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Sample records for syrup urine disease

  1. Maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the mildest form, repeated periods of physical stress can cause mental disability and high levels of leucine to build up. Symptoms Symptoms of this disorder include: Coma Feeding difficulties Lethargy Seizures Urine that smells like maple syrup Vomiting Exams and Tests These tests may be done to ...

  2. Maple syrup urine disease: mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Patrick R; Gass, Jennifer M; Vairo, Filippo Pinto E; Farnham, Kristen M; Atwal, Herjot K; Macklin, Sarah; Klee, Eric W; Atwal, Paldeep S

    2017-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by defects in the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, which results in elevations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in plasma, α-ketoacids in urine, and production of the pathognomonic disease marker, alloisoleucine. The disorder varies in severity and the clinical spectrum is quite broad with five recognized clinical variants that have no known association with genotype. The classic presentation occurs in the neonatal period with developmental delay, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, and maple syrup odor in the cerumen and urine, and can lead to irreversible neurological complications, including stereotypical movements, metabolic decompensation, and death if left untreated. Treatment consists of dietary restriction of BCAAs and close metabolic monitoring. Clinical outcomes are generally good in patients where treatment is initiated early. Newborn screening for MSUD is now commonplace in the United States and is included on the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP). We review this disorder including its presentation, screening and clinical diagnosis, treatment, and other relevant aspects pertaining to the care of patients.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BH. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism: from rare Mendelian diseases to more common disorders. Hum Mol Genet. ... gov/books/NBK1319/ Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins March is Trisomy Awareness Month ...

  4. Implications of Maple Syrup Urine Disease in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Haman, Pamela; Brown, Lenora; Massey, Susan; Ramamoorthy, Sivaranjani

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited metabolic disorder that affects the body's ability to metabolize amino acids. If left untreated, it places newborns at risk for life-threatening health problems, including episodes of illness called metabolic crisis. Newborn screening for MSUD should ideally be done within the first 24 to 48 hours after birth. With proper screening, along with genetic counseling, nutritional counseling, primary care follow-up, and ongoing monitoring, newborns with MSUD can typically go on to live healthful lives. Nurses play a key role in supporting families with a diagnosis of MSUD. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irnberger, T.; Ploechl, E.; Rittinger, O.; Bachmann, C.; Pilz, P.; Walter, G.F.; Wendel, U.; Landeskrankenanstalten Salzburg; Bern Univ.; Landesnervenklinik Salzburg; Graz Univ.; Dudley Observatory, Albany, NY; Duesseldorf Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success. (orig.) [de

  6. Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F. [Servizio di Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Burlina, A.B. [Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  7. Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L.; Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F.; Burlina, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  8. Acute Illness Protocol for Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Lance H; Aldubayan, Saud H; Berry, Gerard T; Levy, Harvey L

    2018-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are genetic disorders that disrupt enzyme activity, cellular transport, or energy production. They are individually rare but collectively have an incidence of 1:1000. Most patients with IEMs are followed up by a physician with expertise in biochemical genetics (metabolism), but may present outside this setting. Because IEMs can present acutely with life-threatening crises that require specific interventions, it is critical for the emergency medicine physician, pediatrician, internist, and critical care physician as well as the biochemical geneticist to have information on the initial assessment and management of patients with these disorders. Appropriate early care can be lifesaving. This protocol is not designed to replace the expert consultation of a biochemical geneticist, but rather to improve early care and increase the level of comfort of the acute care physician with initial management of maple syrup urine disease until specialty consultation is obtained.

  9. Maple Syrup Urine Disease Complicated with Kyphoscoliosis and Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jia-Woei

    2016-10-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy secondary to an enzyme defect in the catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Accumulation of their corresponding keto-acids leads to encephalopathy if not treated in time. A newborn male patient was suspected to have MSUD after tandem mass study when he presented symptoms and signs suggestive neonatal sepsis, anemia, and diarrhea. Food restriction of BCAAs was started; however, acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin eruptions occurred at age 2 months. The skin rashes resolved after adding BCAAs and adjusting the infant formula. At age 7 months, he suffered from recurrent skin lesions, zinc deficiency, osteoporosis, and kyphosis of the thoracic spine with acute angulation over the T11-T12 level associated with spinal compression and myelopathy. After supplementation of zinc products and pamidronate, skin lesions and osteopenia improved gradually. Direct sequencing of the DBT gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation [4.7 kb deletion and c.650-651insT (L217F or L217fsX223)]. It is unusual that neurodegeneration still developed in this patient despite diet restriction. Additionally, brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging, bone mineral density study, and monitoring of zinc status are suggested in MSUD patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Maple Syrup Urine Disease Complicated with Kyphoscoliosis and Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Woei Hou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy secondary to an enzyme defect in the catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Accumulation of their corresponding keto-acids leads to encephalopathy if not treated in time. A newborn male patient was suspected to have MSUD after tandem mass study when he presented symptoms and signs suggestive neonatal sepsis, anemia, and diarrhea. Food restriction of BCAAs was started; however, acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin eruptions occurred at age 2 months. The skin rashes resolved after adding BCAAs and adjusting the infant formula. At age 7 months, he suffered from recurrent skin lesions, zinc deficiency, osteoporosis, and kyphosis of the thoracic spine with acute angulation over the T11-T12 level associated with spinal compression and myelopathy. After supplementation of zinc products and pamidronate, skin lesions and osteopenia improved gradually. Direct sequencing of the DBT gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation [4.7 kb deletion and c.650-651insT (L217F or L217fsX223]. It is unusual that neurodegeneration still developed in this patient despite diet restriction. Additionally, brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging, bone mineral density study, and monitoring of zinc status are suggested in MSUD patients.

  11. Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D.

    1990-01-01

    Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis

  12. PERAWATAN GIGI PADA ANAK DENGAN MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE (LAPORAN KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Fajari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maple Syrup Urine Disease is a disparity of leusin decarboxilation, and isoleusin of valin defect that is synthesized with complex enzyme systems. It is a rare disease and represents disparity. In some cases can generate ketosis that grows according to health change and can cause comma. Dental treatment of a child with Maple Syrup Urine Disease was not clearly mentioned, there is only a factor such as infection, which is very dangerous at any age, and can generate irregular metabolism. Dental treatment of a child with Maple Syrup Urine Disease accompanied by mental retardation must be done continuously to avoid infection that can result in the death of the patients.

  13. Skin Lesions Associated with Dietary Management of Maple Syrup Urine Disease: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazandjieva Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leucinosis (maple syrup urine disease - MSUD is an inherited aminoacidopathy and organic aciduria caused by severe enzyme defect in the metabolic pathway of amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The classical variant of the disease is characterized by accumulation of both amino and α-keto acids, particulary the most toxic rapid elevation of circulating leucine and its ketoacid, α-ketoisocaproate, which cause encephalopathy and life-threatening brain swelling. However, patients with the most severe form, classical maple syrup urine disease, may appear normal at birth, but develop acute metabolic decompensation within the first weeks of life with typical symptoms: poor feeding, vomiting, poor weight gain, somnolence and burnt sugar-smelling urine, reminiscent of maple syrup. Early diagnosis and dietary intervention improve the patient’s condition, prevent severe complications, and may allow normal intellectual development.

  14. Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

  15. The first use of N-carbamylglutamate in a patient with decompensated maple syrup urine disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Coker, Mahmut; Habif, Sara; Saz, Eylem Ulas; Karapinar, Bulent; Ucar, Hakan; Kitis, Omer; Duran, Marinus

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a defect in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Affected patients may also develop hyperammonaemia of unknown etiology. This report describes a four-year-old girl with MSUD, who presented with decompensated

  16. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindel, W.; Kugel, H.; Wendel, U.; Roth, B.; Benz-Bohm, G.

    1995-01-01

    Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized 1 H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

  17. Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited...

  18. Management of a Woman With Maple Syrup Urine Disease During Pregnancy, Delivery, and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ann E; Mogensen, Kris M; Rohr, Frances; Erick, Miriam; Neilan, Edward G; Chopra, Sameer; Levy, Harvey L; Gray, Kathryn J; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Berry, Gerard T

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Complications of acute elevation in plasma leucine include ketoacidosis and risk of cerebral edema, which can be fatal. Individuals with MSUD are at risk of metabolic crisis throughout life, especially at times of physiological stress. We present a case of successful management of a woman with MSUD through pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, and lactation, including nutrition therapy using modified parenteral nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  19. The management of pregnancy in maple syrup urine disease: experience with two patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchan, Michel; Westbrook, M; Wilcox, G; Cutler, R; Smith, N; Penman, R; Strauss, B J G; Wilcken, B

    2013-01-01

    We describe the management and outcomes of pregnancy in two women affected with Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Both patients had classical disease diagnosed in the newborn period and were managed with low-protein diets and supplements, although compliance was moderately poor throughout life. Both pregnancies were complicated by poor compliance and one patient had a metabolic decompensation, which included seizures and profound encephalopathy, at the end of the first trimester. Peri-partum management required a coordinated team approach including a high-calorie and low-protein diet. Both patients had elevated leucine levels in the post-partum period - one due to mastitis and the other due to poor dietary and supplement compliance combined with uterine involution. On later review, leucine had returned to pre-pregnancy levels. Both infants were unaffected and have made normal developmental progress in the subsequent 1 to 2 years.

  20. [GENETIC AND METABOLIC URGENCIES IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez Rojas, Paola Liliana; Suarez Obando, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a hereditary disorder of branched chain amino/keto acid metabolism, caused by a decreased activity of the branched-chain alpha- ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD), which leads to abnormal elevated plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) clinically manifested as a heavy burden for Central Nervous system. The toxic accumulation of substrates promotes the development of a severe and rapidly progressive neonatal encephalopathy if treatment is not immediately given. This disorder has a specific medical management in acute phase in order to minimize mortality and morbidity. For all those reasons, it is important to include the MSUD as a possible diagnosis in a encephalopathic newborn. We present a colombian newborn with classical MSUD with fatal outcome as an example of metabolic emergency and a differential diagnosis in the encephalopathic newborn. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Chin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation.

  2. A Classic Case of Maple Syrup Urine Disease and a Novel Mutation in the BCKDHA Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Mirzaee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an inherited branched-chain amino acid metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD complex. In MSUD, elevation of the branched-chain amino acids, such as alpha-keto acid and alpha-hydroxy acid, occurs due to the BCKDC gene deficiency, appearing in the blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, which leads to neurological damage and mental retardation. MSUD phenotypically penetrates due to the mutations in the coding genes of four subunits of the BCKD complex, including the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT, and DLD genes.Case report: We aimed to report the cases of three families whose children were affected by MSUD and presented with symptomatic features during the first week of birth, which were identified by mass spectrometry. DNA study was performed as a diagnosis panel containing four encoded BCKDC subunit genes.Conclusion: In the current study, DNA analysis and phenotypic manifestations indicated a novel mutation of c.143delT, p.L48Rfs*15 in the BCKDHA gene in a homozygous state, which is a causative mutation for the classic MSUD phenotype. Early diagnosis and neonatal screening are recommended for the accurate and effective treatment of this disease

  3. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative damage in Maple syrup urine disease: the L-carnitine role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Gilian; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Sitta, Angela; Donida, Bruna; Marchetti, Desirèe; Hammerschmidt, Tatiane; Faverzani, Jessica; Coelho, Daniella de Moura; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The defect in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity leads to an accumulation of these compounds and their corresponding α-keto-acids and α-hydroxy-acids. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. L-carnitine (L-car), which has demonstrated an important role as antioxidant by reducing and scavenging free radicals formation and by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, have been used in the treatment of some metabolic rare disorders. This study evaluated the oxidative stress parameters, di-tyrosine, isoprostanes and antioxidant capacity, in urine of MSUD patients under protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with L-car capsules at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1). It was also determined urinary α-keto isocaproic acid levels as well as blood free L-car concentrations in blood. It was found a deficiency of carnitine in patients before the L-car supplementation. Significant increases of di-tyrosine and isoprostanes, as well as reduced antioxidant capacity, were observed before the treatment with L-car. The L-car supplementation induced beneficial effects on these parameters reducing the di-tyrosine and isoprostanes levels and increasing the antioxidant capacity. It was also showed a significant increase in urinary of α-ketoisocaproic acid after 2 months of L-car treatment, compared to control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that L-car may have beneficial effects in the treatment of MSUD by preventing oxidative damage to the cells and that urine can be used to monitorize oxidative damage in patients affected by this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feier, F.H.; Miura, I.K.; Fonseca, E.A.; Porta, G.; Pugliese, R.; Porta, A.; Schwartz, I.V.D.; Margutti, A.V.B.; Camelo, J.S.; Yamaguchi, S.N.; Taveira, A.T.; Candido, H.; Benavides, M.; Danesi, V.; Guimaraes, T.; Kondo, M.; Chapchap, P.; Seda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. The use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD. PMID:24770567

  5. Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Feier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. The use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD.

  6. Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

  7. Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

  8. Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jong Su; Kim, Taik-Kun; Lee, Ki Yeol; Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, Hee Sun

    2004-01-01

    Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

  9. Maple syrup urine disease in Brazil: a panorama of the last two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herber, Silvani; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D; Nalin, Tatiéle; Oliveira Netto, Cristina Brinkmann; Camelo Junior, José Simon; Santos, Mara Lúcia; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques; Schüler-Faccini, Lavinia; Souza, Carolina Fischinger Moura de

    2015-01-01

    To characterize a sample of Brazilian patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) diagnosed between 1992 and 2011. In this retrospective study, patients were identified through a national reference laboratory for the diagnosis of MSUD and through contact with other medical genetics services across Brazil. Data were collected by means of a chart review. Eighty-three patients from 75 families were enrolled in the study (median age, 3 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.57-7). Median age at onset of symptoms was 10 days (IQR 5-30), whereas median age at diagnosis was 60 days (IQR 29-240, p=0.001). Only three (3.6%) patients were diagnosed before the onset of clinical manifestations. A comparison between patients with (n=12) and without (n=71) an early diagnosis shows that early diagnosis is associated with the presence of positive family history and decreased prevalence of clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis, but not with a better outcome. Overall, 98.8% of patients have some psychomotor or neurodevelopmental delay. In Brazil, patients with MSUD are usually diagnosed late and exhibit neurological involvement and poor survival even with early diagnosis. We suggest that specific public policies for diagnosis and treatment of MSUD should be developed and implemented in the country. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Cranial computed tomography in a patient with a variant form of maple syrup urine disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Naito, H.; Abe, T.; Nihei, K.

    1983-01-01

    A male infant, who was suspected to be a case of variant form of maple syrup urine disease has been given dietary treatment since the age of 9 months. Prior to the treatment, computed tomography showed abnormally high lucidity in the cerebral white matter area with the marked narrowness in size of the frontal horn of lateral ventricles. As the treatment proceeded, clinical symptoms alleviated, and CT findings have gradually changed with the result of improved density of the white matter. 2 months after starting the treatment, however, the patient suddenly developed a hyperaminoacidemic crisis that lasted 4-5 days. Despite this hyperaminoacidemia, CT scan taken during the crisis have revealed unexpectedly normal lucidity of the white matter as well as the normal width of the frontal horn. From these findings it was concluded that markedly lucent area in CT findings prior to the treatment was not due to an acute change in serum aminoacid concentration, but rather to chronic brain edema which had insidiously and gradually developed. (orig.)

  11. Maple syrup urine disease in Brazil: a panorama of the last two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvani Herber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize a sample of Brazilian patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD diagnosed between 1992 and 2011. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients were identified through a national reference laboratory for the diagnosis of MSUD and through contact with other medical genetics services across Brazil. Data were collected by means of a chart review. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients from 75 families were enrolled in the study (median age, 3 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.57-7. Median age at onset of symptoms was 10 days (IQR 5-30, whereas median age at diagnosis was 60 days (IQR 29-240, p = 0.001. Only three (3.6% patients were diagnosed before the onset of clinical manifestations. A comparison between patients with (n = 12 and without (n = 71 an early diagnosis shows that early diagnosis is associated with the presence of positive family history and decreased prevalence of clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis, but not with a better outcome. Overall, 98.8% of patients have some psychomotor or neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, patients with MSUD are usually diagnosed late and exhibit neurological involvement and poor survival even with early diagnosis. We suggest that specific public policies for diagnosis and treatment of MSUD should be developed and implemented in the country.

  12. Energy Expenditure in Chilean Children with Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Karen; Castro, Gabriela; Hamilton, Valerie; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Raimann, Erna; Arias, Carolina; Cornejo, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a blockage of branched-chain keto acid of BCAA (branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase, BCKDH) leading to neurological damage induced by accumulation of leucine and metabolites. MSUD expenditure and energy requirement information is limited. To determine if basal/total energy expenditure (BEE/TEE) is comparable between different determination methods and if values agree with recommendations of energy in MSUD children, and whether they relate to nutritional status. Case-control study between MSUD (n = 16) and healthy children (n = 11) aged 6-18 years. Current nutritional status, physical activity level, body composition by DEXA and BEE/TEE by indirect calorimetry (BEEr) and predictive equations (FAO/WHO/ONU - WHO - and Schofield) were assessed; STATA 2013 (p < 0.05). When comparing the energy expenditure variables, there was no significant difference between groups. Moreover, compared to BEEr, equations underestimate according to BEE WHO and Schofield, respectively (P = 0.00; 0.02). The WHO equation had lower average calorie difference, greater concordance correlation and association with indirect calorimetry compared to the Schofield equation for both groups, being the best predictor of the BEE for MSUD group. Energy recommendations for MSUD children are according to energy expenditure; thus the use of WHO equation is a clinically and statistically feasible tool for its determination.

  13. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  14. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M.

    2003-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  15. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Wajanat; Zimmerman, Robert A; Wang, Zhiyue J; Berry, Gerard T; Kaplan, Paige B; Kaye, Edward M

    2003-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction.

  16. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Skin Lesions Associated with Nutritional Management of Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraspong Uaariyapanichkul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an inborn error of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs metabolism. We report an infant with MSUD who developed 2 episodes of cutaneous lesions as a result of isoleucine deficiency and zinc deficiency, respectively. Case Presentation. A 12-day-old male infant was presented with poor milk intake and lethargy. The diagnosis of MSUD was made based on clinical and biochemical data. Management and Outcome. Specific dietary restriction of BCAAs was given. Subsequently, natural protein was stopped as the patient developed hospital-acquired infections which resulted in an elevation of BCAAs. Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica developed and was confirmed to be from isoleucine deficiency. At the age of 6 months, the patient developed severe lethargy and was on natural protein exclusion for an extended period. Despite enteral supplementation of zinc sulfate, cutaneous manifestations due to zinc deficiency occurred. Discussion. Skin lesions in MSUD patients could arise from multiple causes. Nutritional deficiency including isoleucine and zinc deficiencies can occur and could complicate the treatment course as a result of malabsorption, even while on enteral supplementation. Parenteral nutrition should be considered and initiated accordingly. Clinical status, as well as BCAA levels, should be closely monitored in MSUD patients.

  18. Living related versus deceased donor liver transplantation for maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feier, Flavia; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D; Benkert, Abigail R; Seda Neto, Joao; Miura, Irene; Chapchap, Paulo; da Fonseca, Eduardo Antunes; Vieira, Sandra; Zanotelli, Maria Lúcia; Pinto e Vairo, Filippo; Camelo, Jose Simon; Margutti, Ana Vitoria Barban; Mazariegos, George V; Puffenberger, Erik G; Strauss, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain ketoacid (BCKA) oxidation associated with episodic and chronic brain disease. Transplantation of liver from an unrelated deceased donor restores 9-13% whole-body BCKA oxidation capacity and stabilizes MSUD. Recent reports document encouraging short-term outcomes for MSUD patients who received a liver segment from mutation heterozygous living related donors (LRDT). To investigate effects of living related versus deceased unrelated grafts, we studied four Brazilian MSUD patients treated with LRDT who were followed for a mean 19 ± 12 postoperative months, and compared metabolic and clinical outcomes to 37 classical MSUD patients treated with deceased donor transplant. Patient and graft survival for LRDT were 100%. Three of 4 MSUD livers were successfully domino transplanted into non-MSUD subjects. Following LRDT, all subjects resumed a protein-unrestricted diet as mean plasma leucine decreased from 224 ± 306 μM to 143 ± 44 μM and allo-isoleucine decreased 91%. We observed no episodes of hyperleucinemia during 80 aggregate postoperative patient-months. Mean plasma leucine:isoleucine:valine concentration ratios were ~2:1:4 after deceased donor transplant compared to ~1:1:1.5 following LRDT, resulting in differences of predicted cerebral amino acid uptake. Mutant heterozygous liver segments effectively maintain steady-state BCAA and BCKA homeostasis on an unrestricted diet and during most catabolic states, but might have different metabolic effects than grafts from unrelated deceased donors. Neither living related nor deceased donor transplant affords complete protection from metabolic intoxication, but both strategies represent viable alternatives to nutritional management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver transplantation for classical maple syrup urine disease: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Victoria M; Camarena, Carmen; de la Vega, Ángela; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; Díaz, Carmen; López, Manuel; Hernández, Francisco; Andrés, Ane; Jara, Paloma

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate indications, results, and clinical and neurological evolution in children who have undergone liver transplantation for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Descriptive study of liver transplantation for MSUD between 1991 and 2012. Eight patients were transplanted. Indications for transplant were poor metabolic control expressed as significant psychomotor disabilities (4 had psychomotor delays, 5 had spasticity, and 5 had epilepsy) and poor quality of life (mean number of acute metabolic decompensations and mean number of total hospitalizations before transplantation 5 and 12, respectively). Four required nasogastric tube, with a maximum 4 g/day protein-restricted diet in all of them. Seven sustained significant alterations in brain magnetic resonance imaging. Mean leucine and alloisoleucine levels were 608 (standard deviation [SD] 516) and 218 μmol/L (SD 216), respectively. All of the patients received transplants with deceased-donor livers, with ages between 1.5 and 2.5 years (mean 1.78 years). Mean posttransplantation follow-up period was 12.2 years (range 5-21 years). Final patient and graft survival was 87.5% and 75%, respectively. Following transplantation, none required hospitalization in the last 3 years nor did any have new acute metabolic decompensations following a normal diet. Five followed normal schooling, 2 had motor disabilities, and 2 had convulsive crises. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was taken in 4 patients, showing neuroimage improvement in 3 of them. Mean leucine levels were <350 μmol/L from the immediate posttransplantation period (mean 225 μmol/L, SD 78), with a maximum alloisoleucine level of 20 μmol/L. Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for classical MSUD that arrests brain damage, although it does not reverse the process.

  20. Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: principles of management and formula design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L; Puffenberger, Erik G; Shellmer, Diana; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B; Morton, D Holmes

    2010-04-01

    Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) for entry into the brain via a common transporter (LAT1), (2) compensate for episodic depletions of glutamine, glutamate, and alanine caused by reverse transamination, and (3) correct deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, and selenium widespread among MSUD patients. The formula was enriched with LAT1 amino acid substrates, glutamine, alanine, zinc, selenium, and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Fifteen Old Order Mennonite children were started on study formula between birth and 34 months of age and seen at least monthly in the office. Amino acid levels were checked once weekly and more often during illnesses. All children grew and developed normally over a period of 14-33 months. Energy demand, leucine tolerance, and protein accretion were tightly linked during periods of normal growth. Rapid shifts to net protein degradation occurred during illnesses. At baseline, most LAT1 substrates varied inversely with plasma leucine, and their calculated rates of brain uptake were 20-68% below normal. Treatment with study formula increased plasma concentrations of LAT1 substrates and normalized their calculated uptakes into the nervous system. Red cell membrane omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum zinc and selenium levels increased on study formula. However, selenium and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) levels remained below normal. During the study period, hospitalizations decreased from 0.35 to 0.14 per patient per year. There were 28 hospitalizations

  1. Two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the BCKDHB gene that cause the intermittent form of maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Liming, Liu; Jiang, Li

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. In contrast to classic MSUD, children with the intermittent form usually have an atypical clinical manifestation. Here, we describe the presenting symptoms and clinical course of a Chinese boy with intermittent MSUD. Mutation analysis identified two previously unreported mutations in exon 7 of the BCKDHB gene: c.767A > G (p.Y256C) and c.768C > G (p.Y256X); the parents were each heterozygous for one of these mutations. In silico analysis predicted Y256C probably affects protein structure; Y256X leads to a premature stop codon. This case demonstrates intermittent MSUD should be suspected in cases with symptoms of recurrent encephalopathy, especially ataxia or marked drowsiness, which usually present after the neonatal period and in conjunction with infection. symmetrical basal ganglia damage but normal myelination in the posterior limb will assist differential diagnosis; alloisoleucine is a useful diagnostic marker and mutation analysis may be of prognostic value. These novel mutations Y256C and Y256X result in the clinical manifestation of a variant form of MSUD, expanding the mutation spectrum of this disease.

  2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): a case with long-term follow-up after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Paula M; Hinshaw, Jessica; Stringer, Anthony Y

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare hereditary metabolic condition where the body is unable to breakdown amino acids causing toxic buildup. Acute and long-term management of MSUD involves a restricted diet and regular monitoring of amino acid levels; however, more recently liver transplants have been shown to be successful in treating this condition. Even with successful management of MSUD there is evidence from pediatric cases that shows a distinct pattern of neurocognitive deficits associated with this condition, including impaired nonverbal skills and psychomotor functioning with relatively intact verbal abilities. In the present paper, we report an adult case of MSUD with associated neurocognitive deficits and functional limitations following liver transplantation. Neuroimaging revealed no structural abnormalities, while the results from the neuropsychological evaluation showed impairment in visual-spatial processing, attention, executive functioning, and psychomotor abilities, with relative strengths in verbal skills. The patient also showed reduced adaptive functioning and mild anxiety. This case demonstrates neurocognitive deficiencies within the context of normal magnetic resonance imaging. The possible underlying mechanism of this neuropsychological profile is discussed in relation to other neurodevelopmental models.

  3. Identification of mutations, genotype-phenotype correlation and prenatal diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepti; Bijarnia-Mahay, Sunita; Saxena, Renu; Kohli, Sudha; Dua-Puri, Ratna; Verma, Jyotsna; Thomas, E; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Deb, Roumi; Verma, Ishwar Chander

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by mutations in genes BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT encoding E1α, E1β, and E2 subunits of enzyme complex, branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH). BCKDH participates in catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) - leucine, isoleucine and valine in the energy production pathway. Deficiency or defect in the enzyme complex causes accumulation of BCAAs and keto-acids leading to toxicity. Twenty-four patients with MSUD were enrolled in the study for molecular characterization and genotype-phenotype correlation. Molecular studies were carried out by sequencing of the 3 genes by Sanger method. Bioinformatics tools were employed to classify novel variations into pathogenic or benign. The predicted effects of novel changes on protein structure were elucidated by 3D modeling. Mutations were detected in 22 of 24 patients (11, 7 and 4 in BCKDHB, BCKDHA and DBT genes, respectively). Twenty mutations including 11 novel mutations were identified. Protein modeling in novel mutations showed alteration of structure and function of these subunits. Mutations, c.1065 delT (BCKDHB gene) and c.939G > C (DBT gene) were noted to be recurrent, identified in 6 of 22 alleles and 5 of 8 alleles, respectively. Two-third patients were of neonatal classical phenotype (16 of 24). BCKDHB gene mutations were present in 10 of these 16 patients. Prenatal diagnoses were performed in 4 families. Consanguinity was noted in 37.5% families. Although no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation could be found in our study, most cases with mutation in BCKDHB gene presented in neonatal period. Large number of novel mutations underlines the heterogeneity and distinctness of gene pool from India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Cellular characterization of human dermal fibroblasts, focus on mitochondria and maple syrup urine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Guerra, Paula

    Cell phenotyping of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from patients with inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) provide invaluable information for diagnosis, disease aetiology, predicting prognosis, and monitoring of treatments. HDFs possess the genetic composition of patients and many pathways...... and functions are expressed in HDFs’ culture environment. Studies of molecular disease mechanisms often point to the involvement of mitochondria. Mitochondria are involved in the regulation of cell cycle and programmed cell death as well as cellular stress responses because they are the main producers...... of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Advances in technology help the study of complex situations with large amount of data, like cellular phenotyping in cell culture. Image cytometry is an emerging technique that combines morphological information and fluorescent intensity data from single cells. We defined...

  5. The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Kaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD. He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment modality allowed a comprehensive rehabilitation program to be completed and it lasted longer than 9 months.

  6. Cellular characterization of human dermal fibroblasts, focus on mitochondria and maple syrup urine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Guerra, Paula

    of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Advances in technology help the study of complex situations with large amount of data, like cellular phenotyping in cell culture. Image cytometry is an emerging technique that combines morphological information and fluorescent intensity data from single cells. We defined...... and functions are expressed in HDFs’ culture environment. Studies of molecular disease mechanisms often point to the involvement of mitochondria. Mitochondria are involved in the regulation of cell cycle and programmed cell death as well as cellular stress responses because they are the main producers...... an image cytometry protocol for HDFs that combines cellular and mitochondrial parameters: cell number and viability, thiol redox state (TRS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and mitochondrial superoxide. HDFs were analysed after treatment with various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide...

  7. Living donor liver transplantation from a heterozygous parent for classical maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadohisa, Masashi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Sawada, Hirotake; Honda, Masaki; Murokawa, Takahiro; Hayashida, Shintaro; Ohya, Yuki; Lee, Kwang-Jong; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2015-05-01

    MSUD is a hereditary metabolic disorder that is characterized by impaired activity of the BCKADC. Liver transplantation has been approved as a treatment for some MSUD cases in which the control of BCAAs is insufficient. Although there have been several reports about DDLT for MSUD, few LDLT cases have been reported. Because either of parents who are heterozygote of this disease usually applies to be a candidate of donor in LDLT, the impairment of BCKADC activity of graft liver should be concerned. We performed LDLT for 10 month-old girl with a left lateral segment graft from her father. BCKADC activities of the patient and her parents were measured using lysates of lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood specimen before the transplant. As a consequence, the activity of BCKADC of father was not inferior to a normal range. The patient tolerated the operation well. Postoperative course was uneventful and mixed milk was started at 8th POD. The serum BCAAs levels have remained within normal range. It should be necessary to follow the physical growth and mental development of the recipient in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Co-existence of phenylketonuria either with maple syrup urine disease or Sandhoff disease in two patients from Iran: emphasizing the role of consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Maryam; Talebi, Saeed; Uitto, Jouni; Youssefian, Leila; Vahidnezhad, Hassan; Shirzad, Tina; Salehpour, Shadab; Zeinali, Sirous

    2016-10-01

    Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. IEMs are one of the major concerns in Iran due to its extensive consanguineous marriages. Herein, we report two patients with two co-existent IEMs: a girl affected by classic phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and a male patient affected with Sandhoff disease and PKU, where Sandhoff disease was suspected due to the presence of a cherry-red spot in the eyes at 6 months which is unrelated to PKU. Sequencing of candidate genes in the first patient revealed one novel and three recurrent compound heterozygous mutations of p.Ser231Pro and p.Ala300Ser in the PAH gene and p.Glu330Lys and p.Arg170Cys mutations in the BCKDHB gene. Genetic testing results in the second patient showed previously reported homozygous mutations of p.Arg261Gln in the PAH and p.Arg533Cys mutation in the HEXB gene. Genetic testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of both diseases in both patients. To the best of our knowledge; this is the first report of the co-existence of two distinct genetic disorders in two individuals from Iran. Co-existent different IEMs in patients complicated the clinical diagnosis and management of the diseases.

  9. Twenty novel mutations in BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes in a cohort of 52 Saudi Arabian patients with maple syrup urine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiqa Imtiaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to defects in the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD complex, is commonly observed among other inherited metabolic disorders in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This report presents the results of mutation analysis of three of the four genes encoding the BCKD complex in 52 biochemically diagnosed MSUD patients originating from Saudi Arabia. The 25 mutations (20 novel detected spanned across the entire coding regions of the BCKHDA, BCKDHB and DBT genes. There were no mutations found in the DLD gene in this cohort of patients. Prediction effects, conservation and modelling of novel mutations demonstrated that all were predicted to be disease-causing. All mutations presented in a homozygous form and we did not detect the presence of a “founder” mutation in any of three genes. In addition, prenatal molecular genetic testing was successfully carried out on chorionic villus samples or amniocenteses in 10 expectant mothers with affected children with MSUD, molecularly characterized by this study.

  10. Two homozygous mutations in the exon 5 of BCKDHB gene that may cause the classic form of maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ling; Lu, Zhikun; Li, Fatao; Shao, Yongxian; Sheng, Huiying; Cai, Yanna; Liu, Li

    2017-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by defects in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Classic form of MSUD (CMSUD) is caused by mutations in BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT genes mostly. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and genetic characteristics of two patients with CMSUD. Two homozygous mutations, c.517G > T (p.Asp173Tyr) and c.503G > A (p.Arg168His), both in the exon 5 of BCKDHB were detected respectively. The novel mutation p.Asp173Tyr of patient A, inherited from his parents, is predicted to affect conformation of protein by computer analysis. The reported mutation p.Arg168His observed in patient B seemed to occur in a maternal uniparental disomy inheritance manner. Review of related literature revealed that most missense mutations in exon 5 of BCKDHB in homozygous genotype often result in CMSUD because of its incorrect conformation, and exon 5 of BCKDHB might be a susceptible region. Thus the novel homozygous mutation p.Asp173Tyr and the founder homozygous mutation p.Arg168His may be responsible for the clinical presentation of the two CMSUD patients, facilitating the future genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis.

  11. Apoptotic signaling pathways induced by acute administration of branched-chain amino acids in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Thais C; Scaini, Giselli; Furlanetto, Camila B; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Santos, João Paulo A; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-02-01

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids. The affected patients present severe neurological symptoms, such as coma and seizures, as well as edema and cerebral atrophy. Considering that the mechanisms of the neurological symptoms presented by MSUD patients are still poorly understood, in this study, protein levels of apoptotic factors are measured, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, caspase-3 and -8 in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats submitted to acute administration of branched-chain amino acids during their development. The results in this study demonstrated that BCAA acute exposure during the early postnatal period did not significantly change Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax and caspase-8 protein levels. However, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and procaspase-3 protein levels were decreased in hippocampus. On the other hand, acute administration of BCAA in 30-day-old rats increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio followed by an increased caspase-3 activity in cerebral cortex, whereas BCAA induces apoptosis in hippocampus through activation and cleavage of caspase-3 and -8 without changing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In conclusion, the results suggest that apoptosis could be of pivotal importance in the developmental neurotoxic effects of BCAA. In addition, the current studies also suggest that multiple mechanisms may be involved in BCAA-induced apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

  12. Eleven novel mutations of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes associated with maple syrup urine disease in the Chinese population: Report on eight cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Ding, Yuan; Liu, Yupeng; Ma, Yanyan; Song, Jinqing; Wang, Qiao; Li, Mengqiu; Qin, Yaping; Yang, Yanling

    2015-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the degradation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). Only a few cases of MSUD have been documented in Mainland China, and prenatal diagnosis has not been performed so far. In this report, 8 patients (4 girls and 4 boys) with MSUD from 8 unrelated Chinese families were diagnosed at the age of 9 days to 1 year and 8 months. The diagnosis was confirmed by serum BCAAs and genetic analyses. Among the 8 patients, only one was detected by newborn screening. The remaining 7 patients were admitted because of neurological disorders and underwent selective screening. Significantly elevated BCAAs were observed in 7 patients. One patient was diagnosed by post-mortem study. 12 mutations were found in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes. 11 of these mutations were novel: c.178G > T, c.491T > C, c.740A > G, c.1214_1219dupCCAACC and IVS6+1delG in BCKDHA; c.482T > G, c.508C > T, c.767A > G, c.768C > G and IVS4,-2A > C in BCKDHB; and c.1A > G in DBT. Only one mutation, c.659C > T in the BCKDHA gene, had been previously reported. 7 patients were treated by dietary intervention and symptomatic therapy. 6 of them showed clinical improvement. The mother of one patient who died from MSUD underwent amniocentesis during her second pregnancy. The BCAAs level in her amniotic fluid was normal. Only one heterozygous mutation, IVS4,-2A > C in the BCKDHB gene, was detected in the cultured amniocytes. The results revealed that the fetus was not affected by MSUD. Normal development and the blood BCAAs profile confirmed the prenatal diagnosis after birth. Thus, we identified eleven novel mutations associated with MSUD in the Chinese population. Prenatal diagnosis of MSUD was successfully performed on one fetus by genetic analysis of the cultured amniocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A Whole-Cell Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on a Leucine Auxotroph of Escherichia coli Displaying a Gold-Binding Protein: Usefulness for Diagnosis of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Min-Ah; Park, Jung Hun; Cho, Daeyeon; Sim, Sang Jun; Kim, Moon Il; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2016-03-01

    We developed a whole-cell surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on a leucine auxotroph of Escherichia coli displaying a gold-binding protein (GBP) in response to cell growth and applied this sensor to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease, which is represented by the elevated leucine level in blood. The leucine auxotroph was genetically engineered to grow displaying GBP in a proportion to the concentration of target amino acid leucine. The GBP expressed on the surface of the auxotrophs directly bound to the golden surface of an SPR chip without the need for any additional treatment or reagents, which consequently produced SPR signals used to determine leucine levels in a test sample. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were further applied to the SPR system, which significantly enhanced the signal intensity up to 10-fold by specifically binding to GBP expressed on the cell surface. Finally, the diagnostic utility of our system was demonstrated by its employment in reliably determining different statuses of maple syrup urine disease based on a known cutoff level of leucine. This new approach based on an amino acid-auxotrophic E. coli strain expressing a GBP that binds to an SPR sensor holds great promise for detection of other metabolic diseases of newborn babies including homocystinuria and phenylketonuria, which are also associated with abnormal levels of amino acids.

  14. Maple Syrup Disease: Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants at high risk for maple syrup disease (MSD were identified by family history and molecular testing for the Y393N mutation of the E1a subunit of the branched chain a-ketoacid dehydrogenase in a study at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

  15. Correlation between dried blood spot thin layer chromatography and plasma high performance liquid chromatography of leucine/isoleucine levels among Filipino patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) seen at the Institute of Human Genetics, National Institutes of Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Chiong, Mary Anne D.; Rana, Michelle D.; Rama, Kahlil Izza D.; David-Padilla, Carmencita; Cavan, Barbra Charina; Cordero, Cynthia P.

    2008-01-01

    Management of patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) includes a low protein diet, supplemented with special formulas and constant monitoring of branched chain amino acids (BCAA). The gold standard for monitoring BCAA is plasma amino acid analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In a developing country like the Philippines, however, the cost of this test is prohibitive to the majority of the patients. In our center, dried blood spot leucine/isoleucine (leu/ile) levels analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is often used to diagnose and monitor these patients. This study was done to determine the correlation of leu/ile levels using the two methods (TLC and HPLC). A total of 46 MSUD patients were referred to the Biochemical Genetics Laboratory of the Institute of Human Genetics (IHG) from July 2001 to January 2004. Thirty five samples were obtained from 18 of these patients (some patients were seen at IHG more than once), and paired determinations of plasma amino acid using TLC and HPLC were made. The remaining samples were either hemolyzed or were not analyzed. The correlation coefficient [rho denoted as ρ] was estimated at a 95% confidence level using the Fisher's Z transformation. Of the 18 patients, 12 were males. The youngest was 1 day old and the oldest was 5 years old. The majority had the classical type of MSUD and dietary protein was restricted to between 0.6 gram/kg/day to 1 gram/kg/day of natural protein. Using the first pairs of observation for these 18 patients, the correlation coefficient was 0.76 (95% C1:0.462 to 0.907). This suggest a strong correlation between the two methods. It is recommended that further studies be done to determine the potential of the dried blood spot leu/ile level by TLC as an alternative method that can be used in the diagnosis and monitoring of MSUD patients especially in a developing country. (Author)

  16. Cerebral Oedema, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and the Decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus are Prevented by Dexamethasone in an Animal Model of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luciana; Galant, Leticia S; Dall'Igna, Dhébora M; Kolling, Janaina; Siebert, Cassiana; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Wyse, Angela T S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-08-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder associated with acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This condition has been shown to lead to macroscopic cerebral alterations that are visible on imaging studies. Cerebral oedema is widely considered to be detrimental for MSUD patients; however, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) causes cerebral oedema, modifies the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, affects the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and alters the levels of cytokines in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-day-old rats. Additionally, we investigated the influence of concomitant administration of dexamethasone on the alterations caused by BCAA. Our results showed that the animals submitted to the model of MSUD exhibited an increase in the brain water content, both in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus. By investigating the mechanism of cerebral oedema, we discovered an association between H-BCAA and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the permeability of the BBB to small molecules. Moreover, the H-BCAA administration increases Il-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, whereas IL-10 levels were decreased in the hippocampus. Interestingly, we showed that the administration of dexamethasone successfully reduced cerebral oedema, preventing the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, BBB breakdown and the increase in the cytokines levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dexamethasone can improve the acute cerebral oedema and brain injury associated with high levels of BCAA, either through a direct effect on brain capillary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase or through a generalized effect on the permeability of the BBB to all compounds.

  17. Maple syrup urine disease: The E1{beta} gene of human branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex has 11 rather than 10 exons, and the 3{prime} UTR in one of the two E1{beta} mRNAs arises from intronic sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, J.L.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) or branched-chain ketoaciduria is caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. The clinical manifestations are characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino and {alpha}-ketoacids, which leads to severe cerebral edema with seizures, ketoacidosis, and mental retardation. The BCKAD complex comprises three catalytic components, i.e., a decarboxylase (E1) consisting of two E1{alpha} (M{sub r} = 46,000) and two E1{Beta} (M{sub r} = 37,500) subunits, a transacylase (E2) that contains 24 lipoic acid-bearing subunits, and a dehydrogenase (E3), which is a homodimeric flavoprotein. MSUD is genetically heterogeneous, since mutations in the E1{alpha} subunit (type IA MSUD), the E1{Beta} subunit (type IB), the E2 subunit (type II) and the E3 subunit (type III) have been described. The functional consequences of certain mutations in the BCKAD complex have been studied. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and bioequivalence of the tablet and syrup formulations of lacosamide in plasma, saliva, and urine: saliva as a surrogate of pharmacokinetics in the central compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawello, Willi; Bökens, Hilmar; Nickel, Brunhild; Andreas, Jens-Otto; Halabi, Atef

    2013-01-01

    To test for bioequivalence of 200 mg lacosamide oral tablet and syrup formulations. Additional objectives were to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of lacosamide in saliva and plasma, and to evaluate its tolerability. This open-label, randomized, two-way crossover trial was conducted in 16 healthy Caucasian male participants in Germany. The bioequivalence of 200 mg lacosamide tablet and syrup was evaluated using plasma to determine maximum measured concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve from zero to the last time point (AUC)(0-tz). Plasma and saliva samples for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of lacosamide and the major metabolite O-desmethyl lacosamide (SPM 12809) were taken over 15 time points (0.5-72 h) and used to statistically compare bioavailability of the two. Urine samples were collected predose and over five time points (0-48 h) to evaluate the cumulative amount of unchanged drug and metabolite. Lacosamide median time to reach C(max) (t(max)) was 1 h for tablet and 0.5 h for syrup in plasma and saliva. Mean terminal half life (t(½)) for tablet and syrup was 12.5 and 12.4 h in plasma, and 13.1 and 13.3 h in saliva, respectively. Tablet and syrup mean plasma AUC(0-tz) was 84.5 and 83.3 μg/mL*h, respectively. Mean AUC(0-tz) in saliva was 93.2 μg/mL*h for tablet and syrup. Mean C(max) for tablet was 5.26 μg/mL in plasma and 5.63 μg/mL in saliva. Syrup mean C(max) was 5.14 and 8.32 μg/mL in plasma and saliva, respectively. Within 2 h of syrup administration, elevated lacosamide concentration in saliva compared to plasma was observed. The ratio of lacosamide syrup to tablet was 0.98 for C(max) and 0.99 for AUC(0-tz) in plasma, and 1.00 for AUC((0-tz)) in saliva; the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for these parameters were within the range of 0.80-1.25, which meets accepted bioequivalence criteria. The syrup-to-tablet ratio for C(max) in saliva was 1.48, and the 90% CIs exceeded the accepted upper boundary for bioequivalence (1

  19. Urine Anion Gap to Predict Urine Ammonium and Related Outcomes in Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kalani L; Gilligan, Sarah; Ix, Joachim H

    2018-02-07

    Low urine ammonium excretion is associated with ESRD in CKD. Few laboratories measure urine ammonium, limiting clinical application. We determined correlations between urine ammonium, the standard urine anion gap, and a modified urine anion gap that includes sulfate and phosphate and compared risks of ESRD or death between these ammonium estimates and directly measured ammonium. We measured ammonium, sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, and sulfate from baseline 24-hour urine collections in 1044 African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension participants. We evaluated the cross-sectional correlations between urine ammonium, the standard urine anion gap (sodium + potassium - chloride), and a modified urine anion gap that includes urine phosphate and sulfate in the calculation. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models determined the associations of the standard urine anion gap and the modified urine anion gap with the composite end point of death or ESRD; these results were compared with results using urine ammonium as the predictor of interest. The standard urine anion gap had a weak and direct correlation with urine ammonium ( r =0.18), whereas the modified urine anion gap had a modest inverse relationship with urine ammonium ( r =-0.58). Compared with the highest tertile of urine ammonium, those in the lowest urine ammonium tertile had higher risk of ESRD or death (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.87) after adjusting for demographics, GFR, proteinuria, and other confounders. In comparison, participants in the corresponding standard urine anion gap tertile did not have higher risk of ESRD or death (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 1.07), whereas the risk for those in the corresponding modified urine anion gap tertile (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.68) approximated that of directly measured urine ammonium. Urine anion gap is a poor surrogate of urine ammonium in CKD unless phosphate and

  20. SYRUP AND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICD-UGL

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... turn used in combination with varying proportions of water, sugar, and caramel for the formulation of six(6) ... and individual variation, contains, among other nutrients, about 5-20% free sugars made up of glucose, fructose, and ..... Table 2: Composition of syrup prepared from sap of R. hookeri collected from.

  1. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD detected in neurologic disorders Iraqi children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Kareem

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion In the absence of newborn screening, MSUD is not uncommon in neurologically disorder patients where MSUD was still diagnosed clinically, but delayed. The importance of clinical awareness and accurate biochemical analysis were the key tools for diagnosis and the necessity for a comprehensive national newborn screening program.

  2. Different Gene Preferences of Maple Syrup Urine Disease in the Aboriginal Tribes of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Woei Hou

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the Taiwanese Austronesian Aboriginal tribes are considered to share a common origin, different gene preferences of MSUD were noted. The novel DBT mutation c.650-651insT was more prevalent than the deleted 4.7-kb heterozygote in the Amis population. The reported 4.7-kb deletion indicating a possible founder mutation may be preserved in the southern and eastern, but not in northern Aboriginal tribes of Taiwan.

  3. A dose-response of consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

  4. Urine Glycoprotein Profile Reveals Novel Markers for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a significant public health problem, and progression to end-stage renal disease leads to dramatic increases in morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying progression of disease are poorly defined, and current noninvasive markers incompletely correlate with disease progression. Therefore, there is a great need for discovering novel markers for CKD. We utilized a glycoproteomic profiling approach to test the hypothesis that the urinary glycoproteome profile from subjects with CKD would be distinct from healthy controls. N-linked glycoproteins were isolated and enriched from the urine of healthy controls and subjects with CKD. This strategy identified several differentially expressed proteins in CKD, including a diverse array of proteins with endopeptidase inhibitor activity, protein binding functions, and acute-phase/immune-stress response activity supporting the proposal that inflammation may play a central role in CKD. Additionally, several of these proteins have been previously linked to kidney disease implicating a mechanistic role in disease pathogenesis. Collectively, our observations suggest that the human urinary glycoproteome may serve as a discovery source for novel mechanism-based biomarkers of CKD.

  5. Cysteinyl leukotrienes in the urine of patients with liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, M; Buchholz, U; Kojima, H; Keppler, A; Hafkemeyer, P; Fukui, H; Tsujii, T; Keppler, D

    1994-10-01

    The significance of cysteinyl leukotrienes was investigated in patients with liver diseases by measurements of leukotriene E4 and N-acetyl-leukotriene E4 in urine. A marked increase of renal cysteinyl leukotriene excretion was observed in patients with cirrhosis without and with ascites, intrahepatic cholestasis, and obstructive jaundice as compared with healthy subjects (leukotriene E4: means 82, 264, 221 and 142 versus 40 nmol/mol creatinine, respectively; N-acetyl-leukotriene E4: means 25, 64, 61 and 47 versus 13 nmol/mol creatinine, respectively). The urinary concentration of leukotriene E4 was positively correlated with the one of N-acetyl-leukotriene E4 (r = 0.81, p jaundice, the excretion of leukotriene E4 plus N-acetyl-leukotriene E4 was positively correlated with total serum bilirubin. In patients with cirrhosis and in those with obstructive jaundice, the cysteinyl leukotrienes in urine were negatively correlated with creatinine clearance. The elevated renal excretion of cysteinyl leukotrienes decreased after biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice. These data support the concept that increased urinary excretion of cysteinyl leukotrienes in patients with cirrhosis is due to a reduced functional liver mass and that in patients with cholestasis it is mainly due to an impaired elimination into the biliary tract that results in a diversion to renal excretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Fructose, high fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and non-alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), formerly called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is characterized by hepatic steatosis and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in liver cells. Its etiology, pathophysiology, and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Some have suggested that the increased in...

  7. The Use of Levocetirizine (L-Cet Syrup in Children with Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the application of antihistamines in allergic diseases in children. In particular, attention is paid to the L-enantiomer of cetirizine, a selective H1 receptor antagonist levocetirizine. A review of recent literature data on the efficacy and safety of this drug is presented.

  8. A case of classical maple syrup urine disease that was successfully managed by living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Chika; Ishige, Mika; Ogawa, Erika; Usui, Hiromi; Kagawa, Reiko; Tajima, Go; Fujiki, Ryoji; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Shori

    2017-08-01

    Classical MSUD is often fatal without appropriate medical interventions because of metabolic crisis. There are numerous reports suggesting the therapeutic potential of deceased donor liver transplantation for MSUD. However, the usefulness of LDLT for MSUD is unknown. We report a case of classical MSUD, which was successfully managed by LDLT from the patient's father at 1 year of age. Abnormal brain findings, which were cured with effective treatment, gradually disappeared after LDLT. The patient then developed normally. Findings from this case suggest the importance of LDLT for maintaining low leucine levels and subsequent normal neurological development. Although LDLT involves a modest surgical insult, LDLT with a related donor achieves acceptable leucine levels for life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Determination of gluten in glucose syrups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, P.; Gabrovská, D.; Rysová, J.; Mena, M. C.; Hernando, A.; Méndez, E.; Chmelík, Josef; Šalplachta, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7-8 (2009), s. 762-765 ISSN 0889-1575 R&D Projects: GA MZe 1B53002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : glucose syrup * gluten determination * celiac disease Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.423, year: 2009

  10. A brief review of Rhazes, Avicenna, and Jorjani's views on diagnosis of diseases through urine examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Mohsen; Haghverdi, Farshid; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed

    2014-07-01

    The present survey aims at studying the opinions of three famous medical scholars in history (Rhazes, Avicinna, and Jorjani) on the diagnosis of diseases via urine examination and their compatiblity with modern science. Refering to original authentic sources in traditional medicine, including Al-Hawi (The Virtuous Life), Zakhireh-i Kharazmshahi (Thesaurus of the Shah of Khwarazm), and Al-Canon fi al Tibb (The Canon on Medicine), we compared the ideas of the authors with modern medicine. In traditional medicine, physicians would pay attention to the methods of urine collection and urinary features such as color, consistency, volume, frequency, odor, and foam as the means of diagnosis, all of which still serve as the bases for today's diagnostic approach. Moreover, symptoms of the diagnosis of the disease through urine are consistent in tradition and modern medicine; some examples are blood in the urine (hematuria), decreased urine output (oliguria), change in urine color together with headache (Alport syndrome), diluted urine (tubular dysfunction in reabsorption of water or initial polydipsy), and urinary floor with tiny bubbles (one of the main symptoms of proteinuria).

  11. Urine β 2-Microglobolin in the Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to evaluate the renal tubular function in the patients with congenital heart disease using β2-microglobulin. Methods: In this case-control study, based on oxymetry, the patients with congenital heart disease were divided into two groups of cyanotic (n=20 and acyanotic (n=20. Congenital heart disease was diagnosed by echocardiography. Healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. Na+, β2-micro globulin, creatinine (Cr, and β2-microglobulin/Cr ratio were measured in random urine samples and the results were compared to the same parameters in the control group using Tukey, One-Way ANOVA, and X2 tests. Results: Based on the study results, urine sodium in the patients with cyanotic heart disease was significantly different from that of the controls (P=0.023. The results also revealed a significant difference between the two groups with congenital heart disease regarding urine β2-microglobulin (P=0.045. In addition, the patients with cyanotic heart disease were significantly different from those with acyanotic heart disease and the controls regarding urine β2-micro globulin/Cr ratio (P=0.012 and P=0.026, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that renal tubular dysfunction began in the patients with congenital heart disease, especially in those with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Besides, early diagnosis before cardiac surgery leads to better control of renal tubular disease.

  12. 24-hour urine protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein - 24 hour; Chronic kidney disease - urine protein; Kidney failure - urine protein ... Heart failure High blood pressure during pregnancy ( preeclampsia ) Kidney disease caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, autoimmune disorders, ...

  13. Consumer Preference for Graded Maple Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Sendak

    1978-01-01

    The three grades of maple syrup and a commercial table syrup containing artificial flavor and 3 percent pure maple syrup were evaluated by 1,018 women in four cities. The results indicate that differences in preference for flavor are related to how close the respondents are to a maple syrup-production region. Differences in preference among grades of pure maple syrup...

  14. Prions in the Urine of Patients with Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Notari, Silvio; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Catania, Marcella; Park, Kyung-Won; Maderna, Emanuela; Suardi, Silvia; Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Ironside, James; Knight, Richard; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Soto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prions, the infectious agents responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, consist mainly of the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). The unique mechanism of transmission and the appearance of a variant form of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, which has been linked to consumption of prion-contaminated cattle meat, have raised concerns about public health. Evidence suggests that variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease prions circulate in body fluids from people in whom the disease is silently incubating. METHODS To investigate whether PrPSc can be detected in the urine of patients with variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, we used the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique to amplify minute quantities of PrPSc, enabling highly sensitive detection of the protein. We analyzed urine samples from several patients with various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (variant and sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and genetic forms of prion disease), patients with other degenerative or nondegenerative neurologic disorders, and healthy persons. RESULTS PrPSc was detectable only in the urine of patients with variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and had the typical electrophoretic profile associated with this disease. PrPSc was detected in 13 of 14 urine samples obtained from patients with variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and in none of the 224 urine samples obtained from patients with other neurologic diseases and from healthy controls, resulting in an estimated sensitivity of 92.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.1 to 99.8) and a specificity of 100.0% (95% CI, 98.4 to 100.0). The PrPSc concentration in urine calculated by means of quantitative PMCA was estimated at 1×10−16 g per milliliter, or 3×10−21 mol per milliliter, which extrapolates to approximately 40 to 100 oligomeric particles of PrPSc per milliliter of urine. CONCLUSIONS Urine samples obtained from patients with variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease contained minute

  15. Prions in the urine of patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Notari, Silvio; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Catania, Marcella; Park, Kyung-Won; Maderna, Emanuela; Suardi, Silvia; Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Ironside, James; Knight, Richard; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Soto, Claudio

    2014-08-07

    Prions, the infectious agents responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, consist mainly of the misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)). The unique mechanism of transmission and the appearance of a variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, which has been linked to consumption of prion-contaminated cattle meat, have raised concerns about public health. Evidence suggests that variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions circulate in body fluids from people in whom the disease is silently incubating. To investigate whether PrP(Sc) can be detected in the urine of patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, we used the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique to amplify minute quantities of PrP(Sc), enabling highly sensitive detection of the protein. We analyzed urine samples from several patients with various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (variant and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and genetic forms of prion disease), patients with other degenerative or nondegenerative neurologic disorders, and healthy persons. PrP(Sc) was detectable only in the urine of patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and had the typical electrophoretic profile associated with this disease. PrP(Sc) was detected in 13 of 14 urine samples obtained from patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in none of the 224 urine samples obtained from patients with other neurologic diseases and from healthy controls, resulting in an estimated sensitivity of 92.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.1 to 99.8) and a specificity of 100.0% (95% CI, 98.4 to 100.0). The PrP(Sc) concentration in urine calculated by means of quantitative PMCA was estimated at 1×10(-16) g per milliliter, or 3×10(-21) mol per milliliter, which extrapolates to approximately 40 to 100 oligomeric particles of PrP(Sc) per milliliter of urine. Urine samples obtained from patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease contained minute quantities of PrP(Sc). (Funded by the

  16. The content of chemical elements in the urine of neonatal infants in health and perinatal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kushnareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urine content of heavy metals was examined in 113 newborns aged 7 to 15 days, living in Moscow and the Moscow region. Ten infants were healthy; 103 babies had perinatal infectious and non-infectious diseases. Uranium, gallium and zirconium were not detected in any urine sample. Arsenic, lead, cobalt, bismuth, antimony, indium, and molybdenum were absent in the urine of healthy newborns, but could be present in various abnormalities (tracheobronchitis, pneumonia, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation, conjugated jaundice, systemic edema syndrome, hemorrhagic syndrome, aspiration syndrome, respiratory distress syndrome. The concentration of chemical elements in the urine of infants with different diseases increased by 5—698% compared to the upper limit of normal and the rate of their concentration increase was encountered in 11-100% of the patients. The greatest changes in the composition and concentration of chemical elements occurred in pneumonia, congenital malformations, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The typical spectrum of elements was noted in each disease. Nickel, cadmium, molybdenum, lead, and tin were most common (in 25% to 71% of the newborns, antimony was least common (in 13% to 17%. Chromium, titanium, barium, silicon, copper, aluminum, boron, and silver were also more often present in the urine of the sick babies than in that of the healthy ones. 

  17. Serum and urine metabolomic fingerprinting in diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Deja, Stanisław; Mulak, Agata; Ząbek, Adam; Jawień, Ewa; Pawełka, Dorota; Banasik, Mirosław; Mastalerz-Migas, Agnieszka; Balcerzak, Waldemar; Kaliszewski, Krzysztof; Skóra, Jan; Barć, Piotr; Korta, Krzysztof; Pormańczuk, Kornel; Szyber, Przemyslaw; Litarski, Adam; Młynarz, Piotr

    2014-01-07

    To evaluate the utility of serum and urine metabolomic analysis in diagnosing and monitoring of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Serum and urine samples were collected from 24 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 19 patients with the Crohn's disease (CD) and 17 healthy controls. The activity of UC was assessed with the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index, while the activity of CD was determined using the Harvey-Bradshaw Index. The analysis of serum and urine samples was performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All spectra were exported to Matlab for preprocessing which resulted in two data matrixes for serum and urine. Prior to the chemometric analysis, both data sets were unit variance scaled. The differences in metabolite fingerprints were assessed using partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curves were used to evaluate the quality and prediction performance of the obtained PLS-DA models. Metabolites responsible for separation in models were tested using STATISTICA 10 with the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test and the Student's t test (α = 0.05). The comparison between the group of patients with active IBD and the group with IBD in remission provided good PLS-DA models (P value 0.002 for serum and 0.003 for urine). The metabolites that allowed to distinguish these groups were: N-acetylated compounds and phenylalanine (up-regulated in serum), low-density lipoproteins and very low-density lipoproteins (decreased in serum) as well as glycine (increased in urine) and acetoacetate (decreased in urine). The significant differences in metabolomic profiles were also found between the group of patients with active IBD and healthy control subjects providing the PLS-DA models with a very good separation (P value analysis of serum and urine samples, although one metabolite (formate) in univariate statistical analysis was significantly lower in serum of patients with active

  18. The concept of the urine test and specific reaction of the urine in various diseases according to Enrico Cauchi - member of the medical council of Malta (1933).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Visconti, Luca; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Savica, Vincenzo; Santoro, Domenico; Buemi, Michele; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The Study of urine from the outset has always aroused the interest of scientists and physicians all over the world, from ancient Greeks and Romans to Hindus , Hulcos in Mexico, Australian native etc. The urine in such case was considered not only as a waste product but also as a therapeutic product. In the late XIX century scientific knowledge had already identified the function of substances that favor the increase of urinary output, and physicians over the centuries have always tried to analyze urine in various ways. In Cauchis work in 1933 all chemistry and pathophysiological knowledge of the time was condensed. Cauchi signed the preface as Member of the medical council of Malta. He was a medical doctor of the early20thcentury, He wrote about the physiopathology of urine ranging from chemical and physical behavior, to the analysis of sediments and the special reactions of the urine in various pathologies. In particular Cauchi emphasizes the main diseases of the time combines the behavior of the reaction of urine as a diagnostic and prognostic instrument, stressing the importance of the urine test and describing the method used for analysis at the time. The analyses of the text in the issue seems to belong to archaic medicine, and it is difficult to think today, that what was presented as very up-to-date- science at that time, took place only 80 years ago. Reading the full original text with today experience we are led to consider the increasing importance that scientific community gave in the past, and still gives to urine test.

  19. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  20. Spot urine sodium measurements do not accurately estimate dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougher, Carly E; Rifkin, Dena E; Anderson, Cheryl AM; Smits, Gerard; Persky, Martha S; Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium intake influences blood pressure and proteinuria, yet the impact on long-term outcomes is uncertain in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Accurate assessment is essential for clinical and public policy recommendations, but few large-scale studies use 24-h urine collections. Recent studies that used spot urine sodium and associated estimating equations suggest that they may provide a suitable alternative, but their accuracy in patients with CKD is unknown. Objective: We compared the accuracy of 4 equations [the Nerbass, INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure), Tanaka, and Kawasaki equations] that use spot urine sodium to estimate 24-h sodium excretion in patients with moderate to advanced CKD. Design: We evaluated the accuracy of spot urine sodium to predict mean 24-h urine sodium excretion over 9 mo in 129 participants with stage 3–4 CKD. Spot morning urine sodium was used in 4 estimating equations. Bias, precision, and accuracy were assessed and compared across each equation. Results: The mean age of the participants was 67 y, 52% were female, and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 31 ± 9 mL · min–1 · 1.73 m–2. The mean ± SD number of 24-h urine collections was 3.5 ± 0.8/participant, and the mean 24-h sodium excretion was 168.2 ± 67.5 mmol/d. Although the Tanaka equation demonstrated the least bias (mean: −8.2 mmol/d), all 4 equations had poor precision and accuracy. The INTERSALT equation demonstrated the highest accuracy but derived an estimate only within 30% of mean measured sodium excretion in only 57% of observations. Bland-Altman plots revealed systematic bias with the Nerbass, INTERSALT, and Tanaka equations, underestimating sodium excretion when intake was high. Conclusion: These findings do not support the use of spot urine specimens to estimate dietary sodium intake in patients with CKD and research studies enriched with patients with CKD. The parent data for this

  1. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Learn to Use Urine Alarms and Prompts to Avoid Large Urinary Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; Zonno, Nadia; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers' prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to…

  2. Urine RAS components in mice and people with type 1 diabetes and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Jan; Goodling, Anne; Burgaya, Mar; Whitlock, Kathryn; Ruzinski, John; Batlle, Daniel; Afkarian, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    The pathways implicated in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are largely derived from animal models. To examine if alterations in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in humans are concordant with those in rodent models, we measured concentration of angiotensinogen (AOG), cathepsin D (CTSD), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and ACE2 and enzymatic activities of ACE, ACE2, and aminopeptidase-A in FVB mice 13-20 wk after treatment with streptozotocin ( n = 9) or vehicle ( n = 15) and people with long-standing type 1 diabetes, with ( n = 37) or without ( n = 81) DKD. In streptozotocin-treated mice, urine AOG and CTSD were 10.4- and 3.0-fold higher than in controls, respectively ( P animals ( P animals ( P = 0.017). Compared with people without DKD, those with DKD had higher urine AOG (170 vs. 15 μg/g) and CTSD (147 vs. 31 μg/g). In people with DKD, urine ACE concentration was 1.8-fold higher (1.4 vs. 0.8 μg/g in those without DKD), while its enzymatic activity was 0.6-fold lower (1.0 vs. 1.6 × 10 9 RFU/g in those without DKD). Lower ACE activity, but not ACE protein concentration, was associated with ACE inhibitor (ACEI) treatment. After adjustment for clinical covariates, AOG, CTSD, ACE concentration, and ACE activity remained associated with DKD. In conclusion, in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and in humans with DKD, urine concentrations and enzymatic activities of several RAS components are concordantly increased, consistent with enhanced RAS activity and greater angiotensin II formation. ACEI use was associated with a specific reduction in urine ACE activity, not ACE protein concentration, suggesting that it may be a marker of exposure to this widely-used therapy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown (“u”) cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples – from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) – contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. - Highlights: • Drinking water in rural Sri Lanka contains low levels of inorganic nephrotoxicants • Urinary nephrotoxicants are consistent with reference levels from

  4. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rango, Tewodros, E-mail: tg67@duke.edu [Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Jeuland, Marc [Sanford School of Public Policy and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Institute of Water Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter [International Water Management Institute, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown (“u”) cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples – from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) – contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. - Highlights: • Drinking water in rural Sri Lanka contains low levels of inorganic nephrotoxicants • Urinary nephrotoxicants are consistent with reference levels from

  5. Evaluation of urine biomarkers of kidney injury in polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Chirag R; Dahl, Neera K; Chapman, Arlene B; Bost, James E; Edelstein, Charles L; Comer, Diane M; Zeltner, Raoul; Tian, Xin; Grantham, Jared J; Somlo, Stefan

    2012-04-01

    Progressive disruption of renal tubular integrity in the setting of increased cellular proliferation and apoptosis is a feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Here we evaluated the effect of these processes on the expression of Lcn2 (NGAL) and interleukin (IL)-18, markers of tubular injury, in rodent models and in the cyst fluid and urine of patients with ADPKD. Two mouse models where Pkd2 was inactivated, which resulted in early- or adult-onset cysts, were used to evaluate NGAL levels. Further, the Han:SPRD rat model of polycystic disease was used to study IL-18 levels. In four annual serial urine samples collected from 107 patients with ADPKD in the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging for the Study of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) study, NGAL and IL-18 excretion rates were determined in conjunction with measures of total kidney volume and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Kidneys from affected mice and rats showed prominent expression of NGAL and IL-18/IL-18R, respectively, in epithelial cells lining kidney cysts. In human ADPKD cyst fluid, both NGAL and IL-18 were elevated. In CRISP patients, the mean percentage increase in total kidney volume was 5.4/year and the mean decline in eGFR 2.4 ml/min/year. The trend of increased mean urine NGAL and IL-18 over 3 years was statistically significant; however, there was no association between tertiles of IL-18 or quartiles of NGAL and change in total kidney volume or eGFR over this period. Thus, urinary NGAL and IL-18 excretion is mildly and stably elevated in ADPKD, but does not correlate with changes in total kidney volume or kidney function. This may be due, in part, to the lack of communication between individual cysts and the urinary collecting system in this disorder.

  6. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown ("u") cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples - from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) - contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spot Urine-guided Salt Reduction in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kiyotaka; Yanai, Akane; Ishibashi, Yoshitaka

    2017-09-01

    Dietary salt restriction is important in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to reduce hypertension, cardiovascular events, progression of CKD, and mortality. However, recommending salt reduction for patients is difficult without knowing their actual sodium intake. This study evaluated the effectiveness of spot urine-guided salt reduction in CKD outpatients. A prospective cohort study was used. This study included a total of 127 adult outpatients (aged 60 ± 18 years, 80 males) with CKD. Their baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 51.4 ± 25.1 (mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ), and 64 (50%) of them were with CKD stage 3a or 3b (both 32 [25%]). We informed the patients of their individual spot urine-estimated salt intake every time they visited the outpatient clinic. Based on the data, the nephrologist encouraged the patients to achieve their salt restriction goal. The primary outcome was the estimated salt excretion, and the secondary outcome was the urinary protein-to-Cr ratio (UPCR). Multiple regression analyses were performed to clarify the contributing factors of changes in both outcomes. Over a follow-up of 12 months, the median number of patients' visits was 7 (5-8). The estimated salt intake was significantly reduced from 7.98 ± 2.49 g/day to 6.77 ± 1.77 g/day (P intake, with borderline significance (P = .08). Providing spot urine-estimated salt intake feedback effectively motivated CKD patients to reduce their salt intake. Spot urine-guided salt reduction may slow CKD progression through decreased urinary protein excretion. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups are ... in the body; some more steroid medicines; important dosing considerations; and our research on steroids. Learn more ...

  9. TERT Promoter Mutations Occur Early in Urothelial Neoplasia and are Biomarkers of Early Disease and Disease Recurrence in Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, Isaac; Munari, Enrico; Faraj, Sheila F.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Schoenberg, Mark; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Allaf, Mohamad; Springer, Simeon; Wang, Yuxuan; Diaz, Luis A.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Netto, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations occur in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene in 66% of muscle-invasive urothelial carcinomas. To explore their role in bladder cancer development, and to assess their utility as urine markers for early detection, we sequenced the TERT promoter in 76 well-characterized papillary and flat noninvasive urothelial carcinomas, including 28 pTa low-grade (pTa LG) transitional cell carcinomas (TCC), 31 pTa high-grade (pTa HG) TCCs, and 17 pTis carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesions. We also evaluated the sequence of the TERT promoter in a separate series of 14 early bladder neoplasms and matched follow-up urine samples to determine if urine TERT status was an indicator of disease recurrence. A high rate of TERT promoter mutation was observed in both papillary and flat lesions, as well as in low- and high-grade noninvasive urothelial neoplasms (mean: 74%). Additionally, among patients whose tumors harbored TERT promoter mutations, the same mutations were present in follow-up urines in seven of eight patients that recurred but in none of 6 patients that did not recur (P <0.001). TERT promoter mutations occur in both papillary and flat lesions, are the most frequent genetic alterations identified to date in noninvasive precursor lesions of the bladder, are detectable in urine, and appear to be strongly associated with bladder cancer recurrence. These provocative results suggest that TERT promoter mutations may offer a useful urinary biomarker, for both early detection and monitoring of bladder neoplasia. PMID:24121487

  10. Alterations in urine, serum and brain metabolomic profiles exhibit sexual dimorphism during malaria disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shobhona

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic changes in the host in response to Plasmodium infection play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of malaria. Alterations in metabolism of male and female mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA are reported here. Methods 1H NMR spectra of urine, sera and brain extracts of these mice were analysed over disease progression using Principle Component Analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis. Results Analyses of overall changes in urinary profiles during disease progression demonstrate that females show a significant early post-infection shift in metabolism as compared to males. In contrast, serum profiles of female mice remain unaltered in the early infection stages; whereas that of the male mice changed. Brain metabolite profiles do not show global changes in the early stages of infection in either sex. By the late stages urine, serum and brain profiles of both sexes are severely affected. Analyses of individual metabolites show significant increase in lactate, alanine and lysine, kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid in sera of both males and females at this stage. Early changes in female urine are marked by an increase of ureidopropionate, lowering of carnitine and transient enhancement of asparagine and dimethylglycine. Several metabolites when analysed individually in sera and brain reveal significant changes in their levels in the early phase of infection mainly in female mice. Asparagine and dimethylglycine levels decrease and quinolinic acid increases early in sera of infected females. In brain extracts of females, an early rise in levels is also observed for lactate, alanine and glycerol, kynurenic acid, ureidopropionate and 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate. Conclusions These results suggest that P. berghei infection leads to impairment of glycolysis, lipid metabolism, metabolism of tryptophan and degradation of uracil. Characterization of early changes along these pathways may be crucial for

  11. Modeling Neurological Disease by Rapid Conversion of Human Urine Cells into Functional Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Zhen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells can be directly converted into functional neurons by ectopic expression of defined factors and/or microRNAs. Since the first report of conversion mouse embryonic fibroblasts into functional neurons, the postnatal mouse, and human fibroblasts, astroglia, hepatocytes, and pericyte-derived cells have been converted into functional dopaminergic and motor neurons both in vitro and in vivo. However, it is invasive to get all these materials. In the current study, we provide a noninvasive approach to obtain directly reprogrammed functional neurons by overexpression of the transcription factors Ascl1, Brn2, NeuroD, c-Myc, and Myt1l in human urine cells. These induced neuronal (iN cells could express multiple neuron-specific proteins and generate action potentials. Moreover, urine cells from Wilson’s disease (WD patient could also be directly converted into neurons. In conclusion, generation of iN cells from nonneural lineages is a feasible and befitting approach for neurological disease modeling.

  12. Human Urine Proteomics: Analytical Techniques and Clinical Applications in Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine has been in the center of attention among scientists of clinical proteomics in the past decade, because it is valuable source of proteins and peptides with a relative stable composition and easy to collect in large and repeated quantities with a noninvasive procedure. In this review, we discuss technical aspects of urinary proteomics in detail, including sample preparation, proteomic technologies, and their advantage and disadvantages. Several recent experiments are presented which applied urinary proteome for biomarker discovery in renal diseases including diabetic nephropathy, immunoglobulin A (IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, lupus nephritis, membranous nephropathy, and acute kidney injury. In addition, several available databases in urinary proteomics are also briefly introduced.

  13. The in vitro antioxidant activity of different types of palm dates (Phoenix dactylifera syrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Mamary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm date fruits have been used for nutritional and medicinal purposes in Middle Eastern countries. They are used in folk medicine for treatment of liver diseases and highly recommended to be consumed by pregnant women before and after delivery. Therefore, the present work aimed to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoids in three syrups obtained from palm dates extracted with aqueous ethanol (80% and to evaluate in vitro their antioxidative properties. The new findings showed that the three tested syrups contained significantly different amounts of both total phenolic content and total flavonoids. Syrups can be arranged according to the increase of total phenolic contents and total flavonoids as follows: Yemeni-Rotab > Saudi-Tamr > Iraqi-Tamr. The results of antioxidant activities of palm dates syrups obtained by using different in vitro methods were varied depending on the method used. According to the TBARS method, H2O2 scavenging ability and DPPH methods, all syrups showed to have high to very high antioxidant activities. On the other hand, syrups showed low to intermediate antioxidant activities when other methods were used, such as the scavenging ability of ·−OH and NO and the ability to chelate Fe2+ ions. Generally, the values of antioxidant activities of Rotab-syrup have been shown to be always the highest.

  14. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syrup) Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Street names: Candy, Drank, Robo Print Expand All ... commonly misused cough and cold medicines are: Cough syrups and capsules containing dextromethorphan (DXM). These OTC cough ...

  15. DELTA-5-ANDROSTENEDIOL AND ITS SULFATE IN SERUM AND URINE OF NORMAL ADULTS AND PATIENTS WITH ENDOCRINE DISEASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIKKESCHEI, LD; WILLEMSE, PHB; WOLTHERS, BG; DERUYTERBUITENHUIS, AW; NAGEL, GT

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We evaluated the role of delta-5-androstenediol (adiol) and its sulphates in health and endocrine diseases. DESIGN Serum and urine samples from healthy adult men and pre and post-menopausal women were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to establish reference values. In

  16. Estimation of daily protein intake based on spot urine urea nitrogen concentration in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Hiroko; Kanda, Eiichiro; Sato, Asako; Sakamoto, Kaori; Kanno, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5). After patient randomization into 2 datasets for the development and validation of models, bootstrapping was used to develop protein intake estimation models. The parameters for the candidate multivariate regression models were male gender, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin level, spot urinary UN and creatinine level, and spot urinary UN/creatinine levels. The final model contained BMI and spot urinary UN level. The final model was selected because of the higher correlation between the predicted and measured protein intakes r = 0.558 (95 % confidence interval 0.400, 0.683), and the smaller distribution of the difference between the measured and predicted protein intakes than those of the other models. The results suggest that UN concentration in spot urine may be used to estimate daily protein intake and that a prediction formula would be useful for nutritional control in CKD patients.

  17. Urine matrix metalloproteinases and their extracellular inducer EMMPRIN in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Kinga; Bargenda, Agnieszka; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2015-07-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)beta1 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an essential role in CKD-related tissue remodeling. However, there are no data on urine MMPs and their extracellular inducer EMMPRIN in CKD patients. The aim of study was to assess the concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 in serum and urine of CKD children and to analyze the potential relations between those parameters. Forty-one pre-dialysis CKD children and 23 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. The concentrations of analyzed parameters were assessed by ELISA. Serum and urine values of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 were significantly elevated in CKD patients versus controls. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in urine correlated significantly with the corresponding values in serum, whereas MMP-7, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 urine concentrations did not. There were also significant correlations between urine values of all parameters. The increased urine levels of MMPs, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 indicate enhanced proteolysis and renal tissue remodeling. In the case of MMP-7, EMMPRIN and TGFbeta1 those disturbances seem independent of enhanced serum activity of the corresponding enzymes. The urine MMP-7 and EMMPRIN concentrations may serve as new independent indices of tissue remodeling and renal interstitial fibrosis in children with CKD.

  18. Changes in plasma and urine globotriaosylceramide levels do not predict Fabry disease progression over 1 year of agalsidase alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Raphael; Ries, Markus; Blankenship, Derek; Nicholls, Kathy; Mehta, Atul; Clarke, Joe T R; Steiner, Robert D; Beck, Michael; Barshop, Bruce A; Rhead, William; West, Michael; Martin, Rick; Amato, David; Nair, Nitin; Huertas, Pedro

    2013-12-01

    Globotriaosylceramide concentrations were assessed as potential predictors of change from baseline after 12 months by estimated glomerular filtration rate and left-ventricular mass index using pooled data from three randomized, placebo-controlled agalsidase alfa trials and open-label extensions of patients with Fabry disease. Males (aged 18 years or older) with Fabry disease received agalsidase alfa (0.2 mg/kg every other week for 12 months). A backward-elimination approach evaluated potential predictors (baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and left-ventricular mass index; age at first dose; baseline and change from baseline at 12 months of globotriaosylceramide (urine, plasma); urine protein excretion; and systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Subgroups included patients randomized to placebo or agalsidase alfa (double-blind phase), then to agalsidase alfa (open-label extensions; placebo→agalsidase alfa or agalsidase alfa→agalsidase alfa, respectively) and stage 2/3 chronic kidney disease patients. Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, age at first dose, baseline urine globotriaosylceramide excretion, and baseline and change from baseline urine protein excretion significantly predicted change from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate in the analysis population (N = 73; all P<0.05), although not in all subgroups. Change from baseline urine and plasma globotriaosylceramide (baseline and change from baseline) concentrations did not predict change from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. No predictors of left-ventricular mass index were significant. Changes in globotriaosylceramide concentrations do not appear to be useful biomarkers for prediction of Fabry disease-related changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate or left-ventricular mass index.

  19. Urine Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine cytology Overview Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose ... bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine ( ...

  20. 21 CFR 520.452 - Clenbuterol syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clenbuterol syrup. 520.452 Section 520.452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.452 Clenbuterol syrup. (a...

  1. Analysis of pure maple syrup consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Sendak

    1974-01-01

    Virtually all of the pure maple syrup productim in the United States is in the northern states of Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Pure maple syrup users living in the maple production area and users living in other areas of the United States were asked a series of questions about their use of pure...

  2. Bacteriological and physicochemical evaluation of syrups produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological and physicochemical evaluation of syrups produced from local starch sources. ... The syrups were produced, using acid hydrolysis, from starches obtained from Colocasia esculenta, Zea mays and Manihot palmata. The viable bacterial count gave low counts of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus subtills ...

  3. Biomarkers of chronic kidney disease in the urine of diabetic/hypertensive patients by means of Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elzo Everton de Sousa; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martis; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and arterial hypertension (AH) are common diseases that, if untreated, predispose the patient to renal failure. This study aimed to evaluate possible biomarkers in the urine of patients with DM and AH capable to predict the chronic renal disease, by means of Raman spectroscopy. Urines were obtained from patients with DM and AH, and separated into four groups: no symptoms of diseases related to DM and AH (G1), with low clinical complications (G2), with severe clinical complications (G3), and with chronic kidney disease (G4) arised from DM and AH. It has been used a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830nm, 250mW, 20s accumulation). In the spectra of urine it was identified Raman peaks at 680cm-1 (creatinine), 1004cm-1 (urea) and 1128cm-1 (glucose). The results revealed that G2, G3 and G4 presented the creatinine peak with lower intensity than G1 (p kidney disease associated to DM and AH, particularly the renal failure.

  4. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  5. The significance of combined measurement of three kinds of protein in urine for Children with renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junguang; Zhang Xuefeng

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the clinical value of combined measurement of Alb, IgG and β 2 -MG in urine in early diagnosis and determining the involved area for children with renal disease, urinary Alb, IgG and β 2 -MG were measured by radioimmunoassay in 131 children with renal disease. The results showed that the levels of Alb, IgG and β 2 -MG in acute nephritis group and nephrotic syndrome group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P 2 -MG was significantly higher than that in the control and nephritis group (P 2 -MG in urine could be useful to reflect the renal damage in early stage and distinguish between glomerular and tubular damage

  6. Separation and Analysis of Lactosylceramide, Galabiosylceramide, and Globotriaosylceramide by LC-MS/MS in Urine of Fabry Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Michel; Menkovic, Iskren; Martineau, Tristan; Vaillancourt-Lavigueur, Vanessa; Toupin, Amanda; Auray-Blais, Christiane

    2017-12-19

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by α-galactosidase A (α-GAL A) deficiency. This enzyme contributes to the cellular recycling of glycosphingolipids such as galabiosylceramide (Ga 2 ), globotriaosylceramide (Gb 3 ), and globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb 3 ) by hydrolyzing the terminal α-galactosyl moiety. Urine and plasma α-GAL A substrates are currently analyzed as biomarkers for the detection, monitoring, and follow-up of Fabry disease patients. The sensitivity of the analysis of Ga 2 is decreased by the co-analysis of its structural isomer, lactosylceramide (LacCer), which is not an α-GAL A substrate. A normal-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) methodology, allowing the baseline separation of 12 Ga 2 isoforms/analogues from their lactosylceramide counterparts, was developed and validated in urine. The method was multiplexed with the analysis of 12 Gb 3 isoforms/analogues having the same fatty acid moieties as those of Ga 2 for comparison, and with creatinine for sample normalization. Urine samples were studied from 34 untreated and 33 Fabry males treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and 54 untreated and 19 ERT-treated Fabry females, along with 34 male and 25 female healthy controls. The chromatographic separation of Ga 2 from LacCer increased the sensitivity of analysis, especially in women. One untreated Fabry female and two treated Fabry females presented abnormal levels of Ga 2 but normal levels of Gb 3 , supporting the importance of analyzing Ga 2, in addition to Gb 3 . Our results show that urine LacCer levels from females were significantly higher than those from males. Moreover, LacCer levels were not affected by Fabry disease for both males and females.

  7. Underestimating chronic kidney disease by urine dipstick without serum creatinine as a screening tool in the general Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Daisuke; Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Tominaga, Naoto; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Asahi, Koichi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Iseki, Chiho; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Moriyama, Toshiki; Narita, Ichiei; Fujimoto, Shoichi; Konta, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masahide; Kasahara, Masato; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2015-06-01

    It is not known if urine dipstick alone can identify chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general Japanese population. We designed a cross-sectional study using data obtained in 2008 from a nationwide community-based health examination program for adults aged 40-74. The data consisted of blood tests, urine tests and questionnaire related to metabolic disorders. Those who had both serum creatinine measured and urine dipstick tested were analyzed. Data were obtained from 538,846 people with a mean age of 62.8 years, consisting of 41.6 % males. Our study showed that 14.4 % had an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), 5.2 % had proteinuria and 18.1 % had CKD. Within the population with CKD, non-proteinuric CKD accounted for 71.4 %. The proportion of non-proteinuric CKD was highest in stage G3a (91.8 %) followed by G3b (77.0 %) disease, and was greater in the more elderly and in females. The proportion of non-proteinuric CKD was 47.9 % in diabetes mellitus, 69.3 % in dyslipidemia, 66.8 % in hypertension and 57.1 % in metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, non-proteinuric CKD accounted for 78.1 % of the population without these lifestyle diseases, suggesting that even in the population without apparent risk, CKD is still prevalent and can be missed when urine dipstick is the only screening method used. This study showed that a considerable population of CKD might be overlooked when only dipstick proteinuria is assessed for CKD screening. Hence, we strongly recommend that both urinalysis and serum creatinine measurement should be a part of the nationwide CKD screening system.

  8. Quantification of free sialic acid in urine by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: A tool for the diagnosis of sialic acid storage disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valianpour, Fredoen; Abeling, Nicolaas G. G. M.; Duran, Marinus; Huijmans, Jan G. M.; Kulik, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sialic acid storage diseases (SSDs) are severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders caused by a transport defect across the lysosomal membrane, which leads to accumulation of sialic acid in tissues, fibroblasts, and urine. Defective free sialic acid transport can be

  9. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  10. Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng SiXian; Qiu TaiQiu; Xie XiongFei; Hu SongQing

    1998-01-01

    A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

  11. A cost analysis: processing maple syrup products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil K. Huyler; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    A cost analysis of processing maple sap to syrup for three fuel types, oil-, wood-, and LP gas-fired evaporators, indicates that: (1) fuel, capital, and labor are the major cost components of processing sap to syrup; (2) wood-fired evaporators show a slight cost advantage over oil- and LP gas-fired evaporators; however, as the cost of wood approaches $50 per cord, wood...

  12. Urination Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small masses of minerals) in the urinary tract. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common cause of painful urination. Signs and Symptoms burning or stinging with urination the urge to ...

  13. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  14. Comparison between urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and urine protein dipstick testing for prevalence and ability to predict the risk for chronic kidney disease in the general population (Iwate-KENCO study): a prospective community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Yorihiko; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Segawa, Toshie; Ohta, Mutsuko; Ohsawa, Masaki; Tanno, Kozo; Makita, Shinji; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Omama, Shin-Ichi; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Okayama, Akira; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2016-05-12

    This study compared the combination of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) vs. eGFR and urine protein reagent strip testing to determine chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence, and each method's ability to predict the risk for cardiovascular events in the general Japanese population. Baseline data including eGFR, UACR, and urine dipstick tests were obtained from the general population (n = 22 975). Dipstick test results (negative, trace, positive) were allocated to three levels of UACR (300), respectively. In accordance with Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes CKD prognosis heat mapping, the cohort was classified into four risk grades (green: grade 1; yellow: grade 2; orange: grade 3, red: grade 4) based on baseline eGFR and UACR levels or dipstick tests. During the mean follow-up period of 5.6 years, 708 new onset cardiovascular events were recorded. For CKD identified by eGFR and dipstick testing (dipstick test ≥ trace and eGFR urine dipstick testing, the predictive ability for cardiovascular events from UACR-based risk grading was superior to that of dipstick-based risk grading in the general population.

  15. Chronic stress and calcium oxalate stone disease: influence on blood cortisol and urine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoz-Fàbregas, Montserrat; Ibarz-Servio, Luis; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Valiente-Malmagro, Manuel; Roca-Antonio, Josep; Edo-Izquierdo, Sílvia; Buisan-Rueda, Oscar

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of chronic stress (CS) on urine composition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone patients and controls. This case-control study enrolled 128 patients during a period of 20 months. The cases were CaOx stone formers with a recent stone episode. Controls were matched by sex and age. Dimensions of CS were evaluated in cases and controls by validated self-report questionnaires measuring stressful life events, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, burnout, and satisfaction with life. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine cortisol levels and urinary composition. More relations between CS dimensions and blood and urine parameters were observed in cases than in controls. In cases, the blood cortisol level was related positively with the number of stressful life events (P = .03), intensity of these events (P = .04), and anxiety (P = .04). In addition, urinary magnesium (P = .03) and pyrophosphate (P = .05) levels were positively related with satisfaction with life and burnout, respectively. In contrast, urinary magnesium levels were negatively related with perceived stress (P = .01), anxiety (P = .016), and depression (P = .03). In controls, the number of stressful life events and the intensity of stressful life events was related positively with magnesium (P = .06, P = .02) levels and negatively with blood cortisol levels (P = .03, P = .004). Based on the variation between cases and controls in relations between CS dimensions and biochemical parameters, we hypothesize that CS may trigger a differential biological response in CaOx stone formers and controls, which in turn may promote or protect against CaOx stone formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Urine hemosiderin: a novel marker to assess the severity of chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Paolo; Izzo, Marcello; Fogato, Luisella; Carandina, Sergio; Lanzara, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    Impaired venous drainage in severe chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) leads to microcirculatory overload, characterized by erythrocyte diapedesis and subsequent extravascular hemolysis, resulting in typical dermal hemosiderin deposition. We hypothesized that hemosiderin, normally absent, could be present in the urine in CVI. The three-phase study included 117 patients with CVI and 12 healthy control subjects, all of whom had undergone clinical examination and duplex scanning. In phase 1, current methods were used to test urine for hemosiderin in 61 persons: 12 healthy control subjects, 24 patients with mild CVI (clinical class C1 to C3), and 25 patients with severe CVI (clinical class C4 to C6). In phase 2, the concentration of urinary hemosiderin was determined in 45 consecutive patients with CVI, CEAP class 1 to 6. A score of 0 was assigned when typical hemosiderin granules were absent at microscopic examination, a score of 1 when one to three granules per field were detected; 2 when four to six granules were detected; and 3 when more than six granules were observed. Phase 3 included 23 patients with CVI (clinical class 2 to 6). Hemosiderin concentration was determined and a score assigned before patients underwent surgical procedures to correct primary CVI. Both hemosiderin testing and duplex scanning were repeated after 6 months. Phase 1: Urine hemosiderin testing to determine presence or absence of CVI in patients with reflux detectable at duplex scanning yielded the following values: positive predictive value, 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86% to 100%); negative predictive value, 88% (CI, 68% to 97%); sensitivity, 94% (CI, 72% to 99%); specificity, 91% (CI, 83% to 99%); and diagnostic accuracy, 95% (CI, 86% to 99%). Phase 2: Hemosiderinuria score enabled classification of clinical severity of CVI. Mean scores, respectively, were clinical class 1, 0.18 +/- 0.12; class 2, 0.75 +/- 0.47; class 3, 1.67 +/- 0.21; class 4, 1.86 +/- 0.26; class 5, 2.50 +/- 0

  17. Evaluation of urine biomarkers of kidney injury in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Chirag R.; Dahl, Neera K.; Chapman, Arlene; Bost, James E.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Comer, Diane M.; Zeltner, Raoul; Tian, Xin; Grantham, Jared J.; Somlo, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Progressive disruption of renal tubular integrity in the setting of increased cellular proliferation and apoptosis is a feature of ADPKD. Here we evaluated the effect of these processes on the expression of NGAL and IL-18, markers of tubular injury, in rodent models and in the cyst fluid and urine of patients with ADPKD. Two mouse models where Pkd2 was inactivated which resulted in early or adult onset cysts, were used to evaluate NGAL levels. Further, the Han:SPRD rat model of polycystic dis...

  18. Comparison of urine and bladder or urethral mucosal biopsy culture obtained by transurethral cystoscopy in dogs with chronic lower urinary tract disease: 41 cases (2002 to 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycamore, K F; Poorbaugh, V R; Pullin, S S; Ward, C R

    2014-07-01

    To compare aerobic bacterial culture of urine to cystoscopically obtained mucosal biopsies of the lower urinary tract in dogs. Retrospective review of case records from dogs that had transurethral cystoscopy at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2002 and 2011. Dogs that had culture results from cystocentesis obtained urine and transurethral cystoscopically obtained mucosal samples were included in the study. Pathogens identified were compared between sampling methods. Forty dogs underwent transurethral cystoscopy for lower urinary tract disease on 41 occasions. There was significant (P = 0 · 0003) agreement between urine and mucosal biopsy cultures. Both cultures were negative in 66% and positive in 17% of dogs. There was a 17% disagreement between the sampling methods. Although not statistically significant, more mucosal samples than urine cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. There was a good agreement between pathogen identification from urine and lower urinary tract mucosal cultures. These results do not support the utilisation of transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsy samples for culture in dogs with urinary tract infection and positive urine culture. Individual cases with possible chronic urinary tract infection and negative urine culture may benefit from transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsies for culture. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malt syrup (malt extract). 184.1445 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1445 Malt syrup (malt extract). (a) Malt is the product of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germinated under controlled conditions. Malt syrup and malt extract...

  20. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the semi-frozen...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55 percent...

  2. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70 percent...

  3. Neonicotinoid concentrations in urine from chronic kidney disease patients in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Risako; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, Stmld; Harada, Kouji H; Chandrajith, Rohana; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Abeysekera, Tilak; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used around the world since the 1990s. Reports have been made since the 1990s of rice paddy farmers in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka suffering from chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu). A preliminary evaluation of the exposure of local farmers in the NCR of Sri Lanka to neonicotinoids was performed. We analyzed neonicotinoid and neonicotinoid metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples. We selected 40 samples, 10 from farmers with CKDu and 10 from controls from each of two areas, Medawachchiya and Girandurukotte. Imidacloprid and desmethyl-acetamiprid were found at significantly higher concentrations in the control samples (with medians of 51 ng/l and 340 ng/l, respectively) than in the CKDu samples (medians of 15 ng/l and 150 ng/l, respectively) when the results were not adjusted for the creatinine contents. None of the six compounds that were measured in the urine samples were found at significantly higher concentrations in the CKDu samples than in the control samples. None of the neonicotinoid concentrations in the samples analyzed in this study exceeded the concentrations that have been found in samples from the general population of Japan. Farmers (both with and without CKDu) living in CKDu-endemic areas in the NCR of Sri Lanka are exposed to lower neonicotinoid concentrations than non-occupationally exposed residents of Japan.

  4. Capillary Electrophoresis Hyphenated with Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Drugs in Clinical Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Maráková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Azathioprine is the main thiopurine drug used in the treatment of immune-based inflammations of gastrointestinal tract. For the purpose of therapy control and optimization, effective and reliable analytical methods for a rapid drug monitoring in biological fluids are essential. Here, we developed a separation method based on the capillary electrophoresis (CE hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of azathioprine and its selected metabolites (6-thioguanine, 6-mercaptopurine, and 6-methylmercaptopurine as well as other co-medicated drugs (mesalazine, prednisone, and allopurinol. The optimized CE-MS/MS conditions provided a very efficient and stable system for the separation and sensitive detection of these drugs in human urine matrices. The developed method was successfully applied for the assay of the targeted drugs and their selected metabolites in urine samples collected from patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and receiving azathioprine therapy. The developed CE-MS/MS method, due to its reliability, short analysis time, production of complex clinical profiles, and favorable performance parameters, evaluated according to FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation, is proposed for routine clinical laboratories to optimize thiopurine therapy, estimate enzymatic activity, and control patient compliance with medication and co-medication.

  5. Process quality planning of quality function deployment for carrot syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, Yurida; Noya, Sunday; Widjaja, Filemon

    2017-06-01

    Carrot products are rarely available in the market. Based on previous research that had been done using QFD to generate product design of carrots products, the research to produce the process quality planning had been carried out. The carrot product studied was carrot syrup. The research resulted in a process planning matrix for carrot syrup. The matrix gives information about critical process plan and the priority of the critical process plan. The critical process plan on the production process of carrot syrup consists of carrots sorting, carrots peeling, carrots washing, blanching process, carrots cutting, the making of pureed carrots, filtering carrot juice, the addition of sugar in carrot juice, the addition of food additives in carrot juice, syrup boiling, syrup filtering, syrup filling into the bottle, the bottle closure and cooling. The information will help the design of the production process of carrot syrup.

  6. Fructose and high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructose, a monosaccharide, is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and honey, usually accompanied by other sugars including glucose and the disaccharide sucrose. It is also found as a component of sweeteners used in many processed food products, usually as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HF...

  7. Effectiveness of lactulose syrup after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaaf, Marike; Vermeulen, Hester; Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Goossens, Astrid; Simons, Robert; Eijsman, Léon

    2004-01-01

    Dutch cardiac surgery centers lack consistency in management with respect to the prevention of postoperative constipation. Although not based on any evidence, the administration of lactulose syrup is widely used. Because it often causes intestinal discomfort such as abdominal pain, bowel cramps, and

  8. ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM URINE CULTURES AT THE GALAŢI INFECTIOUS DISEASES HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costinela Georgescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Frequent antibiotic prescriptions for urinary infections (UI promote the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. In order to identify effective antibiotics for the first line treatment of UI at the Galaţi Infectious Diseases Hospital, we performed a retrospective study based on disk diffusion antibiotic sensitivity testing on bacterial strains from urine cultures. Urine samples were collected from hospitalized patients admitted with symptomatic UI during 2010. In total, 659 records were found of certified bacteriological UI, of which 82% were caused by Enterobacteriacea. Escherichia coli isolates were the most commonly encountered species of Enterobacteriaceae (83%. The median age of the patients with urinary E. coli was 48 [3; 87], sex ratio M/F= 56/399 and 9.8% of patients were HIV positive. Using the Carmeli scoring system for antibiotic resistance risk, we found that 86% of the E. coli isolates were community acquired infections. High level of resistance was evident for Ampiciline at 85%, Neoxazole at 54,6%, TMP-SMX at 45,6% and AmoxiClavulanate at 40,2%. The best sensitivity was obtained with 3rd generation cephalosporins and carbapenemes. The incidence of ESBL-positive strains was 7.4% (34/421. No ESBLpositive strain was identified in community acquired UI (Carmeli score 1. In conclusion, it is strongly recommended that the first line of antibiotic therapy at the Galaţi Infectious Diseases Hospital should involve 3rd generation cephalosporins, while carbapenems should be reserved to patients with a Carmeli score of 2 or 3.

  9. Urine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Lupus Nephritis Disease Activity: Preliminary Report of a Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Alharazy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the urine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1 levels in patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN at various stages of renal disease activity and to compare them to current standard markers. Methods. Patients with LN—active or inactive—had their uMCP-1 levels and standard disease activity markers measured at baseline and 2 and 4 months. Urinary parameters, renal function test, serological markers, and renal SLE disease activity index-2K (renal SLEDAI-2K were analyzed to determine their associations with uMCP-1. Results. A hundred patients completed the study. At each visit, uMCP-1 levels (pg/mg creatinine were significantly higher in the active group especially with relapses and were significantly associated with proteinuria and renal SLEDAI-2K. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves showed that uMCP-1 was a potential biomarker for LN. Whereas multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only proteinuria and serum albumin and not uMCP-1 were independent predictors of LN activity. Conclusion. uMCP-1 was increased in active LN. Although uMCP-1 was not an independent predictor for LN activity, it could serve as an adjunctive marker when the clinical diagnosis of LN especially early relapse remains uncertain. Larger and longer studies are indicated.

  10. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  11. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from an infant, you may need extra collection bags. How the Test will Feel The test involves ... urine, it normally consists of mainly albumin. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  12. Urine Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... the rate at which the body uses energy ( metabolism ). After completing their actions, the catecholamines are broken ...

  13. Identification of patients with persistent trophoblastic disease after complete hydatidiform mole by using a normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromvoirt, S.M. van; Thomas, C.M.G.; Quinn, M.A.; McNally, O.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish a reference 24-hour urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curve in patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) as diagnostic tool in the prediction of persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). METHODS: From 2004 to 2011, 312 cases

  14. Detection of gluten immunogenic peptides in the urine of patients with coeliac disease reveals transgressions in the gluten-free diet and incomplete mucosal healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María de Lourdes; Cebolla, Ángel; Muñoz-Suano, Alba; Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; Comino, Isabel; Pizarro, Ángeles; León, Francisco; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Sousa, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only management for coeliac disease (CD). Available methods to assess GFD compliance are insufficiently sensitive to detect occasional dietary transgressions that may cause gut mucosal damage. We aimed to develop a method to determine gluten intake and monitor GFD compliance in patients with CD and to evaluate its correlation with mucosal damage. Urine samples of 76 healthy subjects and 58 patients with CD subjected to different gluten dietary conditions were collected. A lateral flow test (LFT) with the highly sensitive and specific G12 monoclonal antibody for the most dominant gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) and a LFT reader were used to quantify GIP in solid-phase extracted urines. GIP were detectable in concentrated urines from healthy individuals previously subjected to GFD as early as 4-6 h after single gluten intake, and remained detectable for 1-2 days. The urine assay revealed infringement of the GFD in about 50% of the patients. Analysis of duodenal biopsies revealed that most of patients with CD (89%) with no villous atrophy had no detectable GIP in urine, while all patients with quantifiable GIP in urine showed incomplete intestinal mucosa recovery. GIP are detected in urine after gluten consumption, enabling a new and non-invasive method to monitor GFD compliance and transgressions. The method was sensitive, specific and simple enough to be convenient for clinical monitoring of patients with CD as well as for basic and clinical research applications including drug development. NCT02344758. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  16. Urine liver fatty acid binding protein and chronic kidney disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatir, Dinah S; Bendtsen, Mette D; Birn, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , regarding progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a prospective study design a cohort of 74 stage 3-4 CKD patients (age 61 ± 13 years) were included. Glomerular filtration ratio (GFR, 51Cr-EDTA-clearance), 24-hour ambulatory BP, 24-hour urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UAC) and urinary L...

  17. Effects of Coriandrum sativum Syrup on Migraine: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Zayeri, Farid; Minaei, Bagher; Kamali, Seyed Hamid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Amin, Gholamreza; Ghobadi, Ali; Mirzaei, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most common and debilitating neurological problems. Although numerous preventive drugs are used to treat migraine, their complications are unavoidable. Application of herbal medicine, especially well-known medicinal plants, to treatment of chronic diseases, like migraine, could be effective. Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) fruit is one of the most commonly prescribed herbs in Persian medicine, which has been used to treat headache. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. sativum syrup on duration, severity and frequency of migraine. A total of 68 migraineurs, who had the eligibility criteria, according to international headache society diagnostic criteria, were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 34) or control group (n = 34). In addition to 500 mg of sodium valproate per day, in intervention group, they received 15 mL of Coriander fruit syrup and 15 mL of placebo syrup, in control group, three times a day, during a month. The subjects were followed for clinical efficacy at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4. The number of migraine attacks per week, as well as the duration and severity of attacks, were evaluated. Of 68 patients randomized, 66 were included in analysis. The generalized estimating equations analysis showed that the Coriander fruit syrup decreased duration, severity and frequency of migraine, in the intervention group (P sativum fruit is efficient in reduction of the duration and frequency of migraine attacks and in diminishing pain degree.

  18. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Stan; Alina Maria Hangan; Sevastiata Muste

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w) and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during thi...

  19. Changes in urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio in children with sickle cell disease over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F. Shatat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 20% of children with sickle cell disease (SCD have microalbuminuria (MA. Very little is known about the progression of MA in children and young adults with SCD. Methods: In this study, we analyzed 5 year EMR data of 373 children (with ≥2 Microalbumin to creatinine (MA/Cr ratio measurements followed at the Medical University of South Carolina to determine the rate, direction, magnitude and predictors of MA/Cr change over time. Results: Age range was 1 – 22 years; mean 10.2 ± 5.2 years, 49.5% were male. Median follow up duration was 3.12 ±1.16 years. At baseline, 328 children had normal (<20 mg/L MA level. Forty-five (12.1% of children had MA (≥ 20 mg/L, of which 91% were ≥ 8 years and 21 (47% continued to have MA at the end of the study period. On the other hand, during the study period, 24 new patients developed MA and 24 normalized their MA to levels <20 mg/L. In multivariate logistic regression model, age and bilirubin levels were predictive of MA/Cr increase in patients who received at least one blood transfusion during the study period. Baseline MA level was not predictive of the change in MA/Cr. Conclusions: In children and young adults, microalbuminuria is considered a marker of early renal injury. Over time, MA/Cr levels may increase or decrease. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings, assess the reliability of MA as marker of long-term renal injury and identify high risk patients likely to have worsening of MA over time.

  20. [Terminal complement complex (TCC) levels in urine in patients with renal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, K

    2001-03-01

    The terminal complement complex (TCC) has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of proteinuria not only in experimental nephritis but also in human glomerulonephritis. In order to clarify the clinical significance of TCC, the author investigated a total of 129 pediatric patients with the following glomerular diseases: idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS; 40 cases), IgA nephropathy (IgAN; 48 cases), mesangio-capillary glomerulonephritis (MPGN; 16 cases), lupus nephritis (LN; 16 cases), purpura nephritis (5 cases) and membranous nephritis (4 cases). Results were analyzed in relation to the responsiveness to steroid treatment in INS and the degree of proteinuria and histopathologic severity in glonerulonephritis groups. In 40 patients who underwent renal biopsy, the localizations of vitronectin and clusterin, both of which are regulatory proteins for TCC, were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy in conjunction with that of TCC for the study of the mechanism of local defense in glomerulonephritis. The urinary TCC levels were elevated in 9 (90%) of 10 patients with steroid-resistant INS, while they were elevated only in 2 of 30 steroid-responsive patients. In glomerulonephritis groups, urinary TCC levels were elevated in 13 of 48 patients with IgAN, 6 of 16 with MPGN, 8 of 16 with LN, 2 of 5 purpural nephritis and 1 of 4 with membranous nephritis. Urinary TCC levels correlated with histological severity in IgAN and showed a reciprocal relation to C3 levels in MPGN and LN. Immunofluorescence findings showed that localization of TCC was quite similar to that of C3 in glomerulonephritis groups. Vitronectin and clusterin were also demonstrated to deposit in similar pattern to TCC. These results suggest that in INS urinary TCC levels could predict the responsiveness to steroid therapy and might be useful as a non-invasive diagnostic method in differential diagnosis of INS. In IgAN, urinary TCC could be a useful marker of histologic severity. The

  1. DEXTRINIZED SYRUPS OBTAINING THROUGH THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORGHUM STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the production of syrups dextrinized by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch red sorghum CIAPR-132 using α-amylase on solutions at different concentrations, with different concentrations of enzyme and enzyme hydrolysis time. The response variable was the dextrose equivalent in each obtained syrup (ED using the modified Lane-Eynon method. In some of the experiments, we used a full factorial design 23 and in others we worked with intermediate concentration and higher hydrolysis time with different levels of enzyme. The obtained products were syrups dextrinized ED between 10,25 and 33,97% (values we can find within the established ones for these types of syrups, which can be used for their functional properties as intermediates syrups or as raw material for different processes of the food industry. This allows you to set a pattern for the use of sorghum feedstock in unconventional obtaining products from its starch.

  2. Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian P; Taylor, Vivien F; Karagas, Margaret R; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2012-05-01

    Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products. We determined the concentration and speciation of As in commercially available brown rice syrups and in products containing OBRS, including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high-energy foods used by endurance athletes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the Internet or in stores in the Hanover, New Hampshire, area. We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethyl-arsenate (DMA). An "organic" toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high-energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Asi was the main As species in most food products tested in this study. There are currently no U.S. regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi into an individual's diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

  3. Microbial production of glucose/fructose syrups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matur, A.; Saglam, N.

    1982-04-01

    With the ever-increasing demand for sugar and the trend in rising price, rapid progress in research on new and/or alternative sweeteners has been inevitable during the past decade or so. Pure glucose, glucose/fructose, glucose/maltose syrups are often called isosyrups. Isosyrups have been recognized as a good alternative sources of sugar. These are used today in the manufacture of soft drinks, jams and jellies, confectionary, baking fermentation, dietetic and infant food, ice-cream, pharmaceutical processes, etc. Isosyrups are produced by hydrolysis of starch and cellulocis raw materials have been utilized for the production of isosyrups.

  4. Longitudinal Detection of Prion Shedding in Saliva and Urine by Chronic Wasting Disease-Infected Deer by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Davin M.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Hoover, Clare E.; Garbino, Nina; Mathiason, Candace K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emergent, rapidly spreading prion disease of cervids. Shedding of infectious prions in saliva and urine is thought to be an important factor in CWD transmission. To help to elucidate this issue, we applied an in vitro amplification assay to determine the onset, duration, and magnitude of prion shedding in longitudinally collected saliva and urine samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer. We detected prion shedding as early as 3 months after CWD exposure and sustained shedding throughout the disease course. We estimated that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) for cervidized transgenic mice would be contained in 1 ml of infected deer saliva or 10 ml of urine. Given the average course of infection and daily production of these body fluids, an infected deer would shed thousands of prion infectious doses over the course of CWD infection. The direct and indirect environmental impacts of this magnitude of prion shedding on cervid and noncervid species are surely significant. IMPORTANCE Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging and uniformly fatal prion disease affecting free-ranging deer and elk and is now recognized in 22 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. It is unique among prion diseases in that it is transmitted naturally through wild populations. A major hypothesis to explain CWD's florid spread is that prions are shed in excreta and transmitted via direct or indirect environmental contact. Here we use a rapid in vitro assay to show that infectious doses of CWD prions are in fact shed throughout the multiyear disease course in deer. This finding is an important advance in assessing the risks posed by shed CWD prions to animals as well as humans. PMID:26136567

  5. Detecting adulterated commercial sweet sorghum syrups with ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial sweet sorghum syrups can be adulterated with inexpensive sugar syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or corn syrup, and sold at a relatively low market price or even mis-branded. This undermines the economic stability of the current small-scale producers of food-grade swee...

  6. Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sponder M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Sponder,1 Monika Fritzer-Szekeres,2 Rodrig Marculescu,2 Martina Mittlböck,3 Maria Uhl,4 Birgit Köhler-Vallant,5 Jeanette Strametz-Juranek1 1Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Medical-Chemical Laboratory Analysis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 3Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Intelligent Systems, Section for Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Department of Pollutants and Human, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria; 5Department of Inorganic Analysis, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria Background: Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and mercury (Hg are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods: Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD. Results: Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 µg/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM-I level. Median Pb (20 µg/L and Hg (0.55 µg/L levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine

  7. Development of a Novel Urine Alzheimer-Associated Neuronal Thread Protein ELISA Kit and Its Potential Use in the Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Wang, Rong; Han, Ying; Sheng, Shuli; Zhu, Jianan; Ji, Zhijuan; Zhao, Zhiwei; Cao, Ziqing; Wang, Peichang

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related chronic degenerative disease that damages the nervous system. A noninvasive and simple method for early detection of AD is extremely important for the diagnosis and prognosis of AD. Thus, we aimed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit to detect urine Alzheimer-associated neuronal thread protein (AD7C-NTP), and to evaluate its clinical value for the diagnosis of AD. Immunogenic AD7C-NTP peptide fragments were synthesized by the solid-phase method and used for immunizing mice or rabbits to generate anti-AD7C-NTP antibodies. The urine AD7C-NTP ELISA kit was then established; the generated mouse anti-AD7C-NTP antibody was used as a capture antibody, the biotin-labeled rabbit anti-AD7C-NTP antibody was used as a detection antibody, and avidin labeled by horseradish peroxidase was used as a substrate. The first morning urine specimens of 121 AD patients and 118 age-matched controls were collected, and the urine AD7C-NTP levels were detected by the above ELISA kit. Mouse and rabbit anti-AD7C-NTP antibody ELISA titer was found to be 1:8,000 and 1:32,000, respectively. A single band with a relative molecular mass of 41 kDa was found in human brain specimens by Western blot assay, which was identified as AD7C-NTP antibody. The urine AD7C-NTP concentration of the AD patients was higher than that of the age-matched controls, the sensitivity was 89.3% and the specificity was 84.7%. Our study demonstrated that our newly developed urine AD7C-NTP ELISA kit has suggested potential for diagnosing AD in a Chinese population, suggesting it may be a useful diagnostic kit for detecting early AD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations.

  9. Utilization of date syrup as a tablet binder, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Fars Kaed

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using dates syrup as a tablet binder. Dates syrup (40%, 50%, 60% w/w dates syrup:water) was utilized for the granulation of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate as examples for water-soluble and water-insoluble materials; correspondingly. Those two materials represent examples of bulky drugs as well. Starch paste (10% w/w starch in water) and sucrose syrup (50% w/w sucrose in water), the well-known tablet binders, were used in the granulation of the same materials for the sake of comparison. The granulations were evaluated with regard to particle size and particle size distribution, granule strength, bulk density, flowability, moisture content and compression behavior. In addition, tablets prepared and evaluated from these granules. Taste and flavor of the prepared tablet have been tested by seven healthy volunteers. Within the scope of this work, dates syrup showed excellent properties as a tablet binder in comparison to starch paste or sucrose syrup for the granulation of both water-soluble and water-insoluble materials. Also, better flavoring and masking taste have been noticed from an evaluation by human volunteers demonstrating the usefulness of the date syrup as sweetener and flavoring the tablets in addition to its use as binder.

  10. Identification of syrup type using fourier transform-near infrared spectroscopy with multivariate classification methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ravipat Lapcharoensuk; Natrapee Nakawajana

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to establish near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy models for identification of syrup types in which the maple syrup was discriminated from other syrup types. Thirty syrup types were used in this research; the NIR spectra of each type were recorded with 10 replicates. The repeatability and reproducibility of NIR scanning were performed, and the absorbance at 6940cm−1 was used for calculation. Principal component analysis was used to group the syrup type. Identification models w...

  11. Identification of Two Sulfated Cholesterol Metabolites Found in the Urine of a Patient with Niemann-Pick Disease Type C as Novel Candidate Diagnostic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Masamitsu; Omura, Kaoru; Sekiguchi, Shoutaro; Iida, Takashi; Saigusa, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Mano, Nariyasu

    2016-01-01

    In the urine of a Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patient, we have identified three characteristic intense peaks that have not been observed in the urine of a 3β-hydroxysteroid- Δ 5 -C 27 -steroid dehydrogenase deficiency patient or a healthy infant and adult. Based on accurate masses of the protonated molecules, we focused on two of them as candidate NPC diagnostic markers. Two synthesized authentic preparations agreed with the two compounds found in NPC patient urine in regard to both chromatographic behavior and accurate masses of the deprotonated molecules. Moreover, the isotopic patterns of the deprotonated molecules, twin peaks unique to the sulfur-containing compounds appearing in their second isotope positions, and accurate masses of product ions observed at m / z 97 also agreed between the target compounds and authentic preparations. We identified the two compounds as the sulfated cholesterol metabolites as 3β-sulfooxy-7β-hydroxy-5-cholen-24-oic acid and 3β-sulfooxy-7-oxo-5-cholen-24-oic acid. These two compounds represent more promising candidate diagnostic markers for NPC diagnosis than three other candidates that are multiple conjugates of cholesterol metabolites, 3β-sulfooxy-7β- N -acetylglucosaminyl-5-cholen-24-oic acid and its glycine and taurine conjugates, although we have reported an analytical method for determining the urinary levels of these compounds using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, because of their lack of N -acetylglucosamine conjugation.

  12. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  13. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  14. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Petrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10, either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72% of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9% were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test.

  15. Genetic predictors of celiac disease, lactose intolerance, and vitamin D function and presence of peptide morphins in urine of children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojović, Katarina; Stanković, Biljana; Kotur, Nikola; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Gašić, Vladimir; Pavlović, Sonja; Zukić, Branka; Ignjatović, Đurđica

    2017-07-24

    Gastrointestinal disturbances, nutritional deficiencies, and food intolerances are frequently observed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). To reveal possible association of celiac disease risk variants (HLA-DQ), lactose intolerance associated variant (LCT-13910C>T) as well as variant associated with vitamin D function (VDR FokI) with NDD, polymerase chain reaction-based methodology was used. Additionally, intestinal peptide permeability was estimated in NDD patients and healthy children by measuring the level of peptides in urine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Levels of opioid peptides, casomorphin 8, and gluten exorphin C were significantly elevated in urine samples of NDD patients (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively), but no association of genetic risk variants for celiac disease and lactose intolerance with NDD was found. Our results indicate that increased intestinal peptide permeability observed in analyzed NDD patients is not associated with genetic predictors of celiac disease or lactose intolerance. We have also found that FF genotype of VDR FokI and lower serum levels of vitamin D (25-OH) showed association with childhood autism (CHA), a subgroup of NDD. We hypothesize that vitamin D might be important for the development of CHA.

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    or high specific gravity is more likely to overestimate or underestimate actual daily urine protein amount, respectively, especially in a dilute urine sample with its creatinine below 38.8 mg/dL or a concentrated sample with its creatinine above 61.5 mg/dL. In particular, UPCR results should be interpreted with caution in cases that involve dilute urine samples because its overestimation may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of proteinuric renal disease or an incorrect staging of chronic kidney disease.

  17. Bladder Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  18. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... Normal values depend on the test being performed. Normal results are reported as "no growth" and are a sign ...

  19. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  20. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a reliable indicator for evaluating complications of chronic kidney disease and progression in IgA nephropathy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the correlation between the albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the urine and 24-hour urine proteinuria and whether the ratio can predict chronic kidney disease progression even more reliably than 24-hour proteinuria can, particularly in primary IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 182 patients with primary IgA nephropathy were evaluated. Their mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria were determined during hospitalization. Blood samples were also analyzed. Follow-up data were recorded for 44 patients. A cross-sectional study was then conducted to test the correlation between these parameters and their associations with chronic kidney disease complications. Subsequently, a canonical correlation analysis was employed to assess the correlation between baseline proteinuria and parameters of the Oxford classification. Finally, a prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the association between proteinuria and clinical outcomes. Our study is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the registration number is ChiCTR-OCH-14005137. RESULTS: A strong correlation (r=0.81, p<0.001 was found between the ratio and 24-hour proteinuria except in chronic kidney disease stage 5. First-morning urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios of ≥125.15, 154.44 and 760.31 mg/g reliably predicted equivalent 24-hour proteinuria ‘thresholds’ of ≥0.15, 0.3 and 1.0 g/24 h, respectively. In continuous analyses, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with anemia, acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypercholesterolemia and higher serum cystatin C. However, higher 24-hour proteinuria was only associated with hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia. Higher tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scores were also associated with a greater albumin-to-creatinine ratio, as observed in the canonical correlation analysis. Finally, the albumin

  1. Urine biomarkers of tubular injury do not improve on the clinical model predicting chronic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Xie, Dawei; Waikar, Sushrut S; Bonventre, Joseph V; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Mifflin, Theodore E; Coresh, Josef; Diamantidis, Clarissa J; He, Jiang; Lora, Claudia M; Miller, Edgar R; Nelson, Robert G; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Rahman, Mahboob; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Wilson, Francis P; Kimmel, Paul L; Feldman, Harold I; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Liu, Kathleen D

    2017-01-01

    Few investigations have evaluated the incremental usefulness of tubular injury biomarkers for improved prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. As such, we measured urinary kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and liver fatty acid binding protein under highly standardized conditions among 2466 enrollees of the prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. During 9433 person-years of follow-up, there were 581 cases of CKD progression defined as incident end-stage renal disease or halving of the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Levels of the urine injury biomarkers, normalized for urine creatinine, were strongly associated with CKD progression in unadjusted Cox proportional hazard models with hazard ratios in the range of 7 to 15 comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles. However, after controlling for the serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, none of the normalized biomarkers was independently associated with CKD progression. None of the biomarkers improved on the high (0.89) C-statistic for the base clinical model. Thus, among patients with CKD, risk prediction with a clinical model that includes the serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate and the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio is not improved on with the addition of renal tubular injury biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. All rights reserved.

  2. One-chip biosensor for simultaneous disease marker/calibration substance measurement in human urine by electrochemical surface plasmon resonance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Kohei; Kurita, Ryoji; Niwa, Osamu

    2010-12-15

    We have developed a miniaturized electrochemical surface plasmon resonance biosensor for measuring two biomolecules that have very different molecular sizes, one is transferrin (MW=75 kDa) as a disease marker protein, the other is creatinine (MW=113) as a calibration marker for the accurate measurement of human urinary samples. The sensor has a PDMS based microchannel that is 2 mm wide and 20 μm deep. Two gold films were integrated in the microchannel; one was modified with anti-transferrin antibody for immuno-reaction, and the other was modified with osmium-poly-vinylpyridine wired horseradish peroxidase (Os-gel-HRP). We further immobilized a tri-enzyme layer of creatininase, creatinase and sarcosine oxidase in order to measure creatinine by converting it to hydrogen peroxide in the upstream channel. We measured the transferrin concentration from the refractive index change involved in an immuno-complex formation, and we were simultaneously able to measure creatinine by employing the refractive index change in the Os-gel-HRP caused by oxidation with the hydrogen peroxide produced from creatinine by the tri-enzyme. The effects of ascorbic acid and uric acid in urine samples were sufficiently eliminated by adding ascorbate oxidase and uricase to the urine samples during sampling. We were able to measure two analyte concentrations within 15 min by one simple injection of 50 μL of diluted human urine into our sensor. The detectable transferrin and creatinine ranges were 20 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL, and 10 μM to 10 mM, respectively, which are sufficient levels for clinical tests. Finally, we compared the results obtained using our sensor with those obtained with a conventional immunoassay and the Jaffe method. We obtained a similar trend that can reduce the fluctuation in the urinary transferrin concentration from three different samples by calibrating the creatinine concentration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Amylase - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of: Acute pancreatitis Alcohol consumption Cancer of the pancreas , ovaries, or lungs Cholecystitis Ectopic or ruptured tubal pregnancy Gallbladder disease Infection of the salivary glands (called sialoadenitis, may be caused by mumps or ...

  4. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  5. Pasting, rheological, and retrogradation properties of low-amylose rice starch with date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O; Babucurr, Jobe

    2017-09-01

    Effects of date syrup on pasting, rheological, and retrogradation properties of low-amylose rice starch were investigated using three levels of date syrup (starch:syrup 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3). Measurements were carried out using HR-2 Discovery Rheometer equipped with a pasting cell and parallel plate geometry. The pasting measurements showed that the peak viscosity of the control is significantly higher than the samples with date syrup (p syrup levels. Addition of date syrup increases the solid-like behavior of the gel in reverse order with increased date syrup levels. Low-amylose starch gel used in this study showed minor changes in elastic modulus (G') during one week cold storage indicting that low-amylose rice starch is resistant to retrogradation. Addition of date syrup slightly resulted in increased retrogradation compared to the control.

  6. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  7. Date syrup-derived polyphenols attenuate angiogenic responses and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Hajer; Morris, R Keith; Withycombe, Cathryn E; Maddocks, Sarah E; Kanekanian, Ara D

    2016-07-01

    Bioactive components such as polyphenols, present in many plants, are purported to have anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. Date syrup, produced from date fruit of the date palm tree, has traditionally been used to treat a wide range of diseases with etiologies involving angiogenesis and inflammation. It was hypothesized that polyphenols in date syrup reduce angiogenic responses such as cell migration, tube formation, and matrix metalloproteinase activity in an inflammatory model by exhibiting anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the prostaglandin enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in endothelial cells. Date syrup polyphenols at 60 and 600μg/mL reduced inflammation and suppressed several stages of angiogenesis, including endothelial cell migration, invasion, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and tube formation, without evidence of cytotoxicity. VEGF and COX-2 expression induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha at both gene expression and protein level was significantly reduced by date syrup polyphenols in comparison to untreated cells. In conclusion, polyphenols in date syrup attenuated angiogenic responses and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity mediated by VEGF and COX-2 expression in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Suitability of Starch Syrups for Winter Feeding of Honeybee Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkiw Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different starch syrups available on the Polish market for winter feeding of bees were evaluated for two consecutive beekeeping seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Sugar syrup and inverted sucrose syrup were used as the control. Winter feeding was conducted at two times: earlier and later in the season. After supplementation of winter feeding was stopped, we measured colony strength (number of combs covered by bees and brood area. After overwintering (spring 2013 and 2014, we estimated the influence of these foods on: bee mortality during overwintering (number of dead bees in winter debris, food consumption, colony strength and brood area in spring (two measurements in three-week intervals, development dynamics and honey yield from spring flow. An analysis of the results for the parameters assessed before overwintering, after its end and during spring development did not show significant differences between bee colonies fed with different types of food. No relevant difficulties concerning food crystallisation were encountered. The analysed syrups turned out to be as suitable for winter feeding of bees as sugar and inverted sucrose syrups.

  9. Characterization and optimization of schizophyllan production from date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidian, Hajar; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Vilaplana, Francisco; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Soudi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-11-01

    This study demonstrates the efficient utilization of low-cost agricultural substrates, particularly date syrup, by Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548 for schizophyllan production. Initially, one factor-at-a-time method was used to find the best carbon and nitrogen sources for schizophyllan production. Subsequently, response surface methodology was employed to optimize the level of culture medium components to maximize substrate conversion yield and schizophyllan production in submerged culture. Maximum product yield (0.12g schizophyllan/g date syrup) and schizophyllan production (8.5g/l) were obtained at concentrations of date syrup and corn steep liquor, inoculum size and agitation rate at 7.02%w/v, 0.10%w/v, 7.68%v/v and 181rpm, respectively. Sugar composition analysis, FTIR, NMR and molar mass determination revealed the purity and molecular properties of recovered schizophyllan produced from date syrup as glycosidic linkage analysis showed three main schizophyllan characteristic peaks arising from the 3-linked, 3,6-linked and terminal glucose residues. Finally, process economic analysis suggested that use of date syrup and corn steep liquor as nutrients would result in approximately 6-fold reduction in cost of raw materials for schizophyllan production as compared to conventional carbon and nitrogen sources such as sucrose and malt extract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, G; Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A J; Hernández, C; González-Weller, D; Revert, C; Castilla, A; Abreu, P; Hardisson, A

    2012-01-01

    Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain) were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals). 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%), glucose (9.50%) and fructose (4.80%), respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%). Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.

  11. [Combined use of tandem mass spectrometry with urine gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is useful for diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Juan; Zhu, Jian-Xing; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Hua-Jun; Han, Lian-Shu; Gu, Xue-Fan

    2008-02-01

    Many inborn errors of metabolism have similar presenting clinical manifestations, making early diagnosis difficult. We report our experience with tandem mass spectrometry combined with urine gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a means of definitively diagnosing inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and thirty-two children with suspected inborn errors of metabolism but without specific clinical manifestations, admitted to the Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine between June 1, 2003 and September 30, 2006, were studied. Children received routine biochemical examinations, as well as mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifteen cases (11.5%) were confirmed as having inborn errors of metabolism, including 6 cases of methylmalonic acidemia, 2 of propionic academia, 2 of Type II citrullinemia, 1 of biotinidase deficiency, 1 of tyrosinemia, 1 of maple syrup urine disease, 1 of omithine transcarbamylase deficiency and 1 of very long chain Acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. The combined use of tandem mass spectrometry with urine gas chromatography mass spectrometry is useful for early diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism in children with suspected inborn errors of metabolism but without specific clinical manifestations.

  12. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup. 780.819..., or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15... syrup. The second part of the section 13(b)(15) exemption is specifically limited to the production “of...

  13. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  14. Impact of added nutrients in sweet sorghum syrup fermentation to produce ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work demonstrated that sweet sorghum syrup was efficiently converted to ethanol by yeast. Fermentation broth with sweet sorghum syrup performed better (at least faster) than with only pure sugars due to the pH-buffering effect of sweet sorghum syrup solutions. Sugar solutions containing up to 2...

  15. Identification of syrup type using fourier transform-near infrared spectroscopy with multivariate classification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravipat Lapcharoensuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish near infrared (NIR spectroscopy models for identification of syrup types in which the maple syrup was discriminated from other syrup types. Thirty syrup types were used in this research; the NIR spectra of each type were recorded with 10 replicates. The repeatability and reproducibility of NIR scanning were performed, and the absorbance at 6940cm−1 was used for calculation. Principal component analysis was used to group the syrup type. Identification models were developed by soft independent modeling by class analogy (SIMCA and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. The SIMCA models of all syrup types exhibited accuracy percentage of 93.3–100% for identifying syrup types, whereas maple syrup discrimination models showed percentage of accuracy between 83.2% and 100%. The PLS-DA technique gave the accuracy of syrup types classification between 96.6% and 100% and presented ability on discrimination of maple syrup form other types of syrup with accuracy of 100%. The finding presented the potential of NIR spectroscopy for the syrup type identification.

  16. Validation of spectrophotometric method for lactulose assay in syrup preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahardhika, Andhika Bintang; Novelynda, Yoshella; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide widely used in food and pharmaceutical fields. In the pharmaceutical field, lactulose is used as osmotic laxative in a syrup dosage form. This research was aimed to validate the spectrophotometric method to determine the levels of lactulose in syrup preparation and the commercial sample. Lactulose is hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid to form fructose and galactose. The fructose was reacted with resorcinol reagent, forming compounds that give absorption peak at 485 nm. Analytical methods was validated, hereafter lactulose content in syrup preparation were determined. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 30-100 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9996, coefficient of variance (Vxo) of 1.1 %, limit of detection of 2.32 μg/mL, and limit of quantitation of 7.04 μg/mL. The result of accuracy test for the lactulose assay in the syrup preparation showed recoveries of 96.6 to 100.8 %. Repeatability test of lactulose assay in standard solution of lactulose and sample preparation syrup showed the coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.75 % and 0.7 %. Intermediate precision (interday) test resulted in coefficient of variation 1.06 % on the first day, the second day by 0.99 %, and 0.95 % for the third day. This research gave a valid analysis method and levels of lactulose in syrup preparations of samples A, B, C were 101.6, 100.5, and 100.6 %, respectively.

  17. Experiences with Pontal syrup in mucositis caused by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shoji; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kunieda, Etsuo; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1983-01-01

    Pontal syrup was administered at daily dose of 30 ml t. i. d. to 17 patients of mucositis developed due to radiotherapy against malignant tumor. Results were: Remarkably effective-5 cases, effective-8 cases, slightly effective-3 cases, and non-effective-1 case. Certain effects were observed in 16 cases out of 17 cases/94.1%, excluding only one non-effective case. No side-effects were observed in all cases. It is considered that Pontal syrup is a drug useful for mucositis caused by radiotherapy because of its easiness of administration and also of its characteristic of non-stimulant. (author)

  18. Urine osmolality in the US population: Implications for environmental biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Weidemann, Darcy; Weaver, Virginia; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Neu, Alicia; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Background For many environmental chemicals, concentrations in spot urine samples are considered valid surrogates of exposure and internal dose. To correct for urine dilution, spot urine concentrations are commonly adjusted for urinary creatinine. There are, however, several concerns about the use of urine creatinine. While urine osmolality is an attractive alternative; its characteristics and determinants in the general population remain unknown. Our objective was to describe the determinants of urine osmolality and to contrast the difference between osmolality and creatinine in urine. Methods From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2012, 10,769 participants aged 16 years or older with measured urine osmolality and creatinine were used in the analysis. Very dilute and very concentrated urine was defined as urine creatinine lower than 0.3 g/l and higher than 3 g/l, respectively. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations of interest. Results Urine osmolality and creatinine were highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.75) and their respective median values were 648 mOsm/kg and 1.07 g/l. The prevalence of very dilute and very concentrated urine samples was 8.1% and 3.1%, respectively. Factors associated in the same direction with both urine osmolality and urine creatinine included age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, water intake, and blood osmolality. The magnitude of associations expressed as percent change was significantly stronger with creatinine than osmolality. Compared to urine creatinine, urine osmolality did not vary by diabetes status but was affected by daily total protein intake. Participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) had significantly higher urine creatinine concentrations but lower urine osmolality. Both very dilute and concentrated urine were associated with a diverse array of sociodemographic, medical conditions, and dietary factors

  19. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test ( ...

  20. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based urine metabolome study in children for inborn errors of metabolism: An Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampe, Mahesh H; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Yadav, Ashwini A; Ingale, Pramod W

    2017-02-01

    The present study highlights the feasibility of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based analysis for simultaneous detection of >200 marker metabolites in urine found in characteristic pattern in inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in India. During this retrospective study conducted from July 2013 to January 2016, we collected urine specimens on filter papers from Indian children across the country along with relevant demographic and clinical data. The laboratory technique involved urease pretreatment followed by deproteinization, derivatization, and subsequent computer-aided analysis of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and sugars by GC/MS, which enable chemical diagnosis of IEM. Totally 23,140 patients were investigated for IEM with an estimated frequency of about 1.40%, that is, 323 positive cases. Most frequent disorders observed were of primary lactic acidemia (27.2%) and organic acidemia (methylmalonic aciduria, glutaric acidemia type I, propionic aciduria, etc.) followed by aminoacidopathies (maple syrup urine disease, phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, etc.). Furthermore, alkaptonuria, canavan disease, and 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria were also diagnosed. Prompt treatment following diagnosis led to a better outcome in a considerable number of patients. GC/MS with one-step metabolomics enables quick detection, accurate identification, and precise quantification of a wide range of urinary markers that may not be discovered using existing newborn screening programs. The technique is effective as a second-tier test to other established screening technologies, as well as one-step primary screening tool for a wide spectrum of IEM. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of dark-colored maple syrup on cell proliferation of human gastrointestinal cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Sato, Kanta; Kubota, Yuika; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener that is commonly consumed worldwide. While maple syrup mainly comprises sucrose, it also contains phytochemicals that present various biological effects. Maple syrup is made by boiling down sap, and its color and composition vary in accordance with the sap collection season. Typically, seasonal progression is associated with darker syrup color, and antioxidant activity is proportional to the increasingly dark color. The authors previously reported that maple syrup demonstrated inhibitory effects on colorectal cancer cell growth and invasion, which correlated with darker maple syrup color. In the present study, they examined the effects of two different grades of maple syrup on gastrointestinal cancer cell proliferation, to investigate whether the dark-color maple syrup was suitable as a phytomedicine for gastrointestinal cancer treatment. Administration of dark-color maple syrup significantly inhibited gastrointestinal cancer cell growth as compared to non-treated cancer cells. Moreover, administration of dark-color maple syrup clearly inhibited protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and did not impact mitogen-associated protein kinase phosphorylation. These data suggested that dark-color maple syrup may inhibit cell proliferation through suppression of AKT activation and, thus, may be suitable as a phytomedicine for gastrointestinal cancer treatment.

  2. Current Role of Blood and Urine Biomarkers in the Clinical Care of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Saurabh; Alshawabkeh, Laith; Opotowsky, Alexander R

    2017-06-01

    There is an increasing number of adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). While several biomarkers have been validated and integrated into general cardiology clinical practice, these tests are often applied to adults with CHD in the absence of disease-specific validation. Although these patients are often grouped into a single population, there is heterogeneous pathophysiology, variable disease chronicity, extensive multisystem involvement, and a low event rate relative to acquired heart disease. These stand as challenges to systematic investigation and clinical application of biomarkers for adults with CHD. This paper reviews recent studies investigating the use of biomarkers in this population, with emphasis on biomarkers applied in clinical adult CHD care. A handful of biomarkers have been integrated into adult CHD practice, such as iron studies in cyanotic heart disease and stool alpha-1 antitrypsin for diagnosis of protein losing enteropathy in the Fontan circulation. Use of kidney and liver tests has been studied in prognostication of adult CHD patients. A few other biomarkers like natriuretic peptides and troponins seem likely to provide useful information in other ACHD situations based on limited disease-specific data and extrapolation from acquired heart disease. More research is needed to support the robust validity of most existing clinical biomarkers in adult congenital cardiology practice. Until data from larger, prospectively enrolled cohorts are available, clinical use of biomarkers in these patients will require careful interpretation with attention to underlying pathophysiology, as well as detailed understanding of potential pitfalls of specific assays and clinical contexts.

  3. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  4. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003584.htm Leukocyte esterase urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for ...

  5. PBG urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphobilinogen test; Porphyria - urine; PBG ... porphyria or another disorder associated with an abnormal PBG level. ... An increased level of PBG in the urine may be due to: Hepatitis Lead poisoning Liver cancer Porphyria (several types)

  6. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  7. Urine 24-hour volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test results: Dehydration Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Emotional stress Heavy exercise Urinary tract infection

  8. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  9. Urine concentration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003608.htm Urine concentration test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to ...

  10. Urine collection - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003417.htm Urine collection - infants To use the sharing features on this ... collect the urine at home, have some extra collection bags available. How the Test will Feel There ...

  11. Protein electrophoresis - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003589.htm Urine protein electrophoresis test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP) test is used to estimate how much ...

  12. Assessment of microbiological quality of syrup and water used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pharmaceutical industry is an essential element of health care system all over the globe, in as much as discovery, development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceuticals for human health is of paramount importance. This research was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of syrups and water used ...

  13. Sonicated date syrup media preparation for microbial culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, various solidified date syrups were produced as culture media and the effect of date constituents with/without ultrasound waves irradiation were investigated using selected natural micro flora of date by agar dilution method and the results were compared with classical culture media containing PDA for fungi ...

  14. Performance of baker's yeast produced using date syrup substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baker's yeast was produced from three selected baker's yeast strains using date syrup as a substrate at low and high flow rate compared to those produced using molasses substrates. Performance of the produced baker's yeasts on Arabic bread quality was investigated. Baking tests showed a positive relationship between ...

  15. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Glucose Syrup Derived from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to characterize the prepared glucose syrups, Fehling test, Biuret test, glucose concentration (GC), dextrose equivalent (DE), relative density (RD), pH, viscosity and surface tension (ST) were determined. Granular size range of 7 – 15 μm and moisture content of 12 % were determined for the untreated starch sample.

  16. Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production of bleomycin by Streptomyces mobaraensis ATCC 15003 using response surface methodology. Hesham H Radwan, Fars K Alanazi, Ehab I Taha, Hamdy A Dardir, Ihab M Moussa, Ibrahim A Alsarra ...

  17. Performance of baker's yeast produced using date syrup substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Key wards: Date syrup, molasses, baker's yeast, fermentation, Arabic bread, gas production power. INTRODUCTION. Dates contain ... date extract holds promise as a source of carbon and energy for the production of baker's ... Flour (6.9 g) was weighed based on 14% moisture content, transferred into the ...

  18. A comparison of urine microscopy and urine culture results of patients considered to have urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Polat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the diseases of the urogenital system caused by various microorganisms. Currently, the most used descriptive tests are urine strips, microscopic analysis of urine and spot bacteruria tests. The aim of this study was to present the consistency of culture results with leukocyte count determined cytometrically in the urine of patients considered to have a urinary tract infection and thereby facilitate treatment approaches. A retrospective examination was performed with the urine samples of patients sent to central laboratory of the Dicle University Hospital in January2012- December 2013. Both microscopic urine analysis and urine culture were performed for each patient on the same day. The study comprised a total of 839 patients; 222 males and 617 females. Urine culture results and urine microscopy findings of patients with positive urine strip tests were compared. With the comparison of urine culture results, positive urine microscopy findings were found to have 92%sensitivity, 26% specificity, 52% positive predictive value (PPVand 78% negative predictive value (NPV (p<0.001.Compared to the culture results, the urine microscopy findings of patients with positive urine strip tests were found to have high sensitivity and low specificity (p<0.001. As a result empirical antimicrobial therapy can be considered for patients with positive urine microscopy findings without waiting for culture results, and patients with negative results are recommended to have urine culture results.

  19. Establishing an Alaskan birch syrup industry: Birch Syrup—It’s the Un-maple!TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlene. Cameron

    2001-01-01

    Ten years ago a small group of Alaskans began commercial production of birch syrup from the sap of the paper birch, Betula papyrifera, and established an industry that is expanding in response to demand and has the potential to make a significant contribution to Alaska's economy. There are still many problems to be solved; research and...

  20. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For ...

  1. Comparison between health effects of cadmium and cadmium concentration in urine among inhabitants of the Itai-Itai disease endemic district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogawa, K.; Ishizaki, A.; Kobayashi, E.

    1979-04-01

    The relationship between urinary cadmium concentration (micrograms/g creatinine) and the health effects of cadmium exposure was studied in 406 inhabitants who lived in and around the Jinzu River basin. Cadmium concentration in urine was employed as the index of cadmium exposure. Total protein, glucose, calcium, and phosphorus in urine and calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase in serum served as indices of health effects. On a group basis a close relationship was found between cadmium concentration in urine and health effects. Prevalence rates of indices of health effects increased proportionally with increasing cadmium concentrations in urine. It was concluded that cadmium concentration in urine expressed as micrograms/g creatinine is a useful parameter in estimating the health effects of cadmium exposure from the environment.

  2. Association between Urine Creatinine Excretion and Arterial Stiffness in Chronic Kidney Disease: Data from the KNOW-CKD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Youl Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown that low muscle mass is associated with arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, in a population without chronic kidney disease (CKD. This link between low muscle mass and arterial stiffness may explain why patients with CKD have poor cardiovascular outcomes. However, the association between muscle mass and arterial stiffness in CKD patients is not well known. Methods: Between 2011 and 2013, 1,529 CKD patients were enrolled in the prospective Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD. We analyzed 888 participants from this cohort who underwent measurements of 24-hr urinary creatinine excretion (UCr and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV at baseline examination. The mean of the right and left baPWV (mPWV was used as a marker of arterial stiffness. Results: The baPWV values varied according to the UCr quartile (1,630±412, 1,544±387, 1,527±282 and 1,406±246 for the 1st to 4th quartiles of UCr, respectively, PConclusion: Low muscle mass estimated by low UCr was associated high baPWV in pre-dialysis CKD patients in Korea. Further studies are needed to confirm the causal relationship between UCR and baPWV, and the role of muscle mass in the development of cardiovascular disease in CKD.

  3. MR imaging of metabolic white matter diseases: Therapeutic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebarski, S.S.; Allen, R.

    1987-01-01

    In metabolic diseases affecting the brain, MR imaging abnormalities include white-matter signal aberrations suggesting myelination delay, dysmyelination and demyelination, pathologic iron storage, and finally, loss of substance usually in a nonspecific pattern. The authors suggest that MR imaging may have therapeutic implications: (1) classic galactosemia - white-matter signal aberration became normal after dietary therapy; (2) phenylketonuria - age- and sex-matched treated and nontreated adolescents showed marked differences in brain volume, with the treated patient's volume nearly normal; (3) maple syrup urine disease - gross white-matter signal aberration became nearly normal after dietary therapy; and (4) hyperglycinemia - relentless progression of white-matter signal aberration and loss of brain substance despite therapy. These data suggest that brain MR imaging may provide a therapeutic index in certain metabolic diseases

  4. Evaluation of toxic heavy metals in ayurvedic syrups sold in local markets of hazara, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajra, B.; Orakzai, S.; Hussain, F.; Farya, U.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic preparations, widely used in Pakistan and the developing world, present serious risk of heavy metal toxicity related to their medicinal content and prolonged use by patients. The objective of this study was to find out the concentration of heavy metals in Herbal and Ayurvedic liquid preparations commonly used for treatment of different diseases, from local markets of Hazara. Methods: The cross sectional survey of traditional herbal and Ayurvedic medicine shops included ten liquid preparations selected from local shops of Mansehra and Abbottabad after interviewing the shopkeepers; so as to select the most commonly sold preparations along with their indications. All samples were analysed on standard Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for qualitative and quantitative study of toxic heavy metals (Mercury, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Manganese and Arsenic). Results: Toxic levels of Mercury were present in seven syrups, i.e., (Kashneeze, Akseer e Pachas, Tankar, Sharbat e folad, Urosinal, Akseer e Jigar and Amrat dhara) while Arsenic was present only in Urosinal. Iron, Zinc, Manganese and Lead were present in permissible limits in all syrups. Conclusion: Mercury and Arsenic are present in local Herbal and Ayurvedic liquid preparations far beyond the permissible limits as proposed by the International Regulatory Authorities for health drugs while the rest of metals, i.e., Zinc, Manganese, and Iron are within the therapeutic limits. (author)

  5. Stability Study and a 14-Day Oral Dose Toxicity in Rats of Plantain Leaf Extract (Plantago lanceolata L.) Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Kenza; Qadan, Fadi; Schmidt, Mathias; Mallah, Eyad; Abudayyih, Wael; Matalka, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Plants have been used since antiquity to treat and prevent diseases. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) is traditionally used for the treatment of the common cold and associated symptoms such as cough. This study was designed to evaluate the oral toxicity of plantain leaf extract-containing syrup. In preparation of the toxicological examination and to ensure the quality of the herbal preparation, analytical methods were developed and validated, and stability testing was performed. Physicochemical and microbial quality, thin layer chromatography patterns and high performance liquid chromatography fingerprints complied with the specifications during the entire period of stability testing. The marker substance, acteoside, remained within the stability-defining limits of 90%–110% for quantitative determinations. No hint of toxicity emerged from 14-day repeat dose toxicity testing in rats. The animals were given doses of 3, 6, or 12 mL of syrup per kg body weight by gavage twice daily. All animals showed normal appearance and behavior. Body and organ weights at the end of the study were similar to those in the control group. Overall, P. lanceolata syrup was found to be stable and non-toxic under the test conditions. PMID:28327509

  6. SORPTION OF AROMA COMPOUNDS IN PET AND PVC DURING THE STORAGE OF A STRAWBERRY SYRUP

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The sorption of 14 aroma compounds into PET and PVC was monitored during one year storage of a strawberry syrup. Their concentrations in the syrup and in the polymer were assessed during storage and compared with previously published results obtained with glass bottles. Apparent partition coefficients between the polymer and the syrup (noted Kapp) were estimated from experimental kinetics without reaching the equilibrium Kapp values were optimally identified from the k...

  7. Microbial Assessment Of Some Retailed Cough Syrups In Minna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty brands of cough syrups were analyzed for microbial assessment from different pharmaceutical and patient medicine stores in Minna. The result revealed the microbial count of 1.6 x 106 to 7.2 x 106 cfu/ml bacteria for thirteen samples and 1.4 x 103 to 8.6 x 103 cfu/ml for fungi for nine samples. The organisms ...

  8. Laboratory scale production of glucose syrup by the enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose syrup production from maize, millet and sorghum starch was investigated. The starch extracted from yellow maize after steeping for 72hrs and purified by sedimentation method had the greatest yield of 86.71% (4.34 ± 0.37g) followed by the starch made from millet and sorghum with a yield of 65.94% (3.30 ± 0.25g) ...

  9. Formulation and quality control of a poly herbal tranquilizer syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Herbal drugs are rapidly becoming popular in recent years as alternative therapies. Numerous poly herbal formulations, which are combinations of different herbal materials/extracts are being used for prevention or treatment of various disorders. The present research has been undertaken to formulate and evaluate the quality of a tranquilizing syrup based on Iranian traditional medicine references. Methods: A decoction containing Echium amoenum L., Lavandula spp. L., Melissa officinalis L., Cuscuta chinensis Lam, Vitis venifera L.,Prunus domestica and Alhagi camelorum Fisch.was prepared and then filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and different sweeteners and flavoring agents including, brown sugar, honey, masking flavor, sucralose, lemon and orange essential oil were examined to cover the unpleasant taste of the product caused by Cuscuta chinensis. Finally,sucralose was found to be beneficent to cover the unpleasant taste. The final product was evaluated physicochemically and microbiologically according to standard protocols. Results: The results of the quality control assessments demonstrated that the color, odor, microbial and physicochemical characteristics of the syrup were acceptable. Conclusion: The formulated syrup can be examined in in vivo and clinical studies as a tranquilizer with respect to its tranquilizing herbal content.

  10. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy.

  12. Kefir peptides prevent high-fructose corn syrup-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a murine model by modulation of inflammation and the JAK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H L; Tsai, T C; Tsai, Y C; Liao, J W; Yen, C C; Chen, C M

    2016-12-12

    In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism. An animal model of 30% high-fructose-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice was established. The experiment is divided into the following six groups: (1) normal: H 2 O drinking water; (2) mock: H 2 O+30% fructose; (3) KL: low-dose kefir peptides (50 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (4) KM: medium-dose kefir peptides (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (5) KH: high-dose kefir peptides (150 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; and (6) CFM: commercial fermented milk (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose. The results show that kefir peptides improve fatty liver syndrome by decreasing body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, insulin and hepatic triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids as well as the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) that had been elevated in fructose-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, kefir peptides markedly increased phosphorylation of AMPK to downregulate its targeted enzymes, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1), and inhibited de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, kefir peptides activated JAK2 to stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation, which can translocate to the nucleus, and upregulated several genes, including the CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Our data have demonstrated that kefir peptides can improve the symptoms of NAFLD, including body weight, energy intake, inflammatory reaction and the

  13. Pink urine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  14. Treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or oral bicarbonate reduces urine angiotensinogen and preserves glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2014-11-01

    Alkali therapy of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with plasma total CO2 (TCO2) below 22 mmol/l per KDOQI guidelines appears to preserve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Since angiotensin II mediates GFR decline in partial nephrectomy models of CKD and even mild metabolic acidosis increases kidney angiotensin II in animals, alkali treatment of CKD-related metabolic acidosis in patients with plasma TCO2 over 22 mmol/l might preserve GFR through reduced kidney angiotensin II. To test this, we randomized 108 patients with stage 3 CKD and plasma TCO2 22-24 mmol/l to Usual Care or interventions designed to reduce dietary acid by 50% using sodium bicarbonate or base-producing fruits and vegetables. All were treated to achieve a systolic blood pressure below 130 mm Hg with regimens including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and followed for 3 years. Plasma TCO2 decreased in Usual Care but increased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. By contrast, urine excretion of angiotensinogen, an index of kidney angiotensin II, increased in Usual Care but decreased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. Creatinine-calculated and cystatin C-calculated eGFR decreased in all groups, but loss was less at 3 years with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables than Usual Care. Thus, dietary alkali treatment of metabolic acidosis in CKD that is less severe than that for which KDOQI recommends therapy reduces kidney angiotensin II activity and preserves eGFR.

  15. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  16. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

    2009-01-01

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO 3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  17. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  18. Binge Eating, Urine Free Cortisol, and Metabolic Characteristics in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    dysfunction, osteoarthritis, certain cancers , and liver disease (Bray, 2003). Childhood obesity is associated with health problems in adulthood...with water and decaffeinated cola syrup (e.g., Glucola). Serum glucose, insulin, c-peptide and free fatty acids were collected two hours later

  19. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  20. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  1. Effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surin, Siriluck; Thakeow, Prodpran; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Angeli, Sergio; Phimolsiripol, Yuthana

    2014-09-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) syrup is a novel liquid sweetener produced from longan, one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In this research, the effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup was investigated. There were two extraction methods (juice extractor and hydraulic press) and three concentration methods (direct heating, steam heating and vacuum evaporation). Results overall showed that the extraction method had no significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on longan syrup properties, while concentration resulted in the quality changes of longan syrup. Concentration using direct heating of longan juice caused reduction of sucrose content, and longan syrup dark in color. The headspace volatile compounds of longan syrup were sampled using direct headspace technique and further characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified volatile compounds could be divided into two groups of aroma characteristics which were (1) floral aroma: 3-methybutyl acetate, (β)-ocimene and 2-phenylethyl alcohol and (2) caramel aroma: butyraldehyde, furfural and benzaldehyde. 2-Phenylethyl alcohol, contributing to floral odor, was retained using vacuum evaporation as a concentration method. Result revealed that the optimal concentration process for longan syrup production was vacuum evaporation, providing the highest floral volatile and lowest caramel volatile. Sensory tests confirmed that longan flavor of the syrup produced from the vacuum evaporation process had significantly higher hedonic scores than other processes.

  2. Evaluation of date syrup as an oral negative contrast agent for MRCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Arunkumar; Lakshmanan, Prakash Manikka; Sarawagi, Radha; Prabhakaran, Velu

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of date syrup with those of other contrast agents by qualitative and quantitative analysis and in vivo evaluation of the use of date syrup to improve the quality of MRCP images. Phantoms containing date syrup, ferumoxsil, pineapple juice, and water were imaged by 1.5-T MRI with T2-weighted and MRCP sequences, and signal-to-noise ratios were calculated. Biochemical analysis of date syrup was performed to find the nature of iron in it, and the iron content was quantified by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Sixty patients underwent MRCP before and 30 minutes after ingestion of 100 mL of date syrup. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images were scored for gastrointestinal tract signal suppression and visualization of various pancreaticobiliary structures. In vitro evaluation showed that images obtained with date syrup had a signal-to-noise ratio comparable to that of images obtained with ferumoxsil in T2-weighted and MRCP sequences. The iron concentration in date syrup was 2.6 mg/dL, and it was in ferric form. Images obtained after oral contrast administration had statistically significant improvement in gastrointestinal tract signal suppression (p syrup can be used as a negative oral contrast agent for gastrointestinal tract signal suppression during MRCP and for improving visualization of various pancreaticobiliary structures.

  3. Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup vs. high fructose corn syrups) were detected between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, colonies installed within a closed arena had increased pr...

  4. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic... the determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

  5. A Profile of Lake States Maple Syrup Producers and Their Attitudes and Responses to Economic, Social, Ecological and Climate Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Michael A. Kilgore; Marla R. Emery; Marissa. Schmitz

    2018-01-01

    Maple syrup is an iconic as well as economically and culturally important non-timber forest product in North America. The economic benefits derived from maple syrup production are substantial. In 2016, the U.S. produced 4.2 million gallons of syrup worth an estimated $147 million (USDA, 2017b). In addition, sugaring provides many with a deep, personal connection to...

  6. Safety and efficacy of praziquantel syrup (Epiquantel®) against Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Mariama S; Djibo, Ali; Tahirou, Almoustapha; Aouami, Mahamadou Aboubacar; Alfari, Aichatou; Phillips, Anna E; Fenwick, Alan; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-11-01

    Given the characteristic age-prevalence curve of Schistosoma infection, preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is primarily targeted at school-aged children, whilst, in highly endemic areas, other high-risk groups might be included for regular treatment. Nevertheless, schistosomiasis can affect children well before they reach school-age, but this population group is usually excluded from preventive chemotherapy. We assessed the safety and efficacy of praziquantel syrup (Epiquantel®) in preschool-aged children in three villages of Niger. Children aged ≤72 months provided multiple urine and stool samples that were microscopically examined using standard protocols. Schistosoma-positive children were treated with praziquantel syrup at a dose of 40 mg/kg after a meal of millet porridge. Children remained under medical supervision for 4h and adverse events were recorded. Additionally, a questionnaire was administrated to the mothers/guardians 24h post-treatment for further probing of adverse events. Treatment efficacy was evaluated 3 and 6 weeks post-treatment using multiple stool and urine samples. A third of the 243 treated children reported adverse events within 4h, whilst a further 6.2% reported adverse events upon probing 24h post-treatment. Abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea and sleepiness were the most common adverse events, but these were transient and self-limiting. Praziquantel syrup showed moderate-to-high efficacy against Schistosoma haematobium with egg reduction rates of 69.4% and 71.2% 3 and 6 weeks post-treatment and cure rates of 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79.7-90.5%) and 94.9% (95% CI 90.5-97.6%), respectively. Considerably lower cure and egg reduction rates were observed against Schistosoma mansoni (e.g. cure rate at 6-week post-treatment follow-up was only 50.6% (95% CI 39.9-61.2%). Concluding, praziquantel syrup is well tolerated in preschool-aged children with moderate-to-high efficacy against S. haematobium, but considerably lower

  7. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  8. Soothing Properties of Glycerol in Cough Syrups for Acute Cough Due to Common Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Eccles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment and management of acute cough due to common cold costs billions of dollars of healthcare expenditure and there is a growing opinion that a simple linctus containing glycerol with flavourings such as honey and lemon is a safe and effective treatment for acute cough in children and adults. Glycerol is a component of most cough syrups, and although it is often thought of only as a solvent or thickening agent in cough syrups, it may be a major component for the efficacy of cough syrups due to its special properties of lubrication, demulcency, sweetness, and acting as a humectant. The major benefit of cough syrups in soothing cough is likely due to the properties of the syrup rather than the active ingredients and this review discusses the special properties of glycerol in relation to the treatment of acute cough.

  9. Frequent or urgent urination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urination; Urinary frequency or urgency; Urgency-frequency syndrome; Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome; Urge syndrome ... Interstitial cystitis Medicines such as water pills (diuretics) Overactive bladder syndrome Radiation therapy to the pelvis, which is used ...

  10. Urination - excessive amount

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urea nitrogen test Creatinine (serum) Electrolytes (serum) Fluid deprivation test (limiting fluids to see if the urine ... A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health ...

  11. A visual understanding of optical rotation using corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, M.; Hughes, I. G.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper a visual demonstration of optical rotation is presented, with content appropriate for use in a lecture demonstration as well as quantitative techniques suitable for an undergraduate-laboratory experiment. Linearly polarised lasers of various wavelengths are propagated through a glass tube containing corn syrup. The rotation of the plane of polarisation of the light is visible with the naked eye, making the experiment dramatic and engaging and aiding understanding of the phenomenon of optical rotation. In addition, we present a simple approach to quantitatively analyse data using only equipment commonly found in undergraduate teaching laboratories.

  12. CODEINE CONTAINING COUGH SYRUP ADDICTION IN ASSAM AND NAGALAND

    OpenAIRE

    Wairagkar, Niteen S.; Das, J.; Kumar, S.; Mahanta, J.; Satyanarayana, K.; Phukan, R.K.; Chetia, M.; Goswami, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    The drug abuse monitoring study of Regional Medical Research Center, Dibrugarh, reported 181 and 395 addicts from the states of Assam and Nagaland respectively in one year. Of these, 48 (26.5%) and 49(12.4%) cases were contributed by the primary abuse of codeine containing cough syrups. A11 addicts were males in their early twenties. Most of the addicts were unmarried and educated up to matriculation. The majority of addicts in Assam were Hindus (85.4%) and in Nagaland Christians (81.63%). Un...

  13. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  14. Fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array detection method for simultaneous monitoring of three inflammatory bowel disease treatment drugs in whole blood, plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G; Tinari, Nicola; Grossi, Laurino; Innosa, Denise; Macerola, Daniela; Tartaglia, Angela; Di Donato, Valentina; D'Ovidio, Cristian; Locatelli, Marcello

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (FPSE-HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of three drug residues (ciprofloxacin, sulfasalazine, and cortisone) in human whole blood, plasma, and urine samples, generally administered in human patients to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The drugs of interest were well resolved using a Luna C 18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm particle size) in gradient elution mode within 20 min. The analytical method was optimized and validated in the range 0.05-10 μg/mL for whole blood, 0.25-10 μg/mL for human plasma, and 0.10-10 μg/mL for human urine. Blank human whole blood, plasma, and urine were used as the sample matrix for the method development and validation; while methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate was used as the internal standard (IS). Weighted-matrix matched standard calibration curves showed a good linearity up to a concentration of 10 μg/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy values (precision and trueness) were found in the range from -10.9% to 12.3%, and the performances of the validated FPSE-HPLC-PDA were further tested on real IBD patient samples. This is the first FPSE procedure applied simultaneously to whole blood, plasma, and urine samples for the determination of residual IBD drugs, which possess a wide range of polarity (logP values ranging from 2.30 for Ciprofloxacin, to 1.66 for Cortisone, and 2.92 for Sulfasalazine). The new approach exhibits high potential for immediate adoptation as a rapid, robust and green analytical tool for future clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Guo, Qilei; Wang, Linlin; Lin, Li; Shi, Hailiang; Cao, Hong; Cao, Baosen

    2015-04-01

    According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3-7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5-7.5% and 10-100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  17. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosowicz, J.; Gembicki, M.; Schneider, E.; Eder, M.

    1977-01-01

    In 21 cases of hypothyroidism, in 39 cases of hyperthyroidism, in 54 healthy subjects, in 23 pregnant women, and in certain internal diseases determinations of triiodothyronine were carried out in urine by radioimmunoassay. Anti-T 3 antibodies were obtained in rabbits and sheep immunized with a complex of bovine albumin with triiodothyronine ester. Labelled triiodothyronine of high specific activity was obtained by iodinating triodothyronine by the chloramine method. Determinations of triiodothyronine were performed in morning urine and the obtained values were calculated for one-hour excretion. In healthy subjects the excretion of T 3 was from 20 to 95 ng/hour, in hyperthyroidism it was significantly raised to from 120 to over 600 ng/hour, while in most cases of hypothyroidism it was decreased. In pregnancy the urinary excretion of T 3 was normal amounting to from 34 to 87 ng/hour, although in most cases the serum T 3 concentration was raised. In cases of anorexia nervosa and in obese starving subjects the excretion of T 3 fell significantly, and similarly low excretion was found in some cases of debilitating diseases and myocardial infarction. (author)

  19. Alterations of microbiota in urine from women with interstitial cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis (IC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community present in the urine from IC female patients by 454 high throughput sequencing of the 16S variable regions V1V2 and V6. The taxonomical composition, richness and diversity of the IC microbiota were determined and compared to the microbial profile of asymptomatic healthy female (HF) urine. Results The composition and distribution of bacterial sequences differed between the urine microbiota of IC patients and HFs. Reduced sequence richness and diversity were found in IC patient urine, and a significant difference in the community structure of IC urine in relation to HF urine was observed. More than 90% of the IC sequence reads were identified as belonging to the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, a marked increase compared to 60% in HF urine. Conclusion The 16S rDNA sequence data demonstrates a shift in the composition of the bacterial community in IC urine. The reduced microbial diversity and richness is accompanied by a higher abundance of the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, compared to HF urine. This study demonstrates that high throughput sequencing analysis of urine microbiota in IC patients is a powerful tool towards a better understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:22974186

  20. Human Urine as a Noninvasive Source of Kidney Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Oliveira Arcolino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine represents an unlimited source of patient-specific kidney cells that can be harvested noninvasively. Urine derived podocytes and proximal tubule cells have been used to study disease mechanisms and to screen for novel drug therapies in a variety of human kidney disorders. The urinary kidney stem/progenitor cells and extracellular vesicles, instead, might be promising for therapeutic treatments of kidney injury. The greatest advantages of urine as a source of viable cells are the easy collection and less complicated ethical issues. However, extensive characterization and in vivo studies still have to be performed before the clinical use of urine-derived kidney progenitors.

  1. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol ... For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) ...

  2. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  3. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Sheng; Gao Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification. (paper)

  4. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Li

    Full Text Available Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Automated color classification of urine dipstick image in urine examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Royananda; Muchtar, M. A.; Taqiuddin, R.; Adnan, S.; Anugrahwaty, R.; Budiarto, R.

    2018-03-01

    Urine examination using urine dipstick has long been used to determine the health status of a person. The economical and convenient use of urine dipstick is one of the reasons urine dipstick is still used to check people health status. The real-life implementation of urine dipstick is done manually, in general, that is by comparing it with the reference color visually. This resulted perception differences in the color reading of the examination results. In this research, authors used a scanner to obtain the urine dipstick color image. The use of scanner can be one of the solutions in reading the result of urine dipstick because the light produced is consistent. A method is required to overcome the problems of urine dipstick color matching and the test reference color that have been conducted manually. The method proposed by authors is Euclidean Distance, Otsu along with RGB color feature extraction method to match the colors on the urine dipstick with the standard reference color of urine examination. The result shows that the proposed approach was able to classify the colors on a urine dipstick with an accuracy of 95.45%. The accuracy of color classification on urine dipstick against the standard reference color is influenced by the level of scanner resolution used, the higher the scanner resolution level, the higher the accuracy.

  6. Urine pH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine test Male urinary tract References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney stones. In: Melmed S, Polonsky ... and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc . 1995;95(7):791-797. PMID: 7797810 ...

  7. The Pasting and Gel Textural Properties of Corn Starch in Glucose, Fructose and Maltose Syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order...

  8. Modelling of the process of micromycetus survival in fruit and berry syrups

    OpenAIRE

    L. Osipova; V. Kirillov; N. Khudenko; T. Sugachenko

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop methods for preserving fruit and berry syrup, which exclude the use of high-temperature sterilization and preservatives, the survival of spores of micromycetes (B. nivea molds) in model media with different concentration of food osmotically active substances (sucrose, ethyl alcohol, citric acid) at a certain concentration of lethal effects on microorganisms. It has been established that model media (juice based syrups from blueberries) with a mass content of 4 % and 6 % al...

  9. Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sugar Esters in Honey and Agave Syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenhaller, Sascha; Gentes, Julian; Infantes, Alba; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Brenner-Weiß, Gerald; Ochsenreither, Katrin; Syldatk, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    Honey and agave syrup are high quality natural products and consist of more than 80% sugars. They are used as sweeteners, and are ingredients of cosmetics or medical ointments. Furthermore, both have low water content, are often liquid at room temperature and resemble some known sugar-based deep eutectic solvents (DES). Since it has been shown that it is possible to synthesize sugar esters in these DESs, in the current work honey or, as vegan alternative, agave syrup are used simultaneously a...

  10. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth. PMID:26904593

  11. Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001-2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada) and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter), the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions.

  12. Sweetening syrup production by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch variety yam (Dioscorea rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramón Vidal Tovar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweeteners syrups produced by enzymatic hydrolysis from starch of hawthorn yam (Dioscorea rotundata. The starch was extracted by a scratched, washed, sedimented and drying; the yield was quantified taking into account the amount of initial raw material and was determined the concentration of starch, amylose, amylopectin, crude fiber, ash, protein, fat and humidity in accordance with the requirements of the AOAC standards, and ICONTEC COVENIN. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was conducted using ∂-amylase, glucoamylase and pullulanase in starch solutions at 36 and 46 % w/w varying the order of application of glucoamylase and pullulanase were determined pH, Brix, moisture, reducing sugars (AR, total sugar (TS and the dextrose equivalent (ED in the syrups obtained. In the liquefaction were obtained with an intermediate syrups sweeteners ED 18.81% and 22.15%. Syrups low and medium conversion with an ED between 34-45% in the first saccharification and high conversion syrups with a DE between 75-79% as a final product. The above values allow the use of hawthorn yam starch syrup production for multiple uses in different food industry processes.

  13. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  14. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  15. 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside as a novel marker for the detection of honey adulterated with rice syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yi; Wu, Liming; Chen, Lanzhen; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Fengmao

    2013-08-07

    The determination of honey authenticity is of importance to ensure its quality and safety. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect adulterated honey. A simple, rapid, and effective HPLC-DAD method was developed to detect honey adulteration by rice syrup, using a characteristic compound from rice syrup, which is presently difficult to detect by current analytical methods. The characteristic compound was identified as 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside (AFGP) by MS and NMR. Based on HPLC analyses, the average concentration of AFGP was 92 ± 60 mg/kg in rice syrup. However, AFGP was not detected in any of the natural honey samples, so it could be used as a marker for the detection of honey adulteration by rice syrup. The developed method enabled a rapid detection of honey samples adulterated with 10% rice syrup. Using the developed method, 16 out of 186 honey samples from some markets were found to be adulterated with rice syrup.

  16. Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide overproduction, and in vitro antiproliferative effect of maple sap and syrup from Acer saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Grenon, Carole; Dussault, Catherine; Pichette, André

    2010-04-01

    Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and antiproliferative effect of ethyl acetate extracts of maple sap and syrup from 30 producers were evaluated in regard to the period of harvest in three different regions of Québec, Canada. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of maple sap and syrup extracts are, respectively, 12 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 5 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed by a cell-based assay. The period of harvest has no statistically significant incidence on the antioxidant activity of both extracts. The antioxidant activity of pure maple syrup was also determined using the ORAC assay. Results indicate that the ORAC value of pure maple syrup (8 +/- 2 micromol of TE/mL) is lower than the ORAC value of blueberry juice (24 +/- 1 micromol of TE/mL) but comparable to the ORAC values of strawberry (10.7 +/- 0.4 micromol of TE/mL) and orange (10.8 +/- 0.5 micromol of TE/mL) juices. Maple sap and syrup extracts showed to significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced NO overproduction in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Maple syrup extract was significantly more active than maple sap extract, suggesting that the transformation of maple sap into syrup increases NO inhibition activity. The highest NO inhibition induced by the maple syrup extracts was observed at the end of the season. Moreover, darker maple syrup was found to be more active than clear maple syrup, suggesting that some colored oxidized compounds could be responsible in part for the activity. Finally, maple syrup extracts (50% inhibitory concentration = 42 +/- 6 microg/mL) and pure maple syrup possess a selective in vitro antiproliferative activity against cancer cells.

  17. Letter to the editor The number of urine specimens for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult-with-asymptomatic- bacteriuria. Letter to the editor. The number of urine specimens for bacteriological examination in women. Ertugrul Guclu, Tuba Damar, Oguz Karabay. 1. Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, ...

  18. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... within an hour. Deliver this specimen to your lab. Sometimes, a doctor will want to test urine ...

  19. Identification, classification, and discrimination of agave syrups from natural sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy and HPAEC-PAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

    2015-01-15

    Agave syrups are gaining popularity as new natural sweeteners. Identification, classification and discrimination by infrared spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics (NIR-MIR-SIMCA-PCA) and HPAEC-PAD of agave syrups from natural sweeteners were achieved. MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to classify the natural sweeteners according to their natural source. Natural syrups exhibited differences in the MIR spectra region 1500-900 cm(-1). The agave syrups displayed strong absorption in the MIR spectra region 1061-1,063 cm(-1), in agreement with their high fructose content. Additionally, MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to differentiate among syrups from different Agave species (Agavetequilana and Agavesalmiana). Thin-layer chromatography and HPAEC-PAD revealed glucose, fructose, and sucrose as the principal carbohydrates in all of the syrups. Oligosaccharide profiles showed that A. tequilana syrups are mainly composed of fructose (>60%) and fructooligosaccharides, while A. salmiana syrups contain more sucrose (28-32%). We conclude that MIR-SIMCA-PCA and HPAEC-PAD can be used to unequivocally identify and classified agave syrups. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Exosomes in urine biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Alyssa R; Somparn, Poorichaya; Benjachat, Thitima; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2015-01-01

    Nanovesicles present in urine the so-called urinary exosomes have been found to be secreted by every epithelial cell type lining the urinary tract system in human. Urinary exosomes are an appealing source for biomarker discovery as they contain molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and genetic materials, and they can be isolated in a non-invasive manner. Following the discovery of urinary exosomes in 2004, many studies have been performed using urinary exosomes as a starting material to identify biomarkers in various renal, urogenital, and systemic diseases. Here, we describe the discovery of urinary exosomes and address the issues on the collection, isolation, and normalization of urinary exosomes as well as delineate the systems biology approach to biomarker discovery using urinary exosomes.

  1. High-fructose corn syrup-55 consumption alters hepatic lipid metabolism and promotes triglyceride accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kaitlin; Lateef, Sundus; Benedito, Vagner A; Tou, Janet C

    2017-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been suggested to be more lipogenic than sucrose, which increases the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia. The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Female rats were randomly assigned (n=7 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) HFCS-55, sucrose or fructose for 8 weeks. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest (P=.03) hepatic total lipid and triglyceride content and histological evidence of fat infiltration. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest hepatic de novo lipogenesis indicated by the up-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and the highest (Ptriglyceride-rich lipoprotein from the liver was increased as shown by up-regulation of gene expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in rats drinking sucrose, but not HFCS-55 solution. The observed lipogenic effects were attributed to the slightly higher fructose content of HFCS-55 solution in the absence of differences in macronutrient and total caloric intake between rats drinking HFCS-55 and sucrose solution. Results from gene expression and fatty acid composition analysis showed that, in a hypercaloric state, some types of sugars are more detrimental to the liver. Based on these preclinical study results, excess consumption of caloric sweetened beverage, particularly HFCS-sweetened beverages, should be limited. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Yacon syrup: Food applications and impact on satiety in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Maria de Fátima; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Ferreira Carioca, Antônio Augusto; Silveira Adriano, Lia; Pinto, Claudia Oliveira; Pinto de Abreu, Fernando Antonio; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Araújo, Idila Maria; Dos Santos Garruti, Deborah; Ferreira Pontes, Dorasilvia

    2017-10-01

    Syrup obtained from yacon roots could be well positioned as a nutritional product due to its high fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content. Considering this, we examined the potential food applications of yacon syrup, using the focal group methodology, and its sensorial acceptability when incorporated in yogurt. The beneficial effects of the consumption of yacon syrup were studied over a 2-week period in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment (namely Test A) and other consistent of only one day of yacon syrup consumption (namely Test B) were also evaluated. The doses of yacon syrup for both experiments were 8.74g of FOS/day. Energy intake, hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption were assessed with analogue scales at the end of each test. The results indicate that the yogurt was the food most suggested by the focus group, and the average of the scores given to the attributes when the yacon syrup was incorporated into a yogurt were: 7.78 for appearance; 7.72 for aroma; 7.02 for flavor and 6.96 for overall acceptability, corresponding to "like very much" and "like moderately". Furthermore, the results indicate that yacon syrup has a positive effect on appetite and its effect was dependent on gender and period of intervention, being statistically significant (P<0.05) in women, after 2-week period. These findings suggested that increasing FOS intake could help to increase satiety, and consequently, be helpful in the management of type 2-diabetes or control of the current high prevalence of overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Determination and Comparision of Hydroxymethylfurfural in Industrial and Traditional Date Syrup Products

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    Afrooz Jafarnia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF is a common Maillard reaction product directly formed from dehydration of sugars under acidic conditions during heating and storage in carbohydrate rich foods. The aim of the present study was to detect and quantify the amount of HMF in date syrup by HPLC method. In addition, the amount of HMF in date syrup produced by traditional and industrial methods were compared. Methods: A HPLC method for determination of HMF in date syrup was developed and validated. The amount of HMF in date syrup products produced by the traditional and industrial methods was compared. In addition, to determine whether HMF was produced during storage in date syrup, its amount was measured in fresh and old samples. Results: The HMF content of fresh traditional products varied between 1000 to 2675 mg⁄kg and in the old products varied between 2580 to 6450 mg⁄kg. The HMF concentration of the fresh industrial products varied between 12 to 456 mg⁄kg and 611 to 943 mg⁄kg in the old ones. The HMF concentration of the traditionally produced products was significantly higher than industrial products (P<0.001. Moreover, the HMF content in old products significantly was more than fresh ones (P<0.001. Wide variation was found in HMF content of the traditionally produced products. Conclusion: HMF was produced in date syrup during preparation and storage. Because HMF is recognized as an indicator of quality deterioration in a wide range of foods and is still under investigation for possible toxic effects, it is recommended that the amount of HMF is measured in date syrup and considered as an indicator of the quality control of this product.

  4. Increased urine and serum nerve growth factor levels in interstitial cystitis suggest chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Tzu Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS is considered a bladder disorder due to localized chronic inflammation. This study investigated the nerve growth factor (NGF levels in serum and urine in patients with IC/BPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with IC/BPS and 28 normal subjects without lower urinary tract symptoms were recruited from an outpatient clinic. IC/BPS was diagnosed by frequency, bladder pain, and the presence of glomerulations during cystoscopic hydrodistention. Serum and urine were collected before any treatment was given. Serum NGF and urinary NGF/Cr levels were compared between IC/BPS and the controls. RESULTS: Urinary NGF levels were significantly higher in patients with IC/PBS (26.3±11.2 pg/ml than in controls (1.40±0.63 pg (p = 0.014. After normalization, the urinary NGF/Cr levels were significantly greater in IC/BPS (0.69±0.38 pg/mg than controls (0.20±0.01, p = 0.011. Relative to the levels in control subjects (1.90±0.38 pg/mL, the mean serum NGF levels were higher in patients IC/BPS patients (3.48±0.55 pg/mL (p = 0.015. No significant correlation was found between the serum and urinary NGF levels in IC/BPS patients. However, the clinical characteristics and medical co-morbidities did not show significant difference between IC/BPS patients with a higher and lower serum NGF level. CONCLUSIONS: Increased urinary NGF levels in IC/BPS patients suggest that chronic inflammation is involved in this bladder disorder. Increased circulating serum NGF levels were noted in over half of patients with IC/BPS, however, the urinary and serum NGF were not inter-correlated and elevated serum NGF did not relate with clinical features.

  5. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  6. Analysis of Urine as Indicators of Specific Body Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Souradeep; Saha, Triya; Narendrakumar, Uttamchand

    2017-11-01

    Urinalysis can be defined as a procedure for examining various factors of urine, which include physical properties, particulate matter, cells, casts, crystals, organisms and solutes. Urinalysis is recommended to be a part of the initial examination of all patients as its cheap, feasible and gives productive results. This paper focuses on the analysis of urine collected at specific body conditions. Here we illustrate the urine profile of different persons having various body conditions, which include, having urinary tract infection, undergoing strenuous exercise, having back pain regularly, having very low urine output and a person who is on 24 hours of diet. Examination of urine collected from different persons having specific body conditions usually helps us in the diagnosis of various diseases, which it indicates.

  7. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Xun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12–16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%–31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine.

  8. Nonmedical Use of Cough Syrup Among Secondary Vocational School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingfeng; Yu, Jincong; Yang, Chengwu; Chen, Jiayan; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Teng, Shiwei; Li, Jiang; Yan, Dong; Cao, Jiepin; Zhao, Yanting; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonmedical use of cough syrup (NUCS) among secondary vocational school (SVS) students has been an increasing concern for public health in China, but no data were available. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characters of NUCS as well as its risk factors among SVS students in China. From September 2013 to December 2014, a total of 13,614 SVS students were purposively selected through multistage sampling in 6 cities of China. Information on NUCS, demographics, family background, smoking and alcohol consumption, impulsiveness, sensation seeking, and parental monitoring were collected. Logistic regression was used to explore factors related to NUCS. The 12,923 (94.9%) valid responses (16.3 ± 1.0 years old, and 52.6% men) reported 3.47% (95% confidence interval: 3.15–3.79%) lifetime NUCS. Logistic regression indicated that smoking, part-time job experience, high level of impulsiveness, and sensation seeking were risk factors for NUCS, whereas urban living and high parental monitoring were protective ones. NUCS was prevalent among SVS students. Interventions that target on smoking, impulsiveness and sensation seeking control, improvement on parental monitoring may have considerable impact on NUCS among SVS students. PMID:26962800

  9. Rapid Screening of Multiclass Syrup Adulterants in Honey by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Wu, Liming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lanzhen; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Cao, Wei

    2015-07-29

    Honey adulteration with sugar syrups is a widespread problem. Several types of syrups have been used in honey adulteration, and there is no available method that can simultaneously detect all of these adulterants. In this study, we generated a small-scale database containing the specific chromatographic and mass spectrometry information on sugar syrup markers and developed a simple, rapid, and effective ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method for the detection of adulterated honey. Corn syrup, high-fructose corn syrup, inverted syrup, and rice syrup were used as honey adulterants; polysaccharides, difructose anhydrides, and 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside were used as detection markers. The presence of 10% sugar syrup in honey could be easily detected in <30 min using the developed method. The results revealed that UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was simple and rapid.

  10. Dibasic Ammonium Phosphate Application Enhances Aromatic Compound Concentration in Bog Bilberry Syrup Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Yang; Li, Yi-Qing; Li, Teng; Yang, Hang-Yu; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Bo-Lin; Zhu, Bao-Qing

    2016-12-29

    A nitrogen deficiency always causes bog bilberry syrup wine to have a poor sensory feature. This study investigated the effect of nitrogen source addition on volatile compounds during bog bilberry syrup wine fermentation. The syrup was supplemented with 60, 90, 120 or 150 mg/L dibasic ammonium phosphate (DAP) before fermentation. Results showed that an increase of DAP amounts accelerated fermentation rate, increased alcohol content, and decreased sugar level. Total phenol and total flavonoid content were also enhanced with the increase of DAP amounts. A total of 91 volatile compounds were detected in the wine and their concentrations were significantly enhanced with the increase of DAP. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, levo -2,3-butanediol, 2-phenylethanol, meso -2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid exhibited a significant increase of their odor activity value (OAV) with the increase of DAP amounts. Bog bilberry syrup wine possessed fruity, fatty, and caramel flavors as its major aroma, whereas a balsamic note was the least present. The increase of DAP amounts significantly improved the global aroma attributes, thereby indicating that DAP supplementation could promote wine fermentation performance and enhance the sensory quality of bog bilberry syrup wine.

  11. Effect of transmucosal corn syrup application on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; Shaver, Stephanie L; Semick, Danielle N; Bradley, Nancy C; Kreisler, Rachael E

    2018-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a common clinical practice, the transmucosal (TM) application of corn syrup, on postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Methods This study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five kittens between the age of 8 and 16 weeks scheduled for surgical sterilization by gonadectomy at an animal shelter were enrolled. Kittens were randomly assigned to either a routine treatment group that received the shelter's typical postoperative application of corn syrup immediately following gonadectomy or to a control group that did not receive typical treatment. Three blood glucose measurements were obtained per kitten: baseline reading prior to preoperative examination, immediately postoperatively and 20 mins postoperatively. The median values of the 20 min postoperative blood glucose reading for the control and treatment groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Postoperative application of corn syrup to the oral mucosa of kittens did not result in significant elevations in blood glucose compared with controls. No kitten was hypoglycemic (⩽60 mg/dl) at any point during the study. Conclusions and relevance TM application of corn syrup did not affect postoperative blood glucose concentrations in kittens. Protocols that use routine TM administration of corn syrup in kittens should be re-evaluated.

  12. Drying kinetics of syrup of Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhura, Chakare; Kugara, Jameson; Muchuweti, Maud; Nyagura, Stella F; Matarise, Florence; Gombiro, Power E; Nyandoro, George

    2015-08-01

    Drying properties of syrup prepared from Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa prepared from the syrup and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) meal were studied using a convective tray drier at temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C and air velocity of 0.72 m/s. Nine mathematical models namely Henderson and Pabis, Lewis, Midilli et al., Modified Page, Page, Two Term, Weibull, Modified Page Equation (II) and Wang and Singh were fitted to data for thin layer drying of the products using non-linear regression analysis. Thin layer drying processes for the syrup and zvambwa were best described by the Modified Page model. Effective moisture diffusivities for drying of syrup were higher than those for drying of zvambwa. The activation energies for drying of syrup and zvambwa were 21.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol and19.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol respectively.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative control of pediatric syrups using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena Mara A; Araújo, Nathália V P; Alves, Elenilson G; Lião, Luciano M; Alcantara, Glaucia B

    2018-05-10

    Several flavoring and sweetening agents added to excipient of pediatric syrups are not declared in the package leaflet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a non-target, simple, and precise method for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of pediatric syrups using NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. This approach allowed the identification of several added compounds as citric acid, cyclamate, ethanol, glycerol, propylene glycol, saccharin, sorbitol, fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Among the sugared syrups, sucrose was the main carbohydrate with approximately 59.1%, and for sweetened syrups, glycerol with 25.5%. The ethanol was found with highest concentration of 4.0%, approximately. In addition, some syrups presented both sugar and sweetener, which is inconsistent according to the purpose of the addition. Consequently, institutional structures of countries as Brazil that are in charge of public health should put additional compliance pressure on pharmaceutical companies to clearly declare in package leaflet the presence and exact amount of the main compounds (at least) existent in the pediatric excipients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sorption of aroma compounds in PET and PVC during the storage of a strawberry syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducruet, V; Vitrac, O; Saillard, P; Guichard, E; Feigenbaum, A; Fournier, N

    2007-11-01

    The sorption of 14 aroma compounds into PET and PVC was monitored during storage of a strawberry syrup for 1 year. Concentrations in the syrup and in the polymer were determined during storage and compared with previously published results obtained with glass bottles. Apparent partition coefficients between the polymer and the syrup (noted K app) were estimated from experimental kinetics without reaching equilibrium K app values and optimally identified from the kinetic data obtained between 30 and 90 days. They exhibited a similar behaviour for both polymers with values were between 2 x 10(-5) and 2 x 10(-3), 4 x 10(-5) and 3 x 10(-2), respectively, for PET and PVC. The variation of K app values in PET was mainly correlated to the polarity of tested compounds as assessed by their log P values. By contrast, the variations in K app values for PVC were mainly related to their chain lengths. Due to slightly higher partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients in PVC compared with PET, the amount of absorbed aroma was four times higher in PVC than in PET; however, the amount of absorbed aroma compounds was less than 0.1% of the initial amount present into the syrup, except for octyl butanoate. The variation in concentration in the syrup was interpreted as a combination of a degradation process and a transport process into the packaging material. Both effects were particularly noticeable for both PET and unstable aroma compounds.

  15. A randomized study of ondansetron syrup in children: evaluation of taste acceptability and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R; Votan, B; Lane, R; Schaison, G; Hewitt, M; Kohler, J; Thyss, A

    1996-01-01

    Ondansetron, a highly selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is available in an intravenous (IV) formulation and tables, but syrup would be particularly useful in children. As chemotherapy can affect taste perceptions, this study was undertaken to determine the preference between two flavors of ondansetron syrup in children undergoing chemotherapy. Fifty-nine children, randomized into a multicenter, double-blind, crossover study, each received 5 mg/m2 of IV ondansetron daily before chemotherapy. The syrup was then randomly given in two doses, one of each flavor, strawberry and grape, 30 minutes apart. The preference was assessed 30 minutes after the second dose of syrup had been administered. Taste was assessed by the child against a panel of five faces. Of those children expressing any preference, 70% preferred the strawberry flavor. Overall, 59% of children preferred the strawberry flavor, whilst 25% preferred grape (P = 0.005) and 15% expressed no preference. The only adverse event assessed as drug related by the investigator was constipation, which occurred in one patient. In conclusion, a strong preference was found for the strawberry formulation. The ondansetron syrup was safe and well tolerated.

  16. The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laochareonsuk, T.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

  17. Towards a method of rapid extraction of strontium-90 from urine: urine pretreatment and alkali metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dietz, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kaminski, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shkrob, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A technical program to support the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention is being developed to provide an analytical method for rapid extraction of Sr-90 from urine, with the intent of assessing the general population’s exposure during an emergency response to a radiological terrorist event. Results are presented on the progress in urine sample preparation and chemical separation steps that provide an accurate and quantitative detection of Sr-90 based upon an automated column separation sequence and a liquid scintillation assay. Batch extractions were used to evaluate the urine pretreatment and the column separation efficiency and loading capacity based upon commercial, extractant-loaded resins. An efficient pretreatment process for decolorizing and removing organics from urine without measurable loss of radiostrontium from the sample was demonstrated. In addition, the Diphonix® resin shows promise for the removal of high concentrations of common strontium interferents in urine as a first separation step for Sr-90 analysis.

  18. Molecular neutron activation analysis of selenium metabolites in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Hansen, G.T.; Ebrahim, A.; Rack, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the biological importance of selenium in living biological systems, various analytical procedures have been developed for analysis of microquantities of elemental selenium, in urine, serum, and tissue. For urine selenium, these include atomic absorption spectrometry, solution absorption spectrometry, solution fluorescence spectrometry, volumetry, and neutron activation analysis. Of equal or greater importance is the determination of selenium metabolites present in urine for the purpose of describing the biological pathways for the metabolism of selenium in living organisms. While it is known from previous studies that trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) is a major metabolite in urine, probably the result of reduction and methylation reaction, there are no definitive results in the literature indicating the nature or quantity of other selenium metabolic products in urine. Early techniques to measure TMSe levels in urine involved the use of the radiotracer 75 Se. Because of the long biological half-life of selenium and issues of radiation exposure, its use in humans has been limited. In this paper, the authors report the experimental procedure for the determination of total selenoamino acid concentration in urine and present total selenium values, and, where applicable, TMSe, SeO 2- 3 , and total selenoamino acid concentrations in the urine of normal and diseased subjects

  19. [Urine derivation after radical cystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarabák, J; Zachoval, R; Vik, V

    2014-01-01

    Radical cystectomy, performed both for the treatment of cancer and other conditions, needs to be followed by ensuring the derivation of urine. The aim of this work is to summarize the possibilities of urine derivation after cystectomy, their advantages, disadvantages and long-term results. A review article summarising relevant literature and the team of authors own experience. This work compares advantages and risks of different types of urine derivation following radical cystectomy.

  20. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization of chicks fed the control diet alone were not significantly (P < 0.05 different from chicks fed diets supplemented with either 5% or 15% sugar syrup. Supplementation of sugar syrup to broiler diets had no significant effect on blood glucose, creatinine, total protein, or liver enzymes. Adding 5% sugar syrup to broiler rations significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens fed the sugar syrup diet compared with birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, the results shows sugar syrup can be used in poultry ration to replace part of the corn as a source of energy. These results allowed the authors to recommend the safe usage of sugar syrup in broiler rations.

  1. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens levansucrase-catalyzed the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides, oligolevan and levan in maple syrup-based reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengxi; Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2015-11-20

    Maple syrups with selected degree Brix (°Bx) (15, 30, 60) were investigated as reaction systems for levansucrase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The enzymatic conversion of sucrose present in the maple syrup and the production of the transfructosylation products were assessed over a time course of 48h. At 30°C, the use of maple syrup 30°Bx led to the highest levansucrase activity (427.53μmol/mg protein/min), while maple syrup 66°Bx led to the highest converted sucrose concentration (1.53M). In maple syrup 30°Bx, oligolevans (1080%). In maple syrup 66°Bx, the most abundant products were oligolevans at 30°C and levans (DP≥30) at 8°C. The acceptor specificity study revealed the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens levansucrase to synthesize a variety of hetero-fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) in maple syrups 15°Bx and 30°Bx enriched with various disaccharides, with lactose being the preferred fructosyl acceptor. The current study is the first to investigate maple-syrup-based reaction systems for the synthesis of FOSs/oligolevans/levans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects.

  3. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R; Rios-Leal, E

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  4. High-fructose corn syrup: is this what's for dinner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Popkin, Barry M

    2008-12-01

    Research on trends in consumption of added sugar and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the United States has largely focused on calorically sweetened beverages and ignored other sources. We aimed to examine US consumption of added sugar and HFCS to determine long-term trends in availability and intake from beverages and foods. We used 2 estimation techniques and data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys (1965 and 1977), Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (1989-1991), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004) to examine trends in HFCS and added sugar both overall and within certain food and beverage groups. Availability and consumption of HFCS and added sugar increased over time until a slight decline between 2000 and 2004. By 2004, HFCS provided roughly 8% of total energy intake compared with total added sugar of 377 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1), accounting for 17% of total energy intake. Although food and beverage trends were similar, soft drinks and fruit drinks provided the most HFCS (158 and 40 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) in 2004, respectively). Moreover, among the top 20% of individuals, 896 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) of added sugar was consumed compared with 505 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) of HFCS. Among consumers, sweetened tea and desserts also represented major contributors of calories from added sugar (>100 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1)). Although increased intake of calories from HFCS is important to examine, the health effect of overall trends in added caloric sweeteners should not be overlooked.

  5. Calculation of period processing solution syrup in vacuum apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Slavyanskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Important and crucial element in the management of the technological flow of production of sugar product standards is the period of time the enrichment of massecuite, since its neutralization in the process of crystal formation in vacuum apparatus, excess sugar solution. Although currently proposed and implemented in the industry, including as a front-end accompany the process, a number of ways in the real world sugar production in many cases have to resort to the services of an experienced operator. It is obvious that in any case it is necessary to have a surround-dependent glucose solution data on time for the excess sugar solution into the vacuum apparatus. With regard to the period of the enrichment of depleted sucrose solution are entered into this substance excess sucrose solution, it should be noted that this problem is theoretically still insufficiently developed. It is obvious that for practical purposes it is desirable to have a simple and convenient for engineering calculation of sugar processing time dependencies of the specified volume of water from the operating parameters of the process (the required concentration of sucrose, temperature of the solution stirring. The problem is the quantitative analysis of sucrose crystallization in vacuum apparatus, including the timing of enrichment solution to the excess syrup, period of time processing massecuite total this apparatus has been investigated in many works. However, due to its importance to the task of obtaining commercial sugar high standards this issue required further in-depth examination. In the article to support the enrichment process solution sucrose due to neutralize this solvent system in vacuum apparatus, from the standpoint of diffusion theory provides a more reasonable compared to known so far, quantitative analysis of this process. Where as sucrose crystals team are considering a system of balls, uniformly distributed in vacuum apparatus. On the basis of the solution

  6. Xylitol Syrup for the Prevention of Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Michael J.; Vezina, Richard M.; Pelton, Steven I.; Feldman, Henry A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood illness and the leading indication for antibiotic prescriptions for US children. Xylitol, a naturally occurring sugar alcohol, can reduce AOM when given 5 times per day as a gum or syrup, but a more convenient dosing regimen is needed for widespread adoption. METHODS: We designed a pragmatic practice-based randomized controlled trial to determine if viscous xylitol solution at a dose of 5 g 3 times per day could reduce the occurrence of clinically diagnosed AOM among otitis-prone children 6 months through 5 years of age. RESULTS: A total of 326 subjects were enrolled, with 160 allocated to xylitol and 166 to placebo. In the primary analysis of time to first clinically diagnosed AOM episode, the hazard ratio for xylitol versus placebo recipients was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61 to 1.3). In secondary analyses, the incidence of AOM was 0.53 episodes per 90 days in the xylitol group versus 0.59 in the placebo group (difference 0.06; 95% CI –0.25 to 0.13); total antibiotic use was 6.8 days per 90 days in the xylitol group versus 6.4 in the placebo group (difference 0.4; 95% CI –1.8 to 2.7). The lack of effectiveness was not explained by nonadherence to treatment, as the hazard ratio for those taking nearly all assigned xylitol compared with those taking none was 0.93 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.57). CONCLUSIONS: Viscous xylitol solution in a dose of 5 g 3 times per day was ineffective in reducing clinically diagnosed AOM among otitis-prone children. PMID:24394686

  7. Modified Cut-Off Value of the Urine Protein-To-Creatinine Ratio Is Helpful for Identifying Patients at High Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease: Validation of the Revised Japanese Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Shindoh, Chiyohiko; Takeda, Kyoko; Monden, Masami; Izumo, Hiroko; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yutaro; Niwa, Koichiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health issue, and strategies for its early detection and intervention are imperative. The latest Japanese CKD guideline recommends that patients without diabetes should be classified using the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) instead of the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR); however, no validation studies are available. This study aimed to validate the PCR-based CKD risk classification compared with the ACR-based classification and to explore more accurate classification methods. We analyzed two previously reported datasets that included diabetic and/or cardiovascular patients who were classified into early CKD stages. In total, 860 patients (131 diabetic patients and 729 cardiovascular patients, including 193 diabetic patients) were enrolled. We assessed the CKD risk classification of each patient according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate and the ACR-based or PCR-based classification. The use of the cut-off value recommended in the current guideline (PCR 0.15 g/g creatinine) resulted in risk misclassification rates of 26.0% and 16.6% for the two datasets. The misclassification was primarily caused by underestimation. Moderate to substantial agreement between each classification was achieved: Cohen's kappa, 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.69) and 0.72 (0.67-0.76) in each dataset, respectively. To improve the accuracy, we tested various candidate PCR cut-off values, showing that a PCR cut-off value of 0.08-0.10 g/g creatinine resulted in improvement in the misclassification rates and kappa values. Modification of the PCR cut-off value would improve its efficacy to identify high-risk populations who will benefit from early intervention.

  8. Cranberry syrup vs trimethoprim in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections among children: a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uberos J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jose Uberos,1 Mercedes Nogueras-Ocana,2 Verónica Fernandez-Puentes,1 Rocio Rodriguez-Belmonte,1 Eduardo Narbona-López,1 Antonio Molina-Carballo,1 Antonio Munoz-Hoyos11Paediatric Clinical Management Unit, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, Spain; 2Paediatric Urology, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, SpainObjectives: The present study forms part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cranberry syrup in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI.Design: Phase III randomized clinical trial.Setting: The study was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain.Participants: A total of 192 patients were recruited. The subjects were aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI (more than two episodes of infection in the last 6 months, associated or otherwise with vesicoureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with UTI. Criteria for exclusion from recruitment to the study included the co-existence of UTI with other infectious diseases or with metabolic diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and the presence of allergy or intolerance to any of the components of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim.Primary outcome measures: The primary objective was to determine the risk of UTI associated with each intervention.Results: Of the 198 patients initially eligible, 192 were finally included in the study to receive either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim. UTI was observed in 47 patients, 17 of whom were males and 30 females. We recruited 95 patients diagnosed with recurrent UTI on entry; during follow-up, 26 patients had a UTI (27.4%, 95% CI: 18.4%–36.3%. Six patients (6.3% were male and 20 (21.1% were female. Eighteen patients (18.9% of the total, 95% CI: 11%–26.3% receiving trimethoprim had a UTI and eight patients (8

  9. Fungi in Ontario maple syrup & some factors that determine the presence of mold damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasz, Samantha L; Miller, J David

    2015-08-17

    Maple syrup is a high value artisanal product produced mainly in Canada and a number of States primarily in the northeast USA. Mold growth (Wallemia sebi) on commercial product was first reported in syrup in 1908. Since then, few data have been published. We conducted a systematic examination for fungi in maple syrup from 68 producers from all of the syrup-producing areas of Ontario, Canada. The mean pH of the samples was pH 6.82, sugar content averaged 68.0±0.89 °Brix and aw averaged 0.841±0.011. Some 23 species of fungi were isolated based on morphology and molecular techniques. The most common fungus in the maple syrup samples was Eurotium herbariorum, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor and two species of Wallemia. Cladosporium cladosporioides was also common but only recovered when fungi known from high sugar substrates were also present in the mold damaged sample. The rarely reported yeast Citeromyces matrinsis was found in samples from three producers. There appear to be three potential causes for mold damage observed. High aw was associated with about one third of the mold damage. Independently, cold packing (bottling at ~25 °C) was a risk factor. However, syrup of good quality and quite low aw values was contaminated. We hypothesize that sanitation in the bottling line and other aspects of the bottling process may be partial explanations. Clarifying this requires further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of compounded dispersing media for extemporaneous pediatric syrups with candesartan cilexetil and valsartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musko Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Available tablets or capsules for adults are often used to prepare extemporaneously formulated medicines appropriate for children. The most acceptable drug forms in pediatric population are oral liquids and pharmacists use commercial dispersing media to compound syrups from an active substance or from tablets available on the market. In many countries ready-to-use dispersing media are not available or refunded, but pharmacists can use other compounded media, providing their compatibility and stability are proven. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the stability of syrups with candesartan cilexetil (1 mg mL-1 and valsartan (4 mg mL-1 extemporaneously prepared using commercial tablets (Diovan® and Atacand®. The following three different suspending media, which could be easily made in a pharmacy, were investigated: V1 - with xanthan gum (0.5 %, V2 - the USP/NF vehicle for oral solution and V3 - the medium based on a simple sucrose syrup. The stability of preparations was studied during 35 days of storage in a dark place at controlled temperature of 25 and 4 °C. During the study, microscopic observation was carried out and pH, viscosity, and concentration of candesartan cilexetil and valsartan were analyzed. Syrups with valsartan prepared with V2 and V3 media were stable for 3 or 4 weeks when stored at 25 °C, while syrups with candesartan were stable for as long as 35 days. For syrups prepared using V1 medium, the 14-day expiry date was not achieved because of microbial deterioration.

  11. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a) Urine...

  12. Highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for chorionic gonadotropin in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, A.R.; Nisula, B.C.; Chen, H.C.; Hodgen, G.D.; Ross, G.T.

    1978-01-01

    The value of RIAs that measure hCG levels in human urine has been limited principally because of cross-reactivity with human LH. Recently, antisera generated to antigenic determinants on the intact hCGβ subunit and its carboxyl-terminal peptide have been shown to exhibit substantially reduced human LH cross-reactivity. To take maximal advantage of these antisera and to minimize interference by nonspecific substances in urine, a procedure for extracting and concentrating hCG from 24-h urine samples was developed. The procedure involves preparation of a standard kaolin-acetone urine concentrate and adsorption of the hCG in the concentrate to Concanavalin A covalently linked to agarose for purification and subsequent RIA. In urine samples obtained from patients with gestational trophoblastic disease, there was a direct correlation between hCG levels measured by RIA and those estimated by mouse uterine weight bioassy. In individual subjects, hCG levels were determined in serum and urine obtained the same day. When hCG was clearly detectable in the serum at levels greater than 1 ng/ml, the quantity of hCG measured in the urine concentrate exceeded 500 ng/24 h. The concentrates prepared from the urine of normal persons contained an hCG-like glycoprotein substance with antigenic determinants similar to those of the carboxyl-terminal peptide of hCGβ. As the range of hCG immunoreactivity measured in the urine concentrates of normal subjects was 6 to 52 ng/24 h, specific and sensitive detection of urinary hCG could be accomplished in patients whose sera contained hCG undetectable by conventional RIA. Partial purification and concentration of urinary hCG by this procedure with subsequent RIA provides a sensitive and reliable method for detecting hCG in urine

  13. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  14. Environmental heat stress enhances crystallization in urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, H.; Pratiwi, Q. C.; Sjarifah, I.; Atmojo, T. B.; Khotijah

    2018-03-01

    Over the past several decades, agriculture and plantations have been used as the main livelihood of most of the Karanganyar residents. However, these two sources of living are now replaced by industrial areas that employ thousands of people in that district. The development of this industry triggers multiple environmental impacts, including ecosystem and temperature changes. In consequence, there is an increase in air temperature that can cause a variety of diseases, especially in the workplace. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) data in 2013, one worker dies every 15 second due to a work accident and 160 workers are suffering from the occupational disease. In Indonesia, the incidence of crystallization in urine is actually still unknown, but it is estimated that there are 170,000 cases annually. A high temperature or called heat stress is one among many factors causing this disease to appear. The workers in the textile industry, especially in the Finishing Department Kusumahadi Co. Ltd that exposed heat stress from the finishing machines and inadequate ventilation. This hot working climate causes the human body to adapt in the form of body cooling mechanism or called sweating This adaptation can cause an increase in sweat production and decrease the production of urine. If it is not followed by consuming the recommended amount of water intake, it can result in the precipitation of body salts that, in a long time, will cause crystallization in urine. The research used the analytic observational designs for a cross-sectional study. There were 34 samples collected from 57 finishing workers. The data were analyzed using Spearman correlation test. The results showed that heat stress (p=0,015) and water intake (p=0,034) has a significant correlation with crystallization in urine.

  15. The Effectiveness of Herbion Iceland Moss Syrup in the Treatment of Dry Cough in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Niankovskyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the etiologic and pathogenetic aspects of the appearance of dry cough in children. Personal experience of using Herbion Iceland moss syrup in the treatment of post-infectious dry cough in children aged 4–10 years is described. Application of the drug has significantly reduced the intensity of dry cough, quickly stopped night coughing, improved the quality of life of children. Herbion Iceland moss syrup is well tolerated by children and does not cause adverse reactions when used.

  16. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus).

  17. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  18. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  19. A Kinetic Study of the Main Guaco Metabolites Using Syrup Formulation and the Identification of an Alternative Route of Coumarin Metabolism in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparetto, João Cleverson; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; de Francisco, Thais Martins Guimarães; Cerqueira, Letícia Bonâncio; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    For decades guaco species have been empirically used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, studies have shown that the toxic and therapeutic effects of the main guaco metabolites are dose-dependent, and none clinical study was done to evaluate the behavior of these substances in humans. In this work, a pilot study measuring the kinetic profile of the main guaco metabolites was performed leading to the knowledge of an alternative route of coumarin metabolism in humans. Initial screenings demonstrated that the administration of 60 mL of guaco syrup (single dose) did not provide sufficient levels of coumarin (COU), 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HCOU), o-coumaric acid (OCA) and kaurenoic acid (KAU). The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by orally administering 60 mL of guaco syrup spiked with 1500 mg of COU. The kinetic study demonstrated that the plasmatic levels of 7-HCOU (considered the main metabolite of COU) were 10 times lower than the levels of COU, and the kinetic profile of 7-HCOU suggests sequential metabolism in the liver with low access of 7-HCOU to the systemic circulation. The study also demonstrated that OCA is one of the main bioavailable metabolites of COU. Therefore, the hydrolysis of the lactone ring forming a carboxylated compound is one of the possible routes of COU metabolism in humans. The half-lives of COU, 7-HCOU and OCA were approximately 4.0, 1.0 and 3.0 h, respectively and there was evidence that the recommended dosage of guaco syrup did not provide sufficient levels of COU, 7-HCOU or OCA to obtain a bronchodilation effect. Clinical studies are necessary to prove the efficacy and safety of products based on guaco. PMID:25757073

  20. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria.

  1. Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sugar Esters in Honey and Agave Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Siebenhaller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey and agave syrup are high quality natural products and consist of more than 80% sugars. They are used as sweeteners, and are ingredients of cosmetics or medical ointments. Furthermore, both have low water content, are often liquid at room temperature and resemble some known sugar-based deep eutectic solvents (DES. Since it has been shown that it is possible to synthesize sugar esters in these DESs, in the current work honey or, as vegan alternative, agave syrup are used simultaneously as solvent and substrate for the enzymatic sugar ester production. For this purpose, important characteristics of the herein used honey and agave syrup were determined and compared with other available types. Subsequently, an enzymatic transesterification of four fatty acid vinyl esters was accomplished in ordinary honey and agave syrup. Notwithstanding of the high water content for transesterification reactions of the solvent, the successful sugar ester formation was proved by thin-layer chromatography (TLC and compared to a sugar ester which was synthesized in a conventional DES. For a clear verification of the sugar esters, mass determinations by ESI-Q-ToF experiments and a NMR analysis were done. These environmentally friendly produced sugar esters have the potential to be used in cosmetics or pharmaceuticals, or to enhance their effectiveness.

  2. Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sugar Esters in Honey and Agave Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaller, Sascha; Gentes, Julian; Infantes, Alba; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Brenner-Weiß, Gerald; Ochsenreither, Katrin; Syldatk, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    Honey and agave syrup are high quality natural products and consist of more than 80% sugars. They are used as sweeteners, and are ingredients of cosmetics or medical ointments. Furthermore, both have low water content, are often liquid at room temperature and resemble some known sugar-based deep eutectic solvents (DES). Since it has been shown that it is possible to synthesize sugar esters in these DESs, in the current work honey or, as vegan alternative, agave syrup are used simultaneously as solvent and substrate for the enzymatic sugar ester production. For this purpose, important characteristics of the herein used honey and agave syrup were determined and compared with other available types. Subsequently, an enzymatic transesterification of four fatty acid vinyl esters was accomplished in ordinary honey and agave syrup. Notwithstanding of the high water content for transesterification reactions of the solvent, the successful sugar ester formation was proved by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and compared to a sugar ester which was synthesized in a conventional DES. For a clear verification of the sugar esters, mass determinations by ESI-Q-ToF experiments and a NMR analysis were done. These environmentally friendly produced sugar esters have the potential to be used in cosmetics or pharmaceuticals, or to enhance their effectiveness. PMID:29487847

  3. Fermentation of sweet sorghum syrup to butanol in the presence of natural nutrients and inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum syrups represent a renewable raw material that can be available year-round for production of biofuels and biochemicals. Sweet sorghum sugars have been used as sources for butanol production in the past but most often the studies focused on sweet sorghum juice and not on sweet sorghum s...

  4. Case Study: Commercialization of sweet sorghum juice clarification for large-scale syrup manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The precipitation and burning of insoluble granules of starch from sweet sorghum juice on heating coils prevented the large scale manufacture of syrup at a new industrial plant in Missouri, USA. To remove insoluble starch granules, a series of small and large-scale experiments were conducted at the...

  5. High fructose corn syrup use in beverages: Composition, manufacturing, properties, consumption, and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been used in beverages for more than 30 years. Technology to produce it was developed in the 1960s, it was introduced to the food and beverage industry as a liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (sugar) in the 1970s, and it fully replaced sucrose in the USA in m...

  6. Potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for the characterisation of maple syrup flavours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Bernard; Clément, Alain; Lagacé, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Maple syrup has high maket value. It is produced in North East America from the heat-evaporated sap of Acer saccharum Marshall. For marketing purposes, there is interest in defining its flavour profile in a consistent and repeatable manner. An experiment was undertaken to explore the potential of autofluorescence of maple syrup induced at 275 and 360 nm to characterise flavours. A mixed data factor analysis revealed two independent groups of variables. One represents early season woody and late season empyreumatic flavours. The other is related to off-flavour, confectionery and maple flavours. Maple and confectionery flavours are subtle, difficult to distinguish and opposed to off-flavour. There were clear relationships among the two groups and fluorescence profiles. For each of the five basic flavours, discriminant models based on partial least squares regressions were developed. For each sample of syrup, flavours combined to form flavour profiles, and the results from the five discriminant models were aggregated to reproduce these profiles. For excitation at 275 nm, the woody/off-flavour and confectionery/empyreumatic/maple flavour profiles were classified correctly 86 and 78% of the time (cross-validation) respectively. Induced autofluorescence spectra were shown to contain information related to maple syrup flavours. This fluorescence-flavour relationship is not considered quantitative yet, and further research avenues are proposed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sugar Esters in Honey and Agave Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaller, Sascha; Gentes, Julian; Infantes, Alba; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Brenner-Weiß, Gerald; Ochsenreither, Katrin; Syldatk, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    Honey and agave syrup are high quality natural products and consist of more than 80% sugars. They are used as sweeteners, and are ingredients of cosmetics or medical ointments. Furthermore, both have low water content, are often liquid at room temperature and resemble some known sugar-based deep eutectic solvents (DES). Since it has been shown that it is possible to synthesize sugar esters in these DESs, in the current work honey or, as vegan alternative, agave syrup are used simultaneously as solvent and substrate for the enzymatic sugar ester production. For this purpose, important characteristics of the herein used honey and agave syrup were determined and compared with other available types. Subsequently, an enzymatic transesterification of four fatty acid vinyl esters was accomplished in ordinary honey and agave syrup. Notwithstanding of the high water content for transesterification reactions of the solvent, the successful sugar ester formation was proved by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and compared to a sugar ester which was synthesized in a conventional DES. For a clear verification of the sugar esters, mass determinations by ESI-Q-ToF experiments and a NMR analysis were done. These environmentally friendly produced sugar esters have the potential to be used in cosmetics or pharmaceuticals, or to enhance their effectiveness.

  8. Glycemic effect of nutritive sweeteners: Honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy currently exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Using a randomized, crossover design we evaluated the effects of chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) on glucose tolerance in overweigh...

  9. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  10. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  11. Quantitative Determination of Catechin as Chemical Marker in Pediatric Polyherbal Syrup by HPLC/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan A; Siddiqui, Zafar A; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-09-01

    Vivabon syrup is a balanced composition of dietary ingredients of phytopharmaceutical nature for maintaining the physique, vigor, vitality and balanced growth of children. The herbal ingredients of pediatric syrup are rich in bioflavonoid, proteins, vitamins, glycosides and trace elements. Vivabon is formulated with herbal drugs such as Phoenix sylvestris, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Amomum subulatum, Zingiber officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Centaurea behen and Piper longum Catechins are flavan-3-ols that are found widely in the medicinal herbs and are utilized for anti-inflammatory, cardio protective, hepato-protective, neural protection and other biological activities. In general, the dietary intake of flavonoids has been regarded traditionally as beneficial for body growth. Standardization of Vivabon syrup dosage form using HPLC/DAD has been developed for quantitative estimation of Catechin as a chemical marker. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Validation studies demonstrated that the developed HPLC method is quite distinct, reproducible as well as quick and fast. The relatively high recovery and low comparable standard deviation confirm the suitability of the developed method for the determination of Catechin in syrup. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  13. Influence of thermal effect on sugars composition of Mexican Agave syrup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz-Marquez, D.B.; Contreras, J.C.; Rodriguez, R.; Mussatto, S.I.; Wong-Paz, J.E.; Teixeira, J.A.; Aguilar, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Agave syrup is a fermentable by-product from the Agave industry that is used for pulque production, a typical Mexican fermented beverage. However, to date, the information available on its physicochemical composition is scarce, with this study being one of the first contributions on the subject.

  14. Viscoelasticity of Oxidised Starch and Low Methoxy Pectin in the Presence of Glucose Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kasapis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural properties of mixtures with pectin, oxidised starch and glucose syrup were investigated using small deformation dynamic oscillation. The composition of the mixture, pH and temperature course of analysis were designed to imitate the development of confectionery products. In the absence of added calcium, preparations of low methoxy pectin with glucose syrup form viscous solutions, which remain crystal-free at subzero temperatures. Samples of oxidised starch and glucose syrup. on the other hand, exhibit solid-like behavior due to the crystalline nature of the amylose-like helices. Mixtures of the two polyssacharides with the co-solute show clearly the phase inversion from liquid to solid-like behavior with increasing amounts of starch in the formulation. The transformation is reflected in the textural properties of samples which vary from thick solutions to firm gels. The viscoelasticity of the system can be modified further by the introduction of high methoxy pectin. 1hus preparations of high methoxy pectin and glucose syrup form rubbery gels whose amorphous nature undergoes a glass transition during cooling. The energetic requirement for the formation of the biological rubber was in good agreement with corresponding data in the literature.

  15. Development of syrup and “malt-like” drink from Raphia hookeri sap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural microflora fermentation causes changes in freshly tapped palm sap and therefore makes its storage, transport, and large scale use difficult. This study was aimed at developing stable and value added products, including syrup and non-alcoholic “malt-like” drink from the sap of palms. The sap of Raphia hookeri ...

  16. Processing Maple Syrup with a Vapor Compression Distiller: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence D. Garrett

    1977-01-01

    A test of vapor compression distillers for processing maple syrup revealed that: (1) vapor compression equipment tested evaporated 1 pound of water with .047 pounds of steam equivalent (electrical energy); open-pan evaporators of similar capacity required 1.5 pounds of steam equivalent (oil energy) to produce 1 pound of water; (2) vapor compression evaporation produced...

  17. pH and Titratable Acidity of different Cough Syrups in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cough linctuses are liquid oral medicines widely used in children to treat cough and related conditions. Some of their constituents are acidic and dental erosive. Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the endogenous pH and titratable acidity of Nigerian cough syrups and also determine their erosive ...

  18. High Fructose Corn Syrup, Mercury, and Autism--Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review relevant background literature and research regarding the evidence linking high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), mercury, and the increased incidence of autism among the population in the United States. Results of review suggest that rigorous scientific studies need to be performed to conclusively identify the…

  19. Influence of demographic characteristics on production practices within the Ohio maple syrup industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Graham; P. Charles Goebel; Randall B. Heiligmann; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Maple syrup production contributes approximately $5 million annually to Ohio's economy and provides supplemental nontimber forest product income for forestland owners. To better understand the factors that influence this important nontimber forest industry in Ohio, including producer heritage, producer age, sap collection methods, size of maple operation, and...

  20. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. urine markers of kidney disorders and their risk associations in hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-12

    Dec 12, 2010 ... the renal biopsies showed HIV associated kidney disease. Kidney damage can be induced by diseases intrinsic or extrinsic to the kidneys. Damaged kidneys cannot regulate ..... Comparison of risk of having erythrocytes and protein in urine in individuals with leucocytes and without leucocytes in urine.

  2. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hematuria is when blood in the urine is invisible to the naked eye; it only shows up ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  3. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  4. Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... blood pressure, and epinephrine increases heart rate and metabolism . After completing their actions, catecholamines are metabolized to ...

  5. CATECHIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME BREWED TEMPERATURE OF BLACK TEA SYRUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuty Anggraini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The catechin contents and the antioxidant activity of black tea syrup that brewed at some temperature still poorly understood. It has been investigated whether catechin contents and antioxidant activity of black tea syrup may be affected by hot or cold water.  The temperature of 30°C, 60°C, and 90°C were used to brew the syrup, and then the catechin and the antioxidant were determined at each temperature by using DPPH radical scavenging activity method. Measurement of DPPH was conducted for 2 minutes reaction time. Catechin contents were determined by using HPLC method. The result of research showed that the catechin and the antioxidant activity affected by temperature tested. Five kinds of catechin derivatives detected in black tea syrup, EGC (epigallocatechin, C (catechin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate, EC (epicatechin and ECG (epicatechin gallate. The highest DPPH scavenging activity of black tea syrup was showed by 30°C.ABSTRAKKandungan katechin dan aktivitas antioksidan dari sirup teh hitam yang diseduh pada beberapa temperatur masih belum begitu dipahami. Pada penelitian ini telah diselidiki apakan kandungan katechin dan aktioksidan dipengaruhi oleh air dingin atau air panas. Temperatur 30oC, 60oC, dan 90oC digunakan untuk menyeduh sirup teh hitam lalu ditentukan kandungan katechin dan aktifitas antioksidannya pada masing-masing temperatur menggunakan metode aktifitas perangkap radikal bebas DPPH (dyphenyl pycrylhydrazyl. Pengukuran DPPH dilakukan selama waktu reaksi dua menit. Kandungan katechin ditentukan menggunakan metode HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan katechin dan aktifitas antioksidan sirup teh hitam dipengaruhi oleh temperatur yang diuji. Lima jenis turunan katechin terdeteksi dalam sirup teh hitam yaitu EGC (epigallocatechin, C (catechin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate, EC (epicatechin and ECG (epicatechin gallate. Aktifitas perangkap DPPH tertinggi dari sirup teh

  6. Effect of aronia berry honey syrup used for sweetening jams on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiecik, W; Lisiewska, Z; Jaworska, G

    2001-08-01

    The effects of sweetening agents on the quality of low sweetened jams were compared with respect to blackcurrant, raspberry, sour cherry, strawberry, and bilberry jams. The sweetening agents were sucrose, aronia berry honey syrup, and sucrose + honey syrup at a ratio of 1:1. The level of physicochemical indices, especially the content of vitamin C and anthocyanins determined directly after production and after 3- and 6-month storage, was used as the quality criterion for the evaluation of jams. Moreover, after 6-month storage the products were subjected to sensorial analysis. According to the accepted method of the investigation the produced jams were characterized by a 32-33% content of extract. During the production and 6-month storage the content of acids slightly and that of pectin considerably (from 26 to 46%) decreased, although the consistency of the jams was not affected thereby. In the case of vitamin C, its pronounced losses concerned raspberry (62-67% of the initial value), strawberry (57-61%), and sour cherry (57-58%), being distinctly smaller in blackcurrant (13-16%) and bilberry (15-35%) jams. With respect to anthocyanins a similar regularity was observed, the losses reaching 49-63% in strawberry jam, 40-56% in raspberry, 33-39% in sour cherry, 30-36% in blackcurrant, and 28-36% in bilberries. In almost all the products the losses of vitamin C and anthocyanins were higher when sweetening agent was aronia berry honey syrup. The organoleptic evaluation showed that the addition of aronia berry honey syrup to raspberry and strawberry jams slightly spoiled their colour but improved the aroma and taste. In the final score the significant differentiation in favour of the addition of aronia berry honey syrup concerned only blackcurrant, sour cherry, and bilberry jams.

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indic...

  8. The Cutoff Level for Urine Protein in Urine Immunofixation Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Curek, Gulten; Eren, Esin; Aydin, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Necat

    2015-01-01

    Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) maintains its importance in diagnosing monoclonal gammopathies. In particular, urine IFE detects free light chains (FLC) in urine samples even at low concentrations and offers higher sensitivity compared to serum electrophoresis and serum IFE. The aim of the present study was to determine the place and significance of quantitative urinary protein measurement before IFE in interpreting the results of subsequent IFE and to determine the most appropriate protein concentrations for the appearance of bands. The records of a total of 600 patients, who underwent screening for Bence Jones proteinuria using IFE on 24-hour urine, were retrospectively reviewed. Urine IFE was performed using Helena SAS-I and SAS-I devices. The total protein concentration in the urine was quantitatively determined by the Pyrogallol red method, and the urine albumin level was determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. These analyses were measured on an Olympus/Beckmann AU5800. The evaluation of IFE results revealed that 311 patients had normal results, 108 patients had monoclonal bands, five patients had biclonal bands, 28 had polyclonal bands, and 148 patients had various degrees of proteinuria. ROC curves were created in order to determine the most appropriate urinary protein and albumin levels to observe bands in IFE. Accordingly, urine baseline protein level (mg/dL) showed the highest AUC value (cutoff value: 19.4 mg/dL, sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 98.2%, AUC: 0.972). The present study showed that quantitative protein measurement before IFE eliminated the disadvantages associated with the IFE method and its interpretation.

  9. Analysis of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in rat urine of Alzheimer's disease using in situ ultrasound-assisted derivatization dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian-En; He, Yongrui; Li, Meng; Chen, Guang; Wei, Na; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Jing; Zhu, Shuyun; You, Jinmao

    2017-02-20

    Neurotransmitters (NTs) may play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to investigate the potential links, a new simple, fast, accurate and sensitive analytical method, based on in situ ultrasound-assisted derivatization dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ UA-DDLLME) coupled with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), has been developed and validated. The quantitation of amino acid neurotransmitters (AANTs) and monoamine neurotransmitters (MANTs) in urine of AD rats were performed in this work. The in situ UA-DDLLME procedure involved the rapid injection of the mixture of low toxic 4-bromoanisole (extractant) and acetonitrile (dispersant), which containing the new designed and synthesized 4'-carbonyl chloride rosamine (CCR) as derivatization reagent, into the aqueous phase of real sample and buffer. Under the selected conditions, the derivatization and microextraction of analytes were simultaneously completed within 1min. Good linearity for each analyte (R>0.992) was observed with low limit of detections (LODs, S/N>3). Moreover, the proposed method was compared with direct detection or other reported methods, and the results showed that low matrix effects and good recoveries results were obtained in this work. Taken together, in situ UA-DDLLME coupled with UHPLC-MS/MS analysis was demonstrated to be a good method for sensitive, accurate and simultaneous monitoring of AANTs and MANTs. This method would be expected to be highly useful in AD diseases' clinical diagnostics and may have potential value in monitoring the efficacy of treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Urine creatinine in treatment-naïve HIV subjects in eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyabolu, Ernest Ndukaife

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a global healthcare problem. Some diseases and physiological states may be altered in HIV-infected individuals. Our objective was to evaluate urine creatinine and factors that influence urine creatinine in treatment-naïve HIV subjects in Nigeria. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving treatment-naïve HIV subjects in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Creatinine in spot and 24-hour urine samples and other relevant investigations were performed. Low urine creatinine or dilute urine was defined as 24-hour urine creatinine (24HUCr) creatinine as 24HUCr 300-3000mg and high urine creatinine or concentrated urine as 24HUCr>3000mg.Theassociation of low urine creatinine and high urine creatinine with potential risk factors was determined. Results The mean spot urine creatinine (SUCr) of the treatment-naïve HIV subjects was 137.21± 98.47(mg/dl), minimum value 13.3mg/dl, maximum value 533.3mg/dl and range of values 520.0mg/dl. The mean 24HUCr was 1507±781mg, minimum value 206mg, maximum value 4849mg and range of values 4643mg. Twenty four-hour urine creatinine3000mg in 24(6.4%) subjects. There was significant association between 24HUCr and serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL),serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). There was high correlation between 24HUCr>3000mg and 24-hour urine osmolality (24HUOsm) (r=0.95), body mass index (BMI) (r=0.74), CD4 cells count (r=-0.71), serum HDL (r=-0.73). Conclusion The prevalence of dilute urine and concentrated urine was low. Twenty-four hour urine osmolality. BMI, CD4 cells count and HDL were strong correlates of high urine creatinine. Lipid abnormalities were common in treatment-naïve HIV subjects with high urine creatinine. There is need for clinicians to routinely conduct urine creatinine and further search for abnormalities of serum lipids, weight changes, depressed immunity and anemia in HIV subjects with dilute or concentrated urine in

  11. Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration

  12. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Yasser S.; Alamri, Saad A.

    2012-01-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appear...

  13. Lactic acid production using two food processing wastes, canned pineapple syrup and grape invertase, as substrate and enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takashi; Ozawa, Yasuhiro; Ishikawa, Masaki; Nakanishi, Kotoyoshi; Kimura, Toshinori

    2003-04-01

    Canned pineapple syrup, a food processing waste, was utilized as a substrate for lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis. To improve the utilization of sucrose from the syrup, grape invertase from grape juice derived from wine production was used for sucrose hydrolysis. The highest lactic acid concentrations achieved were 20 and 92 g l-1 from 20 and 100 g total sugars l-1, respectively, without a lag period for sucrose consumption.

  14. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar loaf and MD2 pineapple varieties were evalu- ated. Organic side-stream pineapple syrup developed from MD2 recorded the highest moisture content with a corre- sponding water activity. The colour ch...

  15. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed S. Hussein; Jamal Al Ghurair; P. George Kunju John; Hosam M. Habib; Mohsin Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of...

  16. Creating a urine black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  17. Favorable acceptance of mini-tablets compared with syrup: a randomized controlled trial in infants and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingmann, Viviane; Spomer, Natalie; Lerch, Christian; Stoltenberg, Ines; Frömke, Cornelia; Bosse, Hans Martin; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Meissner, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate acceptability of 2 mm solid dosage forms (mini-tablets) as an alternative administration modality in young children in comparison with syrup. Three hundred six pediatric in- and outpatients aged 6 months-5 years (51 in each of 6 age groups) were recruited. An open, randomized cross-over study was conducted to compare acceptability and capability to swallow 2 mm uncoated or coated mini-tablets vs 3 mL syrup. In the overall patient population of 306 children, the acceptability of uncoated mini-tablets was superior to syrup (difference in proportions 14.8%, 95% CI 10.2-19.4; P syrup as well (difference in proportions 12.3%, 95% CI 5.4-19.3; P = .0008). All 3 pharmaceutical formulations were well tolerated, and none of the 306 children inhaled or coughed because of the syrup or the uncoated mini-tablet; only 2 of the 306 children (both in age group 0.5-1 year) coughed because of the coated mini-tablet, in both cases without clinical relevance. Mini-tablets are a valuable alternative to syrup for children 6 months-6 years of age and are more acceptable compared with liquid formulation. Regulatory bodies such as Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency are encouraged to take our data into account for guideline updates and future drug approval processes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin in a fixed-combination syrup versus an oral reference product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Annick; Monnet, Joelle

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin in a new oral syrup with an established oral reference product. The secondary objective was to compare the safety of the new syrup and the reference product. This was a single-centre, open-label, randomized, reference-replicated, crossover study. Healthy adult volunteers received one dose of syrup and two separate doses of a reference oral liquid formulation in a randomized sequence over three study periods, with a washout interval of ≥ 7 days between study periods. Blood samples were taken regularly postdose and analysed for paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin concentrations; adverse events were recorded. This study enrolled 45 subjects. For paracetamol and guaifenesin, the syrup and reference product were considered to be bioequivalent. Bioequivalence was not shown for phenylephrine hydrochloride. All adverse events were mild or moderate, most of which were considered formulation related. The syrup did not reach bioequivalence with the reference product, as bioequivalence could not be shown for phenylephrine hydrochloride. This may be due to differences in the excipients between the two products. Both the syrup and the reference product had a good safety profile and were well tolerated.

  19. [Detection of Syrup Adulterants in Prepackaged Pure Pineapple Juice by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Ke, Jian; Li, Bao-li; Tang, Cui-e; Tan, Jun; Liu, Rui; Wang, Hong; Li, Tao; Zhou, Sheng-yin

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to establish a method that can quickly and accurately identify adulterated syrup in the pure pineapple juice. A attenuated total internal refraction-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to collect the range of 900 -1 500 cm(-1) infrared spectra of 234 samples pure pineapple juice and adulterated syrup by beet syrup, rice syrup and cassava syrup. By using linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine for the identification model, comparing the full spectral and selected wavelengths based on principal component analysis loading plots of the two models to identify adulteration. Studies showed that the correct rate of validation set by linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine model on full spectral were both higher than 88%, variables were significantly reduced from 312 to 8 after selecting the eight characteristic wavelengths, the correct rate of validation set by linear discriminant analysis model was up to 96.15% and support vector machine was increase to 94.87%. The results demonstrated that the model built using a attenuated total internal refraction-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with chemometric methods after selected characteristic wavelengths could be used for the identification of the adulterated syrup in the pure pineapple juice.

  20. Dextromethorphan in Cough Syrup: The Poor Man's Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinak, Bridgette; Bolis, Ramy A; Black, Jeffrey Ryne; Fargason, Rachel E; Birur, Badari

    2017-09-15

    Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia. We report a noteworthy case of severe dextromethorphan use disorder with dextromethorphan-induced psychotic disorder in a 40-year-old Caucasian female, whose symptoms remitted only following treatment with a combination of an antipsychotic and mood stabilizer. While some states have begun to limit the quantity of DXM sold or restrict sales to individuals over 18-years of age, there is currently no federal ban or restriction on DXM. Abuse of DXM, a readily available and typically inexpensive agent that is not detected on a standard urine drug screen, may be an under-recognized cause of substance-induced psychosis. It is imperative that clinicians are aware of the potential psychiatric sequelae of recreational DXM use.

  1. Dextromethorphan in Cough Syrup: The Poor Man’s Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinak, Bridgette; Bolis, Ramy A.; Black, Jeffrey Ryne; Fargason, Rachel E.; Birur, Badari

    2017-01-01

    Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as “DXM” and “the poor man’s PCP,” is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia. We report a noteworthy case of severe dextromethorphan use disorder with dextromethorphan-induced psychotic disorder in a 40-year-old Caucasian female, whose symptoms remitted only following treatment with a combination of an antipsychotic and mood stabilizer. While some states have begun to limit the quantity of DXM sold or restrict sales to individuals over 18-years of age, there is currently no federal ban or restriction on DXM. Abuse of DXM, a readily available and typically inexpensive agent that is not detected on a standard urine drug screen, may be an under-recognized cause of substance-induced psychosis. It is imperative that clinicians are aware of the potential psychiatric sequelae of recreational DXM use. PMID:28936010

  2. Comparison of Estimated Protein Output and Urine Protein:Creatinine Ratio in First and Second Voids with 24-Hour Urine Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viknesh Selvarajah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current UK guidelines for the identification, management and referral of chronic kidney disease advise an early-morning urine sample for the albumin:creatinine ratio or the protein:creatinine ratio (PCR in order to quantify proteinuria. Estimated protein output (EPO is an alternative and possibly better method of quantifying proteinuria which takes lean weight into consideration. Methods: We carried out a single-centre study of 36 adult patients with proteinuric nephropathy over a period of 18 months. Urinary PCR and EPO estimates of 24-hour urine protein were compared with 24-hour urine collections by Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Average 24-hour urine protein was 1.6 g (range 0.2–5.1 g. Best agreement with 24-hour protein was for first-void EPO (limits of agreement 0.33–1.59 followed by a second-void EPO (0.40–1.76, then second-void PCR (0.40–2.08 and lastly first-void PCR (0.28–2.03. None of the differences between estimates of urine protein excretion and 24-hour urine protein were statistically significant. All estimates of protein output had wide confidence intervals confirming that spot urine samples, while simple and convenient to do, are imprecise measures of 24-hour urine protein excretion. Conclusion: When estimating 24-hour urine protein from a spot urine sample, EPO may be marginally more accurate than PCR, and first-void urine samples slightly better than second-void urine samples, but a first- or second-void PCR will suffice in most instances.

  3. Hypovolemic shock due to severe gastrointestinal bleeding in a child taking an herbal syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Angela Moro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 4-years-old boy who was admitted with hypovolemic shock due to a severe gastrointestinal bleeding. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS showed hiatus hernia, erosions and ulcerations of the lower esophagus, possibly due to a gastroesophageal reflux, and a small duodenal erosion. The child was previously healthy and he had never shown any symptoms related to this condition. The only product taken by the child in the previous days was a syrup containing several herbs, among which Filipendula ulmaria (L. Maxim. and Salix spp. (known to contain salicylates, marketed as food and prescribed by his paediatrician to treat a mild cold accompanied by fever. Quali-quantitative analysis confirmed the presence of salicylates in the syrup. Naranjo algorithm showed a probable correlation between the onset of symptoms and the consumption of the herbal remedy. The child recovered after receiving intensive care. The product was withdrawn from Italian market.

  4. Standard manufacturing procedure for syrup and tablet forms of Jwarahara Dashemani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsariya, Bharat D.; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Jwarahara Dashemani (JHD) is mentioned by Acharya Charaka under the different categories of Mahakashayas (groups of drugs having similar pharmacological actions). For the present study, syrup and tablet forms of JHDs were prepared and analyzed. The formulations were prepared in various batches by following the standard manufacturing procedure (SMP). JHD Kwatha (2200 ml) and 1430 g sugar candy powder were heated (80–90°C) together for 3.10 hours and 2200 ml syrup was obtained, whereas an average of 446 g of tablet was obtained from the mixture of 285 g Ghana and powder of sugar candy (125 g), JHD Dravyas (55 g) and talc (18 g). These formulations were subjected to various analytical parameters and the results were observed on the basis of preparation. PMID:22131721

  5. [The use of Pantogam syrup in treating small children's breath holding spells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polskaya, A V; Chutko, L S; Jakovenko, E V

    To study the efficacy of pantogam syrup 10% (hopantenic acid) in the treatment of breath-holding spells (BHS). Sixty children, aged from 2 to 4 years, with BHS were studied. The evaluation of clinical manifestations and anxiety level was performed. Results of neurophysiological examination (long-term video-EEG-monitoring) were analyzed. Children were divided into 2 groups: main, in which the patients received pantogam syrup, and control group, in which only psychological methods were used. The results of the clinical and neurophysiological studies performed after the treatment, showed the clinical improvement in 73.3% of patients of the main group compared with similar data from the children in the control group (16.7%). The anxiety level significantly decreased after the neuroprotective therapy. A comparative analysis of electroencephalographic indicators demonstrated a significant (рchildren with BHS.

  6. Influence of packaging on the aroma stability of strawberry syrup during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducruet, V; Fournier, N; Saillard, P; Feigenbaum, A; Guichard, E

    2001-05-01

    Different types of packaging (glass bottle, PVC, and PET) were compared for the preservation of aroma quality of a strawberry syrup during shelf life. Esters, alcohols, and aldehydes were analyzed by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and solvent extraction. During storage, hydrolysis of esters in acids and alcohols led to a modification of the aroma profile which can be explained by the replacement of "fruity" and "fresh" notes by "dairy note" in the syrup. Aroma compounds that are responsible for fruity notes, such as methyl cinnamate, methyl anthranilate, and methyl dihydrojasmonate, were strongly reduced after 90 days. This could be explained by a selective interaction of these compounds with the polymer matrix (PET or PVC). After 330 days, a later and important decrease of the "fruity notes" occurred in both PETs; so PVC2 and the glass bottle were found to be able to maintain a balanced aroma for long-term storage.

  7. Biocatalytic strategies for the production of high fructose syrup from inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Chauhan, Kanika; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2018-04-03

    The consumption of natural and low calorie sugars has increased enormously from the past few decades. To fulfil the demands, the production of healthy sweeteners as an alternative to sucrose has recently received considerable interest. Fructose is the most health beneficial and safest sugar amongst them. It is generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and has become an important food ingredient due its sweetening and various health promising functional properties. Commercially, high fructose syrup is prepared from starch by multienzymatic process. Single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin using inulinase has emerged as an alternate to the conventional approach to reduce complexity, time and cost. The present review, outlines the enzymatic strategies used for the preparation of high fructose syrup from inulin/inulin-rich plant materials in batch and continuous systems, and its conclusions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical stability of hydrocortisone in humco simple syrup and ora-sweet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishnu D

    2010-01-01

    The chemical stability of hydrocortisone in two different commercially available vehicles for compounding oral liquid dosage forms has been studies using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method that was developed in our laboratory. Hydrocortisone was more stable in Ora-Sweet vehicle than in Humco simple syrup. After 71 days of storage at 60 degrees Celsius, the percent of hydrocortisone retained in Humco simple syrup was 62.8 ( initial pH value of the dosage form was 5.2) versus 67.7 in Ora-Sweet vehicle (initial pH value of the dosage form was 4.3). Due to the hydrolysis of sugar, the physical appearances of both the dosage forms gradually changed from almost colorless to yellow. Citric acid, which was present only in the Ora-Sweet vehicle, did not adversely affect the stability of hydrocortisone.

  9. Urine Sodium in 3 Consecutive Days Urine collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that salt sensitivity, which is a heritable trait, is a hallmark to hypertension in blacks. Previous studies on twenty-four hour urinary sodium were either incomplete or yielded contradictory results possibly from incomplete urine collection. This study attempted complete ...

  10. Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellum, John A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Shaw, Andrew D; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural

    OpenAIRE

    G. Luis; C. Rubio; A. J. Gutiérrez; C. Hernández; D. González-Weller; C. Revert; A. Castilla; P. Abreu; A. Hardisson

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera isla...

  12. Quality and sensorial characteristics of osmotically dehydrated mango with syrups of inverted sugar and sucrose

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi,Sabrina; Bodini,Renata B.; Marcatti,Bruna; Petrus,Rodrigo Rodrigues; Favaro-Trindade,Carmen Sílvia

    2009-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration is becoming more popular as a complementary treatment in the processing of dehydrated foods, since it presents some advantages such as minimising heat damage to the colour and flavour, inhibiting enzymatic browning and thus dispensing the addition of sulphite and, mainly, reducing energy costs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of using inverted sugar and sucrose syrups as osmotic agents in the dehydration of mango. The conditions used in the de...

  13. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Seyedeh-Masomeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholam-Reza; Entezari, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-12-01

    The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS) has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian's traditional syrup) on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36) received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar). Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = -9.43 P = 0.005, respectively). Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, -1.53 mg/dl and - 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = -4.82 P syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  14. Effect of steady-state methadone on high fructose corn syrup consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephen; Pratt, Mick; Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    Patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment self-report enhanced preferences for, and excessive consumption of, foods rich in sugar. However, it is unclear whether these are direct pharmacological effects of methadone or the consequences of metabolic dysfunctions induced by addiction to illicit opiates. Hence, the current study in drug-naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats explored the effects of steady-state methadone delivered by osmotic mini-pumps (13 days; 0, 10, 30 mg/kg/day) on consumption of rat chow and a palatable, sweet, liquid high fructose corn syrup solution. Six days after the removal of the pumps, mRNA expression of genes involved in responses to stress and rewards were quantified: pro-opiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus, mu-opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens, and dopamine D2 receptor in the dorsal striatum. Taste reactivity and locomotion tests were also performed throughout the study. It was found that methadone increased caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup and reduced caloric intake from chow, effects that could not be directly ascribed to changes in high fructose corn syrup taste reactivity or motor functions. However, the changes in caloric intake displayed significant tolerance, and mRNA expression analysis suggested that methadone attenuated the effect of high fructose corn syrup on pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA, and possibly on dopamine D2 receptor mRNA. These findings in rats suggest that the pharmacological effect of methadone, administered to achieve steady-state maintenance, may not be the primary cause of dietary alterations reported by patients maintained on methadone.

  15. Consumer study and sensorial evaluation of a newly developed spicy strawberry syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Lima, Maria João; Pato, Lúcia; Correia, Ana Cristina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Costa, Elisa; Santos, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The potential beneficial effects of strawberry allied to those of chilly in many aspects of human health lead to the development of a spicy strawberry syrup. The work included the development of the product, including formulation, processing and industrialization aspects, chemical and sensorial analyses as well as a consumer study, of which some will be analysed in the present manuscript. The sensorial evaluation was performed with a panel of 25 tasters, of which 17 were women and 8 men. T...

  16. Technology Of Tapioca Syrups In The Village Toddotoa Pallangga District Gowa South Of Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Tenri Fitriyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the business people tapioca tapioca drying is often a problem because they rely on sunlight. In the rainy season would be disrupted so that drying The resulting starch quality were poor and lower selling prices. An attempt developed of glucose and fructose syrup production from starch wet expected to increases added value for farmers. Manioc starch yield of about 15-25 percent and the yield into glucose syrup 80-95 percent of the dry starch. The quality of the production process glucose syrup can enhanced by peruses liquefaction saccharification purification and neutralization as well as evaporation. The purpose of food science and technology service activities of knowledge and technology for the community Ktfc is to improve the quality of peoples tapioca syrup and glucosesugar liquid produced from tapioca starch processing using appropriate technology. Community groups of food science and technology program for the community Ktfc as partner in service activities is a business group Tapioca People Tapioca Jaya and cassava farmer group Sinar Jaya in the Village Toddotoa Palangga District of Gowa South of Sulawesi. Plan service activities this form of raising the target groups group Tapioca business people and farmer groups cassava Sinar Jaya as a producer of cassava. This service activities begins with conducting a survey to location where industry partners during these activities. Extension of the function and the importance of appropriate technology which will be applied in particular to a group of business people tapioca Tapioca Jaya i.e. improvement of appropriate technology the process of liquefaction saccharification purification neutralization and evaporation and the improvement of post-harvest processing of cassava namely eliminate shrinkage results and stripping is done with a mechanical device that previously had to be washed to eliminating the silicon content.

  17. Possible consequences of the sucrose replacement by a fructose-glucose syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Judit Süli; Ingrid Hamarová; Anna Sobeková

    2017-01-01

    The fructose-glucose syrup is currently used instead of sucrose in bakery products for economic and technological reasons. The authors investigated the extent to which this change affects the formation of non-enzymatic browning products (Advanced Glycation End - AGE-Products and melanoidins). Formation of these products in model systems - mixtures of various sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose - concentration 6%) with glycine (concentration 0.7%) or/and lysine (concentration 0.3%), heat-treate...

  18. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  19. Methylglyoxal is associated with bacteriostatic activity of high fructose agave syrups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gomez Ojeda, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Magana, Armando Alcazar; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2014-12-15

    Three α-ketoaldehydes, potentially present in high fructose agave syrups (HFASs) as intermediates of the Maillard reaction, were determined. A previously reported HPLC-FLD procedure based on pre-column derivatisation with 4-methoxy-o-phenylenediamine was adopted, yielding the method quantification limits 0.11 mg/kg, 0.10mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg for glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGo) and diacetyl, respectively. The obtained results revealed high concentrations of methylglyoxal in HFASs (average 102 ± 91 mg/kg, range 15.6-315 mg/kg) as compared to commercial Mexican bee honeys or corn syrups. Hydrogen peroxide was generated in all HFASs upon dilution, yet to less extent than in bee honeys. HFASs presented bacteriostatic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; catalase addition had minimum effect on the assay results in syrups with elevated MGo. Principal component analysis revealed direct association between growth inhibition and MGo. It is concluded that elevated concentration of MGo in HFASs is at least in part responsible for their non-peroxide bacteriostatic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of Sugar Replacement with Date Syrup in Prebiotic Chocolate Milk Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate milk is one of the most commonly used non-fermentative dairy products, which, due to high level of sucrose, could lead to diabetes and tooth decay among children. Therefore, it is important to replace sucrose with other types of sweeteners, especially, natural ones. In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the ingredients formulation of prebiotic chocolate milk, date syrup as sweetener (4-10%w/w), inulin as prebiotic texturizer (0-0.5%w/w) and carrageenan as thickening agent (0-0.04%w/w) in the formulation of chocolate milk. The fitted models to predict the variables of selected responses such as pH, viscosity, total solid, sedimentation and overall acceptability of chocolate milk showed a high coefficient of determination. The independent effect of carrageenan was the most effective parameter which led to pH and sedimentation decrease but increased viscosity. Moreover, in most treatments, date syrup and inulin variables had significant effects which had a mutual impact. Optimization of the variables, based on the responses surface 3D plots showed that the sample containing 0.48% (w/w) of inulin, 0.04% (w/w) of carrageenan, and 10% of date syrup was selected as the optimum condition. PMID:28747831

  1. Modelling of the process of micromycetus survival in fruit and berry syrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Osipova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop methods for preserving fruit and berry syrup, which exclude the use of high-temperature sterilization and preservatives, the survival of spores of micromycetes (B. nivea molds in model media with different concentration of food osmotically active substances (sucrose, ethyl alcohol, citric acid at a certain concentration of lethal effects on microorganisms. It has been established that model media (juice based syrups from blueberries with a mass content of 4 % and 6 % alcohol, 50 % sucrose, 1 % and 2 % titrated acids, have a lethal effect on spores of B. nivea molds. The regression equation is obtained expressing the dependence of the amount of spores of B. nivea molds on the concentration of sucrose, acid, alcohol and the storage time of syrups. The form of the dependence and direction of the connection between the variables is established – a negative linear regression, which is expressed in the uniform decrease of the function. The estimation of quality of the received regression model is defined. The deviations of the calculated data from the data of the initial set are calculated. The proposed model has sufficient reliability, since the regression function is defined, interpreted and justified, and the estimation of the accuracy of the regression analysis meets the requirements.

  2. Alternatives for clarifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Teresa Cruz Guerrero

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies some routes for separating and purifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. The clarifying process is done in three stages. The first one (solids remotion is done by applying conventional solid-liquid separation techniiques such as sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration, as well as studying the effect of using flocculant and coagulant agents, prior to the already mentioned operations. Purification is done by adding decolouring agents, followed by ultrafiltration of the syrup. The last step (concentration is done by vacuum evaporation. The results showed that separation, centrifuging and sedimation reached 50% yield whilst filtration and ultrafiltration achieved 78% and 98% respectively. It was found that adsorbent agents such as activated carbon and diatomaceous earth were effective in removing colour during the purification stage. The most suitable alternative for separation can be suggested from the foregoing, allowing a syrup to be obtained having similar characteristics and propierties to the commercial product. The most appropriate technological module for carrying out the operation is also represented.

  3. Comparison of sprinkle versus syrup formulations of valproate for bioavailability, tolerance, and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, J C; Kriel, R L; Jones-Saete, C M; Ong, B Y; Jancik, J T; Remmel, R P

    1992-04-01

    We compared a new coated-particle formulation of valproate (Depakote Sprinkle) capsules with valproic acid (Depakene) syrup for bioavailability, side effects, and patient and parent preference. Twelve children with epilepsy, aged 5 to 16 years, participated in this randomized, two-period, crossover study. They were assigned to a 7-day regimen with one formulation and then crossed over to the other; the drug was given every 12 hours. On day 7, blood samples collected during a 12-hour period were analyzed for the presence of valproate. At the study's end, parents and children were asked structured questions regarding formulation preference and adverse events. The extent of absorption from sprinkle equaled that from syrup (relative bioavailability = 1.02), but absorption was slower (time to maximum concentration = 4.2 vs 0.9 hour; p less than 0.01). Fluctuations in serum concentrations were less with sprinkle (34.8% vs 62.3%; p less than 0.01). Sprinkle was preferred by 9 of the 12 parents because of east of administration, and by nine of the children because of improved palatability. We conclude that sprinkle may be substituted for syrup without changing the daily dose. Furthermore, sprinkle, because of its prolonged absorption, may be given every 12 hours to children receiving monotherapy. Compliance may be enhanced because of the more convenient dosing schedules and the high degree of patient and parent acceptance.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative detection of honey adulterated with high-fructose corn syrup and maltose syrup by using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuifang; Zhang, Xin; Shan, Yang; Su, Donglin; Ma, Qiang; Wen, Ruizhi; Li, Jiaojuan

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used for qualitative and quantitative detection of honey adulterated with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or maltose syrup (MS). Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was employed to select key variables. Partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was adopted to classify the adulterated honey samples. The CARS-PLS-LDA models showed an accuracy of 86.3% (honey vs. adulterated honey with HFCS) and 96.1% (honey vs. adulterated honey with MS), respectively. PLS regression (PLSR) was used to predict the extent of adulteration in the honeys. The results showed that NIR combined with PLSR could not be used to quantify adulteration with HFCS, but could be used to quantify adulteration with MS: coefficient (R p 2 ) and root mean square of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.901 and 4.041 for MS-adulterated samples from different floral origins, and 0.981 and 1.786 for MS-adulterated samples from the same floral origin (Brassica spp.), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Rare Sugar Syrup Containing d-Allulose but Not High-Fructose Corn Syrup Maintains Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity Partly via Hepatic Glucokinase Translocation in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Toyoda, Yukiyasu

    2017-04-05

    Ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase. RSS significantly suppressed body weight gain and abdominal fat mass (p < 0.05). The glucose tolerance test revealed significantly higher blood glucose levels in the HFCS group compared to the water group, whereas the RSS group had significantly lower blood glucose levels from 90 to 180 min (p < 0.05). At 30, 60, and 90 min, the levels of insulin in the RSS group were significantly lower than those in the water group (p < 0.05). The amount of hepatic glycogen was more than 3 times higher in the RSS group than that in the other groups. After glucose loading, the nuclear export of glucokinase was significantly increased in the RSS group compared to the water group. These results imply that RSS maintains glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, at least partly, by enhancing nuclear export of hepatic glucokinase.

  6. Polymorphisms in Renal Ammonia Metabolism Genes Correlate With 24-Hour Urine pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K. Canales

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Overall, these findings suggest that variants in common genes involved in ammonia metabolism may substantively contribute to basal urine pH regulation. These variations might influence the likelihood of developing disease conditions associated with altered urine pH, such as uric acid or calcium phosphate kidney stones.

  7. Biochemical and molecular aspects of aluminium chloride-induced neurotoxicity in mice and the protective role of Crocus sativus L. extraction and honey syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shati, A A; Elsaid, F G; Hafez, E E

    2011-02-23

    Aluminium has been proposed as an environmental factor that may affect several enzymes and other biomolecules related to neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The promising protective effect of aqueous saffron extract and honey syrup on neurotoxicity induced by aluminuim chloride (AlCl(3)) may be derived from their own antioxidant properties. Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice (35-40 g) were injected with AlCl(3), 40 mg/kg/day for 45 days. Each mice strain was divided into four groups: AlCl(3) treated group, AlCl(3) plus water saffron extract group (administered with saffron extract at 200 mg/kg b.w. once a day for the experimental period), AlCl(3) plus honey syrup group (administered with honey syrup at 500 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days). The control group received no treatment. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status were estimated in the brain and differential display was performed for both mice strains to scan the mRNA in the treated and non treated groups. In addition, the up and down regulated genes were isolated, cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis was performed and compared with the other genes cited on GenBank. The results show that there was a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (P≤0.001) such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the AlCl3 groups of both mice strains. The level of brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed a significant increase (P≤0.001) of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the AlCl(3) groups. There was an indication of carcinogenicity in the AlCl(3) treated group representing an increase in serum tumor markers such as arginase and a-l-fucosidase. More than 350 band patterns were obtained and about 22 different up-down regulated genes were observed. The sequence analysis of the three selected up-regulated genes revealed that they are similar to B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), R-spondin and the inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase genes (INPP4B), respectively. The R

  8. Assessment of proteinuria by using protein: creatinine index in random urine sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Ahmad, Tariq Mahmood; Qureshil, Ayaz Hussain; Halim, Abdul; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Afzal, Saeed

    2005-10-01

    To assess the quantitative measurement of proteinuria by using random urine protein:creatinine index/ratio in comparison with 24 hours urinary protein excretion in patients of renal diseases having normal glomerular filtration rate. One hundred and thirty patients, 94 males and 36 females, with an age range of 5 to 60 years; having proteinuria of more than 150 mg/day were included in this study. Qualitative urinary protein estimation was done on random urine specimen by dipstick. Quantitative measurement of protein in the random and 24 hours urine specimens were carried out by a method based on the formation of a red complex of protein with pyrogallal red in acid medium on Micro lab 200 (Merck). Estimation of creatinine was done on Selectra -2 (Merck) by Jaffe's reaction. The urine protein:creatinine index and ratio were calculated by dividing the urine protein concentration (mg/L) by urine creatinine concentration (mmol/L) multilplied by 10 and mg/mg respectively. The protein:creatinine index and ratio of more than 140 and 0.18 respectively in a random urine sample indicated pathological proteinuria. An excellent correlation (r=0.96) was found between random urine protein:creatinine index/ratio and standard 24 hours urinary protein excretion in these patients (pprotein:creatinine index in random urine is a convenient, quick and reliable method of estimation of proteinuria as compared to 24 hours of urinary protein excretion for diagnosis and monitoring of renal diseases in our medical setup.

  9. Urine examination findings in apparently healthy new school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Urinalysis as a part of medical examination of fitness in schoolchildren is useful in detecting abnormalities that could identify early disease conditions. Objective. To describe the urine examination findings in apparently healthy newly enrolled primary school entrants in Jos,. Plateau. Methods. Through a ...

  10. Protein excretion in urine during Schistosoma haematobium infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey of protein excretion in the urine of people living in Schstosoma haematobium endemic area around Atavu stream in Amagunze, Enugu State, Nigeria was conducted between 1994 and 1995. A verification of the endemicity of the diseases revealed differences in prevalence rate ranged from 46.66 ...

  11. Male urination in the train

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loth, M.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study about hygiene in train toilets. The central problem is that with the existing train toilet design and the different groups of users it is impossible to keep the train toilet clean. In a conventional train, it is especially difficult for men to urinate

  12. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  13. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

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    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  14. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  15. Effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurao Vasant Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess and compare the effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness over a period of 14 days. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was done on 40 noncarious deciduous teeth. 10 teeth in each group were dipped in 4 pediatric medicinal syrups (1 sugarfree and 3 conventional for 1 min thrice daily for 14 days and the enamel surface micro hardness was checked at baseline, 7 th day and 14 th day by Vickers hardness testing machine. The pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity of the syrups were assessed. Results: The pH of syrups were above critical pH for demineralization of the tooth but tiratable acidity and buffering capacity differed. ANOVA test indicated that the reduction in mean micro hardness was maximum in Group D (Conventional Analgesic syrup and least in Group A (Sugarfree cough syrup on 7 th and 14 th day. On intergroup comparison there was no difference (P > 0.05 in micro hardness between Group B (Conventional Cough syrup and Group C (Conventional Antibiotic. However, highly significant (P < 0.01 difference between the either pair of Group B with Group D, and Group C with Group D on 14 th day. The percentage reduction in micro hardness on 14 th day was maximum for Group D (24.4 ± 2.2 and minimum for Group A (14.0 ± 1.3 which was statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Sugar free pediatric medicines can be effective in reducing dental erosion and efforts should be made to incorporate sugar substitutes in formulation of pediatric medicines.

  16. Effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Gaurao Vasant; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Kumar, Prashanth Vishwakarma; Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare the effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness over a period of 14 days. An in vitro study was done on 40 noncarious deciduous teeth. 10 teeth in each group were dipped in 4 pediatric medicinal syrups (1 sugarfree and 3 conventional) for 1 min thrice daily for 14 days and the enamel surface micro hardness was checked at baseline, 7 th day and 14 th day by Vickers hardness testing machine. The pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity of the syrups were assessed. The pH of syrups were above critical pH for demineralization of the tooth but tiratable acidity and buffering capacity differed. ANOVA test indicated that the reduction in mean micro hardness was maximum in Group D (Conventional Analgesic syrup) and least in Group A (Sugarfree cough syrup) on 7 th and 14 th day. On intergroup comparison there was no difference (P > 0.05) in micro hardness between Group B (Conventional Cough syrup) and Group C (Conventional Antibiotic). However, highly significant (P < 0.01) difference between the either pair of Group B with Group D, and Group C with Group D on 14 th day. The percentage reduction in micro hardness on 14 th day was maximum for Group D (24.4 ± 2.2) and minimum for Group A (14.0 ± 1.3) which was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Sugar free pediatric medicines can be effective in reducing dental erosion and efforts should be made to incorporate sugar substitutes in formulation of pediatric medicines.

  17. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... may also vary. Creatinine, a byproduct of muscle metabolism, is normally released into the urine at a ...

  18. The efficacy of semi-quantitative urine protein-to-creatinine (P/C) ratio for the detection of significant proteinuria in urine specimens in health screening settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Su, Ming-Jang; Ho, Jung-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Tsai, Wei-Ting; Lee, Shu-Jene; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chu, Fang-Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Urine protein detection could be underestimated using the conventional dipstick method because of variations in urine aliquots. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the semi-quantitative urine protein-to-creatinine (P/C) ratio compared with other laboratory methods. Random urine samples were requested from patients undergoing chronic kidney disease screening. Significant proteinuria was determined by the quantitative P/C ratio of at least 150 mg protein/g creatinine. The semi-quantitative P/C ratio, dipstick protein and quantitative protein concentrations were compared and analyzed. In the 2932 urine aliquots, 156 (5.3 %) urine samples were considered as diluted and 60 (39.2 %) were found as significant proteinuria. The semi-quantitative P/C ratio testing had the best sensitivity (70.0 %) and specificity (95.9 %) as well as the lowest underestimation rate (0.37 %) when compared to other laboratory methods in the study. In the semi-quantitative P/C ratio test, 19 (12.2 %) had positive, 52 (33.3 %) had diluted, and 85 (54.5 %) had negative results. Of those with positive results, 7 (36.8 %) were positive detected by traditional dipstick urine protein test, and 9 (47.4 %) were positive detected by quantitative urine protein test. Additionally, of those with diluted results, 25 (48.1 %) had significant proteinuria, and all were assigned as no significant proteinuria by both tests. The semi-quantitative urine P/C ratio is clinically applicable based on its better sensitivity and screening ability for significant proteinuria than other laboratory methods, particularly in diluted urine samples. To establish an effective strategy for CKD prevention, urine protein screening with semi-quantitative P/C ratio could be considered.

  19. Effect of a traditional syrup from Citrus medica L. fruit juice on migraine headache: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Hamedi, Azadeh; Shariat, Abdolhamid; Salehi, Alireza; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2016-02-17

    In Persian ethnomedicine several herbal remedies and functional foods have been used to treat migraine headache which are mostly summarized in Qarabadin-e-kabir (Aghili-Shirazi MH, 1773). One of them is Citron syrup (Sharbat-e-Balang) containing edible Citrus medica L. fruit juice and sugar. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of Citron syrup on patients with migraine headache. Citron syrup was prepared as described in Qarabadin-e-kabir. In this double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, ninety patients with migraine headache were allocated to three parallel groups (Citron syrup, propranolol or placebo). Patients received 15ml of Citron syrup, placebo syrup or 20mg of propranolol tablet three times daily after a meal for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were obtained from three measures: the frequency (per month), mean duration (hour) and mean intensity (visual analogue scale "VAS" 0-10 score) of headache attacks evaluated prior to and following 4 weeks of the intervention. Citron syrup was superior to placebo in reduction of headache attacks intensity (P0.05). However, unlike propranolol, Citron syrup could not significantly reduce the frequency of attacks compared to placebo. No indication of any serious side effects from Citron syrup was observed. According to obtained results, Citron syrup as a traditional Persian remedy can be suggested as an effective treatment for decreasing pain intensity and duration of attacks in migraine headache and the effectiveness is comparable to propranolol. However, the syrup did not show significant effect on frequency of attacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review of the Ingredients Contained in Over the Counter (OTC Cough Syrup Formulations in Kenya. Are They Harmful to Infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kigen

    Full Text Available Cough syrups are widely used in the developing world, but safety of their use in infants and children less than two years has not been well documented. Some syrups contain multiple combinations of such drugs as promethazine, diphenhydramine and ephedrine; which are individually now contraindicated in children less than two years. Despite this, the syrups are available as over the counter drugs and may be dispensed to mothers who are unaware of the potentially hazardous effects to their infants. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to investigate suitability of cough syrups sold within Eldoret municipality for use in children less than two years of age based on their formulations and available literature.Two semi-structured questionnaires were administered to pharmacy attendants and mothers attending sick child clinic at a referral hospital to establish whether cough syrups containing more than one active ingredient of compounds, now contraindicated in children are administered to infants, and awareness of potential serious adverse effects. Data from labeled contents of cough syrups from retail pharmacies was recorded and corroborated with information from literature to determine those deemed to contain the ingredients. The second questionnaire was administered to mothers with children less than two years to ascertain whether they had used the identified syrups. A total of 260 mothers and 55 pharmacy attendants were interviewed.There was widespread use of the syrups in children, including infants, with 192 (74% of the respondents having used identified syrups and over 90% of these on children less than 2 years including those less than three months.146 (76% mothers had administered the syrup at double the recommended dose.The regulatory authorities should make concerted efforts to discourage use of cough syrups containing ingredients that pose adverse events to infants, including campaigns to educate pharmacy workers and mothers.

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a different color, such as orange, red, green, or dark yellow l Urine that has a strong smell l Trouble urinating It is common for your urine to change color or smell different during chemotherapy. Talk with your doctor or nurse to learn ...

  2. A Standardized and Reproducible Urine Preparation Protocol for Cancer Biomarkers Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Beretov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A suitable and standardized protein purification technique is essential to maintain consistency and to allow data comparison between proteomic studies for urine biomarker discovery. Ultimately, efforts should be made to standardize urine preparation protocols. The aim of this study was to develop an optimal analytical protocol to achieve maximal protein yield and to ensure that this method was applicable to examine urine protein patterns that distinguish disease and disease-free states. In this pilot study, we compared seven different urine sample preparation methods to remove salts, and to precipitate and isolate urinary proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE profiles showed that the sequential preparation of urinary proteins by combining acetone and trichloroacetic acid (TCA alongside high speed centrifugation (HSC provided the best separation, and retained the most urinary proteins. Therefore, this approach is the preferred method for all further urine protein analysis.

  3. Evaluation of using spot urine to replace 24 h urine sodium and potassium excretions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft Van Huysduynen, E.J.C.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lee, van L.; Geelen, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The most accurate method to estimate Na and K intakes is to determine 24 h urinary excretions of these minerals. However, collecting 24 h urine is burdensome. Therefore it was studied whether spot urine could be used to replace 24 h urine samples. Design Participants collected 24 h urine

  4. Analysis of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup collected from tubing systems sanitized with isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, Luc; Charron, Carmen; Sadiki, Mustapha

    2017-05-01

    A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions. The results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many compounds that served has target for further tests. Secondly, tests were done on early and mid-season maple sap and syrup coming from many sugarbushes using IPA or not to determine potential concentrations of plastic residues. Results obtained from sap and syrup samples showed that no quantifiable (syrup and reinforced the need to thoroughly rinse the tubing system at the beginning of the season for both sanitized and non sanitized systems.

  5. O uso da acupuntura no auxílio à terapia da doença idiopática do trato urinário inferior dos felinos Use of acupuncture in the management and therapy of feline idiopathic lower urinary tract disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Henrique Giovaninni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes afecções podem acometer o trato urinário inferior dos felinos, acarretando sinais clínicos inespecíficos como: hematúria, disúria, polaquiúria, estrangúria, periúria ou obstrução, caracterizando a doença do trato urinário inferior dos felinos (DTUIF. Entretanto, em até 65% dos felinos acometidos, a etiologia é indeterminada, denominada de doença idiopática do trato urinário inferior dos felinos (DTUIF idiopática, que tem se mostrado como um desafio ao clínico veterinário, uma vez que não há diagnóstico específico ou terapia efetiva. Atualmente, tem sido estudado o papel da inflamação neurogênica da bexiga urinária secundária ao estresse, como etiologia da DTUIF idiopática. Há evidências científicas de que a acupuntura restaure a homeostase, reduza o estresse e, pela estimulação neural periférica, ative mecanismos endógenos de antinocicepção, regulando a liberação de mediadores dos mecanismos da dor e do processo inflamatório, como a substância P. O objetivo desta revisão bibliográfica foi descrever como a acupuntura pode ser um recurso na terapia da DTUIF idiopática, tendo como base a modulação da inflamação neurogênica da bexiga urinária e o controle do estresse desses gatos.Several diseases may affect feline lower urinary tract, causing unspecific signs such as: hematuria, dysuria, pollakiuria, stranguria, periuria or urethral obstruction, which are clinically described as feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD. However, FLUTD is of unknown etiology in up to 65% cases, named as idiopathic feline lower urinary tract disease (idiopathic FLUTD, which is a challenge to veterinary, since there is nor diagnostic or effectiveness treatment available. Recently, many studies have evaluated the role of neurogenic inflammation related to stress as etiology factor to idiopathic FLUTD. There are scientific evidences that acupuncture recuperate homeostasis, reduce stress and, by peripheral

  6. Paediatric chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presence of markers of kidney damage. • Markers of kidney disease include any of the following: • proteinuria (urine dipstick ≥2+ or urine protein:creatinine ratio 5 × the upper limit of normal). • urine sediment abnormalities. • electrolyte and other abnormalities caused by tubular disorders. • histological abnormalities.

  7. Urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in healthy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, R; Nakajima, N; Soeta, S; Sato, J; Naito, Y

    1997-11-01

    To measure urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity of healthy cattle, using 3 substrates (4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide, sodio-m-cresolsulfonphthaleinyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminid e, and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide), and to determine the relations between the obtained values and age and sex of cattle. 50 healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows and 10 healthy Holstein-Friesian steers. Untimed urine samples were collected, and urine NAG activity was measured, using the 3 aforementioned methods. Urine creatinine concentration also was measured, and NAG activity was expressed as units per gram of creatinine (NAG index). Correlations between urine NAG activity and age and sex of cattle were investigated. Furthermore, correlations among data obtained by each of the 3 methods were determined. Urine NAG activity in cows measured by each of the 3 methods was < 3.0 U/L. Urine NAG activity in steers was significantly higher than that in cows. However, there was no significant difference between the sexes in NAG index. There were no significant differences in mean values of NAG activity and index among cows of various age groups. Individual values of urine NAG activity determined by each method correlated significantly with each other. Urine NAG activity and NAG index of healthy cattle will be useful for determining diagnostic criteria of renal disease in cattle.

  8. Global analysis of the human pathophenotypic similarity gene network merges disease module components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Rodríguez-López, Rocío; Ranea, Juan A G; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Sánchez Jiménez, Francisca; Medina, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    The molecular complexity of genetic diseases requires novel approaches to break it down into coherent biological modules. For this purpose, many disease network models have been created and analyzed. We highlight two of them, "the human diseases networks" (HDN) and "the orphan disease networks" (ODN). However, in these models, each single node represents one disease or an ambiguous group of diseases. In these cases, the notion of diseases as unique entities reduces the usefulness of network-based methods. We hypothesize that using the clinical features (pathophenotypes) to define pathophenotypic connections between disease-causing genes improve our understanding of the molecular events originated by genetic disturbances. For this, we have built a pathophenotypic similarity gene network (PSGN) and compared it with the unipartite projections (based on gene-to-gene edges) similar to those used in previous network models (HDN and ODN). Unlike these disease network models, the PSGN uses semantic similarities. This pathophenotypic similarity has been calculated by comparing pathophenotypic annotations of genes (human abnormalities of HPO terms) in the "Human Phenotype Ontology". The resulting network contains 1075 genes (nodes) and 26197 significant pathophenotypic similarities (edges). A global analysis of this network reveals: unnoticed pairs of genes showing significant pathophenotypic similarity, a biological meaningful re-arrangement of the pathological relationships between genes, correlations of biochemical interactions with higher similarity scores and functional biases in metabolic and essential genes toward the pathophenotypic specificity and the pleiotropy, respectively. Additionally, pathophenotypic similarities and metabolic interactions of genes associated with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) have been used to merge into a coherent pathological module.Our results indicate that pathophenotypes contribute to identify underlying co-dependencies among disease

  9. Comparison of Plasma and Urine Biomarker Performance in Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Schley

    Full Text Available New renal biomarkers measured in urine promise to increase specificity for risk stratification and early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI but concomitantly may be altered by urine concentration effects and chronic renal insufficiency. This study therefore directly compared the performance of AKI biomarkers in urine and plasma.This single-center, prospective cohort study included 110 unselected adults undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between 2009 and 2010. Plasma and/or urine concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM1, and albumin as well as 15 additional biomarkers in plasma and urine were measured during the perioperative period. The primary outcome was AKI defined by AKIN serum creatinine criteria within 72 hours after surgery.Biomarkers in plasma showed markedly better discriminative performance for preoperative risk stratification and early postoperative (within 24h after surgery detection of AKI than urine biomarkers. Discriminative power of urine biomarkers improved when concentrations were normalized to urinary creatinine, but urine biomarkers had still lower AUC values than plasma biomarkers. Best diagnostic performance 4h after surgery had plasma NGAL (AUC 0.83, cystatin C (0.76, MIG (0.74, and L-FAPB (0.73. Combinations of multiple biomarkers did not improve their diagnostic power. Preoperative clinical scoring systems (EuroSCORE and Cleveland Clinic Foundation Score predicted the risk for AKI (AUC 0.76 and 0.71 and were not inferior to biomarkers. Preexisting chronic kidney disease limited the diagnostic performance of both plasma and urine biomarkers.In our cohort plasma biomarkers had higher discriminative power for risk stratification and early diagnosis of AKI than urine biomarkers. For preoperative risk stratification of AKI clinical models showed similar discriminative performance

  10. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Managing for delicious ecosystem service under climate change: can United States sugar maple (Acer saccharum) syrup production be maintained in a warming climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Matthews; Louis R. Iverson

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a highly valued tree in United States (US) and Canada, and its sap when collected from taps and concentrated, makes a delicious syrup. Understanding how this resource may be impacted by climate change and other threats is essential to continue management for maple syrup into the future. Here, we evaluate the current...

  12. Rheology and density of glucose syrup and honey : Determining their suitability for usage in analogue and fluid dynamic models of geological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    Analogue models of lithospheric deformation and fluid dynamic models of mantle flow mostly use some kind of syrup such as honey or glucose syrup to simulate the low-viscosity sub-lithospheric mantle. This paper describes detailed rheological tests and density measurements of three brands of glucose

  13. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  14. Cleaved Form of Osteopontin in Urine as a Clinical Marker of Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kitagori

    Full Text Available We assessed the utility of two forms of osteopontin (OPN, OPN full and its cleaved form (OPN N-half, in plasma and urine as markers of disease activity in lupus nephritis (LN. Samples were collected from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE (LN: N = 29, non-LN: N = 27, IgA nephropathy (IgAN (N = 14, minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS (N = 5, diabetic nephropathy (DN (N = 14 and healthy volunteers (HC (N = 17. While there was no significant difference in urine OPN full concentration between groups, urine OPN N-half concentration was significantly higher in patients with LN than HC (p 0.5 than LN patients with minimal proteinuria (P/C 0.5, p < 0.01. Urine thrombin activity correlated with urine OPN N-half concentration (p < 0.0001, but not with urine OPN full concentration. These results suggest that urine OPN N-half concentration reflects renal inflammation. Thus, urine OPN N-half may be a novel disease activity marker for LN.

  15. Opium tincture versus methadone syrup in management of acute raw opium withdrawal: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassomi, Farzaneh; Zarghami, Mehran; Shiran, Mohammad-Reza; Farnia, Samaneh; Davoodi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of opium tincture versus methadone syrup in the management of acute withdrawal syndrome in opium dependent patients during the detoxification period. In this double-blind randomized controlled study, a total of 74 adult male raw opium dependent patients were treated with opium tincture or methadone syrup 2 times daily for 5 consecutive days. Detoxification was initiated by tapered dose reductions to reach abstinence. At the end of the 10th day, the medications were discontinued. The Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale was used to assess withdrawal symptoms every day. Significant decreases on the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale were found for both treatment methods during the study period (p Opium tincture can be considered as a potential substitute for methadone syrup for suppression of raw opium withdrawal symptoms, with minimal adverse effects.

  16. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup......High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence...... of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity...

  17. Carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) used for bee feeding: effect on honey composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, Ana Isabel; Weiss, Milagra; Sammataro, Diana; Finely, Jennifer; Sanz, Maria Luz

    2010-06-23

    In this study, the carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) from commercial manufacturers as well as from beekeepers was characterized by GC-MS. Sucrose syrups (SS) were also included in this work for comparison. Fructosyl-fructoses and some unknown carbohydrates, which could correspond to fructosyl-glucoses, have been detected in HFCS for the first time, whereas SS were mainly characterized by the high contents of sucrose. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content of samples supplied by beekeepers was much more variable; the mean level of HMF was 64.61 ppm (+/-16.92 ppm, 95% CI ranging from 26.91 to 102.31 ppm). Syrups were used to feed caged bees and the resulting honeys produced were analyzed in order to determine their influence in carbohydrate composition. Fructosyl-fructoses were mainly detected in honeys from bees fed with HFCS, but not from those honeys coming from free-flying bees or bees fed with SS.

  18. Changes in the level and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during storage of enzymatically treated raspberry juices and syrups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowska, Urszula; Baraniak, Barbara; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Berry juices are a rich source of phenolic compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity. Unfortu- nately, polyphenols and especially anthocyanins are degraded during storage. The levels of total phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antho- cyanins as well as antioxidant activity (radical scavenging ability against DPPH and ABTS+• and chelating power Fe2+) were determined in raspberry juices (obtained after enzymatic treatment with three commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations) and syrups (obtained by the addition of sucrose at concentrations of 30% and 70%) during storage. During the five-month storage of juices and syrups at room temperature, there was significant re- duction in the level of phenolic compounds, in particular anthocyanins (up to 95% in relation to the initial content). Storage of raspberry juices and syrups also resulted in a reduction in antioxidant activity. The enzymatic treatment of the raspberry mash generally increased the losses of anthocyanins. The addition of sugar to fruit juices only slightly reduced these losses.

  19. The Effect of Viola odorata Flower Syrup on the Cough of Children With Asthma: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasemzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Sharifi, Hosein; Hamedanian, Mohammad; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad; Heydari, Mojtaba; Sardari, Mehdi; Akhlaghdoust, Meisam; Minae, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of violet syrup on cough alleviation in children with intermittent asthma. In a parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 182 children aged 2 to 12 years with intermittent asthma were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive violet syrup or placebo along with the common standard treatments in both groups (short-acting β-agonist). Both groups were evaluated in terms of the duration until cough suppression was achieved. No significant difference was observed in basic characteristics. The duration lasting to yield more than 50% cough reduction and 100% cough suppression was significantly less in the violet syrup group compared to placebo (P = .001, P syrup. This study showed that the adjuvant use of violet syrup with short-acting β-agonist can enhance the cough suppression in children with intermittent asthma. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Orally Administered Intravenous Midazolam Versus a Commercially Prepared Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Katayoun; Khoshrang, Hossein; Kousha, Maryam; Hoseini, Mahboobeh; Ranjbar, Marzieh; Baniasadi, Shadi; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among different categories of sedative agents, benzodiazepines have been prescribed for more than three decades to patients of all ages. The effective and predictable sedative and amnestic effects of benzodiazepines support their use in pediatric patients. Midazolam is one of the most extensively used benzodiazepines in this age group. Oral form of drug is the best accepted route of administration in children. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a commercially midazolam syrup versus orally administered IV midazolam in uncooperative dental patients. Second objective was to determine whether differences concerning sedation success can be explained by child‘s behavioral problems and dental fear. Patients and Methods: Eighty eight uncooperative dental patients (Frankl Scales 1,2) aged 3 to 6 years, and ASA I participated in this double blind, parallel randomized, controlled clinical trial. Midazolam was administered in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg for children under the age 5 and 0.2 mg/kg in patients over 5 years of age. Physiologic parameters including heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure were recorded. Behavior assessment was conducted throughout the course of treatment using Houpt Sedation Rating Scale and at critical moments of treatment (injection and cavity preparation) by North Carolina Scale. Dental fear and behavioral problems were evaluated using Child Fear Schedule Survey-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Independent t-test, Chi-Square, and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. Results: Acceptable overall sedation ratings were observed in 90% and 86% of syrup and IV/Oral group respectively; Chi-Square P = 0.5. Other domains of Houpt Scale including: sleep, crying and movement were also not significantly different between groups. Physiological parameters remained in normal limits during study without significant

  1. Biological Hydrogen Production from Corn-Syrup Waste Using a Novel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nakhla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 °C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2–2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobicaly-digested sludge from the St. Mary’s wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 °C for 30 min to inhibit methanogens. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H2/L·d to 34 L H2/L·d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR from 26 to 81 gCOD/L·d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H2/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H2/gCOD.

  2. Evaluation of protein: creatinine ratio on random urine samples in assessment of proteinuria

    OpenAIRE

    Vyankatesh T. Anchinmane; Shilpa V. Sankhe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Significant proteinuria (>300mg/day) may indicate the presence of important renal disease. Quantitative estimation of urinary protein over 24 hours is the gold standard test for detection of proteinuria. However, 24 hours urine collection method is inconvenient and cumbersome to patients. The present study was undertaken to determine diagnostic accuracy of random urine protein: creatinine ratio for the diagnosis of proteinuria among patients with renal diseases. Methods: The p...

  3. Methadone toxicity: comparing tablet and syrup formulations during a decade in an academic poison center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, S; Rahimi, M; Hassanian-Moghaddam, H; Soltaninejad, K; Noroozi, A

    2013-01-01

    Due to an increase in the number of methadone maintenance clinics in the past decade in Iran, acute methadone overdose has become one of the common poisonings in our society. To compare the characteristics of methadone poisoning between syrup and tablet formulation as well as to discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of poisoning from the perspective of toxicity. In a retrospective cross-sectional study from 2000 to 2010, sampled data of all hospitalized methadone-overdosed patients were collected through chart review of hospital records. Concurrently, the total number of methadone sales was gathered. A total of 1426 patients with methadone poisoning had been hospitalized, including 1072 cases who consumed syrup or tablet solely. Mean ± SD milligram ingested dose of syrup and tablet were 153 ± 339 and 88 ± 274, respectively (p syrup formulation, particularly by children under 12 years old after being mistaken for cough mixture or water. Conversely, exposure to methadone tablets was more common in patients with suicidal intent. There was no statistically significant difference between the rates of intubation and death between the two groups. Higher doses of methadone in the syrup form appear to exert a similar severity of poisoning and outcomes compared to lesser doses of that in the tablet form. Similarities in outcomes, despite differences in exposure history, may reflect relatively prompt transfer to hospital and adequate provision of clinical care, including supportive care and naloxone. In order to reduce the rate of poisoning, we recommend the use of child-resistant containers for dispensing syrup, reduction in methadone concentration, adding a coloring agent, special flavor, and education of patients on the safe storage of methadone in their home in order to reduce the occurrence of accidental poisonings.

  4. Changes in diffraction efficiency of gratings with high fructose corn syrup by aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo

    2017-03-01

    High fructose corn syrup was used for preparation of holographic gratings photosensitized with potassium bichromated, for to analyze the behavior of diffraction efficiency to first order. The behavior of diffraction efficiency to first order was analyzed at time intervals different: 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, because to the recorded gratings showed instability 24 hours after of record. For this reason, we decided to study in the time the evolution of diffraction efficiency parameter for to determine the maximum modulation of material holographic (HFCS-bichromated). The study realized showed that after of 72 hours, the photosensitized material reaches its maximum modulation, with a diffraction efficiency to first order of 4 percent.

  5. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  6. Detection of bladder cancer using proteomic profiling of urine sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Majewski

    Full Text Available We used protein expression profiles to develop a classification rule for the detection and prognostic assessment of bladder cancer in voided urine samples. Using the Ciphergen PBS II ProteinChip Reader, we analyzed the protein profiles of 18 pairs of samples of bladder tumor and adjacent urothelium tissue, a training set of 85 voided urine samples (32 controls and 53 bladder cancer, and a blinded testing set of 68 voided urine samples (33 controls and 35 bladder cancer. Using t-tests, we identified 473 peaks showing significant differential expression across different categories of paired bladder tumor and adjacent urothelial samples compared to normal urothelium. Then the intensities of those 473 peaks were examined in a training set of voided urine samples. Using this approach, we identified 41 protein peaks that were differentially expressed in both sets of samples. The expression pattern of the 41 protein peaks was used to classify the voided urine samples as malignant or benign. This approach yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 90%, respectively, on the training set and 80% and 100%, respectively, on the testing set. The proteomic classification rule performed with similar accuracy in low- and high-grade bladder carcinomas. In addition, we used hierarchical clustering with all 473 protein peaks on 65 benign voided urine samples, 88 samples from patients with clinically evident bladder cancer, and 127 samples from patients with a history of bladder cancer to classify the samples into Cluster A or B. The tumors in Cluster B were characterized by clinically aggressive behavior with significantly shorter metastasis-free and disease-specific survival.

  7. Does apricot seeds consumption cause changes in human urine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tušimová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural substances, such as amygdalin, used in alternative medicine gained high popularity. Common people as well as patients with different diseases have almost unlimited access to various natural supplements. To protect human health, it is very important to study effect of these substances. Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glucoside derived from seeds of rosaceous plants, for example seeds of bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis, or apricot, cherry, apple, peach, plum, etc. It is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, it has also been used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, leprosy and diabetes and produces a kind of antitussive and antiasthmatic effects. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin in apricot seeds has got an effect on human urine composition, pH value and urine associated health status after six weeks of oral administration. The study group finally consisted of 34 healthy adult volunteers (21 females and 13 males. All participants were asked to consume 60 mg.kg-1 body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily (approximately 3.0 mg.kg-1 of amygdalin during 6 weeks. During the experiment, three urine collections were carried out (first collection - at the beginning of the experiment; second collection - after 21 days; third collection - after 42 days. Quantification of urine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorides (Cl-, urea and pH value after apricot seeds supplementation was performed. Statistical analysis of variance showed, that consumption of bitter apricot seeds during 42 days had a significant (p <0.01 effect on amount of calcium excreted in urine, though this decrease shifted its level from elevated mean value in control collection into normal physiological range. Significant changes were observed in urea (p <0.05 and phosphorus (p <0.01 levels in urine after apricot seed ingestion, but gender was also considered to be a source of their variation.

  8. Improved water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions based on rice syrup in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Litov, R E; Zdanowicz, M M; Lifshitz, F

    1991-04-01

    Rice syrup solids, rice protein, and casein hydrolysate were added to experimental oral rehydration solutions in various combinations and tested in a rat intestinal perfusion system. Chronic osmotic diarrhea was induced in juvenile rats by supplying the cathartic agents, magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein, in their drinking water for 1 week. The experimental oral rehydration solutions were compared with standard oral rehydration solutions containing 20 gm/L or 30 gm/L of glucose and with each other to determine if there were significant differences in net water, sodium, or potassium absorption. An oral rehydration solution containing 30 gm/L of rice syrup solids had a net water absorption rate significantly higher than that of the standard 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.1 +/- 0.62 versus 1.5 +/- 0.48 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Casein hydrolysate did not significantly affect net water absorption. However, combinations of 30 gm/L rice syrup solids and 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate significantly increased (p less than 0.05) net sodium and potassium absorption compared with the 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution but not versus rice syrup solids alone. Oral rehydration solutions containing 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L rice protein, and 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate, had net water absorption rates significantly higher than the rate of a 30 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 0.36 and 2.4 +/- 0.38, respectively, versus 0.87 +/- 0.40 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Rice protein and casein hydrolysate, however, did not significantly affect net water, sodium, or potassium absorption when added to rice protein glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. An inverse correlation between osmolality and net water absorption was observed (r = -0.653, p less than 0.02). The data suggest that substitution of rice syrup solids for glucose in oral rehydration solutions will

  9. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  10. Direct Agglutination Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishma-niasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkari B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or Kala azar is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to detect and compare the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of vis-ceral leishmaniasis patients using ELISA and DAT methods."nMethods: A total of 30 urine samples were collected from VL patients referred to Shiraz (southeast of Iran hospitals. Moreover 31 urine samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases such as malaria, brucellosis, hydatidosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collected samples were examined to detect anti-Leishmania antibod-ies in urine, using ELISA and DAT."nResults: Anti-Leishmania antibody was detected in urine of 18 out of 30 (60% VL patients by DAT while ELISA detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine of 28 out of 30 (93.3% of VL cases. Sensitivity and specificity of urine-based DAT was 60% and 83.9%, respectively while sensitivity and specificity of urine-based ELISA were 93.3% and 93.5%, corre-spondingly. "nConclusion: Urine-based DAT and ELISA have a reasonable specificity and sensitivity in diagnosis of VL. Accordingly, urine-based ELISA might be a suitable alternative for serum based assays for diagnosis of VL.

  11. Morphological characteristics of urine erythrocytes in children with erythrocyturia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Minakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephropathies with erythrocyturia make up about 1/3 of all diseases of the kidneys and the urinary system, and they have some difficulties in differential diagnostics. Quite often, erythrocyturia is the only symptom of these diseases. In connection with this, determination of its origin is an important task in forming the correct diagnosis. Erythrocyturia in most diseases of the lower urinary tract is not accompanied by proteinuria or the presence of cylinders in the urine. The presence of proteinuria (more than 0.3 g/l or 1 g protein in urine per day, along with the appearance of erythrocytic cylinder in the urine sediment, raises suspicion in favor of glomerular or tubular diseases. Glomerular erythrocytes may be detected by means of urea concentration factor (UCF in the urinary sediment as a preliminary test for the determination of the erythrocyturia site. Erythrocytes that pass through the glomerular membrane have a changed form (dysmorphic. Determination of acanthocytes in the urine (ring-shaped erythrocytes with one or several bulges in the form of bubbles of different sizes and types is a more precise criterion of glomerular nephropathy than the presence of dysmorphic erythrocytes. The purpose of the study was to determine the morphological characteristics of urine erythrocytes in children with erythrocyturia, to improve the quality of differential diagnosis. Materials and methods. Determination of the morphological characteristics of urinary erythrocytes using UCF in 73 patients aged 1 to 18 years, of which 45 (61.6 % are patients with hematuric form of glomerulonephritis, 23 (31.5 % — with hereditary nephritis, and 5 (6.8 % — with dysmetabolic nephropathy. Detection of 50 to 80 % of dysmorphic erythrocytes in the urine sediment and finding in urine of more than 5 % of acanthocytes is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic criterion for glomerular hematuria. Results. In children with a clinical diagnosis

  12. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR FAST AND SAFE COLLECTION OF URINE IN NEW BORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Clean urine samples are necessary to accurately diagnose several diseases in new-borns, especially Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs. A wide range of clinical interventions for urine collection is described in the literature including non-invasive and invasive methods. The most common non-invasive technique is urine collection using sterile bags, which is associated with significant patient discomfort and contamination of samples. Obtaining a clean-catch urine sample is the recommended method for urine collection in children able to co-operate. However, in children lacking sphincter control, urine catch is more difficult and time-consuming and invasive methods (catheterization and needle aspiration of urine from the bladder are sometimes needed. There are some stimulation techniques that facilitate emptying of the bladder in situations of bladder dysfunction. We hypothesized that the use of such methods in new-borns could facilitate the collection of a clean-catch urine sample. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate and safety of a new non-invasive technique to obtain clean-catch urine samples in newborns. AIM To describe and test a new technique to obtain midstream urine samples in newborns. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective, feasible and safety study conducted in Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Warangal, (A secondary centre with a 20-bed neonatal unit, a 130-beded pediatric ward. This study was carried out over 7 months (January-July 2015. Patients consisted of 100 consecutively admitted infants aged less than 30 days who needed a urine analysis according to their attending physician. RESULTS This technique was successful in 72% of newborns. Mean time to sample collection was 56.99 Sec. No complications other than controlled crying were observed. CONCLUSION A new, quick and safe technique with a high success rate is described, whereby the discomfort and waste of time usually associated with bag

  13. [Claude Bernard and the "standard European urine"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H

    2010-07-01

    During the nineteenth century the analysis of urine was based on technical tools for the quantification of its constituents. The transformation of diagnostic signs into numbers made reference and normal values indispensable for the verification of the transition point between "normal" and "pathological". It needed the reconfiguration of disease concepts to link measured data and values with specific clinical pictures. Ontological disease concepts were replaced by a gradual understanding of health and disease. During this process the "normal value" became the crucial point of discussion.Taking a statement by Claude Bernard (1813-1878) about the nonsense of chemical mean values as a starting point the paper focuses on the contemporary debate about the role and function of quantification in medical diagnostics. The methodological reference points of the analysis are Georges Canguilhem's considerations about the normal and the pathological and Ludwik Fleck's thought collectives. The acceptance or rejection of normal value concepts is bound to specific thought styles. Permanent challenges to traditional qualifying semiotics resulted in a slow transformation of semiotic thought styles into quantifying diagnostics. The "technisation" of medicine during the nineteenth century fostered this process. The clinical laboratory helped to establish a"mathematisation" of medicine.

  14. The retrogradation kinetics of starches of different botanical origin in the presence of glucose syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berski, Wiktor; Ziobro, Rafał; Witczak, Mariusz; Gambuś, Halina

    2018-04-09

    The influence of glucose syrup on the retrogradation of cereal starches was investigated. Laboratory isolated starches from wheat (WS) and oats (OS - oat starch and ROS - residual oat starch) were used in this research. ROS was isolated from the flour left after the industrial separation of β-glucans. Gelatinization temperature of oat starches (63.82 °C and 64.01 °C for OS and ROS, respectively) was higher than for WS (62.26 °C), whereas gelatinization enthalpy for oat starches (8.87 J/g and 9.09 J/g for OS and ROS, respectively) was lower than for WS (9.99 J/g). Moreover, retrogradation percentage (%R) was similar for both oat starches (29.76% and 27.72% for OS and ROS, respectively), and was substantially lower than for WS (42.04%). The introduction of glucose syrup into system reduced the extent of the retrogradation. Rate of the process was suppressed for WS and ROS, whereas for OS it was increased. β-Glucan production process had no significant effect on the gelatinization and retrogradation of oat starch. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Optimization of biohydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup using statistical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraphirom, Piyawadee [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, A.Muang, Maha Sarakham 44000 (Thailand); Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Reungsang, Alissara [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Fermentation Research Center for Value Added of Agricultural Products, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    This study employed statistically based experimental designs to optimize fermentation conditions for hydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup by anaerobic mixed cultures. Initial screening of important factors influencing hydrogen production, i.e., total sugar, initial pH, nutrient solution, iron (II) sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}), peptone and sodium bicarbonate was conducted by the Plackett-Burman method. Results indicated that only FeSO{sub 4} had statistically significant (P {<=} 0.005) influences on specific hydrogen production (P{sub s}) while total sugar and initial pH had an interdependent effect on P{sub s}. Optimal conditions for the maximal P{sub s} were 25 g/L total sugar, 4.75 initial pH and 1.45 g/L FeSO{sub 4} in which P{sub s} of 6897 mL H{sub 2}/L was estimated. Estimated optimum conditions revealed only 0.04% difference from the actual P{sub s} of 6864 mL H{sub 2}/L which suggested that the optimal conditions obtained can be practically applied to produce hydrogen from sweet sorghum syrup with the least error. (author)

  16. Study of the physicochemical properties of tulobuterol dry syrups using taste and smell sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yutaka; Shimazaki, Hironori; Murata, Isamu; Kimura, Masayuki; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the taste and smell of Tulobuterol Dry Syrup (TB-DS) in its original form (formulation A) and generic form (formulations B and C) by means of gustatory sensation tests and taste and smell sensors. In addition, the physicochemical properties of the syrups in a solid state were compared. Evaluation of sweetness with a powdered sample revealed significant differences between formulation A and formulation B and between formulation B and formulation C. In contrast, the results of principal component analysis (PCA) with a taste sensor revealed differences in principal component 1 (PC 1) among formulations A, B, and C. Smell sensor measurement of powdered samples revealed differences in products in terms of only PC 1, but these results were not related to the results of gustatory sensation testing with a smell sensor. Measurement of particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy revealed differences in the particle diameter and particle surface shape for each product. Formulation B had the strongest absorption in the near-infrared spectrum, followed by formulation A and then formulation C. Accordingly, differences in preparations were presumably caused by variations in manufacturing specifications, such as types of additives and their content and coating methods used. In other words, the characteristics of each product were revealed by evaluation of their physical properties, sensing of taste and smell, and human gustatory sensation tests.

  17. Effects of temperature, water activity, and syrup film composition on the growth of Wallemia sebi: development and assessment of a model predicting growth lags in syrup agar and crystalline sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindeløv, Jannik; Arneborg, Nils

    2002-04-01

    We investigated the effects of temperature, water activity (a(w)), and syrup film composition on the CFU growth of Wallemia sebi in crystalline sugar. At a high a(w) (0.82) at both high (20 degrees C) and low (10 degrees C) temperatures, the CFU growth of W. sebi in both white and extrawhite sugar could be described using a modified Gompertz model. At a low a(w) (0.76), however, the modified Gompertz model could not be fitted to the CFU data obtained with the two sugars due to long CFU growth lags and low maximum specific CFU growth rates of W. sebi at 20 degrees C and due to the fact that growth did not occur at 10 degrees C. At an a(w) of 0.82, regardless of the temperature, the carrying capacity (i.e., the cell concentration at t = infinity) of extrawhite sugar was lower than that of white sugar. Together with the fact that the syrup film of extrawhite sugar contained less amino-nitrogen relative to other macronutrients than the syrup film of white sugar, these results suggest that CFU growth of W. sebi in extrawhite sugar may be nitrogen limited. We developed a secondary growth model which is able to predict colony growth lags of W. sebi on syrup agar as a function of temperature and a(w). The ability of this model to predict CFU growth lags of W. sebi in crystalline sugar was assessed.

  18. The Consequence of Delayed Fixation on Subsequent Preservation of Urine Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain G. Ahmed,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Degenerative changes caused by delays in urine preservation contribute to false-negative and false-positive interpretation of urothelial disease in cytology. The aim of this study is to assess whether the delay of fixation of urine samples makes any significant difference to urine cytology and morphology, and the limit of acceptability of delay for routine use in the hospital laboratory.Methods: Three cell collection fluids were evaluated by analyzing the preservation and degeneration of cells in urine samples. In this study, 50 voided urine specimens were taken at random from females complaining of vaginal discharge. Each specimen was divided into three sterile containers. The first was immediately centrifugated and the deposit was smeared onto a cleaned micro slide and immediately fixed into 95�0ethyl alcohol for 15 minutes. The remaining two were prepared in the same manner, however, the second after two hours of collection and the third after four hours of collection. The degree of degeneration and thus the preservation were assessed by a table of chosen criteria, then ranked and analyzed using Friedman's nonparametric test, atp=0.05.Results: The results showed a significant difference between the preservation and the delay in urine fixation, p<0.0001.Conclusion: Any delay in fixation of urine specimen for cytology affects the preservation of cells, which may result in miss diagnosis. It is recommended that urine samples for cytology should be fixed immediately after collection.

  19. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may gi...

  20. [Safety Evaluation of Rare Sugar Syrup: Single-dose Oral Toxicity in Rats, Reverse Mutation Assay, Chromosome Aberration Assay, and Acute Non-Effect Level for Diarrhea of a Single Dose in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Takamine, Satoshi; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The safety of rare sugar syrup obtained from high-fructose corn syrup under slightly alkaline conditions was studied. Mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was assessed by a reverse mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using Chinese hamster lung cell line (CHL/IU). No mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was detected under these experimental conditions. Oral administration of single dose (15,000 mg/kg) of rare sugar syrup to rats caused no abnormalities, suggesting no adverse effect of rare sugar syrup. In humans, the acute non-effect level of rare sugar syrup for causing diarrhea was estimated as 0.9 g/kg body weight as dry solid base in both males and females.

  1. Consecutive first-morning urine samples to measure change in the albumin-to-creatinine ratio: a pilot study of a home urine collection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontrop, Jessica M; Garg, Amit X; Li, Lihua; Gallo, Kerri; Schumann, Virginia; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Clark, William F; Weir, Matthew A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple first-morning urine samples are recommended for measuring the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR); however, this can be challenging in community-based research. The objectives of the study are to pilot-test a home urine collection protocol and examine how the average and variance of ACR varied with the number of urine collections and time to laboratory analysis. This is a prospective observational pilot study. This study was conducted in London, Ontario, Canada at the London Health Sciences Centre (2012-2013). The patients were adults with chronic kidney disease (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate, 36 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Participants collected a first-morning 20-mL urine sample on three consecutive days. This process was repeated after 3 months. Samples were picked up by hospital courier and analyzed for ACR on the same day; additional aliquots were analyzed after a delay of 24-48 h (stored at 4 °C) and 3-9 months (stored at -80 °C). The geometric mean of the percentage change in ACR between baseline and 3 months was calculated and compared between single samples and the average of two vs. three consecutive samples. Of 31 patients enrolled, 26 (83.9 %) submitted all six urine samples. The geometric mean of ACR for three consecutive samples at baseline was 87, 83, and 80 mg/mmol, and the corresponding percentage increase from baseline to 3 months was 15 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), -9 to 46 %), 33 % (95 % CI, 10 to 59 %), and 22 % (95 % CI, -6 to 57 %). Compared with single urine collections at baseline and follow-up, averaging ACR values from two consecutive first-morning urine samples improved the sample variance and reduced the required sample size to detect a given treatment effect by approximately 30 %. No further gain in statistical efficiency was achieved with three urine samples. Results were similar when the laboratory analysis was delayed by 24-48 h, but a delay of 3-9 months resulted in systematic

  2. Protein Complexes in Urine Interfere with Extracellular Vesicle Biomarker Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Wachalska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Urine exosomes (extracellular vesicles; EVs contain (microRNA (miRNA and protein biomarkers that are useful for the non-invasive diagnosis of various urological diseases. However, the urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP complex, which forms at reduced temperatures, may affect EV isolation and may also lead to contamination by other molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs. Therefore, we compared the levels of three miRNAs within the purified EV fraction and THP- protein-network. Urine was collected from healthy donors and EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation (UC, two commercial kits or sepharose size-exclusion chromatography (SEC. SEC enables the separation of EVs from protein-complexes in urine. After UC, the isolation of EV-miRNA was compared with two commercial kits. The EV isolation efficiency was evaluated by measuring the EV protein markers, Alix and TSG101, CD63 by Western blotting, or miR-375, miR-204 and miR-21 by RT-qPCR. By using commercial kits, EV isolation resulted in either low yields or dissimilar miRNA levels. Via SEC, the EVs were separated from the protein-complex fraction. Importantly, a different ratio was observed between the three miRNAs in the protein fraction compared to the EV fraction. Thus, protein-complexes within urine may influence EV-biomarker studies. Therefore, the characterization of the isolated EV fraction is important to obtain reproducible results.

  3. Profiling of Urine Using ProteinChip Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    les distinguish between active and inactive lupus nephritis . Rheumatology 45: 1497 – 1504. 12. Castagna, A., Cecconi, D., Sennels, L...renal allograft rejection ( 3– 6 ) , cancer ( 7– 9 ) , renal disease ( 10 ) , and lupus ( 11 ) . While neat urine can be analyzed directly on...ProteinChip arrays without pre- treatment , an up-front enrichment step can dra- matically increase the number of proteins detected ( 12 ) . The

  4. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two he...

  5. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar

  6. Evaluation of nutritional and chemical composition of yacon syrup using 1H NMR and UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria de Fátima Gomes da; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Abreu, Fernando Antonio Pinto de; Brito, Edy Sousa de; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Silva, Lorena Mara Alexandre E; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; Rodrigues, Sueli; Taniguchi, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Pontes, Dorasilvia Ferreira

    2018-04-15

    A complete characterization of yacon syrup was performed by analytical techniques, including NMR and UPLC-QTOF-MS E . The effect of the different stages of yacon syrup production on fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) contents were also evaluated. As a result, in addition to higher levels of FOS and CGA, some mineral elements, such as K, Ca and P, and essential amino acids, such as tryptophan, valine, and threonine, were determined in yacon syrup. Twenty-five compounds were putatively identified, and the main compounds were phenolics derived from quinic and trans-cinnamic acids. Considering the different stages of yacon syrup production, the results indicate that the contents of FOS and CGA were maintained in the pulping, enzymatic maceration and microfiltration, leading to a concentration of these components in the last stage of processing (vacuum concentration). These results will be used to fortify this innovative and promising product in the area of functional foods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural in Domestic High Fructose Corn Syrup and Its Toxicity to the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S. high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become a sucrose replacement for honey bees and has widespread use as a sweetener in many processed foods and beverages for human consumption. It is utilized by commercial beekeepers as a food for honey bees for several reasons: to promote brood produ...

  8. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concentration of active ingredients were identified and assessed by standard techniques described in US Pharmacopeia. Results: All the cough syrup samples used contained viable microbial load within acceptable limit according Pharmacopeia specifications. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly recovered bacteria. However, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., and Aspergillus flavus were the most fungi isolated. The physical properties represented in the appearance, density, and pH of the analyzed samples complied with Pharmacopoeia standards. The concentrations of diphenhydramine HCl (92,51 – 108,78%, pseudoephedrine HCl (94,55 – 109,07%, and triprolidine HCl (98,20 – 104,19% were recorded. Conclusions: All cough syrups marketed in Sana’a City had good microbiological and physico-chemical qualities.

  9. Evaluation of urinary biomarkers for azotaemic chronic kidney disease in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Timothy Lee; Archer, Frances Joy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluation of urine albumin:creatinine ratio, urine cystatin C:creatinine ratio, urine protein:creatinine ratio and urine specific gravity as screening tests for azotaemic chronic kidney disease in cats. Methods: Cats (>8 years) were defined as healthy non-azotaemic (n=40) if they had serum creatinine concentration 153 µmol/L with urine specific gravity 1.050]; P

  10. The Urine Marker Test: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Urine Collection for Doping Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylansted; Elsborg, Peter; Wetzke, Monika; Woldemariam, Getachew A; Huppertz, Bernd; Keller, Ruprecht; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance of this new method via two questionnaires (n = 253). Furthermore, a third study (n = 91) investigated whether ingestion of the marker can identify the urine as coming from a specific person and whether the marker interferes with the detection of prohibited substances. The results indicate that this new method finds wide acceptance both from athletes who have only heard about the procedure and those who have actually tested the new method. Furthermore, the marker, which can identify urine as coming from a specific person, does not interfere with the detection of prohibited substances.

  11. Correlation between the protein/creatinine ratio in spot urine and 24-hour urine protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Nuria; Soler, M José; Pascual, M José; Barrios, Clara; Márquez, Eva; Rodríguez, Eva; Berrada, Ali; Riera, Marta; Coca, Lluís; Orfila, M Antonia; Pascual, Julio

    2012-07-17

    Measurement of the protein content in a 24-hour urine sample is the definitive method of establishing the presence of abnormal proteinuria. However, the urine collection is cumbersome. The spot urine protein to creatinine ratio seems to be a reliable diagnostic tool for urine protein measurement. Our aim was to evaluate the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio against 24-h urine total protein excretion in different proteinuria ranges by comparing samples collected simultaneously in patients of Hospital del Mar during the last year. Observational, cross-sectional study of 159 consecutive paired determinations of 24-h urine total protein excretion and the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio (P/C) in renal patients. The strength of the correlation was determined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC). Among all groups, there was a significant correlation between 24-hour proteinuria and the P/C ratio (SCC: r=0.91, Purine protein/creatinine ratio and 24-h urine total protein excretion in proteinuria levels from 300 mg/day to 3,499 mg/day. A lower correlation was also maintained in 24-h urine total protein urine protein/creatinine ratio and 24-h urine total protein excretion in nephrotic-range proteinuria.

  12. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Yasser S.; Alamri, Saad A.

    2012-01-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appeared to be important in order for citric acid to accumulate. The production of citric acid and the consumed sugar was higher when using 0.1% ammonium nitrate as the best source of nitrogen. The production of citric acid increased significantly when 0.1 g/l of KH2PO4 was added to the medium of date syrup. The addition of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.20 g/l had a stimulating effect on the production of citric acid. Maximum production of citric acid was obtained when calcium chloride was absent. One of the most important benefits of immobilized cells is their ability and stability to produce citric acid under a repeated batch culture. Over four repeated batches, the production of citric acid production was maintained for 24 days when each cycle continued for 144 h. The results obtained in the repeated batch cultivation using date syrup confirmed that date syrup could be used as a medium for the industrial production of citric acid. PMID:23961184

  13. Analysis of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup collected from tubing systems sanitized with isopropyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Lagacé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions. The results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many compounds that served has target for further tests. Secondly, tests were done on early and mid-season maple sap and syrup coming from many sugarbushes using IPA or not to determine potential concentrations of plastic residues. Results obtained from sap and syrup samples showed that no quantifiable (< 1–75 μg/L concentration of any plastic molecules tested was determined in all samples coming from IPA treated or not treated systems. However, some samples of first sap run used as a rinse solution to be discarded before the season start and that were coming from non sanitized or IPA sanitized systems, showed quantifiable concentrations of chemical residue such as ultraviolet protector (octabenzone. These results show that IPA can be safely used to sanitize maple sap collection system in regards to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup and reinforced the need to thoroughly rinse the tubing system at the beginning of the season for both sanitized and non sanitized systems.

  14. Effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaraaty, Marzieh; Kamali, Seyed Hamid; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem; Zafarghandi, Nafiseh; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak; Mobli, Masumeh; Amin, Gholamreza; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Amin, Mohsen; Ghaseminejad, Azizeh; HosseiniKhabiri, Seyedeh Jihan; Talei, Daryush

    2014-06-02

    Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) has been used in the Iranian Traditional Medicine as a treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted on 30 women suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. Treatment comprised of giving 15 ml oral myrtle syrup daily (5 ml three times a day) for 7 days starting from the onset of bleeding. The myrtle syrup along with placebo was repeated for 3 consecutive menstrual periods. Menstrual duration and number of used pads were recorded by the Pictorial Blood loss Assessment Chart at the end of each menstrual period. The quality of life was also evaluated using the menorrhagia questionnaire. The mean number of bleeding days significantly declined from 10.6 ± 2.7 days to 8.2 ± 1.9 days after 3 months treatment with the syrup (p = 0.01) and consequently the participants in the intervention group used fewer pads after 3 months (16.4 ± 10.7) compared with the number of pads used at the beginning of the treatment (22.7 ± 12.0, p = 0.01). Bleeding days and number of pads used by the participants in the placebo group did not change significantly. Also significant changes of quality of life scores were observed in the intervention group after 3 months compared to the baseline. Myrtle syrup is introduced as a potential remedy for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia.

  15. Lens and cornea lesions of rats fed corn syrup and the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Alime; Ozmen, Ozlem; Saygın, Mustafa; Ascı, Halil; Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem; Dıncoglu, Dılnur

    2016-03-01

    To examine the pathological findings that occurred in the lens and cornea and biochemical findings in the lens of rats fed with corn syrup and the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA). Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I served as the control group. Group II was used as the study group; the rats were treated with 30% corn sugar solution for 10 weeks. Group III was the treatment group. Corn syrup was given by the oral route to the rats during the study, and ALA (100 mg/kg) was added to the treatment 4 weeks after the study began. At the end of the experiment, central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured in all rats with an ultrasonic pachymeter. Then the right eyes of the rats were enucleated for histopathological examination of the cornea and lens. The left lenses were homogenized for biochemical analyses. The lenses of the rats treated with corn syrup revealed severe damage; many lens fibers appeared swollen and ruptured with large vacuoles near the lens epithelium. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a parameter of oxidative stress, increased but not significantly in Group II; however. ALA treatment decreased MDA levels significantly. Antioxidant enzyme and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly decreased in Group II, and ALA treatment increased these activities; however, the increase was not significant. Changes were observed in the cornea such as epithelial alterations, subepithelial vacuolizations, collagen fibers loss in the stromal layer, interruptions in the subepithelial basement membrane and central corneal thickening. Corn syrup can cause severe damage in rat lenses and corneas. However, ALA ameliorates the effect of corn syrup-related lesions on the cornea and lens.

  16. Effect of ultrasound on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strains in date (Phoenix dactylifera var. Kabkab) syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Saraiva, Jorge A; Jambrak, Anet Režek; Barba, Francisco J; Mota, Maria J

    2018-03-01

    Date syrup is rich in fermentable sugars and may be used as a substrate for different microbial fermentations, including lactic acid fermentation processes. The beneficial effects of ultrasounds (US) on bioprocesses have been reported for several microorganisms, due to the enhancement of cell growth, as well as improvements in yields and productivities. Therefore, US treatments (30 kHz, 100 W, 10-30 min) were applied to two lactobacilli (Lactobacillus helveticus PTCC 1332 and Lactobacillus acidophilus PTCC 1643), during fermentation using date syrup as substrate. The effects on lactic acid fermentation were evaluated by analyzing cell growth (dry cell weight and viable cell count), substrate consumption (quantification of glucose and fructose), and product formation (quantification of lactic acid) over time. The effects of US were also evaluated on cell membrane permeability. Both lactobacilli were able to grow well on date syrup without the need for addition of further ingredients. The US effects were highly dependent on treatment duration: treatments of 10- and 20-min stimulated lactobacilli growth, while the treatment extension to 30 min negatively affected cell growth. Similarly, the 10- and 20-min treatments increased sugar consumption and lactic acid production, contrarily to the 30-min treatment. All US treatments increased cell membrane permeability, with a more pronounced effect at more extended treatments. The results of this work showed that application of appropriate US treatments could be a useful tool for stimulation of lactic acid production from date syrup, as well as for other fermentative processes that use date syrup as substrate.

  17. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Yasser S; Alamri, Saad A

    2012-04-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appeared to be important in order for citric acid to accumulate. The production of citric acid and the consumed sugar was higher when using 0.1% ammonium nitrate as the best source of nitrogen. The production of citric acid increased significantly when 0.1 g/l of KH2PO4 was added to the medium of date syrup. The addition of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.20 g/l had a stimulating effect on the production of citric acid. Maximum production of citric acid was obtained when calcium chloride was absent. One of the most important benefits of immobilized cells is their ability and stability to produce citric acid under a repeated batch culture. Over four repeated batches, the production of citric acid production was maintained for 24 days when each cycle continued for 144 h. The results obtained in the repeated batch cultivation using date syrup confirmed that date syrup could be used as a medium for the industrial production of citric acid.

  18. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  19. The determination of 210Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, W.F.; Helmkamp, R.W.; Hrynyszyn, V.; Contreras, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    To measure 210 Po present in normal human urine a technique was developed in which a 4.5 x 11cm silver foil was shaken at room temperature for 48-hr periods in each of two successive volumes of 1.7 l. of urine acidified to 0.5N with HCl. Alpha rays were counted with an ionization chamber, coupled to a vibrating reed electrometer, and capable of measuring α-ray pulses originating on both sides of the silver foil serving as a central electrode. The background α-count was less than 2/hr. Analyses of human urine spiked with 0.29 to 0.58pCi of 210 Po, together with studies of urine from dogs carrying significant body burdens of 210 Pb, indicated that the average recovery of added 210 Po from 1.7 l. volumes of spiked human urine was 72%. If it is assumed that the same percentage of 210 Po is extracted from non-spiked urine, then the average 210 Po concentration found in 13 analyses of 2 x 1.7 l. samples from 26 different pools of fresh human urine was 0.023pCi/l. Substantial additional 210 Po was generated on short aging of the urine through radioactive decay of excreted 210 Bi. (author)

  20. Microalgae growth on concentrated human urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuantet, K.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Temmink, H.; Zeeman, G.; Wijffels, R.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, for the first time, a microalga was grown on non-diluted human urine. The essential growth requirements for the species Chlorella sorokiniana were determined for different types of human urine (fresh, hydrolysed, male and female). Batch experimental results using microtiter plates

  1. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It ...

  2. URINE CULTURE CONTAMINATION: A ONE-YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Microbiology Laboratory in National Hospital Abuja (NHA). Method: Retrospective study of urine culture contamination in which data from Medical Microbiology Laboratory from January 1 to. December 31 2012 at National Hospital Abuja were reviewed. Patients' age, gender, location and urine culture result were assessed.

  3. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español ...

  4. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español ...

  5. Urine samples from disposable diapers: an accurate method for urine cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Woloch, B; Linder, N; Vardi, A; Barzilai, A

    1997-03-01

    The method of collection of the urine sample is of paramount importance in making a diagnosis of urinary tract infection in infants and children. Squeezing urine out of disposable diapers can provide a urine sample that can be used to detect chemical abnormalities as well as a specimen suitable for microscopic examination. To date there have been no reported studies on the use of this technique for urine culture as compared with samples collected by suprapubic aspiration and catheterization. Urine was obtained from 38 infants aged under 2 years who presented with fever with no obvious cause. All infants had urine collected either by catheterization or suprapubic aspiration and by extraction from a disposable diaper. The urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriologic techniques. Five infants had a urinary tract infection, as shown by a pure growth of more than 10(5) colonies/mL of a single species of bacterium. In all the cases the same result was obtained from both the diaper urine sample and the sample obtained by suprapubic aspiration or catheter. In 31 infants the urine samples collected by both techniques (diaper and catheter or suprapubic aspiration) were negative, and in only 2 infants did the diaper specimen yield a positive result, while the urine obtained by suprapubic aspiration or catheter was sterile. Urine obtained from a disposable diaper can provide a valid sample for diagnosing urinary tract infection. The technique is simple, and can be carried out readily in ambulatory settings with minimal equipment and expense.

  6. Correlation between urine analysis and urine culture in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in Yazd central laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili M B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The misdiagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI may lead to kidney deficiency and even pyelonephritis. Since different species may cause this disease, urine culture (UC and antibiogram of the isolated species should be performed and results compared to urine analysis (UA parameters to obtain the best diagnosis."nMethods: The urine specimens from 1509 patients (1195 women and 314 men were processed for UA, UC and antibiogram. First of all, the sterile urine samples were cultured using differential media, including EMB and blood agar. After 24 hr incubation, the colonies were identified and differentiated by biochemical tests. Antibiograms for all isolated species were determined using Muller Hinton agar. All results obtained from this survey were analyzed using SPSS software."nResults: Of the 1509 samples, 986 (65.3% were positive for pathogenic bacteria, 170 (17.2% of which were from men and 816 (82.8% from women. E. coli was the most prevalent with 591 cases (58.7%, followed by Enterobacter 115 (11.4% and Klebsiella 88 (8.8%. Data analysis revealed that the correlations between the WBC, RBC, nitrite, crystal, and protein were significantly higher in culture-positive samples. Of the antibiotics tested, isolated species were most sensitive to amikacin and most resistant to ampicillin."nConclusion: The present study revealed a correlation between pyuria and bacteruria; however, it should be noted that the clinical signs and the presence of WBC in urine could not be used to confirm the UTI. In addition, since different bacterial species are able to cause UTI, in order to administer proper treatment while controlling improper use of antibiotics, thorough testing, including UA and UC together with antibiogram, is strongly recommended.

  7. A novel probiotic fermented beverage based on soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Maricica Maftei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, there is an increasing interest in using nondairyingredients as substrates for certain strains of bifidobacteria to deliver the benefits of probiotics to a wider group of consumers. This research aimed to explore the use of soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup as substrates for bifidobacteria fermentation. Microbial population, pH, and titratable acidity were measured during the fermentation period while the viability, pH, titratable acidity and water holding capacity were determined during the storage time at 4°C ± 1°C within 14 days. Survival and stability of Bifidobacterium bifidus (Bb-12®, Bb inoculated into a beverage when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, were assessed. TheBb-12® strain exhibited the highest viable cell numbers when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions.

  8. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial

  9. Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnich, Laura E; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee; Marcum, Catherine D

    2013-09-01

    A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Upshot of syrup medicines on children′s oral health: An appraise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Bhambhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the American Academy Of Pediatric Dentistry had developed the Caries-risk Assessment Tool (CAT based on a set of physical, environmental and general health factors. One of the components of CAT is children with chronic medical conditions requiring long term medication being at a risk of dental caries as a side-effect. Children on long term medication due to medical conditions consume syrups in bulk. The child′s oral health is often neglected due to the preoccupation of the parent with the child′s medical problem. Sometimes physicians are unaware of the high sugar content of medications. This review explores the detrimental effects of paediatric medications on oral health administered to chronically ill children and the risk to which children are exposed unknowingly.

  11. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  12. Possible consequences of the sucrose replacement by a fructose-glucose syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Süli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fructose-glucose syrup is currently used instead of sucrose in bakery products for economic and technological reasons. The authors investigated the extent to which this change affects the formation of non-enzymatic browning products (Advanced Glycation End - AGE-Products and melanoidins. Formation of these products in model systems - mixtures of various sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose - concentration 6% with glycine (concentration 0.7% or/and lysine (concentration 0.3%, heat-treated 60 - 100 °C for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min, was studied. The formation of AGE products and melanoidins was determined on the basis of absorption at 294 nm (AGE-products and 420 nm (melanoidins, respectively. The results pointed out notable difference in the AGE-products and also melanoidins formation for a variety of sugars. The reactivity of sucrose was low even at 100 °C/60 min. Fructose and glucose originated a significantly increasing of the non-enzymatic browning products formation. The reactivity of fructose was in the caramelisation and also in Maillard reactions the highest in any combination of composition. Lysine is the most reactive amino acid which takes part in Maillard reactions even if it is bound to protein. The non-enzymatic browning reactions result in the formation of non-digestible cross-linked proteins. Lysine is also the limiting essential amino acid of most cereals. Due to the lysine properties, reduction in protein quality is the most important nutritional effect of Maillard reactions in food. The sucrose replacement by fructose-glucose syrup in bakery products leads to more extensive non-enzymatic browning reactions, i.e. caramelisation and also Maillard reactions, while changes are in the Maillard reaction more pronounced.

  13. Acute and chronic urine retention among adults at the urology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.M.T. Yenli

    AUR) and chronic urine retention. (CUR) are different and varied in both gender and age. Urine retention has been well studied among males worldwide, while data on urine retention among women are sparse. This study aimed at determining the.

  14. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  15. Glucose in Urine Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/glucoseinurinetest.html Glucose in Urine Test To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Glucose in Urine Test? A glucose in urine test ...

  16. Protein in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/proteininurine.html Protein in Urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Protein in Urine Test? A protein in urine test ...

  17. Crystals in Urine Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/crystalsinurinetest.html Crystals in Urine Test To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Crystals in Urine Test? Your urine contains many chemicals. ...

  18. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  19. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Dilraj S; Ward, Joel; Lee, Regent; Handa, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs) where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  20. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj S. Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue and indirubin (red pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  1. Measurement and meaning of oxidatively modified DNA lesions in urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, Marcus S; Olinski, Ryszard; Loft, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    G levels and is not sufficiently specific for accurate quantification. With increasing numbers of lesions being studied, it is vital that these fundamental issues are addressed. We report the formation of the European Standards Committee on Urinary (DNA) Lesion Analysis whose primary goal is to achieve......BACKGROUND: Oxidatively generated damage to DNA has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. The noninvasive assessment of such damage, i.e., in urine, and application to large-scale human studies are vital to understanding this role and devising intervention strategies....... METHODS: We have reviewed the literature to establish the status quo with regard to the methods and meaning of measuring DNA oxidation products in urine. RESULTS: Most of the literature focus upon 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), and whereas a large number of these reports concern clinical...

  2. First report on isolation of 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methylacetophenone from palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) syrup, its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshma, M V; Jacob, Jubi; Syamnath, V L; Habeeba, V P; Dileep Kumar, B S; Lankalapalli, Ravi S

    2017-08-01

    The first report on isolation and characterization of 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methylacetophenone (1), nicotinamide (2), and uracil (3) from palmyra palm syrup is described. Total phenolic content (TPC) and Total flavonoid content (TFC) of palm syrup were 244.70±5.77(mggallic acid/kg of syrup) and 658.45±27.86(mg quercetin/kg of syrup), respectively. Compound 1 exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC 50 value of 20.02±0.14μM which was better than ascorbic acid (IC 50 =22.59±0.30μM). Compound 1 also showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus simulans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of albuminuria test and urine test strip in Japanese hypertensive patients: AVA-E study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    Albuminuria is thought to reflect generalized endothelial dysfunction. In hypertensive patients, albuminuria is related to the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Thus, screening for albuminuria is critical for risk stratification in hypertensive patients. However, the actual state of albuminuria in Japanese patients without diabetes remains unclear due to insurance coverage. The CLINITEK microalb creatinine test® is a urine test paper that can assess albumin excretion corrected for urine creatinine levels in only 60 seconds without any special equipment. The semi-quantitative albuminuria test and urine proteinuria test were performed on 8,181 Japanese hypertensive patients, and the clinical significance of the test was evaluated by comparison with the urine test strip method. Albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) albuminuria test were present in 70.0%, 25.7%, and 4.3%, respectively, of patients with a negative urine protein test strip result. Furthermore, in patients with a negative urine protein test strip result, ACR ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine was independently associated with previous CVD (odds ratio: 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 - 1.57, p albuminuria. Easy and quick albuminuria test on the CLINITEK MICROALB CREATININE TEST might be useful test to risk stratification of hypertensive patients compared to urine test strip.

  4. Production of glucose and fructose syrups from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starch using enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Roberto do Nascimento; Quintino,Fábio Pereira; Monteiro,Valdirene Neves; Asquieri,Eduardo Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    The high demands for sugars and the development of enzymatic technology have increased the production of sweeteners, especially for glucose and fructose syrups. This work describe a technology for glucose and fructose syrups from Brazilian cassava starch using enzymes produced by soil microrganisms isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado soil. Firstly, Aspergillus niger and Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the soil and used as glucoamylase (GA) and glucose isomerase (GI) producer sources. Afte...

  5. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  6. [The alternative method for albuminuria determination: second morning urine sample instead of 24-hour urine collection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barska, Iga; Mikołajczyk, Melania; Paradowski, Marek

    2013-05-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is an established risk factor for renal and cardiovascular events. Measurement of albumin in the urine daily collection is the gold standard in assessing albuminuria. The 24-hour urine collection is cumbersome procedure that generates a lot of mistakes, therefore other methods have been proposed. The aim of the study was to compare the assessment of albuminuria in the 24-hour urine collection and in the second morning urine sample as well as to determine UACR. The study included 32 patients, from whom the daily and the second morning urine samples were collected. In both samples, the albumin and creatinine concentrations were determined and the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (UACR) was calculated. An excellent correlation between the UACR determined from the 24-hour urine collection and the other portion of the second morning sample was obtained within a wide range of albuminuria values (r = 0.9825). Furthermore, a better correlation between the same characteristics was obtained in urine of patients with normoalbuminuria when UACR did not exceed 30 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.9771). Above this value, the correlation was slightly lower for micro- and macroalbuminuria and equalled 0.9249 and 0.9332, respectively. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the second morning urine sample with the determination of UACR is a good alternative to the 24-hour urine collection and the first morning urine sample which are burdened with a preanalytical error.

  7. Process optimization of the extraction condition of β-amylase from brewer's malt and its application in the maltose syrup production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chengtuo; Zheng, Feiyun; Li, Yongxian; Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Qi

    2018-02-02

    β-Amylase is of important biotechnological aid in maltose syrup production. In this study, the extraction condition of β-amylase from brewer's malt and the optimal dosage of β-amylase in maltose syrup production were optimized using response surface methodology and uniform design method. The optimal extraction condition of β-amylase from brewer's malt was composed of 1:17 (g/v) material/liquid ratio, 44°C extraction temperature, pH 6.4 buffer pH, 2.3 H extraction time, and 1.64 g L -1 NaSO 3 dosage with a predicted β-amylase activity of 1,290.99 U g -1 , which was close to the experimental β-amylase activity of 1,230.22 U g -1 . The optimal dosages of β-amylase used in maltose syrup production were 455.67 U g -1 starch and its application in maltose syrup production led to a 68.37% maltose content in maltose syrup, which was 11.2% and 28.9% higher than those using β-amylases from soybean and microbe (P syrup. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Debut af arvelig metabolisk encefalopati kan ses efter neonatalperioden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line Carøe; Rehman, Shazia; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2016-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder causing accumulation of the branched amino acids valin, isoleucin, leucin and their toxic metabolites resulting in ketoacidosis, progressive neurological deterioration and cerebral oedema. The classical form presents...

  9. Challenges in diagnosis and counseling of a family with two recessive neurometabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba S. Abd-Elkhalek

    2016-07-01

    In this case report, we present the challenges that we met in diagnosis and counseling of a family with both Tay–Sachs and maple syrup urine disease depending mainly on history, clinical data and a few diagnostic investigations.

  10. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook; Parsons, Patrick J.; Spector, June; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Jaar, Bernard G.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) μg/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r s =0.5; p 2 ; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  11. Quantitation of proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome by spot urine protein creatinine ratio estimation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A; Kumar, R; Chaterjee, A; Ghosh, J K; Basu, K

    2009-01-01

    In Nephrotic Syndrome the amount of protein excretion is a reflection of activity of disease. Quantitative measurement of proteinuria by a 24-hour urine collection has been the accepted method of evaluation. Recent studies have shown that calculation of protein/creatinine ratio in a spot urine sample correlates well with the 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP) excretion. A study was conducted to compare the accuracy of a spot urinary protein/creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) and urinary dipstick with the 24-hour urine protein. Fifty two samples from 26 patients of nephrotic syndrome were collected. This included a 24-hour urine sample followed by the next voided random spot sample. The protein/creatinine ratio was calculated and dipstick was performed on the spot sample. This was compared with the 24-hour urine protein excretion. The correlation between the three samples was statistically highly significant (pprotein/creatinine ratio in Indian children was also estimated on 50 normal children admitted in the ward without any renal diseases calculated to be 0.053 (SE of mean+/-0.003).

  12. Association between urine protein/creatinine ratio and cognitive dysfunction in Lewy body disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Joong-Seok; Park, Hyung-Eun; Song, In-Uk; Park, Jeong-Wook; Yang, Dong-Won; Son, Byung-Chul; Lee, Si-Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2016-03-15

    Impaired renal function and proteinuria have been associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Chronic kidney disease is considered to be an independent risk factor for Lewy body spectrum disorders (LBD). However, few studies have mentioned an association between proteinuria and cognition in LBD. We investigated the relationship between proteinuria and cognitive dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Among 186 patients with LBD, 53 had PD-normal cognition (PD-NC), 76 had PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), 43 had PD-dementia (PDD) and 14 had DLB. The urine protein/creatinine ratio was calculated using the spot urine test and brain magnetic resonance scans was obtained in all patients. The urine protein/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in patients with PDD and DLB than in those with PD-MCI, PD-NC patients and healthy controls, and was correlated with white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging. All abnormal neuropsychological test results were associated with increased urine protein/creatinine ratio. After controlling for age, education, symptom duration, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and parkinsonian motor severity, the urine protein/creatinine ratio was significantly associated with decreased cognition. The urine protein/creatinine ratio was associated with cognitive status in LBD. These finding suggests that increased protein excretion is associated with cognitive dysfunction in patients with LBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  14. Voltammetric Determination of Thiodiglycolic Acid in Urine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlasková, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Heyrovský, Michael; Pelclová, D.; Novotný, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 375, - (2003), s. 164-168 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : urine * thioglycolic acid * voltammetry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.715, year: 2003

  15. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman (SER) sensor that will perform real-time chemical analysis of urine. It...

  16. Determination of phosphorus-32 in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, J.D.; Gomm, P.J.; Jackson, S.

    1969-01-01

    A method for the determination of total phosphorus-32 by direct beta counting of urine is described, together with more sensitive radiochemical procedures for total phosphorus-32 determination and for phosphorus-32 as inorganic phosphate

  17. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  18. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  19. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615N. Wolfe St., Rm. 7041, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Industrial Medicine, SoonChunHyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Spector, June [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fadrowski, Jeffrey [Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jaar, Bernard G. [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Todd, Andrew C. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  20. Occurrence of riboflavinyl glucoside in rat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Ohishi, Nobuko; Yagi, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the metabolism of riboflavin, [2- 14 C]-riboflavin was administered orally to a rat. The urine pooled for 24 h after administration was fractionated by paper and silica gel thin layer chromatographies using various solvent systems. Among the radioactive metabolites, riboflavinyl glucoside was found along with 7-carboxy lumichrome and 8-carboxy lumichrome. The radioactivity of riboflavinyl glucoside comprised about 6 % of the total radioactivity excreted in the urine during 24 h. (author)

  1. Primary culture media for routine urine processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, J C; Lucia, B; Clark, E; Berman, M; Goldstein, J; D'Amato, R F

    1982-01-01

    It has been recommended that routine microbiological processing of urine specimens include quantitative plating onto blood agar medium along with a selective and differential agar such as MacConkey agar for gram-negative organisms. Few data have been published to justify this combination. To evaluate the validity of this recommendation 2,553 midstream, clean-voided urine samples were quantitatively plated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar, and colistin-nalidixic acid agar, which is a selective ...

  2. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  3. When Does Choice of Downscaling Method Matter in Decision Making? A Case Study with Maple Syrup Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A. M.; Kearney, E.; Rapp, J. M.; Karmalkar, A.; Morelli, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    When planning and preparing for climate change, practitioners rely on climate models to help them make informed decisions. All climate change model data ultimately derive from global-scale models, which are typically too coarse for local-scale decision making; thus, these models are often "downscaled" in order to resolve finer details within the decision space. A few downscaling approaches exist, each with a unique set of strengths and limitations, yet their implications on any particular decision are not always clear to decision makers. Using maple syrup production as a case study, we demonstrate a possible method of evaluating the sensitivity of a specific decision to downscaling method selection. We compare two downscaling techniques (dynamical and statistical) and two training methods within the statistical downscaling approach (bias-corrected spatial disaggregation, or BCSD, and bias corrected constructed analogs, or BCCA) with respect to their ability to capture daily freeze- thaw cycles, the driver of sapflow in maple syrup production. For each downscaling approach, we evaluate simulations of historical freeze-thaw patterns using gridded temperature observations, and compare projected changes in freeze-thaw patterns by mid-century. We discuss the implications of our results on the decision of "when to tap" faced by maple syrup producers, as well as similar decisions in other industries. Our results reveal which downscaling technique(s) is (are) best suited for helping maple syrup producers make plans toward adapting their tapping practices for climate change. In addition, our results provide producers with a plausible range of optimal tapping dates by mid-century, based on the most skilled downscaling approach. Finally, we highlight insights relevant to the climate modeling community, and lessons learned toward making climate science actionable.

  4. Comparison of Productivity of Colonies of Honey Bees, Apis mellifera, Supplemented with Sucrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammataro, Diana; Weiss, Milagra

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup (SS) vs. high fructose corn syrup, or HFCS) could be measured between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, there was a significant difference in mean wax production between the treatment groups and a significant interaction between time and treatment for the colonies confined in a flight arena. On average, the colonies supplied with SS built 7916.7 cm2 ± 1015.25 cm2 honeycomb, while the colonies supplied with HFCS built 4571.63 cm2 ± 786.45 cm2. The mean mass of bees supplied with HFCS was 4.65 kg (± 0.97 kg), while those supplied with sucrose had a mean of 8.27 kg (± 1.26). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in terms of brood rearing. Differences in brood production were complicated due to possible nutritional deficiencies experienced by both treatment groups. In the second experiment, colonies supplemented with SS through the winter months at a remote field site exhibited increased spring brood production when compared to colonies fed with HFCS. The differences in adult bee populations were significant, having an overall average of 10.0 ± 1.3 frames of bees fed the sucrose syrup between November 2008 and April 2009, compared to 7.5 ± 1.6 frames of bees fed exclusively on HFCS. For commercial queen beekeepers, feeding the right supplementary carbohydrates could be especially important, given the findings of this study. PMID:23886010

  5. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  6. Trends in the levels of urine and serum creatinine: data from NHANES 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-04-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to study trends for urine and serum creatinine over 2001-2014 for those aged ≥20 years. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, levels of urine creatinine decreased for the total population, for those aged 20-29, 50-59, and ≥70 years, for males, and for Mexican Americans and other race/ethnicities. Levels of serum cotinine also exhibited a decreasing trend over 2001-2014 for the total population, for those aged 20-29 and 40-49 years, for females, and for non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans. In general, levels of serum creatinine and urine creatinine were positively correlated for chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 and negatively correlated for chronic kidney disease stages 4 and 5.

  7. Phthalate metabolites in urine and asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Michael; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    of the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study, urine samples were collected from 440 children aged 3-5 years, of whom 222 were healthy controls, 68 were clinically diagnosed with asthma, 76 with rhinoconjunctivitis and 81 with atopic dermatitis (disease subgroups are not mutually exclusive; some......Phthalate esters are among the most ubiquitous of indoor pollutants and have been associated with various adverse health effects. In the present study we assessed the cross-sectional association between eight different phthalate metabolites in urine and allergic disease in young children. As part...... children had more than one disease). There were no statistically significant differences in the urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites between cases and healthy controls with the exception of MnBP and MECPP, which were higher in healthy controls compared with the asthma case group. In the crude...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies for Problems with Urination? CareMAP: Changes Around the House: Part 1 CareMAP: Cambios para ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies for Problems with Urination? CareMAP: Changes Around the House: Part 1 What Is the ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Help with Cognitive Impairment? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story What Are Some Strategies for Problems with Urination? CareMAP: Las Actividades en ...

  11. Minimal change disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimal change nephrotic syndrome; Nil disease; Lipoid nephrosis; Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood ... which filter blood and produce urine. In minimal change disease, there is damage to the glomeruli. These ...

  12. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged and ... don't have any symptoms until their kidney disease is very advanced. Blood and urine tests are ...

  13. Determination of 20 synthetic dyes in chili powders and syrup-preserved fruits by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Fen; Kuo, Ching-Hao; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih

    2015-09-01

    A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed to simultaneously determine 20 synthetic dyes (New Coccine, Indigo Carmine, Erythrosine, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Dimethyl Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC, Para Red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red G) in food samples. This method offers high sensitivity and selectivity through the selection of two fragment ion transitions under multiple reaction monitoring mode to satisfy the requirements of both quantitation and qualitation. Using LC-MS/MS, the newly developed extraction protocol used in this study is rapid and simple and does not require the use of solid-phase extraction cartridges. The linearities and recoveries of the method are observed at the concentration range of 0.10-200 μg/kg and more than 90% for all dyes, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to screen 18 commercial chili powders and six commercial syrup-preserved fruits purchased from retail establishments in Taipei City. The results show that three legal food dyes, Tartrazine, and/or Sunset Yellow FCF, and/or New Coccine, are present in some syrup-preserved fruits. Amaranth, an illegal food dye in certain countries but declared illegal in Taiwan, is found in an imported syrup-preserved fruit. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evaluation of Honey and Rice Syrup as Replacements for Sorbitol in the Production of Restructured Duck Jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Keun Taik

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of natural humectants such as honey and rice syrup to replace sorbitol in the production of restructured duck jerky. Each humectant was mixed at 3%, 6%, and 10% (wt/wt) concentrations with the marinating solution. The values of water activity and the moisture-to-protein ratio of all of the samples were maintained below 0.75. Jerky samples treated with honey retained more moisture than those exposed to other treatments. Among all samples, those treated with 10% sorbitol produced the highest processing yield and the lowest shear force values. The highest L* value and the lowest b* value were observed for the sorbitol-treated sample, followed by the rice syrup- and honey-treated samples. Duck jerky samples treated with 10% honey showed the highest scores for the sensory parameters evaluated. The overall acceptability scores of samples treated with rice syrup were comparable with those of samples treated with sorbitol. Microscopic observation of restructured duck jerky samples treated with honey showed stable forms and smaller pores when compared with other treatments.

  15. Effect of varying the dose of corn syrup on the insulin and glucose response to the oral sugar test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelyn, N A; Harris, P A; Menzies-Gow, N J

    2018-03-05

    The oral sugar test (OST) is used to identify equine insulin dysregulation (ID); however only a dose of 0.15 mL/kg bwt corn syrup has been evaluated. To determine the effect of varying the dose of corn syrup on insulin and glucose response to the OST and the test's ability to distinguish between ponies with a history of laminitis (PL) and without laminitis (NL). Randomised crossover experiment. After an overnight fast, in a three-way randomised crossover study with a 7-day washout, 0.15, 0.3 or 0.45 mL/kg bwt corn syrup was administered orally to eight ponies (5 PL and 3 NL) and blood obtained between 0 and 120 min. Serum [insulin] and [glucose] were measured using previously validated radioimmunoassay and colorimetric assays respectively. The repeatability of and the effect of continued pasture access on the dose that best distinguished PL and NL ponies were then assessed. The effect of dose, laminitis history and fasting on serum [insulin] and [glucose] responses were assessed using mixed-effects models. The serum [insulin] following 0.15 mL/kg bwt were not significantly different from 0.3 mL/kg bwt at any time point, while serum [insulin] following 0.45 mL/kg bwt significantly (Psyrup may be preferable to differentiate PL and NL ponies. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Maple syrup analysis for 137Cs, K, and B, using a low-background counting system and PGAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen maple syrups were analyzed for 137 Cs and K (via 40 K) by using a low-background γ-ray counting system, and for B and K by using neutron capture prompt γ-ray activation analysis (PGAA). For low-background γ-ray counting, 3 ο limits of detection (24-hour counts) were 0.03 Bq 137 Cs/kg and 10 mg K/kg for 3.5-L portions and 0.08 Bq 137 Cs/kg and 20 mg K/kg for 1.0-L portions. K concentrations determined by the two methods (using 2-g portions for PGAA) were in excellent agreement. The products were obtained in 1991, with one produced in Maryland, three in New York, four in Pennsylvania, two in New Hampshire, and five in Canada. The average activity concentration for Canadian syrups (2.8 Bq 137 Cs/kg) was nearly a factor 20 greater than the average (0.15 Bq 137 Cs/kg) for the other syrups, but all 137 Cs activity concentrations were at least 100 times lower than those for which controls would be recommended according to Federal Radiation Council guidance. The data exhibited distinct groupings related to the sources of the products when the ratios 137 Cs activity to K content (Bq Cs /mg K ) were plotted vs. B concentrations. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Comparison of Anti-Obesity Effect between Two Types of Syrup Containing Rare Sugars in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaru; Misaki, Kohei; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    D-Allulose-containing rare sugar sweeteners have been categorized into two types, rare sugar syrup (RSS), consisting of 4 rare monosaccharides, and modified glucose syrup (MGS), rich in D-allulose, which was previously referred to D-psicose. The anti-obesity effect of RSS and D-allulose has been already clarified, but that of rare monosaccharides other than D-allulose in RSS has not yet been well understood. Here, we investigated and compared the anti-obesity effect of RSS and MGS in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 dietary groups: a high-sucrose control diet group (S), a high-fructose corn syrup diet group (HFCS), an RSS diet group (RSS), and an MGS diet group (MGS). RSS significantly suppressed abdominal adipose tissue weight and total body fat accumulation in comparison to sucrose. On the other hand, MGS reduced body weight gain, but not abdominal fat accumulation, relative to sucrose. The weight of the liver and kidneys was significantly higher in the RSS and MGS groups than in the S and HFCS groups, but serum biochemical parameters and hepatic lipids contents were not significantly different among the groups. The present study shows that two types of D-allulose-containing rare sugar sweeteners can suppress body fat accumulation or weight gain in a different manner and that RSS could be used as more effective sweeteners in place of sucrose and HFCS to maintain healthy body weight.

  18. Determination of 20 synthetic dyes in chili powders and syrup-preserved fruits by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fen Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method is developed to simultaneously determine 20 synthetic dyes (New Coccine, Indigo Carmine, Erythrosine, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Dimethyl Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC, Para Red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red G in food samples. This method offers high sensitivity and selectivity through the selection of two fragment ion transitions under multiple reaction monitoring mode to satisfy the requirements of both quantitation and qualitation. Using LC-MS/MS, the newly developed extraction protocol used in this study is rapid and simple and does not require the use of solid-phase extraction cartridges. The linearities and recoveries of the method are observed at the concentration range of 0.10–200 μg/kg and more than 90% for all dyes, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to screen 18 commercial chili powders and six commercial syrup-preserved fruits purchased from retail establishments in Taipei City. The results show that three legal food dyes, Tartrazine, and/or Sunset Yellow FCF, and/or New Coccine, are present in some syrup-preserved fruits. Amaranth, an illegal food dye in certain countries but declared illegal in Taiwan, is found in an imported syrup-preserved fruit.

  19. [Features of Urine Biomineralization in Long-Livers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalin, V N; Uvarova, D S; Shatokhina, I S

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of long-livers in the developed countries indicates the demand for clarification of the body vital systems' functioningfeatures which allow the long-livers to prolong their active involvement in social life. Aim of our study/research was to define a functional condition of urinary system in long-livers using the new diagnostic technology which analyses the structures of biological liquid at its phase transition in a solid state. A case series study was held. All long-livers suffered from atherosclerosis and its complications as well as from associated diseases. An exclusion criterion was acute conditions. The creatinine level in blood serum, indicators of common urine analysis and features of urine facies (using cuneiform dehydration) were defined. Participants included 60 long-livers (mean age 87.34±4.17 years) who were passing clinical laboratory tests at in-patient department of gerontological hospital. In urine facies of 41 (68.3%) long-livers a phenomenon of salt crystals distribution was identified. It presents the concentration of anisotropic salt crystals in the form of a ring in a regional facies zone. The tenfold increase in concentration of calcium and double increase in concentration of phosphorus in comparison with the central zone was detected in long-livers with a higher percent sulphur in the regional zone of urinefacies. The urine facies of the majority of long-livers have signs of age structure formation associated with a specific distribution of anisotropic salt crystals which fix detritus in its inert form to block the autointoxication.

  20. An abrupt outgassing revealed by a slow decompression experiment of cristal-bearing syrup foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Y.; Namiki, A.

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit determines eruption style. Outgassing changes the distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit.We here simulated the outgassing from ascending magma by slow decompression experiments. As molten magma ascends in a conduit, surrounding pressure becomes low and bubbles in magma expand. In our previous work, we found that the bubble expansion causes film rupturing and makes paths for outgassing. The crystals in magma may affect this newly found outgassing style. Accordingly, we slowly decompressed syrup foam including solid particles as a magma analogue. Experiments are conducted in an acrylic tank. We observed the expansion of three-phase magma analog from the front of the tank using a digital video camera. From the images and pressure measurements, we calculated time evolution of the syrup volume and permeability. We consider that there is no bubble segregation by the ascent of individual bubbles from the Stoke's velocity. We conducted our experiments with a viscosity range of 10-20 Pa s which is the same orders of magnitude of that of basaltic magma, 10-103 Pa s. At the beginning of the decompression, the volume change of the syrup foam is well explained by isothermal expansion. When the gas fractions reached to the 85-90%, we observed that deformations of bubble films caused film rupturing so that bubbles coalesce vertically to clear a path. As time elapsed, the measured gas volume in the foam becomes smaller than that estimated by the isothermal expansion, indicating the occurrence of outgassing. In the experiments with high volume fraction of solid particles (>30 vol.% for bubble-free liquid), we observed another new style of outgassing. Several large voids (> 10 mm in radius) appear at a middle height of the foam and connect each other to make a horizontally elongated cavity. The roof of the cavity collapses, and then massive outgassing occurs. At the beginning of the decompression until the foam collapses, outgassing