravehicular activity conditions to arrive at optimum design. The unit maintains sorber outlet concentration below 5 mm Hg. An optimization study was made with respect to heat transfer, temperature control, sorbent utilization, sorber life and regenerability, and final size of the module. Important parameters influencing the capacity of the final absorber unit were identified and recommendations for improvement were made.

  12. Strategy on biological evaluation for biodegradable/absorbable materials and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenghu; Luo, Hongyu; Wan, Min; Hou, Li; Wang, Xin; Shi, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    During the last two decades, biodegradable/absorbable materials which have many benefits over conventional implants are being sought in clinical practices. However, to date, it still remains obscure for us to perform full physic-chemical characterization and biological risk assessment for these materials and related devices due to their complex design and coherent processing. In this review, based on the art of knowledge for biodegradable/absorbable materials and biological risk assessment, we demonstrated some promising strategies to establish and improve the current biological evaluation systems for these biodegradable/absorbable materials and related medical devices.

  13. Validity of the concept of absorbed dose as a physical quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Jun-Ichiro; Katoh, Kazuaki.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the 'absorbed dose' of ionizing radiation is scrutinized from physical point of view. It is shown that the concept and definition of the quantity in the ICRU system is disqualified as a physical quantity and the absorbed dose can not always be a 'measure of cause' in describing causality relation between radiation and effects on matter. The current absorbed dose depends even on the energy that have already been brought out from the matter, contrary to the intention of introducing the quantity. Trials to remove these difficulties are made. However, it is also shown there still exists an essential problem that cannot be solved by improving the formulation. (author)

  14. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  15. Absorbing phase transitions in deterministic fixed-energy sandpile models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Chan

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the origin of the difference, which was noticed by Fey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 145703 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.145703], between the steady state density of an Abelian sandpile model (ASM) and the transition point of its corresponding deterministic fixed-energy sandpile model (DFES). Being deterministic, the configuration space of a DFES can be divided into two disjoint classes such that every configuration in one class should evolve into one of absorbing states, whereas no configurations in the other class can reach an absorbing state. Since the two classes are separated in terms of toppling dynamics, the system can be made to exhibit an absorbing phase transition (APT) at various points that depend on the initial probability distribution of the configurations. Furthermore, we show that in general the transition point also depends on whether an infinite-size limit is taken before or after the infinite-time limit. To demonstrate, we numerically study the two-dimensional DFES with Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld toppling rule (BTW-FES). We confirm that there are indeed many thresholds. Nonetheless, the critical phenomena at various transition points are found to be universal. We furthermore discuss a microscopic absorbing phase transition, or a so-called spreading dynamics, of the BTW-FES, to find that the phase transition in this setting is related to the dynamical isotropic percolation process rather than self-organized criticality. In particular, we argue that choosing recurrent configurations of the corresponding ASM as an initial configuration does not allow for a nontrivial APT in the DFES.

  16. Benchmark solution of contemporary PWR integral fuel burnable absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, D.L.; Hone, M.J.; Holland, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a closely controlled benchmark solution of the two major contemporary pressurized water reactor integral burnable absorber designs: zirconium diboride (ZrB 2 ) and gadolinia (Gd 2 O 3 ). The comparison is accomplished using self-generating equilibrium cycles with equal energy, equal discharge burnup, and equal safety constraints. The reference plant for this evaluation is a 3411-MW(thermal) Westinghouse four-loop nuclear steam supply system operating with an inlet temperature of 285.9 degrees C, a core coolant mass now rate of 16877.3 kg/s, and coolant pressure of 15.5 MPa. The reactor consists of 193 VANTAGE 5H fuel assemblies that are discharged at a region average burnup of 48.4 GWd/tonne U. Each fuel assembly contains a natural uranium axial blanket 15.24 cm long at the top and the bottom of the fuel rod. The burnable absorber rods are symmetrically radially dispersed within the fuel assembly such that intrabundle power peaking is minimized. The burnable absorber material for both ZrB 2 and Gd 2 O 3 is axially zoned to the central 304.8 cm of the absorber-bearing fuel rods. The fuel management was constrained such that the thermal and safety limitations of F δH q -5 /degrees C were simultaneously achieved. The maximum long-term operating soluble boron concentration was also limited to 446 effective full-power days (EFPDs) including 14 EFPDs of power coastdown were assumed

  17. Neutron absorber qualification and acceptance testing from the designer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracey, W.; Chiocca, R.

    2004-01-01

    Starting in the mid 1990's, the USNRC began to require less than 100% credit for the 10B present in fixed neutron absorbers spent fuel transport packages. The current practice in the US is to use only 75% of the specified 10B in criticality safety calculations unless extensive acceptance testing demonstrates both the presence of the 10B and uniformity of its distribution. In practice, the NRC has accepted no more than 90% credit for 10B in recent years, while other national competent authorities continue to accept 100%. More recently, with the introduction of new neutron absorber materials, particularly aluminum / boron carbide metal matrix composites, the NRC has also expressed expectations for qualification testing, based in large part on Transnuclear's successful application to use a new composite material in the TN-68 storage / transport cask. The difficulty is that adding more boron than is really necessary to a metal has some negative effects on the material, reducing the ductility and the thermal conductivity, and increasing the cost. Excessive testing requirements can have the undesired effect of keeping superior materials out of spent fuel package designs, without a corresponding justification based on public safety. In European countries and especially in France, 100% credit has been accepted up to now with materials controls specified in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR): Manufacturing process approved by qualification testing Materials manufacturing controlled under a Quality Assurance system. During fabrication, acceptance testing directly on products or on representative samples. Acceptance criteria taking into account a statistical uncertainty corresponding to 3σ. The original and current bases for the reduced 10 B credit, the design requirements for neutron absorber materials, and the experience of Transnuclear and Cogema Logistics with neutron absorber testing are examined. Guidelines for qualification and acceptance testing and process controls

  18. Crestal Sinus Augmentation with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of 2-Year Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchler, Ulrike; Rudelstorfer, Claudia M; Barth, Barbara; Tepper, Gabor; Lidinsky, Dominika; Heimel, Patrick; Watzek, Georg; Gruber, Reinhard

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) together with an absorbable collagen carrier (ACS) was approved for augmentation of the maxillary sinus prior to implant placement. The original registration trial was based on a lateral window approach. Clinical outcomes of crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2 have not been reported so far. An uncontrolled pilot trial in which seven patients with a residual maxillary height below 5 mm were enrolled to receive crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS was conducted. Elevation of the sinus mucosa was performed by gel pressure. Primary endpoints were the gain in augmentation height and volume measured by computed tomography after 6 months. Evaluation of bone quality at the time of implant placement was based on histology. Secondary endpoints were the clinical and radiologic evaluation of the implants and patient satisfaction by visual analog scale (VAS) at the 2-year follow-up. Median gain in augmentation height was 7.2 mm (range 0.0 to 17.5 mm). Five patients gained at least 5 mm of bone height. Two patients with a perforation of the sinus mucosa failed to respond to rhBMP-2/ACS and underwent lateral window augmentation. The median gain in augmentation volume of the five patients was 781.3 mm³ (range 426.9 to 1,242.8 mm³). Biopsy specimens showed a cancellous network consisting of primary plexiform bone with little secondary lamellar bone. After 2 years, implants were in function with no signs of inflammation or peri-implant bone loss. Patients were satisfied with the esthetic outcomes and chewing function. This pilot clinical trial supports the original concept that rhBMP-2/ACS supports bone formation, also in crestal sinus augmentation, and emphasizes the relevance of the integrity of the sinus mucosa to predict the bone gain.

  19. Outcome of Treatment of Uveitic Macular Edema: The Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial 2-Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Lightman, Susan; Drye, Lea; Kempen, John; Holland, Gary N; Rao, Narsing A; Stawell, Richard J; Vitale, Albert; Jabs, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the 2-year outcomes of uveitic macular edema. Longitudinal follow-up of a randomized cohort. At baseline, 148 eyes of 117 patients enrolled in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial had macular edema, and 134 eyes of 108 patients completed 2-year follow-up. Patients enrolled in the study were randomized to either systemic immunosuppression or intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant therapy. Macular edema was defined as thickening of the retina (center point thickness≥240 μm) on time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) of macula. Improvement in macular edema (≥20% reduction in central point thickness on OCT), resolution of macular edema (normalization of thickness on OCT), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Between randomization and 2-years' follow-up, 62% and 25% of eyes in the systemic and implant groups, respectively, received at least 1 supplemental regional corticosteroid injection. By 2-years' follow-up, macular edema improved in 71% of eyes and resolved in 60%. There were no differences between treatment groups in the proportion of eyes with macular edema improving (systemic therapy vs. implant, 65% vs. 77%; P=0.20) and resolving (52% vs. 68%; P=0.28), but eyes randomized to implant had more improvement in macular thickness (median decrease of 180 vs. 109 μm in the systemic therapy group; P=0.04). Eyes with baseline fluorescein angiographic leakage were more likely to improve than those without (76% vs. 58%; P=0.03). Overall, there was a mean 5-letter (1 line) improvement in BCVA at 2 years. Mean changes in BCVA from baseline at 2 years by macular edema response status were: resolution, +10 letters; improvement without resolution, +10 letters (P=0.92); little to no change, 6 letters (P=0.19); and worsening, -16 letters (worsening acuity; P=0.0003). About two thirds of eyes with uveitic macular edema were observed to experience improvement in the edema and visual acuity with implant or systemic treatment

  20. Sleep duration, but not insomnia, predicts the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J W; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHOD: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

  1. Sleep Duration, but Not Insomnia, Predicts the 2-Year Course of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

  2. Funded Research of Faculty at 2-Year Institutions by Geographic Locations and Funding Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about how faculty at 2-year institutions secure grants. Although the mission of community colleges focuses more on teaching than research, many of the faculty desire to pursue grants and some actually engage in this activity. The purpose of this research was to better understand faculty at 2-year institutions regarding several…

  3. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  4. Night-vision goggles for night-blind subjects : subjective evaluation after 2 years of use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartong, D. T.; Kooijman, A. C.

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of night-vision goggles (NVG) for night-blind subjects after 1 and 2 years of use. Methods: Eleven night-blind subjects with retinitis pigmentosa used NVG for a 2-year period. At the end of each year, they were requested to fill-in two questionnaires regarding

  5. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  6. Community integration 2 years after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhaug, Maria; Andelic, Nada; Langhammer, Birgitta; Mygland, Aase

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine community integration by the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) 2 years after injury in a divided TBI sample of moderately and severely injured patients. The second aim was to identify social-demographic, injury-related and rehabilitation associated predictors of CIQ. A cohort study. Outpatient follow-up. Fifty-seven patients with moderate (n = 21) or severe (n = 36) TBI were examined with the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) at 2 years after injury. Possible predictors were analysed in a regression model using CIQ total score at 2 years as the outcome measure. The Community Integration Questionnaire. At 2 years follow-up, there was significant difference between the moderately and severely injured patients in the productivity scores (p productivity level than the severely injured patients. Marital status, injury severity and rehabilitation after injury were associated with community integration 2 years after TBI.

  7. Rapid prototyping tool for tuning of vibration absorbers; Rapid-Prototyping-Tool zur Abstimmung von Schwingungstilgern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienfeld, P.M.; Karkosch, H.J. [ContiTech Vibration Control GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Bohn, C. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany); Svaricek, F. [Univ. der Bundeswehr Muenchen (Germany); Knake-Langhorst, S. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In the automotive industry passive vibration absorbers are a well established method to reduce structural vibrations in automotive vehicles. Designing a vibration absorber consists of selecting its mechanical properties. Usually extensive tests are necessary with different absorbers in the vehicle and subjective as well as objective evaluation of the results. This requires hardware modifications between different tests. In this paper, an approach is proposed that can assist in the development of vibration absorbers. It is based on tuning an active vibration control system such that it reproduces the behavior of a specified vibration absorber. This behavior can then be changed electronically without modifying the hardware. Two different control approaches are compared. In the first approach, the apparent physical properties of a vibration absorber are directly modified through acceleration, velocity or displacement feedback. In the second approach, a desired dynamic mass transfer function for the vibration absorber is prescribed and an H2-norm optimal model matching problem is solved. Experimental results obtained with this approach are presented. (orig.)

  8. An absorbent for an application to a package for a liquid radioactive isotope for medical usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, K.S.; Lim, S.P.; Lee, J.C.; Seo, K.S.; Han, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    A radioactive isotope has to be safely transport from the producing center to the consuming center. The shipping package to safely transport the radioactive isotope should be able to withstand the prescribed conditions by law. In the field of nuclear medicine, the radioactive isotope is used in a liquid or capsule form. A Type A package, which is to transport liquid radioactive materials, shall be provided with a containment system composed of primary inner and secondary outer containment components or shall be provided with sufficient absorbent material to absorb twice the volume of the liquid contents. Hospitals prefer to use not only convenient but also re-usable packages. To apply an absorbent material to the Type A package, that is to transport liquid radioactive isotope, the free absorbency of the absorbents was estimated. In the case of a liquid with NaOH 0.4%, the free absorbency of the melanine form was the most superior at 91 g/g. In the case of a liquid with Na 0.9%, the free absorbency of the melanine form was the most excellent at 88 g/g also

  9. Intensity and absorbed-power distribution in a cylindrical solar-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The internal intensity and absorbed-power distribution of a simplified hypothetical dye laser of cylindrical geometry is calculated. Total absorbed power is also calculated and compared with laboratory measurements of lasing-threshold energy deposition in a dye cell to determine the suitability of solar radiation as a pump source or, alternatively, what modifications, if any, are necessary to the hypothetical system for solar pumping.

  10. Design and development of radiation absorber for sighting beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, R.; Shukla, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    During the commissioning of Indus-2 , it is necessary to view the synchrotron radiation that will be emanating from the dipole exit ports. The 10 0 beam line from dipole 11 was earmarked for sighting beam line. The synchrotron radiation power density would be around 340 watts on the photon absorber inside the radiation absorber module, at the specified beam power of Indus-2. The beam striking on this photon absorber produces x-rays and Bremsstrahlung radiation. These are to be stopped and absorbed by radiation absorber. The photon absorber and the radiation absorber are integrated in a single vacuum chamber and actuated by a pneumatic cylinder connected using a bellow. Radiation absorber was needed to isolate the diagnostic components and to protect them from radiation a well as heat when they were not in use. The paper describes the design, calculation and development of the dynamic photon cum radiation absorber. The ultimate vacuum performance is also described. (author)

  11. Optimization of sound absorbing performance for gradient multi-layer-assembled sintered fibrous absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiyong; Zhu, Jian

    2012-04-01

    The transfer matrix method, based on plane wave theory, of multi-layer equivalent fluid is employed to evaluate the sound absorbing properties of two-layer-assembled and three-layer-assembled sintered fibrous sheets (generally regarded as a kind of compound absorber or structures). Two objective functions which are more suitable for the optimization of sound absorption properties of multi-layer absorbers within the wider frequency ranges are developed and the optimized results of using two objective functions are also compared with each other. It is found that using the two objective functions, especially the second one, may be more helpful to exert the sound absorbing properties of absorbers at lower frequencies to the best of their abilities. Then the calculation and optimization of sound absorption properties of multi-layer-assembled structures are performed by developing a simulated annealing genetic arithmetic program and using above-mentioned objective functions. Finally, based on the optimization in this work the thoughts of the gradient design over the acoustic parameters- the porosity, the tortuosity, the viscous and thermal characteristic lengths and the thickness of each samples- of porous metals are put forth and thereby some useful design criteria upon the acoustic parameters of each layer of porous fibrous metals are given while applying the multi-layer-assembled compound absorbers in noise control engineering.

  12. Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) Global Aerosol Optical Depth Validation Based on 2 Years of Coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.; Martonchik, John V.; Diner, David J.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Holben, Brent

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) early postlaunch aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieval algorithm is assessed quantitatively over land and ocean by comparison with a 2-year measurement record of globally distributed AERONET Sun photometers. There are sufficient coincident observations to stratify the data set by season and expected aerosol type. In addition to reporting uncertainty envelopes, we identify trends and outliers, and investigate their likely causes, with the aim of refining algorithm performance. Overall, about 2/3 of the MISR-retrieved AOT values fall within [0.05 or 20% x AOT] of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). More than a third are within [0.03 or 10% x AOT]. Correlation coefficients are highest for maritime stations (approx.0.9), and lowest for dusty sites (more than approx.0.7). Retrieved spectral slopes closely match Sun photometer values for Biomass burning and continental aerosol types. Detailed comparisons suggest that adding to the algorithm climatology more absorbing spherical particles, more realistic dust analogs, and a richer selection of multimodal aerosol mixtures would reduce the remaining discrepancies for MISR retrievals over land; in addition, refining instrument low-light-level calibration could reduce or eliminate a small but systematic offset in maritime AOT values. On the basis of cases for which current particle models are representative, a second-generation MISR aerosol retrieval algorithm incorporating these improvements could provide AOT accuracy unprecedented for a spaceborne technique.

  13. Fault Detection for Automotive Shock Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Amezquita-Brooks, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Fault detection for automotive semi-active shock absorbers is a challenge due to the non-linear dynamics and the strong influence of the disturbances such as the road profile. First obstacle for this task, is the modeling of the fault, which has been shown to be of multiplicative nature. Many of the most widespread fault detection schemes consider additive faults. Two model-based fault algorithms for semiactive shock absorber are compared: an observer-based approach and a parameter identification approach. The performance of these schemes is validated and compared using a commercial vehicle model that was experimentally validated. Early results shows that a parameter identification approach is more accurate, whereas an observer-based approach is less sensible to parametric uncertainty.

  14. Carbon Nanomaterials for Optical Absorber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama KAUL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical absorbers based on vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, synthesized using electric-field assisted growth, are described here that show an ultra-low reflectance, 100X lower compared to the benchmark, a diffuse metal black - Au-black - from wavelength l ~ 350 nm – 2500 nm. The reflectance of the MWCNT arrays was measured to be as low as 0.02 % at 2 mm in the infra-red (IR. Growth conditions were optimized for the realization of high-areal density arrays of MWCNTs using a plasma-based chemical vapor deposition (CVD process. Such high efficiency absorbers are particularly attractive for radiometry, as well as energy harnessing applications. Optical modeling calculations were conducted that enabled a determination of the extinction coefficient in the films.

  15. Use of Wedge Absorbers in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Summers, D. [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Mohayai, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Snopok, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Rogers, C. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2017-03-01

    Wedge absorbers are needed to obtain longitudinal cooling in ionization cooling. They also can be used to obtain emittance exchanges between longitudinal and transverse phase space. There can be large exchanges in emittance, even with single wedges. In the present note we explore the use of wedge absorbers in the MICE experiment to obtain transverse–longitudinal emittance exchanges within present and future operational conditions. The same wedge can be used to explore “direct” and “reverse” emittance exchange dynamics, where direct indicates a configuration that reduces momentum spread and reverse is a configuration that increases momentum spread. Analytical estimated and ICOOL and G4BeamLine simulations of the exchanges at MICE parameters are presented. Large exchanges can be obtained in both reverse and direct configurations.

  16. Effect of the bio-absorbent on the microwave absorption property of the flaky CIPs/rubber absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yang; Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-09-01

    Microwave absorbing composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and the bio-absorbent were prepared by using a two-roll mixer and a vulcanizing machine. The electromagnetic (EM) parameters were measured by a vector network analyzer and the reflection loss (RL) was measured by the arch method in the frequency range of 1–4 GHz. The uniform dispersion of the absorbents was verified by comparing the calculated RL with the measured one. The results confirm that as the bio-absorbent was added, the permittivity was increased due to the volume content of absorbents, and the permeability was enlarged owing to the volume content of CIPs and interactions between the two absorbents. The composite filled with bio-absorbents achieved an excellent absorption property at a thickness of 1 mm (minimum RL reaches −7.8 dB), and as the RL was less than −10 dB the absorption band was widest (2.1–3.8 GHz) at a thickness of 2 mm. Therefore, the bio-absorbent is a promising additive candidate on fabricating microwave absorbing composites with a thinner thickness and wider absorption band. - Graphical abstract: Morphology of composites filled with flaky CIPs and the bio-absorbent. The enhancement of bio-absorbent on the electromagnetic absorption property of composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) is attributed to the interaction of the two absorbents. The volume content of the FCMPs with the larger shape CIPs play an important role in this effects, the composites filled with irons and bio-absorbents can achieve wider-band and thinner-thickness absorbing materials. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with bio-absorbents and CIPs was fabricated. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the permittivity and permeability of the composites. • The absorbent interactions play a key role in the enhancement mechanism. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the composite RL in 1–4 GHz.

  17. Study of neutron absorbing microspheres in research reactors - Neutronic analyse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gana Watkins, Ignacio A.; Prado, Miguel O.; Mazufri, Claudio; Tunon, Juan M

    2012-01-01

    Now-a-days, it is increasingly common for nuclear power plants, as well as research reactors, to be designed and built with an alternative safety system aside from control rods. The acids and/or salts in solution injection systems is most frequently used. However, these systems present several implementation and operation problems due to the physical and chemical properties of the used compounds. After analyzing these drawbacks, we developed a new alternative safety system that contains the absorbing element isolated from the aqueous medium. In this context, it's proposed the use of aluminum borosilicate microspheres. The current paper presents erosion wear experiments to determine under which conditions microspheres can be considered as a potential component of a secondary shut down system in a nuclear facility (author)

  18. Removing fuelling transient using neutron absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, S.; Chan, P.K.; Bonin, H.W., E-mail: Stephane.Paquette@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Preliminary criticality and burnup calculation results indicate that by employing a small amount of neutron absorber the fuelling transient, currently occurring in a CANDU 37-element fuel bundle, can be significantly reduced. A parametric study using the Los Alamos National Laboratories' MCNP 5 code and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's WIMS-AECL 3.1 is presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Visual indicator of absorbed radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generalova, V V; Krasovitskii, B M; Vainshtok, B A; Gurskii, M N

    1968-10-15

    A visual indicator of the absorbed doses of ionizing radiation is proposed. The indicator has a polymer base with the addition of a dye. A distinctive feature of the indicator consists of the use of polystyrene as its polymer base with the addition of halogen-containing hydrocarbon and the light-proof dye. Such combination of the radiation-resistant polymer of polystyrene and the light-proof dyestuff makes the proposed indicator highly stable.

  20. Direct solar steam generation inside evacuated tube absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Bataineh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct steam generation by solar radiation falling on absorber tube is studied in this paper. A system of single pipe covered by glass material in which the subcooled undergoes heating and evaporation process is analyzed. Mathematical equations are derived based on energy, momentum and mass balances for system components. A Matlab code is built to simulate the flow of water inside the absorber tube and determine properties of water along the pipe. Widely accepted empirical correlations and mathematical models of turbulent flow, pressure drop for single and multiphase flow, and heat transfer are used in the simulation. The influences of major parameters on the system performance are investigated. The pressure profiles obtained by present numerical solution for each operation condition (3 and 10 MPa matches very well experimental data from the DISS system of Plataforma Solar de Almería. Furthermore, results obtained by simulation model for pressure profiles are closer to the experimental data than those predicted by already existed other numerical model.

  1. Heaving buoys, point absorbers and arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnes, Johannes; Hals, Jørgen

    2012-01-28

    Absorption of wave energy may be considered as a phenomenon of interference between incident and radiated waves generated by an oscillating object; a wave-energy converter (WEC) that displaces water. If a WEC is very small in comparison with one wavelength, it is classified as a point absorber (PA); otherwise, as a 'quasi-point absorber'. The latter may be a dipole-mode radiator, for instance an immersed body oscillating in the surge mode or pitch mode, while a PA is so small that it should preferably be a source-mode radiator, for instance a heaving semi-submerged buoy. The power take-off capacity, the WEC's maximum swept volume and preferably also its full physical volume should be reasonably matched to the wave climate. To discuss this matter, two different upper bounds for absorbed power are applied in a 'Budal diagram'. It appears that, for a single WEC unit, a power capacity of only about 0.3 MW matches well to a typical offshore wave climate, and the full physical volume has, unfortunately, to be significantly larger than the swept volume, unless phase control is used. An example of a phase-controlled PA is presented. For a sizeable wave-power plant, an array consisting of hundreds, or even thousands, of mass-produced WEC units is required.

  2. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N.D.; Thomas, C.G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-01-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%). (authors)

  3. Neutron absorbers, and the production method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hideo; Yajima, Seishi; Oono, Hironori.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To integrally sinter a metal powder and a metal network material thereby to obtain a material having a high neutron absorbing function, an excellent corrosion resistance and an excellent oxidation resistance. Method: An element having a high neutron absorbing function, such as Gd, or a compound thereof and a powder of a metal having excellent corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and ductility, such as Fe, Cr or the like are uniformly mixed with each other. In a case where a substance having a neutron absorbing function is a hydroxide an organic complex or the like, it is formed into a gel-like substance and mixed uniformly with the metal powder, the gel-like substance being pasted, and covered on the surface of the metal powder and dried. Then, the mixture or the dry coated material is extended and the metal network material having excellent corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and ductility is covered or interposed or between at least one layer of upper, intermediate or lower layers of said laminated material, and thereafter is subjected to cold or hot rolling, and then sintered and furthermore rolled, if necessary, the thus treated material being burned in vacuum or a non-oxidizing atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Innovative energy absorbing devices based on composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Chandrashekhar

    Analytical and experimental study of innovative load limiting and energy absorbing devices are presented here. The devices are based on composite tubes and can be categorized in to two groups based upon the energy absorbing mechanisms exhibited by them, namely: foam crushing and foam fracturing. The device based on foam crushing as the energy absorbing mechanism is composed of light weight elastic-plastic foam filling inside an angle ply composite tube. The tube is tailored to have a high Poisson’s ratio (>20). Upon being loaded the device experiences large transverse contraction resulting in rapid decrease in diameter. At a certain axial load the foam core begins to crush and energy is dissipated. This device is termed as crush tube device. The device based upon foam shear fracture as the energy absorbing mechanism involves an elastic-plastic core foam in annulus of two concentric extension-twist coupled composite tubes with opposite angles of fibers. The core foam is bonded to the inner and outer tube walls. Upon being loaded axially, the tubes twist in opposite directions and fracture the core foam in out of plane shear and thus dissipate the energy stored. The device is termed as sandwich core device (SCD). The devices exhibit variations in force-displacement characteristics with changes in design and material parameters, resulting in wide range of energy absorption capabilities. A flexible matrix composite system was selected, which was composed of high stiffness carbon fibers as reinforcements in relatively low stiffness polyurethane matrix, based upon large strain to failure capabilities and large beneficial elastic couplings. Linear and non-linear analytical models were developed encapsulating large deformation theory of the laminated composite shells (using non-linear strain energy formulation) to the fracture mechanics of core foam and elastic-plastic deformation theory of the foam filling. The non-linear model is capable of including material and

  5. A new laboratory-scale experimental facility for detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Garcia, Fabrisio; Santiago, Sergio; Luque, Salvador; Romero, Manuel; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems. The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure (thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency). Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe (1.2 kWth) high flux solar simulator, a radiation homogenizer, inlet and outlet collector modules and a working section that can accommodate volumetric absorbers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in cross-sectional area. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon

  6. Association of baseline knee sagittal dynamic joint stiffness during gait and 2-year patellofemoral cartilage damage worsening in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A H; Chmiel, J S; Almagor, O; Guermazi, A; Prasad, P V; Moisio, K C; Belisle, L; Zhang, Y; Hayes, K; Sharma, L

    2017-02-01

    Knee sagittal dynamic joint stiffness (DJS) describes the biomechanical interaction between change in external knee flexion moment and flexion angular excursion during gait. In theory, greater DJS may particularly stress the patellofemoral (PF) compartment and thereby contribute to PF osteoarthritis (OA) worsening. We hypothesized that greater baseline knee sagittal DJS is associated with PF cartilage damage worsening 2 years later. Participants all had OA in at least one knee. Knee kinematics and kinetics during gait were recorded using motion capture systems and force plates. Knee sagittal DJS was computed as the slope of the linear regression line for knee flexion moments vs angles during the loading response phase. Knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained at baseline and 2 years later. We assessed the association between baseline DJS and baseline-to-2-year PF cartilage damage worsening using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE). Our sample had 391 knees (204 persons): mean age 64.2 years (SD 10.0); body mass index (BMI) 28.4 kg/m 2 (5.7); 76.5% women. Baseline knee sagittal DJS was associated with baseline-to-2-year cartilage damage worsening in the lateral (OR = 5.35, 95% CI: 2.37-12.05) and any PF (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.27-7.04) compartment. Individual components of baseline DJS (i.e., change in knee moment or angle) were not associated with subsequent PF disease worsening. Capturing the concomitant effect of knee kinetics and kinematics during gait, knee sagittal DJS is a potentially modifiable risk factor for PF disease worsening. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of artificial shock absorbers on human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshin, A; Wosk, J

    1981-10-01

    The effect of artificial shock absorbers on the human gait and the technique for its quantitative evaluation have been studied. The results obtained have shown that viscoelastic inserts reduced the amplitude of the incoming shock waves bearing upon the musculoskeletal system as a result of the heel strike, by 42 percent (mean value). Conservative treatment, using such inserts for patients with different clinical symptoms of degenerative joint diseases, has shown excellent results. Seventy-eight percent of the clinical symptoms disappeared, while satisfactory improvement was reported in 17 percent of the subjects.

  8. Study of absorbed dose distribution to high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecatti, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    The depth absorbed dose distribution by electron beams was studied. The influence of the beam energy, the energy spread, field size and design characteristics of the accelerator was relieved. Three accelerators with different scattering and collimation systems were studied leading todifferent depth dose distributions. A theoretical model was constructed in order to explain the increase in the depth dose in the build-up region with the increase of the energy. The model utilizes a three-dimensional formalism based on the Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, with the introduction of modifications that takes into account the criation of secondary electrons. (Author) [pt

  9. Double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty for proboscoid umbilical hernia in a 2 years old child with satisfactory results 2 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashu, Eseme Ebai; Leroy, Guifo Marc; Aristide, Bang Guy; Joss, Bitang Mafok Louis; Bonaventure, Jemea; Patrick, Savom Eric; Myriam, Fotso Guegne

    2015-01-01

    Surgical repair of large umbilical hernias may present a challenging surgical problem; standard surgical techniques have proven to be inadequate for both closing the fascial defect of the umbilicus and providing a satisfactory cosmetic result. We describe here a case of double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty that was performed in a 2 years old boy. The case of a 2 years old child with proboscoid umbilical hernia. The protruding umbilical skin was excised sharply by two V-shaped cuts leaving two half cones, a short cephalic (0.5cm) and a long caudal (1cm). A classic herniotomy was carried out, with repair of the facial defect. The caudal half cone was sutured from its apex till half it's length upon itself with interrupted sutures and it was anchored deeply to the fascia. Then we inverted the cephalic half cone which was sutured to the caudal cone to form the new umbilicus. The early result was excellent with no complications and the result after 2years revealed a cosmetically satisfactory shape of the umbilicus. this technique provides a good solution for reconstruction of the protruding umbilical skin and it is easy to learn, easy to be taught and perform in surgical environments and may be applicable for any kind of umbilical reconstruction.

  10. Measurements of a prototype synchrotron radiation pumped absorber for future light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Foerster, C.L.; Halama, H.; Lanni, C.

    1988-01-01

    In the new generation of advanced synchrotron light sources, the conventional concept of distributed pumping is no longer suitable for removing the gas load caused by photon stimulated desorption (PSD). A new concept using a combination of photon absorber and pumping station has been designed, constructed, and installed in the U1OB beam line at the VUV ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The system consists of an electrically insulated water cooled copper block, a titanium sublimation pump, calibrated BA gauges, a calibrated RGA, and a known conductance. A photon beam 10 milliradian wide and 3.26 milliradian high, having critical energy of 500 eV, is directed on the absorber. PSD yield is studied as a function of total beam dose and absorber surface preparation. The results from this experiment, pump characteristics, design of an absorber pump for future light sources, and the pressure improvement factors will be presented. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Development of Coatings for Radar Absorbing Materials at X-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Samarjit

    2018-03-01

    The present review gives a brief account on some of the technical features of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). The paper has been presented with a concentrated approach towards the material aspects for achieving enhanced radar absorption characteristics for its application as a promising candidate in stealth technology and electromagnetic interference (EMI) minimization problems. The effect of metal particles doping/dispersion in the ferrites and dielectrics has been discussed for obtaining tunable radar absorbing characteristics. A short theoretical overview on the development of absorber materials, implementation of genetic algorithm (GA) in multi-layering and frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) based multi-layer has also been presented for the development of radar absorbing coatings for achieving better absorption augmented with broadband features in order to counter the radar detection systems.

  12. Emitter and absorber assembly for multiple self-dual operation and directional transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalozoumis, P. A.; Morfonios, C. V.; Kodaxis, G.; Diakonos, F. K.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate how to systematically design wave scattering systems with simultaneous coherent perfect absorbing and lasing operation at multiple and prescribed frequencies. The approach is based on the recursive assembly of non-Hermitian emitter and absorber units into self-dual emitter-absorber trimers at different composition levels, exploiting the simple structure of the corresponding transfer matrices. In particular, lifting the restriction to parity-time-symmetric setups enables the realization of emitter and absorber action at distinct frequencies and provides flexibility with respect to the choice of realistic parameters. We further show how the same assembled scatterers can be rearranged to produce unidirectional and bidirectional transparency at the selected frequencies. With the design procedure being generically applicable to wave scattering in single-channel settings, we demonstrate it with concrete examples of photonic multilayer setups.

  13. Real-time measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey; Korenev, Ivan; Rumega, Stanislav; Grossman, Leon

    2004-09-01

    The real-time method and system for measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for industrial and research electron accelerators is considered in the report. The system was created on the basis of beam parameters method. The main concept of this method consists in the measurement of dissipated kinetic energy of electrons in the irradiated product, determination of number of electrons and mass of irradiated product in the same cell by following calculation of absorbed dose in the cell. The manual and automation systems for dose measurements are described. The systems are acceptable for all types of electron accelerators.

  14. Real-time measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, Sergey E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com; Korenev, Ivan; Rumega, Stanislav; Grossman, Leon

    2004-10-01

    The real-time method and system for measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for industrial and research electron accelerators is considered in the report. The system was created on the basis of beam parameters method. The main concept of this method consists in the measurement of dissipated kinetic energy of electrons in the irradiated product, determination of number of electrons and mass of irradiated product in the same cell by following calculation of absorbed dose in the cell. The manual and automation systems for dose measurements are described. The systems are acceptable for all types of electron accelerators.

  15. Real-time measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey; Korenev, Ivan; Rumega, Stanislav; Grossman, Leon

    2004-01-01

    The real-time method and system for measurement and monitoring of absorbed dose for industrial and research electron accelerators is considered in the report. The system was created on the basis of beam parameters method. The main concept of this method consists in the measurement of dissipated kinetic energy of electrons in the irradiated product, determination of number of electrons and mass of irradiated product in the same cell by following calculation of absorbed dose in the cell. The manual and automation systems for dose measurements are described. The systems are acceptable for all types of electron accelerators

  16. Esthetic outcome and alterations of soft tissue around single implant crowns: a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying-Xin; Shi, Jun-Yu; Zhuang, Long-Fei; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Xu, You-You; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the esthetic outcome and alterations of peri-implant soft tissue using tissue-level implants. Furthermore, the influencing factors, including grafting and gingival biotype, of esthetic outcome of peri-implant soft tissue were also evaluated. Of 38 patients with single missing anterior tooth in maxilla were treated with a Straumann (®) Standard Plus SLA implant. Bone augmentation was performed in 24 patients. Follow-up was conducted at 12 and 24 months after definitive crowns placement. Esthetic outcome using the pink esthetic score/white esthetic score (PES/WES) and clinical parameters were evaluated. The mean PES/WES value at baseline, 1-year, and 2-year examination was 13.79, 14.87, and 14.96. Significant improvement was found between baseline and 1-year examination (P esthetic area. Favorable short-term esthetic outcome and stability of soft tissue around single implant crowns can be expected in patients with or without graft. However, graft procedures might have an unfavorable effect on the esthetic outcome. Gingival biotype can be considered as prognostic factor for esthetic outcome. RCTs with long-term follow-up are needed to provide evidence for the long-term stability of peri-implant soft tissue using tissue-level implant systems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Superlattice photonic crystal as broadband solar absorber for high temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnerbauer, Veronika; Shen, Yichen; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Schäffler, Friedrich; Celanovic, Ivan

    2014-12-15

    A high performance solar absorber using a 2D tantalum superlattice photonic crystal (PhC) is proposed and its design is optimized for high-temperature energy conversion. In contrast to the simple lattice PhC, which is limited by diffraction in the short wavelength range, the superlattice PhC achieves solar absorption over broadband spectral range due to the contribution from two superposed lattices with different cavity radii. The superlattice PhC geometry is tailored to achieve maximum thermal transfer efficiency for a low concentration system of 250 suns at 1500 K reaching 85.0% solar absorptivity. In the high concentration case of 1000 suns, the superlattice PhC absorber achieves a solar absorptivity of 96.2% and a thermal transfer efficiency of 82.9% at 1500 K, amounting to an improvement of 10% and 5%, respectively, versus the simple square lattice PhC absorber. In addition, the performance of the superlattice PhC absorber is studied in a solar thermophotovoltaic system which is optimized to minimize absorber re-emission by reducing the absorber-to-emitter area ratio and using a highly reflective silver aperture.

  18. Surgical options for treatment of traumatic subdural hematomas in children younger than 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, José Roberto Tude; Di Rocco, Federico; Bourgeois, Marie; Puget, Stephanie; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Meyer, Philippe G; Zerah, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Subdural hematoma (SDH) is the most common finding on cranial CT in pediatric victims of abusive head trauma (AHT). The hematomas are commonly bilateral and sometimes associated with interhemispheric hyperdensity and/or convexity hemorrhages. There is no consensus regarding the best surgical treatment in such cases nor are there standardized surgical protocols. The authors report their experience and discuss the routine surgical options in the management of traumatic SDH at a Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center. In this paper, the authors describe a cross-sectional study with consecutive revision of data described in the medical records of Hôpital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades between January 2008 and January 2013. During this period, all children younger than 2 years of age who were admitted with a traumatic SDH identified on CT scans were included in this study. One hundred eighty-four children who had SDH and were younger than 2 years of age were included. Their median age was 5.8 months (range 5 days-23 months), and 70% of the children were male. On admission CT scans, the SDH was bilateral in 52% of cases and homogeneously hypodense in 77%. Neurosurgical treatment was undertaken in 111 children (60%) with an admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less, bulging fontanels, or other signs suggestive of intracranial hypertension. The first surgical option was craniotomy in 1.8% (2) of these 111 cases, decompressive craniectomy in 1.8% (2), transcutaneous subdural puncture in 15% (17), external subdural drainage in 16% (18), subdural-subgaleal shunt placement in 17% (19), and subdural-peritoneal shunt placement in 48% (53). In 82% of the children initially treated with transcutaneous subdural puncture and in 50% of those treated with external subdural drainage, increase or persistence of the SDH, CSF or skin infection, or shunt system malfunction was observed and further surgical intervention was required. There was a 26% rate of complications in patients

  19. Radar absorbing properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This research is devoted to the study of radar absorbing properties of the composites, based on the epoxy binder and ... Radar absorbing materials; carbon nanotubes; nanocomposites; reflection loss. 1. ..... So, for example, the papers of [3–5 ...

  20. Simulated mixed absorbers and effective atomic numbers for γ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. γ-rays; γ attenuation; simulated mixed absorbers; effective atomic ... We have tried to simulate composite (mixed) absorbers ... Experimental method .... puter, Program manual, Centre for Radiation Research, National Bureau of ...

  1. Randomized Clinical Trial of a Self-Adhering Flowable Composite for Class I Restorations: 2-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sabbagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the clinical performances of a self-adhering resin composite and a conventional flowable composite with a self-etch bonding system on permanent molars. The influence of using rubber dam versus cotton roll isolation was also investigated. Materials and Methods. Patients aged between 6 and 12 years and presenting at least two permanent molars in need of small class I restorations were selected. Thirty-four pairs of restorations were randomly placed by the same operator. Fifteen patients were treated under rubber dam and nineteen using cotton rolls isolation and saliva ejector. They were evaluated according to the modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years by two independent evaluators. Results. All patients attended the two-year recall. For all measured variables, there was no significant difference between rubber dam and cotton after 2 years of restoration with Premise Flowable or Vertise Flow (p value > 0.05. The percentage of restorations scored alpha decreased significantly over time with Premise Flowable and Vertise Flow for marginal adaptation and surface texture as well as marginal discoloration while it did not vary significantly for color matching. After 2 years, Vertise Flow showed a similar behaviour to the Premise Flowable used with a self-adhesive resin system.

  2. Psychological reactions after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, M; Stark, C; Blondel, B; Lefebvre, G; Vauthier-Brouzes, D; Zorn, J R

    1997-03-01

    This study had two objectives. Firstly we assessed the effects of multifetal pregnancy reduction on the mothers' emotional well-being and the relationship with the children during the 2 years following intervention. Secondly at 2 years we compared mothers who had a reduction with mothers who had not and had delivered triplets. The comparisons focused on the mothers' health and their relationship with the children. Women having had a reduction in two hospitals in Paris, between May 1992 and June 1993, were contacted just after intervention for a prospective study. In all, 18 women were included. At 1 and 2 years, 10 women participated. At 2 years, 10 additional women were included. The answers of these 20 mothers were compared to those of 11 consecutive mothers of 2 year old triplets, assessed by the same psychologist in a previous prospective study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at home. The mothers' social characteristics, their parity, the children's condition at birth and 4 months were very similar between the reduction and triplet groups. One year after birth one-third of the women in the reduction group reported persistent depressive symptoms related to the reduction, mainly sadness and guilt. The others made medical and rational comments expressing no emotion. At 2 years all but two women seemed to have overcome the emotional pain associated with the reduction. The comparison with mothers of triplets indicated that the mothers' anxiety and depression, and difficult relationship with the children were less acute in the reduction group. These results presented some limitations, since a high number of women who miscarried or refused to participate in the follow-up were not assessed at 1 and 2 years. However, a majority of women who participated in the study 2 years after intervention seemed able to accept a multifetal pregnancy reduction to achieve parental goals.

  3. Effect of inclusions' distribution on microwave absorbing properties of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Siliang; Wang, Qingguo; Qu, Zhaoming

    2013-01-01

    Effect of inclusions' spatial distributions on the permeability and permittivity of composites is studied using the generalized Maxwell-Garnett equations. The result indicates that inclusions' orientation distribution can increase the longitudinal electromagnetic parameters. For inclusions' random and orientation distribution, single and three-layer absorbers are designed and optimized using genetic algorithm. The result shows that under a given absorbing requirement, absorber with inclusions' orientation distribution is lighter and thinner than absorber with inclusions' random distribution.

  4. Dynamic testing of airplane shock-absorbing struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, P; Thome, W

    1932-01-01

    Measurement of perpendicular impacts of a landing gear with different shock-absorbing struts against the drum testing stand. Tests were made with pneumatic shock absorbers having various degrees of damping, liquid shock absorbers, steel-spring shock absorbers and rigid struts. Falling tests and rolling tests. Maximum impact and gradual reduction of the impacts in number and time in the falling tests. Maximum impact and number of weaker impacts in rolling tests.

  5. On (m, n)-absorbing ideals of commutative rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with respect to various ring theoretic constructions and study (m, n)-absorbing ideals in several commutative rings. For example, in a Bézout ring or a Boolean ring, an ideal is an (m, n)-absorbing ideal if and only if it is an n-absorbing ideal, and in an almost. Dedekind domain every (m, n)-absorbing ideal is a product of at ...

  6. Absorbent material for type a radioactive materials packaging containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, G.A.

    1989-11-01

    The application of absorbent materials to the packaging and transport of liquid radioactive materials in Type A packages has not been reported in the literature. However, a significant body of research exists on absorbent materials for personal hygiene products such as diapers. Absorption capacity is dependent on both the absorbent material and the liquid being absorbed. Theoretical principles for capillary absorption in both the horizontal and the vertical plane indicate that small contact angle between the absorbent fibre and the liquid, and a small inter-fibre pore size are important. Some fluid parameters such as viscosity affect the rate of absorption but not the final absorption capacity. There appears to be little comparability between results obtained for the same absorbent and fluid using different test procedures. Test samples of materials from several classes of potential absorbents have been evaluated in this study, and shown to have a wide range of absorbent capacities. Foams, natural fibres, artificial fibres and granular materials are all potentially useful absorbents, with capacities ranging from as little as 0.86 to as much as 40.6 grams of distilled water per gram of absorbent. Two experimental procedures for evaluating the absorbent capacity of these materials have been detailed in this report, and found suitable for evaluating granular, fibrous or foam materials. Compression of the absorbent material reduces its capacity, but parameters such as relative humidity, pH, temperature, and viscosity appear to have little significant influence on capacity. When the materials were loaded to 50% of their one-minute absorbency, subsequent loss of the absorbed liquid was generally minimal. All of the absorbent materials rapidly lost their absorbed water through evaporation within twenty-four hours in still air at 21 degrees C and 50% relative humidity

  7. Slow and Fast Light in an Electro-Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Bermejo Ramirez, Andres; Sales, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate controllable and large time delay in cascaded semiconductor saturable absorbers and amplifiers. The possibility of further increasing the tuneable phase shift by utilizing field screening effects in the quantum well absorber is demonstrated.......We demonstrate controllable and large time delay in cascaded semiconductor saturable absorbers and amplifiers. The possibility of further increasing the tuneable phase shift by utilizing field screening effects in the quantum well absorber is demonstrated....

  8. Airborne and total gamma absorbed dose rates at Patiala - India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfaye, Tilahun; Sahota, H.S.; Singh, K.

    1999-01-01

    The external gamma absorbed dose rate due to gamma rays originating from gamma emitting aerosols in air, is compared with the total external gamma absorbed dose rate at the Physics Department of Punjabi University, Patiala. It has been found out that the contribution, to the total external gamma absorbed dose rate, of radionuclides on particulate matter suspended in air is about 20% of the overall gamma absorbed dose rate. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 880.5300 - Medical absorbent fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical absorbent fiber. 880.5300 Section 880.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5300 Medical absorbent fiber. (a) Identification. A medical absorbent fiber is a device...

  10. Demonstration of non-collocated vibration control of a flexible manipulator using electrical dynamic absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Myeong; Kim, Heungseob; Boo, Kwangsuck; Brennan, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study into the vibration control of a servo system comprising a servo motor and a flexible manipulator. Two modes of the system are controlled by using the servo motor and an accelerometer attached to the tip of the flexible manipulator. The control system is thus non-collocated. It consists of two electrical dynamic absorbers, each of which consists of a modal filter and, in case of an out-of-phase mode, a phase inverter. The experimental results show that each absorber acts as a mechanical dynamic vibration absorber attached to each mode and significantly reduces the settling time for the system response to a step input. (technical note)

  11. DHCAL with Minimal Absorber: Measurements with Positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, B; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Dotti, A.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Antequera, J.Berenguer; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H.L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schroeder, S.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Besson, D.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; Kolk, N.van der; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Corriveau, F.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-01-01

    In special tests, the active layers of the CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter prototype, the DHCAL, were exposed to low energy particle beams, without being interleaved by absorber plates. The thickness of each layer corresponded approximately to 0.29 radiation lengths or 0.034 nuclear interaction lengths, defined mostly by the copper and steel skins of the detector cassettes. This paper reports on measurements performed with this device in the Fermilab test beam with positrons in the energy range of 1 to 10 GeV. The measurements are compared to simulations based on GEANT4 and a standalone program to emulate the detailed response of the active elements.

  12. Performansi Purifikasi Biogas Dengan KOH Based Absorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Hermawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The absorpstion of CO2 is aimed to increase the methane gas fraction in biogas. Enhancing methane fraction hopefully will increase the total energy of the biogas it self. The purification process of biogas minimizing another elements maintains combustion, especially minimizing H2O, CO2, and H2S. The purification using KOH as the absorbent to decrease the CO2. The result shown that the content of CO2 decreased into 27% from 35.5%, the average content of CH4 increased from 18% to 48.5%. Increasing KOH composition decreases bubble generator diameter and mass flow.

  13. Performansi Purifikasi Biogas Dengan KOH Based Absorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan, Dadang; Hamidi, Nurkholis; Sasongko, Mega Nur

    2016-01-01

    The absorpstion of CO2 is aimed to increase the methane gas fraction in biogas. Enhancing methane fraction hopefully will increase the total energy of the biogas it self. The purification process of biogas minimizing another elements maintains combustion, especially minimizing H2O, CO2, and H2S. The purification using KOH as the absorbent to decrease the CO2. The result shown that the content of CO2 decreased into 27% from 35.5%, the average content of CH4 increased from 18% to 48.5%. Increas...

  14. Liquid holdup in turbulent contact absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.; Zaman, M.; Inayat, M.H.; Chughtai, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic liquid holdup in a turbulent contact absorber was obtained through quick shut off valves technique. Experiments were carried out in a Perspex column. Effects of liquid velocity, gas velocity, packing diameter packing density and packing height on dynamic liquid holdup were studied. Hollow spherical high density polyethylene (HDPE) balls were used as inert fluidized packing. Experiments were performed at practical range of liquid and gas velocities. Holdup was calculated on the basis of static bed height. Liquid holdup increases with increasing both liquid and gas velocities both for type 1 and type 2 modes of fluidization. Liquid holdup increases with packing density. No effect of dia was observed on liquid holdup. (author)

  15. Optical Pulsing in an Absorbing Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jacob; Evans, Dean; Guha, Shekhar

    2003-03-01

    A continuous-wave laser can be converted into a series of repetitive pulses by focusing the laser beam into an absorbing liquid (e.g. nigrosine dissolved in a solvent), where the mechanism responsible for the pulses is the scattering of light off of photo-generated bubbles. The dependence of the pulsation frequency on the solvent, power, and cell thickness will be shown. The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions made by Prof. Daniel Lathrop (University of Maryland, Department of Physics) at the APS March 2002 meeting.

  16. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-11-13

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin ( 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others.

  17. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  18. Absorbed dose determination in photon fields using the tandem method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Pachas, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an alternative method to determine the absorbed dose and effective energy of photons with unknown spectral distributions. It includes a 'tandem' system that consists of two thermoluminescent dosemeters with different energetic dependence. LiF: Mg, Ti, CaF 2 : Dy thermoluminescent dosemeters and a Harshaw 3500 reading system are employed. Dosemeters are characterized with 90 Sr- 90 Y, calibrated with the energy of 60 Co and irradiated with seven different qualities of x-ray beams, suggested by ANSI No. 13 and ISO 4037. The answers of each type of dosemeter are adjusted to a function that depends on the effective energy of photons. The adjustment is carried out by means of the Rosenbrock minimization algorithm. The mathematical model used for this function includes five parameters and has a gauss and a straight line. Results show that the analytical functions reproduce the experimental data of the answers, with a margin of error of less than 5%. The reason of the answers of the CaF 2 : Dy and LiF: Mg, Ti, according to the energy of the radiation, allows us to establish the effective energy of photons and the absorbed dose, with a margin of error of less than 10% and 20% respectively

  19. Absorbable magnesium-based stent: physiological factors to consider for in vitro degradation assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Smith, Christopher E; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung; Huang, Nan

    2015-03-01

    Absorbable metals have been widely tested in various in vitro settings using cells to evaluate their possible suitability as an implant material. However, there exists a gap between in vivo and in vitro test results for absorbable materials. A lot of traditional in vitro assessments for permanent materials are no longer applicable to absorbable metallic implants. A key step is to identify and test the relevant microenvironment and parameters in test systems, which should be adapted according to the specific application. New test methods are necessary to reduce the difference between in vivo and in vitro test results and provide more accurate information to better understand absorbable metallic implants. In this investigative review, we strive to summarize the latest test methods for characterizing absorbable magnesium-based stent for bioabsorption/biodegradation behavior in the mimicking vascular environments. Also, this article comprehensively discusses the direction of test standardization for absorbable stents to paint a more accurate picture of the in vivo condition around implants to determine the most important parameters and their dynamic interactions.

  20. Absorption process of a falling film on a tubular absorber: An experimental and numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Raisul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak Campus Malaysia, CDT 250, 98009 Miri, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2008-08-15

    This paper describes an experimental and theoretical analysis of the combined heat and mass transfer processes that take place in the absorber of vapor absorption cooling systems. The effect of the main operating variables such as solution inlet temperature, solution flow rate, coolant inlet temperature, coolant flow rate and absorber vapor pressure on the performance of absorber is experimentally investigated. A mathematical model that takes account of the geometrical details of the solution and coolant flow is developed following the traditional heat exchanger analysis to obtain additional information on the performance of the absorber. The governing equations are solved analytically using Laplace Transformation technique. The variations of the concentration of solution and the temperature of the coolant and solution after each horizontal tube are analyzed. There is satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the analytical model and the experimental results. The serpentine arrangement of the coolant flow in the absorber tubes results in a temperature and concentration variation of the solution mainly along the height of the absorber. (author)

  1. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.; Marsh, S.F.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions

  2. Controllability analysis and testing of a novel magnetorheological absorber for field gun recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qing; Zheng, Jiajia; Li, Zhaochun; Hu, Ming; Wang, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effects of combined working coils of magnetorheological (MR) absorber on the shock mitigation performance and verify the controllability of MR absorber as applied in the recoil system of a field gun. A physical scale model of the field gun is established and a long-stroke MR recoil absorber with four-stage parallel electromagnetic coils is designed to apply separate current to each stage and generate variable magnetic field distribution in the annular flow channel. Based on dynamic analysis and firing stability conditions of the field gun, ideal recoil force-stroke profiles of MR absorber at different limiting firing angles are obtained. The experimental studies are carried out on an impact test rig under different combinations of current loading: conventional unified control mode, separate control mode and timing control mode. The fullness degree index (FDI) is defined as the quantitative evaluation criterion of the controllability of MR absorber during the whole recoil motion. The results show that the force-stroke profile of the novel MR absorber can approach the ideal curve within 25 degrees of the limiting firing angle through judicious exploitation of the adjustable rheological properties of MR fluid.

  3. Synthesis of hemicellulose-acrylic acid graft copolymer super water absorbent resin by ultrasonic irradiation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hemicellulose super water absorbent resin is prepared by using ultrasonic irradiation technology, with the waste liquid produced during the preparation of viscose fiber which contains a large amount of hemicellulose as raw material, acrylic acid as graft monomer, N,N’-methylene bis acrylamide (NMBA as cross linking agent, and (NH42S2O8-NaHSO3 as the redox initiation system. The synthesis conditions, structure and water absorption ability of resin are discussed. The results indicate that water absorbency of the resin is 311 g/g, the tap water absorbency is 102 g/g, the normal saline absorbency is 55 g/g, and the artificial urine absorbency is 31 g/g under the optimal synthesis conditions, so the resin has great water absorption rate and water retaining capacity. The FT-IR and SEM analysis shows that the resin with honeycomb network structure is prepared. The successfully synthesized of the resin means that the hemicellulose waste liquid can be highly effectively recycled, and it provides a kind of new raw material for the synthesis of super water absorbent resin.

  4. Distributions of 15 elements on 58 absorbers from simulated Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 58 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, pillared layered materials, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) (pH 14.0). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 870 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2610 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing DSSF solutions

  5. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  6. Pregnant woman mode for absorbed fraction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutier, R.J.; Snyder, W.S.; Watson, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    The most radiation-sensitive segment of our population is the developing fetus. Until recently, methods available for calculating the dose to the fetus were inadequate because a model for the pregnant woman was not available. Instead, the Snyder and Fisher model of Reference Man, which includes a uterus, was frequently used to calculate absorbed fractions when the source was in various organs of the body and the nongravid uterus was the target. These values would be representative of the dose to the embryo during the early stages of pregnancy. Unfortunately, Reference Man is considerable larger than Reference Woman. The authors recently reported on the design of a Reference Woman phantom that has dimensions quite similar to the ICRP Reference Woman. This phantom was suitable for calculating the dose to the embryo during early stages of pregnancy (0 to 3 mo.), but was not suitable for the later stages of pregnancy because of the changing shape of the mother and the displacement of several abdominal organs brought about by the growth of the uterus and fetus. The models of Reference Woman that were subsequently developed for each month of pregnancy are described. The models take into account the growth of the uterus and fetus and the repositioning of the various abdominal organs. These models have been used to calculate absorbed fractions for the fetus as a target and the gastrointestinal tract as a source of radiation for twelve photon energies ranging from 10 keV to 4 MeV

  7. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A MASSIVE GALAXY ASSOCIATED WITH A METAL-RICH ABSORBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Mark R.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Gharanfoli, Soheila; Takamiya, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    The damped and sub-damped Lyα absorption (DLA and sub-DLA) line systems in quasar spectra are believed to be produced by intervening galaxies. However, the connection of quasar absorbers to galaxies is not well-understood, since attempts to image the absorbing galaxies have often failed. While most DLAs appear to be metal poor, a population of metal-rich absorbers, mostly sub-DLAs, has been discovered in recent studies. Here we report high-resolution K-band imaging with the Keck laser guide star adaptive optics (LGSAO) system of the field of quasar SDSSJ1323-0021 in search of the galaxy producing the z = 0.72 sub-DLA absorber. With a metallicity of 2-4 times the solar level, this absorber is one of the most metal-rich systems found to date. Our data show a large bright galaxy with an angular separation of only 1.''25 from the quasar, well-resolved from the quasar at the high resolution of our data. The galaxy has a magnitude of K = 17.6-17.9, which corresponds to a luminosity of ∼3-6 L*. Morphologically, the galaxy is fitted with a model with an effective radius, enclosing half of the total light, of R e = 4 kpc and a bulge-to-total ratio of 0.4-1.0, indicating a substantial bulge stellar population. Based on the mass-metallicity relation of nearby galaxies, the absorber galaxy appears to have a stellar mass of ∼>10 11 M sun . Given the small impact parameter (9.0 kpc at the absorber redshift), this massive galaxy appears to be responsible for the metal-rich sub-DLA. The absorber galaxy is consistent with the metallicity-luminosity relation observed for nearby galaxies, but is near the upper end of metallicity. Our study marks the first application of LGSAO for the study of the structure of galaxies producing distant quasar absorbers. Finally, this study offers the first example of a massive galaxy with a substantial bulge producing a metal-rich absorber.

  8. High-efficiency ventilated metamaterial absorber at low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Au-Yeung, Ka Yan; Li, Xin; Roberts, Robert Christopher; Tian, Jingxuan; Hu, Chuandeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Wang, Shuxia; Yang, Zhiyu; Wen, Weijia

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate a ventilated metamaterial absorber operating at low frequency (90%) has been achieved in both simulations and experiments. This high-efficiency absorption under the ventilation condition originates from the weak coupling of two identical split tube resonators constituting the absorber, which leads to the hybridization of the degenerate eigenmodes and breaks the absorption upper limit of 50% for conventional transmissive symmetric acoustic absorbers. The absorber can also be extended to an array and work in free space. The absorber should have potential applications in acoustic engineering where both noise reduction and ventilation are required.

  9. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    photosynthesis. Photosynthesis uses light from the sun to drive a series of chemical reactions. Most natural photosynthetic systems utilize chlorophylls to absorb light energy and carry out photochemical charge separation that stores energy in the form of chemical bonds. The sun produces a broad spectrum of light output that ranges from gamma rays to radio waves. The entire visible range of light (400-700 nm) and some wavelengths in the NIR (700-1000 nm), are highly active in driving photosynthesis. Although the most familiar chlorophyll-containing organisms, such as plants, algae and cyanobacteria, cannot use light longer than 700 nm, anoxygenic bacterium containing bacteriochlorophylls can use the NIR part of the solar spectrum. No organism is known to utilize light of wavelength longer than about 1000 nm for photosynthesis. NIR light has a very low-energy content in each photon, so that large numbers of these low-energy photons would have to be used to drive the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. This is thermodynamically possible but would require a fundamentally different molecular mechanism that is more akin to a heat engine than to photochemistry. Early work on developing light absorbing materials for OPVs was inspired by photosynthesis in which light is absorbed by chlorophyll. Structurally related to chlorophyll is the porphyrin family, which has accordingly drawn much interest as the potential light absorbing component in OPV applications. In this dissertation, the design and detail studies of several porphyrin-based NIR absorbing materials, including pi--extended perylenyl porphryins and pyrazole-containing carbaporphyrins, as well as porphyrin modified single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids, will be presented, dedicating efforts to develop novel and application-oriented materials for efficient utilization of sustainable solar energy.

  10. Relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Birth weight (BW), independent of socioeconomic status, has been identified as a predictor for childhood cognitive development. However, it is not known whether this relation is related to low BW per se or particularly related to a deficit in fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass ...... (FFM) at birth. This study therefore aimed at investigating the relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An Ethiopian birth cohort was followed up at 2 years. Body composition was measured within 48 h of birth using infant air......-displacement plethysmography. Child development was assessed at 2 years of age using Denver developmental screening test. Associations between body composition at birth and development at 2 years of age were tested using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: FFM but not FM at birth was positively associated with higher global......, FFM at birth but not FM predicted better global and language development at 2 years of age. Higher FFM at birth might have exerted a positive effect on the growth and differentiation of the brain and neuronal circuits for better development. This study therefore highlights the need to improve mother...

  11. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Lassmann, M

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1–1.2·10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m. (paper)

  12. MAGIICAT I. THE Mg II ABSORBER-GALAXY CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Nikole M.; Churchill, Christopher W. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Murphy, Michael T., E-mail: nnielsen@nmsu.edu [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2013-10-20

    We describe the Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog, MAGIICAT, a compilation of 182 spectroscopically identified intermediate redshift (0.07 ≤ z ≤ 1.1) galaxies with measurements of Mg II λλ2796, 2803 absorption from their circumgalactic medium within projected distances of 200 kpc from background quasars. In this work, we present 'isolated' galaxies, which are defined as having no spectroscopically identified galaxy within a projected distance of 100 kpc and a line of sight velocity separation of 500 km s{sup –1}. We standardized all galaxy properties to the ΛCDM cosmology and galaxy luminosities, absolute magnitudes, and rest-frame colors to the B- and K-band on the AB system. We present galaxy properties and rest-frame Mg II equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), versus galaxy redshift. The well-known anti-correlation between W{sub r} (2796) and quasar-galaxy impact parameter, D, is significant to the 8σ level. The mean color of MAGIICAT galaxies is consistent with an Sbc galaxy for all redshifts. We also present B- and K-band luminosity functions for different W{sub r} (2796) and redshift subsamples: 'weak absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) < 0.3 Å], 'strong absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) ≥ 0.3 Å], low redshift (z < (z)), and high redshift (z ≥ (z)), where (z) = 0.359 is the median galaxy redshift. Rest-frame color B – K correlates with M{sub K} at the 8σ level for the whole sample but is driven by the strong absorbing, high-redshift subsample (6σ). Using M{sub K} as a proxy for stellar mass and examining the luminosity functions, we infer that in lower stellar mass galaxies, Mg II absorption is preferentially detected in blue galaxies and the absorption is more likely to be weak.

  13. Dysmorphic features and developmental outcome of 2-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L; Bos, Arend F; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associations between dysmorphic features and neurological, mental, psychomotor, and behavioural development in order to improve our understanding of aetiological pathways leading to minor developmental problems. In our cross-sectional study, 272 generally healthy 2-year-olds (143 males, 129 females; median gestational age 39 weeks, [range 30-43wks]), born after a parental history of subfertility either with or without fertility treatment, were examined. Dysmorphic features were classified as abnormalities (clinically relevant or not), minor anomalies, or common variants according to Merks' classification system. Hempel's neurological assessment resulted in a neurological optimality score (NOS) and fluency score. Mental and psychomotor development were assessed with the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and behavioural development with the Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist. Of the different types of dysmorphic feature, clinically relevant abnormalities were most strongly associated with a lower NOS (difference -2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.23 to -0.83) and fluency score (difference -0.62, 95% CI -1.1 to -0.15). The presence of one or more abnormalities (clinically relevant or not) or one or more common variants was significantly associated with a lower NOS, and the presence of three or more minor anomalies was associated with lower fluency scores. Dysmorphic features were not associated with mental, psychomotor, or behavioural development. As dysmorphic features originate during the first trimester of pregnancy, the association between dysmorphic features and minor alterations in neurodevelopment may suggest an early ontogenetic origin of subtle neurological deviations. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Motor delays in MDMA (ecstasy) exposed infants persist to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Lynn T; Moore, Derek G; Min, Meeyoung O; Goodwin, Julia; Turner, John J D; Fulton, Sarah; Parrott, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Recreational use of 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy, MDMA) is increasing worldwide. Its use by pregnant women causes concern due to potentially harmful effects on the developing fetus. MDMA, an indirect monoaminergic agonist and reuptake inhibitor, affects the serotonin and dopamine systems. Preclinical studies of fetal exposure demonstrate effects on learning, motor behavior, and memory. In the first human studies, we found prenatal MDMA exposure related to poorer motor development in the first year of life. In the present study we assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to MDMA on the trajectory of child development through 2 years of age. We hypothesized that exposure would be associated with poorer mental and motor outcomes. The DAISY (Drugs and Infancy Study, 2003-2008) employed a prospective longitudinal cohort design to assess recreational drug use during pregnancy and child outcomes in the United Kingdom. Examiners masked to drug exposures followed infants from birth to 4, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. MDMA, cocaine, alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drugs were quantified through a standardized clinical interview. The Bayley Scales (III) of Mental (MDI) and Motor (PDI) Development and the Behavior Rating Scales (BRS) were primary outcome measures. Statistical analyses included a repeated measures mixed model approach controlling for multiple confounders. Participants were pregnant women volunteers, primarily white, of middle class socioeconomic status, average IQ, with some college education, in stable partner relationships. Of 96 women enrolled, children of 93 had at least one follow-up assessment and 81 (87%) had ≥ two assessments. Heavier MDMA exposure (M=1.3±1.4 tablets per week) predicted lower PDI (pMDMA use during pregnancy had motor delays from 4 months to two years of age that were not attributable to other drug or lifestyle factors. Women of child bearing age should be cautioned about the use of MDMA and MDMA-exposed infants

  15. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  16. A shock absorber model for structure-borne noise analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaziz, Marouane; Nacivet, Samuel; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2015-08-01

    Shock absorbers are often responsible for undesirable structure-borne noise in cars. The early numerical prediction of this noise in the automobile development process can save time and money and yet remains a challenge for industry. In this paper, a new approach to predicting shock absorber structure-borne noise is proposed; it consists in modelling the shock absorber and including the main nonlinear phenomena responsible for discontinuities in the response. The model set forth herein features: compressible fluid behaviour, nonlinear flow rate-pressure relations, valve mechanical equations and rubber mounts. The piston, base valve and complete shock absorber model are compared with experimental results. Sensitivity of the shock absorber response is evaluated and the most important parameters are classified. The response envelope is also computed. This shock absorber model is able to accurately reproduce local nonlinear phenomena and improves our state of knowledge on potential noise sources within the shock absorber.

  17. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    the capability to digest and absorb the additional nutrients with a higher plane of nutrition during the first week of postnatal life. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutron Absorbing Ability Variation in Neutron Absorbing Material Caused by the Neutron Irradiation in Spent Fuel Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hee Dong; Han, Seul Gi; Lee, Sang Dong; Kim, Ki Hong; Ryu, Eag Hyang; Park, Hwa Gyu [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In spent fuel storage facility like high density spent fuel storage racks and dry storage casks, spent fuels are stored with neutron absorbing materials installed as a part of those facilities, and they are used for absorbing neutrons emitted from spent fuels. Usually structural material with neutron absorbing material of racks and casks are located around spent fuels, so it is irradiated by neutrons for long time. Neutron absorbing ability could be changed by the variation of nuclide composition in neutron absorbing material caused by the irradiation of neutrons. So, neutron absorbing materials are continuously faced with spent fuels with boric acid solution or inert gas environment. Major nuclides in neutron absorbing material are Al{sup 27}, C{sup 12}, B{sup 11}, B{sup 10} and they are changed to numerous other ones as radioactive decay or neutron absorption reaction. The B{sup 10} content in neutron absorbing material dominates the neutron absorbing ability, so, the variation of nuclide composition including the decrease of B{sup 10} content is the critical factor on neutron absorbing ability. In this study, neutron flux in spent fuel, the activation of neutron absorbing material and the variation of nuclide composition are calculated. And, the minimum neutron flux causing the decrease of B{sup 10} content is calculated in spent fuel storage facility. Finally, the variation of neutron multiplication factor is identified according to the one of B{sup 10} content in neutron absorbing material. The minimum neutron flux to impact the neutron absorbing ability is 10{sup 10} order, however, usual neutron flux from spent fuel is 10{sup 8} order. Therefore, even though neutron absorbing material is irradiated for over 40 years, B{sup 10} content is little decreased, so, initial neutron absorbing ability could be kept continuously.

  19. Thermal Shielding Effects of a Damaged Shock Absorber and an Intact Shock Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, K. Y.; Seo, C. S.; Seo, K. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In order to safely transport the radioactive waste arising from the hot test of an ACP(Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process) a shipping package is required. Therefore, KAERI is developing a shipping package to transport the radioactive waste arising from the ACPF during a hot test. The regulatory requirements for a Type B package are specified in the Korea Most Act 2009-37, IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1, and US 10 CFR Part. These regulatory guidelines classify the hot cell cask as a Type B package, and state that the Type B package for transporting radioactive materials should be able to withstand a test sequence consisting of a 9 m drop onto an unyielding surface, a 1 m drop onto a puncture bar, and a 30 minute fully engulfing fire. Greiner et al. investigated the thermal protection provided by shock absorbers by using the CAFE computer code. To evaluate the thermal shielding effect of the shock absorber, the thermal test was performed by using a 1/2 scale model with a shock absorber which was damaged by both a 9 m drop test and a 1 m puncture test. For the purpose of comparison, the thermal test was also carried out by using a 1/2 scale model with the intact shock absorber

  20. Microwave absorbing property of a hybrid absorbent with carbonyl irons coating on the graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yan, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Deyuan [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: The absorbing property could be enhanced as the CIPs coated on the graphite. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with CIPs coating on the graphite was fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The CIP materials enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The graphite coated CIPs were effective in 2–18 GHz. - Abstract: The hybrid absorbent filled with carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) coating on the graphite was prepared using a chemical vapor decomposition (CVD) process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. The results showed that α-Fe appeared in the super-lattice diffraction peaks in XRD graph. The composites added CIPs coating on the graphite had a higher permittivity and imaginary permeability due to the superior microwave dielectric loss and magnetic loss of the CIPs. The reflection loss (RL) result showed that composites filled with 5 vol% Fe-graphite had an excellent absorbing property in the 2–18 GHz, the minimum RL was −25.14 dB at 6 mm and −26.52 dB at 8 mm, respectively.

  1. Shock Absorbers Multi-Modeling and Suspension Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Ciprian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard dampers used by more 90% of vehicles have damping coefficients constant along stroke, so they can’t solve simultaneous all of them, situation solving practically using a relative dampingcoefficient able to made compromise between them. This paper design and simulation testing multi-models of two types of Damp (DSA and VZN. To compare the two types of suspension they are simulated in various road and load conditions. Analysis of simulation results is presente a new VZN shock absorber. This is an invention of the Institute of Mechanics of the Romanian Academy, and patented at European and U.S. [1], [2]. This is Called VZN shock absorber, iscoming from Variable Zeta Necessary acronym, for well moving in all road and load Conditions, Where zeta Represents the relative damping, Which is Adjusted automatically, stepwise, According to the piston positions [3,4,5]. Suspension systems are used in all air and ground transportation to protect that building transportation and cargo transported around against shocks and vibrations induced in the systemfrom the road Modifying damping coefficients (Zeta function piston position, being correlated with vehicle load and road unevenness.

  2. Selection and characterization of new absorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma' mun, Sholeh

    2005-09-01

    Removal of acidic gases, in particular CO2, is an important industrial operation. Carbon dioxide is produced in large quantities by fossil-fuel-fired power plants, steel production, the production of petrochemicals, cement production, and natural gas purification. The global climate change, where CO2 is found to be a major contributor, is one of the most important and challenging environmental issues facing the world community. This has motivated intensive research on CO2 capture and storage. Carbon dioxide capture by an absorption process is one of the most common industrial technologies today. Recent economic studies indicate that the process will also remain competitive in the future. One of the key improvements under development is new, faster and more energy-efficient absorbents. A chemical to be used as a commercial absorbent must have high net cyclic capacity, high absorption rate for CO2 and good chemical stability. Alkanolamines are the most commonly used chemical absorbents for the removal of acidic gases today. In the first part of this thesis, an experimental screening of new absorbents for CO2 capture was performed by absorption of CO2 into both single absorbents and absorbent mixtures for amine-based and non-amine-based systems at 40 deg. Celsius From testing of approx. 30 systems, it was found that an aqueous 30 mass % AEEA (2-(2-aminoethyl-amino)ethanol) solution seems to be a potentially good absorbent for capturing CO2 from atmospheric flue gases. It offers high absorption rate combined with high absorption capacity. In addition toAEEA, MMEA (2-(methylamino)ethanol) also needs to be considered. It could have a good potential when used in contactors where the two phases are separated, like in membrane contactors, whereas indications from the study showed foaming tendencies that will make it difficult to use in ordinary towers. AEEA as the selected absorbent obtained from the screening tests was further investigated to determine its vapor

  3. Impact of living environment on 2-year mortality in elderly maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. METHODS: A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63 or not (n = 193. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. RESULTS: Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography.

  4. Impact of living environment on 2-year mortality in elderly maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63) or not (n = 193). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography.

  5. A chiral microwave absorbing absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yuan, Liming [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A chiral bio-absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on the spirulina was fabricated by the electroless and chemical vapor decomposition. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the spirulina cells particle morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The permittivity and permeability was measured by a vector network analyzer in frequency 8–18 GHz, and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed the carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and CoNiP were bonded to the spirulina surface, the permittivity and permeability could be enlarged as Fe films coated on the particles compared with the CoNiP spirulina, it was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of CIPs. The chiral Fe–CoNiP composites had a better absorbing property at 8–18 GHz than the CoNiP spirulina composite, the RL was −16.26 dB at 10.48 GHz, the absorbing band was 9.5–11.5 GHz of RL less than −10 dB, which indicated the Fe–CoNiP spirulina could be an effective absorbent used in 8–18 GHz. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with Fe–CoNiP coating on the spirulina were fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The Fe material enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The spirulina coated Fe–CoNiP was effective in 8–18 GHz.

  6. [Dimenhydrinate overdosage in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with dilative cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisch, M; Hofbeck, M; Rauch, R; Apitz, C; Sieverding, L

    2009-01-01

    Dimenhydrinate overdosage in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with dilative cardiomyopathy. Dimenhydrinate (Vomex(R)) is frequently used in the treatment of sickness and vomiting. The symptoms of overdosage present like an anticholinergic syndrome. We report on the clinical findings of an intoxication with dimenhydrinate in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with functional dilative cardiomyopathy following a congenital left ventricular diverticle. Especially in small children, with the application of 40 mg suppositories once or twice per day the maximum dose of 3.75 mg/kgBW/d is achieved.

  7. A new device expanding operability of fingertip replantation: subzone 1 fingertip replantation assisted by non-enhanced angiography in a 2-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Takumi; Seki, Yukio; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2012-11-01

    Fingertip replantation in young children is difficult, especially in cases with amputation at subzone 1. Replantation is preferred whenever possible, but the identification of vessels of operative size can be very challenging. Non-enhanced angiography (NEA; Genial Viewer; Genial Light, Shizuoka, Japan) emits infrared light with the wavelength of 850 nm, which is exclusively absorbed by haemoglobin. The light penetrates the bones and other soft tissues, effectively visualising vessels containing blood, and the image is shown in real time on the screen of a laptop computer. We present a case in which preoperative NEA visualised vessels in the amputated fingertip, allowing a successful replantation in a 2-year-old boy. By taking the guesswork out of vessel localisation, NEA can be useful in expanding operability of replantation surgery in fingertip amputations. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel regenerative shock absorber with a speed doubling mechanism and its Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenwei

    2018-03-01

    A novel regenerative shock absorber has been designed and fabricated. The novelty of the presented work is the application of the double speed regenerative shock absorber that utilizes the rack and pinion mechanism to increase the magnet speed with respect to the coils for higher power output. The simulation models with parameters identified from finite element analysis and the experiments are developed. The proposed regenerative shock absorber is compared with the regenerative shock absorber without the rack and pinion mechanism, when they are integrated into the same quarter vehicle suspension system. The sinusoidal wave road profile displacement excitation and the random road profile displacement excitation with peak amplitude of 0.035 m are applied as the inputs in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. It is found that with the sinusoidal and random road profile displacement input, the proposed innovative design can increase the output power by 4 times comparing to the baseline design. The proposed double speed regenerative shock absorber also presents to be more sensitive to the road profile irregularity than the single speed regenerative shock absorber as suggested by Monte Carlo simulation. Lastly the coil mass and amplification factor are studied for sensitivity analysis and performance optimization, which provides a general design method of the regenerative shock absorbers. It shows that for the system power output, the proposed design becomes more sensitive to either the coil mass or amplification factor depending on the amount of the coil mass. With the specifically selected combination of the coil mass and amplification factor, the optimized energy harvesting performance can be achieved.

  9. Correlations in the three-dimensional Lyman-alpha forest contaminated by high column density absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Keir K.; Bird, Simeon; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Pontzen, Andrew; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Leistedt, Boris

    2018-05-01

    Correlations measured in three dimensions in the Lyman-alpha forest are contaminated by the presence of the damping wings of high column density (HCD) absorbing systems of neutral hydrogen (H I; having column densities N(H I) > 1.6 × 10^{17} atoms cm^{-2}), which extend significantly beyond the redshift-space location of the absorber. We measure this effect as a function of the column density of the HCD absorbers and redshift by measuring three-dimensional (3D) flux power spectra in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the Illustris project. Survey pipelines exclude regions containing the largest damping wings. We find that, even after this procedure, there is a scale-dependent correction to the 3D Lyman-alpha forest flux power spectrum from residual contamination. We model this residual using a simple physical model of the HCD absorbers as linearly biased tracers of the matter density distribution, convolved with their Voigt profiles and integrated over the column density distribution function. We recommend the use of this model over existing models used in data analysis, which approximate the damping wings as top-hats and so miss shape information in the extended wings. The simple `linear Voigt model' is statistically consistent with our simulation results for a mock residual contamination up to small scales (|k| account for the effect of the highest column density absorbers on the smallest scales (e.g. |k| > 0.4 h Mpc^{-1} for small damped Lyman-alpha absorbers; HCD absorbers with N(H I) ˜ 10^{21} atoms cm^{-2}). However, these systems are in any case preferentially removed from survey data. Our model is appropriate for an accurate analysis of the baryon acoustic oscillations feature. It is additionally essential for reconstructing the full shape of the 3D flux power spectrum.

  10. The influence of mammographic X-ray spectra on absorbed energy distribution in breast: Monte Carlo simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delis, H.; Spyrou, G.; Tzanakos, G.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is proposed for deriving absorbed energy and dose distribution in mammography utilizing a mathematical water-like phantom. The model was validated for its accuracy against experimental and published data. The main factor discriminating absorbed energy distribution characteristics among different mammographic techniques was considered the X-ray spectrum. The absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom was investigated via percentage depth dose and isodose curves. The influence of the factors affecting X-ray spectrum (tube voltage, anode material, filter material and thickness) on absorbed energy distribution was examined. The hardness of the beam, due to increase of tube voltage or filtration, was found to be the major factor affecting absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom. In general, Mo and W anode systems demonstrated superior dosimetric characteristics against those of W-Mo or Rh. The model presented can be used for estimating absolute and relative breast dose values and their spatial distributions

  11. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  12. Novel active vibration absorber with magnetorheological fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, T; Ehrlich, J; Boese, H [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung ISC, Neunerplatz 2, D-97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.gerlach@isc.fraunhofer.de

    2009-02-01

    Disturbing vibrations diminish the performance of technical high precision devices significantly. In search of a suitable solution for reducing these vibrations, a novel concept of active vibration reduction was developed which exploits the special properties of magnetorheological fluids. In order to evaluate the concept of such an active vibration absorber (AVA) a demonstrator was designed and manufactured. This demonstrator generates a force which counteracts the motion of the vibrating body. Since the counterforce is generated by a centrifugal exciter, the AVA provides the capability to compensate vibrations even in two dimensions. To control the strength of the force transmitted to the vibrating body, the exciter is based on a tunable MR coupling. The AVA was integrated in an appropriate testing device to investigate its performance. The recorded results show a significant reduction of the vibration amplitudes by an order of magnitude.

  13. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  14. Ultrathin microwave metamaterial absorber utilizing embedded resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Ji Sub; Yoo, Young Joon; Khuyen, Bui Xuan; Rhee, Joo Yull; Chen, Xianfeng; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-10-01

    We numerically and experimentally studied an ultrathin and broadband perfect absorber by enhancing the bandwidth with embedded resistors into the metamaterial structure, which is easy to fabricate in order to lower the Q-factor and by using multiple resonances with the patches of different sizes. We analyze the absorption mechanism in terms of the impedance matching with the free space and through the distribution of surface current at each resonance frequency. The magnetic field, induced by the antiparallel surface currents, is formed strongly in the direction opposite to the incident electromagnetic wave, to cancel the incident wave, leading to the perfect absorption. The corresponding experimental absorption was found to be higher than 97% in 0.88-3.15 GHz. The agreement between measurement and simulation was good. The aspects of our proposed structure can be applied to future electronic devices, for example, advanced noise-suppression sheets in the microwave regime.

  15. Research of the absorbance detection and fluorescence detection for multifunctional nutrition analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhengyuan; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda

    2017-10-01

    The research of the multifunctional analyzer which integrates absorbance detection, fluorescence detection, time-resolved fluorescence detection, biochemical luminescence detection methods, can make efficient detection and analysis for a variety of human body nutrients. This article focuses on the absorbance detection and fluorescence detection system. The two systems are modular in design and controlled by embedded system, to achieve automatic measurement according to user settings. In the optical path design, the application of confocal design can improve the optical signal acquisition capability, and reduce the interference. A photon counter is used for detection, and a high performance counter module is designed to measure the output of photon counter. In the experiment, we use neutral density filters and potassium dichromate solution to test the absorbance detection system, and use fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC for fluorescence detection system performance test. The experimental results show that the absorbance detection system has a detection range of 0 4OD, and has good linearity in the detection range, while the fluorescence detection system has a high sensitivity of 1pmol/L concentration.

  16. Neutron absorbed dose in a pacemaker CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C. Y.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L., E-mail: candy_borja@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The absorbed dose due to neutrons by a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) has been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Eventually a person with a pacemaker becomes a patient that must be treated by radiotherapy with a linear accelerator; the pacemaker has integrated circuits as CMOS that are sensitive to intense and pulsed radiation fields. When the Linac is working in Bremsstrahlung mode an undesirable neutron field is produced due to photoneutron reactions; these neutrons could damage the CMOS putting the patient at risk during the radiotherapy treatment. In order to estimate the neutron dose in the CMOS a Monte Carlo calculation was carried out where a full radiotherapy vault room was modeled with a W-made spherical shell in whose center was located the source term of photoneutrons produced by a Linac head operating in Bremsstrahlung mode at 18 MV. In the calculations a phantom made of tissue equivalent was modeled while a beam of photoneutrons was applied on the phantom prostatic region using a field of 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}. During simulation neutrons were isotropically transported from the Linac head to the phantom chest, here a 1 {theta} x 1 cm{sup 2} cylinder made of polystyrene was modeled as the CMOS, where the neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose were estimated. Main damages to CMOS are by protons produced during neutron collisions protective cover made of H-rich materials, here the neutron spectrum that reach the CMOS was calculated showing a small peak around 0.1 MeV and a larger peak in the thermal region, both connected through epithermal neutrons. (Author)

  17. Radiation absorbed dose from medically administered radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedler, H.D.; Kaul, A.

    1975-01-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals for medical examinations is increasing. Surveys carried out in West Berlin show a 20% average yearly increase in such examinations. This implies an increased genetic and somatic radiation exposure of the population in general. Determination of radiation exposure of the population as well as of individual patients examined requires a knowledge of the radiation dose absorbed by each organ affected by each examination. An extensive survey of the literature revealed that different authors reported widely different dose values for the same defined examination methods and radiopharmaceuticals. The reason for this can be found in the uncertainty of the available biokinetic data for dose calculations and in the application of various mathematical models to describe the kinetics and calculation of organ doses. Therefore, the authors recalculated some of the dose values published for radiopharmaceuticals used in patients by applying biokinetic data obtained from exponential models of usable metabolism data reported in the literature. The calculation of organ dose values was done according to the concept of absorbed fractions in its extended form. For all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine the energy dose values for the most important organs (ovaries, testicles, liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys, skeleton, total body or residual body) were recalculated and tabulated for the gonads, skeleton and critical or examined organs respectively. These dose values are compared with those reported in the literature and the reasons for the observed deviations are discussed. On the basis of recalculated dose values for the gonads and bone-marrow as well as on the basis of results of statistical surveys in West Berlin, the genetically significant dose and the somatically (leukemia) significant dose were calculated for 1970 and estimated for 1975. For 1970 the GSD was 0.2 mrad and the LSD was 0.7 mrad. For 1975 the GSD is estimated at < 0.5 mrad and the

  18. Determination of absorbed dose in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    There are many areas in the use and operation of research reactors where the absorbed dose and the neutron fluence are required. These include work on the determination of the radiolytic stability of the coolant and moderator and on the determination of radiation damage in structural materials, and reactor experiments involving radiation chemistry and radiation biology. The requirements range from rough estimates of the total heating due to radiation to precise values specifying the contributions of gamma rays, thermal neutrons and fast neutrons. To meet all these requirements a variety of experimental measurements and calculations as well as a knowledge of reactor radiations and their interactions is necessary. Realizing the complexity and importance of this field, its development at widely separated laboratories and the need to bring the experts in this work together, the IAEA has convened three panel meetings. These were: 'In-pile dosimetry', held in July 1964 (published by the Agency as Technical Reports Series No. 46); 'Neutron fluence measurements', in October 1965; and 'In-pile dosimetry', in November 1966. The recommendations of these three panels led the Agency to form a Working Group on Reactor Radiation Measurements and to commission the writing of this book and a book on Neutron Fluence Measurements. The latter was published in May 1970 (Technical Reports Series No. 107). The material on neutron fluence and absorbed dose measurements is widely scattered in reports and reviews. It was considered that it was time for all relevant information to be evaluated and put together in the form of a practical guide that would be valuable both to experienced workers and beginners in the field

  19. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  20. The containment and an absorbent evaluation for a package for a liquid radioactive isotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, D. H.; Hwang, C. S.; Kim, H. J.; Seo, K. S

    2005-03-01

    Radioactive isotopes must be safely transported from the production centre to the point of use. The shipping package to safely transport radioactive isotopes should be able to withstand the conditions prescribed by law. A type a package, which is used to transport liquid radioactive materials, should have a containment system comprising a primary inner and a secondary outer containment or it should be provided with a sufficiently absorbent material to absorb twice the volume of the liquid contents. Accordingly, an absorbent material for use in a Type A package to transport a liquid radioactive isotope was estimated. To estimate the integrity of containment, the leakage tests for a containment system for a Type A package for domestic and abroad expert were conducted.

  1. The Rotterdam AMblyopia Screening Effectiveness Study (RAMSES): compliance and predictive value in the first 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Juttmann (Rikard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: RAMSES is a 7 year follow up study, aiming at the evaluation of the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for amblyopia. In this first report, concerning the first 2 years of life, the compliance with the prevention programme and the positive

  2. Gender differences in outcome at 2-year follow-up of treated bipolar and depressed alcoholics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farren, Conor K

    2011-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and affective disorders are significant health problems, and their co-occurrence is mutually detrimental. There are few long-term studies on the impact of treatment on the prognosis of these comorbid disorders. We wished to study if the impact of effective inpatient integrated treatment for these co-occurring disorders was maintained 2 years after discharge from the hospital.

  3. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: A Comparison of 2-Year-Old Children in Parental and Nonparental Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, Kathleen A.; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and parental versus nonparental care on outcome at 2 years of age were examined. The sample included 83 cocaine-exposed and 63 nonexposed children and their caregivers; 49 and 34 of the cocaine-exposed children experienced parental and nonparental care, respectively. Prenatal drug exposure was not related…

  4. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  5. Megaloblastic anaemia, diabetes and deafness in a 2-year-old child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Megaloblastic anaemia in childhood usually occurs as a result of dietary folate deficiency or, rarely, congenital disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism. We present a 2-year-old girl with megaloblastic anaemia and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, both of which proved responsive to pharmacological doses of thiamine.

  6. Modeling Racial Differences in the Effects of Racial Representation on 2-Year College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Robinson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The failure of many 2-year college students to persist and complete a post-secondary credential or degree remains a problem of paramount importance to higher education policymakers and practitioners. While racial representation--or the extent to which a student's racial group is represented on their respective campus--might be one factor that…

  7. Changing Network Support for Drinking: Network Support Project 2-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Kabela-Cormier, Elise; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    The Network Support Project was designed to determine whether a treatment could lead patients to change their social network from one that supports drinking to one that supports sobriety. This study reports 2-year posttreatment outcomes. Alcohol-dependent men and women (N = 210) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient treatment conditions:…

  8. Complete paroxysmal atrioventricular block in a 2-year-old girl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line Marie; Dixen, Ulrik; Jeppesen, Dorthe L

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of atypical syncope in a 2-year-old, otherwise healthy girl. The patient presented with three episodes of syncope without any precipitating factors and no family history of sudden unexpected death. Holter monitoring revealed 24 events of complete atrioventricular block lasting up...

  9. PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF 2 YEARS OF HUMAN GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT IN TURNER SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLIJPER, FME; SINNEMA, G; AKKERHUIS, GW; BRUGMANBOEZEMAN, A; FEENSTRA, J; DENHARTOG, L; HEUVEL, F

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight girls with Turner syndrome were treated for 2 years with human growth hormone. Both parents and patients carried out assessments of the effects of treatment on various aspects of psychosocial functioning. The children used the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and the Social Anxiety Scale

  10. Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance Secondary data from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaluw, N.L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; van Wijngaarden, J.P.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; van de Rest, O.; 't Veld, P.H.I.; Enneman, A.W.; van Dijk, S.C.; van der Ham, A.C.; Swart, K.M.A.; van der Velde, N.; van Schoor, N.M.; van der Cammen, T.J.M.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; de Groot, L.C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years

  11. Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance Secondary data from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Rest, O. van de; Veld, P.H. in 't; Enneman, A.W.; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C.; Swart, K.M.A.; Velde, N. van der; Schoor, N.M. van; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years

  12. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: A 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M.de; Sluiter, J.K.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Broersen, J.P.J.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological

  13. Correlates of physical activity in 2-year-old toddlers: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtzes, A.I.; Kooijman, M.N.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Vries, S.I. de; Henrichs, J.; Jansen, W.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Moll, H.A.; Raat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe and identify correlates of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in 2-year-old toddlers. Study design: A total of 347 children participating in a birth cohort study wore a unaxial ActiGraph accelerometer during 1 weekday and 1 weekend day. Information

  14. Serum vitamin D and IgE levels in infants and children under 2 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Serum vitamin D and IgE levels in infants and children under 2 years of age with recurrent chest ... from 6-24 months, diagnosed to have recurrent wheeze (>3 attacks), recruited ... IgE and the development of allergic sensitization29. Hence this ...

  15. MRI findings of an intermuscular lipoma in a 2-year-old

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandbois, Lindsey; Vade, Aruna; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer [Loyola University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maywood, IL (United States); Al-Masri, Hytham [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-09-15

    We report the MRI findings of a large deep intermuscular lipoma in a 2-year-old child with a painless palpable shoulder mass, and its differentiation from liposarcoma and other soft-tissue masses. To our knowledge, the imaging features of deep lipomas in children have not been reported. (orig.)

  16. Single-tooth replacement by osseointegrated Astra Tech dental implants: a 2-year report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, U; Gotfredsen, K; Olsson, C

    1998-01-01

    This study presents the outcome of single-tooth restorations supported by Astra Tech single-tooth implants followed for 2 years. Forty-seven implants were placed in the same number of patients. Forty-three patients attended the second recall visit, and none of the evaluated implants have been...

  17. Predictors of the 2-year recurrence and persistence of alcohol dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van den Brink, Wim; Smit, Johannes H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda

    Aims To identify independent risk factors of the recurrence of alcohol dependence (AD) in people with a remitted disorder at baseline and persistence of AD in people with a current disorder at baseline. Design Prospective cohort study with assessments at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Setting

  18. Mesenteric teratoma associated with acute perforated appendicitis in a 2-year-old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Jang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric teratoma is a rare tumor, with few cases reported in the literature. Because mesenteric teratomas have no specific signs or symptoms, their clinical manifestations depend on their size and location. This report describes a mesenteric teratoma associated with acute perforated appendicitis in a 2-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain and high grade fever.

  19. Parenting stress trajectories in mothers of very preterm infants to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter H; Edwards, Dawn M; Gibbons, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    To examine levels of parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants when the children were 2 years old; to determine the trajectory of stress over three time periods and to examine the association of maternal and neonatal factors and developmental outcomes with parenting stress. It is a prospective longitudinal study to determine parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants with outcomes having been previously obtained at 4 and 12 months. At 2 years, 79 preterm mothers (96 babies) and 64 term mothers (77 babies) participated. The mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The infants had a neurological examination and the Bayley-III scales were administered. The mean total PSI-SF at 2 years was significantly higher for the preterm group compared with the term group of mothers (p=0.007). There was a significant increase in the mean total PSI over time for the preterm mothers (pparenting stress and abnormal scores on the DASS (pparenting stress and maternal demographics, neonatal factors or Bayley-III results. Parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants continues to be high at 2 years having increased over time. Maternal mental health problems and infant behavioural issues contribute to the stress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Maternal obesity and development of the preterm newborn at 2 year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, J.W.; Allred, E.N.; Kuban, K.; O'Shea, T.M.; Dammann, O.; Leviton, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate to what extent extremely preterm children (<28 weeks' gestational age) of overweight (BMI 25-29) or obese (BMI ≥30) women are at increased risk of adverse development at 2 years measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II in a multicenter prospective cohort study.

  1. Clustering of Dietary Intake and Sedentary Behavior in 2-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, S.I.de; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine clustering of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) in young children. This is crucial because lifestyle habits are formed at an early age and track in later life. This study is the first to examine EBRB clustering in children as young as 2 years. Study design:

  2. Weight loss and quality of life in patients surviving 2 years after gastric cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, M; Munarriz, M; Blazeby, J M; Dorcaratto, D; Ramón, J M; Carrera, M J; Fontane, L; Grande, L; Pera, M

    2017-07-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection, leading to weight loss, although little is known about how this impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study aimed to explore the association between HRQL and weight loss in patients 2 years after curative gastric cancer resection. Consecutive patients undergoing curative gastric cancer resection and surviving at least 2 years without disease recurrence were recruited. Patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the specific module for gastric cancer (STO22) before and 2 years postoperatively and associations between HRQL scores and patients with and without ≥ 10% body weight loss (BWL) were examined. A total of 76 patients were included, of whom 51 (67%) had BWL ≥10%. At 2 years postoperatively, BWL ≥10% was associated with deterioration of all functional aspects of quality of life, with persistent pain (21.6%), diarrhoea (13.7%) and nausea/vomiting (13.7%). By contrast, none of the patients with BWL patients with ≥10% BWL than in those with Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  3. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  4. An overview of the development, testing, and application of composite absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebesta, F. [Czech Technical Univ., Brehova (Czech Republic); John, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Although inorganic exchangers offer many advantages for removing selected elements from radioactive waste streams, few of these materials are suitable for use in packed-bed columns. We review various adaptations of inorganic exchangers for use in columns, which include granular forms of the intrinsic absorbers, absorber compounds supported on other materials, and composite absorbers that use organic or inorganic binders. An organic binding polymer of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), developed at the Czech Technical University, has been demonstrated to offer advantages. We describe general methods for preparing inorganic exchange materials, which then are incorporated into PAN-based composites. Such PAN composites have been used to remove selected radionuclides from a variety of liquid waste streams. Sixteen different PAN composites were prepared for testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of an evaluation of potential partitioning agents for remediating the liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site near Richland, Washington. Our collaboration with LANL is expected to continue for another 2 years.

  5. An overview of the development, testing, and application of composite absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.

    1995-02-01

    Although inorganic exchangers offer many advantages for removing selected elements from radioactive waste streams, few of these materials are suitable for use in packed-bed columns. We review various adaptations of inorganic exchangers for use in columns, which include granular forms of the intrinsic absorbers, absorber compounds supported on other materials, and composite absorbers that use organic or inorganic binders. An organic binding polymer of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), developed at the Czech Technical University, has been demonstrated to offer advantages. We describe general methods for preparing inorganic exchange materials, which then are incorporated into PAN-based composites. Such PAN composites have been used to remove selected radionuclides from a variety of liquid waste streams. Sixteen different PAN composites were prepared for testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of an evaluation of potential partitioning agents for remediating the liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site near Richland, Washington. Our collaboration with LANL is expected to continue for another 2 years

  6. Preliminary Nuclear Analysis for the HANARO Fuel Element with Burnable Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, So Young; In, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Burnable absorber is used for reducing reactivity swing and power peaking in high performance research reactors. Development of the HANARO fuel element with burnable absorber was started in the U-Mo fuel development program at HANARO, but detailed full core analysis was not performed because the current HANARO fuel management system is uncertain to analysis the HANARO core with burnable absorber. A sophisticated reactor physics system is required to analysis the core. The McCARD code was selected and the detailed McCARD core models, in which the basic HANARO core model was developed by one of the McCARD developers, are used in this study. The development of nuclear fuel requires a long time and correct developing direction especially by the nuclear analysis. This paper presents a preliminary nuclear analysis to promote the fuel development. Based on the developed fuel, the further nuclear analysis will improve reactor performance and safety. Basic nuclear analysis for the HANARO and the AHR were performed for getting the proper fuel elements with burnable absorber. Addition of 0.3 - 0.4% Cd to the fuel meat is promising for the current HANARO fuel element. Small addition of burnable absorber may not change any fuel characteristics of the HANARO fuel element, but various basic tests and irradiation tests at the HANARO core are required.

  7. Optimum Design of a Nonlinear Vibration Absorber Coupled to a Resonant Oscillator: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Abundis-Fong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimal design of a passive autoparametric cantilever beam vibration absorber for a linear mass-spring-damper system subject to harmonic external force. The design of the autoparametric vibration absorber is obtained by using an approximation of the nonlinear frequency response function, computed via the multiple scales method. Based on the solution given by the perturbation method mentioned above, a static optimization problem is formulated in order to determine the optimum parameters (mass and length of the nonlinear absorber which minimizes the steady state amplitude of the primary mass under resonant conditions; then, a PZT actuator is cemented to the base of the beam, so the nonlinear absorber is made active, thus enabling the possibility of controlling the effective stiffness associated with the passive absorber and, as a consequence, the implementation of an active vibration control scheme able to preserve, as possible, the autoparametric interaction as well as to compensate varying excitation frequencies and parametric uncertainty. Finally, some simulations and experimental results are included to validate and illustrate the dynamic performance of the overall system.

  8. Self Absorbed Fraction for Electrons and Beta Particles in Small Spherical Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosev, D.

    2003-01-01

    Absorbed fraction and target organ mass are important parameters of internal dosimetry calculations that define the geometry of the system. Standard MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry) formalism assumes that the absorbed fraction for non-penetrating radiations (e.g., electrons, beta particles) is 1. This may not be correct in cases where dimensions of organs/tissues are comparable with the ranges of electrons/beta particles. Such is the case for example in radiodine ablation of thyroid remnant tissue. In this work the self-absorbed fraction (source and target volumes are the same) for monoenergetic electrons and beta particles is calculated for small spherical volumes of various sizes and unit density. Absorbed fraction can be expressed as an integral of the product of two quantities: (a) Scaled beta dose point kernel (mean absorbed dose rate per activity of the point source in infinite homogenous medium), F β ; (b) special geometrical reduction factor (GRF). F β is calculated using EGS4 Monte Carlo (MC) code for transport of electrons and photons. MC source code calculates the deposition of energy inside concentric spherical shells around the isotropic point source of electrons/beta particles in infinite medium (water). Shell thickness was δr=0.02·X 90 , where X 90 represents the radius of the sphere inside which 90% of the source energy is absorbed. Number of concentric spherical shells was 100, 10000 electron histories were started in each program run, and 10 runs were repeated for statistical reason. Numerical integration of the product of F β , calculated by MC program, and GRF for sphere was done using Simpson method. Absorbed fractions were calculated for spheres with mass from 0.01-20 g (r = 0.13 - 1.68 cm). Results are given for monoenergetic electrons with kinetic energy T=0.2, 0.4, 1.0 MeV, and for three beta emitters 1 31I , 3 2P , 9 0Y . For quantitative dosimetric protocols in radioiodine ablation therapy, results for 1 31I are of

  9. Child Care Exposure Influences Childhood Adiposity at 2 Years: Analysis from the ROLO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Helena; Alberdi, Goiuri; Segurado, Ricardo; McNamara, Aoife; Lindsay, Karen; Horan, Mary; Hennessy, Eilis; Gibney, Eileen; McAuliffe, Fionnuala

    2017-04-01

    The first 2 years of life are instrumental for childhood physical development. Factors contributing to childhood obesity are difficult to determine; child care exposure is one to consider, by influencing food preference and physical activity development. To investigate the association of child care exposure with adiposity at 2 years. Data were collected as part of the secondary analysis of the prospective ROLO study (randomized control trial of low glycemic index diet) in Dublin, Ireland. Mothers were recruited antenatally and followed up at 2 years postpartum. Maternal and childhood anthropometric data and lifestyle questionnaires, reporting on child care attendance (defined as nonparental care), exposure (weeks), and infant-feeding practices, were collected. Anthropometric measures and lifestyle data were collected for 273 mothers and children aged 2 years, 52.7% of whom attended child care. Child care was predominately provided by a nonrelative (83.7%), either in a crèche (57%) or by a childminder (26.7%). More than half (56.2%) of the children attended child care part-time (≤30 hours/week). Central adiposity measures (abdominal circumference, waist:height ratio) and total adiposity (sum of all skin folds) were significantly elevated in children with increasing time in child care. Children provided with "meals and snacks" had elevated adiposity measures versus those given "snacks or no food." No difference in the infant-feeding practices was identified between the child care groups. Children attending child care have higher total and central adiposity, proportional to exposure. More research is required to investigate this link to appropriately design health promotion and obesity prevention programs targeting children at 2 years.

  10. Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lauren M; Safran, Marc R; Maloney, William J; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Bellino, Michael J; Scuderi, Gaetano J; Abrams, Geoffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin-aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy.

  11. Precision attachment-retained removable partial dentures. Part 3. General practitioner results up to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owall, B; Jönsson, L

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the techniques, production problems, and 2-year results of attachment-retained removable partial denture (RPD) treatment provided by general practitioners in Sweden. At a major dental laboratory, consecutive cases involving new production of crowns, or of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) and RPDs retained with precision attachments, were studied. Parameters of the dentition, crown or FPD, type and brand of attachment, etc, as well as early satisfaction by dentist and patient, were recorded using specially designed forms at the dental laboratory and questionnaires for the dentists. After 2 years, questionnaires were again sent out to the dentists to record complications and patients' and dentists' opinions of the results. The sample gathered totaled 83 constructions. After 2 years, responses for 57 patients, all of whom had distal-extension RPDs, were received. Most drop-outs in the study were explicable. The most frequently cited reasons for using attachments were esthetics and need for crowning the teeth abutting the RPD. McCollum rigid slide attachment was the predominant brand used (43% of constructions). Dentists and patients were dissatisfied with 6% of the constructions. During the first 2 years, 22 of 57 constructions were complication-free. Seventeen had attachment complications and 9 had serious complications related to the abutment teeth or RPDs. A comparison between these 2 groups revealed that those with complications had every second abutment root-canal treated and a root post, while the group without complications had every fifth abutment root-canal treated. There were many technical and biotechnical complications and failures; the exact ratio, however, depended on the definition of "complications" and "failure." The 2-year results also deviated considerably from the dentists' opinions of the early results.

  12. Preparation and characterization of super absorbent polymer from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwien Andriyanti; Suyanti; Ngasifudin

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a source of biomass which large enough numbers and has not been fully exploited. At this time has developed a super absorbent polymer material of sugarcane bagasse that can absorb water up to several times of its own weight and keep this water. Super absorbent polymers can be used as a soil conditioner that can be used as an absorber and storage of ground water, the giver of nutrients for plants, and can improve soil properties. The purpose of this study is to make and characterization of super absorbent polymer (PCS) from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation of super absorbent polymers (PCS) has been done by grafting method using ionizing radiation from Electron Beam Engineering (MBE) 350 mA keV/10. Irradiation process carried out with a dose variation of 20, 35, and 50 kGy. Increasing doses of radiation will increase the percentage fraction of transplantation (grafting) and the fraction of water absorption ability (swelling ratio). (author)

  13. Absorbed dose in CT. Comparison by CT dose index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Andou, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Few reports have discussed the absorbed dose on CT units with increased scanning capacity even with the current widespread adoption of multi-slice CT units. To compare and investigate the dose indexes among CT units, we measured the absorbed dose on CT units operating in Nagano Prefecture Japan. The measurements showed proportionality between phantom absorbed dose and the exposured mAs values in conventional scanning operation. Further, the measurements showed that the absorbed dose in the center of the phantom differed by about 2.1-fold between the highest and lowest levels on individual CT units. Within a single company, multi-slice CT units of the same company gave absorbed doses of about 1.3 to 1.5 times those of conventional single-slice CT units under the same exposured conditions of conventional scanning. When the scanning pitch was reduced in helical scanning, the absorbed dose at the center of the phantom increased. (author)

  14. Precision test method by x-ray absorbent clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadai, Toru; Matsukawa, Hideyuki; Sekita, Jun-ichiro; Murakoshi, Atsushi.

    1982-01-01

    In X-ray penetration photography of such as welds with reinforcing metal and castings of complex shape, the X-ray absorbent clay developed to eliminate various disadvantages of the conventional absorbents was further studied for better application. The results of the usage are as follows. Because the X-ray absorbent is clay, it is flexible in form, and gives good adhesion to test objects. In the welds and castings mentioned, it is effective for reducing the scattered ray, accordingly, it results in superior images. The following matters are described: contrast in radiographs, the required conditions for X-ray absorbents in general, the properties of the absorbent (absorption coefficient, consistency, density), improvement in radiographs by means of the X-ray absorbent clay (wall thickness compensation, masking, the application together with narrow-field irradiation photography). (Mori, K.)

  15. Absorber Model: the Halo-like model for the Lyman-α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iršič, Vid; McQuinn, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    We present a semi-analytic model for the Lyman-α forest that is inspired by the Halo Model. This model is built on the absorption line decomposition of the forest. Flux correlations are decomposed into those within each absorption line (the 1-absorber term) and those between separate lines (the 2-absorber term), treating the lines as biased tracers of the underlying matter fluctuations. While the nonlinear exponential mapping between optical depth and flux requires an infinite series of moments to calculate any statistic, we show that this series can be re-summed (truncating at the desired order in the linear matter overdensity). We focus on the z=2–3 line-of-sight power spectrum. Our model finds that 1-absorber term dominates the power on all scales, with most of its contribution coming from H I columns of 1014–1015 cm‑2, while the smaller 2-absorber contribution comes from lower columns that trace overdensities of a few. The prominence of the 1-absorber correlations indicates that the line-of-sight power spectrum is shaped principally by the lines' number densities and their absorption profiles, with correlations between lines contributing to a lesser extent. We present intuitive formulae for the effective optical depth as well as the large-scale limits of 1-absorber and 2-absorber terms, which simplify to integrals over the H I column density distribution with different equivalent-width weightings. With minimalist models for the bias of absorption systems and their peculiar velocity broadening, our model predicts values for the density bias and velocity gradient bias that are consistent with those found in simulations.

  16. Optimal design of a beam-based dynamic vibration absorber using fixed-points theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yingyu; Wong, Waion; Cheng, Li

    2018-05-01

    The addition of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) to a vibrating structure could provide an economic solution for vibration suppressions if the absorber is properly designed and located onto the structure. A common design of the DVA is a sprung mass because of its simple structure and low cost. However, the vibration suppression performance of this kind of DVA is limited by the ratio between the absorber mass and the mass of the primary structure. In this paper, a beam-based DVA (beam DVA) is proposed and optimized for minimizing the resonant vibration of a general structure. The vibration suppression performance of the proposed beam DVA depends on the mass ratio, the flexural rigidity and length of the beam. In comparison with the traditional sprung mass DVA, the proposed beam DVA shows more flexibility in vibration control design because it has more design parameters. With proper design, the beam DVA's vibration suppression capability can outperform that of the traditional DVA under the same mass constraint. The general approach is illustrated using a benchmark cantilever beam as an example. The receptance theory is introduced to model the compound system consisting of the host beam and the attached beam-based DVA. The model is validated through comparisons with the results from Abaqus as well as the Transfer Matrix method (TMM) method. Fixed-points theory is then employed to derive the analytical expressions for the optimum tuning ratio and damping ratio of the proposed beam absorber. A design guideline is then presented to choose the parameters of the beam absorber. Comparisons are finally presented between the beam absorber and the traditional DVA in terms of the vibration suppression effect. It is shown that the proposed beam absorber can outperform the traditional DVA by following this proposed guideline.

  17. Graphene metascreen for designing compact infrared absorbers with enhanced bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Pai-Yen; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a compact, wideband terahertz and infrared absorber, comprising a patterned graphene sheet on a thin metal-backed dielectric slab. This graphene-based nanostructure can achieve a low or negative effective permeability, necessary for realizing the perfect absorption. The dual-reactive property found in both the plasmonic graphene sheet and the grounded highpermittivity slab introduces extra poles into the equivalent circuit model of the system, thereby resulting in a dual-band or broadband magnetic resonance that enhances the absorption bandwidth. More interestingly, the two-dimensional patterned graphene sheet significantly simplifies the design and fabrication processes for achieving resonant magnetic response, and allows the frequency-reconfigurable operation via electrostatic gating.

  18. Influence of radioactive contaminants on absorbed dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Several popular radiopharmaceutical products contain low levels of radioactive contaminants. These contaminants increase the radiation absorbed dose to the patient without any increased benefit and, in some cases, with a decrease in image quality. The importance of a contaminant to the radiation dosimetry picture is a function of 1) the contaminant level, 2) the physical half-life of the contaminant, 3) the organ uptake and the biological half-time of the contaminant in the various body systems, and 4) the decay mode, energy, etc. of the contaminant. The general influence of these parameters is discussed in this paper; families of curves are included that reflect the changing importance of contaminant dosimetry with respect to the primary radionuclide as a function of these variables. Several specific examples are also given of currently used radiopharmaceutical products which can contain radioactive contaminants (I-123, In-111, Tl-201, Ir-191m, Rb-82, Au-195m). 7 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  19. Graphene metascreen for designing compact infrared absorbers with enhanced bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-03-31

    We propose a compact, wideband terahertz and infrared absorber, comprising a patterned graphene sheet on a thin metal-backed dielectric slab. This graphene-based nanostructure can achieve a low or negative effective permeability, necessary for realizing the perfect absorption. The dual-reactive property found in both the plasmonic graphene sheet and the grounded highpermittivity slab introduces extra poles into the equivalent circuit model of the system, thereby resulting in a dual-band or broadband magnetic resonance that enhances the absorption bandwidth. More interestingly, the two-dimensional patterned graphene sheet significantly simplifies the design and fabrication processes for achieving resonant magnetic response, and allows the frequency-reconfigurable operation via electrostatic gating.

  20. Evaluation of the short- and long-term safety and therapy outcomes of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold system in patients with coronary artery stenosis: Rationale and design of the German–Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nef, Holger, E-mail: holger.nef@innere.med.uni-giessen.de [University of Giessen, Medizinische Klinik I, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Wiebe, Jens [University of Giessen, Medizinische Klinik I, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Achenbach, Stefan [University of Erlangen, Medizinische Klinik II, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Münzel, Thomas [Department of Medicine II, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Naber, Christoph [Klinik für Kardiologie und Angiologie, Elisabeth-Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany); Richardt, Gert [Herzzentrum, Segeberger Kliniken GmbH, Bad Segeberg (Germany); Mehilli, Julinda [Department of Cardiology, Klinikum Großhadern, Ludwig- Maximilian Universität, Munich (Germany); Wöhrle, Jochen [Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Neumann, Till; Biermann, Janine [University of Essen, Department of Cardiology, Essen (Germany); Zahn, Ralf [Abteilung für Kardiologie, Herzzentrum Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Kastner, Johannes [Department of Cardiology, University of Vienna Medical School, Vienna (Austria); Schmermund, Axel [CCB, Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien, Frankfurt (Germany); Pfannebecker, Thomas [Abbott Vascular Deutschland GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany); Schneider, Steffen; Limbourg, Tobias [Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Hamm, Christian W. [University of Giessen, Medizinische Klinik I, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Kerckhoff Heart and Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Background: Third-generation drug-eluting metal stents are the gold standard for treatment of coronary artery disease. The permanent metallic caging of the vessel, however, can result in limited vasomotion, chronic inflammation, and late expansive remodeling, conditions that can lead to late and very late stent thrombosis. The development of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRSs) promises advantages over metal stents due to complete biodegradation within 2–4 years. Theoretically, since vessel scaffolding is temporary and no permanent implant remains in the vessel, BRSs, as opposed to metal stents, once degraded would no longer be potential triggers for stent-related adverse events or side effects. Methods/design: The short- and long-term outcome after implantation of an everolimus-eluting, poly-L-lactic acid-based bioresorbable scaffold system (ABSORB, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) in the world-wide greatest all-comers cohort will be evaluated in the prospective, non-interventional, multicenter German–Austrian ABSORB RegIstRy (GABI-R). GABI-R will include over 5000 patients from about 100 study sites in Austria and Germany. Safety endpoints such as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and clinically driven percutaneous or surgical target lesion and vessel revascularization will be evaluated during hospitalization and in the follow-up period (minimum of 5 years). Conclusion: Although two randomized controlled trials and several registries have documented safety and efficacy as well as non-inferiority of this everolimus-eluting ABSORB device compared with drug-eluting metal stents, the current knowledge regarding clinical application, treatment success, and long-term safety of using this BRS in daily routine is limited. Thus, the goal of GABI-R is to address this lack of information. - Highlights: • The GABI-R addresses a lack of data about bioresorbable scaffolds in daily practice. • 5000 patients with minimal in- and exclusion criteria at 100 sites will