WorldWideScience

Sample records for syringyl monolignol biosynthesis

  1. Final Report on Regulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monolignol Biosynthesis

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    Vincent L. Chiang

    2006-03-09

    The focus of this research is to understand syringyl monolignol biosynthesis that leads to the formation of syringyl lignin, a type of lignin that can be easily removed during biomass conversion. We have achieved the three originally proposed goals for this project. (1) SAD and CAD genes (enzyme catalytic and kinetic properties) and their functional relevance to CAld5H/AldOMT pathway, (2) spatiotemporal expression patterns of Cald5H, AldOMT, SAD and CAD genes, and (3) functions of CAld5H, AldOMT, and SAD genes in vivo using transgenic aspen. Furthermore, we also found that microRNA might be involved in the upstream regulatory network of lignin biosynthesis and wood formation. The achievements are as below. (1) Based on biochemical and molecular studies, we discovered a novel syringyl-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) involved in monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperm trees. Through CAld5H/OMT/SAD mediation, syringyl monolignol biosynthesis branches out from guaiacyl pathway at coniferaldehyde; (2) The function of CAld5H gene in this syringyl monolignol biosynthesis pathway also was confirmed in vivo in transgenic Populus; (3) The proposed major monolignol biosynthesis pathways were further supported by the involving biochemical functions of CCR based on a detailed kinetic study; (4) Gene promoter activity analysis also supported the cell-type specific expression of SAD and CAD genes in xylem tissue, consistent with the cell-specific locations of SAD and CAD proteins and with the proposed pathways; (5) We have developed a novel small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated stable gene-silencing system in transgenic plants; (6) Using the siRNA and P. trichocarpa transformation/regeneration systems we are currently producing transgenic P. trichocarpa to investigate the interactive functions of CAD and SAD in regulating guaiacyl and syringyl lignin biosynthesis; (7) We have cloned for the first time from a tree species, P. trichocarpa, small regulatory RNAs termed micro

  2. The last step of syringyl monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms is regulated by a novel gene encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Cheng, X F; Leshkevich, J; Umezawa, T; Harding, S A; Chiang, V L

    2001-07-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) has been thought to mediate the reduction of both coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde into guaiacyl and syringyl monolignols in angiosperms. Here, we report the isolation of a novel aspen gene (PtSAD) encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), which is phylogenetically distinct from aspen CAD (PtCAD). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based enzyme functional analysis and substrate level-controlled enzyme kinetics consistently demonstrated that PtSAD is sinapaldehyde specific and that PtCAD is coniferaldehyde specific. The enzymatic efficiency of PtSAD for sinapaldehyde was approximately 60 times greater than that of PtCAD. These data suggest that in addition to CAD, discrete SAD function is essential to the biosynthesis of syringyl monolignol in angiosperms. In aspen stem primary tissues, PtCAD was immunolocalized exclusively to xylem elements in which only guaiacyl lignin was deposited, whereas PtSAD was abundant in syringyl lignin-enriched phloem fiber cells. In the developing secondary stem xylem, PtCAD was most conspicuous in guaiacyl lignin-enriched vessels, but PtSAD was nearly absent from these elements and was conspicuous in fiber cells. In the context of additional protein immunolocalization and lignin histochemistry, these results suggest that the distinct CAD and SAD functions are linked spatiotemporally to the differential biosynthesis of guaiacyl and syringyl lignins in different cell types. SAD is required for the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in angiosperms.

  3. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

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    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  4. Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading

  5. Syringyl lignin is unaltered by severe sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase suppression in tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreele, Kris; Boerjane, Wout

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was cha...

  6. Monolignol biosynthesis in microsomal preparations from lignifying stems of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dianjing; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A

    2002-11-01

    Microsomal preparations from lignifying stems of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) contained coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase activity and immunodetectable caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and catalyzed the S-adenosyl L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation of caffeic acid, caffeyl aldehyde and caffeyl alcohol. When supplied with NADPH and SAM, the microsomes converted caffeyl aldehyde to coniferaldehyde, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, and traces of sinapaldehyde. Coniferaldehyde was a better precursor of sinapaldehyde than was 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. The alfalfa microsomes could not metabolize 4-coumaric acid, 4-coumaraldehyde, 4-coumaroyl CoA, or ferulic acid. No metabolism of monolignol precursors was observed in microsomal preparations from transgenic alfalfa down-regulated in COMT expression. In most microsomal preparations, the level of the metabolic conversions was independent of added recombinant COMT. Taken together, the data provide only limited support for the concept of metabolic channeling in the biosynthesis of S monolignols via coniferaldehyde.

  7. Transcriptional profiles of hybrid Eucalyptus genotypes with contrasting lignin content reveal that monolignol biosynthesis-related genes regulate wood composition

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    Tomotaka eShinya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected three-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis genotypes (AM063 and AM380 that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0% and 48.2%, -cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA and sucrose synthase (SUSY were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase (XTH than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis- related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL. Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents

  8. Integrative analysis of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. suggests new metabolic control mechanisms for monolignol biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement of lignin polymers with cellulose and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is a major biological barrier to the economically viable production of biofuels from woody biomass. Recent efforts of reducing this recalcitrance with transgenic techniques have been showing promise for ameliorating or even obviating the need for costly pretreatments that are otherwise required to remove lignin from cellulose and hemicelluloses. At the same time, genetic manipulations of lignin biosynthetic enzymes have sometimes yielded unforeseen consequences on lignin composition, thus raising the question of whether the current understanding of the pathway is indeed correct. To address this question systemically, we developed and applied a novel modeling approach that, instead of analyzing the pathway within a single target context, permits a comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of different datasets in wild type and transgenic plants. Specifically, the proposed approach combines static flux-based analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation in which very many randomly chosen sets of parameter values are evaluated against kinetic models of lignin biosynthesis in different stem internodes of wild type and lignin-modified alfalfa plants. In addition to four new postulates that address the reversibility of some key reactions, the modeling effort led to two novel postulates regarding the control of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. The first posits functionally independent pathways toward the synthesis of different lignin monomers, while the second postulate proposes a novel feedforward regulatory mechanism. Subsequent laboratory experiments have identified the signaling molecule salicylic acid as a potential mediator of the postulated control mechanism. Overall, the results demonstrate that mathematical modeling can be a valuable complement to conventional transgenic approaches and that it can provide biological insights that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  9. Syringyl lignin is unaltered by severe sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase suppression in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-12-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference-inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem.

  10. Syringyl Lignin Is Unaltered by Severe Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Suppression in Tobacco[W

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    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference–inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem. PMID:22158465

  11. Structural studies of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, key enzymes of monolignol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haiyun; Zhou, Rui; Louie, Gordon V; Mühlemann, Joëlle K; Bomati, Erin K; Bowman, Marianne E; Dudareva, Natalia; Dixon, Richard A; Noel, Joseph P; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2014-09-01

    The enzymes cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the two key reduction reactions in the conversion of cinnamic acid derivatives into monolignol building blocks for lignin polymers in plant cell walls. Here, we describe detailed functional and structural analyses of CCRs from Medicago truncatula and Petunia hybrida and of an atypical CAD (CAD2) from M. truncatula. These enzymes are closely related members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Our structural studies support a reaction mechanism involving a canonical SDR catalytic triad in both CCR and CAD2 and an important role for an auxiliary cysteine unique to CCR. Site-directed mutants of CAD2 (Phe226Ala and Tyr136Phe) that enlarge the phenolic binding site result in a 4- to 10-fold increase in activity with sinapaldehyde, which in comparison to the smaller coumaraldehyde and coniferaldehyde substrates is disfavored by wild-type CAD2. This finding demonstrates the potential exploitation of rationally engineered forms of CCR and CAD2 for the targeted modification of monolignol composition in transgenic plants. Thermal denaturation measurements and structural comparisons of various liganded and unliganded forms of CCR and CAD2 highlight substantial conformational flexibility of these SDR enzymes, which plays an important role in the establishment of catalytically productive complexes of the enzymes with their NADPH and phenolic substrates. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure

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    Anderson, Nickolas A.; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-08-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content.

  13. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nickolas A; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-08-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  15. Structural Studies of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase and Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Key Enzymes of Monolignol Biosynthesis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haiyun; Zhou, Rui; Louie, Gordon V.; Mühlemann, Joëlle K.; Bomati, Erin K.; Bowman, Marianne E.; Dudareva, Natalia; Dixon, Richard A.; Noel, Joseph P.; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    The enzymes cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the two key reduction reactions in the conversion of cinnamic acid derivatives into monolignol building blocks for lignin polymers in plant cell walls. Here, we describe detailed functional and structural analyses of CCRs from Medicago truncatula and Petunia hybrida and of an atypical CAD (CAD2) from M. truncatula. These enzymes are closely related members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Our structural studies support a reaction mechanism involving a canonical SDR catalytic triad in both CCR and CAD2 and an important role for an auxiliary cysteine unique to CCR. Site-directed mutants of CAD2 (Phe226Ala and Tyr136Phe) that enlarge the phenolic binding site result in a 4- to 10-fold increase in activity with sinapaldehyde, which in comparison to the smaller coumaraldehyde and coniferaldehyde substrates is disfavored by wild-type CAD2. This finding demonstrates the potential exploitation of rationally engineered forms of CCR and CAD2 for the targeted modification of monolignol composition in transgenic plants. Thermal denaturation measurements and structural comparisons of various liganded and unliganded forms of CCR and CAD2 highlight substantial conformational flexibility of these SDR enzymes, which plays an important role in the establishment of catalytically productive complexes of the enzymes with their NADPH and phenolic substrates. PMID:25217505

  16. Hibiscus cannabinus feruloyl-coa:monolignol transferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-15

    The invention relates to isolated nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes. The isolated nucleic acids and/or the enzymes enable incorporation of monolignol ferulates into the lignin of plants, where such monolignol ferulates include, for example, p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and/or sinapyl ferulate. The invention also includes methods and plants that include nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme and/or feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes.

  17. Syringyl-Rich Lignin Renders Poplars More Resistant to Degradation by Wood Decay Fungi

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    Skyba, Oleksandr; Douglas, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of lignin composition on the resistance of wood to degradation by decay fungi, wood specimens from two transgenic poplar lines expressing an Arabidopsis gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) driven by the cinnimate-4-hydroxylase promoter (C4H::F5H) that increased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) monolignol ratios relative to those in the untransformed control wood were incubated with six different wood decay fungi. Alterations in wood weight and chemical composition were monitored over the incubation period. The results showed that transgenic poplar lines extremely rich in syringyl lignin exhibited a drastically improved resistance to degradation by all decay fungi evaluated. Lignin monomer composition and its distribution among cell types and within different cell layers were the sole wood chemistry parameters determining wood durability. Since transgenic poplars with exceedingly high syringyl contents were recalcitrant to degradation, where wood durability is a critical factor, these genotypes may offer improved performance. PMID:23396333

  18. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

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    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  19. Identifying new lignin bioengineering targets: 1. Monolignol-substitute impacts on lignin formation and cell wall fermentability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Fachuang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant biotechnology efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols, but in the future apoplastic targeting of phenolics from other metabolic pathways may provide new approaches for designing lignins that are less inhibitory toward the enzymatic hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides, both with and without biomass pretreatment. To identify promising new avenues for lignin bioengineering, we artificially lignified cell walls from maize cell suspensions with various combinations of normal monolignols (coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols plus a variety of phenolic monolignol substitutes. Cell walls were then incubated in vitro with anaerobic rumen microflora to assess the potential impact of lignin modifications on the enzymatic degradability of fibrous crops used for ruminant livestock or biofuel production. Results In the absence of anatomical constraints to digestion, lignification with normal monolignols hindered both the rate and extent of cell wall hydrolysis by rumen microflora. Inclusion of methyl caffeate, caffeoylquinic acid, or feruloylquinic acid with monolignols considerably depressed lignin formation and strikingly improved the degradability of cell walls. In contrast, dihydroconiferyl alcohol, guaiacyl glycerol, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate readily formed copolymer-lignins with normal monolignols; cell wall degradability was moderately enhanced by greater hydroxylation or 1,2,3-triol functionality. Mono- or diferuloyl esters with various aliphatic or polyol groups readily copolymerized with monolignols, but in some cases they accelerated inactivation of wall-bound peroxidase and reduced lignification; cell wall degradability was influenced by lignin content and the degree

  20. Morphological and transcript changes in the biosynthesis of lignin in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) during Ganoderma boninense infections in vitro.

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    Goh, Kar Mun; Dickinson, Matthew; Supramaniam, Christina V

    2018-03-01

    Lignification of the plant cell wall could serve as the first line of defense against pathogen attack, but the molecular mechanisms of virulence and disease between oil palm and Ganoderma boninense are poorly understood. This study presents the biochemical, histochemical, enzymology and gene expression evidences of enhanced lignin biosynthesis in young oil palm as a response to G. boninense (GBLS strain). Comparative studies with control (T1), wounded (T2) and infected (T3) oil palm plantlets showed significant accumulation of total lignin content and monolignol derivatives (syringaldehyde and vanillin). These derivatives were deposited on the epidermal cell wall of infected plants. Moreover, substantial differences were detected in the activities of enzyme and relative expressions of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.24), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.11), caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195). These enzymes are key intermediates dedicated to the biosynthesis of lignin monomers, the guaicyl (G), syringyl (S) and ρ-hydroxyphenyl (H) subunits. Results confirmed an early, biphasic and transient positive induction of all gene intermediates, except for CAD enzyme activities. These differences were visualized by anatomical and metabolic changes in the profile of lignin in the oil palm plantlets such as low G lignin, indicating a potential mechanism for enhanced susceptibility toward G. boninense infection. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Hydroxycinnamate Conjugates as Potential Monolignol Replacements: In vitro Lignification and Cell Wall Studies with Rosmarinic Acid

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    Yuki, Tobimatsu; Sasikumar, Elumalai; Grabber, John H.; Davidson, Christy L.; Xuejun, Pan; John, Ralph

    2012-04-01

    The plasticity of lignin biosynthesis should permit the inclusion of new compatible phenolic monomers, such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and analogous catechol derivatives, into cell-wall lignins that are consequently less recalcitrant to biomass processing. In vitro lignin polymerization experiments revealed that RA readily underwent peroxidase-catalyzed copolymerization with monolignols and lignin oligomers to form polymers with new benzodioxane inter-unit linkages. Incorporation of RA permitted extensive depolymerization of synthetic lignins by mild alkaline hydrolysis, presumably by cleavage of ester intra-unit linkages within RA. Copolymerization of RA with monolignols into maize cell walls by in situ peroxidases significantly enhanced alkaline lignin extractability and promoted subsequent cell wall saccharification by fungal enzymes. Incorporating RA also improved cell wall saccharification by fungal enzymes and by rumen microflora even without alkaline pretreatments, possibly by modulating lignin hydrophobicity and/or limiting cell wall cross-linking. Consequently, we anticipate that bioengineering approaches for partial monolignol substitution with RA and analogous plant hydroxycinnamates would permit more efficient utilization of plant fiber for biofuels or livestock production.

  2. Monolignol 4-O-methyltransferases and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Zhang, Kewei

    2014-11-18

    Modified (iso)eugenol 4-O-methyltransferase enzymes having novel capacity for methylation of monolignols and reduction of lignin polymerization in plant cell wall are disclosed. Sequences encoding the modified enzymes are disclosed.

  3. Tracking monolignols during wood development in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Minako; Rensing, Kim H; Wong, John C T; Banno, Brian; Mansfield, Shawn D; Samuels, A Lacey

    2008-08-01

    Secondary xylem (wood) formation in gymnosperms requires that the tracheid protoplasts first build an elaborate secondary cell wall from an array of polysaccharides and then reinforce it with lignin, an amorphous, three-dimensional product of the random radical coupling of monolignols. The objective of this study was to track the spatial distribution of monolignols during development as they move from symplasm to apoplasm. This was done by feeding [(3)H]phenylalanine ([(3)H]Phe) to dissected cambium/developing wood from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var latifolia) seedlings, allowing uptake and metabolism, then rapidly freezing the cells and performing autoradiography to detect the locations of the monolignols responsible for lignification. Parallel experiments showed that radioactivity was incorporated into polymeric lignin and a methanol-soluble pool that was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. [(3)H]Phe was incorporated into expected lignin precursors, such as coniferyl alcohol and p-coumaryl alcohol, as well as pinoresinol. Coniferin, the glucoside of coniferyl alcohol, was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography but was not radioactively labeled. With light microscopy, radiolabeled phenylpropanoids were detected in the rays as well as the tracheids, with the two cell types showing differential sensitivity to inhibitors of protein translation and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Secondary cell walls of developing tracheids were heavily labeled when incubated with [(3)H]Phe. Inside the cell, cytoplasm was most strongly labeled followed by Golgi and low-vacuole label. Inhibitor studies suggest that the Golgi signal could be attributed to protein, rather than phenylpropanoid, origins. These data, produced with the best microscopy tools that are available today, support a model in which unknown membrane transporters, rather than Golgi vesicles, export monolignols.

  4. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of lignin reduces the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for forage materials and feedstock for biofuels. In C4 grasses, the brown midrib phenotype has been linked to mutations to genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. For example, the Bmr6 gene in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has b...

  5. Analysis of syringyl and guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in lignin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spark, A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available the acidolysis products – Validate the new S/G ratio method Why are S/G ratios important? Gives a good indication of the reactivity of the lignin Experimental design Literature Review Establishing Acidolysis conditions Permanganate oxidation Lignin...-method is quick • Permanganate oxidation-method is slow but it is the standard method used at present • Nitrobenzene Oxidation, Pyrolysis, Cupric Oxidation and Thioacidolysis Lignin can be broken down to syringyl and guaiacyl subunits: OCH3 OH OCH3 OH...

  6. Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Harakava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported in other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

  7. Engineering a Monolignol 4-O-Methyltransferase with High Selectivity for the Condensed Lignin Precursor Coniferyl Alcohol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanheng; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Shanklin, John; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lignin, a rigid biopolymer in plant cell walls, is derived from the oxidative polymerization of three monolignols. The composition of monolignol monomers dictates the degree of lignin condensation, reactivity, and thus the degradability of plant cell walls. Guaiacyl lignin is regarded as the condensed structural unit. Polymerization of lignin is initiated through the deprotonation of the para-hydroxyl group of monolignols. Therefore, preferentially modifying the para-hydroxyl of a specific monolignol to deprive its dehydrogenation propensity would disturb the formation of particular lignin subunits. Here, we test the hypothesis that specific remodeling the active site of a monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase would create an enzyme that specifically methylates the condensed guaiacyl lignin precursor coniferyl alcohol. Combining crystal structural information with combinatorial active site saturation mutagenesis and starting with the engineered promiscuous enzyme, MOMT5 (T133L/E165I/F175I/F166W/H169F), we incrementally remodeled its substrate binding pocket by the addition of four substitutions, i.e. M26H, S30R, V33S, and T319M, yielding a mutant enzyme capable of discriminately etherifying the para-hydroxyl of coniferyl alcohol even in the presence of excess sinapyl alcohol. The engineered enzyme variant has a substantially reduced substrate binding pocket that imposes a clear steric hindrance thereby excluding bulkier lignin precursors. The resulting enzyme variant represents an excellent candidate for modulating lignin composition and/or structure in planta. PMID:26378240

  8. The minor wall-networks between monolignols and interlinked-phenolics predominantly affect biomass enzymatic digestibility in Miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengru; Zhao, Chunqiao; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Si, Shengli; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Rui; Li, Fengcheng; Yu, Bin; Yi, Zili; Xu, Ning; Peng, Liangcai; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Plant lignin is one of the major wall components that greatly contribute to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. In this study, total 79 representative Miscanthus germplasms were determined with wide biomass digestibility and diverse monolignol composition. Integrative analyses indicated that three major monolignols (S, G, H) and S/G ratio could account for lignin negative influence on biomass digestibility upon NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments. Notably, the biomass enzymatic digestions were predominately affected by the non-KOH-extractable lignin and interlinked-phenolics, other than the KOH-extractable ones that cover 80% of total lignin. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the monolignols and phenolics at pnetworks against cellulases accessibility. The results indicated that the non-KOH-extractable lignin-complex should be the target either for cost-effective biomass pretreatments or for relatively simply genetic modification of plant cell walls in Miscanthus.

  9. Syringyl Methacrylate, a Hardwood Lignin-Based Monomer for High-Tg Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Angela L; Reno, Kaleigh H; Nguyen, Ngoc A; Wool, Richard P; Epps, Thomas H

    2016-05-17

    As viable precursors to a diverse array of macromolecules, biomass-derived compounds must impart wide-ranging and precisely controllable properties to polymers. Herein, we report the synthesis and subsequent reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization of a new monomer, syringyl methacrylate (SM, 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl methacrylate), that can facilitate widespread property manipulations in macromolecules. Homopolymers and heteropolymers synthesized from SM and related monomers have broadly tunable and highly controllable glass transition temperatures ranging from 114 to 205 °C and zero-shear viscosities ranging from ∼0.2 kPa·s to ∼17,000 kPa·s at 220 °C, with consistent thermal stabilities. The tailorability of these properties is facilitated by the controlled polymerization kinetics of SM and the fact that one vs two o -methoxy groups negligibly affect monomer reactivity. Moreover, syringol, the precursor to SM, is an abundant component of depolymerized hardwood (e.g., oak) and graminaceous (e.g., switchgrass) lignins, making SM a potentially sustainable and low-cost candidate for tailoring macromolecular properties.

  10. Engineering a monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase with high selectivity for the condensed lignin precursor coniferyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanheng; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Shanklin, John; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2015-10-30

    Lignin, a rigid biopolymer in plant cell walls, is derived from the oxidative polymerization of three monolignols. The composition of monolignol monomers dictates the degree of lignin condensation, reactivity, and thus the degradability of plant cell walls. Guaiacyl lignin is regarded as the condensed structural unit. Polymerization of lignin is initiated through the deprotonation of the para-hydroxyl group of monolignols. Therefore, preferentially modifying the para-hydroxyl of a specific monolignol to deprive its dehydrogenation propensity would disturb the formation of particular lignin subunits. Here, we test the hypothesis that specific remodeling the active site of a monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase would create an enzyme that specifically methylates the condensed guaiacyl lignin precursor coniferyl alcohol. Combining crystal structural information with combinatorial active site saturation mutagenesis and starting with the engineered promiscuous enzyme, MOMT5 (T133L/E165I/F175I/F166W/H169F), we incrementally remodeled its substrate binding pocket by the addition of four substitutions, i.e. M26H, S30R, V33S, and T319M, yielding a mutant enzyme capable of discriminately etherifying the para-hydroxyl of coniferyl alcohol even in the presence of excess sinapyl alcohol. The engineered enzyme variant has a substantially reduced substrate binding pocket that imposes a clear steric hindrance thereby excluding bulkier lignin precursors. The resulting enzyme variant represents an excellent candidate for modulating lignin composition and/or structure in planta. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Characterization and reactivity of soot from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic compounds and monolignols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Brown, Avery; Tompsett, Geoffrey

    2018-01-01

    spectroscopy. The CO2 reactivity of soot was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Soot from cellulose was more reactive than soot produced from extractives, lignin and monolignols. Soot reactivity was correlated with the separation distances between adjacent graphene layers, as measured using...... transmission electron microscopy. Particle size, free radical concentration, differences in a degree of curvature and multi-core structures influenced the soot reactivity less than the interlayer separation distances. Soot yield was correlated with the lignin content of the feedstock. The selection...... of the extraction solvent had a strong influence on the soot reactivity. The Soxhlet extraction of softwood and wheat straw lignin soot using methanol decreased the soot reactivity, whereas acetone extraction had only a modest effect....

  12. Fine-tuning of the flavonoid and monolignol pathways during apple early fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Paolo; Moser, Mirko; Brilli, Matteo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Pindo, Massimo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine

    2017-05-01

    A coordinated regulation of different branches of the flavonoid pathway was highlighted that may contribute to elucidate the role of this important class of compounds during the early stages of apple fruit development. Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is an economically important fruit appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and its benefits for human health. The first stages after fruit set represent a very important and still poorly characterized developmental process. To enable the profiling of genes involved in apple early fruit development, we combined the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) protocol to next-generation sequencing. We identified and characterized genes induced and repressed during fruit development in the apple cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. Our results showed an opposite regulation of genes coding for enzymes belonging to flavonoid and monolignol pathways, with a strong induction of the former and a simultaneous repression of the latter. Two isoforms of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, key enzymes located at the branching point between flavonoid and monolignol pathways, showed opposite expression patterns during the period in analysis, suggesting a possible regulation mechanism. A targeted metabolomic analysis supported the SSH results and revealed an accumulation of the monomers catechin and epicatechin as well as several forms of procyanidin oligomers in apple fruitlets starting early after anthesis, together with a decreased production of other classes of flavonoids such as some flavonols and the dihydrochalcone phlorizin. Moreover, gene expression and metabolites accumulation of 'Golden Delicious' were compared to a wild apple genotype of Manchurian crabapple (Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom.). Significant differences in both gene expression and metabolites accumulation were found between the two genotypes.

  13. The minor wall-networks between monolignols and interlinked-phenolics predominantly affect biomass enzymatic digestibility in Miscanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengru Li

    Full Text Available Plant lignin is one of the major wall components that greatly contribute to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. In this study, total 79 representative Miscanthus germplasms were determined with wide biomass digestibility and diverse monolignol composition. Integrative analyses indicated that three major monolignols (S, G, H and S/G ratio could account for lignin negative influence on biomass digestibility upon NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments. Notably, the biomass enzymatic digestions were predominately affected by the non-KOH-extractable lignin and interlinked-phenolics, other than the KOH-extractable ones that cover 80% of total lignin. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the monolignols and phenolics at p<0.05 level in the non-KOH-extractable only, suggesting their tight association to form the minor wall-networks against cellulases accessibility. The results indicated that the non-KOH-extractable lignin-complex should be the target either for cost-effective biomass pretreatments or for relatively simply genetic modification of plant cell walls in Miscanthus.

  14. Manipulation Of Lignin Biosynthesis To Maximize Ethanol Production From Populus Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Clint Chapple; Dr. Rick Lindroth; Dr. Burce Dien; Dr. Glen Stanosz; Dr. Alex Wiedenhoeft; Dr. Fu Zhao; Dr. Duane Wegener; Dr. Janice Kelly; Dr. Leigh Raymond; Dr. Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-15

    Our research focuses on transgenic strategies for modifying lignification to improve biomass quality, without leading to deleterious effects on plant performance. In order to accomplish this objective, we designed molecular strategies and selected appropriate transgenes for manipulating the expression of lignification-associated genes; we generated poplar engineered for altered lignin content and/or monomer composition, and field-tested them for fitness; we analyzed the impact of these transgenic strategies on metabolism in general and lignin biosynthesis in particular; and evaluated the ease with which cell wall deconstruction can be accomplished using both chemical and enzymatic means using wild-type and high syringyl poplar.

  15. Reactivity of lignin with different composition of aromatic syringyl/guaiacyl structures and erythro/threo side chain structures in β-O-4 type during alkaline delignification: as a basis for the different degradability of hardwood and softwood lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoko; Yokoyama, Tomoya; Akiyama, Takuya; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2012-07-04

    The reactivity of lignin during alkaline delignification was quantitatively investigated focusing on the effect of the structural differences between syringyl and guaiacyl aromatic nuclei and between erythro and threo in the side chain of β-O-4 type lignin substructure on the β-O-4 bond cleavage rate. It was known that the ratio of this reaction rate of the erythro to threo isomers of the dimeric β-O-4 type lignin model compound with two guaiacyl aromatic nuclei was ca. 4. However, the presence of a syringyl nucleus strongly influenced the rate, and the ratio of the syringyl type analogue was in the range between 2.7 and 8.0 depending on the reaction temperature. The effect of syringyl nucleus on the enhancement of the reaction rate appeared to be greater when the syringyl nucleus consists of the cleaving ether bond rather than being a member of the carbon framework.

  16. Enzymatic activities for lignin monomer intermediates highlight the biosynthetic pathway of syringyl monomers in Robinia pseudoacacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeto, Jun; Ueda, Yukie; Sasaki, Shinya; Fujita, Koki; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Most of the known 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) isoforms lack CoA-ligation activity for sinapic acid. Therefore, there is some doubt as to whether sinapic acid contributes to sinapyl alcohol biosynthesis. In this study, we characterized the enzyme activity of a protein mixture extracted from the developing xylem of Robinia pseudoacacia. The crude protein mixture contained at least two 4CLs with sinapic acid 4-CoA ligation activity. The crude enzyme preparation displayed negligible sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but showed ferulic acid 5-hydroxylation activity and 5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase activity; these activities were retained in the presence of competitive substrates (coniferaldehyde and 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, respectively). 5-Hydroxyferulic acid and sinapic acid accumulated in the developing xylem of R. pseudoacacia, suggesting, in part at least, sinapic acid is a sinapyl alcohol precursor in this species.

  17. Ultra violet resonance Raman spectroscopy in lignin analysis: determination of characteristic vibrations of p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and syringyl lignin structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saariaho, Anna-Maija; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina; Nuopponen, Mari; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2003-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy of wood and lignin samples is preferably carried out in the near-infrared region because lignin produces an intense laser-induced fluorescence background at visible excitation wavelengths. However, excitation of aromatic and conjugated lignin structures with deep ultra violet (UV) light gives resonance-enhanced Raman signals while the overlapping fluorescence is eliminated. In this study, ultra violet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy was used to define characteristic vibration bands of model compounds of p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and syringyl lignin structures at three excitation wavelengths (229, 244, and 257 nm). The intensities of each band, relative to the intensity of the aromatic vibration band at 1600 cm-1, were defined and the most suitable excitation wavelength was suggested for each structure. p-Hydroxyphenyl structures showed intensive characteristic bands at 1217-1214 and 1179-1167 cm-1 with excitation at 244 nm, whereas the bands of guaiacyl structures were more intensive with 257 nm excitation. Most intensive characteristic bands of guaiacyl structures were found at 1289-1279, 1187-1185, 1158-1155, and 791-704 cm-1. Syringyl structures had almost identical spectra with 244 and 257 nm excitations with characteristic bands at 1514-1506, 1333-1330, and 981-962 cm-1. The characteristic bands of the three structural units were also found from the compression wood, softwood, and hardwood samples, indicating that UVRR spectroscopy can be applied for the determination of chemical structures of lignin.

  18. Structural Redesigning Arabidopsis Lignins into Alkali-Soluble Lignins through the Expression of p-Coumaroyl-CoA:Monolignol Transferase PMT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibout, Richard; Le Bris, Philippe; Cézard, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Grass lignins can contain up to 10% to 15% by weight of p-coumaric esters. This acylation is performed on monolignols under the catalysis of p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A monolignol transferase (PMT). To study the impact of p-coumaroylation on lignification, we first introduced the Brachypodium distachyon Bradi2g36910 (BdPMT1) gene into Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) under the control of the constitutive maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. The resulting p-coumaroylation was far lower than that of lignins from mature grass stems and had no impact on stem lignin content. By contrast, introducing either the BdPMT1 or the Bradi1g36980 (BdPMT2) gene into Arabidopsis under the control of the Arabidopsis cinnamate-4-hydroxylase promoter boosted the p-coumaroylation of mature stems up to the grass lignin level (8% to 9% by weight), without any impact on plant development. The analysis of purified lignin fractions and the identification of diagnostic products confirmed that p-coumaric acid was associated with lignins. BdPMT1-driven p-coumaroylation was also obtained in the fah1 (deficient for ferulate 5-hydroxylase) and ccr1g (deficient for cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase) lines, albeit to a lower extent. Lignins from BdPMT1-expressing ccr1g lines were also found to be feruloylated. In Arabidopsis mature stems, substantial p-coumaroylation of lignins was achieved at the expense of lignin content and induced lignin structural alterations, with an unexpected increase of lignin units with free phenolic groups. This higher frequency of free phenolic groups in Arabidopsis lignins doubled their solubility in alkali at room temperature. These findings suggest that the formation of alkali-leachable lignin domains rich in free phenolic groups is favored when p-coumaroylated monolignols participate in lignification in a grass in a similar manner. PMID:26826222

  19. Biosynthesis of tylophora alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchandani, N.B.; Iyer, S.S.; Badheka, L.P.

    1974-01-01

    Using labelled precursors, biosynthesis of the tylophora alkaloids, tylophorine, tylophorinidine and tylophorinide has been investigated in Tylophora asthmatica plants. The radioactive precursors, phenylalanine-2- 14 C, benzoic acid-1- 14 C, benzoic acid-ring 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C and cinnamic acid-2- 14 C were administered to the plants individually by wick technique. Tylophorine was isolated in each case and assayed for its radioactivity to find out the incorporation of the label into it. The results indicate that: (1) phenylalanine via cinnamic acid is an important precursor in the biosynthesis of tylophorine (2) orinithine participates in tylophorine biosynthesis via pyrroline and (3) tylophorinidine may be a direct precursor of tylophorine. (M.G.B.)

  20. Analysis of five rice 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity and stress response for potential roles in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haiyan [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Biology and Food Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Li, Ying; Feng, Shengqiu; Zou, Weihua [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Guo, Kai [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fan, Chunfen [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Si, Shengli [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); and others

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► 4CLs play important roles in both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. ► PA and FA are the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for lignin biosynthesis. ► Os4CL2 is suggested for flavonoid formation in defense against UV radiation. -- Abstract: 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamates into corresponding CoA esters for biosynthesis of flavonoids and lignin. In this study, five members of the 4CL gene family from rice were cloned and analyzed. Recombinant 4CL data revealed that 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for monolignol biosynthesis in rice. Os4CL2 was specifically expressed in the anther and was strongly activated by UV irradiation, suggesting its potential involvement in flavonoid formation. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed that the existence of valine residue at the substrate-binding pocket may mainly affect rice 4CL activities toward sinapic acid.

  1. Analysis of five rice 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity and stress response for potential roles in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Haiyan; Li, Ying; Feng, Shengqiu; Zou, Weihua; Guo, Kai; Fan, Chunfen; Si, Shengli

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► 4CLs play important roles in both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. ► PA and FA are the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for lignin biosynthesis. ► Os4CL2 is suggested for flavonoid formation in defense against UV radiation. -- Abstract: 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamates into corresponding CoA esters for biosynthesis of flavonoids and lignin. In this study, five members of the 4CL gene family from rice were cloned and analyzed. Recombinant 4CL data revealed that 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for monolignol biosynthesis in rice. Os4CL2 was specifically expressed in the anther and was strongly activated by UV irradiation, suggesting its potential involvement in flavonoid formation. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed that the existence of valine residue at the substrate-binding pocket may mainly affect rice 4CL activities toward sinapic acid

  2. Reactivity of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin units and delignification kinetics in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using Py-GC-MS/FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Gominho, Jorge; Marques, António Velez; Pereira, Helena

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus sapwood and heartwood showed no differences in lignin content (23.0% vs. 23.7%) and composition: syringyl-lignin (17.9% vs. 18.0%) and guaiacyl-lignin (4.8% vs. 5.2%). Delignification kinetics of S- and G-units in heartwood and sapwood was investigated by Py-GC-MS/FID at 130, 150 and 170°C and modeled as double first-order reactions. Reactivity differences between S and G-units were small during the main pulping phase and the higher reactivity of S over G units was better expressed in the later pulping stage. The residual lignin composition in pulps was different from wood or from samples in the initial delignification stages, with more G and H-units. S/G ratio ranged from 3 to 4.5 when pulp residual lignin was higher than 10%, decreasing rapidly to less than 1. The S/H was initially around 20 (until 15% residual lignin), decreasing to 4 when residual lignin was about 3%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Grace; Thaker, Maulik N; Koteva, Kalinka; Wright, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Glycopeptides such as vancomycin, teicoplanin and telavancin are essential for treating infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Unfortunately, the dwindled pipeline of new antibiotics into the market and the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and other resistant bacteria are increasingly making effective antibiotic treatment difficult. We have now learned a great deal about how bacteria produce antibiotics. This information can be exploited to develop the next generation of antimicrobials. The biosynthesis of glycopeptides via nonribosomal peptide assembly and unusual amino acid synthesis, crosslinking and tailoring enzymes gives rise to intricate chemical structures that target the bacterial cell wall. This review seeks to describe recent advances in our understanding of both biosynthesis and resistance of these important antibiotics.

  4. Triterpene biosynthesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmappa, Ramesha; Geisler, Katrin; Louveau, Thomas; O'Maille, Paul; Osbourn, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The triterpenes are one of the most numerous and diverse groups of plant natural products. They are complex molecules that are, for the most part, beyond the reach of chemical synthesis. Simple triterpenes are components of surface waxes and specialized membranes and may potentially act as signaling molecules, whereas complex glycosylated triterpenes (saponins) provide protection against pathogens and pests. Simple and conjugated triterpenes have a wide range of applications in the food, health, and industrial biotechnology sectors. Here, we review recent developments in the field of triterpene biosynthesis, give an overview of the genes and enzymes that have been identified to date, and discuss strategies for discovering new triterpene biosynthetic pathways.

  5. 46_ _267 - 278__Aminu- Biosynthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ISSN 2006 – 6996. BIOSYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF .... the excitation of surface Plasmon vibration with. AgNPs. ... Thin films of the sample were prepared on a carbon ... The resulting film on the SEM.

  6. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosynthesis of oleamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gregory P; Driscoll, William J

    2009-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is the prototype long chain primary fatty acid amide lipid messenger. The natural occurrence of oleamide was first reported in human serum in 1989. Subsequently oleamide was shown to accumulate in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats and to induce sleep when administered to experimental animals. Accordingly, oleamide first became known for its potential role in the mechanisms that mediate the drive to sleep. Oleamide also has profound effects on thermoregulation and acts as an analgesic in several models of experimental pain. Although these important pharmacologic effects are well establish, the biochemical mechanism for the synthesis of oleamide has not yet been defined. This chapter reviews the biosynthetic pathways that have been proposed and highlights two mechanisms which are most supported by experimental evidence: the generation of oleamide from oleoylglycine by the neuropeptide processing enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), and alternatively, the direct amidation of oleic acid via oleoyl coenzyme A by cytochrome c using ammonia as the nitrogen source. The latter mechanism is discussed in the context of apoptosis where oleamide may play a role in regulating gap junction communication. Lastly, several considerations and caveats pertinent to the future study oleamide biosynthesis are discussed.

  8. Glycolipid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    The biosynthesis of monogalactosyldiacyl-glycerol (MGDG) was studied in five different cyanobacteria. Previous work has shown Anabaena variabilis to synthesize both MGDG and monoglucosyl-diacylglycerol (MG1cDG) with MG1cDG being the precursor of MGDG. They have examined four other cyanobacteria to determine if a similar relationship exists. The cyanobacteria studied were Anabaena variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis nidulans, and Anacystis marina. Each were grown in liquid culture and lipids were labeled with 14 C]CO 2 for 20 min., 1.0 hr, 1.0 hr + 10 hr chase. Glycolipids were analyzed by initial separation of MGDG and MG1cDG by TLC followed by further analysis by HPLC. Complete separation of molecular species was obtained isocratically on an ODS column. All of the cyanobacteria labeled 16-C and 18-C fatty acids except for A. marina which labeled only 14-C and 16-C fatty acids. Desaturation of the fatty acids could be observed in the 1.0 hr and chase experiments. All were capable of labeling both MG1cDG and MGDG with the precursor-product relationship being observed. There does not appear to be a direct relationship between the epimerization of the sugar moiety and fatty acid desaturation

  9. Regulation of cell wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Plant cell walls differ in their amount and composition among various cell types and even in different microdomains of the wall of a given cell. Plants must have evolved regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis, targeted secretion, and assembly of wall components to achieve the heterogeneity in cell walls. A number of factors, including hormones, the cytoskeleton, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, phosphoinositides, and sugar nucleotide supply, have been implicated in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis or deposition. In the past two years, there have been important discoveries in transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. Several transcription factors in the NAC and MYB families have been shown to be the key switches for activation of secondary wall biosynthesis. These studies suggest a transcriptional network comprised of a hierarchy of transcription factors is involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. Further investigation and integration of the regulatory players participating in the making of cell walls will certainly lead to our understanding of how wall amounts and composition are controlled in a given cell type. This may eventually allow custom design of plant cell walls on the basis of our needs.

  10. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of ... Abstract. In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic ... example of the biosynthesis using fungi was that the cell-.

  11. The enzymology of polyether biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiangang; Cane, David E; Deng, Zixin

    2009-01-01

    Polyether ionophore antibiotics are a special class of polyketides widely used in veterinary medicine, and as food additives in animal husbandry. In this article, we review current knowledge about the mechanism of polyether biosynthesis, and the genetic and biochemical strategies used for its study. Several clear differences distinguish it from traditional type I modular polyketide biosynthesis: polyether backbones are assembled by modular polyketide synthases but are modified by two key enzymes, epoxidase and epoxide hydrolase, to generate the product. All double bonds involved in the oxidative cyclization in the polyketide backbone are of E geometry. Chain release in the polyether biosynthetic pathway requires a special type II thioesterase which specifically hydrolyzes the polyether thioester. All these discoveries should be very helpful for a deep understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of this class of important natural compounds, and for the targeted engineering of polyether derivatives.

  12. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, ...

  13. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with 14 CO 2 . None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating 14 CO 2 into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria

  14. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases. PMID:18757836

  15. The Spatial Organization of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nintemann, Sebastian

    cells is an open question. Likewise, it is not known how glucosinolate biosynthesis is orchestrated at the subcellular level. These open questions were addressed with several approaches in this project, with the aim of shedding light on the spatial organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis from...... between the individual classes of glucosinolates under constitutive and induced conditions and identified the source tissues of these defense compounds. Protein-protein interaction studies were carried out to investigate the subcellular organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis. We identified a family...

  16. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Jongedijk, E.J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Krol, van der A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana

  17. Method for determining heterologous biosynthesis pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari Saud; Cui, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    suitable pathways for the endogenous metabolism of a host organism because the efficacy of heterologous biosynthesis is affected by competing endogenous pathways. The present invention is called MRE (Metabolic Route Explorer), and it was conceived

  18. Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kudlicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the control and regulation of cellulose synthesis is fundamental to an understanding of plant development since cellulose is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. In vivo, the polymerization step requires a coordinated transport of substrates across membranes and relies on delicate orientations of the membrane-associated synthase complexes. Little is known about the properties of the enzyme complexes, and many questions about the biosynthesis of cell wall components at the cell surface still remain unanswered. Attempts to purify cellulose synthase from higher plants have not been successful because of the liability of enzymes upon isolation and lack of reliable in vitro assays. Membrane preparations from higher plant cells incorporate UDP-glucose into a glucan polymer, but this invariably turns out to be predominantly β -1,3-linked rather than β -1,4-linked glucans. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. One idea is that callose and cellulose-synthase systems are the same, but cell disruption activates callose synthesis preferentially. A second concept suggests that a regulatory protein as a part of the cellulose-synthase complex is rapidly degraded upon cell disruption. With new methods of enzyme isolation and analysis of the in vitro product, recent advances have been made in the isolation of an active synthase from the plasma membrane whereby cellulose synthase was separated from callose synthase.

  19. Biosynthesis and function of chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Tadahisa; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are principal pericellular and extracellular components that form regulatory milieu involving numerous biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Diverse functions of CSPGs can be mainly attributed to structural variability of their polysaccharide moieties, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG). Comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for CS biosynthesis and its catabolic processes is required in order to understand those functions. Here, we focus on recent advances in the study of enzymatic regulatory pathways for CS biosynthesis including successive modification/degradation, distinct CS functions, and disease phenotypes that have been revealed by perturbation of the respective enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Fine-tuned machineries for CS production/degradation are crucial for the functional expression of CS chains in developmental and pathophysiological processes. Control of enzymes responsible for CS biosynthesis/catabolism is a potential target for therapeutic intervention for the CS-associated disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I 50 concentration of 3.2 μM. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I 50 of 4 μM. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4- 3 H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and 14 C-mevalonic acid. From the 3 H/ 14 C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs

  1. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  2. Convergent Evolution of Ergothioneine Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Cangsong; Seebeck, Florian P

    2017-11-02

    Biosynthesis of N-α-trimethyl-2-thiohistidine (ergothioneine) is a frequent trait in cyanobacteria. This sulfur compound may provide essential relief from oxidative stress related to oxygenic photosynthesis. The central steps in ergothioneine biosynthesis are catalyzed by a histidine methyltransferase and an iron-dependent sulfoxide synthase. In this report, we present evidence that some cyanobacteria recruited and adapted a sulfoxide synthase from a different biosynthetic pathway to make ergothioneine. The discovery of a second origin of ergothioneine production underscores the physiological importance of this metabolite and highlights the evolutionary malleability of the thiohistidine biosynthetic machinery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Method for determining heterologous biosynthesis pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2017-08-10

    The present invention relates to a method and system for dynamically analyzing, determining, predicting and displaying ranked suitable heterologous biosynthesis pathways for a specified host. The present invention addresses the problem of finding suitable pathways for the endogenous metabolism of a host organism because the efficacy of heterologous biosynthesis is affected by competing endogenous pathways. The present invention is called MRE (Metabolic Route Explorer), and it was conceived and developed to systematically and dynamically search for, determine, analyze, and display promising heterologous pathways while considering competing endogenous reactions in a given host organism.

  4. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The expanding universe of alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, V; Laflamme, P

    2001-06-01

    Characterization of many of the major gene families responsible for the generation of central intermediates and for their decoration, together with the development of large genomics and proteomics databases, has revolutionized our capability to identify exotic and interesting natural-product pathways. Over the next few years, these tools will facilitate dramatic advances in our knowledge of the biosynthesis of alkaloids, which will far surpass that which we have learned in the past 50 years. These tools will also be exploited for the rapid characterization of regulatory genes, which control the development of specialized cell factories for alkaloid biosynthesis.

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger , Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results indicate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. The synthesis of nanoparticles would be suitable for developing a microbial nanotechnology biosynthesis process for mass scale production. Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, biosynthesis, fungi, Aspergillus.

  7. Combinatorial biosynthesis of medicinal plant secondary metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julsing, Mattijs K.; Koulman, Albert; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial biosynthesis is a new tool in the generation of novel natural products and for the production of rare and expensive natural products. The basic concept is combining metabolic pathways in different organisms on a genetic level. As a consequence heterologous organisms provide precursors

  8. Peroxidase enzymes regulate collagen extracellular matrix biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Rayner, Timothy E; Borowicz, Romana A; Greenwood, John E; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase are heme-containing enzymes often physically associated with fibrotic tissue and cancer in various organs, without any direct involvement in promoting fibroblast recruitment and extracellular matrix (ECM) biosynthesis at these sites. We report herein novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes possess a well-conserved profibrogenic capacity to stimulate the migration of fibroblastic cells and promote their ability to secrete collagenous proteins to generate a functional ECM both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts show that these cells are capable of rapidly binding and internalizing both myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl 4-hydroxylase-dependent manner that does not require ascorbic acid. This response was blocked by the irreversible myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-amino-benzoic acid hydrazide, indicating peroxidase catalytic activity is essential for collagen biosynthesis. These results suggest that peroxidase enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, may play a fundamental role in regulating the recruitment of fibroblast and the biosynthesis of collagen ECM at sites of normal tissue repair and fibrosis, with enormous implications for many disease states where infiltrating inflammatory cells deposit peroxidases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanotes in wildtype yeasts | Desuoky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biosynthesis of the biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs) are studied extensively in wild type and genetically modified prokaryotic cells, however the content and structure of PHA in wild type yeasts are not well documented. The purpose of this study was to screen forty yeast isolates collected from different ...

  10. Metabolic engineering for improved heterologous terpenoid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.; Melillo, E.; Czepnik, M.; Kayser, O.

    Terpenoids belong to the largest class of natural compounds and are produced in all living organisms. The isoprenoid skeleton is based on assembling of C5 building blocks, but the biosynthesis of a great variety of terpenoids ranging from monoterpenoids to polyterpenoids is not fully understood

  11. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  12. Biosynthesis of furanochromones in Pimpinella monoica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polyketide origin of their aromatic and pyrone rings while the furan ring originates via an acetate-mevalonate pathway. The plant also utilises glycine and leucine as substrate via acetate. Biotransformation of 3-H-visnagin to (6) but not to (2) was also observed. Keywords. Biosynthesis; furochromones; polyketide origin; ...

  13. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  14. Occurrence and biosynthesis of carotenoids in phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jim Junhui; Lin, Shaoling; Xu, Wenwen; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung

    2017-09-01

    Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition. The carotenoids that accumulate in particular phytoplankton phyla are synthesized by specific enzymes and play unique physiological roles. This review focuses on studies related to the occurrence of carotenoids in different phytoplankton phyla and the molecular aspects of their biosynthesis. Recent biotechnological advances in the isolation and characterization of some representative carotenoid synthases in phytoplankton are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial biosynthesis of nontoxic gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Swarup; Das, Tapan Kumar; Maiti, Guru Prasad; Basu, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The manuscript deals with the fungus mediated optimized biologically synthesized GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus and characterization of biosynthesized GNPs using various physico-chemical methods. The fairly stable synthesized nanoparticles have size in the range of 10–40 nm. Cytotoxicity study of biosynthesized GNPs on Human lung cancer cell line A549 showed no significant toxicity of GNPs. - Highlights: • A novel biosynthesis process of GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus. • Biosynthesized GNPs are in the range of 10–40 nm as observed from TEM. • This process of synthesis is an optimized biosynthesis process of GNPs. • Biosynthesized GNPs are noncytotoxic against A549 cell line. - Abstract: We study the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using the fungal species Aspergillus foetidus. The formation of GNPs were initially monitored by visual observation and then characterized with the help of various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed distinctive formation of face centered cubic crystalline GNPs. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) the morphology of the nanoparticles were found to be roughly spherical and within the size range of 30–50 nm. The spherical and polydispersed GNPs in the range of 10–40 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. It was established that alkaline pH, 1 mM gold salt concentration and 75 °C temperature were the respective optimum parameter for biosynthesis of GNPs. Cell cytotoxicity of GNP was compared with that of normal gold salt solution on A549 cell. The A549 cell growth in presence of GNPs was found to be comparatively less toxic than the gold ion.

  16. Microbial biosynthesis of nontoxic gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Swarup, E-mail: swaruproy@klyuniv.ac.in [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Das, Tapan Kumar [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Maiti, Guru Prasad [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Department of Anesthesiology, Texas Tech University Health science Center, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Basu, Utpal [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The manuscript deals with the fungus mediated optimized biologically synthesized GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus and characterization of biosynthesized GNPs using various physico-chemical methods. The fairly stable synthesized nanoparticles have size in the range of 10–40 nm. Cytotoxicity study of biosynthesized GNPs on Human lung cancer cell line A549 showed no significant toxicity of GNPs. - Highlights: • A novel biosynthesis process of GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus. • Biosynthesized GNPs are in the range of 10–40 nm as observed from TEM. • This process of synthesis is an optimized biosynthesis process of GNPs. • Biosynthesized GNPs are noncytotoxic against A549 cell line. - Abstract: We study the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using the fungal species Aspergillus foetidus. The formation of GNPs were initially monitored by visual observation and then characterized with the help of various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed distinctive formation of face centered cubic crystalline GNPs. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) the morphology of the nanoparticles were found to be roughly spherical and within the size range of 30–50 nm. The spherical and polydispersed GNPs in the range of 10–40 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. It was established that alkaline pH, 1 mM gold salt concentration and 75 °C temperature were the respective optimum parameter for biosynthesis of GNPs. Cell cytotoxicity of GNP was compared with that of normal gold salt solution on A549 cell. The A549 cell growth in presence of GNPs was found to be comparatively less toxic than the gold ion.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of oil palm flowers reveals an EAR-motif-containing R2R3-MYB that modulates phenylpropene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Jin, Jingjing; Rajan, Chakaravarthy; Wang, Qian; Yue, Genhua; Lim, Chin Huat; Chua, Nam-Hai; Ye, Jian; Sarojam, Rajani

    2017-11-23

    Oil palm is the most productive oil crop and the efficiency of pollination has a direct impact on the yield of oil. Pollination by wind can occur but maximal pollination is mediated by the weevil E. kamerunicus. These weevils complete their life cycle by feeding on male flowers. Attraction of weevils to oil palm flowers is due to the emission of methylchavicol by both male and female flowers. In search for male flowers, the weevils visit female flowers by accident due to methylchavicol fragrance and deposit pollen. Given the importance of methylchavicol emission on pollination, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of oil palm flowers and leaves to identify candidate genes involved in methylchavicol production in flowers. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of male open flowers, female open flowers and leaves was performed using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Analysis of the transcriptome data revealed that the transcripts of methylchavicol biosynthesis genes were strongly up-regulated whereas transcripts encoding genes involved in lignin production such as, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) and Ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) were found to be suppressed in oil palm flowers. Among the transcripts encoding transcription factors, an EAR-motif-containing R2R3-MYB transcription factor (EgMYB4) was found to be enriched in oil palm flowers. We determined that EgMYB4 can suppress the expression of a monolignol pathway gene, EgCOMT, in vivo by binding to the AC elements present in the promoter region. EgMYB4 was further functionally characterized in sweet basil which also produces phenylpropenes like oil palm. Transgenic sweet basil plants showed significant reduction in lignin content but produced more phenylpropenes. Our results suggest that EgMYB4 possibly restrains lignin biosynthesis in oil palm flowers thus allowing enhanced carbon flux into the phenylpropene pathway. This study augments our understanding of the diverse roles that EAR-motif-containing MYBs play to

  18. Heme biosynthesis and its regulation : Toward understanding and improvement of heme biosynthesis in filamentous fungi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Weert; P.J. Punt; Christien Lokman; C.A. van den Hondel; A.C. Franken; A.F. Ram

    2011-01-01

    Heme biosynthesis in fungal host strains has acquired considerable interest in relation to the production of secreted heme-containing peroxidases. Class II peroxidase enzymes have been suggested as eco-friendly replacements of polluting chemical processes in industry. These peroxidases are naturally

  19. Heme biosynthesis and its regulation: Towards understanding and improvement of heme biosynthesis in filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, A.C.W.; Lokman, B.C.; Ram, A.F.J.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Weert, S. de

    2011-01-01

    Heme biosynthesis in fungal host strains has acquired considerable interest in relation to the production of secreted heme-containing peroxidases. Class II peroxidase enzymes have been suggested as eco-friendly replacements of polluting chemical processes in industry. These peroxidases are naturally

  20. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs

  1. Wybutosine biosynthesis: Structural and mechanistic overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perche-Letuvée, Phanélie; Molle, Thibaut; Forouhar, Farhad; Mulliez, Etienne; Atta, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, significant progress has been made in understanding the genetics, enzymology and structural components of the wybutosine (yW) biosynthetic pathway. These studies have played a key role in expanding our understanding of yW biosynthesis and have revealed unexpected evolutionary ties, which are presently being unraveled. The enzymes catalyzing the 5 steps of this pathway, from genetically encoded guanosine to wybutosine base, provide an ensemble of amazing reaction mechanisms that are to be discussed in this review article. PMID:25629788

  2. Chemical Elicitors of Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton P. Tyurin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing of actinomycetes has uncovered a new immense realm of microbial chemistry and biology. Most biosynthetic gene clusters present in genomes were found to remain “silent” under standard cultivation conditions. Some small molecules—chemical elicitors—can be used to induce the biosynthesis of antibiotics in actinobacteria and to expand the chemical diversity of secondary metabolites. Here, we outline a brief account of the basic principles of the search for regulators of this type and their application.

  3. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1- 14 C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl 2 , 1 mM each of the MnCl 2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO 3 , and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO 3 , divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg 2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  5. Molecular Regulation of Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Chandra, Govind; Niu, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptomycetes are the most abundant source of antibiotics. Typically, each species produces several antibiotics, with the profile being species specific. Streptomyces coelicolor, the model species, produces at least five different antibiotics. We review the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in S. coelicolor and other, nonmodel streptomycetes in the light of recent studies. The biosynthesis of each antibiotic is specified by a large gene cluster, usually including regulatory genes (cluster-situated regulators [CSRs]). These are the main point of connection with a plethora of generally conserved regulatory systems that monitor the organism's physiology, developmental state, population density, and environment to determine the onset and level of production of each antibiotic. Some CSRs may also be sensitive to the levels of different kinds of ligands, including products of the pathway itself, products of other antibiotic pathways in the same organism, and specialized regulatory small molecules such as gamma-butyrolactones. These interactions can result in self-reinforcing feed-forward circuitry and complex cross talk between pathways. The physiological signals and regulatory mechanisms may be of practical importance for the activation of the many cryptic secondary metabolic gene cluster pathways revealed by recent sequencing of numerous Streptomyces genomes. PMID:23471619

  6. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants and remains the only commercial source for the narcotic analgesics morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic derivatives such as oxycodone and naltrexone. The plant also produces several other benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with potent pharmacological properties including the vasodilator papaverine, the cough suppressant and potential anticancer drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Opium poppy has served as a model system to investigate the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants. The application of biochemical and functional genomics has resulted in a recent surge in the discovery of biosynthetic genes involved in the formation of major benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in opium poppy. The availability of extensive biochemical genetic tools and information pertaining to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism is facilitating the study of a wide range of phenomena including the structural biology of novel catalysts, the genomic organization of biosynthetic genes, the cellular and sub-cellular localization of biosynthetic enzymes and a variety of biotechnological applications. In this review, we highlight recent developments and summarize the frontiers of knowledge regarding the biochemistry, cellular biology and biotechnology of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  7. Essences in Metabolic Engineering of Lignan Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo Satake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignans are structurally and functionally diverse phytochemicals biosynthesized in diverse plant species and have received wide attentions as leading compounds of novel drugs for tumor treatment and healthy diets to reduce of the risks of lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases. However, the lineage-specific distribution and the low-amount of production in natural plants, some of which are endangered species, hinder the efficient and stable production of beneficial lignans. Accordingly, the development of new procedures for lignan production is of keen interest. Recent marked advances in the molecular and functional characterization of lignan biosynthetic enzymes and endogenous and exogenous factors for lignan biosynthesis have suggested new methods for the metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis cascades leading to the efficient, sustainable, and stable lignan production in plants, including plant cell/organ cultures. Optimization of light conditions, utilization of a wide range of elicitor treatments, and construction of transiently gene-transfected or transgenic lignan-biosynthesizing plants are mainly being attempted. This review will present the basic and latest knowledge regarding metabolic engineering of lignans based on their biosynthetic pathways and biological activities, and the perspectives in lignan production via metabolic engineering.

  8. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles using microbes- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkoti, Nasreen I; Taranath, T C

    2014-09-01

    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganism is a green and eco-friendly technology. This review focuses on the use of consortium of diverse microorganisms belonging to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles viz. silver, gold, platinum, zirconium, palladium, iron, cadmium and metal oxides such as titanium oxide, zinc oxide, etc. These microorganisms include bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and algae. The synthesis of nanoparticles may be intracellular or extracellular. The several workers have reported that NADH dependent nitrate reductase enzyme plays a vital role in the conversion of metallic ions to nanoparticles. The FTIR study reveals that diverse biomolecules viz. carboxyl group, primary and secondary amines, amide I, II, and III bands etc serve as a tool for bioreduction and capping agents there by offering stability to particles by preventing agglomeration and growth. The size and shape of the nanoparticles vary with the organism employed and conditions employed during the synthesis which included pH, temperature and substrate concentration. The microorganisms provide diverse environment for biosynthesis of nanoparticles. These particles are safe and eco-friendly with a lot of applications in medicine, agriculture, cosmetic industry, drug delivery and biochemical sensors. The challenges for redressal include optimal production and minimal time to obtain desired size and shape, to enhance the stability of nanoparticles and optimization of specific microorganisms for specific application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, Jordi; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2013-05-15

    Isoprenoids are a large family of compounds synthesized by all free-living organisms. In most bacteria, the common precursors of all isoprenoids are produced by the MEP (methylerythritol 4-phosphate) pathway. The MEP pathway is absent from archaea, fungi and animals (including humans), which synthesize their isoprenoid precursors using the completely unrelated MVA (mevalonate) pathway. Because the MEP pathway is essential in most bacterial pathogens (as well as in the malaria parasites), it has been proposed as a promising new target for the development of novel anti-infective agents. However, bacteria show a remarkable plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis that should be taken into account when targeting this metabolic pathway for the development of new antibiotics. For example, a few bacteria use the MVA pathway instead of the MEP pathway, whereas others possess the two full pathways, and some parasitic strains lack both the MVA and the MEP pathways (probably because they obtain their isoprenoids from host cells). Moreover, alternative enzymes and metabolic intermediates to those of the canonical MVA or MEP pathways exist in some organisms. Recent work has also shown that resistance to a block of the first steps of the MEP pathway can easily be developed because several enzymes unrelated to isoprenoid biosynthesis can produce pathway intermediates upon spontaneous mutations. In the present review, we discuss the major advances in our knowledge of the biochemical toolbox exploited by bacteria to synthesize the universal precursors for their essential isoprenoids.

  10. Brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signalling in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Nathalie; Yokota, Takao; Shibata, Kyomi; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Gerats, Tom; Vandenbussche, Michiel; Koes, Ronald; Souer, Erik

    2013-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones that play an important role in the growth and development of plants. The biosynthesis of sterols and BRs as well as the signalling cascade they induce in plants have been elucidated largely through metabolic studies and the analysis of mutants in Arabidopsis and rice. Only fragmentary details about BR signalling in other plant species are known. Here a forward genetics strategy was used in Petunia hybrida, by which 19 families with phenotypic alterations typical for BR deficiency mutants were identified. In all mutants, the endogenous BR levels were severely reduced. In seven families, the tagged genes were revealed as the petunia BR biosynthesis genes CYP90A1 and CYP85A1 and the BR receptor gene BRI1. In addition, several homologues of key regulators of the BR signalling pathway were cloned from petunia based on homology with their Arabidopsis counterparts, including the BRI1 receptor, a member of the BES1/BZR1 transcription factor family (PhBEH2), and two GSK3-like kinases (PSK8 and PSK9). PhBEH2 was shown to interact with PSK8 and 14-3-3 proteins in yeast, revealing similar interactions to those during BR signalling in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, PhBEH2 also interacted with proteins implicated in other signalling pathways. This suggests that PhBEH2 might function as an important hub in the cross-talk between diverse signalling pathways.

  11. BIOSYNTHESIS AND ACTION OF JASMONATES IN PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1997-06-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives can modulate aspects of fruit ripening, production of viable pollen, root growth, tendril coiling, and plant resistance to insects and pathogens. Jasmonate activates genes involved in pathogen and insect resistance, and genes encoding vegetative storage proteins, but represses genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis. Jasmonic acid is derived from linolenic acid, and most of the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway have been extensively characterized. Modulation of lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase gene expression in transgenic plants raises new questions about the compartmentation of the biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The activation of jasmonic acid biosynthesis by cell wall elicitors, the peptide systemin, and other compounds will be related to the function of jasmonates in plants. Jasmonate modulates gene expression at the level of translation, RNA processing, and transcription. Promoter elements that mediate responses to jasmonate have been isolated. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of how jasmonate biosynthesis is regulated and relates this information to knowledge of jasmonate modulated gene expression.

  12. Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus ... The process of extracellular and fast biosynthesis may help in the development of an easy and eco-friendly route for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles.

  13. Rare cause of post-squalene disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Errors of cholesterol biosynthesis represent a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders. The aim of the authors of this article is to present a case of a patient with typical symptoms of a rare post-squalene disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis, its diagnostics and progress in neonatal period. The differential diagnosis of a ...

  14. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in hereditary periodic fever syndromes and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, S. M.; Frenkel, J.; Waterham, H. R.

    2003-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase (MK) is an essential enzyme in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway which produces numerous biomolecules (isoprenoids) involved in a variety of cellular processes. The indispensability of MK and isoprenoid biosynthesis for human health is demonstrated by the identification of its

  15. Cysteine Biosynthesis Controls Serratia marcescens Phospholipase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark T; Mitchell, Lindsay A; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-08-15

    Serratia marcescens causes health care-associated opportunistic infections that can be difficult to treat due to a high incidence of antibiotic resistance. One of the many secreted proteins of S. marcescens is the PhlA phospholipase enzyme. Genes involved in the production and secretion of PhlA were identified by screening a transposon insertion library for phospholipase-deficient mutants on phosphatidylcholine-containing medium. Mutations were identified in four genes ( cyaA , crp , fliJ , and fliP ) that are involved in the flagellum-dependent PhlA secretion pathway. An additional phospholipase-deficient isolate harbored a transposon insertion in the cysE gene encoding a predicted serine O -acetyltransferase required for cysteine biosynthesis. The cysE requirement for extracellular phospholipase activity was confirmed using a fluorogenic phospholipase substrate. Phospholipase activity was restored to the cysE mutant by the addition of exogenous l-cysteine or O -acetylserine to the culture medium and by genetic complementation. Additionally, phlA transcript levels were decreased 6-fold in bacteria lacking cysE and were restored with added cysteine, indicating a role for cysteine-dependent transcriptional regulation of S. marcescens phospholipase activity. S. marcescens cysE mutants also exhibited a defect in swarming motility that was correlated with reduced levels of flhD and fliA flagellar regulator gene transcription. Together, these findings suggest a model in which cysteine is required for the regulation of both extracellular phospholipase activity and surface motility in S. marcescens IMPORTANCE Serratia marcescens is known to secrete multiple extracellular enzymes, but PhlA is unusual in that this protein is thought to be exported by the flagellar transport apparatus. In this study, we demonstrate that both extracellular phospholipase activity and flagellar function are dependent on the cysteine biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, a disruption of cysteine

  16. Biosynthesis of dipicolinic acid in Clostridium roseum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakasan, K. (Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa (Brazil)); Sharma, D. (Gobind Ballabh Pant Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nainital (India))

    1981-02-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) synthesis was studied in Clostridium roseum by permitting the organism to complete vegetative growth in trypticase medium and trasfering the cells to a non-growth-promoting-medium, supplemented with the appropriate /sup 14/C-labelled precursors to complete sporulation and assaying the incorporation of label into DPA. Glu, asp, ala, ser and acetate were found to be efficient precursors of DPA and each one influenced the incorporation of other into DPA. The data suggest that a C/sub 5/ precursor is being trasformed into a C/sub 4/ intermediate, and a C/sub 2/ precursor into a C/sub 4/ intermediate, before their entry into DPA carbon structure. A C/sub 4/ plus C/sub 3/ condensation is favoured over C/sub 5/ plus C/sub 2/ or other condensation in the DPA biosynthesis.

  17. Polyamine biosynthesis during germination of yeast ascospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, J V; Ferro, A J

    1979-01-01

    The role of the diamine putrescine during germination and outgrowth of ascospores of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. Ornithine decarboxylase activity increased and declined rapidly during germination and outgrowth; peak activity was attained after the cells had proceeded through the G1 interval of the cell cycle, whereas minimal activity was present at the completion of the first cell division. alpha-Methylornithine inhibited both ornithine decarboxylase activity and the in vivo accumulation of putrescine. In the presence of alpha-methylornithireak dormancy and proceed through one cell division. Subsequent cellular growth, however, was retarded but not completely inhibited. The supplementation of Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) to sporulation medium greatly inhibited this sexual process. These data suggest that the synthesis of putrescine is not required for the breaking of spore dormancy, but that polyamine biosynthesis may be essential for meiosis and sporulation. PMID:387744

  18. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, Grażyna A.; Chojniak, Joanna; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance. PMID:25110864

  19. Terpenoids and Their Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagmi Pattanaik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, or isoprenoids, are a family of compounds with great structural diversity which are essential for all living organisms. In cyanobacteria, they are synthesized from the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP pathway, using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate produced by photosynthesis as substrates. The products of the MEP pathway are the isomeric five-carbon compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, which in turn form the basic building blocks for formation of all terpenoids. Many terpenoid compounds have useful properties and are of interest in the fields of pharmaceuticals and nutrition, and even potentially as future biofuels. The MEP pathway, its function and regulation, and the subsequent formation of terpenoids have not been fully elucidated in cyanobacteria, despite its relevance for biotechnological applications. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about cyanobacterial terpenoid biosynthesis, both regarding the native metabolism and regarding metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for heterologous production of non-native terpenoids.

  20. Terpenoids and Their Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Bagmi; Lindberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids, or isoprenoids, are a family of compounds with great structural diversity which are essential for all living organisms. In cyanobacteria, they are synthesized from the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate produced by photosynthesis as substrates. The products of the MEP pathway are the isomeric five-carbon compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, which in turn form the basic building blocks for formation of all terpenoids. Many terpenoid compounds have useful properties and are of interest in the fields of pharmaceuticals and nutrition, and even potentially as future biofuels. The MEP pathway, its function and regulation, and the subsequent formation of terpenoids have not been fully elucidated in cyanobacteria, despite its relevance for biotechnological applications. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about cyanobacterial terpenoid biosynthesis, both regarding the native metabolism and regarding metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for heterologous production of non-native terpenoids. PMID:25615610

  1. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna A. Płaza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance.

  2. Biosynthesis of dipicolinic acid in Clostridium roseum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakasan, K.; Sharma, D.

    1981-01-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) synthesis was studied in Clostridium roseum by permitting the organism to complete vegetative growth in trypticase medium and trasfering the cells to a non-growth-promoting-medium, supplemented with the appropriate 14 C-labelled precursors to complete sporulation and assaying the incorporation of label into DPA. Glu, asp, ala, ser and acetate were found to be efficient precursors of DPA and each one influenced the incorporation of other into DPA. The data suggest that a C 5 precursor is being trasformed into a C 4 intermediate, and a C 2 precursor into a C 4 intermediate, before their entry into DPA carbon structure. A C 4 plus C 3 condensation is favoured over C 5 plus C 2 or other condensation in the DPA biosynthesis. (Author) [pt

  3. Biosynthesis and function of plant lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, W.W.; Mudd, J.B.; Gibbs, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Sixth Annual Symposium in Botany and Plant Physiology was held January 13-15, 1983, at the University of California, Riverside. This volume comprises the papers that were presented. Subjects discussed at the symposium covered a wide range in the field of plant lipids. Biosynthesis of lipids occupied an important fraction of the presentations at the symposium. Subjects included detailed studies of the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, several discussions of the incorporation of fatty acids into glycerolipids and the further modification of the fatty acids, and the synthesis of glycerolipids and desaturation of fatty acids in both maturing oilseeds and chloroplasts. The physicochemical studies of glycerolipids and sterols in artificial membranes have led to distinct conclusions about their behaviour which must be relevant in the biological membrane. Results on the functional consequences of modifying the galactolipid composition in the chloroplast were an encouraging sign of progress in the attempts to relate membrane lipid composition to physiological function

  4. A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Joshua T.; Morgan, Jacob L.W.; Zimmer, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by which it is synthesized is now only beginning to emerge. On the basis of recent advances in structural and molecular biology on bacterial cellulose synthases, we review emerging concepts of how the enzymes polymerize glucose molecules, how the nascent polymer is transported across the plasma membrane, and how bacterial cellulose biosynthesis is regulated during biofilm formation. Additionally, we review evolutionary commonalities and differences between cellulose synthases that modulate the nature of the cellulose product formed. PMID:26034894

  5. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  6. Collagens--structure, function, and biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelse, K; Pöschl, E; Aigner, T

    2003-11-28

    The extracellular matrix represents a complex alloy of variable members of diverse protein families defining structural integrity and various physiological functions. The most abundant family is the collagens with more than 20 different collagen types identified so far. Collagens are centrally involved in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks of the extracellular matrix, basement membranes as well as other structures of the extracellular matrix. This review focuses on the distribution and function of various collagen types in different tissues. It introduces their basic structural subunits and points out major steps in the biosynthesis and supramolecular processing of fibrillar collagens as prototypical members of this protein family. A final outlook indicates the importance of different collagen types not only for the understanding of collagen-related diseases, but also as a basis for the therapeutical use of members of this protein family discussed in other chapters of this issue.

  7. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samta eJain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether bond to the sn-glycerol-1-phosphate backbone. In bacteria and eukarya on the other hand, fatty acid side chains are linked via an ester bond to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate backbone. The polar head groups are globally shared in the three domains of life. The unique membrane lipids of archaea have been implicated not only in the survival and adaptation of the organisms to extreme environments but also to form the basis of the membrane composition of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA. In nature, a diverse range of archaeal lipids is found, the most common are the diether (or archaeol and the tetraether (or caldarchaeol lipids that form a monolayer. Variations in chain length, cyclization and other modifications lead to diversification of these lipids. The biosynthesis of these lipids is not yet well understood however progress in the last decade has led to a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of archaeol. This review describes the current knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of archaeal ether lipids; insights on the stability and robustness of archaeal lipid membranes; and evolutionary aspects of the lipid divide and the last universal common ancestor LUCA. It examines recent advances made in the field of pathway reconstruction in bacteria.

  8. In vitro biosynthesis of complement protein D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnum, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: to determine site(s) of complement protein D biosynthesis and to examine D biosynthesis with respect to the kinetics of D secretion, the post-translational modification of D and the tissue-specific differences in D secretion and processing. Antigenic D was detected in the culture supernatants of two cell lines, U937 and HepG2, and adherent blood monocytes by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. D secreted by U937 cells was hemolytically active with a specific activity comparable to D in serum. De novo synthesis of D by U937 cells was demonstrated with the use of cycloheximide. Biosynthetic labeling using 35 S labeled methionine or cysteine, followed by immunoprecipitation demonstrated a single d band intra- and extra-cellularly in all three cell types as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and auto-radiography. Elevated serum D levels in individuals with IgA nephropathy led to studies on the D levels in serum and urine of individuals with chronic renal failure and an individual with Fanconi's syndrome. The former group had elevated serum D levels, compared to normals, and insignificant levels of D in their urine while the patient with Fanconi's syndrome had normal serum D levels but markedly elevated urinary D levels. These studies demonstrate that the monocyte and hepatocyte are both sites of D synthesis and that there are no apparent differences in the secretion rates and processing of D produced by these cell types. The results also suggest that D is not synthesized or secreted as a precursor molecule. Additionally, these studies suggest that the kidney is a major site of D catabolism

  9. PLANT VOLATILES. Biosynthesis of monoterpene scent compounds in roses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnard, Jean-Louis; Roccia, Aymeric; Caissard, Jean-Claude; Vergne, Philippe; Sun, Pulu; Hecquet, Romain; Dubois, Annick; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, Laurence; Jullien, Frédéric; Nicolè, Florence; Raymond, Olivier; Huguet, Stéphanie; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia; Jeauffre, Julien; Rohmer, Michel; Foucher, Fabrice; Hugueney, Philippe; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Baudino, Sylvie

    2015-07-03

    The scent of roses (Rosa x hybrida) is composed of hundreds of volatile molecules. Monoterpenes represent up to 70% percent of the scent content in some cultivars, such as the Papa Meilland rose. Monoterpene biosynthesis in plants relies on plastid-localized terpene synthases. Combining transcriptomic and genetic approaches, we show that the Nudix hydrolase RhNUDX1, localized in the cytoplasm, is part of a pathway for the biosynthesis of free monoterpene alcohols that contribute to fragrance in roses. The RhNUDX1 protein shows geranyl diphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity in vitro and supports geraniol biosynthesis in planta. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Fenarimol, a Pyrimidine-Type Fungicide, Inhibits Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keimei Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant steroid hormone brassinosteroids (BRs are important signal mediators that regulate broad aspects of plant growth and development. With the discovery of brassinoazole (Brz, the first specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, several triazole-type BR biosynthesis inhibitors have been developed. In this article, we report that fenarimol (FM, a pyrimidine-type fungicide, exhibits potent inhibitory activity against BR biosynthesis. FM induces dwarfism and the open cotyledon phenotype of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark. The IC50 value for FM to inhibit stem elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the dark was approximately 1.8 ± 0.2 μM. FM-induced dwarfism of Arabidopsis seedlings could be restored by brassinolide (BL but not by gibberellin (GA. Assessment of the target site of FM in BR biosynthesis by feeding BR biosynthesis intermediates indicated that FM interferes with the side chain hydroxylation of BR biosynthesis from campestanol to teasterone. Determination of the binding affinity of FM to purified recombinant CYP90D1 indicated that FM induced a typical type II binding spectrum with a Kd value of approximately 0.79 μM. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression level of the BR responsive gene in Arabidopsis seedlings indicated that FM induces the BR deficiency in Arabidopsis.

  11. Regulation of Strigolactone Biosynthesis by Gibberellin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yamagami, Daichi; Umehara, Mikihisa; Hanada, Atsushi; Yoshida, Satoko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Kyozuka, Junko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Shirasu, Ken; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Asami, Tadao

    2017-06-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes, including shoot branching and root development. They also act as rhizosphere signaling molecules to stimulate the germination of root parasitic weeds and the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Although various types of cross talk between SLs and other hormones have been reported in physiological analyses, the cross talk between gibberellin (GA) and SLs is poorly understood. We screened for chemicals that regulate the level of SLs in rice ( Oryza sativa ) and identified GA as, to our knowledge, a novel SL-regulating molecule. The regulation of SL biosynthesis by GA is dependent on the GA receptor GID1 and F-box protein GID2. GA treatment also reduced the infection of rice plants by the parasitic plant witchers weed ( Striga hermonthica ). These data not only demonstrate, to our knowledge, the novel plant hormone cross talk between SL and GA, but also suggest that GA can be used to control parasitic weed infections. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Estrogen biosynthesis in human uterine adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Takara; Kitawaki, Jo; Honjo, Hideo; Okada, Hiroji

    1989-01-01

    Estrogen biosynthesis (aromatiase activity) was investigated in human adenomyosis tissue and compared with that of the normal myometrium, endometrium, and endometrical cancer tissues. Homogenates were incubated with [1,2,6,7- 3 H]androstenedione and NADPH at 37 deg. C for 1 h. After stopping the enzymatic reaction with ethyl acetate, [4- 14 C]estrone and [4- 14 C]estradiol-17β were added to the incubated sample. Estrone and estradiol were purified and identified by Bio-Rad AG1-X2 column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and co-crystallization. Estrogen formed in the incubated sample was calculated from the 3 H/ 14 C ratio of the final crystal. The value for estrone formed from androstenedione was 52-132 fmol . h -1. g -1 wet weight. Aromatase activity in the adenomyosis tissues was higher than that in normal endometrial or myometrial tissues, but lower than that found in myometrial or endometrial tumour tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of danazol, progresterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate on adenomyosis cells in primary cultures. Aromatase activity in adenomyosis was blocked by danazol, but stimulated by progesterone and MPA. These results indicate that aromatase activity in adenomyosis may contribute to the growth of the ectopic endometrial tissue which occurs in this disease. (author)

  13. A Biotin Biosynthesis Gene Restricted to Helicobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei; Jia, Jia; Cronan, John E.

    2016-01-01

    In most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) methyl ester. The paradigm cleavage enzyme is Escherichia coli BioH which together with the BioC methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioH is absent from many bioC-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. Helicobacter pylori lacks a gene encoding a homologue of the known pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester cleavage enzymes suggesting that it encodes a novel enzyme that cleaves this intermediate. We isolated the H. pylori gene encoding this enzyme, bioV, by complementation of an E. coli bioH deletion strain. Purified BioV cleaved the physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester to pimeloyl-ACP by use of a catalytic triad, each member of which was essential for activity. The role of BioV in biotin biosynthesis was demonstrated using a reconstituted in vitro desthiobiotin synthesis system. BioV homologues seem the sole pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester esterase present in the Helicobacter species and their occurrence only in H. pylori and close relatives provide a target for development of drugs to specifically treat Helicobacter infections. PMID:26868423

  14. Explorations into the biosynthesis of bioscorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelson, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The biosynthesis of dioscorine in Dioscorea hispida has been studied by the feeding of putative precursors labelled at specific positions with 2 H, 3 H, and 14 C. Administration of [3- 14 C]3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid to D. hispida by the wick method afforded dioscorine labelled preferentially at the C 10 position implying that the biosynthetic pathway to the acetate-derived half of the dioscorine skeleton is going through this compound. Administration of ethyl [6- 14 C]orsellinate to D. hispida by the wick method failed to give an appreciable incorporation into dioscroine thereby disproving an alternative mechanism describing the formation of the acetate-derived half of the dioscorine skeleton. Two attempts to simulate the alternative mechanism by oxidatively cleaving ethyl orsellinate also failed, further disfavoring this mechanism. Administration of [2,3] 13 C 2 , 14 C 2 succinic acid, [3- 14 C]aspartic acid and [7a- 14 C]tryptophan by the leaf painting method gave very low incorporations into dioscorine making determination of the source of the nicotinic acid half of the dioscorine skeleton inconclusive. Administration of [6- 2 H, 3 H]nicotinic acid to D. hispida by the wick method afforded dioscorine exhibiting complete retention of 3 H thereby disfavoring a mechanism involving a 3,6-dihydropyridine intermediate in the formation of the dioscorine skeleton

  15. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  16. The regulation and biosynthesis of antimycins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F. Seipke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimycins (>40 members were discovered nearly 65 years ago but the discovery of the gene cluster encoding antimycin biosynthesis in 2011 has facilitated rapid progress in understanding the unusual biosynthetic pathway. Antimycin A is widely used as a piscicide in the catfish farming industry and also has potent killing activity against insects, nematodes and fungi. The mode of action of antimycins is to inhibit cytochrome c reductase in the electron transport chain and halt respiration. However, more recently, antimycin A has attracted attention as a potent and selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Remarkably, this inhibition is independent of the main mode of action of antimycins such that an artificial derivative named 2-methoxyantimycin A inhibits Bcl-xL but does not inhibit respiration. The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL family of proteins are over-produced in cancer cells that are resistant to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy agents, so antimycins have great potential as anticancer drugs used in combination with existing chemotherapeutics. Here we review what is known about antimycins, the regulation of the ant gene cluster and the unusual biosynthetic pathway.

  17. Engineering bacteria for enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA have been produced by some bacteria as bioplastics for many years. Yet their commercialization is still on the way. A few issues are related to the difficulty of PHA commercialization: namely, high cost and instabilities on molecular weights (Mw and structures, thus instability on thermo-mechanical properties. The high cost is the result of complicated bioprocessing associated with sterilization, low conversion of carbon substrates to PHA products, and slow growth of microorganisms as well as difficulty of downstream separation. Future engineering on PHA producing microorganisms should be focused on contamination resistant bacteria especially extremophiles, developments of engineering approaches for the extremophiles, increase on carbon substrates to PHA conversion and controlling Mw of PHA. The concept proof studies could still be conducted on E. coli or Pseudomonas spp. that are easily used for molecular manipulations. In this review, we will use E. coli and halophiles as examples to show how to engineer bacteria for enhanced PHA biosynthesis and for increasing PHA competitiveness.

  18. Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with [ 14 C] acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree [ 14 C]fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty acid is 14:0. No free fatty acid was detected in wild type cells labeled prior to the development of bioluminescence in the exponential growth phase, or in a dark mutant of V. harveyi (mutant M17) that requires exogenous 14:0 for light emission. The preferential accumulation of 14:0 was not observed when wild type cells were labeled with [ 14 C]acetate in regular growth medium. Moreover, all V. harveyi strains exhibited similar fatty acid mass compositions regardless of the state of bioluminescence. Since earlier work has shown that a luminescence-related acyltransferase (defective in the M17 mutant) can catalyze the deacylation of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein in vitro, the present results are consistent with a model in which this enzyme diverts 14:0 to the luminescence system during fatty acid biosynthesis. Under normal conditions, the supply of 14:0 by this pathway is tightly regulated such that bioluminescence development does not significantly alter the total fatty acid composition

  19. Biosynthesis of plasmenylcholine in guinea pig heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wientzek, M.; Choy, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    In some mammalian hearts, up to 40% of the choline phosphoglyceride (CPG) exists as plasmenylcholine (1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Although the majority of diacylphosphatidylcholine (PC) in mammalian hearts is synthesized from choline via the CDP-choline pathway, the formation of plasmenylcholine from choline was not known. In this study, they investigated the biosynthesis of plasmenyl-choline in the isolated guinea pig heart by perfusion with [ 3 H]choline. Labelled choline containing metabolites and labelled plasmenylcholine were isolated and determined at different perfusion time points. Significant amounts of labelling were found only in choline, phosphocholine, CDP-choline, plasmenyl-choline and PC. In addition, a precursor-product relationship was observed between the labelling of CDP-choline and plasmenylcholine. Such a relationship was not observed between choline and plasmenylcholine. Hence, they postulate that the incorporation of choline into plasmenylcholine is via the CDP-choline pathway and not via base exchange. The ability to condense 1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycerol with CDP-choline was also demonstrated in vitro with guinea pig heart microsomes

  20. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes

  1. Tyrosine biosynthesis, metabolism, and catabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Craig A; Maeda, Hiroshi A

    2018-05-01

    L-Tyrosine (Tyr) is an aromatic amino acid (AAA) required for protein synthesis in all organisms, but synthesized de novo only in plants and microorganisms. In plants, Tyr also serves as a precursor of numerous specialized metabolites that have diverse physiological roles as electron carriers, antioxidants, attractants, and defense compounds. Some of these Tyr-derived plant natural products are also used in human medicine and nutrition (e.g. morphine and vitamin E). While the Tyr biosynthesis and catabolic pathways have been extensively studied in microbes and animals, respectively, those of plants have received much less attention until recently. Accumulating evidence suggest that the Tyr biosynthetic pathways differ between microbes and plants and even within the plant kingdom, likely to support the production of lineage-specific plant specialized metabolites derived from Tyr. The interspecies variations of plant Tyr pathway enzymes can now be used to enhance the production of Tyr and Tyr-derived compounds in plants and other synthetic biology platforms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Glycoprotein biosynthesis by human normal platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Bello, O.; Apitz-Castro, R.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporation of radioactive Man, Gal, Fuc, Glc-N, and NANA into washed human normal platelets and endogenous glycoproteins has been found. Both parameters were time dependent. Analysis of hydrolyzed labeled glycoproteins by paper chromatography revealed that the radioactive monosaccharide incubated with the platelets had not been converted into other sugars. Acid hydrolysis demonstrates the presence of a glycosidic linkage. All the effort directed to the demonstration of the existence of a lipid-sugar intermediate in intact human platelets yielded negative results for Man and Glc-N used as precursors. The incorporation of these sugars into glycoproteins is insensitive to bacitracin, suggesting no involvement of lipid-linked saccharides in the synthesis of glycoproteins in human blood platelets. The absence of inhibition of the glycosylation process in the presence of cycloheximide suggests that the sugars are added to proteins present in the intact platelets. These results support the contention that glycoprotein biosynthesis in human blood platelets observed under our experimental conditions is effected through direct sugar nucleotide glycosylation

  3. Preliminary studies of the biosynthesis of Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicnienski, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is one of the most prevalent fungi in the soil. There are now two reports of the occurrence of toxin-producing strains of this fungus on stored foodstuffs. In addition, strains of A. ustus have been isolated along with Penicillium species from samples of South African cheeses. All A. ustus isolates tested were judged to be highly toxic to ducklings when grown on maize meal, however, the toxins involved were not isolated. Austin is the trivial name of one of the toxins made by the fungus found on stored food. Preliminary work to studying the biosynthesis of this compound using 13 C-labeled sodium acetate is reported here. The feasibility of the biosynthetic study was determined by feeding [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate to A. ustus cultures. The assignments made in the 13 C-nmr spectrum of Austin are shown. The lowest dilution factor obtained in [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate feeding experiments was 14. This dilution factor is sufficiently low to allow a successful feeding of [1,2- 13 C 2 ]-sodium acetate. A new metabolite of A. ustus, deacetylaustin, was isolated and identified. An alkaloid of unknown structure was also isolated from the fungus

  4. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  5. Overexpression of SbMyb60 in sorghum bicolor impacts both primary and secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few transcription factors have been identified in C4 grasses that either positively or negatively regulate monolignol biosynthesis. Previously, overexpression of SbMyb60 in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was shown to induce monolignol synthesis, which led to elevated lignin deposition and al...

  6. Jasmonate-induced biosynthesis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Geda, Arvind Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Andrographolide is a prominent secondary metabolite found in Andrographis paniculata that exhibits enormous pharmacological effects. In spite of immense value, the normal biosynthesis of andrographolide results in low amount of the metabolite. To induce the biosynthesis of andrographolide, we attempted elicitor-induced activation of andrographolide biosynthesis in cell cultures of A. paniculata. This was carried out by using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as an elicitor. Among the various concentrations of MeJA tested at different time periods, 5 µM MeJA yielded 5.25 times more andrographolide content after 24 h of treatment. The accumulation of andrographolide was correlated with the expression level of known regulatory genes (hmgs, hmgr, dxs, dxr, isph and ggps) of mevalonic acid (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. These results established the involvement of MeJA in andrographolide biosynthesis by inducing the transcription of its biosynthetic pathways genes. The coordination of isph, ggps and hmgs expression highly influenced the andrographolide biosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Trends in lignin modification: a comprehensive analysis of the effects of genetic manipulations/mutations on lignification and vascular integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of lignin configuration in transgenic and mutant plants is long overdue. This review thus undertook the systematic analysis of trends manifested through genetic and mutational manipulations of the various steps associated with monolignol biosynthesis; this included consideration of the downstream effects on organized lignin assembly in the various cell types, on vascular function/integrity, and on plant growth and development. As previously noted for dirigent protein (homologs), distinct and sophisticated monolignol forming metabolic networks were operative in various cell types, tissues and organs, and form the cell-specific guaiacyl (G) and guaiacyl-syringyl (G-S) enriched lignin biopolymers, respectively. Regardless of cell type undergoing lignification, carbon allocation to the different monolignol pools is apparently determined by a combination of phenylalanine availability and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase/"p-coumarate-3-hydroxylase" (C4H/C3H) activities, as revealed by transcriptional and metabolic profiling. Downregulation of either phenylalanine ammonia lyase or cinnamate-4-hydroxylase thus predictably results in reduced lignin levels and impaired vascular integrity, as well as affecting related (phenylpropanoid-dependent) metabolism. Depletion of C3H activity also results in reduced lignin deposition, albeit with the latter being derived only from hydroxyphenyl (H) units, due to both the guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) pathways being blocked. Apparently the cells affected are unable to compensate for reduced G/S levels by increasing the amounts of H-components. The downstream metabolic networks for G-lignin enriched formation in both angiosperms and gymnosperms utilize specific cinnamoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCOMT), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) isoforms: however, these steps neither affect carbon allocation nor H/G designations, this being determined by C4H/C3H

  8. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Md Abdur; Busatto, Nicola; Trainotti, Livio

    2014-11-01

    MYB10.1 and MYB10.3, with bHLH3, are the likely regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruit. MYB10.1/2/3 forms a cluster on the same genomic fragment where the Anther color ( Ag ) trait is located. Anthocyanins are bioactive compounds responsible for the pigmentation of many plant parts such as leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, and have potential benefits to human health. In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], peel color is a key determinant for fruit quality and is regulated by flavonoids including anthocyanins. The R2R3 MYB transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes with the help of co-activators belonging to the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40 repeat families. In the peach genome six MYB10-like and three bHLH-like TFs were identified as candidates to be the regulators of the anthocyanin accumulation, which, in yellow flesh fruits, is highest in the peel, abundant in the part of the mesocarp surrounding the stone and lowest in the mesocarp. The expression of MYB10.1 and MYB10.3 correlates with anthocyanin levels of different peach parts. They also have positive correlation with the expression of key structural genes of the anthocyanin pathway, such as CHS, F3H, and UFGT. Functions of peach MYB10s were tested in tobacco and shown to activate key genes in the anthocyanin pathway when bHLHs were co-expressed as partners. Overexpression of MYB10.1/bHLH3 and MYB10.3/bHLH3 activated anthocyanin production by up-regulating NtCHS, NtDFR and NtUFGT while other combinations were not, or much less, effective. As three MYB10 genes are localized in a genomic region where the Ag trait, responsible for anther pigmentation, is localized, it is proposed they are key determinant to introduce new peach cultivars with higher antioxidant level and pigmented fruit.

  9. Inhibitors of amino acids biosynthesis as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębowska, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Fungal microorganisms, including the human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi, are able to synthesize all proteinogenic amino acids, including nine that are essential for humans. A number of enzymes catalyzing particular steps of human-essential amino acid biosynthesis are fungi specific. Numerous studies have shown that auxotrophic mutants of human pathogenic fungi impaired in biosynthesis of particular amino acids exhibit growth defect or at least reduced virulence under in vivo conditions. Several chemical compounds inhibiting activity of one of these enzymes exhibit good antifungal in vitro activity in minimal growth media, which is not always confirmed under in vivo conditions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on pathways of amino acids biosynthesis in fungi, with a special emphasis put on enzymes catalyzing particular steps of these pathways as potential targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

  10. NAD+ biosynthesis, aging, and disease [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ biosynthesis and its regulation have recently been attracting markedly increasing interest. Aging is marked by a systemic decrease in NAD+ across multiple tissues. The dysfunction of NAD+ biosynthesis plays a critical role in the pathophysiologies of multiple diseases, including age-associated metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and mental disorders. As downstream effectors, NAD+-dependent enzymes, such as sirtuins, are involved in the progression of such disorders. These recent studies implicate NAD+ biosynthesis as a potential target for preventing and treating age-associated diseases. Indeed, new studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of supplementing NAD+ intermediates, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside, providing a proof of concept for the development of an effective anti-aging intervention.

  11. Zincophorin – biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus and antibiotic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zincophorin is a polyketide antibiotic that possesses potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including human pathogens. While a number of total syntheses of this highly functionalized natural product were reported since its initial discovery, the genetic basis for the biosynthesis of zincophorin has remained unclear. In this study, the co-linearity inherent to polyketide pathways was used to identify the zincophorin biosynthesis gene cluster in the genome of the natural producer HKI 0741. Interestingly, the same locus is fully conserved in the streptomycin-producing actinomycete IFO 13350, suggesting that the latter bacterium is also capable of zincophorin biosynthesis. Biological profiling of zincophorin revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of the Gram-positive bacterium . The antibacterial effect, however, is accompanied by cytotoxicity. Antibiotic and cytotoxic activities were completely abolished upon esterification of the carboxylic acid group in zincophorin.

  12. Purine biosynthesis de novo by lymphocytes in gout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoun, P.; Chanard, J.; Brami, M.; Funck-Brentano, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A method of measurement in vitro of purine biosynthesis de novo in human circulating blood lymphocytes is proposed. The rate of early reactions of purine biosynthesis de novo was determined by the incorporation of [ 14 C]formate into N-formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide when the subsequent reactions of the metabolic pathway were completely inhibited by the antibiotic azaserine. Synthesis of 14 C-labelled N-formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide by lymphocytes was measured in healthy control subjects and patients with primary gout or hyperuricaemia secondary to renal failure, with or without allopurinol therapy. The average synthesis was higher in gouty patients without therapy than in control subjects, but the values contained overlap the normal range. In secondary hyperuricaemia the synthesis was at same value as in control subjects. These results are in agreement with the inconstant acceleration of purine biosynthesis de novo in gouty patients as seen by others with measurement of [ 14 C]glycine incorporation into urinary uric acid. (author)

  13. Methoxypyrazines biosynthesis and metabolism in grape: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yujuan; Xie, Sha; Guan, Xueqiang; Song, Changzheng; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei

    2018-04-15

    This review summarizes research on the discovery, biosynthesis, accumulation, transport, and metabolism of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) in grape. The MPs are a family of potent volatile compounds distributed throughout biological kingdoms. These compounds impart herbaceous/green/vegetal sensory attributes to certain varieties of wine. Generally, high levels of MPs in wine are derived mainly from the corresponding grapes. Although two pathways for MPs biosynthesis have been proposed, only the final step and the enzymes that catalyze it has been confirmed in grape, and the metabolic intermediates and key enzymes involved in other steps are still unknown. The limited understanding of MPs metabolism has restricted research on these compounds, and some empirical results cannot be explained by the current knowledge of MPs metabolism. This review provides insights into research on MPs biosynthesis and metabolism, and proposes directions for further research on this important class of flavour/odour compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent advances in combinatorial biosynthesis for drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Huihua Sun,1,* Zihe Liu,1,* Huimin Zhao,1,2 Ee Lui Ang1 1Metabolic Engineering Research Laboratory, Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; 2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Because of extraordinary structural diversity and broad biological activities, natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery. These therapeutically important secondary metabolites are assembled and modified by dedicated biosynthetic pathways in their host living organisms. Traditionally, chemists have attempted to synthesize natural product analogs that are important sources of new drugs. However, the extraordinary structural complexity of natural products sometimes makes it challenging for traditional chemical synthesis, which usually involves multiple steps, harsh conditions, toxic organic solvents, and byproduct wastes. In contrast, combinatorial biosynthesis exploits substrate promiscuity and employs engineered enzymes and pathways to produce novel “unnatural” natural products, substantially expanding the structural diversity of natural products with potential pharmaceutical value. Thus, combinatorial biosynthesis provides an environmentally friendly way to produce natural product analogs. Efficient expression of the combinatorial biosynthetic pathway in genetically tractable heterologous hosts can increase the titer of the compound, eventually resulting in less expensive drugs. In this review, we will discuss three major strategies for combinatorial biosynthesis: 1 precursor-directed biosynthesis; 2 enzyme-level modification, which includes swapping of the entire domains, modules and subunits, site-specific mutagenesis, and directed evolution; 3 pathway-level recombination. Recent examples of combinatorial biosynthesis employing these

  15. Pseudopterosin Biosynthesis: Aromatization of the Diterpene Cyclase Product, Elisabethatriene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber C. Kohl

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Putative precursors in pseudopterosin biosynthesis, the hydrocarbons isoelisabethatriene (10 and erogorgiaene (11, have been identified from an extract of Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae collected in the Florida Keys. Biosynthetic experiments designed to test the utilization of these compounds in pseudopterosin production revealed that erogorgiaene is transformed to pseudopterosins A-D. Together with our previous data, it is now apparent that early steps in pseudopterosin biosynthesis involve the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to elisabethatriene followed by the dehydrogenation and aromatization to erogorgiaene.

  16. In vitro biosynthesis of unnatural enterocin and wailupemycin polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzis, John A; Cheng, Qian; Thomas, Paul M; Kelleher, Neil L; Moore, Bradley S

    2009-03-27

    Nature has evolved finely tuned strategies to synthesize rare and complex natural products such as the enterocin family of polyketides from the marine bacterium Streptomyces maritimus. Herein we report the directed ex vivo multienzyme syntheses of 24 unnatural 5-deoxyenterocin and wailupemycin F and G analogues, 18 of which are new. We have generated molecular diversity by priming the enterocin biosynthesis enzymes with unnatural substrates and have illustrated further the uniqueness of this type II polyketide synthase by way of exploiting its unusual starter unit biosynthesis pathways.

  17. Sequential enzymatic epoxidation involved in polyether lasalocid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Atsushi; Shimaya, Mayu; Suzuki, Gaku; Migita, Akira; Shinde, Sandip S; Sato, Kyohei; Watanabe, Kenji; Tamura, Tomohiro; Oguri, Hiroki; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2012-05-02

    Enantioselective epoxidation followed by regioselective epoxide opening reaction are the key processes in construction of the polyether skeleton. Recent genetic analysis of ionophore polyether biosynthetic gene clusters suggested that flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) could be involved in the oxidation steps. In vivo and in vitro analyses of Lsd18, an FMO involved in the biosynthesis of polyether lasalocid, using simple olefin or truncated diene of a putative substrate as substrate mimics demonstrated that enantioselective epoxidation affords natural type mono- or bis-epoxide in a stepwise manner. These findings allow us to figure out enzymatic polyether construction in lasalocid biosynthesis. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Topical problems in the biosynthesis of red blood pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franck, B.

    1982-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III plays a key role in the biosynthesis of heme, the red pigment of blood. In vivo studies with specifically 14 C- and 3 H-labeled precursors have revealed that the formation of uroporphyrinogen III in the organism follows several primary and subsidiary pathways. Model experiments on the pattern of biosynthesis have led to simple and effective methods of synthesizing uroporphyrin analogs and have shwon that their production is strongly favored thermodynamically, The biologically important porphyrins thus available permit a mechanistic explanantion of the light-induced dermatoses in porphyria diseases and suggest promising medical applications in diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  19. Structure, Biosynthesis, and Occurrence of Bacterial Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimming, Olivia; Challinor, Victoria L; Tobias, Nicholas J; Adihou, Hélène; Grün, Peter; Pöschel, Laura; Richter, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald; Bode, Helge B

    2015-10-19

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread plant natural products with potent toxicity and bioactivity. Herein, the identification of bacterial PAs from entomopathogenic bacteria using differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS) and mass spectrometry is described. Their biosynthesis was elucidated to involve a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. The occurrence of these biosynthesis gene clusters in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria indicates an important biological function in bacteria. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-Regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucher, M.; Chabbert, B.; Pilate, G.; Van Doorsselaere, J.; Tollier, M. T.; Petit-Conil, M.; Cornu, D.; Monties, B.; Van Montagu, M.; Inze, D.; Jouanin, L.; Boerjan, W.

    1996-12-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the lignin precursors, the monolignols. We have down-regulated CAD in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula X Populus alba) by both antisense and co-suppression strategies. Several antisense and sense CAD transgenic poplars had an approximately 70% reduced CAD activity that was associated with a red coloration of the xylem tissue. Neither the lignin amount nor the lignin monomeric composition (syringyl/guaiacyl) were significantly modified. However, phloroglucinol-HCl staining was different in the down-regulated CAD plants, suggesting changes in the number of aldehyde units in the lignin. Furthermore, the reactivity of the cell wall toward alkali treatment was altered: a lower amount of lignin was found in the insoluble, saponified residue and more lignin could be precipitated from the soluble alkali fraction. Moreover, large amounts of phenolic compounds, vanillin and especially syringaldehyde, were detected in the soluble alkali fraction of the CAD down-regulated poplars. Alkaline pulping experiments on 3-month-old trees showed a reduction of the kappa number without affecting the degree of cellulose degradation. These results indicate that reducing the CAD activity in trees might be a valuable strategy to optimize certain processes of the wood industry, especially those of the pulp and paper industry.

  1. Arogenate Dehydratase Isoforms Differentially Regulate Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingbo; Man, Cong; Li, Danning; Tan, Huijuan; Xie, Ye; Huang, Jirong

    2016-12-05

    Anthocyanins, a group of L-phenylalanine (Phe)-derived flavonoids, have been demonstrated to play important roles in plant stress resistance and interactions between plants and insects. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory mechanisms have been extensively studied, it remains unclear whether the level of Phe supply affects anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we investigated the roles of arogenate dehydratases (ADTs), the key enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arogenate into Phe, in sucrose-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Genetic analysis showed that all six ADT isoforms function redundantly in anthocyanin biosynthesis but have differential contributions. ADT2 contributes the most to anthocyanin accumulation, followed by ADT1 and ADT3, and ADT4-ADT6. We found that anthocyanin content is positively correlated with the levels of Phe and sucrose-induced ADT transcripts in seedlings. Consistently, addition of Phe to the medium could dramatically increase anthocyanin content in the wild-type plants and rescue the phenotype of the adt1 adt3 double mutant regarding the anthocyanin accumulation. Moreover, transgenic plants overexpressing ADT4, which appears to be less sensitive to Phe than overexpression of ADT2, hyperaccumulate Phe and produce elevated level of anthocyanins. Taken together, our results suggest that the level of Phe is an important regulatory factor for sustaining anthocyanin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Progress report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    Progress is reported on the identification and fractionation of Magnesium chealatase, an enzyme involved in addition of Mg to chlorophyll during the later`s biosynthesis. Progress is documented as a series of synopsis of published and unpublished papers by the author.

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present research work, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its activity on bacterial pathogens were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using Urospora sp. and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 30 min. The results recorded from UV–vis spectrum, Fourier Transform Infrared ...

  4. Lincosamides: Chemical structure, biosynthesis, mechanism of action, resistance, and applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spížek, Jaroslav; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 133, June 1 SI (2017), s. 20-28 ISSN 0006-2952 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Lincosamides * Chemical structure * Biosynthesis and mechanism of action Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.581, year: 2016

  5. WRKY transcription factors involved in activation of SA biosynthesis genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Verk, Marcel C; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M

    2011-01-01

    Increased defense against a variety of pathogens in plants is achieved through activation of a mechanism known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The broad-spectrum resistance brought about by SAR is mediated through salicylic acid (SA). An important step in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is the

  6. Molecular and biochemical studies of fragrance biosynthesis in rose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roses are one of the most popular ornamental plants, whose floral volatiles are not only involved in environmental interactions but also widely used by industries. The biosynthesis of many of these volatiles in roses is not well understood. This thesis describes alternative pathways for the

  7. Hacking an Algal Transcription Factor for Lipid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiulai; Hu, Guipeng; Liu, Liming

    2018-03-01

    Transcriptional engineering is a viable means for engineering microalgae to produce lipid, but it often results in a trade-off between production and growth. A recent study shows that engineering a single transcriptional regulator enables efficient carbon partitioning to lipid biosynthesis with high biomass productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bile acid analysis in human disorders of bile acid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular

  9. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity. PMID:27652264

  10. Regulation of Isoprenoid Pheromone Biosynthesis in Bumblebee Males

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Darina; Buček, Aleš; Brabcová, Jana; Žáček, Petr; Kindl, Jiří; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 260-267 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302; GA ČR GA15-06569S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biosynthesis * Bombus spp. * gene expression * isoprenoid s * pheromones * transcriptional regulation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016

  11. Expression profiles of genes involved in tanshinone biosynthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression profiles of genes involved in tanshinone biosynthesis of two. Salvia miltiorrhiza genotypes with different tanshinone contents. Zhenqiao Song, Jianhua Wang and Xingfeng Li. J. Genet. 95, 433–439. Table 1. S. miltiorrhiza genes and primer pairs used for qRT-PCR. Gene. GenBank accession. Primer name.

  12. Temporal expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a large family of endogenous plant growth regulators. Bioactive GAs influence nearly all processes during plant growth and development. In the present study, we cloned and identified 10 unique genes that are potentially involved in the biosynthesis of GAs, including one BpGGDP gene, two BpCPS ...

  13. Anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit tree crops: Genes and their regulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway is a little complex with branches responsible for the synthesis of a variety of metabolites. In fruit tree crops, during the past decade, many structural genes encoding enzymes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and various regulatory genes encoding transcription factors that ...

  14. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Rajasekar

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. ... nanoparticle from seaweed is a green chemical method ... operating at a voltage of 80 kV and a current of 30 mA (Chandran.

  15. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  16. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Leishmania tropica | Rahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel biosynthesis route for Silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was attempted in the present study using Leishmania tropica the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in different countries, particularly in Mediterranean region in Iraq. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 by reduction of ...

  17. Stimulation of reserpine biosynthesis in the callus of Rauvolfia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So enhancing this alkaloid in the already available system is a beneficial approach. Tryptophan is the starting material in the biosynthesis of reserpine. Callus was induced from leaf explants of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. on MS medium supplemented with the combination of 9 μM 2,4-D and 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l tryptophan.

  18. FUNCTIONAL SPECIALIZATION OF DUPLICATED FLAVONOID BIOSYNTHESIS GENES IN WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlestkina E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication followed by subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization is of a great evolutionary importance. In plant genomes, duplicated genes may result from either polyploidization (homoeologous genes or segmental chromosome duplications (paralogous genes. In allohexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, genome BBAADD, both homoeologous and paralogous copies were found for the regulatory gene Myc encoding MYC-like transcriptional factor in the biosynthesis of flavonoid pigments, anthocyanins, and for the structural gene F3h encoding one of the key enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis, flavanone 3-hydroxylase. From the 5 copies (3 homoeologous and 2 paralogous of the Myc gene found in T. aestivum, only one plays a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, interacting complementary with another transcriptional factor (MYB-like to confer purple pigmentation of grain pericarp in wheat. The role and functionality of the other 4 copies of the Myc gene remain unknown. From the 4 functional copies of the F3h gene in T. aestivum, three homoeologues have similar function. They are expressed in wheat organs colored with anthocyanins or in the endosperm, participating there in biosynthesis of uncolored flavonoid substances. The fourth copy (the B-genomic paralogue is transcribed neither in wheat organs colored with anthocyanins nor in seeds, however, it’s expression has been noticed in roots of aluminium-stressed plants, where the three homoeologous copies are not active. Functional diversification of the duplicated flavonoid biosynthesis genes in wheat may be a reason for maintenance of the duplicated copies and preventing them from pseudogenization.The study was supported by RFBR (11-04-92707. We also thank Ms. Galina Generalova for technical assistance.

  19. Biosynthesis of oligosaccharides and fructans in Agave vera cruz : Part III - Biosynthesis of fructans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyanarayana, M N [Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1976-12-01

    Evidence has been obtained for the biosynthesis of 'fructans' in Agave vera cruz. A hydrolase-free enzyme preparation from the stem juice with U-/sup 14/C sucrose as substrate and the native fructan as primer leads to incorporation of /sup 14/C fructose into a polymer like compound. This inference is based on criteria such as the chromatographic mobility of the product and the elution volume from a Sephadex G-25 column. Two optimum pHs 4.9 and 6.1 and optimum temperature 377degC are observed for the reaction. The activity is dependent on primer, enzyme, substrate concentration and duration of incubation. The ratio of substrate to primer appears to be a special factor; higher ratios retard synthesis (S:P 5:1, 1.14%, S:P 100:1, 0.36% incorporation), while lower ones enhance (reaching a maximum of 11.35% at an S:P ratio of 1.75 in hr). Inulin in place of the native fructan is less efficient as primer. Each of the higher homologues of sucrose, tri to hexasaccharides (tested so far), leads to fructan formation with elution volumes from a Sephadex G-25 column close to that of the primer. U-/sup 14/C fructose or glucose in place of U-/sup 14/C sucrose or absence of enzyme leads to no incorporation. Sucrose seems to have a key role both in the initiation and lengthening of the fructan chain.

  20. Increased sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and an apparent decrease in sterol biosynthesis in elicitor-treated tobacco cell suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegeli, U.; Bhatt, P.N.; Chappell, J.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of fungel elicitor prepared from Phytophthora parasitica to tobacco cell suspension cultures leads to an increased production of the phytoalexin capsidiol. Capsidiol is a sesquiterpenoid which is most likely synthesized from farnesylpyrophosphat (FPP) by a bicyclic cyclase reaction. Because FPP is also a substrate for squalene synthetase and therefore a precursor of sterol biosynthesis, the question arises whether or not the accumulation of capsidiol in elicitor-treated cells occurs at the expense of sterol biosynthesis. ( 14 C]-acetate was given to elicitor-treated and control (no treatment) cell cultures and incorporation into sterols and capsidiol determined. No labeled capsidiol was detected in control cells. In elicitor-treated cells about 12-15% of the radioactivity taken up by the cells was incorporated into capsidiol. In contrast, control cells incorporated 4 times more radioactivity into sterols than elicitor-treated cells. Similar results were obtained using ( 3 H)-mevalonate as a precursor of capsidiol and sterol biosynthesis. Likely explanations for the apparently decline in sterol biosynthesis in elicitor-treated cells include: (1) inhibition of squalene synthetase; (2) induction of capsidiol synthesizing enzymes; and (3) metabolic channeling of FPP into capsidiol versus sterols. These possibilities will be discussed further together with other results

  1. Regulatory cross-talks and cascades in rice hormone biosynthesis pathways contribute to stress signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Deb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosstalk among different hormone signaling pathways play an important role in modulating plant response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Hormone activity is controlled by its bio-availability, which is again influenced by its biosynthesis. Thus independent hormone biosynthesis pathways must be regulated and co-ordinated to mount an integrated response. One of the possibilities is to use cis-regulatory elements to orchestrate expression of hormone biosynthesis genes. Analysis of CREs, associated with differentially expressed hormone biosynthesis related genes in rice leaf under Magnaporthe oryzae attack and drought stress enabled us to obtain insights about cross-talk among hormone biosynthesis pathways at the transcriptional level. We identified some master transcription regulators that co-ordinate different hormone biosynthesis pathways under stress. We found that Abscisic acid and Brassinosteroid regulate Cytokinin conjugation; conversely Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is affected by both Abscisic acid and Cytokinin. Jasmonic acid and Ethylene biosynthesis may be modulated by Abscisic acid through DREB transcription factors. Jasmonic acid or Salicylic acid biosynthesis pathways are co-regulated but they are unlikely to influence each other’s production directly. Thus multiple hormones may modulate hormone biosynthesis pathways through a complex regulatory network, where biosynthesis of one hormone is affected by several other contributing hormones.

  2. In Vivo Roles of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Enzymes in Biosynthesis of Biotin and α-Lipoic Acid in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Nakamura, Eri; Kato, Ryosuke; Ohshita, Masakazu; Hayashi, Mikiro; Takeno, Seiki

    2017-10-01

    For fatty acid biosynthesis, Corynebacterium glutamicum uses two type I fatty acid synthases (FAS-I), FasA and FasB, in addition to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC) consisting of AccBC, AccD1, and AccE. The in vivo roles of the enzymes in supplying precursors for biotin and α-lipoic acid remain unclear. Here, we report genetic evidence demonstrating that the biosynthesis of these cofactors is linked to fatty acid biosynthesis through the FAS-I pathway. For this study, we used wild-type C. glutamicum and its derived biotin vitamer producer BFI-5, which was engineered to express Escherichia coli bioBF and Bacillus subtilis bioI Disruption of either fasA or fasB in strain BFI-5 led to decreased production of biotin vitamers, whereas its amplification contributed to increased production, with a larger impact of fasA in both cases. Double disruptions of fasA and fasB resulted in no biotin vitamer production. The acc genes showed a positive effect on production when amplified simultaneously. Augmented fatty acid biosynthesis was also reflected in pimelic acid production when carbon flow was blocked at the BioF reaction. These results indicate that carbon flow down the FAS-I pathway is destined for channeling into the biotin biosynthesis pathway, and that FasA in particular has a significant impact on precursor supply. In contrast, fasB disruption resulted in auxotrophy for lipoic acid or its precursor octanoic acid in both wild-type and BFI-5 strains. The phenotypes were fully complemented by plasmid-mediated expression of fasB but not fasA These results reveal that FasB plays a specific physiological role in lipoic acid biosynthesis in C. glutamicum IMPORTANCE For the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids, C. glutamicum exceptionally uses a eukaryotic multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) system comprising FasA and FasB, in contrast to most bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis , which use an individual nonaggregating type II fatty acid synthase

  3. A protein interaction map of the kalimantacin biosynthesis assembly line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Uytterhoeven

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial secondary metabolite kalimantacin is produced by a hybrid polyketide/ non-ribosomal peptide system in Pseudomonas fluorescens BCCM_ID9359. In this study, the kalimantacin biosynthesis gene cluster is analyzed by yeast two-hybrid analysis, creating a protein-protein interaction map of the entire assembly line. In total, 28 potential interactions were identified, of which 13 could be confirmed further. These interactions include the dimerization of ketosynthase domains, a link between assembly line modules 9 and 10, and a specific interaction between the trans-acting enoyl reductase BatK and the carrier proteins of modules 8 and 10. These interactions reveal fundamental insight into the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.This study is the first to reveal interactions in a complete biosynthetic pathway. Similar future studies could build a strong basis for engineering strategies in such clusters.

  4. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronuk, Grant; Demissie, Zerihun; Rheault, Mark; Mahmoud, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Enzymatic Reductive Dehalogenation Controls the Biosynthesis of Marine Bacterial Pyrroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Rahman, Imran; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-10-12

    Enzymes capable of performing dehalogenating reactions have attracted tremendous contemporary attention due to their potential application in the bioremediation of anthropogenic polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants. Nature, in particular the marine environment, is also a prolific source of polyhalogenated organic natural products. The study of the biosynthesis of these natural products has furnished a diverse array of halogenation biocatalysts, but thus far no examples of dehalogenating enzymes have been reported from a secondary metabolic pathway. Here we show that the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the highly brominated marine bacterial product pentabromopseudilin is catalyzed by an unusual debrominase Bmp8 that utilizes a redox thiol mechanism to remove the C-2 bromine atom of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromopyrrole to facilitate oxidative coupling to 2,4-dibromophenol. To the best of our knowledge, Bmp8 is first example of a dehalogenating enzyme from the established genetic and biochemical context of a natural product biosynthetic pathway.

  6. Cholesterol biosynthesis in polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, D.; Gamble, W.

    1982-01-01

    After administration of polychlorinated biphenly (PCB) at 0.055 (w/w) of the diet to Wistar rats for 30 days, followed by intraperitioneal injection of tritiated water, [ 14 C]mevalonate, and [ 14 C]acetate, there was a decrease in cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver. No significant change in cholesterol formation was observed when PCB was administered at 0.01% (w/w) of the diet. In vitro inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by rat liver microsomes was observed with PCB. Squalene 2,3-oxidocyclase activity of rat liver microsomes was not significantly altered. Desmosterol delta 24 reductase activity was inhibited only at relatively high concentrations of PCB. There was increased incorporation of radioactivity into squalene and lanosterol, in vitro, in the presence of PCB. The primary inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis appears to be at the demethylation and rearrangement reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol in the biosynthetic pathway

  7. Engineering fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L; Michaud, Jennifer; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel and other liquid fuels due to their fast growth rate, high lipid yields, and ability to grow in a broad range of environments. However, many microalgae achieve maximal lipid yields only under stress conditions hindering growth and providing compositions not ideal for biofuel applications. Metabolic engineering of algal fatty acid biosynthesis promises to create strains capable of economically producing fungible and sustainable biofuels. The algal fatty acid biosynthetic pathway has been deduced by homology to bacterial and plant systems, and much of our understanding is gleaned from basic studies in these systems. However, successful engineering of lipid metabolism in algae will necessitate a thorough characterization of the algal fatty acid synthase (FAS) including protein-protein interactions and regulation. This review describes recent efforts to engineer fatty acid biosynthesis toward optimizing microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [A systematic review of biosynthesis of poly (3-hydroxypropionate)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Le; Zhan, Yuanlong; Liu, Changli

    2018-04-25

    Poly (3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP), a new member of thermoplastic of family polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), has excellent characteristics of biodegradability and biocompatibility. By now no reports can be found about wild-type bacteria that naturally synthesize P3HP, so the main way to produce P3HP is chemical and biological methods. Chemical method by adding high cost 3-HP monomers or their structural analogs as precursors, has the drawbacks of toxicity, low effectiveness and high cost. Biological method using engineered strain may utilize inexpensive and renewable carbon source to produce P3HP and has gradually become more and more popular. We systematically review here the biosynthesis of P3HP research progress. The advantages and disadvantages of biosynthesis pathways of glycerol pathway, malonyl-CoA pathway and β-alanine pathway were analyzed.

  9. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  10. Biosynthesis of anthocyanins and their regulation in colored grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Mu, Lin; Yan, Guo-Liang; Liang, Na-Na; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2010-12-09

    Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  11. Benchmarking of Processes for the Biosynthesis of Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seita, Catarina Sanches

    putida GS1. (R)-perillic acid is a monoterpenoic acid with antimicrobial properties. It has a strong inhibitory effect on bacteria and fungus, which makes it an attractive compound to be used as a preservative for instance in cosmetic industry, but on the other hand makes the biosynthesis a complicated....... These biological activities can be of interest for use in different sectors of chemical industry, in particular pharmaceutical industry where several drugs are derived or inspired by natural products structure. However, the large scale production of natural products is hindered by its relatively poor abundance...... of the process in comparison with other sweeteners. The main benefit of this early-stage evaluation is putting the biosynthesis of natural products into context in relation to demands of an industrially feasible chemical process. Moreover, it can give very meaningful insight into process development and provides...

  12. Biosynthesis and function of simple amides in Xenorhabdus doucetiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Edna; He, Yue; Vo, Tien Duy; Schultz, Roland; Kaiser, Marcel; Bode, Helge B

    2017-11-01

    Xenorhabdus doucetiae, the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema diaprepesi produces several different fatty acid amides. Their biosynthesis has been studied using a combination of analysis of gene deletions and promoter exchanges in X. doucetiae and heterologous expression of candidate genes in E. coli. While a decarboxylase is required for the formation of all observed phenylethylamides and tryptamides, the acyltransferase XrdE encoded in the xenorhabdin biosynthesis gene cluster is responsible for the formation of short chain acyl amides. Additionally, new, long-chain and cytotoxic acyl amides were identified in X. doucetiae infected insects and when X. doucetiae was grown in Galleria Instant Broth (GIB). When the bioactivity of selected amides was tested, a quorum sensing modulating activity was observed for the short chain acyl amides against the two different quorum sensing systems from Chromobacterium and Janthinobacterium. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Biosynthesis of collagen by fibroblasts kept in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado-Santelli, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    The sinthesis of collagen is studied in fibroblasts of different origins with the purpose of obtaining an appropriate system for the study of its biosynthesis and processing. The percentage of collagen synthesis vary according to the fibroblast origin. Experiences are performed with fibroblasts kept in culture from: chicken - and guinea pig embryos, carragheenin - induced granulomas in adult guinea pig and from human skin. The collagen pattern synthesized after acetic acid - or saline extractions in the presence of inhibitors is also determined. This pattern is then assayed by poliacrilamide - 5% - SDS gel electrophoresis accompanied by fluorography. The importance of the cell culture system in the elucidation of collagen biosynthesis is pointed out. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, María B.; El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando N.; Cañas, Rafael A.; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of pheny...

  15. Possible regulation of sterol biosynthesis by phenolic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Ramasarma, T.

    1974-01-01

    To test whether the phenolic acids, metabolites of tyrosine, regulate the biosynthesis of cholesterol, influence of phenolic acids on the incorporation of mevalonate-2- 14 C into sterols by rat liver and brain homogenate systems has been investigated in vitro. Results show that the combined presence of the aromatic ring and the carboxyl group in the compound under investigation inhibited the incorporation of labelled mevalonate. (M.G.B.)

  16. Biosynthesis and Application of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Zygmunt

    2010-01-01

    A green chemistry synthetic route has been used for both silver and gold nanoparticles synthesis. The reaction occurred at ambient temperature. Among the nanoparticles biological organism, some microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and yeast have been exploited for nanoparticles synthesis. Several plant biomass or plant extracts have been successfully used for extracellular biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. Analytical techniques, such as ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis...

  17. A new strategy for aromatic ring alkylation in cylindrocyclophane biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hitomi; Schultz, Erica E; Balskus, Emily P

    2017-08-01

    Alkylation of aromatic rings with alkyl halides is an important transformation in organic synthesis, yet an enzymatic equivalent is unknown. Here, we report that cylindrocyclophane biosynthesis in Cylindrospermum licheniforme ATCC 29412 involves chlorination of an unactivated carbon center by a novel halogenase, followed by a previously uncharacterized enzymatic dimerization reaction featuring sequential, stereospecific alkylations of resorcinol aromatic rings. Discovery of the enzymatic machinery underlying this unique biosynthetic carbon-carbon bond formation has implications for biocatalysis and metabolic engineering.

  18. ENDOCANNABINOIDS AND EICOSAMOIDS: BIOSYNTHESIS AND INTERACTIONS WITH IMMUNE RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. K. Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review is dedicated to modern concepts of arachidonic acid metabolites, i.e., endocannabinoids and eicosanoids, their biosynthetic pathways, cross-talk mechanisms and participation in immune response. New information from literature and own results include data concerning overlapping enzymatic pathways controlling biosynthesis of endocannabinoids and eicosanoids. Impact of synthetic cannabinoid receptor ligands upon production rates of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids is discussed, as like as relationships among immune system reactivity and expression levels of cannabinoid receptors.

  19. Regulation of neurosteroid biosynthesis by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc eDo-Rego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic pathways leading to the synthesis of bioactive steroids in the brain are now almost completely elucidated in various groups of vertebrates and, during the last decade, the neuronal mechanisms involved in the regulation of neurosteroid production have received increasing attention. This report reviews the current knowledge concerning the effects of neurotransmitters, peptide hormones and neuropeptides on the biosynthesis of neurosteroids. Anatomical studies have been carried out to visualize the neurotransmitter- or neuropeptide-containing fibers contacting steroid-synthesizing neurons as well as the neurotransmitter, peptide hormones or neuropeptide receptors expressed in these neurons. Biochemical experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of neurotransmitters, peptide hormones or neuropeptides on neurosteroid biosynthesis, and to characterize the type of receptors involved. Thus, it has been found that glutamate, acting through kainate and/or AMPA receptors, rapidly inactivates P450arom, and that melatonin produced by the pineal gland and eye inhibits the biosynthesis of 7-hydroxypregnenolone (7-OH-5P, while prolactin produced by the adenohypophysis enhances the formation of 7-OH-5P. It has also been demonstrated that the biosynthesis of neurosteroids is inhibited by GABA, acting through GABAA receptors, and neuropeptide Y, acting through Y1 receptors. In contrast, it has been shown that the octadecaneuropetide ODN, acting through central-type benzodiazepine receptors, the triakontatetraneuropeptide TTN, acting though peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, and vasotocine, acting through V1a-like receptors, stimulate the production of neurosteroids. Since neurosteroids are implicated in the control of various neurophysiological and behavioral processes, these data suggest that some of the neurophysiological effects exerted by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides may be mediated via the regulation

  20. Protein biosynthesis in isolated human scalp hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermorken, A J; Weterings, P J; Bloemendal, H

    1979-02-15

    The present study demonstrates that protein biosynthesis can be studied in single isolated human scalp hair follicles. The matrix and the sheath are the main regions where amino acids are built in. Incorporation is linear for at least five hours. The newly synthesized proteins can be separated into a water-soluble, a urea-soluble and a urea-insoluble fraction. Product analysis has been performed on the first two fractions, revealing different protein patterns.

  1. Biosynthesis and engineering of kaempferol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Lijin; Ding, Wentao; Liu, Xiaonan; Cheng, Xiaozhi; Cai, Jing; Hua, Erbing; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-01-01

    Background Kaempferol is a flavonol with broad bioactivity of anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, cardio-protective and anti-asthma. Microbial synthesis of kaempferol is a promising strategy because of the low content in primary plant source. Methods In this study, the biosynthesis pathway of kaempferol was constructed in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce kaempferol de novo, and several biological measures were taken for high production. Results First...

  2. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinsheng.wang@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  3. Biosynthesis and metabolic fate of phenylalanine in conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Pascual

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined.

  4. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María B; El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando N; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions, and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined.

  5. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.M.; Laychock, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans isolated from rat pancreata were incubated with [ 14 C]choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDP choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDPcholine pathway. Recovery of [ 14 C]PC in islet membranes was time-related, and stimulated by glucose (17mM) during 60 min. The rate of PC synthesis was constant during 60 min with glucose stimulation. In contrast, the sulfonylurea tolbutamide (2 mM) reduced the recovery of [ 14 C]choline in PC, and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (5 mM) did not significantly affect [ 14 C]PC recovery. Incubation of islets in Ca 2+ -free medium enhanced glucose-stimulated recovery of [ 14 C]choline-labeled PC due to the inhibition of phospholipase and phospholipid hydrolysis. Inhibition of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase with 5-deoxy-5'-isobutylthioadenosine (SIBA) reduced [ 14 C]PC levels and insulin release in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with SIBA also reduced Mg 2+ -dependent Ca 2+ -ATPase activity in islet microsomes. Quantitation of membrane PC showed that glucose stimulation did not alter islet P levels. Thus, islet PC biosynthesis is linked to glucose stimulation and contributes to the maintenance of PC levels in membranes undergoing exocytosis and phospholipid hydrolysis. Adequate PC levels support Ca 2+ pump activity and secretory mechanisms

  6. Fungal biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: mechanism and scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, Michael; Ramani, Meghana; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a widespread research tool because of their oxidation resistance, biocompatibility and stability. Chemical methods for AuNP synthesis often produce toxic residues that raise environmental concern. On the other hand, the biological synthesis of AuNPs in viable microorganisms and their cell-free extracts is an environmentally friendly and low-cost process. In general, fungi tolerate higher metal concentrations than bacteria and secrete abundant extracellular redox proteins to reduce soluble metal ions to their insoluble form and eventually to nanocrystals. Fungi harbour untapped biological diversity and may provide novel metal reductases for metal detoxification and bioreduction. A thorough understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of AuNPs in fungi is needed to reduce the time of biosynthesis and to scale up the AuNP production process. In this review, we describe the known mechanisms for AuNP biosynthesis in viable fungi and fungal protein extracts and discuss the most suitable bioreactors for industrial AuNP biosynthesis. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Arabidopsis DREB2C modulates ABA biosynthesis during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Jihyun; Chen, Huan; Song, Chieun; Lim, Chae Oh

    2014-09-12

    Plant dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) are transcriptional regulators of the APETELA2/Ethylene Responsive element-binding Factor (AP2/ERF) family that control expression of abiotic stress-related genes. We show here that under conditions of mild heat stress, constitutive overexpression seeds of transgenic DREB2C overexpression Arabidopsis exhibit delayed germination and increased abscisic acid (ABA) content compared to untransformed wild-type (WT). Treatment with fluridone, an inhibitor of the ABA biosynthesis abrogated these effects. Expression of an ABA biosynthesis-related gene, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 9 (NCED9) was up-regulated in the DREB2C overexpression lines compared to WT. DREB2C was able to trans-activate expression of NCED9 in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts in vitro. Direct and specific binding of DREB2C to a complete DRE on the NCED9 promoter was observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Exogenous ABA treatment induced DREB2C expression in germinating seeds of WT. Vegetative growth of transgenic DREB2C overexpression lines was more strongly inhibited by exogenous ABA compared to WT. These results suggest that DREB2C is a stress- and ABA-inducible gene that acts as a positive regulator of ABA biosynthesis in germinating seeds through activating NCED9 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikadu G Tafesse

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans.

  9. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  10. Microbial Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles in Different Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ke; Jung, Samuel; Park, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Young-Rok

    2018-01-31

    Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has been extensively studied for the applications in biomedical sciences and engineering. However, the mechanism for their synthesis through microorganism is not completely understood. In this study, several culture media were investigated for their roles in the microbial biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The size and morphology of the synthesized AgNPs were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform-infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results demonstrated that nutrient broth (NB) and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) among tested media effectively reduced silver ions to form AgNPs with different particle size and shape. Although the involved microorganism enhanced the reduction of silver ions, the size and shape of the particles were shown to mainly depend on the culture media. Our findings suggest that the growth media of bacterial culture play an important role in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles with regard to their size and shape. We believe our findings would provide useful information for further exploration of microbial biosynthesis of AgNPs and their biomedical applications.

  11. Biosynthesis of anatoxin-a and analogues (anatoxins) in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Annick; Paci, Guillaume; Gautier, Valérie; Ploux, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater cyanobacteria produce secondary metabolites that are toxic to humans and animals, the so-called cyanotoxins. Among them, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a are potent neurotoxins that are agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These alkaloids provoke a rapid death if ingested at low doses. Recently, the cluster of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of these toxins, the ana cluster, has been identified in Oscillatoria sp. PCC 6506, and a biosynthetic pathway was proposed. This biosynthesis was reconstituted in vitro using purified enzymes confirming the predicted pathway. One of the enzymes, AnaB a prolyl-acyl carrier protein oxidase, was crystallized and its three dimensional structure solved confirming its reaction mechanism. Three other ana clusters have now been identified and sequenced in other cyanobacteria. These clusters show similarities and some differences suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, the cluster from Cylindrospermum stagnale PCC 7417, possesses an extra gene coding for an F420-dependent oxidoreductase that is likely involved in the biosynthesis of dihydroanatoxin-a. This review summarizes all these new data and discusses them in relation to the production of anatoxins in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  13. ODORANT1 Regulates Fragrance Biosynthesis in Petunia FlowersW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Julian C.; Haring, Michel A.; van Tunen, Arjen J.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Floral scent is important to plant reproduction because it attracts pollinators to the sexual organs. Therefore, volatile emission is usually tuned to the foraging activity of the pollinators. In Petunia hybrida, volatile benzenoids determine the floral aroma. Although the pathways for benzenoid biosynthesis have been characterized, the enzymes involved are less well understood. How production and emission are regulated is unknown. By targeted transcriptome analyses, we identified ODORANT1 (ODO1), a member of the R2R3-type MYB family, as a candidate for the regulation of volatile benzenoids in Petunia hybrida cv W115 (Mitchell) flowers. These flowers are only fragrant in the evening and at night. Transcript levels of ODO1 increased before the onset of volatile emission and decreased when volatile emission declined. Downregulation of ODO1 in transgenic P. hybrida Mitchell plants strongly reduced volatile benzenoid levels through decreased synthesis of precursors from the shikimate pathway. The transcript levels of several genes in this pathway were reduced by suppression of ODO1 expression. Moreover, ODO1 could activate the promoter of the 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene. Flower pigmentation, which is furnished from the same shikimate precursors, was not influenced because color and scent biosynthesis occur at different developmental stages. Our studies identify ODO1 as a key regulator of floral scent biosynthesis. PMID:15805488

  14. Biosynthesis of Tropolones in Streptomyces spp: Interweaving Biosynthesis and Degradation of Phenylacetic Acid and Hydroxylations on Tropone Ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefei; Xu, Min; Lü, Jin; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Yemin; Lin, Shuangjun; Deng, Zixin; Tao, Meifeng

    2018-04-13

    Tropolonoids are important natural products that contain a unique seven-membered aromatic tropolone core and exhibit remarkable biological activities. 3,7-Dihydroxytropolone (DHT) isolated from Streptomyces species is a multiply hydroxylated tropolone exhibiting antimicrobial, anticancer, and antiviral activities. Herein, we determined the DHT biosynthetic pathway by heterologous expression, gene deletion, and bioconversion. Nine trl genes and some of the aerobic phenylacetic acid degradation pathway genes ( paa ) located outside of the trl biosynthetic gene cluster are required for the heterologous production of DHT. The trlA gene encodes a single-domain protein homologous to the C-terminal enoyl-CoA hydratase domain of PaaZ. TrlA truncates the phenylacetic acid catabolic pathway and redirects it towards the formation of heptacyclic intermediates. TrlB is a 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonic acid-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase homolog. TrlH is an unusual bifunctional protein bearing an N-terminal prephenate dehydratase domain and a C-terminal chorismate mutase domain. TrlB and TrlH enhanced de novo biosynthesis of phenylpyruvate, thereby providing abundant precursor for the prolific production of DHT in Streptomyces Six seven-membered carbocyclic compounds were identified from the gene deletion mutants of trlC , trlD , trlE , and trlF Four of these chemicals, including 1,4,6-cycloheptatriene-1-carboxylic acid, tropone, tropolone and 7-hydroxytropolone, were verified as key biosynthetic intermediates. TrlF is required for the conversion of 1,4,6-cycloheptatriene-1-carboxylic acid into tropone. Monooxygenases TrlE and TrlCD catalyze the regioselective hydroxylations of tropone to afford DHT. This study reveals a natural association of anabolism of chorismate and phenylpyruvate, catabolism of phenylacetic acid, and biosynthesis of tropolones in Streptomyces spp. IMPORTANCE Tropolonoids are promising drug lead compounds because of their versatile bioactivities attributed to

  15. Two Cycloartenol Synthases for Phytosterol Biosynthesis in Polygala tenuifolia Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mei Lan; Lee, Woo Moon; Kim, Ok Tae

    2017-11-15

    Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) are enzymes that play a key role in control of the biosynthesis of phytosterols and triterpene saponins. In order to uncover OSC genes from Polygala tenuifolia seedlings induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), RNA-sequencing analysis was performed using the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 148,488,632 high-quality reads from two samples (control and the MeJA treated) were generated. We screened genes related to phytosterol and triterpene saponin biosynthesis and analyzed the transcriptional changes of differentially expressed unigene (DEUG) values calculated by fragments per kilobase million (FPKM). In our datasets, two full-length cDNAs of putative OSC genes, PtCAS1 , and PtCAS2 , were found, in addition to the PtBS (β-amyrin synthase) gene reported in our previous studies and the two cycloartenol synthase genes of P. tenuifolia . All genes were isolated and characterized in yeast cells. The functional expression of the two PtCAS genes in yeast cells showed that the genes all produce a cycloartenol as the sole product. When qRT-PCR analysis from different tissues was performed, the expressions of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 were highest in flowers and roots, respectively. After MeJA treatment, the transcripts of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 genes increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. Given these results, we discuss the potential roles of the two PtCAS genes in relation to triterpenoid biosynthesis.

  16. Two Cycloartenol Synthases for Phytosterol Biosynthesis in Polygala tenuifolia Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Lan Jin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs are enzymes that play a key role in control of the biosynthesis of phytosterols and triterpene saponins. In order to uncover OSC genes from Polygala tenuifolia seedlings induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed using the Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 148,488,632 high-quality reads from two samples (control and the MeJA treated were generated. We screened genes related to phytosterol and triterpene saponin biosynthesis and analyzed the transcriptional changes of differentially expressed unigene (DEUG values calculated by fragments per kilobase million (FPKM. In our datasets, two full-length cDNAs of putative OSC genes, PtCAS1, and PtCAS2, were found, in addition to the PtBS (β-amyrin synthase gene reported in our previous studies and the two cycloartenol synthase genes of P. tenuifolia. All genes were isolated and characterized in yeast cells. The functional expression of the two PtCAS genes in yeast cells showed that the genes all produce a cycloartenol as the sole product. When qRT-PCR analysis from different tissues was performed, the expressions of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 were highest in flowers and roots, respectively. After MeJA treatment, the transcripts of PtCAS1 and PtCAS2 genes increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. Given these results, we discuss the potential roles of the two PtCAS genes in relation to triterpenoid biosynthesis.

  17. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determining in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Biosynthesis of human sialophorins and analysis of the polypeptide core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remold-O'Donnell, E.; Kenney, D.; Rosen, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Biosynthesis was examined of sialophorin (formerly called gpL115) which is altered in the inherited immunodeficiency Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Sialophorin is greater than 50% carbohydrate, primarily O-linked units of sialic acid, galactose, and galactosamine. Pulse-labeling with [ 35 S]methionine and chase incubation established that sialophorin is synthesized in CEM lymphoblastoid cells as an Mr 62,000 precursor which is converted within 45 min to mature glycosylated sialophorin, a long-lived molecule. Experiments with tunicamycin and endoglycosidase H demonstrated that sialophorin contains N-linked carbohydrate (approximately two units per molecule) and is therefore an N,O-glycoprotein. Pulse-labeling of tunicamycin-treated CEM cells together with immunoprecipitation provided the means to isolate the [ 35 S]-methionine-labeled polypeptide core of sialophorin and determine its molecular weight (58,000). This datum allowed us to express the previously established composition on a per molecule basis and determine that sialophorin molecules contain approximately 520 amino acid residues and greater than or equal to 100 O-linked carbohydrate units. A recent study showed that various blood cells express sialophorin and that there are two molecular forms: lymphocyte/monocyte sialophorin and platelet/neutrophil sialophorin. Biosynthesis of the two forms was compared by using sialophorin of CEM cells and sialophorin of MOLT-4 cells (another lymphoblastoid line) as models for lymphocyte/monocyte sialophorin and platelet/neutrophil sialophorin, respectively. The time course of biosynthesis and the content of N units were found to be identical for the two sialophorin species. [ 35 S]Methionine-labeled polypeptide cores of CEM sialophorin and MOLT sialophorin were isolated and compared by electrophoresis, isoelectrofocusing, and a newly developed peptide mapping technique

  19. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B; O'Brien, Thomas J; Stevenson, David M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using (13)C-labeled sugars and [(15)N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2015, Pisithkul et al.

  20. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determining in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; Stevenson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. PMID:26070680

  2. Biosynthesis and composition of bacterial poly(hydroxyalkanoates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A J; Haywood, G W; Dawes, E A

    1990-04-01

    It is well established that Alcaligenes eutrophus can accumulate a copolymer containing 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate, but longer 3-hydroxyacid monomers have not been reported to occur in this organism. The properties of the enzymes of poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) biosynthesis are discussed and it is proposed that the substrate specificity of the polymerizing enzyme restricts the range of monomer units incorporated into PHA. Various other bacteria produce similar copolymers from propionic acid and/or valeric acid. A number of Pseudomonas species accumulate PHAs containing longer-chain monomer units from linear alkanoic acids, alkanes and alcohols.

  3. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Mexican Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. L.; Baltazar, C.; Torres, M.; Ruız, A.; Esparza, R.; Rosas, G.

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Agastache mexicana and Tecoma stans was carried out. The AgNO3 concentration and extract concentration was varied to evaluate their influence on the nanoparticles characteristics such as size and shape. Several characterization techniques were employed. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the surface plasmon resonance in the range of 400-500 nm. The X-Ray diffraction results showed that the nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic structure. SEM results confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles with spherical morphologies. Finally, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Escherichia coli bacteria.

  4. The antimalarial drug quinine interferes with serotonin biosynthesis and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islahudin, Farida; Tindall, Sarah M.; Mellor, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    The major antimalarial drug quinine perturbs uptake of the essential amino acid tryptophan, and patients with low plasma tryptophan are predisposed to adverse quinine reactions; symptoms of which are similar to indications of tryptophan depletion. As tryptophan is a precursor of the neurotransmit......The major antimalarial drug quinine perturbs uptake of the essential amino acid tryptophan, and patients with low plasma tryptophan are predisposed to adverse quinine reactions; symptoms of which are similar to indications of tryptophan depletion. As tryptophan is a precursor...... tryptophan. The study shows that quinine disrupts both serotonin biosynthesis and function, giving important new insight to the action of quinine on mammalian cells....

  5. Biosynthesis of proteins and radiation effects in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomiets, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Critical analysis of nowadays literature and own experimental data on importance of biosynthesis of proteins, their modification and functional activity in forming radiation effects in irradiated cells is given. A special place in the development of radiation injury of cellular structures and in reduction processes is allocated to molecular recognition. The data on the role of protein synthesis and molecular recognition in the reduction of main biological cell chromatin system are presented. The dependence of postradiation changes in the cell on structural and functional chromatin state is considered

  6. Paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates: A molecular overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of water soluble neurotoxic alkaloids produced by two different kingdoms of life, prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates. Owing to the wide distribution of these organisms, these toxic secondary metabolites account for paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. On the other hand, their specific binding to voltage-gated sodium channels makes these toxins potentially useful in pharmacological and toxicological applications. Much effort has been devoted to the biosynthetic mechanism of PSTs, and gene clusters encoding 26 proteins involved in PST biosynthesis have been unveiled in several cyanobacterial species. Functional analysis of toxin genes indicates that PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria is a complex process including biosynthesis, regulation, modification and export. However, less is known about the toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates owing to our poor understanding of the massive genome and unique chromosomal characteristics [1]. So far, few genes involved in PST biosynthesis have been identified from dinoflagellates. Moreover, the proteins involved in PST production are far from being totally explored. Thus, the origin and evolution of PST biosynthesis in these two kingdoms are still controversial. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the characterization of genes and proteins involved in PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, and discuss the standing evolutionary hypotheses concerning the origin of toxin biosynthesis as well as future perspectives in PST biosynthesis. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxins which specifically block voltage-gated sodium channels in excitable cells and result in paralytic shellfish poisonings (PSPs) around the world. Two different kingdoms of life, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates are able to produce PSTs. However, in contrast with cyanobacteria, our understanding of PST biosynthesis in

  7. Structure and Biosynthesis of Branched Wax Compounds on Wild Type and Wax Biosynthesis Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, Lucas; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    The cuticle is a waxy composite that protects the aerial organs of land plans from non-stomatal water loss. The chemical make-up of the cuticular wax mixture plays a central role in defining the water barrier, but structure-function relationships have not been established so far, in part due to gaps in our understanding of wax structures and biosynthesis. While wax compounds with saturated, linear hydrocarbon tails have been investigated in detail, very little is known about compounds with modified aliphatic tails, which comprise substantial portions of some plant wax mixtures. This study aimed to investigate the structures, abundances and biosynthesis of branched compounds on the species for which wax biosynthesis is best understood: Arabidopsis thaliana. Microscale derivatization, mass spectral interpretation and organic synthesis identified homologous series of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on flowers and leaves, respectively. These comprised approximately 10-15% of wild type wax mixtures. The abundances of both branched wax constituents and accompanying unbranched compounds were reduced on the cer6, cer3 and cer1 mutants but not cer4, indicating that branched compounds are in part synthesized by the same machinery as unbranched compounds. In contrast, the abundances of unbranched, but not branched, wax constituents were reduced on the cer2 and cer26 mutants, suggesting that the pathways to both types of compounds deviate in later steps of chain elongation. Finally, the abundances of branched, but not unbranched, wax compounds were reduced on the cer16 mutant, and the (uncharacterized) CER16 protein may therefore be controlling the relative abundances of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on Arabidopsis surfaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Deregulation of S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis and regeneration improves methylation in the E. coli de novo vanillin biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjapur, Aditya M; Hyun, Jason C; Prather, Kristala L J

    2016-04-11

    Vanillin is an industrially valuable molecule that can be produced from simple carbon sources in engineered microorganisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. In E. coli, de novo production of vanillin was demonstrated previously as a proof of concept. In this study, a series of data-driven experiments were performed in order to better understand limitations associated with biosynthesis of vanillate, which is the immediate precursor to vanillin. Time-course experiments monitoring production of heterologous metabolites in the E. coli de novo vanillin pathway revealed a bottleneck in conversion of protocatechuate to vanillate. Perturbations in central metabolism intended to increase flux into the heterologous pathway increased average vanillate titers from 132 to 205 mg/L, but protocatechuate remained the dominant heterologous product on a molar basis. SDS-PAGE, in vitro activity measurements, and L-methionine supplementation experiments suggested that the decline in conversion rate was influenced more by limited availability of the co-substrate S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet or SAM) than by loss of activity of the heterologous O-methyltransferase. The combination of metJ deletion and overexpression of feedback-resistant variants of metA and cysE, which encode enzymes involved in SAM biosynthesis, increased average de novo vanillate titers by an additional 33% (from 205 to 272 mg/L). An orthogonal strategy intended to improve SAM regeneration through overexpression of native mtn and luxS genes resulted in a 25% increase in average de novo vanillate titers (from 205 to 256 mg/L). Vanillate production improved further upon supplementation with methionine (as high as 419 ± 58 mg/L), suggesting potential for additional enhancement by increasing SAM availability. Results from this study demonstrate context dependency of engineered pathways and highlight the limited methylation capacity of E. coli. Unlike in previous efforts to improve SAM or

  9. Signal perception, transduction, and gene expression involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, J.; Jenkins, G.; Schäfer, E.; Weiss, D.

    1996-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments provide fruits and flowers with their bright red and blue colors and are induced in vegetative tissues by various signals. The biosynthetic pathway probably represents one of the best‐studied examples of higher plant secondary metabolism. It has attracted much attention of plant geneticists because of the dispensable nature of the compounds it produces. Not unexpectedly, several excellent reviews on anthocyanin biosynthesis have been published over the last 5 years (Dooner et al., 1991; Martin and Gerats, 1993a, 1993b; Koes et al., 1994; Holton and Cornish, 1995). These reviews emphasize the late steps of pigment biosynthesis rather than the early and intermediate events of signal perception and transduction. This review is broader and not only covers the identification of components of the anthocyanin signal perception/transduction networks but also provides a description of our current understanding of how they evoke the responses that they do. Progress has derived from a combination of biochemical, molecular and genetic studies. We discuss a range of relevant research to highlight the different experimental approaches being used and the diverse biological systems under investigation. (author)

  10. Role of glutathione biosynthesis in endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Espinosa-Díez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH biosynthesis is essential for cellular redox homeostasis and antioxidant defense. The rate-limiting step requires glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL, which is composed of the catalytic (GCLc and the modulatory (GCLm subunits. To evaluate the contribution of GCLc to endothelial function we generated an endothelial-specific Gclc haplo-insufficient mouse model (Gclc e/+ mice. In murine lung endothelial cells (MLEC derived from these mice we observed a 50% reduction in GCLc levels compared to lung fibroblasts from the same mice. MLEC obtained from haplo-insufficient mice showed significant reduction in GSH levels as well as increased basal and stimulated ROS levels, reduced phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser 1177 and increased eNOS S-glutathionylation, compared to MLEC from wild type (WT mice. Studies in mesenteric arteries demonstrated impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Gclc(e/+ male mice, which was corrected by pre-incubation with GSH-ethyl-ester and BH4. To study the contribution of endothelial GSH synthesis to renal fibrosis we employed the unilateral ureteral obstruction model in WT and Gclc(e/+ mice. We observed that obstructed kidneys from Gclc(e/+ mice exhibited increased deposition of fibrotic markers and reduced Nrf2 levels. We conclude that the preservation of endothelial GSH biosynthesis is not only critical for endothelial function but also in anti-fibrotic responses. Keywords: Glutamate-cysteine ligase, ROS, Glutathione, Endothelial dysfunction, Kidney Fibrosis

  11. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

  12. Stereochemical diversity in lignan biosynthesis of Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shiro; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Shimada, Mikio

    2002-06-01

    The stereochemistry of lignan biosynthesis in Arctium lappa L. is regulated organ-specifically. (+)-Secoisolariciresinol [81% enantiomeric excess (e.e.)] was isolated from A. lappa petioles. In sharp contrast, lignans whose predominant enantiomers have the opposite absolute configuration to that of (+)-secoisolariciresinol [i.e., (-)-matairesinol (>99% e.e.), (-)-arctigenin (>99% e.e.), and (-)-secoisolariciresinol (65% e.e.)] were isolated from seeds of the species. The stereochemical diversity of secoisolariciresinol was demonstrated with enzyme preparations from A. lappa petioles and seeds. Thus, a petiole enzyme preparation catalyzed the formation of (+)-pinoresinol (33% e.e.), (+)-lariciresinol (30% e.e.), and (+)-secoisolariciresinol (20% e.e.) from achiral coniferyl alcohol in the presence of NADPH and H202, whereas that from ripening seeds catalyzed the formation of (-)-pinoresinol (22% e.e.), (-)-lariciresinol (>99% e.e.), and (-)-secoisolariciresinol (38% e.e.) under the same conditions. In addition, the ripening seed enzyme preparation mediated the selective formation of the optically pure (>99% e.e.) (-)-enantiomer of matairesinol from racemic (+/-)-secoisolariciresinols in the presence of NADP. These results indicate that the stereochemical mechanism for lignan biosynthesis in A. lappa varies with organs, suggesting that multiple lignan-synthesizing isozymes are involved in the stereochemical control of lignan formation in A. lappa.

  13. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Degradation Mechanisms in Solanaceous Vegetables: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are a group of polyphenolic pigments that are ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. In plants, anthocyanins play a role not only in reproduction, by attracting pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in protection against various abiotic and biotic stresses. There is accumulating evidence that anthocyanins have health-promoting properties, which makes anthocyanin metabolism an interesting target for breeders and researchers. In this review, the state of the art knowledge concerning anthocyanins in the Solanaceous vegetables, i.e., pepper, tomato, eggplant, and potato, is discussed, including biochemistry and biological function of anthocyanins, as well as their genetic and environmental regulation. Anthocyanin accumulation is determined by the balance between biosynthesis and degradation. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway has been well-studied in Solanaceous vegetables, more research is needed on the inhibition of biosynthesis and, in particular, the anthocyanin degradation mechanisms if we want to control anthocyanin content of Solanaceous vegetables. In addition, anthocyanin metabolism is distinctly affected by environmental conditions, but the molecular regulation of these effects is poorly understood. Existing knowledge is summarized and current gaps in our understanding are highlighted and discussed, to create opportunities for the development of anthocyanin-rich crops through breeding and environmental management.

  15. Adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase prevents glycogen biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Bruna, Beatriz; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Bastarrica-Berasategui, Ainara; Zandueta-Criado, Aitor; Rodríguez-López, Milagros; Lasa, Iñigo; Akazawa, Takashi; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2001-01-01

    An adenosine diphosphate sugar pyrophosphatase (ASPPase, EC 3.6.1.21) has been characterized by using Escherichia coli. This enzyme, whose activities in the cell are inversely correlated with the intracellular glycogen content and the glucose concentration in the culture medium, hydrolyzes ADP-glucose, the precursor molecule of glycogen biosynthesis. ASPPase was purified to apparent homogeneity (over 3,000-fold), and sequence analyses revealed that it is a member of the ubiquitously distributed group of nucleotide pyrophosphatases designated as “nudix” hydrolases. Insertional mutagenesis experiments leading to the inactivation of the ASPPase encoding gene, aspP, produced cells with marginally low enzymatic activities and higher glycogen content than wild-type bacteria. aspP was cloned into an expression vector and introduced into E. coli. Transformed cells were shown to contain a dramatically reduced amount of glycogen, as compared with the untransformed bacteria. No pleiotropic changes in the bacterial growth occurred in both the aspP-overexpressing and aspP-deficient strains. The overall results pinpoint the reaction catalyzed by ASPPase as a potential step of regulating glycogen biosynthesis in E. coli. PMID:11416161

  16. Sites and regulation of auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Karin; Hull, Anna K; Celenza, John; Yamada, Masashi; Estelle, Mark; Normanly, Jennifer; Sandberg, Göran

    2005-04-01

    Auxin has been shown to be important for many aspects of root development, including initiation and emergence of lateral roots, patterning of the root apical meristem, gravitropism, and root elongation. Auxin biosynthesis occurs in both aerial portions of the plant and in roots; thus, the auxin required for root development could come from either source, or both. To monitor putative internal sites of auxin synthesis in the root, a method for measuring indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis with tissue resolution was developed. We monitored IAA synthesis in 0.5- to 2-mm sections of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and were able to identify an important auxin source in the meristematic region of the primary root tip as well as in the tips of emerged lateral roots. Lower but significant synthesis capacity was observed in tissues upward from the tip, showing that the root contains multiple auxin sources. Root-localized IAA synthesis was diminished in a cyp79B2 cyp79B3 double knockout, suggesting an important role for Trp-dependent IAA synthesis pathways in the root. We present a model for how the primary root is supplied with auxin during early seedling development.

  17. Gangliosides in the Nervous System: Biosynthesis and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Robert K.; Ariga, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zeng, Guichao

    Gangliosides, abundant in the nervous system, are known to play crucial modulatory roles in cellular recognition, interaction, adhesion, and signal transduction, particularly during early developmental stages. The expression of gangliosides in the nervous system is developmentally regulated and is closely related to the differentiation state of the cell. Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs in intracellular organelles, from which gangliosides are transported to the plasma membrane. During brain development, the ganglioside composition of the nervous system undergoes remarkable changes and is strictly regulated by the activities of glycosyltransferases, which can occur at different levels of control, including glycosyltransferase gene transcription and posttranslational modification. Genes for glycosyltransferase involved in ganglioside biosynthesis have been cloned and classified into families of glycosyltransferases based on their amino acid sequence similarities. The donor and acceptor substrate specificities are determined by enzymatic analysis of the glycosyltransferase gene products. Cell-type specific regulation of these genes has also been studied. Gangliosides are degraded by lysosomal exoglycosidases. The action of these enzymes occurs frequently in cooperation with activator proteins. Several human diseases are caused by defects of degradative enzymes, resulting in massive accumulation of certain glycolipids, including gangliosides in the lysosomal compartment and other organelles in the brain and visceral organs. Some of the representative lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by the accumulation of lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes will be discussed.

  18. Widespread occurrence of secondary lipid biosynthesis potential in microbial lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Shulse

    Full Text Available Bacterial production of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3, is constrained to a narrow subset of marine γ-proteobacteria. The genes responsible for de novo bacterial PUFA biosynthesis, designated pfaEABCD, encode large, multi-domain protein complexes akin to type I iterative fatty acid and polyketide synthases, herein referred to as "Pfa synthases". In addition to the archetypal Pfa synthase gene products from marine bacteria, we have identified homologous type I FAS/PKS gene clusters in diverse microbial lineages spanning 45 genera representing 10 phyla, presumed to be involved in long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. In total, 20 distinct types of gene clusters were identified. Collectively, we propose the designation of "secondary lipids" to describe these biosynthetic pathways and products, a proposition consistent with the "secondary metabolite" vernacular. Phylogenomic analysis reveals a high degree of functional conservation within distinct biosynthetic pathways. Incongruence between secondary lipid synthase functional clades and taxonomic group membership combined with the lack of orthologous gene clusters in closely related strains suggests horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the dissemination of specialized lipid biosynthetic activities across disparate microbial lineages.

  19. Role of glutathione biosynthesis in endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Díez, Cristina; Miguel, Verónica; Vallejo, Susana; Sánchez, Francisco J; Sandoval, Elena; Blanco, Eva; Cannata, Pablo; Peiró, Concepción; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Lamas, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    Glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis is essential for cellular redox homeostasis and antioxidant defense. The rate-limiting step requires glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of the catalytic (GCLc) and the modulatory (GCLm) subunits. To evaluate the contribution of GCLc to endothelial function we generated an endothelial-specific Gclc haplo-insufficient mouse model (Gclc e/+ mice). In murine lung endothelial cells (MLEC) derived from these mice we observed a 50% reduction in GCLc levels compared to lung fibroblasts from the same mice. MLEC obtained from haplo-insufficient mice showed significant reduction in GSH levels as well as increased basal and stimulated ROS levels, reduced phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser 1177) and increased eNOS S-glutathionylation, compared to MLEC from wild type (WT) mice. Studies in mesenteric arteries demonstrated impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Gclc(e/+) male mice, which was corrected by pre-incubation with GSH-ethyl-ester and BH 4 . To study the contribution of endothelial GSH synthesis to renal fibrosis we employed the unilateral ureteral obstruction model in WT and Gclc(e/+) mice. We observed that obstructed kidneys from Gclc(e/+) mice exhibited increased deposition of fibrotic markers and reduced Nrf2 levels. We conclude that the preservation of endothelial GSH biosynthesis is not only critical for endothelial function but also in anti-fibrotic responses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methionine salvage pathway in relation to ethylene biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The recycling of methionine during ethylene biosynthesis (the methionine cycle) was studied. During ethylene biosynthesis, the H 3 CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is released at 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is recycled to methionine via 5'-methylthioribose (MTS). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado fruit, [ 14 C]MTR was converted to labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB) as intermediates. Radioactive tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract required an amino group donor. Among several potential donors tested, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Incubation of [ribose-U- 14 C]MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of [ 14 C]formate, with little evolution of other 14 C-labeled one-carbon compounds, indicating that the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR

  1. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  2. Anthocyanin biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms in Solanaceous vegetables: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Tikunov, Yury; Schouten, Rob E.; Marcelis, Leo F. M.; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bovy, Arnaud

    2018-03-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of polyphenolic pigments that are ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. In plants, anthocyanins play a role not only in reproduction, by attracting pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in protection against various abiotic and biotic stresses. There is accumulating evidence that anthocyanins have health-promoting properties, which makes anthocyanin metabolism an interesting target for breeders and researchers. In this review, the state of the art knowledge concerning anthocyanins in the Solanaceous vegetables, i.e. pepper, tomato, eggplant and potato, is discussed, including biochemistry and biological function of anthocyanins, as well as their genetic and environmental regulation. Anthocyanin accumulation is determined by the balance between biosynthesis and degradation. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway has been well studied in Solanaceous vegetables, more research is needed on the inhibition of biosynthesis and, in particular, the anthocyanin degradation mechanisms if we want to control anthocyanin content of Solanaceous vegetables. In addition, anthocyanin metabolism is distinctly affected by environmental conditions, but the molecular regulation of these effects is poorly understood. Existing knowledge is summarized and current gaps in our understanding are highlighted and discussed, to create opportunities for the development of anthocyanin-rich crops through breeding and environmental management.

  3. Rational synthetic pathway refactoring of natural products biosynthesis in actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Liu, Tiangang

    2017-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) and their derivatives are widely used as frontline treatments for many diseases. Actinobacteria spp. are used to produce most of NP antibiotics and have also been intensively investigated for NP production, derivatization, and discovery. However, due to the complicated transcriptional and metabolic regulation of NP biosynthesis in Actinobacteria, especially in the cases of genome mining and heterologous expression, it is often difficult to rationally and systematically engineer synthetic pathways to maximize biosynthetic efficiency. With the emergence of new tools and methods in metabolic engineering, the synthetic pathways of many chemicals, such as fatty acids and biofuels, in model organisms (e.g. Escherichia coli ), have been refactored to realize precise and flexible control of production. These studies also offer a promising approach for synthetic pathway refactoring in Actinobacteria. In this review, the great potential of Actinobacteria as a microbial cell factory for biosynthesis of NPs is discussed. To this end, recent progress in metabolic engineering of NP synthetic pathways in Actinobacteria are summarized and strategies and perspectives to rationally and systematically refactor synthetic pathways in Actinobacteria are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Macromolecule biosynthesis assay and fluorescence spectroscopy methods to explore antimicrobial peptide mode(s) of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jana, Bimal; Baker, Kristin Renee; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    the biosynthesis rate of macromolecules (e.g., DNA, RNA, protein, and cell wall) and the cytoplasmic membrane proton motive force (PMF) energy can help to unravel the diverse modes of action of AMPs. Here, we present an overview of macromolecule biosynthesis rate measurement and fluorescence spectroscopy methods...

  5. Biosynthesis of human colonic mucin: Muc2 is the prominent secretory mucin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, K. M.; Büller, H. A.; Opdam, F. J.; Kim, Y. S.; Einerhand, A. W.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium produces large amounts of mucin. The aim of this study was to examine mucin biosynthesis in the human colon. Human colonic mucin was isolated using CsCl density gradients, and polyclonal antiserum was raised. Biosynthesis of colonic mucins was studied by labeling colonic

  6. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Putatively Involved in Toxin Biosynthesis in the Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Zhi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandrium is a neurotoxin-producing dinoflagellate genus resulting in paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. However, little is known about the toxin biosynthesis mechanism in Alexandrium. This study compared protein profiles of A. catenella collected at different toxin biosynthesis stages (non-toxin synthesis, initial toxin synthesis and toxin synthesizing coupled with the cell cycle, and identified differentially expressed proteins using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that toxin biosynthesis of A. catenella occurred within a defined time frame in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Proteomic analysis indicated that 102 protein spots altered significantly in abundance (P < 0.05, and 53 proteins were identified using database searching. These proteins were involved in a variety of biological processes, i.e., protein modification and biosynthesis, metabolism, cell division, oxidative stress, transport, signal transduction, and translation. Among them, nine proteins with known functions in paralytic shellfish toxin-producing cyanobacteria, i.e., methionine S-adenosyltransferase, chloroplast ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, S-adenosylhomocysteinase, adenosylhomocysteinase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, sulfotransferase (similar to, alcohol dehydrogenase and arginine deiminase, varied significantly at different toxin biosynthesis stages and formed an interaction network, indicating that they might be involved in toxin biosynthesis in A. catenella. This study is the first step in the dissection of the behavior of the A. catenella proteome during different toxin biosynthesis stages and provides new insights into toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates.

  7. Biosynthesis of flavonoids in bilberry and blueberry - possibilities of the gene level information for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakola, Laura

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the biosynthesis of flavonoids in various tissues of naturally growing European blueberry (bilberry) and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue'. Focus has also been on the biosynthesis of flavonoids in developing bilberry fruits as well as on the control genes regulating fruit development.

  8. Absence of functional peroxisomes does not lead to deficiency of enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenboom, Sietske; Romeijn, Gerrit Jan; Houten, Sander M.; Baes, Myriam; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.

    2002-01-01

    To unravel the conflicting data concerning the dependence of human cholesterol biosynthesis on functional peroxisomes, we determined activities and levels of selected enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis in livers of PEX5 knockout mice, a well-characterized model for human Zellweger

  9. The plant cuticle is required for osmotic stress regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenyu; Xiong, Liming; Li, Wenbo; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). One major step in ABA biosynthesis is the carotenoid cleavage catalyzed by a 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the mechanism for osmotic stress activation of ABA

  10. Purine biosynthesis in archaea: variations on a theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Anne M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to perform de novo biosynthesis of purines is present in organisms in all three domains of life, reflecting the essentiality of these molecules to life. Although the pathway is quite similar in eukaryotes and bacteria, the archaeal pathway is more variable. A careful manual curation of genes in this pathway demonstrates the value of manual curation in archaea, even in pathways that have been well-studied in other domains. Results We searched the Integrated Microbial Genome system (IMG for the 17 distinct genes involved in the 11 steps of de novo purine biosynthesis in 65 sequenced archaea, finding 738 predicted proteins with sequence similarity to known purine biosynthesis enzymes. Each sequence was manually inspected for the presence of active site residues and other residues known or suspected to be required for function. Many apparently purine-biosynthesizing archaea lack evidence for a single enzyme, either glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase or inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase, suggesting that there are at least two more gene variants in the purine biosynthetic pathway to discover. Variations in domain arrangement of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide synthetase and substantial problems in aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase and inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase assignments were also identified. Manual curation revealed some overly specific annotations in the IMG gene product name, with predicted proteins without essential active site residues assigned product names implying enzymatic activity (21 proteins, 2.8% of proteins inspected or Enzyme Commission (E. C. numbers (57 proteins, 7.7%. There were also 57 proteins (7.7% assigned overly generic names and 78 proteins (10.6% without E.C. numbers as part of the assigned name when a specific enzyme name and E. C. number were well-justified. Conclusions The patchy distribution of purine biosynthetic genes in archaea is

  11. On-Off Switches for Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Zhong Wang; Richard A.Dixon

    2012-01-01

    Secondary cell walls provide plants with rigidity and strength to support their body weight and ensure water and nutrient transport.They also provide textiles,timber,and potentially second-generation biofuels for human use.Genes responsible for synthesis of the different cell wall components,namely cellulose,hemicelluloses,and lignin,are coordinately expressed and under transcriptional regulation.In the past several years,cell wall-related NAC and MYB transcription factors have been intensively investigated in different species and shown to be master switches of secondary cell wall biosynthesis.Positive and negative regulators,which function upstream of NAC master switches,have also been identified in different plant tissues.Further elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of cell wall synthesis will facilitate the engineering of plant feedstocks suitable for biofuel production.

  12. Surfactin – A Review on Biosynthesis, Fermentation, Purification and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S. Shaligram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactin, a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide, is produced by various strains of Bacillus subtilis and is primarily recognized as one of the most effective biosurfactants. It has the ability to reduce surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m at a concentration as low as 0.005 %. The structure of surfactin consists of seven amino acids bonded to the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of a 14-carbon fatty acid. Surfactin possesses a number of biological activities such as the ability to lyse erythrocytes, inhibit clot formation, lyse bacterial spheroplasts and protoplasts, and inhibit cyclic 3',5-monophosphate diesterase. The high cost of production and low yields have limited its use in various commercial applications. Both submerged and solid-state fermentation have been investigated with the mutational approach to improve the productivity. In this review, current state of knowledge on biosynthesis of surfactin, its fermentative production, purification, analytical methods and biomedical applications is presented.

  13. Substances that disrupt thyroid hormone biosynthesis (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap, Andreea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupters are natural or synthetic chemical substances that have the possibility to alter the endocrine functions leading to serious metabolic changes especially in newborns. The accumulation and persistence over long periods of time became a priority in terms of health and environment. The mechanism of action is represented by blocking, mimicking or modifying the effects of thyroid hormones. In this review, the main purpose was to determine what effects have the endocrine disruptors on the thyroid gland, especially on the thyroid hormone biosynthesis and setting the stage involved by it. We focused on the action of perchlorates, phthalates, BPC, PDPEs, soy, isoflavones, nitrates, thiocyanates, bisphenol A and triclorsan and came to the conclusion that their intervention can result in either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

  14. Biosynthesis of rare hexoses using microorganisms and related enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijie; Gao, Yahui; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rare sugars, referred to as monosaccharides and their derivatives that rarely exist in nature, can be applied in many areas ranging from foodstuffs to pharmaceutical and nutrition industry, or as starting materials for various natural products and drug candidates. Unfortunately, an important factor restricting the utilization of rare sugars is their limited availability, resulting from limited synthetic methods. Nowadays, microbial and enzymatic transformations have become a very powerful tool in this field. This article reviews the biosynthesis and enzymatic production of rare ketohexoses, aldohexoses and sugar alcohols (hexitols), including D-tagatose, D-psicose, D-sorbose, L-tagatose, L-fructose, 1-deoxy-L-fructose, D-allose, L-glucose, L-talose, D-gulose, L-galactose, L-fucose, allitol, D-talitol, and L-sorbitol. New systems and robust catalysts resulting from advancements in genomics and bioengineering are also discussed. PMID:24367410

  15. VvWRKY13 enhances ABA biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIe Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays critical roles in plant growth and development as well as in plants’ responses to abiotic stresses. We previously isolated VvWRKY13, a novel transcription factor, from Vitis vinifera (grapevine, and here we present evidence that VvWRKY13 may regulate ABA biosynthesis in plants. When VvWRKY13 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines showed delayed seed germination, smaller stomatal aperture size, and several other phenotypic changes, indicating elevated ABA levels in these plants. Sequence analysis of several genes that are involved in grapevine ABA synthetic pathway identified WRKY-specific binding elements (W-box or W-like box in the promoter regions. Indeed, transient overexpression of VvWRKY13 in grapevine leaves significantly increased the transcript levels of ABA synthetic pathway genes. Taken together, we conclude that VvWRKY13 may promote ABA production by activating genes in the ABA synthetic pathway.

  16. Biosynthesis of rare hexoses using microorganisms and related enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijie Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare sugars, referred to as monosaccharides and their derivatives that rarely exist in nature, can be applied in many areas ranging from foodstuffs to pharmaceutical and nutrition industry, or as starting materials for various natural products and drug candidates. Unfortunately, an important factor restricting the utilization of rare sugars is their limited availability, resulting from limited synthetic methods. Nowadays, microbial and enzymatic transformations have become a very powerful tool in this field. This article reviews the biosynthesis and enzymatic production of rare ketohexoses, aldohexoses and sugar alcohols (hexitols, including D-tagatose, D-psicose, D-sorbose, L-tagatose, L-fructose, 1-deoxy-L-fructose, D-allose, L-glucose, L-talose, D-gulose, L-galactose, L-fucose, allitol, D-talitol, and L-sorbitol. New systems and robust catalysts resulting from advancements in genomics and bioengineering are also discussed.

  17. Biosynthesis of rare hexoses using microorganisms and related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijie; Gao, Yahui; Nakanishi, Hideki; Gao, Xiaodong; Cai, Li

    2013-11-12

    Rare sugars, referred to as monosaccharides and their derivatives that rarely exist in nature, can be applied in many areas ranging from foodstuffs to pharmaceutical and nutrition industry, or as starting materials for various natural products and drug candidates. Unfortunately, an important factor restricting the utilization of rare sugars is their limited availability, resulting from limited synthetic methods. Nowadays, microbial and enzymatic transformations have become a very powerful tool in this field. This article reviews the biosynthesis and enzymatic production of rare ketohexoses, aldohexoses and sugar alcohols (hexitols), including D-tagatose, D-psicose, D-sorbose, L-tagatose, L-fructose, 1-deoxy-L-fructose, D-allose, L-glucose, L-talose, D-gulose, L-galactose, L-fucose, allitol, D-talitol, and L-sorbitol. New systems and robust catalysts resulting from advancements in genomics and bioengineering are also discussed.

  18. Thematic review series: glycerolipids. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V

    2008-11-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases.

  19. Biosynthesis of therapeutic natural products using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Ali R; Shaw, William M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Natural products are a group of bioactive structurally diverse chemicals produced by microorganisms and plants. These molecules and their derivatives have contributed to over a third of the therapeutic drugs produced in the last century. However, over the last few decades traditional drug discovery pipelines from natural products have become far less productive and far more expensive. One recent development with promise to combat this trend is the application of synthetic biology to therapeutic natural product biosynthesis. Synthetic biology is a young discipline with roots in systems biology, genetic engineering, and metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss the use of synthetic biology to engineer improved yields of existing therapeutic natural products. We further describe the use of synthetic biology to combine and express natural product biosynthetic genes in unprecedented ways, and how this holds promise for opening up completely new avenues for drug discovery and production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the Ornithine Hydroxylation Step in Albachelin Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Bufkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available N-Hydroxylating monooxygenases (NMOs are involved in siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophores are high affinity iron chelators composed of catechol and hydroxamate functional groups that are synthesized and secreted by microorganisms and plants. Recently, a new siderophore named albachelin was isolated from a culture of Amycolatopsis alba growing under iron-limiting conditions. This work focuses on the expression, purification, and characterization of the NMO, abachelin monooxygenase (AMO from A. alba. This enzyme was purified and characterized in its holo (FAD-bound and apo (FAD-free forms. The apo-AMO could be reconstituted by addition of free FAD. The two forms of AMO hydroxylate ornithine, while lysine increases oxidase activity but is not hydroxylated and display low affinity for NADPH.

  1. gamma-Aminobutyric acid stimulates ethylene biosynthesis in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathiresan, A.; Tung, P.; Chinnappa, C.C.; Reid, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is often accumulated in plants following environmental stimuli that can also cause ethylene production. We have investigated the relationship between GABA and ethylene production in excised sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tissues. Exogenous GABA causes up to a 14-fold increase in the ethylene production rate after about 12 h. Cotyledons fed with [14C]GABA did not release substantial amounts of radioactive ethylene despite its chemical similarity to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), indicating that GABA is not likely to be an alternative precursor for ethylene. GABA causes increases in ACC synthase mRNA accumulation, ACC levels, ACC oxidase mRNA levels, and in vitro ACC oxidase activity. In the presence of aminoethoxyvinylglycine or alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, GABA did not stimulate ethylene production. We therefore conclude that GABA stimulates ethylene biosynthesis mainly by promoting ACC synthase transcript abundance. Possible roles of GABA as a signal transducer are suggested

  2. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  3. Borrelidin B: isolation, biological activity, and implications for nitrile biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christopher J; Bray, Walter M; Loganzo, Frank; Lam, My-Hanh; Szal, Teresa; Villalobos, Anabella; Koehn, Frank E; Linington, Roger G

    2014-11-26

    Borrelidin (1) is a nitrile-containing bacterially derived polyketide that is a potent inhibitor of bacterial and eukaryotic threonyl-tRNA synthetases. We now report the discovery of borrelidin B (2), a tetrahydro-borrelidin derivative containing an aminomethyl group in place of the nitrile functionality in borrelidin. The discovery of this new metabolite has implications for both the biosynthesis of the nitrile group and the bioactivity of the borrelidin compound class. Screening in the SToPS assay for tRNA synthetase inhibition revealed that the nitrile moiety is essential for activity, while profiling using our in-house image-based cytological profiling assay demonstrated that 2 retains biological activity by causing a mitotic stall, even in the absence of the nitrile motif.

  4. Egghead and brainiac are essential for glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Pizette, Sandrine; Pedersen, Johannes W

    2004-01-01

    -acetylglucosaminyltransferase predicted by in vitro analysis to control synthesis of the glycosphingolipid core structure, GlcNAcbeta1-3Manbeta1-4Glcbeta1-Cer, found widely in invertebrates but not vertebrates. In this report we present direct in vivo evidence for this hypothesis. egghead and brainiac mutants lack elongated...... lactosylceramide glycosphingolipid biosynthetic pathway (Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-Cer) using a human beta4-galactosyltransferase (beta4Gal-T6) transgene. Conversely, introduction of egghead in vertebrate cells (Chinese hamster ovary) resulted in near complete blockage of biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids...... and accumulation of Manbeta1-4Glcbeta1-Cer. The study demonstrates that glycosphingolipids are essential for development of complex organisms and suggests that the function of the Drosophila glycosphingolipids in development does not depend on the core structure....

  5. Biosynthesis of sterols from mevalonate in a starfish, Coscinasterias acutispina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Shin-ichi; Kanazawa, Akio

    1976-01-01

    This study deals with the biosynthesis of sterols from mevalonate in a starfish, Coscinasterias acutispina. After injection of mevalonate-2- 14 C, the metabolites were investigated by using thin-layer, column, and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques. The detailed investigation of radioactive desmethylsterols showed that radioactivity was mainly associated with cholest-7-enol. However, there was no evidence for the incorporation of mevalonate-2- 14 C into C 26 -, C 28 -, and C 29 -sterols besides cholestanol and cholesterol. The results indicated that the starfish, C. acutispina, is capable of synthesizing at least cholest-7-enol from mevalonate via probably squalene and lanosterol etc. But not sterols other than C 27 -sterols. Also, it was suggested that the conversion of cholest-7-enol to cholesterol may not proceed in this starfish. (auth.)

  6. Roles of tRNA in cell wall biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dare, Kiley; Ibba, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research into various aspects of bacterial metabolism such as cell wall and antibiotic synthesis, degradation pathways, cellular stress, and amino acid biosynthesis has elucidated roles of aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (aa-tRNA) outside of translation. Although the two enzyme families...... responsible for cell wall modifications, aminoacyl-phosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) and Fem, were discovered some time ago, they have recently become of intense interest for their roles in the antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. The addition of positively charged amino acids...... and play a role in resistance to antibiotics that target the cell wall. Additionally, the formation of truncated peptides results in shorter peptide bridges and loss of branched linkages which makes bacteria more susceptible to antimicrobials. A greater understanding of the structure and substrate...

  7. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis.

  8. Genetic Dissection of Tropodithietic Acid Biosynthesis by Marine Roseobacters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Haifeng; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    by the bacteria, and mutation in any one of these results in a loss of antibiotic activity (Tda(-)) and pigment production. Unexpectedly, six of the genes, referred to as tdaA-F, could not be found on the annotated TM1040 genome and were instead located on a previously unidentified plasmid (ca. 130 kb; pSTM3......The symbiotic association between the roseobacter Silicibacter sp. strain TM1040 and the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida involves bacterial chemotaxis to dinoflagellate-produced dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), DMSP demethylation, and ultimately a biofilm on the surface of the host. Biofilm...... formation is coincident with the production of an antibiotic and a yellow-brown pigment. In this report, we demonstrate that the antibiotic is a sulfur-containing compound, tropodithietic acid (TDA). Using random transposon insertion mutagenesis, 12 genes were identified as critical for TDA biosynthesis...

  9. Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles by Microorganisms and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of eco-friendly technologies in material synthesis is of considerable importance to expand their biological applications. Nowadays, a variety of inorganic nanoparticles with well-defined chemical composition, size, and morphology have been synthesized by using different microorganisms, and their applications in many cutting-edge technological areas have been explored. This paper highlights the recent developments of the biosynthesis of inorganic nanoparticles including metallic nanoparticles, oxide nanoparticles, sulfide nanoparticles, and other typical nanoparticles. Different formation mechanisms of these nanoparticles will be discussed as well. The conditions to control the size/shape and stability of particles are summarized. The applications of these biosynthesized nanoparticles in a wide spectrum of potential areas are presented including targeted drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy and DNA analysis, antibacterial agents, biosensors, enhancing reaction rates, separation science, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The current limitations and future prospects for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles by microorganisms are discussed.

  10. Swainsonine Biosynthesis Genes in Diverse Symbiotic and Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cook

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine—a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug—is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glory symbiont belonging to order Chaetothyriales. Genome sequence analyses revealed that these fungi share orthologous gene clusters, designated “SWN,” which included a multifunctional swnK gene comprising predicted adenylylation and acyltransferase domains with their associated thiolation domains, a β-ketoacyl synthase domain, and two reductase domains. The role of swnK was demonstrated by inactivating it in M. robertsii through homologous gene replacement to give a ∆swnK mutant that produced no detectable swainsonine, then complementing the mutant with the wild-type gene to restore swainsonine biosynthesis. Other SWN cluster genes were predicted to encode two putative hydroxylases and two reductases, as expected to complete biosynthesis of swainsonine from the predicted SwnK product. SWN gene clusters were identified in six out of seven sequenced genomes of Metarhzium species, and in all 15 sequenced genomes of Arthrodermataceae, a family of fungi that cause athlete’s foot and ringworm diseases in humans and other mammals. Representative isolates of all of these species were cultured, and all Metarhizium spp. with SWN clusters, as well as all but one of the Arthrodermataceae, produced swainsonine. These results suggest a new biosynthetic hypothesis for this alkaloid, extending the known taxonomic breadth of swainsonine producers to at least four orders of Ascomycota, and suggest that swainsonine has roles in mutualistic symbioses and diseases of plants and animals.

  11. Light Regulation of Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martinez, José Luis; Gil, Joan

    2001-12-01

    Some phenotypic effects produced in plants by light are very similar to those induced by hormones. In this review, the light-gibberellin (GA) interaction in germination, de-etiolation, stem growth, and tuber formation (process regulated by GAs) are discussed. Germination of lettuce and Arabidopsis seeds depends on red irradiation (R), which enhances the expression of GA 3-oxidase genes (GA3ox) and leads to an increase in active GA content. De-etiolation of pea seedling alters the expression of GA20ox and GA3ox genes and induces a rapid decrease of GA1 content. Stem growth of green plants is also affected by diverse light irradiation characteristics. Low light intensity increases stem elongation and active GA content in pea and Brassica. Photoperiod controls active GA levels in long-day rosette (spinach and Silene) and in woody plants (Salix and hybrid aspen) by regulating different steps of GA biosynthesis, mainly through transcript levels of GA20ox and GA3ox genes. Light modulation of stem elongation in light-grown plants is controlled by phytochrome, which modifies GA biosynthesis and catabolism (tobacco, potato, cowpea, Arabidopsis) and GA-response (pea, cucumber, Arabidopsis). In Arabidopsis and tobacco, ATH1 (a gene encoding an homeotic transcription factor) is a positive mediator of a phyB-specific signal transduction cascade controlling GA levels by regulating the expression of GA20ox and GA3ox. Tuber formation in potato is controlled by photoperiod (through phyB) and GAs. Inductive short-day conditions alter the diurnal rhythm of GA20ox transcript abundance, and increases the expression of a new protein (PHOR1) that plays a role in the photoperiod-GA interaction.

  12. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in 18 O 2 . It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of 18 O from 18 O 2 are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of 18 O incorporated increases with time. One 18 O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in 18 O 2 shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more 18 O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, 18 O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied 14 C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional 18 O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid

  13. Trichoderma harzianum: Inhibition of mycotoxin producing fungi and toxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H; Woitsch, L; Hetzer, B; Geisen, R; Zange, B; Schmidt-Heydt, M

    2018-04-19

    A quarter of the world-wide crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and their mycotoxins and weather extremes associated with the climate change lead to further deterioration of the situation. The ingestion of mycotoxins causes several health issues leading in the worst case to cancer in humans and animals. Common intervention strategies against mycotoxin producing fungi, such as the application of fungicides, may result in undesirable residues and in some cases to a stress induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis. Moreover, development of fungicide resistances has greatly impacted pre- and postharvest fungal diseases. Hence there is the need to develop alternative strategies to reduce fungal infestation and thus mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Such a strategy for natural competition of important plant-pathogenic and mycotoxin producing fungi could be Trichoderma harzianum, a mycoparasitic fungus. Especially in direct comparison to certain tested fungicides, the inhibition of different tested fungal species by T. harzianum was comparable, more sustainable and in some cases more effective, too. Besides substantially reduced growth rates, a transcriptional based inhibition of mycotoxin biosynthesis in the competed Aspergillus species could be shown. Furthermore it could be clearly observed by high-resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that T. harzianum actively attaches to the competitor species followed by subsequent enzymatic lysis of those mycelial filaments. The analyzed isolate of T. harzianum MRI349 is not known to produce mycotoxins. In this study it could be successfully proven that T. harzianum as a biological competitor is an effective complement to the use of fungicides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione biosynthesis in postweaned northern elephant seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Northern elephant seals experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting) while breeding, molting or weaning. The postweaning fast in elephant seals is characterized by increases in the renin–angiotensin system, expression of the oxidant-producing protein Nox4, and NADPH oxidase activity; however, these increases are not correlated with increased oxidative damage or inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) is a potent reductant and a cofactor for glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione-S transferases (GST) and 1-cys peroxiredoxin (PrxVI) and thus contributes to the removal of hydroperoxides, preventing oxidative damage. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on the GSH system are not well described in mammals. To test our hypothesis that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting in postweaned elephant seals, we measured circulating and muscle GSH content at the early and late phases of the postweaning fast in elephant seals along with the activity/protein content of glutamate-cysteine ligase [GCL; catalytic (GCLc) and modulatory (GCLm) subunits], γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione disulphide reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and PrxVI, as well as plasma changes in γ-glutamyl amino acids, glutamate and glutamine. GSH increased two- to four-fold with fasting along with a 40–50% increase in the content of GCLm and GCLc, a 75% increase in GGT activity, a two- to 2.5-fold increase in GR, G6PDH and GST activities and a 30% increase in PrxVI content. Plasma γ-glutamyl glutamine, γ-glutamyl isoleucine and γ-glutamyl methionine also increased with fasting whereas glutamate and glutamine decreased. Results indicate that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting and that GSH contributes to counteracting hydroperoxide production, preventing oxidative damage in fasting seals. PMID:21430206

  15. Photomodulation of strigolactone biosynthesis and accumulation during sunflower seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Niharika; Tripathi, Smita; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2015-01-01

    Present investigations report the presence of strigolactones (SLs) and photomodulation of their biosynthesis in sunflower seedlings (roots, cotyledons and first pair of leaves) during early phase of seedling development. Qualitative analyses and characterization by HPLC, ESI-MS and FT-IR revealed the presence of more than one type of SLs. Orobanchyl acetate was detected both in roots and leaves. Five-deoxystrigol, sorgolactone and orobanchol were exclusively detected in seedling roots. Sorgomol was detectable only in leaves. HPLC eluted fraction from seedling roots and leaves co-chromatographing with GR24 (a synthetic SL) could also bring about germination in Orobanche cernua (a weed) seeds, which are established to exhibit SL – mediated germination, thereby indicating the SL identity of the eluates using this bioassay. SLs accumulation was always more in the roots of light-grown seedlings, it being maximum at 4 d stage. Although significant activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD, the enzyme critical for SL biosynthesis) was detected in 2 d old seedling roots, SLs remained undetectable in cotyledons at all stages of development and also in the roots of 2 d old light and dark-grown seedlings. Roots of light-grown seedlings showed maximum CCD activity during early (2 d) stage of development, thereby confirming photomodulation of enzyme activity. These observations indicate the migration of a probable light-sensitized signaling molecule (yet to be identified) or a SL precursor from light exposed aerial parts to the seedling roots maintained in dark. Thus, a photomodulation and migration of SL precursor/s is evident from the present work. PMID:26252191

  16. Biosynthesis and structural characterization of silver nanoparticles from bacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, Sahar; El Kady, M.F.; Abd-El-Haleem, Desouky

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this study five bacterial isolates belong to different genera were found to be able to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. Biosynthesis and spectral characterization are reported here. Highlights: → About 300 bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to produce nanosilvers → Five of them were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles → Production of silver nanoparticles was examined using UV-Vis, XRD, SEM and EDS. → The presence of nanoparticles with all five bacterial isolates was confirmed. -- Abstract: This study aimed to develop a green process for biosynthesis of silver nanomaterials by some Egyptian bacterial isolates. This target was achieved by screening an in-house culture collection consists of 300 bacterial isolates for silver nanoparticle formation. Through screening process, it was observed that strains belonging to Escherichia coli (S30, S78), Bacillus megaterium (S52), Acinetobacter sp. (S7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S54) were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by positive isolates was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results demonstrated that UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ion showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 15-50 nm. XRD-spectrum of the silver nanoparticles exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal that produce in hexagonal and cubic crystal configurations with different plane of orientation. In addition, the signals of the silver atoms were observed by EDS-spectrum analysis that confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in all positive

  17. Evolution of the Kdo2-lipid A Biosynthesis in Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Opiyo; R Pardy; H Moriyama; E Moriyama

    2011-12-31

    BACKGROUND: Lipid A is the highly immunoreactive endotoxic center of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It anchors the LPS into the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid A can be recognized by animal cells, triggers defense-related responses, and causes Gram-negative sepsis. The biosynthesis of Kdo2-lipid A, the LPS substructure, involves with nine enzymatic steps. RESULTS: In order to elucidate the evolutionary pathway of Kdo2-lipid A biosynthesis, we examined the distribution of genes encoding the nine enzymes across bacteria. We found that not all Gram-negative bacteria have all nine enzymes. Some Gram-negative bacteria have no genes encoding these enzymes and others have genes only for the first four enzymes (LpxA, LpxC, LpxD, and LpxB). Among the nine enzymes, five appeared to have arisen from three independent gene duplication events. Two of such events happened within the Proteobacteria lineage, followed by functional specialization of the duplicated genes and pathway optimization in these bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The nine-enzyme pathway, which was established based on the studies mainly in Escherichia coli K12, appears to be the most derived and optimized form. It is found only in E. coli and related Proteobacteria. Simpler and probably less efficient pathways are found in other bacterial groups, with Kdo2-lipid A variants as the likely end products. The Kdo2-lipid A biosynthetic pathway exemplifies extremely plastic evolution of bacterial genomes, especially those of Proteobacteria, and how these mainly pathogenic bacteria have adapted to their environment.

  18. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals proteins putatively involved in toxin biosynthesis in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Gao, Yue; Lin, Lin; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2013-01-22

    Alexandrium is a neurotoxin-producing dinoflagellate genus resulting in paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. However, little is known about the toxin biosynthesis mechanism in Alexandrium. This study compared protein profiles of A. catenella collected at different toxin biosynthesis stages (non-toxin synthesis, initial toxin synthesis and toxin synthesizing) coupled with the cell cycle, and identified differentially expressed proteins using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that toxin biosynthesis of A. catenella occurred within a defined time frame in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Proteomic analysis indicated that 102 protein spots altered significantly in abundance (P translation. Among them, nine proteins with known functions in paralytic shellfish toxin-producing cyanobacteria, i.e., methionine S-adenosyltransferase, chloroplast ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, S-adenosylhomocysteinase, adenosylhomocysteinase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, sulfotransferase (similar to), alcohol dehydrogenase and arginine deiminase, varied significantly at different toxin biosynthesis stages and formed an interaction network, indicating that they might be involved in toxin biosynthesis in A. catenella. This study is the first step in the dissection of the behavior of the A. catenella proteome during different toxin biosynthesis stages and provides new insights into toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates.

  20. Jasmonate mediates salt-induced nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate (JA, as an important signal, plays a key role in multiple processes of plant growth, development and stress response. Nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. are essential secondary metabolites. Whether environmental factors control nicotine biosynthesis and the underlying mechanism remains previously unreported. Here, we applied physiological and biochemical approaches to investigate how salt stress affects nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco. We found that salt stress induced the biosynthesis of JA, which subsequently triggered the activation of JA-responsive gene expression and, ultimately, nicotine synthesis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the existence of many NtMYC2a-recognized G-box motifs in the promoter regions of NtLOX, NtAOS, NtAOC and NtOPR genes. Applying exogenous JA increased nicotine content, while suppressing JA biosynthesis reduced nicotine biosynthesis. Salt treatment could not efficiently induce nicotine biosynthesis in transgenic anti-COI1 tobacco plants. These results demonstrate that JA acts as the essential signal which triggers nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco after salt stress.

  1. Cloning and Characterization of the Polyether Salinomycin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Streptomyces albus XM211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunyan; Wang, Hougen; Kang, Qianjin; Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211. The targeted replacement of slnC and subsequent trans-complementation proved its involvement in salinomycin biosynthesis. A 127-kb DNA region containing slnC was sequenced, including genes for polyketide assembly and release, oxidative cyclization, modification, export, and regulation. In order to gain insight into the salinomycin biosynthesis mechanism, 13 gene replacements and deletions were conducted. Including slnC, 7 genes were identified as essential for salinomycin biosynthesis and putatively responsible for polyketide chain release, oxidative cyclization, modification, and regulation. Moreover, 6 genes were found to be relevant to salinomycin biosynthesis and possibly involved in precursor supply, removal of aberrant extender units, and regulation. Sequence analysis and a series of gene replacements suggest a proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of salinomycin. The information presented here expands the understanding of polyether biosynthesis mechanisms and paves the way for targeted engineering of salinomycin activity and productivity. PMID:22156425

  2. The Arabidopsis Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 Is Required for Osmotic Stress-Induced Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2014-11-21

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through a pathway that is rate limited by the carotenoid cleavage enzyme 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the signal transduction mechanism underlying the activation of ABA biosynthesis, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate mutants defective in osmotic stress regulation of the NCED3 gene. Here, we identified the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 (VSR1) as a unique regulator of ABA biosynthesis. The vsr1 mutant not only shows increased sensitivity to osmotic stress, but also is defective in the feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis by ABA. Further analysis revealed that vacuolar trafficking mediated by VSR1 is required for osmotic stress-responsive ABA biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance. Moreover, under osmotic stress conditions, the membrane potential, calcium flux, and vacuolar pH changes in the vsr1 mutant differ from those in the wild type. Given that manipulation of the intracellular pH is sufficient to modulate the expression of ABA biosynthesis genes, including NCED3, and ABA accumulation, we propose that intracellular pH changes caused by osmotic stress may play a signaling role in regulating ABA biosynthesis and that this regulation is dependent on functional VSR1.

  3. The Arabidopsis Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 Is Required for Osmotic Stress-Induced Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Gehring, Christoph A; Zhu, Jianhua; Li, Feng-Min; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xiong, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through a pathway that is rate limited by the carotenoid cleavage enzyme 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the signal transduction mechanism underlying the activation of ABA biosynthesis, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate mutants defective in osmotic stress regulation of the NCED3 gene. Here, we identified the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 (VSR1) as a unique regulator of ABA biosynthesis. The vsr1 mutant not only shows increased sensitivity to osmotic stress, but also is defective in the feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis by ABA. Further analysis revealed that vacuolar trafficking mediated by VSR1 is required for osmotic stress-responsive ABA biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance. Moreover, under osmotic stress conditions, the membrane potential, calcium flux, and vacuolar pH changes in the vsr1 mutant differ from those in the wild type. Given that manipulation of the intracellular pH is sufficient to modulate the expression of ABA biosynthesis genes, including NCED3, and ABA accumulation, we propose that intracellular pH changes caused by osmotic stress may play a signaling role in regulating ABA biosynthesis and that this regulation is dependent on functional VSR1.

  4. Recent advances in the elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Yi Tan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With the successful production of artemisinic acid in yeast, the promising potential of synthetic biology for natural product biosynthesis is now being realized. The recent total biosynthesis of opioids in microbes is considered to be another landmark in this field. The importance and significance of enzymes in natural product biosynthetic pathways have been re-emphasized by these advancements. Therefore, the characterization and elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis are undoubtedly fundamental for the development of new drugs and the heterologous biosynthesis of active natural products. Here, discoveries regarding enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis over the past year are briefly reviewed.

  5. Recent advances in the elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Gao-Yi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the successful production of artemisinic acid in yeast, the promising potential of synthetic biology for natural product biosynthesis is now being realized. The recent total biosynthesis of opioids in microbes is considered to be another landmark in this field. The importance and significance of enzymes in natural product biosynthetic pathways have been re-emphasized by these advancements. Therefore, the characterization and elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis are undoubtedly fundamental for the development of new drugs and the heterologous biosynthesis of active natural products. Here, discoveries regarding enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis over the past year are briefly reviewed.

  6. [Age and characteristics of cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver under normal conditions and during atherogenic loading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaialo, P P

    1977-02-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of C14CH3COONa to normal rats aged 6--8 and 28--32 months revealed a slower dynamics of cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver of old rats at the maximum of the tracer incorporation was lower than in the young ones. Atherogenic diet (0.25 g of cholesterol per 100 g of animal weight for a period of 20 days) was accompanied by an increase in the total cholesterol content and depressio of its biosynthesis in the liver, more pronounced in the young rats. Continued cholesterol administration caused further depression of its biosynthesis, most pronounced (in this case) in the old animals.

  7. Structure and mechanism of a bacterial t6A biosynthesis system

    OpenAIRE

    Luthra, Amit; Swinehart, William; Bayooz, Susan; Phan, Phuc; Stec, Boguslaw; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Swairjo, Manal A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The universal N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) modification at position 37 of ANN-decoding tRNAs is central to translational fidelity. In bacteria, t6A biosynthesis is catalyzed by the proteins TsaB, TsaC/TsaC2, TsaD and TsaE. Despite intense research, the molecular mechanisms underlying t6A biosynthesis are poorly understood. Here, we report biochemical and biophysical studies of the t6A biosynthesis system from Thermotoga maritima. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis reveals...

  8. Epoxide hydrolase-lasalocid a structure provides mechanistic insight into polyether natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fong T; Hotta, Kinya; Chen, Xi; Fang, Minyi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Chu-Young

    2015-01-14

    Biosynthesis of some polyether natural products involves a kinetically disfavored epoxide-opening cyclic ether formation, a reaction termed anti-Baldwin cyclization. One such example is the biosynthesis of lasalocid A, an ionophore antibiotic polyether. During lasalocid A biosynthesis, an epoxide hydrolase, Lsd19, converts the bisepoxy polyketide intermediate into the tetrahydrofuranyl-tetrahydropyran product. We report the crystal structure of Lsd19 in complex with lasalocid A. The structure unambiguously shows that the C-terminal domain of Lsd19 catalyzes the intriguing anti-Baldwin cyclization. We propose a general mechanism for epoxide selection by ionophore polyether epoxide hydrolases.

  9. Thioridazine affects transcription of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mette; Højland, Dorte Heidi; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2011-01-01

    have previously shown that the expression of some resistance genes is abolished after treatment with thioridazine and oxacillin. To further understand the mechanism underlying the reversal of resistance, we tested the expression of genes involved in antibiotic resistance and cell wall biosynthesis...... in response to thioridazine in combination with oxacillin. We observed that the oxacillin-induced expression of genes belonging to the VraSR regulon is reduced by the addition of thioridazine. The exclusion of such key factors involved in cell wall biosynthesis will most likely lead to a weakened cell wall...... reversal of resistance by thioridazine relies on decreased expression of specific genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis....

  10. Precursor Amino Acids Inhibit Polymyxin E Biosynthesis in Paenibacillus polymyxa, Probably by Affecting the Expression of Polymyxin E Biosynthesis-Associated Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxin E belongs to cationic polypeptide antibiotic bearing four types of direct precursor amino acids including L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (L-Dab, L-Leu, D-Leu, and L-Thr. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of addition of precursor amino acids during fermentation on polymyxin E biosynthesis in Paenibacillus polymyxa. The results showed that, after 35 h fermentation, addition of direct precursor amino acids to certain concentration significantly inhibited polymyxin E production and affected the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. L-Dab repressed the expression of polymyxin synthetase genes pmxA and pmxE, as well as 2,4-diaminobutyrate aminotransferase gene ectB; both L-Leu and D-Leu repressed the pmxA expression. In addition, L-Thr affected the expression of not only pmxA, but also regulatory genes spo0A and abrB. As L-Dab precursor, L-Asp repressed the expression of ectB, pmxA, and pmxE. Moreover, it affected the expression of spo0A and abrB. In contrast, L-Phe, a nonprecursor amino acid, had no obvious effect on polymyxin E biosynthesis and those biosynthesis-related genes expression. Taken together, our data demonstrated that addition of precursor amino acids during fermentation will inhibit polymyxin E production probably by affecting the expression of its biosynthesis-related genes.

  11. Genetic control and regulatory mechanisms of succinoglycan and curdlan biosynthesis in genus Agrobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Li, Ang; Ma, Fang; Yang, Jixian; Xie, Yutong

    2016-07-01

    Agrobacterium is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that can produce several typical exopolysaccharides with commercial uses in the food and pharmaceutical fields. In particular, succinoglycan and curdlan, due to their good quality in high yield, have been employed on an industrial scale comparatively early. Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis is a multiple-step process controlled by different functional genes, and various environmental factors cause changes in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis through regulatory mechanisms. In this mini-review, we focus on the genetic control and regulatory mechanisms of succinoglycan and curdlan produced by Agrobacterium. Some key functional genes and regulatory mechanisms for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis are described, possessing a high potential for application in metabolic engineering to modify exopolysaccharide production and physicochemical properties. This review may contribute to the understanding of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and exopolysaccharide modification by metabolic engineering methods in Agrobacterium.

  12. Reconstitution of a fungal meroterpenoid biosynthesis reveals the involvement of a novel family of terpene cyclases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takayuki; Tokunaga, Kinya; Matsuda, Yudai; Fujii, Isao; Abe, Ikuro; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Kushiro, Tetsuo

    2010-10-01

    Meroterpenoids are hybrid natural products of both terpenoid and polyketide origin. We identified a biosynthetic gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the meroterpenoid pyripyropene in the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus through reconstituted biosynthesis of up to five steps in a heterologous fungal expression system. The cluster revealed a previously unknown terpene cyclase with an unusual sequence and protein primary structure. The wide occurrence of this sequence in other meroterpenoid and indole-diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters indicates the involvement of these enzymes in the biosynthesis of various terpenoid-bearing metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria. In addition, a novel polyketide synthase that incorporated nicotinyl-CoA as the starter unit and a prenyltransferase, similar to that in ubiquinone biosynthesis, was found to be involved in the pyripyropene biosynthesis. The successful production of a pyripyropene analogue illustrates the catalytic versatility of these enzymes for the production of novel analogues with useful biological activities.

  13. Biosynthesis of antimycins with a reconstituted 3-formamidosalicylate pharmacophore in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Joyce; Zhu, Xuejun; Seipke, Ryan F; Zhang, Wenjun

    2015-05-15

    Antimycins are a family of natural products generated from a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-polyketide synthase (PKS) assembly line. Although they possess an array of useful biological activities, their structural complexity makes chemical synthesis challenging, and their biosynthesis has thus far been dependent on slow-growing source organisms. Here, we reconstituted the biosynthesis of antimycins in Escherichia coli, a versatile host that is robust and easy to manipulate genetically. Along with Streptomyces genetic studies, the heterologous expression of different combinations of ant genes enabled us to systematically confirm the functions of the modification enzymes, AntHIJKL and AntO, in the biosynthesis of the 3-formamidosalicylate pharmacophore of antimycins. Our E. coli-based antimycin production system can not only be used to engineer the increased production of these bioactive compounds, but it also paves the way for the facile generation of novel and diverse antimycin analogues through combinatorial biosynthesis.

  14. Cantharidin biosynthesis in a blister beetle: inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate causes chemical disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, J E; Doom, J P; McCormick, J P

    1986-07-15

    Biosynthesis of cantharidin in a blister beetle, Lytta polita, is effectively inhibited by 6-fluoromevalonate. Inhibition is attributed specifically to the fluorine substituent. Biochemical inhibition has not been demonstrated previously for an arthropod's defensive substance.

  15. Tomato strigolactones are derived from carotenoids and their biosynthesis is promoted by phosphate starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Raez, J.A.; Charnikhova, T.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Matusova, R.; Kohlen, W.; Vos, de C.H.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Puech-Pages, V.; Becard, G.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Strigolactones are rhizosphere signalling compounds that mediate host location in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and parasitic plants. Here, the regulation of the biosynthesis of strigolactones is studied in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Strigolactone production under phosphate starvation, in

  16. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  17. Identification and biosynthesis of a novel xanthomonadin-dialkylresorcinol-hybrid from Azoarcus sp. BH72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A Schöner

    Full Text Available A novel xanthomonadin-dialkylresorcinol hybrid named arcuflavin was identified in Azoarcus sp. BH72 by a combination of feeding experiments, HPLC-MS and MALDI-MS and gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of this non-isoprenoid aryl-polyene containing pigment are reported. A chorismate-utilizing enzyme from the XanB2-type producing 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and an AMP-ligase encoded by these gene clusters were characterized, that might perform the first two steps of the polyene biosynthesis. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the already known or novel biosynthesis gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of polyene containing pigments like arcuflavin, flexirubin and xanthomonadin revealed the presence of similar gene clusters in a wide range of bacterial taxa, suggesting that polyene and polyene-dialkylresorcinol pigments are more widespread than previously realized.

  18. Creatine biosynthesis and transport in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncquel-Chevalier Curt, Marie; Voicu, Pia-Manuela; Fontaine, Monique; Dessein, Anne-Frédérique; Porchet, Nicole; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Dobbelaere, Dries; Soto-Ares, Gustavo; Cheillan, David; Vamecq, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Creatine is physiologically provided equally by diet and by endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine with successive involvements of arginine glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT] and guanidinoacetate methyl transferase [GAMT]. A specific plasma membrane transporter, creatine transporter [CRTR] (SLC6A8), further enables cells to incorporate creatine and through uptake of its precursor, guanidinoacetate, also directly contributes to creatine biosynthesis. Breakthrough in the role of creatine has arisen from studies on creatine deficiency disorders. Primary creatine disorders are inherited as autosomal recessive (mutations affecting GATM [for glycine-amidinotransferase, mitochondrial]) and GAMT genes) or X-linked (SLC6A8 gene) traits. They have highlighted the role of creatine in brain functions altered in patients (global developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral disorders). Creatine modulates GABAergic and glutamatergic cerebral pathways, presynaptic CRTR (SLC6A8) ensuring re-uptake of synaptic creatine. Secondary creatine disorders, addressing other genes, have stressed the extraordinary imbrication of creatine metabolism with many other cellular pathways. This high dependence on multiple pathways supports creatine as a cellular sensor, to cell methylation and energy status. Creatine biosynthesis consumes 40% of methyl groups produced as S-adenosylmethionine, and creatine uptake is controlled by AMP activated protein kinase, a ubiquitous sensor of energy depletion. Today, creatine is considered as a potential sensor of cell methylation and energy status, a neurotransmitter influencing key (GABAergic and glutamatergic) CNS neurotransmission, therapeutic agent with anaplerotic properties (towards creatine kinases [creatine-creatine phosphate cycle] and creatine neurotransmission), energetic and antioxidant compound (benefits in degenerative diseases through protection against energy depletion and oxidant species) with osmolyte behavior (retention of

  19. Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway as Target for Anti-trypanosomatid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterols are constituents of the cellular membranes that are essential for their normal structure and function. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the main sterol found in the various membranes. However, other sterols predominate in eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi and protozoa. It is now well established that an important metabolic pathway in fungi and in members of the Trypanosomatidae family is one that produces a special class of sterols, including ergosterol, and other 24-methyl sterols, which are required for parasitic growth and viability, but are absent from mammalian host cells. Currently, there are several drugs that interfere with sterol biosynthesis (SB that are in use to treat diseases such as high cholesterol in humans and fungal infections. In this review, we analyze the effects of drugs such as (a statins, which act on the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, (b bisphosphonates, which interfere with the isoprenoid pathway in the step catalyzed by farnesyl diphosphate synthase, (c zaragozic acids and quinuclidines, inhibitors of squalene synthase (SQS, which catalyzes the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, (d allylamines, inhibitors of squalene epoxidase, (e azoles, which inhibit C14α-demethylase, and (f azasterols, which inhibit Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase (SMT. Inhibition of this last step appears to have high selectivity for fungi and trypanosomatids, since this enzyme is not found in mammalian cells. We review here the IC50 values of these various inhibitors, their effects on the growth of trypanosomatids (both in axenic cultures and in cell cultures, and their effects on protozoan structural organization (as evaluted by light and electron microscopy and lipid composition. The results show that the mitochondrial membrane as well as the membrane lining the protozoan cell body and flagellum are the main targets. Probably as a consequence of these primary effects, other important changes take

  20. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-11-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  1. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Matusmoto, Tadashi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Oh, Keimei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to inve...

  2. Tomato strigolactones are derived from carotenoids and their biosynthesis is promoted by phosphate starvation

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ráez, Juan A.; Charnikhova, Tatsiana;; Gómez-Roldán,Victoria;; Matusova, Radoslava;; Kohlen, Wouter;; De Vos, Ric;; Verstappe, Francel;; Puech-Pages, Virginie;; Bécard, Guillaume;; Mulder, Patrick;; Bouwmeester, Harro;

    2008-01-01

    Strigolactones are rhizosphere signalling compounds that mediate host location in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and parasitic plants. Here, the regulation of the biosynthesis of strigolactones is studied in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). * Strigolactone production under phosphate starvation, in the presence of the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone and in the abscisic acid (ABA) mutant notabilis were assessed using a germination bioassay with seeds of Orobanche ramosa; a hyphal b...

  3. Uridine monophosphate synthetase enables eukaryotic de novo NAD+ biosynthesis from quinolinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Melanie R; Wang, Wenqing; Holleran, Lauren M; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2017-07-07

    NAD + biosynthesis is an attractive and promising therapeutic target for influencing health span and obesity-related phenotypes as well as tumor growth. Full and effective use of this target for therapeutic benefit requires a complete understanding of NAD + biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role for a conserved phosphoribosyltransferase in NAD + biosynthesis. Because a required quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRTase) is not encoded in its genome, Caenorhabditis elegans are reported to lack a de novo NAD + biosynthetic pathway. However, all the genes of the kynurenine pathway required for quinolinic acid (QA) production from tryptophan are present. Thus, we investigated the presence of de novo NAD + biosynthesis in this organism. By combining isotope-tracing and genetic experiments, we have demonstrated the presence of an intact de novo biosynthesis pathway for NAD + from tryptophan via QA, highlighting the functional conservation of this important biosynthetic activity. Supplementation with kynurenine pathway intermediates also boosted NAD + levels and partially reversed NAD + -dependent phenotypes caused by mutation of pnc-1 , which encodes a nicotinamidase required for NAD + salvage biosynthesis, demonstrating contribution of de novo synthesis to NAD + homeostasis. By investigating candidate phosphoribosyltransferase genes in the genome, we determined that the conserved uridine monophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase (UMPS), which acts in pyrimidine biosynthesis, is required for NAD + biosynthesis in place of the missing QPRTase. We suggest that similar underground metabolic activity of UMPS may function in other organisms. This mechanism for NAD + biosynthesis creates novel possibilities for manipulating NAD + biosynthetic pathways, which is key for the future of therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Exploring the fungal protein cadre in the biosynthesis of PbSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Jaya Mary; Sharma, Sumit; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan, E-mail: rajmohanbala@gmail.com

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Pb and Se stress activates specific metal detoxification surge in the fungus. • Fungus releases phytochelatins, metallothioneins, super oxide dismutases etc. • These mechanisms capacitate the fungi as bio-factories for synthesis of PbSe QDs. • A pathway for PbSe QD biosynthesis by marine Aspergillus terreus was elucidated - Abstract: While a large number of microbial sources have recently emerged as potent sources for biosynthesis of chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs), studies regarding their biomimetic strategies that initiate QD biosynthesis are scarce. The present study describes several mechanistic aspects of PbSe QD biosynthesis using marine Aspergillus terreus. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies indicated distinctive morphological features such as abrasion and agglomeration on the fungal biomass after the biosynthesis reaction. Further, the biomass subsequent to the heavy metal/metalloid precursor was characterized with spectral signatures typical to primary and secondary stress factors such as thiol compounds and oxalic acid using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. An increase in the total protein content in the reaction mixture after biosynthesis was another noteworthy observation. Further, metal-phytochelatins were identified as the prominent metal-ion trafficking components in the reaction mixture using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopic analysis (LCMS). Subsequent assays confirmed the involvement of metal binding peptides namely metallothioneins and other anti-oxidant enzymes that might have played a prominent role in the microbial metal detoxification system for the biosynthesis of PbSe QDs. Based on these findings a possible mechanism for the biosynthesis of PbSe QDs by marine A. terreus has been elucidated.

  5. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Matusmoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroid (BR and gibberellin (GA are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to investigate the roles of BR and GA in growth of rice seedlings. Yucaizol, a specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, and Trinexapac-ethyl, a commercially available inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, were used. The effect of Yucaizol on rice seedlings indicated that Yucaizol significantly retarded stem elongation. The IC50 value was found to be approximately 0.8 μmol/L. Yucaizol also induced small leaf angle phenocopy in rice seedlings, similarly to BR-deficient rice, while Trinexapac-ethyl did not. When Yucaizol combined with Trinexapac-ethyl was applied to the rice plants, the mixture of these two inhibitors retarded stem elongation of rice at lower doses. Our results suggest that the use of a BR biosynthesis inhibitor combined with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor may be useful in the development of new technologies for controlling rice plant height.

  6. Light quality affects flavonoid biosynthesis in young berries of Cabernet Sauvignon grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hiroko; Poudel, Puspa Raj; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds is known to be sensitive to light environments, which reflects the possible role of these compounds for photoprotection in plants. Herein, the effects of UV and visible light on biosynthesis of flavonoids was investigated, i.e., proanthocyanidins (PAs) and flavonols, in young berry skins of a red-wine grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Shading with light-proof boxes from the flowering stage until 49 days after treatment (DAT) partially decreased PA concentrations, and completely decreased flavonol concentrations in the berry skins. Shading decreased the transcript abundance of a flavonol-related gene more remarkably than those of PA-related genes. In addition, light exclusion influenced the composition of PAs, such as the decrease in the proportion of trihydroxylated subunits and the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) within PAs. However, solar UV exclusion did not affect the concentration and composition of PAs, whereas this exclusion remarkably decreased the flavonol concentration. Consistently, UV exclusion did not influence the transcript levels of PA-related genes, whereas it dramatically decreased that of flavonol-related genes. These findings indicated a different light regulation of the biosynthesis of these flavonoids in young berry skins of wine grape. Visible light primarily induces biosynthesis of PAs and affects their composition, whereas UV light specifically induces biosynthesis of flavonols. Distinct roles of members of a MYB transcription factor family for light regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis were proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distinct Prominent Roles for Enzymes of Plasmodium berghei Heme Biosynthesis in Sporozoite and Liver Stage Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuschewski, Kai; Haussig, Joana M.

    2016-01-01

    Malarial parasites have evolved complex regulation of heme supply and disposal to adjust to heme-rich and -deprived host environments. In addition to its own pathway for heme biosynthesis, Plasmodium likely harbors mechanisms for heme scavenging from host erythrocytes. Elaborate compartmentalization of de novo heme synthesis into three subcellular locations, including the vestigial plastid organelle, indicates critical roles in life cycle progression. In this study, we systematically profile the essentiality of heme biosynthesis by targeted gene deletion of enzymes in early steps of this pathway. We show that disruption of endogenous heme biosynthesis leads to a first detectable defect in oocyst maturation and sporogony in the Anopheles vector, whereas blood stage propagation, colonization of mosquito midguts, or initiation of oocyst development occurs indistinguishably from that of wild-type parasites. Although sporozoites are produced by parasites lacking an intact pathway for heme biosynthesis, they are absent from mosquito salivary glands, indicative of a vital role for heme biosynthesis only in sporozoite maturation. Rescue of the first defect in sporogony permitted analysis of potential roles in liver stages. We show that liver stage parasites benefit from but do not strictly depend upon their own aminolevulinic acid synthase and that they can scavenge aminolevulinic acid from the host environment. Together, our experimental genetics analysis of Plasmodium enzymes for heme biosynthesis exemplifies remarkable shifts between the use of endogenous and host resources during life cycle progression. PMID:27600503

  8. Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: involvement of an aldehyde intermediate during C-26 amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Akiko; Moriuchi, Yuka; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2013-05-01

    The C-26 amino group of steroidal alkaloids, such as tomatine, is introduced during an early step of their biosynthesis from cholesterol. In the present study, the mechanism of C-26 amination was reinvestigated by administering stable isotope labeled compounds, such as (26,26,26,27,27,27-(2)H6)cholesterol during biosynthesis of tomatine, solanine and solasonine. The chemical compositions of tomatine and solanine so obtained were analyzed by LC-MS after administering the d6-cholesterol to a tomato seedling and a potato shoot, respectively. The resulting spectra indicated that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during biosynthesis. Furthermore, administration of (6-(13)C(2)H3)mevalonate in combination with lovastatin to an eggplant seedling, followed by GC-MS analysis of solasodine after TMS derivatization established that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during solasonine biosynthesis. These findings are in contrast to an earlier observation that one hydrogen atom was lost from C-26 during tomatidine biosynthesis, and suggest that C-26 nitrogen atom addition involves an aldehyde intermediate. Thus, it is proposed that the C-26 amination reaction that occurs during steroidal alkaloid biosynthesis proceeds by way of a transamination mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of photosensitizing antibiotics and ultraviolet irradiation on the biosynthesis of prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, J.T.; Ziboh, V.A.; Blick, G.; Poitier, J.; Kursunoglu, I.; Penneys, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    Oxygenation of arachidonic acid in vitro by calf skin microsomal acetone powder was enhanced by UV-irradiation at wavelengths of 254 and 360 nm. Further enhancement of the oxygenation reaction was observed in the presence of two photosensitizing cyclic antibiotics, tetracycline and demethylchlortetracycline. To test whether or not the oxygenation of arachidonic acid was related to the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, [I- 14 C]-arachidonic acid was incubated with calf skin acetone powder in the presence of UV-irradiation and the cyclic antibiotics. Prostaglandin biosynthesis from arachidonic acid by the calf skin microsomal acetone powder was enhanced after exposure to UV-irradiation at 254 nm and moderately at 360 nm. Incubation in the presence of demethylchlortetra-cycline (0.2 mM) increased prostaglandin biosynthesis approximately 95% over control by UV-irradiation at 254 nm. No significant stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis was observed at 360 nm. Non-photosensitizing antibiotics had no effect either on the oxygenation of arachidonic acid or on the biosynthesis of prostaglandin with or without UV-irradiation. It is suggested that the inflammatory reactions associated with these photo-reactive antibiotics may in part, be via the biosynthesis and release of the prostaglandins which are known to produce cutaneous inflammatory reactions. (author)

  10. Polyamine biosynthesis is critical for growth and differentiation of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Teresa L.; Robertson, Morgan A.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Anderson, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    The pancreas, in most studied vertebrates, is a compound organ with both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine compartment makes and secretes digestive enzymes, while the endocrine compartment, organized into islets of Langerhans, produces hormones that regulate blood glucose. High concentrations of polyamines, which are aliphatic amines, are reported in exocrine and endocrine cells, with insulin-producing β cells showing the highest concentrations. We utilized zebrafish as a model organism, together with pharmacological inhibition or genetic manipulation, to determine how polyamine biosynthesis functions in pancreatic organogenesis. We identified that inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis reduces exocrine pancreas and β cell mass, and that these reductions are at the level of differentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate that inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, phenocopies inhibition or knockdown of the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). These data identify that the pancreatic requirement for polyamine biosynthesis is largely mediated through a requirement for spermidine for the downstream posttranslational modification of eIF5A by its enzymatic activator DHS, which in turn impacts mRNA translation. Altogether, we have uncovered a role for polyamine biosynthesis in pancreatic organogenesis and identified that it may be possible to exploit polyamine biosynthesis to manipulate pancreatic cell differentiation. PMID:26299433

  11. Regulation of Strigolactone Biosynthesis by Gibberellin Signaling1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yamagami, Daichi; Umehara, Mikihisa; Hanada, Atsushi; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Kyozuka, Junko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes, including shoot branching and root development. They also act as rhizosphere signaling molecules to stimulate the germination of root parasitic weeds and the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Although various types of cross talk between SLs and other hormones have been reported in physiological analyses, the cross talk between gibberellin (GA) and SLs is poorly understood. We screened for chemicals that regulate the level of SLs in rice (Oryza sativa) and identified GA as, to our knowledge, a novel SL-regulating molecule. The regulation of SL biosynthesis by GA is dependent on the GA receptor GID1 and F-box protein GID2. GA treatment also reduced the infection of rice plants by the parasitic plant witchers weed (Striga hermonthica). These data not only demonstrate, to our knowledge, the novel plant hormone cross talk between SL and GA, but also suggest that GA can be used to control parasitic weed infections. PMID:28404726

  12. Novel biosynthesis of Ag-hydroxyapatite: Structural and spectroscopic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Baltazar, Álvaro de Jesús; Reyes-López, Simón Yobanny; Silva-Holguin, Pamela Nair; Larrañaga, Daniel; Estévez, Miriam; Pérez, Ramiro

    2018-06-01

    Silver-doped hydroxyapatite (Ag-HAP) was obtained by green synthesis route. The dopant silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were obtained by biosynthesis based on Melissa officinalis extract. This research is focused on the characterization and the use of the nontoxic and environment-friendly Ag-HAP nanocomposite. The structural and morphological characterization of Ag-HAP nanocomposite was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited a great interaction with the HAP matrix, performing an Ag-HAP nanocomposite. Changes in the structure of the Ag-HAP nanocomposite were corroborated by the different characterization techniques. Additionally, a homogeneous distribution of the AgNPs on the HAP structure was observed. The heterogeneous nucleation process employed to doping the HAP, offer a functional route to obtain a green composite with potentials applications in multiple fields, such as tissue engineering, bone repair as well as protein. These properties can be evaluated in subsequent studies.

  13. Enhancement of misonidazole radiosensitization by an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkiss, R.J.; Middleton, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    A well known inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, buthione sulphoximine (S-n-butyl homocysteine sulphoximine, BSO) depletes non-protein sulphydryls (NPSH) in Chinese hamster cells in vitro, resulting in a marked increase in the radiosensitization efficiency of misonidazole. V79 379A Chinese hamster cells were maintained in suspension cultures and irradiated in monolayers using 250 kVp X-rays at a dose rate of 3.93 Gy/min. Radiosensitization by misonidazole alone gave results within 0.1 sensitizer enhancement ratio (s.e.r.) of the curve reported by Watts et al. (1980). GSH (2 mmol dm - 3 ) added to the extracellular medium resulted in a marked decrease in the radiosensitization efficiency of misonidazole, eliminating the effect at 0.1 mmol dm - 3 misonidazole (s.e.r. = 1.0 relative to nitrogen control). A marked enhancement of the radiosensitization by misonidazole was observed when the cells had been incubated with BSO (0.1 mmol dm - 3 ). BSO alone at this concentration gave s.e.r. = 1.17; misonidazole alone (0.1 mmol dm - 3 ) gave s.e.r. = 1.18 and misonidazole with BSO (both 0.1. mmol dm - 3 ) gave s.e.r. = 1.9. The BSO treatment gave little effect in aerated cells. The concentration of BSO needed to produce these effects in vitro is ca. 40-fold lower than doses tolerated by mice in repeated administrations. (U.K.)

  14. De novo biosynthesis of anthocyanins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Michael; Hansson, Anders; Fischer, David; Dürr, Lara; Naesby, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant secondary metabolites responsible for most of the red, purple and blue colors of flowers, fruits and vegetables. They are increasingly used in the food and beverage industry as natural alternative to artificial colorants. Production of these compounds by fermentation of microorganisms would provide an attractive alternative. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for de novo production of the three basic anthocyanins, as well as the three main trans-flavan-3-ols. Enzymes from different plant sources were screened and efficient variants found for most steps of the biosynthetic pathway. However, the anthocyanidin synthase was identified as a major obstacle to efficient production. In yeast, this enzyme converts the majority of its natural substrates leucoanthocyanidins into the off-pathway flavonols. Nonetheless, de novo biosynthesis of ACNs was shown for the first time in yeast and for the first time in a single microorganism. It provides a framework for optimizing the activity of anthocyanidin synthase and represents an important step towards sustainable industrial production of these highly relevant molecules in yeast.

  15. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  16. Another brick in the cell wall: biosynthesis dependent growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Barbacci

    Full Text Available Expansive growth of plant cell is conditioned by the cell wall ability to extend irreversibly. This process is possible if (i a tensile stress is developed in the cell wall due to the coupling effect between turgor pressure and the modulation of its mechanical properties through enzymatic and physicochemical reactions and if (ii new cell wall elements can be synthesized and assembled to the existing wall. In other words, expansive growth is the result of coupling effects between mechanical, thermal and chemical energy. To have a better understanding of this process, models must describe the interplay between physical or mechanical variable with biological events. In this paper we propose a general unified and theoretical framework to model growth in function of energy forms and their coupling. This framework is based on irreversible thermodynamics. It is then applied to model growth of the internodal cell of Chara corallina modulated by changes in pressure and temperature. The results describe accurately cell growth in term of length increment but also in term of cell pectate biosynthesis and incorporation to the expanding wall. Moreover, the classical growth model based on Lockhart's equation such as the one proposed by Ortega, appears as a particular and restrictive case of the more general growth equation developed in this paper.

  17. Stimultion by angiotensin of prostacyclin biosynthesis in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusting, G J; Mullins, E M

    1980-01-01

    1. Stimulation of prostanoid release by angiotensins (AI and AII) in rat isolated mesenteric vasculature and in the circulation of anaesthetized dogs has been investigated by bioassay. 2. AI and AII released a PGI2-like substance into rat mesenteric effluent and arterial blood of dogs; PGE2, PGF2 alpha, or TXA2 were not detected. 3. AI stimulated PGI2 release in both systems largely as a result of its conversion to AII, since PGI2 release was much reduced after treatment with captorpril. 3. AI stimulated PGI2 release in both systems largely as a result of its conversion to AII, since PGI2 release was much reduced after treatment with captopril. 4. Intravenous AII (0.02-1.0 microgram kg-1min-1) in dogs released PGI2 mainly from the lungs since right atrial blood contained much less than arterial blood. 5. Indomethacin (1 microgram/ml) abolished AII-induced PGI2 release from the memestery preparation, but intravenous idomethacin (10 mg/kg), meclofenamate (2 mg/kg) or aspirin (100 mg/kg) did not eliminate the pulmonary source of PGI2 in dogs. These findings highlight the dangers of assuming in vivo treatment with cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors abolished biosynthesis of all prostanoids.

  18. Mechanistic Insight into the Biosynthesis and Detoxification of Fumonisin Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Renaud, Justin B; McDowell, Tim; Sumarah, Mark W

    2016-09-16

    Fumonisins, notably FB1, FB2, FB3, and FB4, are economically important mycotoxins produced by a number Fusarium sp. that occur on corn, rice, and sorghum as well as by Aspergillus sp. on grapes. The fumonisin scaffold is comprised of a C18 polyketide backbone functionalized with two tricarballylic esters and an alanine derived amine. These functional groups contribute to fumonisin's ability to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis in animals, plants, and yeasts. We report for the first time the isolation and structure elucidation of two classes of nonaminated fumonisins (FPy and FLa) produced by Aspergillus welwitschiae. Using a Lemna minor (duckweed) bioassay, these new compounds were significantly less toxic in comparison to the fumonisin B mycotoxins, providing new insight into the mechanism of fumonisin toxicity. Time course fermentations monitoring the production of FB4, FPy4, and FLa4, as well as (13)C and (15)N stable isotope incorporation, suggest a novel postbiosynthetic oxidative deamination process for fumonisins. This pathway was further supported by a feeding study with FB1, a fumonisin not produced by Aspergillus sp., which resulted in its transformation to FPy1. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus have the ability to produce enzymes that could be used for fumonisin detoxification.

  19. Laser-assisted biosynthesis for noble nanoparticles production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtarev, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Kukhtareva, Nickolai; Moses, Sherita

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular Biosynthesis technique (EBS) for nanoparticles production has attracted a lot of attention as an environmentally friendly and an inexpensive methodology. Our recent research was focused on the rapid approach of the green synthesis method and the reduction of the homogeneous size distribution of nanoparticles using pulse laser application. Noble nanoparticles (NNPs) were produced using various ethanol and water plant extracts. The plants were chosen based on their biomedical applications. The plants we used were Magnolia grandiflora, Geranium, Aloe `tingtinkie', Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera), Eucalyptus angophoroides, Sansevieria trifasciata, Impatiens scapiflora. Water and ethanol extract, were used as reducing agents to produce the nanoparticles. The reaction process was monitored using a UV-Visible spectroscopy. NNPs were characterized by Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and the Dynamic Light Scattering technique (DLS). During the pulse laser Nd-YAG illumination (λ=1064nm, 532nm, PE= 450mJ, 200mJ, 10 min) the blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed from ~424nm to 403nm for silver NP; and from ~530nm to 520 nm for gold NPs. In addition, NNPs solution after Nd-YAG illumination was characterized by the narrowing of the surface plasmon absorption resonance band, which corresponds to monodispersed NNPS distribution. FTIR, TEM, DLS, Zeta potential results demonstrated that NNPs were surrounded by biological molecules, which naturally stabilized nanosolutions for months. Cytotoxicity investigation of biosynthesized NNPs is in progress.

  20. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Mollet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  1. Novel biosynthesis of Ag-hydroxyapatite: Structural and spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de Jesús Ruíz-Baltazar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver-doped hydroxyapatite (Ag-HAP was obtained by green synthesis route. The dopant silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were obtained by biosynthesis based on Melissa officinalis extract. This research is focused on the characterization and the use of the nontoxic and environment-friendly Ag-HAP nanocomposite. The structural and morphological characterization of Ag-HAP nanocomposite was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited a great interaction with the HAP matrix, performing an Ag-HAP nanocomposite. Changes in the structure of the Ag-HAP nanocomposite were corroborated by the different characterization techniques. Additionally, a homogeneous distribution of the AgNPs on the HAP structure was observed. The heterogeneous nucleation process employed to doping the HAP, offer a functional route to obtain a green composite with potentials applications in multiple fields, such as tissue engineering, bone repair as well as protein. These properties can be evaluated in subsequent studies. Keywords: Green synthesis, Ag nanoparticles, Hydroxyapatite, Structural characterization, Spectroscopy

  2. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Mono-, Oligo-, and Polysaccharides: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Iain B. H.

    Glycomolecules, whether they be mono-, oligo-, or polysaccharides or simple glycosides, are—as any biological molecules—the products of biosynthetic processes; on the other hand, at the end of their lifespan, they are also subject to degradation. The beginning point, biochemically, is the fixation of carbon by photosynthesis; subsequent metabolism in plants and other organisms results in the generation of the various monosaccharides. These must be activated—typically as nucleotide sugars or lipid-phosphosugars—before transfer by glycosyltransferases can take place in order to produce the wide variety of oligo- and polysaccharides seen in Nature; complicated remodelling processes may take place—depending on the pathway—which result in partial trimming of a precursor by glycosidases prior to the addition of further monosaccharide units. Upon completion of the 'life' of a glycoconjugate, glycosidases will degrade the macromolecule finally into monosaccharide units which can be metabolized or salvaged for incorporation into new glycan chains. In modern glycoscience, a wide variety of methods—genetic, biochemical, analytical—are being employed in order to understand these various pathways and to place them within their biological and medical context. In this chapter, these processes and relevant concepts and methods are introduced, prior to elaboration in the subsequent more specialized chapters on biosynthesis and degradation of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides.

  3. Pathways and Subcellular Compartmentation of NAD Biosynthesis in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Andrey; Dölle, Christian; Niere, Marc; Ziegler, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    NAD is a vital redox carrier, and its degradation is a key element of important regulatory pathways. NAD-mediated functions are compartmentalized and have to be fueled by specific biosynthetic routes. However, little is known about the different pathways, their subcellular distribution, and regulation in human cells. In particular, the route(s) to generate mitochondrial NAD, the largest subcellular pool, is still unknown. To visualize organellar NAD changes in cells, we targeted poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity into the mitochondrial matrix. This activity synthesized immunodetectable poly(ADP-ribose) depending on mitochondrial NAD availability. Based on this novel detector system, detailed subcellular enzyme localizations, and pharmacological inhibitors, we identified extracellular NAD precursors, their cytosolic conversions, and the pathway of mitochondrial NAD generation. Our results demonstrate that, besides nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, only the corresponding nucleosides readily enter the cells. Nucleotides (e.g. NAD and NMN) undergo extracellular degradation resulting in the formation of permeable precursors. These precursors can all be converted to cytosolic and mitochondrial NAD. For mitochondrial NAD synthesis, precursors are converted to NMN in the cytosol. When taken up into the organelles, NMN (together with ATP) serves as substrate of NMNAT3 to form NAD. NMNAT3 was conclusively localized to the mitochondrial matrix and is the only known enzyme of NAD synthesis residing within these organelles. We thus present a comprehensive dissection of mammalian NAD biosynthesis, the groundwork to understand regulation of NAD-mediated processes, and the organismal homeostasis of this fundamental molecule. PMID:21504897

  4. Biosynthesis and engineering of kaempferol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lijin; Ding, Wentao; Liu, Xiaonan; Cheng, Xiaozhi; Cai, Jing; Hua, Erbing; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-09-26

    Kaempferol is a flavonol with broad bioactivity of anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, cardio-protective and anti-asthma. Microbial synthesis of kaempferol is a promising strategy because of the low content in primary plant source. In this study, the biosynthesis pathway of kaempferol was constructed in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce kaempferol de novo, and several biological measures were taken for high production. Firstly, a high efficient flavonol synthases (FLS) from Populus deltoides was introduced into the biosynthetic pathway of kaempferol. Secondly, a S. cerevisiae recombinant was constructed for de novo synthesis of kaempferol, which generated about 6.97 mg/L kaempferol from glucose. To further promote kaempferol production, the acetyl-CoA biosynthetic pathway was overexpressed and p-coumarate was supplied as substrate, which improved kaempferol titer by about 23 and 120%, respectively. Finally, a fed-batch process was developed for better kaempferol fermentation performance, and the production reached 66.29 mg/L in 40 h. The titer of kaempferol in our engineered yeast is 2.5 times of the highest reported titer. Our study provides a possible strategy to produce kaempferol using microbial cell factory.

  5. Protein biosynthesis in cultured human hair follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1980-10-31

    A new technique has been used for culturing human keratinocytes. The cells grow on the basement membrane-like capsules of bovine lenses. Lens cells were removed from the capsules by rigid trypsinization. In order to exclude any contamination with remaining living cells the isolated capsules were irradiated with X-rays at a dose of 10,000 rad. In this way human epithelial cells can be brought in culture from individual hair follicles. Since feeder cells are not used in this culture technique, the biosynthesis of keratinocyte proteins can be studied in these cultures. The newly synthesized proteins can be separated into a water-soluble, a urea-soluble, and a urea-insoluble fraction. Product analysis has been performed on the first two fractions revealing protein patterns identical to those of intact hair follicles. Product analysis of the urea-soluble fractions of microdissected hair follicles shows that the protein pattern of the cultured keratinocytes resembles the protein pattern of the hair follicle sheath. Studies on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene revealed that the enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) is present in cultured hair follicle cells. A possible use of our culture system for eventual detection of inherited predisposition for smoking-dependent lung cancer is discussed.

  6. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of β1,3- and β1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, β1,3- and β1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  7. Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria. [Vibrio harveyi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with (/sup 14/C) acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree (/sup 14/C)fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty acid is 14:0. No free fatty acid was detected in wild type cells labeled prior to the development of bioluminescence in the exponential growth phase, or in a dark mutant of V. harveyi (mutant M17) that requires exogenous 14:0 for light emission. The preferential accumulation of 14:0 was not observed when wild type cells were labeled with (/sup 14/C)acetate in regular growth medium. Moreover, all V. harveyi strains exhibited similar fatty acid mass compositions regardless of the state of bioluminescence. Since earlier work has shown that a luminescence-related acyltransferase (defective in the M17 mutant) can catalyze the deacylation of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein in vitro, the present results are consistent with a model in which this enzyme diverts 14:0 to the luminescence system during fatty acid biosynthesis. Under normal conditions, the supply of 14:0 by this pathway is tightly regulated such that bioluminescence development does not significantly alter the total fatty acid composition.

  8. De novo Biosynthesis of "Non-Natural" Thaxtomin Phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Michael; Francis, Daniel; Micklefield, Jason

    2018-03-30

    Thaxtomins are diketopiperazine phytotoxins produced by Streptomyces scabies and other actinobacterial plant pathogens that inhibit cellulose biosynthesis in plants. Due to their potent bioactivity and novel mode of action there has been considerable interest in developing thaxtomins as herbicides for crop protection. To address the need for more stable derivatives, we have developed a new approach for structural diversification of thaxtomins. Genes encoding the thaxtomin NRPS from S. scabies, along with genes encoding a promiscuous tryptophan synthase (TrpS) from Salmonella typhimurium, were assembled in a heterologous host Streptomyces albus. Upon feeding indole derivatives to the engineered S. albus strain, tryptophan intermediates with alternative substituents are biosynthesized and incorporated by the NRPS to deliver a series of thaxtomins with different functionalities in place of the nitro group. The approach described herein, demonstrates how genes from different pathways and different bacterial origins can be combined in a heterologous host to create a de novo biosynthetic pathway to "non-natural" product target compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  10. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  11. Human renin biosynthesis and secretion in normal and ischemic kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.E.; Carleton, J.E.; Richie, J.P.; Heusser, C.; Dzau, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    The pathway of renin biosynthesis and secretion in normal and ischemic human kidneys has been investigated by pulse-labeling experiments. The results indicate that in normal human kidney, preprorenin is rapidly processed to 47-kDa prorenin. Microradiosequencing showed that this molecule was generated by cleavage between Gly-23 and Leu-24, yielding a 43-amino acid proregion. Analysis of prorenin secreted by the kidney tissue yielded an identical sequence, indicating that prorenin is secreted without any further proteolysis. An examination of the kinetics of processing and secretion suggested that a majority of the newly synthesized prorenin is quickly secreted, while only a small fraction is processed intracellularly to the mature renin. The differences in secretion kinetics between prorenin and mature renin and the selective inhibition of prorenin secretion by monensin suggest that they are secreted independently via two pathways: a constitutive pathway probably from the Golgi or protogranules that rapidly release prorenin and a regulated pathway that secretes mature renin from the mature granules. A comparison of the kinetics of processing between normal and ischemic tissues suggests that renal ischemia leads to an overall increase in the rate of processing or prorenin to mature renin. In addition, prolonged biosynthetic labeling of renin in the ischemic kidney yielded two smaller molecular weight immunoreactive forms suggestive of renin fragments that may be degradative products. These fragments were not detected in normal kidney tissue labeled for similar lengths of time

  12. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in flavonoid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, B.W.; Kubasek, W.L.; Storz, G.; Bruggemann, E.; Koornneef, M.; Ausubel, F.M.; Goodman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Eleven loci that play a role in the synthesis of flavonoids in Arabidopsis are described. Mutations at these loci, collectively named transparent testa (tt), disrupt the synthesis of brown pigments in the seed coat (testa). Several of these loci (tt3, tt4, tt5 and ttg) are also required for the accumulation of purple anthocyanins in leaves and stems and one locus (ttg) plays additional roles in trichome and root hair development. Specific functions were previously assigned to tt1-7 and ttg. Here, the results of additional genetic, biochemical and molecular analyses of these mutants are described. Genetic map positions were determined for tt8, tt9 and tt10. Thin-layer chromatography identified tissue- and locus-specific differences in the flavonols and anthocyanidins synthesized by mutant and wild-type plants. It was found that UV light reveals distinct differences in the floral tissues of tt3, tt4, tt5, tt6 and ttg, even though these tissues are indistinguishable under visible light. Evidence was also uncovered that tt8 and ttg specifically affect dihydroflavonol reductase gene expression. A summary of these and previously published results are incorporated into an overview of the genetics of flavonoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

  13. Phosphonate biosynthesis and catabolism: a treasure trove of unusual enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Spencer C; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2013-08-01

    Natural product biosynthesis has proven a fertile ground for the discovery of novel chemistry. Herein we review the progress made in elucidating the biosynthetic pathways of phosphonate and phosphinate natural products such as the antibacterial compounds dehydrophos and fosfomycin, the herbicidal phosphinothricin-containing peptides, and the antimalarial compound FR-900098. In each case, investigation of the pathway has yielded unusual, and often unprecedented, biochemistry. Likewise, recent investigations have uncovered novel ways to cleave the CP bond to yield phosphate under phosphorus starvation conditions. These include the discovery of novel oxidative cleavage of the CP bond catalyzed by PhnY and PhnZ as well as phosphonohydrolases that liberate phosphate from phosphonoacetate. Perhaps the crown jewel of phosphonate catabolism has been the recent resolution of the longstanding problem of the C-P lyase responsible for reductively cleaving the CP bond of a number of different phosphonates to release phosphate. Taken together, the strides made on both metabolic and catabolic fronts illustrate an array of fascinating biochemistry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of developmental and stress mediated expression of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is an important enzyme for lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the first specific committed step in monolignol biosynthesis. We have cloned a full length coding sequence of CCR from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), which contains a 1,020-bp open reading frame (ORF), enco...

  15. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor ANAC032 Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Response to High Sucrose and Oxidative and Abiotic Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Kashif; Xu, Zhenhua; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Casaretto, Jos? A.; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous su...

  16. Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

  17. Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS in Stevia rebaudiana: insights into steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Guleria

    Full Text Available Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1 genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins.RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3 content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes.SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in Lipid Biosynthesis in the Developing Embryo of Pecan (Carya illinoinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruimin; Huang, Youjun; Sun, Zhichao; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia

    2017-05-24

    Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is an important woody tree species because of the high content of healthy oil in its nut. Thus far, the pathways and key genes related to oil biosynthesis in developing pecan seeds remain largely unclear. Our analyses revealed that mature pecan embryo accumulated more than 80% oil, in which 90% was unsaturated fatty acids with abundant oleic acid. RNA sequencing generated 84,643 unigenes in three cDNA libraries prepared from pecan embryos collected at 105, 120, and 165 days after flowering (DAF). We identified 153 unigenes associated with lipid biosynthesis, including 107 unigenes for fatty acid biosynthesis, 34 for triacylglycerol biosynthesis, 7 for oil bodies, and 5 for transcription factors involved in oil synthesis. The genes associated with fatty acid synthesis were the most abundantly expressed genes at 120 DAF. Additionally, the biosynthesis of oil began to increase while crude fat contents increased from 16.61 to 74.45% (165 DAF). We identified four SAD, two FAD2, one FAD6, two FAD7, and two FAD8 unigenes responsible for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. However, FAD3 homologues were not detected. Consequently, we inferred that the linolenic acid in developing pecan embryos is generated by FAD7 and FAD8 in plastids rather than FAD3 in endoplasmic reticula. During pecan embryo development, different unigenes are expressed for plastidial and cytosolic glycolysis. Plastidial glycolysis is more relevant to lipid synthesis than cytosolic glycolysis. The 18 most important genes associated with lipid biosynthesis were evaluated in five stages of developing embryos using quantitative PCR (qPCR). The qPCR data were well consistent with their expression in transcriptomic analyses. Our data would be important for the metabolic engineering of pecans to increase oil contents and modify fatty acid composition.

  19. Complete Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins Using E. coli Polycultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Andrew; Vernacchio, Victoria R; Collins, Shannon M; Shirke, Abhijit N; Xiu, Yu; Englaender, Jacob A; Cress, Brady F; McCutcheon, Catherine C; Linhardt, Robert J; Gross, Richard A; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2017-06-06

    Fermentation-based chemical production strategies provide a feasible route for the rapid, safe, and sustainable production of a wide variety of important chemical products, ranging from fuels to pharmaceuticals. These strategies have yet to find wide industrial utilization due to their inability to economically compete with traditional extraction and chemical production methods. Here, we engineer for the first time the complex microbial biosynthesis of an anthocyanin plant natural product, starting from sugar. This was accomplished through the development of a synthetic, 4-strain Escherichia coli polyculture collectively expressing 15 exogenous or modified pathway enzymes from diverse plants and other microbes. This synthetic consortium-based approach enables the functional expression and connection of lengthy pathways while effectively managing the accompanying metabolic burden. The de novo production of specific anthocyanin molecules, such as calistephin, has been an elusive metabolic engineering target for over a decade. The utilization of our polyculture strategy affords milligram-per-liter production titers. This study also lays the groundwork for significant advances in strain and process design toward the development of cost-competitive biochemical production hosts through nontraditional methodologies. IMPORTANCE To efficiently express active extensive recombinant pathways with high flux in microbial hosts requires careful balance and allocation of metabolic resources such as ATP, reducing equivalents, and malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA), as well as various other pathway-dependent cofactors and precursors. To address this issue, we report the design, characterization, and implementation of the first synthetic 4-strain polyculture. Division of the overexpression of 15 enzymes and transcription factors over 4 independent strain modules allowed for the division of metabolic burden and for independent strain optimization for module-specific metabolite needs

  20. WRKY Transcription Factors Involved in Activation of SA Biosynthesis Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bol John F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased defense against a variety of pathogens in plants is achieved through activation of a mechanism known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The broad-spectrum resistance brought about by SAR is mediated through salicylic acid (SA. An important step in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate through the action of isochorismate synthase, encoded by the ICS1 gene. Also AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE 3 (PBS3 plays an important role in SA metabolism, as pbs3 mutants accumulate drastically reduced levels of SA-glucoside, a putative storage form of SA. Bioinformatics analysis previously performed by us identified WRKY28 and WRKY46 as possible regulators of ICS1 and PBS3. Results Expression studies with ICS1 promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts cotransfected with 35S::WRKY28 showed that over expression of WRKY28 resulted in a strong increase in GUS expression. Moreover, qRT-PCR analyses indicated that the endogenous ICS1 and PBS3 genes were highly expressed in protoplasts overexpressing WRKY28 or WRKY46, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indentified potential WRKY28 binding sites in the ICS1 promoter, positioned -445 and -460 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Mutation of these sites in protoplast transactivation assays showed that these binding sites are functionally important for activation of the ICS1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with haemagglutinin-epitope-tagged WRKY28 showed that the region of the ICS1 promoter containing the binding sites at -445 and -460 was highly enriched in the immunoprecipitated DNA. Conclusions The results obtained here confirm results from our multiple microarray co-expression analyses indicating that WRKY28 and WRKY46 are transcriptional activators of ICS1 and PBS3, respectively, and support this in silico screening as a powerful tool for identifying new components of stress

  1. Alkane Biosynthesis Genes in Cyanobacteria and Their Transcriptional Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klähn, Stephan; Baumgartner, Desirée; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Voigt, Karsten; Schön, Verena; Steglich, Claudia; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2014-01-01

    In cyanobacteria, alkanes are synthesized from a fatty acyl-ACP by two enzymes, acyl–acyl carrier protein reductase and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase. Despite the great interest in the exploitation for biofuel production, nothing is known about the transcriptional organization of their genes or the physiological function of alkane synthesis. The comparison of 115 microarray datasets indicates the relatively constitutive expression of aar and ado genes. The analysis of 181 available genomes showed that in 90% of the genomes both genes are present, likely indicating their physiological relevance. In 61% of them they cluster together with genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxyl transferase and a short-chain dehydrogenase, strengthening the link to fatty acid metabolism and in 76% of the genomes they are located in tandem, suggesting constraints on the gene arrangement. However, contrary to the expectations for an operon, we found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 specific promoters for the two genes, sll0208 (ado) and sll0209 (aar), which give rise to monocistronic transcripts. Moreover, the upstream located ado gene is driven by a proximal as well as a second, distal, promoter, from which a third transcript, the ~160 nt sRNA SyR9 is transcribed. Thus, the transcriptional organization of the alkane biosynthesis genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is of substantial complexity. We verified all three promoters to function independently from each other and show a similar promoter arrangement also in the more distant Nodularia spumigena, Trichodesmium erythraeum, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Prochlorococcus MIT9313, and MED4. The presence of separate regulatory elements and the dominance of monocistronic mRNAs suggest the possible autonomous regulation of ado and aar. The complex transcriptional organization of the alkane synthesis gene cluster has possible metabolic implications and should be considered when manipulating the expression of these genes in cyanobacteria.

  2. Alkane biosynthesis genes in cyanobacteria and their transcriptional organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eKlähn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In cyanobacteria, alkanes are synthesized from a fatty acyl-ACP by two enzymes, acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (AAR and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO. Despite the great interest in the exploitation for biofuel production, nothing is known about the transcriptional organization of their genes or the physiological function of alkane synthesis. The comparison of 115 microarray datasets indicates the relatively constitutive expression of aar and ado genes. The analysis of 181 available genomes showed that in 90% of the genomes both genes are present, likely indicating their physiological relevance. In 61% of them they cluster together with genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxyl transferase and a short chain dehydrogenase, strengthening the link to fatty acid metabolism and in 76% of the genomes they are located in tandem, suggesting constraints on the gene arrangement. However, contrary to the expectations for an operon, we found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 specific promoters for the two genes, sll0208 (ado and sll0209 (aar, that give rise to monocistronic transcripts. Moreover, the upstream located ado gene is driven by a proximal as well as a second, distal, promoter, from which a third transcript, the ~160 nt sRNA SyR9 is transcribed. Thus, the transcriptional organization of the alkane biosynthesis genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is of substantial complexity. We verified all three promoters to function independently from each other and show a similar promoter arrangement also in the more distant Nodularia spumigena, Trichodesmium erythraeum, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Prochlorococcus MIT9313 and MED4. The presence of separate regulatory elements and the dominance of monocistronic mRNAs suggest the possible autonomous regulation of ado and aar. The complex transcriptional organization of the alkane synthesis gene cluster has possible metabolic implications and should be considered when manipulating the expression of these genes in

  3. Light influences cytokinin biosynthesis and sensing in Nostoc (cyanobacteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frébortová, Jitka; Plíhal, Ondřej; Florová, Vendula; Kokáš, Filip; Kubiasová, Karolina; Greplová, Marta; Šimura, Jan; Novák, Ondřej; Frébort, Ivo

    2017-06-01

    Cytokinins are an important group of plant hormones that are also found in other organisms, including cyanobacteria. While various aspects of cytokinin function and metabolism are well understood in plants, the information is limited for cyanobacteria. In this study, we first experimentally confirmed a prenylation of tRNA by recombinant isopentenyl transferase NoIPT2 from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, whose encoding gene we previously identified in Nostoc genome along with the gene for adenylate isopentenyl transferase NoIPT1. In contrast to NoIPT2, the transcription of NoIPT1 was strongly activated during the dark period and was followed by an increase in the cytokinin content several hours later in the light period. Dominant cytokinin metabolites detected at all time points were free bases and monophosphates of isopentenyladenine and cis-zeatin, while N-glucosides were not detected at all. Whole transcriptome differential expression analysis of cultures of the above Nostoc strain treated by cytokinin compared to untreated controls indicated that cytokinin together with light trigger expression of several genes related to signal transduction, including two-component sensor histidine kinases and two-component hybrid sensors and regulators. One of the affected histidine kinases with a cyclase/histidine kinase-associated sensory extracellular domain similar to the cytokinin-binding domain in plant cytokinin receptors was able to modestly bind isopentenyladenine. The data show that the genetic disposition allows Nostoc not only to produce free cytokinins and prenylate tRNA but also modulate the cytokinin biosynthesis in response to light, triggering complex changes in sensing and regulation. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Wild tobacco genomes reveal the evolution of nicotine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuqing; Brockmöller, Thomas; Navarro-Quezada, Aura; Kuhl, Heiner; Gase, Klaus; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Wenwu; Kreitzer, Christoph; Stanke, Mario; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Pandey, Priyanka; Pandey, Shree P; Timmermann, Bernd; Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-06-06

    Nicotine, the signature alkaloid of Nicotiana species responsible for the addictive properties of human tobacco smoking, functions as a defensive neurotoxin against attacking herbivores. However, the evolution of the genetic features that contributed to the assembly of the nicotine biosynthetic pathway remains unknown. We sequenced and assembled genomes of two wild tobaccos, Nicotiana attenuata (2.5 Gb) and Nicotiana obtusifolia (1.5 Gb), two ecological models for investigating adaptive traits in nature. We show that after the Solanaceae whole-genome triplication event, a repertoire of rapidly expanding transposable elements (TEs) bloated these Nicotiana genomes, promoted expression divergences among duplicated genes, and contributed to the evolution of herbivory-induced signaling and defenses, including nicotine biosynthesis. The biosynthetic machinery that allows for nicotine synthesis in the roots evolved from the stepwise duplications of two ancient primary metabolic pathways: the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pathways. In contrast to the duplication of the polyamine pathway that is shared among several solanaceous genera producing polyamine-derived tropane alkaloids, we found that lineage-specific duplications within the NAD pathway and the evolution of root-specific expression of the duplicated Solanaceae-specific ethylene response factor that activates the expression of all nicotine biosynthetic genes resulted in the innovative and efficient production of nicotine in the genus Nicotiana Transcription factor binding motifs derived from TEs may have contributed to the coexpression of nicotine biosynthetic pathway genes and coordinated the metabolic flux. Together, these results provide evidence that TEs and gene duplications facilitated the emergence of a key metabolic innovation relevant to plant fitness.

  5. Biosynthesis of amidated joining peptide from pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, E.I.; Mains, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1987-09-01

    Joining peptide is the major alpha-amidated product of pro-ACTH/endorphin (PAE) in AtT-20 corticotropic tumor cells. To study intracellular joining peptide synthesis, affinity purified antibodies directed against gamma-MSH, joining peptide, and ACTH were used to immunoprecipitate extracts from biosynthetically labeled AtT-20 cells. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tryptic peptide mapping on HPLC. In steady labeling experiments, radioactivity in amidated joining peptide (JP) increased roughly linearly with time, in the manner of a final product, whereas radioactivity associated with PAE (1-94)NH2 reached a constant value after 2-4 h, indicating that PAE(1-94)NH2 is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of JP. Radioactivity appeared in ACTH(1-39) well before JP, consistent with a cleavage order in which ACTH is cleaved from PAE(1-95) before JP sequences are cleaved from PAE(1-74). This conclusion was supported by tryptic peptide analyses of immunoprecipitates, which indicated that less than 5% of JP-related material is cleaved from PAE(1-74) before being cleaved from ACTH-related sequences. After a pulse label, radioactivity in PAE(1-94)NH2 reached a peak value after 1 h of chase and declined with a half-life of less than 1 h. Amidated JP increased to a constant level after 2 h of chase. Enough radiolabeled PAE(1-94)NH2 was detected to account for about half of the radioactivity found in amidated JP, indicating that about half of JP-related material is first cleaved from PAE(1-95) before being amidated. This result was corroborated using HPLC purification to determine both amidated and glycine-extended forms of JP.

  6. NAD+ Biosynthesis Ameliorates a Zebrafish Model of Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Michelle F.; Kelly, Meghan W.; Reynolds, Christine J.; Khalil, Andre; Crawford, Bryan D.; Henry, Clarissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex– or integrin alpha7–deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction with integrin

  7. Alkane Biosynthesis Genes in Cyanobacteria and Their Transcriptional Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klähn, Stephan; Baumgartner, Desirée; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Voigt, Karsten; Schön, Verena; Steglich, Claudia; Hess, Wolfgang R., E-mail: wolfgang.hess@biologie.uni-freiburg.de [Genetics and Experimental Bioinformatics, Institute of Biology 3, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    In cyanobacteria, alkanes are synthesized from a fatty acyl-ACP by two enzymes, acyl–acyl carrier protein reductase and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase. Despite the great interest in the exploitation for biofuel production, nothing is known about the transcriptional organization of their genes or the physiological function of alkane synthesis. The comparison of 115 microarray datasets indicates the relatively constitutive expression of aar and ado genes. The analysis of 181 available genomes showed that in 90% of the genomes both genes are present, likely indicating their physiological relevance. In 61% of them they cluster together with genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxyl transferase and a short-chain dehydrogenase, strengthening the link to fatty acid metabolism and in 76% of the genomes they are located in tandem, suggesting constraints on the gene arrangement. However, contrary to the expectations for an operon, we found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 specific promoters for the two genes, sll0208 (ado) and sll0209 (aar), which give rise to monocistronic transcripts. Moreover, the upstream located ado gene is driven by a proximal as well as a second, distal, promoter, from which a third transcript, the ~160 nt sRNA SyR9 is transcribed. Thus, the transcriptional organization of the alkane biosynthesis genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is of substantial complexity. We verified all three promoters to function independently from each other and show a similar promoter arrangement also in the more distant Nodularia spumigena, Trichodesmium erythraeum, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Prochlorococcus MIT9313, and MED4. The presence of separate regulatory elements and the dominance of monocistronic mRNAs suggest the possible autonomous regulation of ado and aar. The complex transcriptional organization of the alkane synthesis gene cluster has possible metabolic implications and should be considered when manipulating the expression of these genes in cyanobacteria.

  8. Chemistry and biosynthesis of isoprenylated flavonoids from Japanese mulberry tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taro; Hano, Yoshio; Fukai, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    Many isoprenylated flavonoids have been isolated from Japanese mulberry tree (Moraceae). Among them, kuwanons G (1) and H (2) were the first isolated active substances exhibiting a hypotensive effect. These compounds are considered to be formed through an enzymatic Diels-Alder type reaction between an isoprenyl portion of an isoprenylphenol as the diene and an α, β-double bond of chalcone as the dienophile. The absolute configurations of these Diels-Alder type adducts were confirmed by three different methods. The stereochemistries of the adducts were consistent with those of ones in the Diels-Alder reaction involving exo- and endo-addition. Some strains of Morus alba callus tissues have a high productivity of mulberry Diels-Alder type adducts, such as chalcomoracin (3) and kuwanon J (4). The biosynthetic studies of the mulberry Diels-Alder type adducts have been carried out with the aid of the cell strain. Chalcomoracin (3) and kuwanon J (4) were proved to be enzymatic Diels-Alder type reaction products by the administration experiments with O-methylchalcone derivatives. Furthermore, for the isoprenoid biosynthesis of prenylflavonoids in Morus alba callus tissues by administration of [1,3-13C2]- and [2-13C]-glycerol, a novel way through the junction of glycolysis and pentose-phosphate cycle was proved. Two independent isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways, that for sterols and that for isoprenoidphenols, operate in the Morus alba cell cultures. The former is susceptible to compactin (ML-236) and the latter resists to compactin in the cell cultures, respectively. PMID:19907125

  9. NAD+ biosynthesis ameliorates a zebrafish model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F Goody

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex- or integrin alpha7-deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction

  10. Genetic determinants of reutericyclin biosynthesis in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Lohans, Christopher T; Duar, Rebbeca; Zheng, Jinshui; Vederas, John C; Walter, Jens; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Reutericyclin is a unique antimicrobial tetramic acid produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri. This study aimed to identify the genetic determinants of reutericyclin biosynthesis. Comparisons of the genomes of reutericyclin-producing L. reuteri strains with those of non-reutericyclin-producing strains identified a genomic island of 14 open reading frames (ORFs) including genes coding for a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), a polyketide synthase (PKS), homologues of PhlA, PhlB, and PhlC, and putative transport and regulatory proteins. The protein encoded by rtcN is composed of a condensation domain, an adenylation domain likely specific for d-leucine, and a thiolation domain. rtcK codes for a PKS that is composed of a ketosynthase domain, an acyl-carrier protein domain, and a thioesterase domain. The products of rtcA, rtcB, and rtcC are homologous to the diacetylphloroglucinol-biosynthetic proteins PhlABC and may acetylate the tetramic acid moiety produced by RtcN and RtcK, forming reutericyclin. Deletion of rtcN or rtcABC in L. reuteri TMW1.656 abrogated reutericyclin production but did not affect resistance to reutericyclin. Genes coding for transport and regulatory proteins could be deleted only in the reutericyclin-negative L. reuteri strain TMW1.656ΔrtcN, and these deletions eliminated reutericyclin resistance. The genomic analyses suggest that the reutericyclin genomic island was horizontally acquired from an unknown source during a unique event. The combination of PhlABC homologues with both an NRPS and a PKS has also been identified in the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus plantarum, suggesting that the genes in these organisms and those in L. reuteri share an evolutionary origin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Genomics of glycopeptidolipid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium abscessus and M. chelonae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Gilles

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outermost layer of the bacterial surface is of crucial importance because it is in constant interaction with the host. Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs are major surface glycolipids present on various mycobacterial species. In the fast-grower model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis, GPL biosynthesis involves approximately 30 genes all mapping to a single region of 65 kb. Results We have recently sequenced the complete genomes of two fast-growers causing human infections, Mycobacterium abscessus (CIP 104536T and M. chelonae (CIP 104535T. We show here that these two species contain genes corresponding to all those of the M. smegmatis "GPL locus", with extensive conservation of the predicted protein sequences consistent with the production of GPL molecules indistinguishable by biochemical analysis. However, the GPL locus appears to be split into several parts in M. chelonae and M. abscessus. One large cluster (19 genes comprises all genes involved in the synthesis of the tripeptide-aminoalcohol moiety, the glycosylation of the lipopeptide and methylation/acetylation modifications. We provide evidence that a duplicated acetyltransferase (atf1 and atf2 in M. abscessus and M. chelonae has evolved through specialization, being able to transfer one acetyl at once in a sequential manner. There is a second smaller and distant (M. chelonae, 900 kb; M. abscessus, 3 Mb cluster of six genes involved in the synthesis of the fatty acyl moiety and its attachment to the tripeptide-aminoalcohol moiety. The other genes are scattered throughout the genome, including two genes encoding putative regulatory proteins. Conclusion Although these three species produce identical GPL molecules, the organization of GPL genes differ between them, thus constituting species-specific signatures. An hypothesis is that the compact organization of the GPL locus in M. smegmatis represents the ancestral form and that evolution has scattered various pieces throughout the

  12. Horizontally Acquired Biosynthesis Genes Boost Coxiella burnetii's Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Abraham S; Millar, Jess A; Bonazzi, Matteo; Beare, Paul A; Raghavan, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii , the etiologic agent of acute Q fever and chronic endocarditis, has a unique biphasic life cycle, which includes a metabolically active intracellular form that occupies a large lysosome-derived acidic vacuole. C. burnetii is the only bacterium known to thrive within such an hostile intracellular niche, and this ability is fundamental to its pathogenicity; however, very little is known about genes that facilitate Coxiella 's intracellular growth. Recent studies indicate that C. burnetii evolved from a tick-associated ancestor and that the metabolic capabilities of C. burnetii are different from that of Coxiella -like bacteria found in ticks. Horizontally acquired genes that allow C. burnetii to infect and grow within mammalian cells likely facilitated the host shift; however, because of its obligate intracellular replication, C. burnetii would have lost most genes that have been rendered redundant due to the availability of metabolites within the host cell. Based on these observations, we reasoned that horizontally derived biosynthetic genes that have been retained in the reduced genome of C. burnetii are ideal candidates to begin to uncover its intracellular metabolic requirements. Our analyses identified a large number of putative foreign-origin genes in C. burnetii , including tRNA Glu 2 that is potentially required for heme biosynthesis, and genes involved in the production of lipopolysaccharide-a virulence factor, and of critical metabolites such as fatty acids and biotin. In comparison to wild-type C. burnetii , a strain that lacks tRNA Glu 2 exhibited reduced growth, indicating its importance to Coxiella 's physiology. Additionally, by using chemical agents that block heme and biotin biosyntheses, we show that these pathways are promising targets for the development of new anti- Coxiella therapies.

  13. Biosynthesis of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA from renewable carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Roland H

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays a growing demand for green chemicals and cleantech solutions is motivating the industry to strive for biobased building blocks. We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. Starting from this carboxylic acid, practically all compounds possessing the isobutane structure are accessible by simple chemical conversions, e. g. the commodity methacrylic acid as well as isobutylene glycol and oxide. During recent years, biotechnological routes to 2-HIBA acid have been proposed and significant progress in elucidating the underlying biochemistry has been made. Besides biohydrolysis and biooxidation, now a bioisomerization reaction can be employed, converting the common metabolite 3-hydroxybutyric acid to 2-HIBA by a novel cobalamin-dependent CoA-carbonyl mutase. The latter reaction has recently been discovered in the course of elucidating the degradation pathway of the groundwater pollutant methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE in the new bacterial species Aquincola tertiaricarbonis. This discovery opens the ground for developing a completely biotechnological process for producing 2-HIBA. The mutase enzyme has to be active in a suitable biological system producing 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, which is the precursor of the well-known bacterial bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. This connection to the PHB metabolism is a great advantage as its underlying biochemistry and physiology is well understood and can easily be adopted towards producing 2-HIBA. This review highlights the potential of these discoveries for a large-scale 2-HIBA biosynthesis from renewable carbon, replacing conventional chemistry as synthesis route and petrochemicals as carbon source.

  14. Biosynthesis of amidated joining peptide from pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, E.I.; Mains, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Joining peptide is the major alpha-amidated product of pro-ACTH/endorphin (PAE) in AtT-20 corticotropic tumor cells. To study intracellular joining peptide synthesis, affinity purified antibodies directed against gamma-MSH, joining peptide, and ACTH were used to immunoprecipitate extracts from biosynthetically labeled AtT-20 cells. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tryptic peptide mapping on HPLC. In steady labeling experiments, radioactivity in amidated joining peptide (JP) increased roughly linearly with time, in the manner of a final product, whereas radioactivity associated with PAE (1-94)NH2 reached a constant value after 2-4 h, indicating that PAE(1-94)NH2 is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of JP. Radioactivity appeared in ACTH(1-39) well before JP, consistent with a cleavage order in which ACTH is cleaved from PAE(1-95) before JP sequences are cleaved from PAE(1-74). This conclusion was supported by tryptic peptide analyses of immunoprecipitates, which indicated that less than 5% of JP-related material is cleaved from PAE(1-74) before being cleaved from ACTH-related sequences. After a pulse label, radioactivity in PAE(1-94)NH2 reached a peak value after 1 h of chase and declined with a half-life of less than 1 h. Amidated JP increased to a constant level after 2 h of chase. Enough radiolabeled PAE(1-94)NH2 was detected to account for about half of the radioactivity found in amidated JP, indicating that about half of JP-related material is first cleaved from PAE(1-95) before being amidated. This result was corroborated using HPLC purification to determine both amidated and glycine-extended forms of JP

  15. Effects of UV-B radiation on wax biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Paul, N.; Percy, K.; Broadbent, P.; McLaughlin, C.; Mullineaux, P.; Creissen, G.; Wellburn, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two genotypes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were exposed in controlled environment chambers to three levels of biologically effective ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B BE ; 280-320nm): 0, 4.54 (ambient) and 5.66 (∼ 25% enhancement) kJ m -2 d -1 . After 28 days, the quantity of wax deposited on leaf surfaces was determined gravimetrically; epicuticular wax chemical composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography with homologue assignments confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Leaf wettability was assessed by measuring the contact angle of water droplets placed on leaf surfaces. Tobacco wax consisted of three major hydrocarbon classes: Straight-chain alkanes (C 27 -C 33 ) which comprised ∼ 59% of the hydrocarbon fraction, containing a predominance of odd-chain alkanes with C 31 as the most abundant homologue; branched-chain alkanes (C 25 -C 32 ) which comprised ∼38% of the hydrocarbon fraction with anteiso 3-methyltriacontane (C 30 ) as the predominant homologue; and fatty acids (C 14 -C 18 ) which comprised ∼ 3% of the wax. Exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation reduced the quantity of wax on the adaxial surface of the transgenic mutant, and resulted in marked changes in the chemical composition of the wax on the exposed leaf surface. Enhanced UV-B decreased the quantity of straight-chain alkanes, increased the quantity of branched-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and resulted in shifts toward shorter straight-chain lengths. Furthermore, UV-B-induced changes in wax composition were associated with increased wettability of tobacco leaf surfaces. Overall, the data are consistent with the view that UV-B radiation has a direct and fundamental effect on wax biosynthesis. Relationships between the physico-chemical nature of the leaf surface and sensitivity to UV-B radiation are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Two tomato GDP-D-mannose epimerase isoforms involved in ascorbate biosynthesis play specific roles in cell wall biosynthesis and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounet-Gilbert, Louise; Dumont, Marie; Ferrand, Carine; Bournonville, Céline; Monier, Antoine; Jorly, Joana; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; Mori, Kentaro; Atienza, Isabelle; Hernould, Michel; Stevens, Rebecca; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean Claude; Rothan, Christophe; Lerouge, Patrice; Baldet, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    GDP-D-mannose epimerase (GME, EC 5.1.3.18) converts GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, and is considered to be a central enzyme connecting the major ascorbate biosynthesis pathway to primary cell wall metabolism in higher plants. Our previous work demonstrated that GME is crucial for both ascorbate and cell wall biosynthesis in tomato. The aim of the present study was to investigate the respective role in ascorbate and cell wall biosynthesis of the two SlGME genes present in tomato by targeting each of them through an RNAi-silencing approach. Taken individually SlGME1 and SlGME2 allowed normal ascorbate accumulation in the leaf and fruits, thus suggesting the same function regarding ascorbate. However, SlGME1 and SlGME2 were shown to play distinct roles in cell wall biosynthesis, depending on the tissue considered. The RNAi-SlGME1 plants harbored small and poorly seeded fruits resulting from alterations of pollen development and of pollination process. In contrast, the RNAi-SlGME2 plants exhibited vegetative growth delay while fruits remained unaffected. Analysis of SlGME1- and SlGME2-silenced seeds and seedlings further showed that the dimerization state of pectin rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) was altered only in the RNAi-SlGME2 lines. Taken together with the preferential expression of each SlGME gene in different tomato tissues, these results suggest sub-functionalization of SlGME1 and SlGME2 and their specialization for cell wall biosynthesis in specific tomato tissues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Purine biosynthesis is the bottleneck in trimethoprim-treated Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanek, Jennifer Janina; Schäkermann, Sina; Wenzel, Michaela; Prochnow, Pascal; Bandow, Julia Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    Trimethoprim is a folate biosynthesis inhibitor. Tetrahydrofolates are essential for the transfer of C 1 units in several biochemical pathways including purine, thymine, methionine, and glycine biosynthesis. This study addressed the effects of folate biosynthesis inhibition on bacterial physiology. Two complementary proteomic approaches were employed to analyze the response of Bacillus subtilis to trimethoprim. Acute changes in protein synthesis rates were monitored by radioactive pulse labeling of newly synthesized proteins and subsequent 2DE analysis. Changes in protein levels were detected using gel-free quantitative MS. Proteins involved in purine and histidine biosynthesis, the σ B -dependent general stress response, and sporulation were upregulated. Most prominently, the PurR-regulon required for de novo purine biosynthesis was derepressed indicating purine depletion. The general stress response was activated energy dependently and in a subpopulation of treated cultures an early onset of sporulation was observed, most likely triggered by low guanosine triphosphate levels. Supplementation of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine, and guanosine to the medium substantially decreased antibacterial activity, showing that purine depletion becomes the bottleneck in trimethoprim-treated B. subtilis. The frequently prescribed antibiotic trimethoprim causes purine depletion in B. subtilis, which can be complemented by supplementing purines to the medium. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Deep sequencing of the Camellia chekiangoleosa transcriptome revealed candidate genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Wei; Jiang, Cong; Wen, Qiang; Wang, Na; Tao, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Li-An

    2014-03-15

    Camellia chekiangoleosa is an important species of genus Camellia. It provides high-quality edible oil and has great ornamental value. The flowers are big and red which bloom between February and March. Flower pigmentation is closely related to the accumulation of anthocyanin. Although anthocyanin biosynthesis has been studied extensively in herbaceous plants, little molecular information on the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway of C. chekiangoleosa is yet known. In the present study, a cDNA library was constructed to obtain detailed and general data from the flowers of C. chekiangoleosa. To explore the transcriptome of C. chekiangoleosa and investigate genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, a 454 GS FLX Titanium platform was used to generate an EST dataset. About 46,279 sequences were obtained, and 24,593 (53.1%) were annotated. Using Blast search against the AGRIS, 1740 unigenes were found homologous to 599 Arabidopsis transcription factor genes. Based on the transcriptome dataset, nine anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes (PAL, CHS1, CHS2, CHS3, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, and UFGT) were identified and cloned. The spatio-temporal expression patterns of these genes were also analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The study results not only enrich the gene resource but also provide valuable information for further studies concerning anthocyanin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. epsilon-N-trimethyllysine availability regulates the rate of carnitine biosynthesis in the growing rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebouche, C.J.; Lehman, L.J.; Olson, L.

    1986-01-01

    Rates of carnitine biosynthesis in mammals depend on the availability of substrates and the activity of enzymes subserving the pathway. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the availability of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine is rate-limiting for synthesis of carnitine in the growing rat and to evaluate diet as a source of this precursor for carnitine biosynthesis. Rats apparently absorbed greater than 90% of a tracer dose of [methyl- 3 H]epsilon-N-trimethyllysine, and approximately 30% of that was incorporated into tissues as [ 3 H]carnitine. Rats given oral supplements of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine (0.5-20 mg/d), but no dietary carnitine, excreted more carnitine than control animals receiving no dietary epsilon-N-trimethyllysine or carnitine. Rates of carnitine excretion increased in a dose-dependent manner. Tissue and serum levels of carnitine also increased with dietary epsilon-N-trimethyllysine supplementation. There was no evidence that the capacity for carnitine biosynthesis was saturated even at the highest level of oral epsilon-N-trimethyllysine supplementation. Common dietary proteins (casein, soy protein and wheat gluten) were found to be poor sources of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine for carnitine biosynthesis. The results of this study indicate that the availability of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine limits the rate of carnitine biosynthesis in the growing rat

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid biosynthesis in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Shi-Fa; Wang, Rui-Ming

    2017-07-01

    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is the major compound produced from the mandibular glands (MGs) of honey bee workers. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of 10-HDA biosynthesis. In our study, based on investigating the 10-HDA secretion pattern and the morphological characteristics of MGs from honey bee workers of different ages, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in the MGs of workers with different 10-HDA production. In total, 59 up-regulated protein species representing 45 unique proteins were identified in high 10-HDA-producing workers by 2-DE-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, protein metabolism and folding, antioxidation, cytoskeleton, development and cell signaling. Proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, including fatty acid synthase and β-oxidation enzymes, are potentially crucial proteins involved in 10-HDA biosynthesis pathway. And RNA interference (RNAi) results demonstrated that knockdown of electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta (ETF-β), one of the protein related to fatty acid metabolism, decreased 10-HDA production of worker bees, suggesting that ETF-β was necessary for 10-HDA biosynthesis. This study reveals the characteristics of MGs of worker bees at different developmental stages and proteins associated with 10-HDA biosynthesis, which provides the first insight into the molecular mechanism of 10-HDA biosynthesis.

  1. Functional analysis of metabolic channeling and regulation in lignin biosynthesis: a computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lee

    Full Text Available Lignin is a polymer in secondary cell walls of plants that is known to have negative impacts on forage digestibility, pulping efficiency, and sugar release from cellulosic biomass. While targeted modifications of different lignin biosynthetic enzymes have permitted the generation of transgenic plants with desirable traits, such as improved digestibility or reduced recalcitrance to saccharification, some of the engineered plants exhibit monomer compositions that are clearly at odds with the expected outcomes when the biosynthetic pathway is perturbed. In Medicago, such discrepancies were partly reconciled by the recent finding that certain biosynthetic enzymes may be spatially organized into two independent channels for the synthesis of guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S lignin monomers. Nevertheless, the mechanistic details, as well as the biological function of these interactions, remain unclear. To decipher the working principles of this and similar control mechanisms, we propose and employ here a novel computational approach that permits an expedient and exhaustive assessment of hundreds of minimal designs that could arise in vivo. Interestingly, this comparative analysis not only helps distinguish two most parsimonious mechanisms of crosstalk between the two channels by formulating a targeted and readily testable hypothesis, but also suggests that the G lignin-specific channel is more important for proper functioning than the S lignin-specific channel. While the proposed strategy of analysis in this article is tightly focused on lignin synthesis, it is likely to be of similar utility in extracting unbiased information in a variety of situations, where the spatial organization of molecular components is critical for coordinating the flow of cellular information, and where initially various control designs seem equally valid.

  2. Trehalose biosynthesis promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djonović, Slavica; Urbach, Jonathan M; Drenkard, Eliana; Bush, Jenifer; Feinbaum, Rhonda; Ausubel, Jonathan L; Traficante, David; Risech, Martina; Kocks, Christine; Fischbach, Michael A; Priebe, Gregory P; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2013-03-01

    biosynthesis) as a potent virulence factor that allows it to replicate in the intercellular environment of a leaf.

  3. Trehalose biosynthesis promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Djonović

    2013-03-01

    pathway (trehalose biosynthesis as a potent virulence factor that allows it to replicate in the intercellular environment of a leaf.

  4. Effect of interleukin-1 on the biosynthesis of proinsulin and insulin in isolated rat pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgit Sehested; Linde, S; Spinas, G A

    1988-01-01

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is often preceded or associated with lymphocytic infiltration in the islets of Langerhans (insulitis). We recently demonstrated that interleukin-1 (IL-1) produced by activated macrophages exerts a bimodal effect on insulin release and biosynthesis...... in isolated rat islets. In the present study we have further analysed the effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1) on the biosynthesis and conversion of proinsulin 1 and 2 in rat islets. By RP-HPLC-analysis of islets labelled with [3H]leucine we found that exposure to 6 ng/ml of IL-1 for 24 h.......1 to 3.4 +/- 0.4, respectively. Pulse-chase experiments with [3H]leucine and [35S]methionine indicated a more marked reduction in the conversion rate of proinsulin-2 compared to that of proinsulin-1. In conclusion these experiments demonstrate that IL-1 inhibits insulin biosynthesis by preferential...

  5. A chloroplast pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of triacylglycerol in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.; Xu, C.; Andre, C.

    2011-06-23

    Neutral lipid metabolism has been extensively studied in yeast, plants and mammals. In contrast, little information is available regarding the biochemical pathway, enzymes and regulatory factors involved in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in microalgae. In the conventional TAG biosynthetic pathway widely accepted for yeast, plants and mammals, TAG is assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from its immediate precursor diacylglycerol (DAG) made by ER-specific acyltransferases, and is deposited exclusively in lipid droplets in the cytosol. Here, we demonstrated that the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii employs a distinct pathway that uses DAG derived almost exclusively from the chloroplast to produce TAG. This unique TAG biosynthesis pathway is largely dependent on de novo fatty acid synthesis, and the TAG formed in this pathway is stored in lipid droplets in both the chloroplast and the cytosol. These findings have wide implications for understanding TAG biosynthesis and storage and other areas of lipid metabolism in microalgae and other organisms.

  6. Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of lovastatin biosynthesis regulatory gene lovE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Li, Hao-ming

    2009-08-05

    Lovastatin is an effective drug for treatment of hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to clone lovastatin biosynthesis regulatory gene lovE and analyze the structure and function of its encoding protein. According to the lovastatin synthase gene sequence from genebank, primers were designed to amplify and clone the lovastatin biosynthesis regulatory gene lovE from Aspergillus terrus genomic DNA. Bioinformatic analysis of lovE and its encoding animo acid sequence was performed through internet resources and software like DNAMAN. Target fragment lovE, almost 1500 bp in length, was amplified from Aspergillus terrus genomic DNA and the secondary and three-dimensional structures of LovE protein were predicted. In the lovastatin biosynthesis process lovE is a regulatory gene and LovE protein is a GAL4-like transcriptional factor.

  7. Intracellular Biosynthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran MIRUNALINI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly approach. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using some commonly available edible mushroom extracts and their antimicrobial activity was demonstrated in the current study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV, FTIR and SEM and antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion method. From the results it is confirmed the successful formation of silver nanoparticles using mushroom extracts; they performed their role as a reducing and capping agent and also exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus (gram positive bacteria. Thus the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract will deserve to be a good candidate as an antibacterial agent.

  8. A model for evolution and regulation of nicotine biosynthesis regulon in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Sierro, Nicolas; Hashimoto, Takashi; Shoji, Tsubasa

    2017-06-03

    In tobacco, the defense alkaloid nicotine is produced in roots and accumulates mainly in leaves. Signaling mediated by jasmonates (JAs) induces the formation of nicotine via a series of structural genes that constitute a regulon and are coordinated by JA-responsive transcription factors of the ethylene response factor (ERF) family. Early steps in the pyrrolidine and pyridine biosynthesis pathways likely arose through duplication of the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthetic pathways, respectively, followed by recruitment of duplicated primary metabolic genes into the nicotine biosynthesis regulon. Transcriptional regulation of nicotine biosynthesis by ERF and cooperatively-acting MYC2 transcription factors is implied by the frequency of cognate cis-regulatory elements for these factors in the promoter regions of the downstream structural genes. Indeed, a mutant tobacco with low nicotine content was found to have a large chromosomal deletion in a cluster of closely related ERF genes at the nicotine-controlling NICOTINE2 (NIC2) locus.

  9. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaf extract and screening its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Garima; Bhavesh, Riju; Kasariya, Kunal; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Singh, Rajendra Pal

    2011-07-01

    Development of green nanotechnology is generating interest of researchers toward ecofriendly biosynthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles was done using Tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract. These biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stability of bioreduced silver nanoparticles was analyzed using UV-vis absorption spectra, and their antimicrobial activity was screened against both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. It was observed that O. sanctum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 8 min of reaction time. Thus, this method can be used for rapid and ecofriendly biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles of size range 4-30 nm possessing antimicrobial activity suggesting their possible application in medical industry.

  10. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaf extract and screening its antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, Garima; Bhavesh, Riju; Kasariya, Kunal; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Singh, Rajendra Pal

    2011-01-01

    Development of green nanotechnology is generating interest of researchers toward ecofriendly biosynthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles was done using Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract. These biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV–vis spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stability of bioreduced silver nanoparticles was analyzed using UV–vis absorption spectra, and their antimicrobial activity was screened against both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. It was observed that O. sanctum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 8 min of reaction time. Thus, this method can be used for rapid and ecofriendly biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles of size range 4–30 nm possessing antimicrobial activity suggesting their possible application in medical industry.

  11. Bioregulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis by unirradiated and irradiated conidia of Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Abu-Shady, M.R.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Moussa, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    A sequential technique involving the transfer of mycelia from peptone-based, aflatoxin-non-supporting medium to glucose based, aflatoxin-supporting medium was used to study the effect of γ-irradiation on the regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus. Analysis indicated that irradiation at a dose of 1.00 kGy produced enhancement of aflatoxin biosynthesis in peptone-glucose mineral salt cultures with an increase of adenine nucleotide levels and fatty acid patterns of microsomes and mitochondria. The results suggest that aflatoxin synthesis is not regulated by the overall energy status of the fungal cell but that lipoperoxidation by γ-irradiation plays a role in aflatoxin biosynthesis

  12. Cellular oxido-reductive proteins of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii control the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barwal Indu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidation of molecular mechanism of silver nanoparticles (SNPs biosynthesis is important to control its size, shape and monodispersity. The evaluation of molecular mechanism of biosynthesis of SNPs is of prime importance for the commercialization and methodology development for controlling the shape and size (uniform distribution of SNPs. The unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was exploited as a model system to elucidate the role of cellular proteins in SNPs biosynthesis. Results The C. reinhardtii cell free extract (in vitro and in vivo cells mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles reveals SNPs of size range 5 ± 1 to 15 ± 2 nm and 5 ± 1 to 35 ± 5 nm respectively. In vivo biosynthesized SNPs were localized in the peripheral cytoplasm and at one side of flagella root, the site of pathway of ATP transport and its synthesis related enzymes. This provides an evidence for the involvement of oxidoreductive proteins in biosynthesis and stabilization of SNPs. Alteration in size distribution and decrease of synthesis rate of SNPs in protein-depleted fractions confirmed the involvement of cellular proteins in SNPs biosynthesis. Spectroscopic and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate the association of various proteins on C. reinhardtii mediated in vivo and in vitro biosynthesized SNPs. We have identified various cellular proteins associated with biosynthesized (in vivo and in vitro SNPs by using MALDI-MS-MS, like ATP synthase, superoxide dismutase, carbonic anhydrase, ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, histone etc. However, these proteins were not associated on the incubation of pre-synthesized silver nanoparticles in vitro. Conclusion Present study provides the indication of involvement of molecular machinery and various cellular proteins in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. In this report, the study is mainly focused towards understanding the role of diverse cellular protein in the synthesis and capping of silver

  13. Evolution of the Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis Pathways in Green Algae: Combinatorial Diversity of Methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Takashi; Toyoshima, Masakazu; Moriyama, Takashi; Sato, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most common phospholipids in eukaryotes, although some green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are known to lack PC. Recently, we detected PC in four species in the genus Chlamydomonas: C. applanata NIES-2202, C. asymmetrica NIES-2207, C. debaryana NIES-2212, and C. sphaeroides NIES-2242. To reveal the PC biosynthesis pathways in green algae and the evolutionary scenario involved in their diversity, we analyzed the PC biosynthesis genes in these four algae using draft genome sequences. Homology searches suggested that PC in these species is synthesized by phosphoethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEAMT) and/or phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT), both of which are absent in C. reinhardtii. Recombinant PEAMTs from these algae showed methyltransferase activity for phosphoethanolamine but not for monomethyl phosphoethanolamine in vitro, in contrast to land plant PEAMT, which catalyzes the three methylations from phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine. This suggested an involvement of other methyltransferases in PC biosynthesis. Here, we characterized the putative phospholipid-N-methyltransferase (PLMT) genes of these species by genetic and phylogenetic analysis. Complementation assays using a PC biosynthesis-deficient yeast suggested that the PLMTs of these algae can synthesize PC from phosphatidylethanolamine. These results indicated that the PC biosynthesis pathways in green algae differ from those of land plants, although the enzymes involved are homologous. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the PEAMTs and PLMTs in these algae were inherited from the common ancestor of green algae. The absence of PC biosynthesis in many Chlamydomonas species is likely a result of parallel losses of PEAMT and PLMT in this genus.

  14. Transcriptional Responses and Gentiopicroside Biosynthesis in Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Gentiana macrophylla Seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Cao

    Full Text Available Gentiana macrophylla, a medicinal plant with significant pharmacological properties, contains the bioactive compound gentiopicroside. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA is an effective elicitor for enhancing the production of such compounds. However, little is known about MeJA-mediated biosynthesis of gentiopicroside. We investigated this phenomenon as well as gene expression profiles to determine the molecular mechanisms for MeJA-mediated gentiopicroside biosynthesis and regulation in G. macrophylla. Our HPLC results showed that Gentiana macrophylla seedlings exposed to MeJA had significantly higher concentrations of gentiopicroside when compared with control plants. We used RNA sequencing to compare transcriptional profiles in seedlings treated for 5 d with either 0 μmol L-1 MeJA (C or 250 μmol L-1 MeJA (M5 and detected differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In total, 77,482 unique sequences were obtained from approximately 34 million reads. Of these, 48,466 (57.46% sequences were annotated based on BLASTs performed against public databases. We identified 5,206 DEGs between the C and M5 samples, including genes related to the α-lenolenic acid degradation pathway, JA signaling pathway, and gentiopicroside biosynthesis. Expression of numerous enzyme genes in the glycolysis pathway was significantly up-regulated. Many genes encoding transcription factors (e.g. ERF, bHLH, MYB, and WRKY also responded to MeJA elicitation. Rapid acceleration of the glycolysis pathway that supplies precursors for IPP biosynthesis and up-regulates the expression of enzyme genes in that IPP pathway are probably most responsible for MeJA stimulation of gentiopicroside synthesis. Our qRT-PCR results showed that the expression profiles of 12 gentiopicroside biosynthesis genes were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. These results increase our understanding about how the gentiopicroside biosynthesis pathway in G. macrophylla responds to MeJA.

  15. Identification of Putative Genes Involved in Limonoids Biosynthesis in Citrus by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusheng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Limonoids produced by citrus are a group of highly bioactive secondary metabolites which provide health benefits for humans. Currently there is a lack of information derived from research on the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of limonoids, which has limited the improvement of citrus for high production of limonoids. In this study, the transcriptome sequences of leaves, phloems and seeds of pummelo (Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck at different development stages with variances in limonoids contents were used for digital gene expression profiling analysis in order to identify the genes corresponding to the biosynthesis of limonoids. Pair-wise comparison of transcriptional profiles between different tissues identified 924 differentially expressed genes commonly shared between them. Expression pattern analysis suggested that 382 genes from three conjunctive groups of K-means clustering could be possibly related to the biosynthesis of limonoids. Correlation analysis with the samples from different genotypes, and different developing tissues of the citrus revealed that the expression of 15 candidate genes were highly correlated with the contents of limonoids. Among them, the cytochrome P450s (CYP450s and transcriptional factor MYB demonstrated significantly high correlation coefficients, which indicated the importance of those genes on the biosynthesis of limonoids. CiOSC gene encoding the critical enzyme oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC for biosynthesis of the precursor of triterpene scaffolds was found positively corresponding to the accumulation of limonoids during the development of seeds. Suppressing the expression of CiOSC with VIGS (Virus-induced gene silencing demonstrated that the level of gene silencing was significantly correlated to the reduction of limonoids contents. The results indicated that the CiOSC gene plays a pivotal role in biosynthesis of limonoids.

  16. HOG MAP kinase regulation of alternariol biosynthesis in Alternaria alternata is important for substrate colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Eva; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Geisen, Rolf

    2012-07-16

    Strains of the genus Alternaria are ubiquitously present and frequently found on fruits, vegetables and cereals. One of the most commonly found species from this genus is A. alternata which is able to produce the mycotoxin alternariol among others. To date only limited knowledge is available about the regulation of the biosynthesis of alternariol, especially under conditions relevant to food. Tomatoes are a typical substrate of A. alternata and have a high water activity. On the other hand cereals with moderate water activity are also frequently colonized by A. alternata. In the current analysis it was demonstrated that even minor changes in the osmotic status of the substrate affect the alternariol biosynthesis of strains from vegetables resulting in nearly complete inhibition. High osmolarity in the environment is usually transmitted to the transcriptional level of downstream regulated genes by the HOG signal cascade (high osmolarity glycerol cascade) which is a MAP kinase transduction pathway. The phosphorylation status of the A. alternata HOG (AaHOG) was determined. Various concentrations of NaCl induce the phosphorylation of AaHOG in a concentration, time and strain dependent manner. A strain with a genetically inactivated aahog gene was no longer able to produce alternariol indicating that the activity of the aahog gene is required for alternariol biosynthesis. Further experiments revealed that the biosynthesis of alternariol is important for the fungus to colonize tomato tissue. The tight water activity dependent regulation of alternariol biosynthesis ensures alternariol biosynthesis at conditions which indicate an optimal colonization substrate for the fungus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct Ionic Regulation of the Activity of Myo-Inositol Biosynthesis Enzymes in Mozambique Tilapia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D Villarreal

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol (Ins is a major compatible osmolyte in many cells, including those of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Ins biosynthesis is highly up-regulated in tilapia and other euryhaline fish exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, enzymatic regulation of two enzymes of Ins biosynthesis, Ins phosphate synthase (MIPS and inositol monophosphatase (IMPase, by direct ionic effects is analyzed. Specific MIPS and IMPase isoforms from Mozambique tilapia (MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 were selected based on experimental, phylogenetic, and structural evidence supporting their role for Ins biosynthesis during hyperosmotic stress. Recombinant tilapia IMPase 1 and MIPS-160 activity was assayed in vitro at ionic conditions that mimic changes in the intracellular milieu during hyperosmotic stress. The in vitro activities of MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 are highest at alkaline pH of 8.8. IMPase 1 catalytic efficiency is strongly increased during hyperosmolality (particularly for the substrate D-Ins-3-phosphate, Ins-3P, mainly as a result of [Na+] elevation. Furthermore, the substrate-specificity of IMPase 1 towards D-Ins-1-phosphate (Ins-1P is lower than towards Ins-3P. Because MIPS catalysis results in Ins-3P this results represents additional evidence for IMPase 1 being the isoform that mediates Ins biosynthesis in tilapia. Our data collectively demonstrate that the Ins biosynthesis enzymes are activated under ionic conditions that cells are exposed to during hypertonicity, resulting in Ins accumulation, which, in turn, results in restoration of intracellular ion homeostasis. We propose that the unique and direct ionic regulation of the activities of Ins biosynthesis enzymes represents an efficient biochemical feedback loop for regulation of intracellular physiological ion homeostasis during hyperosmotic stress.

  18. Direct Ionic Regulation of the Activity of Myo-Inositol Biosynthesis Enzymes in Mozambique Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Fernando D; Kültz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol (Ins) is a major compatible osmolyte in many cells, including those of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Ins biosynthesis is highly up-regulated in tilapia and other euryhaline fish exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, enzymatic regulation of two enzymes of Ins biosynthesis, Ins phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), by direct ionic effects is analyzed. Specific MIPS and IMPase isoforms from Mozambique tilapia (MIPS-160 and IMPase 1) were selected based on experimental, phylogenetic, and structural evidence supporting their role for Ins biosynthesis during hyperosmotic stress. Recombinant tilapia IMPase 1 and MIPS-160 activity was assayed in vitro at ionic conditions that mimic changes in the intracellular milieu during hyperosmotic stress. The in vitro activities of MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 are highest at alkaline pH of 8.8. IMPase 1 catalytic efficiency is strongly increased during hyperosmolality (particularly for the substrate D-Ins-3-phosphate, Ins-3P), mainly as a result of [Na+] elevation. Furthermore, the substrate-specificity of IMPase 1 towards D-Ins-1-phosphate (Ins-1P) is lower than towards Ins-3P. Because MIPS catalysis results in Ins-3P this results represents additional evidence for IMPase 1 being the isoform that mediates Ins biosynthesis in tilapia. Our data collectively demonstrate that the Ins biosynthesis enzymes are activated under ionic conditions that cells are exposed to during hypertonicity, resulting in Ins accumulation, which, in turn, results in restoration of intracellular ion homeostasis. We propose that the unique and direct ionic regulation of the activities of Ins biosynthesis enzymes represents an efficient biochemical feedback loop for regulation of intracellular physiological ion homeostasis during hyperosmotic stress.

  19. Heparan sulfate C5-epimerase is essential for heparin biosynthesis in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Li, Jin-Ping; Lindahl, Ulf; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2006-04-01

    Biosynthesis of heparin, a mast cell-derived glycosaminoglycan with widespread importance in medicine, has not been fully elucidated. In biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS), a structurally related polysaccharide, HS glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi) converts D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residues. We have generated Hsepi-null mouse mutant mast cells, and we show that the same enzyme catalyzes the generation of IdoA in heparin and that 'heparin' lacking IdoA shows a distorted O-sulfation pattern.

  20. Biosynthesis of two dihydropyrrole-polyketides from a marine-derived Penicillium citrinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romminger, Stelamar; Pimenta, Eli F.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S., E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Nascimento, Eduardo S.; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-10-15

    Feeding experiments with {sup 13}C-labeled precursors were performed in order to establish the biosynthesis of two N-acylated dihydro pyrroles, (8E)-1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-methyldec- 8-ene-1,3-dione (1) and 1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-methyldecane-1,3-dione (2), isolated from the cultures of a marine-derived Penicillium citrinum. The biosynthesis of both, 1 and 2, involves the incorporation of acetate, methionine and ornithine. (author)

  1. In Vitro Biosynthesis of Unnatural Enterocin and Wailupemycin Polyketides¥

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzis, John A.; Cheng, Qian; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Nature has evolved finely tuned strategies to synthesize rare and complex natural products such as the enterocin family of polyketides from the marine bacterium Streptomyces maritimus. Herein we report the directed ex vivo multienzyme syntheses of 24 unnatural 5-deoxyenterocin and wailupemycin F and G analogues, 18 of which are new. We have generated molecular diversity by priming the enterocin biosynthesis enzymes with unnatural substrates and have illustrated further the uniqueness of this type II polyketide synthase by way of exploiting its unusual starter unit biosynthesis pathways. PMID:19215142

  2. Bioactive Mushroom Polysaccharides: A Review on Monosaccharide Composition, Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhenghong; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-06-13

    Mushrooms are widely distributed around the world and are heavily consumed because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides (PSs) are an important component of mushrooms, a major factor in their bioactive properties, and have been intensively studied during the past two decades. Monosaccharide composition/combinations are important determinants of PS bioactivities. This review summarizes: (i) monosaccharide composition/combinations in various mushroom PSs, and their relationships with PS bioactivities; (ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of mushroom PSs and effects of key enzymes on monosaccharide composition; (iii) regulation strategies in PS biosynthesis, and prospects for controllable biosynthesis of PSs with enhanced bioactivities.

  3. Biosynthesis of two dihydropyrrole-polyketides from a marine-derived Penicillium citrinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romminger, Stelamar; Pimenta, Eli F.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Nascimento, Eduardo S.; Ferreira, Antonio G.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding experiments with 13 C-labeled precursors were performed in order to establish the biosynthesis of two N-acylated dihydro pyrroles, (8E)-1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-methyldec- 8-ene-1,3-dione (1) and 1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-methyldecane-1,3-dione (2), isolated from the cultures of a marine-derived Penicillium citrinum. The biosynthesis of both, 1 and 2, involves the incorporation of acetate, methionine and ornithine. (author)

  4. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of t...

  5. Effects of nitrogen availability on polymalic acid biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongkang; Song, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Bochu; Zou, Xiang

    2016-08-22

    Polymalic acid (PMA) is a novel polyester polymer that has been broadly used in the medical and food industries. Its monomer, L-malic acid, is also a potential C4 platform chemical. However, little is known about the mechanism of PMA biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans. In this study, the effects of different nitrogen concentration on cell growth and PMA biosynthesis were investigated via comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analyses, and a related signaling pathway was also evaluated. A high final PMA titer of 44.00 ± 3.65 g/L (49.9 ± 4.14 g/L of malic acid after hydrolysis) was achieved in a 5-L fermentor under low nitrogen concentration (2 g/L of NH4NO3), which was 18.3 % higher yield than that obtained under high nitrogen concentration (10 g/L of NH4NO3). Comparative transcriptomics profiling revealed that a set of genes, related to the ribosome, ribosome biogenesis, proteasome, and nitrogen metabolism, were significantly up- or down-regulated under nitrogen sufficient conditions, which could be regulated by the TOR signaling pathway. Fourteen protein spots were identified via proteomics analysis, and were found to be associated with cell division and growth, energy metabolism, and the glycolytic pathway. qRT-PCR further confirmed that the expression levels of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthetic pathway (GLK, CS, FUM, DAT, and MCL) and the TOR signaling pathway (GS, TOR1, Tap42, and Gat1) were upregulated due to nitrogen limitation. Under rapamycin stress, PMA biosynthesis was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the transcription levels of TOR1, MCL, and DAT were also downregulated. The level of nitrogen could regulate cell growth and PMA biosynthesis. Low concentration of nitrogen was beneficial for PMA biosynthesis, which could upregulate the expression of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthesis pathway. Cell growth and PMA biosynthesis might be mediated by the TOR signaling pathway in

  6. Alginate Biosynthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii: Overview of Molecular Mechanisms in Connection with the Oxygen Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Pacheco-Leyva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii can synthetize the biopolymer alginate that has material properties appropriate for plenty of applications in industry as well as in medicine. In order to settle the foundation for improving alginate production without compromising its quality, a better understanding of the polymer biosynthesis and the mechanism of regulation during fermentation processes is necessary. This knowledge is crucial for the development of novel production strategies. Here, we highlight the key aspects of alginate biosynthesis that can lead to producing an alginate with specific material properties with particular focus on the role of oxygen availability linked with the molecular mechanisms involved in the alginate production.

  7. Engineering Microbial Cells for the Biosynthesis of Natural Compounds of Pharmaceutical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jeandet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes constitute important platforms for the biosynthesis of numerous molecules of pharmaceutical interest such as antitumor, anticancer, antiviral, antihypertensive, antiparasitic, antioxidant, immunological agents, and antibiotics as well as hormones, belonging to various chemical families, for instance, terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, polyketides, amines, and proteins. Engineering microbial factories offers rich opportunities for the production of natural products that are too complex for cost-effective chemical synthesis and whose extraction from their originating plants needs the use of many solvents. Recent progresses that have been made since the millennium beginning with metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biosynthesis of natural products of pharmaceutical significance will be reviewed.

  8. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. I. Inhibition of de novo phosphatidylserine biosynthesis by exogenous phosphatidylserine and its efficient incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, M.; Kuge, O.; Akamatsu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of phosphatidylserine exogenously added to the medium on de novo biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine was investigated in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. When cells were cultured for several generations in medium supplemented with phosphatidylserine and 32 Pi, the incorporation of 32 Pi into cellular phosphatidylserine was remarkably inhibited, the degree of inhibition being dependent upon the concentration of added phosphatidylserine. 32 Pi uptake into cellular phosphatidylethanolamine was also partly reduced by the addition of exogenous phosphatidylserine, consistent with the idea that phosphatidylethanolamine is biosynthesized via decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine. However, incorporation of 32 Pi into phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositol was not significantly affected. In contrast, the addition of either phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylinositol to the medium did not inhibit endogenous biosynthesis of the corresponding phospholipid. Radiochemical and chemical analyses of the cellular phospholipid composition revealed that phosphatidylserine in cells grown with 80 microM phosphatidylserine was almost entirely derived from the added phospholipid. Phosphatidylserine uptake was also directly determined by using [ 3 H]serine-labeled phospholipid. Pulse and pulse-chase experiments with L-[U- 14 C] serine showed that when cells were cultured with 80 microM phosphatidylserine, the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylserine was reduced 3-5-fold. Enzyme assaying of extracts prepared from cells grown with and without phosphatidylserine indicated that the inhibition of de novo phosphatidylserine biosynthesis by the added phosphatidylserine appeared not to be caused by a reduction in the level of the enzyme involved in the base-exchange reaction between phospholipids and serine

  9. Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthesis in the non-model Crucifer Plant Barbares Vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye

    ratios were identified In vivo results suggest the rate limiting step for saponin biosynthesis in B. vulgaris to be the expression levels of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase. To support these findings, an in vivo knock-out of the OSC via CRISPER/Cas was desired. To achieve this, stable transformants of B...

  10. Interplay between De Novo Biosynthesis and Sequestration of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel

    (Zygaenidae, Lepidoptera) both sequester (take up and accumulate) the CNglcs linamarin and lotaustralin from their food plants (Fabacea) and biosynthesize them de novo from valine and isoleucine. The presented research demonstrates that de novo biosynthesis of CNglcs in Z. filipendulae is dependent...

  11. The binding of UDP-glucosyltransferase to the cytochrome P450s in dhurrin biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Laursen, Tomas; Kannangara, Rubini Maya

    2015-01-01

    and will dissociate into hydrogen cyanide and a keto compound. The biosynthesis of dhurrin is highly channeled as only trace amounts of intermediates are detected in planta, therefore it is thought that the biosynthetic enzymes form transient enzyme complexes, metabolons (1, 2). The CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and POR are all...

  12. Assembly and expression analysis of oat vitamin E biosynthesis gene homeologs during seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) are particularly rich in vitamin E, an essential liposoluble vitamin that maintains membrane stability and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To date, no gene sequences involved in vitamin E biosynthesis have been reporte...

  13. Developmental and feedforward control of the expression of folate biosynthesis genes in tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about how plants regulate their folate content, including whether the expression of folate biosynthesis genes is orchestrated during development or modulated by folate levels. Nor is much known about how folate levels impact the expression of other genes. These points were addressed ...

  14. Biogenesis of ER subdomains containing DGAT2, an enzyme involved in industrial oil biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are enzymes that catalyze the committed step in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis by transferring a fatty acyl group from the acyl-CoA pool to the sn-3 position of diacylglycerol. The substrate specificity and overall activity of these enzymes play a key role...

  15. The physics of cellulose biosynthesis : polymerization and self-organization, from plants to bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diotallevi, F.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with many different biological problems concerning cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose is made by all plants, and therefore it is probably the most abundant organic compound on Earth. Aside from being the primary building material for plants, this biopolymer is of great economic

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanjun; Gou, Junbo; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especially their downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes, which were derived from the young leaves of two different cultivars and the purified glandular trichomes from one of the cultivars, were constructed in this study. In total, 157 million clean reads were generated and assembled into 91,861 unigenes, of which 59,858 unigenes were successfully annotated. All the genes coding for known enzymes in the upstream pathway to the biosynthesis of xanthanolides were present in the X. strumarium transcriptomes. From a comparative analysis of the X. strumarium transcriptomes, this study identified a number of gene candidates that are putatively involved in the downstream pathway to the synthesis of xanthanolides, such as four unigenes encoding CYP71 P450s, 50 unigenes for dehydrogenases, and 27 genes for acetyltransferases. The possible functions of these four CYP71 candidates are extensively discussed. In addition, 116 transcription factors that are highly expressed in X. strumarium glandular trichomes were also identified. Their possible regulatory roles in the biosynthesis of STLs are discussed. The global transcriptomic data for X. strumarium should provide a valuable resource for further research into the biosynthesis of xanthanolides.

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanjun; Gou, Junbo; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones, which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especiallytheir downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes...

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjun Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones, which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especiallytheir downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes, which were derived from the young leaves of two different cultivars and the purified glandular trichomes from one of the cultivars, were constructed in this study. In total, 157 million clean reads were generated and assembled into 91,861 unigenes, of which 59,858 unigenes were successfully annotated. All the genes coding for known enzymes in the upstream pathway to the biosynthesis of xanthanolides were present in the X. strumarium transcriptomes. From a comparative analysis of the X. strumarium transcriptomes, this study identified a number of gene candidates that are putatively involved in the downstream pathway to the synthesis of xanthanolides, such as four unigenes encoding CYP71 P450s, 50 unigenes for dehydrogenases, and 27 genes for acetyltransferases. The possible functions of these four CYP71 candidates are extensively discussed. In addition, 116 transcription factors that were highly expressed in X. strumarium glandular trichomes were also identified. Their possible regulatory roles in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones are discussed. The global transcriptomic data for X. strumarium should provide a valuable resource for further research into the biosynthesis of xanthanolides.

  19. Evolution of the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Lazcano, Antonio; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    The origins of the biosynthetic pathways for the branched-chain amino acids cannot be understood in terms of the backwards development of the present acetolactate pathway because it contains unstable intermediates. We propose that the first biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids was by the reductive carboxylation of short branched chain fatty acids giving keto acids which were then transaminated. Similar reaction sequences mediated by nonspecific enzymes would produce serine and threomine from the abundant prebiotic compounds glycolic and lactic acids. The aromatic amino acids may also have first been synthesized in this way, e.g. tryptophan from indole acetic acid. The next step would have been the biosynthesis of leucine from alpha-ketoisovalerc acid. The acetolactate pathway developed subsequently. The first version of the Krebs cycle, which was used for amino acid biosynthesis, would have been assembled by making use fo the reductive carboxylation and leucine biosynthesis enzymes, and completed with the development of a single new enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase. This evolutionary scheme suggests that there may be limitations to inferring the origins of metabolism by a simple back extrapolation of current pathways.

  20. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Reseda Luteola L. and their antimicrobial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasiriboroumand, Majid Nasiri; Montazer, Majid; Dutschk, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Among different methods to synthesize silver nanoparticles (SNPs), the biological method has been the most extensively investigated. This study presents a facile and rapid method for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Weld (Reseda Luteola L.) as a natural dye. An aqueous extract of the dye

  1. The HAP Complex Governs Fumonisin Biosynthesis and Maize Kernel Pathogenesis in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, John B; Smith, Jonathon E; Bluhm, Burton H

    2016-09-01

    Contamination of maize ( Zea mays ) with fumonisins produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a global concern for food safety. Fumonisins are a group of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube birth defects in humans and numerous toxicoses in livestock. Despite the importance of fumonisins in global maize production, the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis during kernel pathogenesis is poorly understood. The HAP complex is a conserved, heterotrimeric transcriptional regulator that binds the consensus sequence CCAAT to modulate gene expression. Recently, functional characterization of the Hap3 subunit linked the HAP complex to the regulation of secondary metabolism and stalk rot pathogenesis in F. verticillioides . Here, we determine the involvement of HAP3 in fumonisin biosynthesis and kernel pathogenesis. Deletion of HAP3 suppressed fumonisin biosynthesis on both nonviable and live maize kernels and impaired pathogenesis in living kernels. Transcriptional profiling via RNA sequencing indicated that the HAP complex regulates at least 1,223 genes in F. verticillioides , representing nearly 10% of all predicted genes. Disruption of the HAP complex caused the misregulation of biosynthetic gene clusters underlying the production of secondary metabolites, including fusarins. Taken together, these results reveal that the HAP complex is a central regulator of fumonisin biosynthesis and kernel pathogenesis and works as both a positive and negative regulator of secondary metabolism in F. verticillioides .

  2. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans UA159

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Nang Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we revealed that OA and UA significantly inhibited the expression of most genes related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis in S. mutans UA159. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to introduce the antimicrobial mechanism of OA and UA against S. mutans.

  3. Characterization of the role of para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthesis in folate production by Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegkamp, H.B.A.; Oorschot, van A.; Vos, de W.M.; Smid, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The pab genes for para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis were identified and characterized. In L. lactis NZ9000, only two of the three genes needed for pABA production were initially found. No gene coding for 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (pabC) was initially annotated,

  4. Effect of inhibition of biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids on sessile oak somatic embryogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Eder, Josef; Zoń, J.; Macháčková, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2003), s. 251-259 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis * Somatic embryogenesis * Oak Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2003

  5. Improvement of Folate Biosynthesis by Lactic Acid Bacteria Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfarina Muhamad Nor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis NZ9000, Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Lactobacillus plantarum I-UL4 and Lactobacillus johnsonii DSM 20553 have been screened for their ability to produce folate intracellularly and/or extracellularly. L. plantarum I-UL4 was shown to be superior producer of folate compared to other strains. Statistically based experimental designs were used to optimize the medium formulation for the growth of L. plantarum I-UL4 and folate biosynthesis. The optimal values of important factors were determined by response surface methodology (RSM. The effects of carbon sources, nitrogen sources and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA concentrations on folate biosynthesis were determined prior to RSM study. The biosynthesis of folate by L. plantarum I-UL4 increased from 36.36 to 60.39 µg/L using the optimized medium formulation compared to the selective Man de Rogosa Sharpe (MRS medium. Conditions for the optimal growth of L. plantarum I-UL4 and folate biosynthesis as suggested by RSM were as follows: lactose 20 g/L, meat extract 16.57 g/L and PABA 10 µM.

  6. Application of an Acyl-CoA Ligase from Streptomyces aizunensis for Lactam Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barajas, Jesus F.; Burdu, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    lactams under ambient conditions. In this study, we demonstrated production of these chemicals using ORF26, an acyl-CoA ligase involved in the biosynthesis of ECO-02301 in Streptomyces aizunensis. This enzyme has a broad substrate spectrum and can cyclize 4-aminobutyric acid into γ-butyrolactam, 5...

  7. l-Galactono-gamma-lactone dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana, a flavoprotein involved in vitamin C biosynthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, N.G.H.; Berg, van den W.A.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    l-Galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GALDH; ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase; EC 1.3.2.3) is a mitochondrial flavoenzyme that catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) in plants. In the present study, we report on the biochemical properties of recombinant

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in Steroid Biosynthesis in Euphorbia tirucalli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of different Euphorbia tirucalli tissues revealed a contrasting tissue-specificity for the biosynthesis of euphol and β-sitosterol, which represent the two pharmaceutically active steroids in E. tirucalli. To uncover the molecular mechanism underlying this tissue-specificity for phytochemicals, a comprehensive E. tirucalli transcriptome derived from its root, stem, leaf and latex was constructed, and a total of 91,619 unigenes were generated with 51.08% being successfully annotated against the non-redundant (Nr protein database. A comparison of the transcriptome from different tissues discovered members of unigenes in the upstream steps of sterol backbone biosynthesis leading to this tissue-specific sterol biosynthesis. Among them, the putative oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC encoding genes involved in euphol synthesis were notably identified, and their expressions were significantly up-regulated in the latex. In addition, genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the different E. tirucalli tissues were identified. The cluster analysis of those DEGs showed a unique expression pattern in the latex compared with other tissues. The DEGs identified in this study would enrich the insights of sterol biosynthesis and the regulation mechanism of this latex-specificity.

  9. The molecular cloning of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase and its implication in artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Quax, W.J.; Hiroyuki, O.; Toshiya, M.; Kayser, O.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    A key point in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial drug artemisinin is the formation of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde which represents the key difference between chemotype specific pathways. This key intermediate is the substrate for several competing enzymes, some of which increase the metabolic

  10. Ergothioneine Biosynthesis and Functionality in the Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kevin J; Lechner, Beatrix Elisabeth; Keeffe, Grainne O'; Keller, Markus A; Werner, Ernst R; Lindner, Herbert; Jones, Gary W; Haas, Hubertus; Doyle, Sean

    2016-10-17

    Ergothioneine (EGT; 2-mercaptohistidine trimethylbetaine) is a trimethylated and sulphurised histidine derivative which exhibits antioxidant properties. Here we report that deletion of Aspergillus fumigatus egtA (AFUA_2G15650), which encodes a trimodular enzyme, abrogated EGT biosynthesis in this opportunistic pathogen. EGT biosynthetic deficiency in A. fumigatus significantly reduced resistance to elevated H 2 O 2 and menadione, respectively, impaired gliotoxin production and resulted in attenuated conidiation. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed substantial proteomic remodelling in ΔegtA compared to wild-type under both basal and ROS conditions, whereby the abundance of 290 proteins was altered. Specifically, the reciprocal differential abundance of cystathionine γ-synthase and β-lyase, respectively, influenced cystathionine availability to effect EGT biosynthesis. A combined deficiency in EGT biosynthesis and the oxidative stress response regulator Yap1, which led to extreme oxidative stress susceptibility, decreased resistance to heavy metals and production of the extracellular siderophore triacetylfusarinine C and increased accumulation of the intracellular siderophore ferricrocin. EGT dissipated H 2 O 2 in vitro, and elevated intracellular GSH levels accompanied abrogation of EGT biosynthesis. EGT deficiency only decreased resistance to high H 2 O 2 levels which suggests functionality as an auxiliary antioxidant, required for growth at elevated oxidative stress conditions. Combined, these data reveal new interactions between cellular redox homeostasis, secondary metabolism and metal ion homeostasis.

  11. Genomic survey of bZIP transcription factor genes related to tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinones are a class of bioactive components in the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis and regulation have been widely studied. Current studies show that basic leucine zipper (bZIP proteins regulate plant secondary metabolism, growth and developmental processes. However, the bZIP transcription factors involved in tanshinone biosynthesis are unknown. Here, we conducted the first genome-wide survey of the bZIP gene family and analyzed the phylogeny, gene structure, additional conserved motifs and alternative splicing events in S. miltiorrhiza. A total of 70 SmbZIP transcription factors were identified and categorized into 11 subgroups based on their phylogenetic relationships with those in Arabidopsis. Moreover, seventeen SmbZIP genes underwent alternative splicing events. According to the transcriptomic data, the SmbZIP genes that were highly expressed in the Danshen root and periderm were selected. Based on the prediction of bZIP binding sites in the promoters and the co-expression analysis and co-induction patterns in response to Ag+ treatment via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, we concluded that SmbZIP7 and SmbZIP20 potentially participate in the regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis. These results provide a foundation for further functional characterization of the candidate SmbZIP genes, which have the potential to increase tanshinone production. KEY WORDS: bZIP genes, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Phylogenetic analysis, Expression pattern analysis, Tanshinone biosynthesis

  12. Inhibitors of the bacterial cell wall biosynthesis enzyme MurC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, F; Marmor, S; Fisher, S; Wuonola, M A

    2001-06-04

    A series of phosphinate transition-state analogues of the L-alanine adding enzyme (MurC) of bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis was prepared and tested as inhibitors of the Escherichia coli enzyme. Compound 4 was identified as a potent inhibitor of MurC from Escherichia coli with an IC(50) of 49nM.

  13. Chemogenomics profiling of drug targets of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway in Leptospira interrogans by virtual screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Biplab; Simon, Rose Mary; Gangadharaiah, Chaithra; Karunakar, Prashantha

    2013-06-28

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis of global concern caused by Leptospira interrogans. The availability of ligand libraries has facilitated the search for novel drug targets using chemogenomics approaches, compared with the traditional method of drug discovery, which is time consuming and yields few leads with little intracellular information for guiding target selection. Recent subtractive genomics studies have revealed the putative drug targets in peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathways in Leptospira interrogans. Aligand library for the murD ligase enzyme in the peptidoglycan pathway has also been identified. Our approach in this research involves screening of the pre-existing ligand library of murD with related protein family members in the putative drug target assembly in the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. A chemogenomics approach has been implemented here, which involves screening of known ligands of a protein family having analogous domain architecture for identification of leads for existing druggable protein family members. By means of this approach, one murC and one murF inhibitor were identified, providing a platform for developing an antileptospirosis drug targeting the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. Given that the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway is exclusive to bacteria, the in silico identified mur ligase inhibitors are expected to be broad-spectrum Gram-negative inhibitors if synthesized and tested in in vitro and in vivo assays.

  14. Stimulatory effects of acibenzolar-s-methyl on chlorogenic acids biosynthesis in Centella asiatica cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ncube, EN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available -derived chlorogenic acids (CGAs) that have recently been reported to confer neuroprotective properties. In a biotechnological attempt to increase the biosynthesis of CGA-derivatives in cultured Centella cells, acibenzolar-S-methyl was applied as a xenobiotic inducer...

  15. Control of biotin biosynthesis in mycobacteria by a pyruvate carboxylase dependent metabolic signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Nathaniel; Fay, Allison; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Boyle, Kerry E; Xavier, Joao; Rhee, Kyu; Glickman, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    Biotin is an essential cofactor utilized by all domains of life, but only synthesized by bacteria, fungi and plants, making biotin biosynthesis a target for antimicrobial development. To understand biotin biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we executed a genetic screen in Mycobacterium smegmatis for biotin auxotrophs and identified pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc) as required for biotin biosynthesis. The biotin auxotrophy of the pyc::tn strain is due to failure to transcriptionally induce late stage biotin biosynthetic genes in low biotin conditions. Loss of bioQ, the repressor of biotin biosynthesis, in the pyc::tn strain reverted biotin auxotrophy, as did reconstituting the last step of the pathway through heterologous expression of BioB and provision of its substrate DTB. The role of Pyc in biotin regulation required its catalytic activities and could be supported by M. tuberculosis Pyc. Quantitation of the kinetics of depletion of biotinylated proteins after biotin withdrawal revealed that Pyc is the most rapidly depleted biotinylated protein and metabolomics revealed a broad metabolic shift in wild type cells upon biotin withdrawal which was blunted in cell lacking Pyc. Our data indicate that mycobacterial cells monitor biotin sufficiency through a metabolic signal generated by dysfunction of a biotinylated protein of central metabolism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolated etioplasts as test system for inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenthaler, H.K.; Kobek, K.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated intact chloroplasts of mono- and dicotyledonous plants possess the capacity for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, starting from 14 C-acetate. These can be taken as test system for herbicides affecting fatty acid biosynthesis as shown earlier in our laboratory. The incorporation rates of acetate into the total fatty acids depend on the photosynthetic cofactors ATP and NADPH and amount in the light to 33 kBq (oat) and 39 kBq (pea) per mg chlorophyll x h, whereas in the dark only ca. 10% of these rates are obtained. In order to establish a test system, which is fully independent of light, we isolated and characterized etioplast fractions from oat and pea seedlings with a very high capacity of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (500 and 400 kBq per mg carotenoids in a 20 min period). This activity was blocked by herbicides such as cycloxydim, sethoxydim and diclofop in a dose-dependent manner. This new test system has the great advantage that one can verify whether inhibitors of photosynthesis affect fatty acid biosynthesis

  18. Manipulation of isoprenoid biosynthesis as a possible therapeutic option in mevalonate kinase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneiders, Marit S.; Houten, Sander M.; Turkenburg, Marjolein; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In cells from patients with the autoinflammatory disorder mevalonate kinase (MK) deficiency, which includes the hyperimmunoglobulin D with periodic fever syndrome, MK becomes the rate-limiting enzyme in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. This suggests that up-regulation of residual MK

  19. Inhibition of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway; detection of intermediates by UPLC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, Linda; van Cruchten, Arno G.; Kulik, Willem; Waterham, Hans R.

    2011-01-01

    The isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway provides the cell with a variety of compounds which are involved in multiple cellular processes. Inhibition of this pathway with statins and bisphosphonates is widely applied in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and metabolic bone disease, respectively. In

  20. Molecular characterization of genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuepeng eHan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs are the major component of phenolics in apple, but mechanisms involved in PA biosynthesis remain unclear. Here, the relationship between the PA biosynthesis and the expression of genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR was investigated in fruit skin of one apple cultivar and three crabapples. Transcript levels of LAR1 and ANR2 genes were significantly correlated with the contents of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, which suggests their active roles in PA synthesis. Surprisingly, transcript levels for both LAR1 and LAR2 genes were almost undetectable in two crabapples that accumulated both flavan-3-ols and PAs. This contradicts the previous finding that LAR1 gene is a strong candidate regulating the accumulation of metabolites such as epicatechin and PAs in apple. Ectopic expression of apple MdLAR1 gene in tobacco suppresses expression of the late genes in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, resulting in loss of anthocyanin in flowers. Interestingly, a decrease in PA biosynthesis was also observed in flowers of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the MdLAR1 gene, which could be attributed to decreased expression of both the NtANR1 and NtANR2 genes. Our study not only confirms the in vivo function of apple LAR1 gene, but it is also helpful for understanding the mechanism of PA biosynthesis.

  1. Transcriptomic analysis reveals key genes related to betalain biosynthesis in pulp coloration of Hylocereus polyrhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua eQingzhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Betalains have high nutritional value and bioactivities. Red pulp pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus is the only fruit containing abundant betalains for consumer. However, no information is available about genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus. Herein, two cDNA libraries of pitaya pulps with two different coloration stages (white and red pulp stages of Guanhuahong (H. polyrhizus were constructed. A total of about 12 Gb raw RNA-Seq data was generated and was de novo assembled into 122,677 transcripts with an average length of 1,183 bp and an N50 value of 2008. Approximately 99.99% of all transcripts were annotated based on seven public databases. A total of 8,871 transcripts were significantly regulated. Thirty-three candidate transcripts related to betalain biosynthesis were obtained from the transcriptome data. Transcripts encoding enzymes involved in betalain biosynthesis were analyzed using RT-qPCR at the whole pulp coloration stages of H. Polyrhizus (7-1 and H. Undatus (132-4. Nine key transcripts of betalain biosynthesis were identified. They were assigned to four kinds of genes in betalain biosynthetic pathway, including tyrosinase, 4, 5-DOPA dioxygenase extradiol, cytochrome P450 and glucosyltransferase. Ultimately, a preliminary betalain biosynthetic pathway for pitaya was proposed based on betalain analyses and gene expression profiles.

  2. Overexpression of an ABA biosynthesis gene using a stress inducible promoter enhances drought resistance in petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants respond to drought stress by closing their stomata and reducing transpirational water loss. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates growth and stomatal closure particularly when the plant is under environmental stresses. One of the key enzymes in the ABA biosynthesis of higher plants ...

  3. Expanding the landscape of diterpene structural diversity by stereochemically controlled combinatorial biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Johan; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Nielsen, Morten Thrane

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived diterpenoids are relevant as pharmaceuticals, food additives and fragrances, yet a broader industrial utilization of these bioproducts is limited due to their low natural abundance and high structural complexity. Mimicking the modularity of diterpene biosynthesis in plants, we const...

  4. Role of de novo biosynthesis in ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taipale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine have traditionally been assumed to originate as evaporation from specialized storage pools. More recently, the significance of de novo emissions, originating directly from monoterpene biosynthesis, has been recognized. To study the role of biosynthesis at the ecosystem scale, we measured monoterpene emissions from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The interpretation of the measurements was based on a correlation analysis and a hybrid emission algorithm describing both de novo and pool emissions. During the measurement period May–August 2007, the monthly medians of daytime emissions were 200, 290, 180, and 200 μg m−2 h−1. The emissions were partly light dependent, probably due to de novo biosynthesis. The emission potential for both de novo and pool emissions exhibited a decreasing summertime trend. The ratio of the de novo emission potential to the total emission potential varied between 30 % and 46 %. Although the monthly changes were not significant, the ratio always differed statistically from zero, suggesting that the role of de novo biosynthesis was observable. Given the uncertainties in this study, we conclude that more accurate estimates of the contribution of de novo emissions are required for improving monoterpene emission algorithms for Scots pine dominated forests.

  5. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene...

  6. Accumulation of Charantin and Expression of Triterpenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Do Manh; Jeon, Jin; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2017-08-23

    Charantin, a natural cucurbitane type triterpenoid, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological functions such as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities. However, accumulation of charantin in bitter melon has been little studied. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in bitter melon seedlings. A total of 88,703 transcripts with an average length of 898 bp were identified in bitter melon seedlings. On the basis of a functional annotation, we identified 15 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed their expression in different organs of mature plants. Most genes were highly expressed in flowers and/or fruit from the ripening stages. An HPLC analysis confirmed that the accumulation of charantin was highest in fruits from the ripening stage, followed by male flowers. The accumulation patterns of charantin coincide with the expression pattern of McSE and McCAS1, indicating that these genes play important roles in charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon. We also investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon and found that red light was the most effective wavelength.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Tocopherol Biosynthesis Genes and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Vinutha; Bansal, Navita; Kumari, Khushboo; Prashat G, Rama; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Krishnan, Veda; Kumari, Sweta; Dahuja, Anil; Lal, S K; Sachdev, Archana; Praveen, Shelly

    2017-12-20

    Tocopherols composed of four isoforms (α, β, γ, and δ) and its biosynthesis comprises of three pathways: methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP), shikimate (SK) and tocopherol-core pathways regulated by 25 enzymes. To understand pathway regulatory mechanism at transcriptional level, gene expression profile of tocopherol-biosynthesis genes in two soybean genotypes was carried out, the results showed significantly differential expression of 5 genes: 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-P-reductoisomerase (DXR), geranyl geranyl reductase (GGDR) from MEP, arogenate dehydrogenase (TyrA), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) from SK and γ-tocopherol methyl transferase 3 (γ-TMT3) from tocopherol-core pathways. Expression data were further analyzed for total tocopherol (T-toc) and α-tocopherol (α-toc) content by coregulation network and gene clustering approaches, the results showed least and strong association of γ-TMT3/tocopherol cyclase (TC) and DXR/DXS, respectively, with gene clusters of tocopherol biosynthesis suggested the specific role of γ-TMT3/TC in determining tocopherol accumulation and intricacy of DXR/DXS genes in coordinating precursor pathways toward tocopherol biosynthesis in soybean seeds. Thus, the present study provides insight into the major role of these genes regulating the tocopherol synthesis in soybean seeds.

  8. Jasmonates: Biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling by proteins activating and repressing transcription

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wasternack, Claus; Song, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2017), s. 1303-1321 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Activators * Amino acid conjugates * Biosynthesis * Jasmonic acid * Metabolism * Perception * Repressors * SCFJAZ co-receptor complex COI1 * Signaling Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  9. Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-07

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are highly appealing targets for advanced cellulosic biofuels, as they are already predominant components of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuels. We have studied alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, a close relative of Sarcina lutea (now Kocuria rhizophila), which four decades ago was reported to biosynthesize iso- and anteiso branched, long-chain alkenes. The underlying biochemistry and genetics of alkene biosynthesis were not elucidated in those studies. We show here that heterologous expression of a three-gene cluster from M. luteus (Mlut_13230-13250) in a fatty-acid overproducing E. coli strain resulted in production of long-chain alkenes, predominantly 27:3 and 29:3 (no. carbon atoms: no. C=C bonds). Heterologous expression of Mlut_13230 (oleA) alone produced no long-chain alkenes but unsaturated aliphatic monoketones, predominantly 27:2, and in vitro studies with the purified Mlut_13230 protein and tetradecanoyl-CoA produced the same C27 monoketone. Gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed the elemental composition of all detected long-chain alkenes and monoketones (putative intermediates of alkene biosynthesis). Negative controls demonstrated that the M. luteus genes were responsible for production of these metabolites. Studies with wild-type M. luteus showed that the transcript copy number of Mlut_13230-13250 and the concentrations of 29:1 alkene isomers (the dominant alkenes produced by this strain) generally corresponded with bacterial population over time. We propose a metabolic pathway for alkene biosynthesis starting with acyl-CoA (or -ACP) thioesters and involving decarboxylative Claisen condensation as a key step, which we believe is catalyzed by OleA. Such activity is consistent with our data and with the homology (including the conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad) of Mlut_13230 (OleA) to FabH (?-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which catalyzes decarboxylative Claisen condensation during

  10. Primary Metabolism during Biosynthesis of Secondary Wall Polymers of Protoxylem Vessel Elements1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Keiko; Sawada, Yuji; Sano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shiro; Matsuda, Mami; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-01-01

    Xylem vessels, the water-conducting cells in vascular plants, undergo characteristic secondary wall deposition and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) transcription factors. Here, to identify changes in metabolism that occur during protoxylem vessel element differentiation, we subjected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 suspension culture cells carrying an inducible VND7 system to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based wide-target metabolome analysis and transcriptome analysis. Time-course data for 128 metabolites showed dynamic changes in metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis. The concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, an important intermediate of the glycolysis pathway, immediately decreased in the initial stages of cell differentiation. As cell differentiation progressed, specific amino acids accumulated, including the shikimate-related amino acids and the translocatable nitrogen-rich amino acid arginine. Transcriptome data indicated that cell differentiation involved the active up-regulation of genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing fructose 6-phosphate biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate biosynthesis from oxaloacetate, and phenylalanine biosynthesis, which includes shikimate pathway enzymes. Concomitantly, active changes in the amount of fructose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate were detected during cell differentiation. Taken together, our results show that protoxylem vessel element differentiation is associated with changes in primary metabolism, which could facilitate the production of polysaccharides and lignin monomers and, thus, promote the formation of the secondary cell wall. Also, these metabolic shifts correlate with the active transcriptional regulation of specific enzyme genes. Therefore, our observations indicate that primary metabolism is actively regulated during protoxylem vessel element differentiation to alter the cell’s metabolic

  11. Muscle type-specific responses to NAD+ salvage biosynthesis promote muscle function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablik, Tracy L; Wang, Wenqing; Upadhyay, Awani; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2011-01-15

    Salvage biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) from nicotinamide (NAM) lowers NAM levels and replenishes the critical molecule NAD(+) after it is hydrolyzed. This pathway is emerging as a regulator of multiple biological processes. Here we probe the contribution of the NAM-NAD(+) salvage pathway to muscle development and function using Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans males with mutations in the nicotinamidase pnc-1, which catalyzes the first step of this NAD(+) salvage pathway, cannot mate due to a spicule muscle defect. Multiple muscle types are impaired in the hermaphrodites, including body wall muscles, pharyngeal muscles and vulval muscles. An active NAD(+) salvage pathway is required for optimal function of each muscle cell type. However, we found surprising muscle-cell-type specificity in terms of both the timing and relative sensitivity to perturbation of NAD(+) production or NAM levels. Active NAD(+) biosynthesis during development is critical for function of the male spicule protractor muscles during adulthood, but these muscles can surprisingly do without salvage biosynthesis in adulthood under the conditions examined. The body wall muscles require ongoing NAD(+) salvage biosynthesis both during development and adulthood for maximum function. The vulval muscles do not function in the presence of elevated NAM concentrations, but NAM supplementation is only slightly deleterious to body wall muscles during development or upon acute application in adults. Thus, the pathway plays distinct roles in different tissues. As NAM-NAD(+) biosynthesis also impacts muscle differentiation in vertebrates, we propose that similar complexities may be found among vertebrate muscle cell types. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R; Allemann, Marco; Allen, Eric E; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G

    2016-01-01

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1) . Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for fatty acid biosynthesis regulation, farE , was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the fatty acid profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE -knockout mutants and farE -overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. The gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE -strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph.

  13. Effect Of Substrates On The Fractionation Of Hydrogen Isotopes During Lipid-Biosynthesis By Haloarcula marismortui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirghangi, S. S.; Pagani, M.

    2010-12-01

    Lipids form an important class of proxies for paleoclimatological research, and hydrogen isotope ratios of lipids are being increasingly used for understanding changes in the hydrological system. Proper understanding of hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis is therefore important and attention has been directed toward understanding the magnitude of hydrogen isotope fractionation that occurs during lipid biosynthesis in various organisms. Hydrogen isotope ratios of lipids depend on the hydrogen isotopic composition of the ambient water, hydrogen isotopic composition of NADPH used during biosynthesis, growth conditions, pathways of lipid biosynthesis, and substrates in the case of heterotrophic organisms. Recently it has been observed that NADPH contributes a significant part of the hydrogen in fatty acids synthesized by bacteria during heterotrophic growth (Zhang et al, 2009). As NADPH is formed by reduction of NADP+ during metabolism of substrates, different metabolic pathways form NADPH with different D/H ratios, which in turn results in variation in D/H ratios of lipids (Zhang et al, 2009). Therefore, substrates play a significant role in hydrogen isotopic compositions of lipids. For this study, we are investigating the effects of substrates on hydrogen isotope fractionation during biosynthesis of isoprenoidal lipids by heterotrophically growing halophilic archaea. Haloarcula marismortui is a halophilic archaea which synthesizes Archaeol (a diether lipid) and other isoprenoidal lipids. We have grown Haloarcula marismortui in pure cultures on three different substrates and are in the process of evaluating isotopic variability of Archaeol and other lipids associated with substrate and the D/H composition of ambient water. Our results will be helpful for a better understanding of hydrogen isotope fractionations during lipid synthesis by archaea. Also, halophilic archaea are the only source of archaeol in hypersaline environments. Therefore, our

  14. Biosynthesis of promatrix metalloproteinase-9/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan heteromer involves a Rottlerin-sensitive pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin Malla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previously we have shown that a fraction of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 synthesized by the macrophage cell line THP-1 was bound to a chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG core protein as a reduction sensitive heteromer. Several biochemical properties of the enzyme were changed when it was bound to the CSPG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By use of affinity chromatography, zymography, and radioactive labelling, various macrophage stimulators were tested for their effect on the synthesis of the proMMP-9/CSPG heteromer and its components by THP-1 cells. Of the stimulators, only PMA largely increased the biosynthesis of the heteromer. As PMA is an activator of PKC, we determined which PKC isoenzymes were expressed by performing RT-PCR and Western Blotting. Subsequently specific inhibitors were used to investigate their involvement in the biosynthesis of the heteromer. Of the inhibitors, only Rottlerin repressed the biosynthesis of proMMP-9/CSPG and its two components. Much lower concentrations of Rottlerin were needed to reduce the amount of CSPG than what was needed to repress the synthesis of the heteromer and MMP-9. Furthermore, Rottlerin caused a minor reduction in the activation of the PKC isoenzymes δ, ε, θ and υ (PKD3 in both control and PMA exposed cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The biosynthesis of the proMMP-9/CSPG heteromer and proMMP-9 in THP-1 cells involves a Rottlerin-sensitive pathway that is different from the Rottlerin sensitive pathway involved in the CSPG biosynthesis. MMP-9 and CSPGs are known to be involved in various physiological and pathological processes. Formation of complexes may influence both the specificity and localization of the enzyme. Therefore, knowledge about biosynthetic pathways and factors involved in the formation of the MMP-9/CSPG heteromer may contribute to insight in the heteromers biological function as well as pointing to future targets for therapeutic agents.

  15. Brain modulation of Dufour's gland ester biosynthesis in vitro in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Hefetz, Abraham; Soroker, Victoria

    2007-05-01

    Caste-specific pheromone biosynthesis is a prerequisite for reproductive skew in the honeybee. Nonetheless, this process is not hardwired but plastic, in that egg-laying workers produce a queen-like pheromone. Studies with Dufour’s gland pheromone revealed that, in vivo, workers’ gland biosynthesis matches the social status of the worker, i.e., sterile workers showed a worker-like pattern whereas fertile workers showed a queen-like pattern (production of the queen-specific esters). However, when incubated in vitro, the gland spontaneously exhibits the queen-like pattern, irrespective of its original worker type, prompting the notion that ester production in workers is under inhibitory control that is queen-dependent. We tested this hypothesis by exposing queen or worker Dufour’s glands in vitro to brain extracts of queens, queenright (sterile) workers and males. Unexpectedly, worker brain extracts activated the queen-like esters biosynthesis in workers’ Dufour’s gland. This stimulation was gender-specific; queen or worker brains demonstrated a stimulatory activity, but male brains did not. Queen gland could not be further stimulated. Bioassays with heated and filtered extracts indicate that the stimulatory brain factor is below 3,000 Da. We suggest that pheromone production in Dufour’s gland is under dual, negative positive control. Under queenright conditions, the inhibitor is released and blocks ester biosynthesis, whereas under queenless conditions, the activator is released, activating ester biosynthesis in the gland. This is consistent with the hypothesis that queenright workers are unequivocally recognized as non-fertile, whereas queenless workers try to become “false queens” as part of the reproductive competition.

  16. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Platycodon grandiflorum identified by transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platycodon grandiflorum is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae, which has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant for its lung-heat-clearing, antitussive, and expectorant properties in China, Japanese and Korean. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were the main chemical components of P. grandiflorum and platycodin D was the abundant and main bioactive component, but little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. grandiflorum is an ideal medicinal plant for studying the biosynthesis of Oleanane-type saponins. In addition, the genomic information of this important herbal plant is unavailable.Principal Findings:A total of 58,580,566 clean reads were obtained, which were assembled into 34,053 unigenes, with an average length of 936 bp and N50 of 1,661 bp by analyzing the transcriptome data of P. grandiflorum. Among these 34,053 unigenes, 22,409 unigenes (65.80% were annotated based on the information available from public databases, including Nr, NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG. Furthermore, 21 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from the transcriptome sequencing of P. grandiflorum. In addition, 10,626 SSRs were identified based on the transcriptome data, which would provide abundant candidates of molecular markers for genetic diversity and genetic map for this medicinal plant.Conclusion:The genomic data obtained from P. grandiflorum, especially the identification of putative genes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway, will facilitate our understanding of the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins at molecular level.

  17. Unraveling Additional O-Methylation Steps in Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Biosynthesis in California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Ratmoyo; Hori, Kentaro; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2017-09-01

    California poppy (Eschscholzia californica), a member of the Papaveraceae family, produces many biologically active benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), such as sanguinarine, macarpine and chelerythrine. Sanguinarine biosynthesis has been elucidated at the molecular level, and its biosynthetic genes have been isolated and used in synthetic biology approaches to produce BIAs in vitro. However, several genes involved in the biosynthesis of macarpine and chelerythrine have not yet been characterized. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel O-methyltransferase (OMT) involved in the biosynthesis of partially characterized BIAs, especially chelerythrine. A search of the RNA sequence database from NCBI and PhytoMetaSyn for the conserved OMT domain identified 68 new OMT-like sequences, of which the longest 22 sequences were selected based on sequence similarity. Based on their expression in cell lines with different macarpine/chelerythrine profiles, we selected three OMTs (G2, G3 and G11) for further characterization. G3 expression in Escherichia coli indicated O-methylation activity of the simple benzylisoquinolines, including reticuline and norreticuline, and the protoberberine scoulerine with dual regio-reactivities. G3 produced 7-O-methylated, 3'-O-methylated and dual O-methylated products from reticuline and norreticuline, and 9-O-methylated tetrahydrocolumbamine, 2-O-methylscoulerine and tetrahydropalmatine from scoulerine. Further enzymatic analyses suggested that G3 is a scoulerine-9-O-methyltransferase for the biosynthesis of chelerythrine in California poppy. In the present study, we discuss the physiological role of G3 in BIA biosynthesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The plant cuticle is required for osmotic stress regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenyu

    2011-05-01

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). One major step in ABA biosynthesis is the carotenoid cleavage catalyzed by a 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the mechanism for osmotic stress activation of ABA biosynthesis, we screened for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that failed to induce the NCED3 genee xpression in response to osmotic stress treatments. The ced1 (for 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxy genase defective 1) mutant isolated in this study showed markedly reduced expression of NCED3 in response to osmotic stress (polyethylene glycol)treatments compared with the wild type. Other ABA biosynthesis genes are also greatly reduced in ced1 under osmotic stress. ced1 mutant plants are very sensitive to even mild osmotic stress. Map-based cloning revealed unexpectedly thatCED1 encodes a putative a/b hydrolase domain-containing protein and is allelic to the BODYGUARD gene that was recently shown to be essential for cuticle biogenesis. Further studies discovered that other cut in biosynthesis mutants are also impaired in osmotic stress induction of ABA biosynthesis genes and are sensitive to osmotic stress. Our work demonstrates that the cuticle functions not merely as a physical barrier to minimize water loss but also mediates osmotic stress signaling and tolerance by regulating ABA biosynthesis and signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineering Escherichia coli Nicotinic Acid Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase for Fully Active Amidated NAD Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Zhou, Yongjin J; Wang, Lei; Liu, Wujun; Liu, Yuxue; Peng, Chang; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2017-07-01

    NAD and its reduced form NADH function as essential redox cofactors and have major roles in determining cellular metabolic features. NAD can be synthesized through the deamidated and amidated pathways, for which the key reaction involves adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively. In Escherichia coli , NAD de novo biosynthesis depends on the protein NadD-catalyzed adenylylation of NaMN to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD), followed by NAD synthase-catalyzed amidation. In this study, we engineered NadD to favor NMN for improved amidated pathway activity. We designed NadD mutant libraries, screened by a malic enzyme-coupled colorimetric assay, and identified two variants, 11B4 (Y84V/Y118D) and 16D8 (A86W/Y118N), with a high preference for NMN. Whereas in the presence of NMN both variants were capable of enabling the viability of cells of E. coli BW25113-derived NAD-auxotrophic strain YJE003, for which the last step of the deamidated pathway is blocked, the 16D8 expression strain could grow without exogenous NMN and accumulated a higher cellular NAD(H) level than BW25113 in the stationary phase. These mutants established fully active amidated NAD biosynthesis and offered a new opportunity to manipulate NAD metabolism for biocatalysis and metabolic engineering. IMPORTANCE Adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) and adenylylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), respectively, are the key steps in the deamidated and amidated pathways for NAD biosynthesis. In most organisms, canonical NAD biosynthesis follows the deamidated pathway. Here we engineered Escherichia coli NaMN adenylyltransferase to favor NMN and expressed the mutant enzyme in an NAD-auxotrophic E. coli strain that has the last step of the deamidated pathway blocked. The engineered strain survived in M9 medium, which indicated the implementation of a functional amidated pathway for NAD biosynthesis. These results enrich

  20. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in sorghum bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target to alter the abundance and composition of lignin. The major regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism are myb transcription factors, which have been shown to modulate secondary cell wall compositi...

  1. Comparative metabolomics in vanilla pod and vanilla bean revealing the biosynthesis of vanillin during the curing process of vanilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Chen, Yonggan; Hong, Yinghua; Fang, Yiming; Tan, Lehe

    2017-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used for comprehensive metabolomic fingerprinting of vanilla fruits prepared from the curing process. In this study, the metabolic changes of vanilla pods and vanilla beans were characterized using MS-based metabolomics to elucidate the biosynthesis of vanillin. The vanilla pods were significantly different from vanilla beans. Seven pathways of vanillin biosynthesis were constructed, namely, glucovanillin, glucose, cresol, capsaicin, vanillyl alcohol, tyrosine, and phenylalanine pathways. Investigations demonstrated that glucose, cresol, capsaicin, and vanillyl alcohol pathway were detected in a wide range of distribution in microbial metabolism. Thus, microorganisms might have participated in vanillin biosynthesis during vanilla curing. Furthermore, the ion strength of glucovanillin was stable, which indicated that glucovanillin only participated in the vanillin biosynthesis during the curing of vanilla.

  2. Auxin regulation of cytokinin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana: A factor of potential importance for auxin-cytokinin-regulated development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nordström, A.; Tarkowski, Petr; Tarkowská, Danuše; Norbaek, R.; Astot, C.; Doležal, Karel; Sandberg, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 21 (2004), s. 8039-8044 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Arabidopsis * auxin * cytokinin * biosynthesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 10.452, year: 2004

  3. Molecular analysis of "de novo" purine biosynthesis in solanaceous species and in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, Paul; Lein, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Purine nucleotides are essential components to sustain plant growth and development. In plants they are either synthesized "de novo" during the process of purine biosynthesis or are recycled from purine bases and purine nucleosides throughout the salvage pathway. Comparison between animals...... biosynthesis pathway in plants, and the in planta functional analysis of PRPP (5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophoshate) amidotransferase (ATase), catalyzing the first committed step of the "de novo" purine biosynthesis. The cloning of the genes involved in the purine biosynthesis pathway was attained by a screening...... strategy with heterologous cDNA probes and by using S. cerevisiae mutants for complementation. Southern hybridization showed a complex genomic organization for these genes in solanaceous species and their organ- and developmental specific expression was analyzed by Northern hybridization. The specific role...

  4. Investigation of the biosynthesis in Achillea millefolium ssp. collina Becker using radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzarne Petri, G.; Shalaby El-Sayed, A.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis in Achillea millefolium ssp. collina Becker was studied using CH 3 - 14 COONa and 14 CH 3 - COONa precursors. It has been found that CH 3 - 14 COONa incorporates more slowly and in lower rate into the biosynthetic pathway of essential oil than 14 CH 3 - COONa. The incorporation of both demonstrates the oil forming ability of herb and flowers. The process is more emphasized in the flower out of the organs of the plants. Further on it was stated that the biosynthesis leads to bicyclic α-pinene and borneol through some aliphatic and cyclic monoterpenes, while eucalyptole (cineol) as an oxydation product appears in an early stage. Of sesquiterpenes the caryophyllene procedes the formation of camazulene. (author)

  5. Biosynthesis of NAD from nicotinic acid and nicotinamide by resting cells of Arthrobacter globiformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Masaaki

    1978-01-01

    Isotopically labeled nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were incorporated into the metabolites of nicotinic acid-dependent pathway (Preiss-Handler pathway) of the NAD biosynthesis by resting cells of Arthrobacter globiformis. Azaserine and adenosine markedly stimulated the accumulation of NAD in the cells. Radioactive nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were also incorporated into an unknown compound when the cells were incubated in the presence of azaserine. Cell-free extract of the organism showed the NAD synthetase activity, which required ammonium ion and ATP for the amidation of deamido-NAD. Adenosine inhibited the enzyme activity. The organism possessed nicotinamidase, suggesting deamidation is the first step in the biosynthesis of NAD from nicotinamide. The activity was inhibited by NAD, NADP and NMN. (auth.)

  6. A model of proteolysis and amino acid biosynthesis for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enuo; Zheng, Huajun; Hao, Pei; Konno, Tomonobu; Yu, Yao; Kume, Hisae; Oda, Munehiro; Ji, Zai-Si

    2012-12-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 (L. bulgaricus 2038) is a bacterium that is used as a starter for dairy products by Meiji Co., Ltd of Japan. Culturing L. bulgaricus 2038 with whey as the sole nitrogen source results in a shorter lag phase than other milk proteins under the same conditions (carbon source, minerals, and vitamins). Microarray results of gene expression revealed characteristics of amino acid anabolism with whey as the nitrogen source and established a model of proteolysis and amino acid biosynthesis for L. bulgaricus. Whey peptides and free amino acids are readily metabolized, enabling rapid entry into the logarithmic growth phase. The oligopeptide transport system is the primary pathway for obtaining amino acids. Amino acid biosynthesis maintains the balance between amino acids required for cell growth and the amount obtained from environment. The interconversion of amino acids is also important for L. bulgaricus 2038 growth.

  7. Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions Involved in Pectin Biosynthesis in the golgi Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian Have

    for instance as food additives, nutraceutical, for paper and energy production. Pectin is a cell wall glycan that crucial for every plant growing on land. Pectin is said to be one of the most complex glycans on earth and it is hypothesized that at least 67 enzymatic reactions are involved in its biosynthesis......The plant cell wall surrounds every plant cell and is an essential component that is involved in diverse functions including plant development, morphology, resistance towards plant pathogens etc. The plant cell wall is not only important for the plant. The cell wall has many industrial applications...... the diverse pectin structures for industrial, agronomic and biomedical uses. Increasing evidence suggests that complex formation is important in governing functional coordination of proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a homogalacturonan (HG) synthase core complex between...

  8. Enabling techniques in the search for new antibiotics: Combinatorial biosynthesis of sugar-containing antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Je Won; Nam, Sang-Jip; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2017-06-15

    Nature has a talent for inventing a vast number of natural products, including hybrids generated by blending different scaffolds, resulting in a myriad of bioactive chemical entities. Herein, we review the highlights and recent trends (2010-2016) in the combinatorial biosynthesis of sugar-containing antibiotics where nature's structural diversification capabilities are exploited to enable the creation of new anti-infective and anti-proliferative drugs. In this review, we describe the modern combinatorial biosynthetic approaches for polyketide synthase-derived complex and aromatic polyketides, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-directed lipo-/glycopeptides, aminoglycosides, nucleoside antibiotics, and alkaloids, along with their therapeutic potential. Finally, we present the feasible nexus between combinatorial biosynthesis, systems biology, and synthetic biology as a toolbox to provide new antibiotics that will be indispensable in the post-antibiotic era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Discovery, biosynthesis, and rational engineering of novel enterocin and wailupemycin polyketide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzis, John A

    2013-01-01

    The marine actinomycete Streptomyces maritimus produces a structurally diverse set of unusual polyketide natural products including the major metabolite enterocin. Investigations of enterocin biosynthesis revealed that the unique carbon skeleton is derived from an aromatic polyketide pathway which is genetically coded by the 21.3 kb enc gene cluster in S. maritimus. Characterization of the enc biosynthesis gene cluster and subsequent manipulation of it via heterologous expression and/or mutagenesis enabled the discovery of other enc-based metabolites that were produced in only very minor amounts in the wild type. Also described are techniques used to harness the enterocin biosynthetic machinery in order to generate unnatural enc-derived polyketide analogues. This review focuses upon the molecular methods used in combination with classical natural products detection and isolation techniques to access minor metabolites of the S. maritimus secondary metabolome.

  10. Independent Activation of Hepatitis B Virus Biosynthesis by Retinoids, Peroxisome Proliferators, and Bile Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Vanessa C.; Oropeza, Claudia E.

    2013-01-01

    In the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, retinoic acid, clofibric acid, and bile acid treatment can only modestly increase hepatitis B virus (HBV) biosynthesis. Utilizing the human embryonic kidney cell line 293T, it was possible to demonstrate that the retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) plus its ligand can support viral biosynthesis independently of additional nuclear receptors. In addition, RXRα/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and RXRα/farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα) heterodimeric nuclear receptors can also mediate ligand-dependent HBV transcription and replication when activated by clofibric acid and bile acid, respectively, independently of a requirement for the ligand-dependent activation of RXRα. These observations indicate that there are at least three possible modes of ligand-mediated activation of HBV transcription and replication existing within hepatocytes, suggesting that multiple independent mechanisms control viral production in the livers of infected individuals. PMID:23135717

  11. Tilting Plant Metabolism for Improved Metabolite Biosynthesis and Enhanced Human Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhekumthetho Ncube

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The immense chemical diversity of plant-derived secondary metabolites coupled with their vast array of biological functions has seen this group of compounds attract considerable research interest across a range of research disciplines. Medicinal and aromatic plants, in particular, have been exploited for this biogenic pool of phytochemicals for products such as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, dyes, and insecticides, among others. With consumers showing increasing interests in these products, innovative biotechnological techniques are being developed and employed to alter plant secondary metabolism in efforts to improve on the quality and quantity of specific metabolites of interest. This review provides an overview of the biosynthesis for phytochemical compounds with medicinal and other related properties and their associated biological activities. It also provides an insight into how their biosynthesis/biosynthetic pathways have been modified/altered to enhance production.

  12. Everybody needs sphingolipids, right! Mining for new drug targets in protozoan sphingolipid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, John G M; Denny, P W

    2018-02-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are an integral part of all eukaryotic cellular membranes. In addition, they have indispensable functions as signalling molecules controlling a myriad of cellular events. Disruption of either the de novo synthesis or the degradation pathways has been shown to have detrimental effects. The earlier identification of selective inhibitors of fungal SL biosynthesis promised potent broad-spectrum anti-fungal agents, which later encouraged testing some of those agents against protozoan parasites. In this review we focus on the key enzymes of the SL de novo biosynthetic pathway in protozoan parasites of the Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastidae, outlining the divergence and interconnection between host and pathogen metabolism. The druggability of the SL biosynthesis is considered, alongside recent technology advances that will enable the dissection and analyses of this pathway in the parasitic protozoa. The future impact of these advances for the development of new therapeutics for both globally threatening and neglected infectious diseases is potentially profound.

  13. Biosynthesis of anthraquinone derivatives in a Sesamum indicum hairy root culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Toshio; Sato, Ryuta

    2017-10-01

    In order to investigate the intermediacy of 2-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)anthraquinone (MPAQ), a possible intermediate for the biosynthesis of anthraquinone derivatives in sesame (Sesamum indicum), 2 H-labeled MPAQ was administered to a hairy root culture of S. indicum. Efficient conversion of fed MPAQ to 2-[(Z)-4-methylpenta-1,3-dien-1-yl]anthraquinone ((Z)-MPDEAQ) was observed. Furthermore, administration experiment with 2 H-labeled 2-geranyl-1,4-naphthohydroquinone, another possible intermediate, showed that it was converted to MPAQ and (Z)-MPDEAQ. The results clearly demonstrated that these substrates are the actual precursors for the production of (Z)-MPDEAQ. In contrast, neither MPAQ nor 2-geranyl-1,4-naphthohydroquinone was converted to anthrasesamone B and 2,3-epoxyanthrasesamone B, other anthraquinone derivatives in the hairy roots, suggesting that these substrates may not be the common precursors in the biosynthesis of anthraquinone derivatives.

  14. Enhancement of Naringenin Biosynthesis from Tyrosine by Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xiaomei; Ng, Kuan Rei; Lee, Jie Lin; Mark, Rita; Chen, Wei Ning

    2017-08-09

    Flavonoids are an important class of plant polyphenols that possess a variety of health benefits. In this work, S. cerevisiae was metabolically engineered to produce the flavonoid naringenin, using tyrosine as the precursor. Our strategy to improve naringenin production comprised three modules. In module 1, we employed a modified GAL system to overexpress the genes of the naringenin biosynthesis pathway and investigated their synergistic action. In module 2, we simultaneously up-regulated acetyl-CoA production and down-regulated fatty acid biosynthesis in order to increase the precursor supply, malonyl-CoA. In module 3, we engineered the tyrosine biosynthetic pathway to eliminate the feedback inhibition of tyrosine and also down-regulated competing pathways. It was found that modules 1 and 3 played important roles in improving naringenin production. We succeeded in producing up to ∼90 mg/L of naringenin in our final strain, which is a 20-fold increase as compared to the parental strain.

  15. Extrinsic functions of lectin domains in O-N-acetylgalactosamine glycan biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Virginia; Ditamo, Yanina; Cejas, Romina B

    2016-01-01

    during O-GalNAc glycan biosynthesis. The presence of lectin domain T3lec or T4lec during ppGalNAc-T2 and ppGalNAc-T3 catalytic reaction had a clear inhibitory effect on GalNAc-T activity. Interaction of T3lec or T4lec with ppGalNAc-T2 catalytic domain was not mediated by carbohydrate. T3lec, but not T2......Glycan biosynthesis occurs mainly in Golgi. Molecular organization and functional regulation of this process are not well understood. We evaluated the extrinsic effect of lectin domains (β-trefoil fold) of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (ppGalNAc-Ts) on catalytic activity of glycosyltransferases...

  16. Nanosilver microalgae biosynthesis: cell appearance based on SEM and EDX methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermin; Zainuri, Muhammad; Marhaendrajaya, Indras; Subagio, Agus

    2018-05-01

    Microbial contamination has caused public health problems in the world population. This problem has spurred the development of methods to overcome and prevent microbial invasion. The extensive use of antibiotics has facilitated the continued emergence and spread of resistant organisms. Synthesized of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) on microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa offer environmentally safe antimicrobial agent. The present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using microalgae C. pyrenoidosa. The research methods was conducted by insertion of nanosilver particle into microalgae cells with and without agitation to speed up the process of formation nanosilver microalgae. The formation of microalgae SNP was analyzes by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) methods. The research result showed that nanosilver microalgae biosynthesis using the agitation treatment was exhibited better performance in particle insertion and cell stability, comparing with no agitation treatment. However, synthesis of nanosilver microalgae tend to reduce the cell size.

  17. Action of radiation on biosynthesis of hemoglobin and some of its electrophoretic fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, N.F.; Kriklivyj, I.A.; Shur'yan, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Biosynthesis of hemoglobin and some of its electrophoretic fractions in red cells of peripheral blood and spleen of irradiated (650 R) rats has been studied. Hemoglobin synthesis is found to be most drastically inhibited in the first and second fractions on the first and eighth days after irradiation and in the fifth and sixth fractions on the eighth day (less expressed). The synthesis is restored on the twelfth day, the process under study proceeding more slowly in the above-mentioned fractions than in others. In the course of radiation sickness, the biosynthesis of certain hemoglobin fractions varies differently in the hemoglobin-synthesizing cells of peripheral blood than in the cells of spleenic erythroid series

  18. Intermediates in monensin biosynthesis: A late step in biosynthesis of the polyether ionophore monensin is crucial for the integrity of cation binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hüttel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyether antibiotics such as monensin are biosynthesised via a cascade of directed ring expansions operating on a putative polyepoxide precursor. The resulting structures containing fused cyclic ethers and a lipophilic backbone can form strong ionophoric complexes with certain metal cations. In this work, we demonstrate for monensin biosynthesis that, as well as ether formation, a late-stage hydroxylation step is crucial for the correct formation of the sodium monensin complex. We have investigated the last two steps in monensin biosynthesis, namely hydroxylation catalysed by the P450 monooxygenase MonD and O-methylation catalysed by the methyl-transferase MonE. The corresponding genes were deleted in-frame in a monensin-overproducing strain of Streptomyces cinnamonensis. The mutants produced the expected monensin derivatives in excellent yields (ΔmonD: 1.13 g L−1 dehydroxymonensin; ΔmonE: 0.50 g L−1 demethylmonensin; and double mutant ΔmonDΔmonE: 0.34 g L−1 dehydroxydemethylmonensin. Single crystals were obtained from purified fractions of dehydroxymonensin and demethylmonensin. X-ray structure analysis revealed that the conformation of sodium dimethylmonensin is very similar to that of sodium monensin. In contrast, the coordination of the sodium ion is significantly different in the sodium dehydroxymonensin complex. This shows that the final constitution of the sodium monensin complex requires this tailoring step as well as polyether formation.

  19. Intermediates in monensin biosynthesis: A late step in biosynthesis of the polyether ionophore monensin is crucial for the integrity of cation binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttel, Wolfgang; Spencer, Jonathan B; Leadlay, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    Polyether antibiotics such as monensin are biosynthesised via a cascade of directed ring expansions operating on a putative polyepoxide precursor. The resulting structures containing fused cyclic ethers and a lipophilic backbone can form strong ionophoric complexes with certain metal cations. In this work, we demonstrate for monensin biosynthesis that, as well as ether formation, a late-stage hydroxylation step is crucial for the correct formation of the sodium monensin complex. We have investigated the last two steps in monensin biosynthesis, namely hydroxylation catalysed by the P450 monooxygenase MonD and O-methylation catalysed by the methyl-transferase MonE. The corresponding genes were deleted in-frame in a monensin-overproducing strain of Streptomyces cinnamonensis. The mutants produced the expected monensin derivatives in excellent yields (ΔmonD: 1.13 g L(-1) dehydroxymonensin; ΔmonE: 0.50 g L(-1) demethylmonensin; and double mutant ΔmonDΔmonE: 0.34 g L(-1) dehydroxydemethylmonensin). Single crystals were obtained from purified fractions of dehydroxymonensin and demethylmonensin. X-ray structure analysis revealed that the conformation of sodium dimethylmonensin is very similar to that of sodium monensin. In contrast, the coordination of the sodium ion is significantly different in the sodium dehydroxymonensin complex. This shows that the final constitution of the sodium monensin complex requires this tailoring step as well as polyether formation.

  20. Epoxide hydrolase Lsd19 for polyether formation in the biosynthesis of lasalocid A: direct experimental evidence on polyene-polyepoxide hypothesis in polyether biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichijo, Yoshihiro; Migita, Akira; Oguri, Hiroki; Watanabe, Mami; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Kenji; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2008-09-17

    Polyether metabolites are an important class of natural products. Although their biosynthesis, especially construction of polyether skeletons, attracted organic chemists for many years, no experimental data on the enzymatic polyether formation has been obtained. In this study, a putative epoxide hydrolase gene lsd19 found on the biosynthetic gene cluster of an ionophore polyether lasalocid was cloned and successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Using the purified Lsd19, a proposed substrate, bisepoxyprelasalocid, and its synthesized analogue were successfully converted into lasalocid A and its derivative via a 6-endo-tet cyclization mode. On the other hand, treatment of the bisepoxide with trichloroacetic acid gave isolasalocid A via a 5-exo-tet cyclization mode. Therefore, the enzymatic conversion observed in this study unambiguously showed that the bisepoxyprelasalocid is an intermediate of the lasalocid biosynthesis and that Lsd19 catalyzes the sequential cyclic ether formations involving an energetically disfavored 6-endo-tet cyclization. This is the first example of the enzymatic epoxide-opening reactions leading to a polyether natural product.

  1. The Arabidopsis transcription factor ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to high sucrose and oxidative and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Mahmood

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous sucrose as well as high light stress. Using biochemical, molecular and transgenic approaches, we show that ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to sucrose treatment, high light and oxidative stress. ANAC032 was found to negatively affect anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis (DFR, ANS/LDOX and positive regulatory (TT8 genes as demonstrated in overexpression line (35S:ANAC032 compared to wild-type under high light stress. The chimeric repressor line (35S:ANAC032-SRDX exhibited the opposite expression patterns for these genes. The negative impact of ANAC032 on the expression of DFR, ANS/LDOX and TT8 was found to be correlated with the altered expression of negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, AtMYBL2 and SPL9. In addition to this, ANAC032 also repressed the MeJA- and ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. As a result, transgenic lines overexpressing ANAC032 (35S:ANAC032 produced drastically reduced levels of anthocyanin pigment compared to wild-type when challenged with salinity stress. However, transgenic chimeric repressor lines (35S:ANAC032-SRDX exhibited the opposite phenotype. Our results suggest that ANAC032 functions as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana during stress conditions.

  2. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor ANAC032 Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Response to High Sucrose and Oxidative and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Kashif; Xu, Zhenhua; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Casaretto, José A; Rothstein, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous sucrose as well as high light (HL) stress. Using biochemical, molecular and transgenic approaches, we show that ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to sucrose treatment, HL and oxidative stress. ANAC032 was found to negatively affect anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis ( DFR, ANS/LDOX) and positive regulatory ( TT8) genes as demonstrated in overexpression line (35S:ANAC032) compared to wild-type under HL stress. The chimeric repressor line (35S:ANAC032-SRDX) exhibited the opposite expression patterns for these genes. The negative impact of ANAC032 on the expression of DFR, ANS/LDOX and TT8 was found to be correlated with the altered expression of negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, AtMYBL2 and SPL9 . In addition to this, ANAC032 also repressed the MeJA- and ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. As a result, transgenic lines overexpressing ANAC032 (35S:ANAC032) produced drastically reduced levels of anthocyanin pigment compared to wild-type when challenged with salinity stress. However, transgenic chimeric repressor lines (35S:ANAC032-SRDX) exhibited the opposite phenotype. Our results suggest that ANAC032 functions as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana during stress conditions.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a potato StAN11 gene involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Wang, Bing; Wang, Man; Chen, Min; Yin, Jing-Ming; Kaleri, Ghullam Murtaza; Zhang, Rui-Jie; Zuo, Tie-Niu; You, Xiong; Yang, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of products of plant secondary metabolism and are responsible for tubers color in potato. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a complex biological process, in which multiple genes are involved including structural genes and regulatory genes. In this study, StAN11, a WD40-repeat gene, was cloned from potato cultivar Chieftain (Solanum tuberosum L.). StAN11 (HQ599506) contained no intron and its open reading frame (ORF) was 1,029 bp long, encoding a putative protein of 342 amino acids. In order to verify its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, StAN11 was inserted behind the CaMV-35S promoter of pCMBIA1304 and the recombination vector was introduced into the potato cultivar Désirée plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The color of transgenic tuber skin was significantly deepened, compared to the wild-type control, which was highly consistent with the accumulation of anthocyanin and expression of StAN11 in transgenic lines tuber skin. Further analysis on the expression of Flavonone-3-hydroxylase (F3H), Dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and Flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase (3GT) in transgenic plants revealed that only DFR was upregulated. This result suggested that StAN11 regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato by controlling DFR expression and accumulation of anthocyanin could be increased through overexpression of StAN11 in the tubers with the genetic background of anthocyanin biosynthesis. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Radiographic features of the skeleton in disorders of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Edery, Patrick [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Genetic Department, Referral Centre for Developmental Abnormalities, Femme-Mere-Enfant Hospital, Bron (France); INSERM U1028 UMR CNRS 5,292, UCBL, CRNL TIGER Team, CH le Vinater, Bron (France); Hall, Christine M. [Retired from Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Bouvier, Raymonde; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Pathology, CBPE, Bron (France); Le Breton, Frederique [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Pathology, Croix-Rousse Hospital, Lyon (France); Bucourt, Martine [AP-HP, Foetopathology Unit, Jean Verdier Hospital, Bondy (France); Cordier, Marie Pierre [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Genetic Department, Referral Centre for Developmental Abnormalities, Femme-Mere-Enfant Hospital, Bron (France); Vianey-Saban, Christine [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Neonatal Screening, CBPE, Bron (France); Parenti, Giancarlo; Andria, Generoso [Federico II University, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Section of Pediatrics, Naples (Italy); Le Merrer, Martine [AP-HP, Genetic Department, Referal Centre for Skeletal Dysplasias, Institut Imagine, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (United Kingdom); Offiah, Amaka C. [Stephenson Wing Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust Western Bank, Radiology Department, Children' s Hospital, Academic Unit of Child Health Room C4, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Disorders of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis are inborn errors of metabolism characterised by multiple congenital abnormalities, including significant skeletal involvement. The most frequent and best-characterised example is the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Nine other disorders are known, namely autosomal-recessive Antley-Bixler syndrome, Greenberg dysplasia, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, X-linked recessive male emopamil-binding protein deficiency, CHILD syndrome, CK syndrome, sterol C4 methyloxidase-like deficiency, desmosterolosis and lathosterolosis. This study provides an overview of the radiologic features observed in these diseases. A common pattern of limb abnormalities is recognisable, including polydactyly, which is typically post-axial and rarely interdigital and can involve all four limbs, and syndactyly of the toes. Chondrodysplasia punctata is specifically associated with a subgroup of disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis (Greenberg dysplasia, CHILD syndrome, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, male emopamil-binding protein deficiency). The possible occurrence of epiphyseal stippling in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, initially reported, does not appear to be confirmed. Stippling is also associated with other congenital disorders such as chromosomal abnormalities, brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata (X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata, disruptions of vitamin K metabolism, maternal autoimmune diseases), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (peroxisomal disorders) and lysosomal storage disorders. In the differential diagnosis of epiphyseal stippling, a moth-eaten appearance of bones, asymmetry, or presence of a common pattern of limb abnormalities indicate inborn errors of cholesterol biosynthesis. We highlight the specific differentiating radiologic features of disorders of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis. (orig.)

  5. Inhibitory effect of isoprenoid-substituted flavonoids isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus on melanin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2006-07-01

    Isoprenoid-substituted flavonoids were isolated from the wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus by means of activity-guided fractionation. Artocarpin (1), cudraflavone C (2), 6-prenylapigenin (3), kuwanon C (4), norartocarpin (5) and albanin A (6) inhibited melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells without inhibiting tyrosinase. A structure-activity investigation indicated that the presence of the isoprenoid-substituted moiety enhanced the inhibitory activity on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells.

  6. Role of the Colletotrichum acutatum sesquiterpene synthase CaTPS in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Manczak, Tom; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    biosynthesis is performed by sesquiterpene synthases (TPS). Only a few TPSs have been functionally characterized from filamentous fungi and none from the genus Colletotrichum. Despite being an important fungal pathogen to agriculture, it is poorly understood at the molecular and chemical levels. The terpenoid...... characterization of TPS in Colletotrichum spp. and terpenoid profiles of Coll. acutatum, which could facilitate studies on the role of terpenoids in the ecology of Coll. acutatum....

  7. The old is new again: asparagine oxidation in calcium-dependent antibiotic biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Andrew S; Burkart, Michael D

    2007-03-20

    Non-ribosomal peptides are built from both proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids. The latter resemble amino acids but contain modifications not found in proteins. The recent characterization of a non-heme Fe(2+) and alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenase that stereospecifically generates beta-hydroxyasparagine, an unnatural amino acid building block for the biosynthesis of calcium-dependent antibiotic, a lipopeptide antibiotic. This work improves our understanding of how these non-proteinogenic amino acids are synthesized.

  8. Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) as an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis in tumour cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Seppänen, P; Fagerström, R; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Elo, H; Lumme, P; Jänne, J

    1984-01-01

    Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), the parent compound of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), was synthesized and tested for its ability to inhibit the biosynthesis of polyamines. It was found to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50), yet the lack of the methyl group at the glyoxal portion increased the apparent Ki value for the enzyme by about 30-fold in comparison with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibited diami...

  9. The enzymatic activity of the VEGFR2 receptor for the biosynthesis of dinucleoside polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Vera; Schulz, Anna; Kretschmer, Axel; Mischak, Harald; Boehringer, Falko; van der Giet, Markus; Janke, Doreen; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Herwig, Ralf; Zidek, Walter; Jankowski, Joachim

    2013-09-01

    The group of dinucleoside polyphosphates encompasses a large number of molecules consisting of two nucleosides which are connected by a phosphate chain of variable length. While the receptors activated by dinucleoside polyphosphates as well as their degradation have been studied in detail, its biosynthesis has not been elucidated so far. Since endothelial cells released the dinucleoside polyphosphate uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A), we tested cytosolic proteins of human endothelial cells obtained from dermal vessels elicited for enzymatic activity. When incubated with ADP and UDP, these cells showed increasing concentrations of Up4A. The underlying enzyme was isolated by chromatography and the mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the enzymatic activity was caused by the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Since VEGFR2 but neither VEGFR1 nor VEGFR3 were capable to synthesise dinucleoside polyphosphates, Tyr-1175 of VEGFR2 is most likely essential for the enzymatic activity of interest. Further, VEGFR2-containing cells like HepG2, THP-1 and RAW264.7 were capable of synthesising dinucleoside polyphosphates. VEGFR2-transfected HEK 293T/17 but not native HEK 293T/17 cells synthesised dinucleoside polyphosphates in vivo too. The simultaneous biosynthesis of dinucleoside polyphosphates could amplify the response to VEGF, since dinucleoside polyphosphates induce cellular growth via P2Y purinergic receptors. Thus the biosynthesis of dinucleoside polyphosphates by VEGFR2 may enhance the proliferative response to VEGF. Given that VEGFR2 is primarily expressed in endothelial cells, the biosynthesis of dinucleoside polyphosphates is mainly located in the vascular system. Since the vasculature is also the main site of action of dinucleoside polyphosphates, activating vascular purinoceptors, blood vessels appear as an autocrine system with respect to dinucleoside polyphosphates. We conclude that VEGFR2 receptor is capable of synthesising

  10. Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in hypocotyl callus cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhandapani, M; Antony, A; Subba Rao, P V [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore. Dept. of Biochemistry

    1977-03-01

    Hypocotyl callus cultures of fenugreek were studied to determine their potential for synthesizing phenolics, particularly those which are intermediates in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. The cultures were found to be capable of synthesizing an array of phenolic compounds characteristic of higher plants. Both phenylalanine-U-/sup 14/C and cinnamic acid-U-/sup 14/C were found to be efficient precursors of these phenolics.

  11. [Expression of saponin biosynthesis related genes in different tissues of Panax quinquefolius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Yu; Liu, Wei-Can; Zhang, Mei-Ping; Zhao, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Yan-Fang; Li, Li; Sun, Chun-Yu; Hu, Ke-Xin; Cong, Yue-Yi; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between saponin content of Panax quinquefolius in different parts of the organization and expression of ginsenoside biosynthesis related gene was obtained by the correlation analysis between saponin content and gene expression. The 14 tissue parts of P. quinquefolius were studied, six saponins in P. quinquefolius. Samples (ginsenoside Rg₁, Re, Rb₁, Rc, Rb₂ and Rd), group saponins and total saponins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and vanillin-sulfuric acid colorimetric method. Simultaneously, the expression levels of 7 ginsenoside biosynthesis related genes ( SQS, OSC, DS, β-AS, SQE, P450 and FPS ) in different tissues of P. quinquefolius were determined by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Although 7 kinds of ginsenoside biosynthesis related enzyme gene in the P. quinquefolius involved in ginsenoside synthesis, the expression of β-AS and P450 genes had no significant effect on the content of monosodium saponins, grouping saponins and total saponins, FPS, SQS, OSC, DS and SQE had significant or extremely significant on the contents of single saponins Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rd, group saponin PPD and PPT, total saponin TMS and total saponin TS ( P saponins, grouping saponins and total saponins in P. quinquefolius was affected by the interaction of multiple enzyme genes in the saponin synthesis pathway, the content of saponins in different tissues of P. quinquefolius was determined by the differences in the expression of key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway. Therefore, this study further clarified that FPS, SQS, OSC, DS and SQE was the key enzyme to control the synthesis of saponins in P. quinquefolius by correlation analysis, the biosynthesis of ginsenosides in P. quinquefolius was regulated by these five kind of enzymes in cluster co-expression of interaction mode. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Biosynthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Callus Cultures of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R Indira; Panda, Tapobrata

    2018-08-01

    The potential of callus cultures and field-grown organs of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles of the noble metals gold and silver has been investigated. Biosynthesis of AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) and AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) was obtained with flowers of C. maxima but not with pulp and seeds. With callus cultures established in MS-based medium the biogenesis of both AuNPs and AgNPs could be obtained. At 65 °C the biogenesis of AuNPs and AgNPs by callus extracts was enhanced. The AuNPs and AgNPs have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and XRD. Well-dispersed nanoparticles, which exhibited a remarkable diversity in size and shape, could be visualized by TEM. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes, viz., rods, triangles, star-shaped particles, spheres, hexagons, bipyramids, discoid particles, nanotrapezoids, prisms, cuboids. Silver nanoparticles were also of diverse shapes, viz., discoid, spherical, elliptical, triangle-like, belt-like, rod-shaped forms and cuboids. EDX analysis indicated that the AuNPs and AgNPs had a high degree of purity. The surface charges of the generated AuNPs and AgNPs were highly negative as indicated by zeta potential measurements. The AuNPs and AgNPs exhibited remarkable stability in solution for more than four months. FTIR studies indicated that biomolecules in the callus extracts were associated with the biosynthesis and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs could catalyse degradation of methylene blue and exhibited anti-bacterial activity against E. coli DH5α. There is no earlier report of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles by this plant species. Callus cultures of Cucurbita maxima are effective alternative resources of biomass for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  13. Phenyl thiazolyl urea and carbamate derivatives as new inhibitors of bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Gerardo D; Li, Zhong; Albright, J Donald; Eudy, Nancy H; Katz, Alan H; Petersen, Peter J; Labthavikul, Pornpen; Singh, Guy; Yang, Youjun; Rasmussen, Beth A; Lin, Yang-I; Mansour, Tarek S

    2004-01-05

    Over 50 phenyl thiazolyl urea and carbamate derivatives were synthesized for evaluation as new inhibitors of bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis. Many of them demonstrated good activity against MurA and MurB and gram-positive bacteria including MRSA, VRE and PRSP. 3,4-Difluorophenyl 5-cyanothiazolylurea (3p) with clog P of 2.64 demonstrated antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  14. Heat stress differentially modifies ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in pea floral and fruit tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savada, Raghavendra P; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Jayasinghege, Charitha P A; Waduthanthri, Kosala D; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2017-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis is regulated in reproductive tissues in response to heat stress in a manner to optimize resource allocation to pollinated fruits with developing seeds. High temperatures during reproductive development are particularly detrimental to crop fruit/seed production. Ethylene plays vital roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses; however, little is known about ethylene's role in reproductive tissues during development under heat stress. We assessed ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulation within the reproductive and associated tissues of pea during the developmental phase that sets the stage for fruit-set and seed development under normal and heat-stress conditions. The transcript abundance profiles of PsACS [encode enzymes that convert S-adenosyl-L-methionine to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)] and PsACO (encode enzymes that convert ACC to ethylene), and ethylene evolution were developmentally, environmentally, and tissue-specifically regulated in the floral/fruit/pedicel tissues of pea. Higher transcript abundance of PsACS and PsACO in the ovaries, and PsACO in the pedicels was correlated with higher ethylene evolution and ovary senescence and pedicel abscission in fruits that were not pollinated under control temperature conditions. Under heat-stress conditions, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis gene expression in pre-pollinated ovaries was also associated with higher ethylene evolution and lower retention of these fruits. Following successful pollination and ovule fertilization, heat-stress modified PsACS and PsACO transcript profiles in a manner that suppressed ovary ethylene evolution. The normal ethylene burst in the stigma/style and petals following pollination was also suppressed by heat-stress. Transcript abundance profiles of ethylene receptor and signaling-related genes acted as qualitative markers of tissue ethylene signaling events. These data support the hypothesis that ethylene biosynthesis is

  15. RNA-Seq analysis for indigo biosynthesis pathway genes in Indigofera tinctoria and Polygonum tinctorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K. Sarangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural indigo is the most important blue dye for textile dyeing and valuable secondary metabolite biosynthesized in Indigofera tinctoria and Polygonum tinctorium plants. Present investigation is made to generation of gene resource for pathway enrichment and to understand possible gene expression involved in indigo biosynthesis. The data about raw reads and the transcriptome assembly project has been deposited at GenBank under the accessions SRA180766 and SRX692542 for I. tinctoria and P. tinctorium, respectively.

  16. Skin-specific regulation of SREBP processing and lipid biosynthesis by glycerol kinase 5

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Duanwu; Tomisato, Wataru; Su, Lijing; Sun, Lei; Choi, Jin Huk; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Kuan-wen; Zhan, Xiaoming; Choi, Mihwa; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Miao; Castro-Perez, Jose M.; Hildebrand, Sara; Murray, Anne R.; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.

    2017-01-01

    We discovered a previously unrecognized regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, glycerol kinase 5 (GK5), which functions exclusively in the skin independently of cholesterol regulation in other tissues. GK5 negatively regulates the processing and nuclear localization of sterol regulatory element binding proteins, transcription factors that control expression of virtually all cholesterol synthesis enzymes. Excessive amounts of cholesterol, triglycerides, and ceramides were found in the skin of ...

  17. Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular fossil record of Archean life

    OpenAIRE

    Waldbauer, Jacob R.; Newman, Dianne K.; Summons, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    The power of molecular oxygen to drive many crucial biogeochemical processes, from cellular respiration to rock weathering, makes reconstructing the history of its production and accumulation a first-order question for understanding Earth’s evolution. Among the various geochemical proxies for the presence of O_2 in the environment, molecular fossils offer a unique record of O_2 where it was first produced and consumed by biology: in sunlit aquatic habitats. As steroid biosynthesis requires mo...

  18. HSF-1 is involved in regulation of ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis by heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Park, Saeram; Kim, Kwang-Youl; Kim, Mun-Young; Kim, Heekyeong; Park, Donha; Paik, Young-Ki

    2016-03-15

    The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans survives by adapting to environmental stresses such as temperature extremes by increasing the concentrations of ascaroside pheromones, termed ascarosides or daumones, which signal early C. elegans larvae to enter a non-aging dauer state for long-term survival. It is well known that production of ascarosides is stimulated by heat stress, resulting in enhanced dauer formation by which worms can adapt to environmental insults. However, the molecular mechanism by which ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis is stimulated by heat stress remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that the heat-shock transcription factor HSF-1 can mediate enhanced ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis in response to heat stress by activating the peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation genes in C. elegans. To explore the potential molecular mechanisms, we examined the four major genes involved in the ascaroside biosynthesis pathway and then quantified the changes in both the expression of these genes and ascaroside production under heat-stress conditions. The transcriptional activation of ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis genes by HSF-1 was quite notable, which is not only supported by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, but also accompanied by the enhanced production of chemically detectable major ascarosides (e.g. daumones 1 and 3). Consequently, the dauer formation rate was significantly increased by the ascaroside pheromone extracts from N2 wild-type but not from hsf-1(sy441) mutant animals grown under heat-stress conditions. Hence heat-stress-enhanced ascaroside production appears to be mediated at least in part by HSF-1, which seems to be important in adaptation strategies for coping with heat stress in this nematode. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  19. In situ biosynthesis of bacterial nanocellulose-CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposite: One-step process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Faria, Marisa; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a simple and green route to the synthesis of the bacterial nanocellulose-calcium carbonate (BNC/CaCO 3 ) hybrid bionanocomposites using one-step in situ biosynthesis was studied. The CaCO 3 was incorporated in the bacterial nanocellulose structure during the cellulose biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus PTCC 1734 bacteria. Hestrin-Schramm (HS) and Zhou (Z) culture media were used to the hybrid bionanocomposites production and the effect of ethanol addition was investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the BNC/CaCO 3 hybrid bionanocomposites production, structure and properties. The BNC/CaCO 3 biosynthesized in Z culture medium revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character, which justify the highest CaCO 3 content incorporation. The CaCO 3 was incorporated into the cellulosic matrix decreasing the bacterial nanocellulose crystallinity. This work reveals the high potential of in situ biosynthesis of BNC/CaCO 3 hybrid bionanocomposites and opens a new way to the high value-added applications of bacterial nanocellulose. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • BNC/CaCO 3 hybrid bionanocomposites were produced using in situ biosynthesis process. • Ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the production and properties. • Z-BNC/CaCO 3 bionanocomposites revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character. • CaCO 3 incorporated into the BNC decreased crystallinity.

  20. Radiographic features of the skeleton in disorders of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Edery, Patrick; Hall, Christine M.; Bouvier, Raymonde; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Le Breton, Frederique; Bucourt, Martine; Cordier, Marie Pierre; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Parenti, Giancarlo; Andria, Generoso; Le Merrer, Martine; Offiah, Amaka C.

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis are inborn errors of metabolism characterised by multiple congenital abnormalities, including significant skeletal involvement. The most frequent and best-characterised example is the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Nine other disorders are known, namely autosomal-recessive Antley-Bixler syndrome, Greenberg dysplasia, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, X-linked recessive male emopamil-binding protein deficiency, CHILD syndrome, CK syndrome, sterol C4 methyloxidase-like deficiency, desmosterolosis and lathosterolosis. This study provides an overview of the radiologic features observed in these diseases. A common pattern of limb abnormalities is recognisable, including polydactyly, which is typically post-axial and rarely interdigital and can involve all four limbs, and syndactyly of the toes. Chondrodysplasia punctata is specifically associated with a subgroup of disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis (Greenberg dysplasia, CHILD syndrome, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, male emopamil-binding protein deficiency). The possible occurrence of epiphyseal stippling in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, initially reported, does not appear to be confirmed. Stippling is also associated with other congenital disorders such as chromosomal abnormalities, brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata (X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata, disruptions of vitamin K metabolism, maternal autoimmune diseases), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (peroxisomal disorders) and lysosomal storage disorders. In the differential diagnosis of epiphyseal stippling, a moth-eaten appearance of bones, asymmetry, or presence of a common pattern of limb abnormalities indicate inborn errors of cholesterol biosynthesis. We highlight the specific differentiating radiologic features of disorders of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis. (orig.)

  1. AmcA - a putative mitochondrial ornithine transporter supporting fungal siderophore biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas eSchafferer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient required for a wide range of cellular processes. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus employs low-molecular mass iron-specific chelators, termed siderophores, for uptake, storage and intracellular iron distribution, which play a crucial role in the pathogenicity of this fungus. Siderophore biosynthesis depends on coordination with the supply of its precursor ornithine, produced mitochondrially from glutamate or cytosolically via hydrolysis of arginine. In this study, we demonstrate a role of the putative mitochondrial transporter AmcA (AFUA_8G02760 in siderophore biosynthesis of A. fumigatus.Consistent with a role in cellular ornithine handling, AmcA-deficiency resulted in decreased cellular ornithine and arginine contents as well as decreased siderophore production on medium containing glutamine as the sole nitrogen source. In support, arginine and ornithine as nitrogen sources did not impact siderophore biosynthesis due to cytosolic ornithine availability. As revealed by Northern blot analysis, transcript levels of siderophore biosynthetic genes were unresponsive to the cellular ornithine level. In contrast to siderophore production, AmcA deficiency did only mildly decrease the cellular polyamine content, demonstrating cellular prioritization of ornithine use. Nevertheless, AmcA-deficiency increased the susceptibility of A. fumigatus to the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor eflornithine, most likely due to the decreased ornithine pool. AmcA-deficiency decreased the growth rate particularly on ornithine as the sole nitrogen source during iron starvation and sufficiency, indicating an additional role in the metabolism and fitness of A. fumigatus, possibly in mitochondrial ornithine import. In the Galleria mellonella infection model, AmcA-deficiency did not affect virulence of A. fumigatus, most likely due to the residual siderophore production and arginine availability in this host niche.

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi response to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: morphophysiological alterations leading to cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luis Kessler

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi displays similarities to fungi in terms of its sterol lipid biosynthesis, as ergosterol and other 24-alkylated sterols are its principal endogenous sterols. The sterol pathway is thus a potential drug target for the treatment of Chagas disease. We describe here a comparative study of the growth inhibition, ultrastructural and physiological changes leading to the death of T. cruzi cells following treatment with the sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBIs ketoconazole and lovastatin. We first calculated the drug concentration inhibiting epimastigote growth by 50% (EC(50/72 h or killing all cells within 24 hours (EC(100/24 h. Incubation with inhibitors at the EC(50/72 h resulted in interesting morphological changes: intense proliferation of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which was corroborated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy of the parasites stained with rhodamine 123, and strong swelling of the reservosomes, which was confirmed by acridine orange staining. These changes to the mitochondria and reservosomes may reflect the involvement of these organelles in ergosterol biosynthesis or the progressive autophagic process culminating in cell lysis after 6 to 7 days of treatment with SBIs at the EC(50/72 h. By contrast, treatment with SBIs at the EC(100/24 h resulted in rapid cell death with a necrotic phenotype: time-dependent cytosolic calcium overload, mitochondrial depolarization and reservosome membrane permeabilization (RMP, culminating in cell lysis after a few hours of drug exposure. We provide the first demonstration that RMP constitutes the "point of no return" in the cell death cascade, and propose a model for the necrotic cell death of T. cruzi. Thus, SBIs trigger cell death by different mechanisms, depending on the dose used, in T. cruzi. These findings shed new light on ergosterol biosynthesis and the mechanisms of programmed cell death in this ancient protozoan parasite.

  3. Kcne2 deletion uncovers its crucial role in thyroid hormone biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roepke, Torsten K.; King, Elizabeth C.; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Paroder, Monika; Purtell, Kerry; Koba, Wade; Fine, Eugene; Lerner, Daniel J.; Carrasco, Nancy; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction affects 1?4% of the population worldwide, causing defects including neurodevelopmental disorders, dwarfism and cardiac arrhythmia. Here, we show that KCNQ1 and KCNE2 form a TSH-stimulated, constitutively-active, thyrocyte K+ channel required for normal thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Targeted disruption of Kcne2 impaired thyroid iodide accumulation up to 8-fold, impaired maternal milk ejection and halved milk T4 content, causing hypothyroidism, 50% reduced litter size, dwarf...

  4. Rieske non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases catalyse diverse reactions in natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christopher; de Los Santos, Emmanuel L C; Alkhalaf, Lona M; Challis, Gregory L

    2018-04-13

    Covering: up to the end of 2017The roles played by Rieske non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases in natural product biosynthesis are reviewed, with particular focus on experimentally characterised examples. Enzymes belonging to this class are known to catalyse a range of transformations, including oxidative carbocyclisation, N-oxygenation, C-hydroxylation and C-C desaturation. Examples of such enzymes that have yet to be experimentally investigated are also briefly described and their likely functions are discussed.

  5. Identification and characterization of an archaeal ketopantoate reductase and its involvement in regulation of coenzyme A biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Hiroya; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-10-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis in bacteria and eukaryotes is regulated primarily by feedback inhibition towards pantothenate kinase (PanK). As most archaea utilize a modified route for CoA biosynthesis and do not harbour PanK, the mechanisms governing regulation of CoA biosynthesis are unknown. Here we performed genetic and biochemical studies on the ketopantoate reductase (KPR) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. KPR catalyses the second step in CoA biosynthesis, the reduction of 2-oxopantoate to pantoate. Gene disruption of TK1968, whose product was 20-29% identical to previously characterized KPRs from bacteria/eukaryotes, resulted in a strain with growth defects that were complemented by addition of pantoate. The TK1968 protein (Tk-KPR) displayed reductase activity specific for 2-oxopantoate and preferred NADH as the electron donor, distinct to the bacterial/eukaryotic NADPH-dependent enzymes. Tk-KPR activity decreased dramatically in the presence of CoA and KPR activity in cell-free extracts was also inhibited by CoA. Kinetic studies indicated that CoA inhibits KPR by competing with NADH. Inhibition of ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase, the first enzyme of the pathway, by CoA was not observed. Our results suggest that CoA biosynthesis in T. kodakarensis is regulated by feedback inhibition of KPR, providing a feasible regulation mechanism of CoA biosynthesis in archaea. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/.

  7. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-29

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/.

  8. Conservation of the 2-keto-3-deoxymanno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) biosynthesis pathway between plants and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Kevin M; Marchant, Alan

    2013-10-18

    The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is driving efforts in the development of new antibacterial agents. This includes a resurgence of interest in the Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis enzymes as drug targets. The six carbon acidic sugar 2-keto-3-deoxymanno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) is a component of the lipid A moiety of the LPS in Gram-negative bacteria. In most cases the lipid A substituted by Kdo is the minimum requirement for cell growth, thus presenting the possibility of targeting either the synthesis or incorporation of Kdo for the development of antibacterial agents. Indeed, potent in vitro inhibitors of Kdo biosynthesis enzymes have been reported but have so far failed to show sufficient in vivo action against Gram-negative bacteria. As part of an effort to design more potent antibacterial agents targeting Kdo biosynthesis, the crystal structures of the key Kdo biosynthesis enzymes from Escherichia coli have been solved and their structure based mechanisms characterized. In eukaryotes, Kdo is found as a component of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in the plant primary cell wall. Interestingly, despite incorporating Kdo into very different macromolecules the Kdo biosynthesis and activation pathway is almost completely conserved between plants and bacteria. This raises the possibility for plant research to exploit the increasingly detailed knowledge and resources being generated by the microbiology community. Likewise, insights into Kdo biosynthesis in plants will be potentially useful in efforts to produce new antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of MYB34, MYB51 and MYB122 in the regulation of camalexin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eFrerigmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The indolic phytoalexin camalexin is a crucial defence metabolite in the model plant Arabidopsis. Indolic phytoalexins and glucosinolates appear to have a common evolutionary origin and are interconnected on the biosynthetic level: a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of camalexin, indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx, is also required for the biosynthesis of indolic glucosinolates and is under tight control by the transcription factors MYB34, MYB51 and MYB122. The abundance of camalexin was strongly reduced in myb34/51 and myb51/122 double and in triple myb mutant, suggesting that these transcription factors are important in camalexin biosynthesis. Furthermore, expression of MYB51 and MYB122 was significantly increased by biotic and abiotic camalexin-inducing agents. Feeding of the triple myb34/51/122 mutant with IAOx or indole-3-acetonitrile largely restored camalexin biosynthesis. Conversely, tryptophan could not complement the low camalexin phenotype of this mutant, which supports a role for the three MYB factors in camalexin biosynthesis upstream of IAOx. Consistently expression of the camalexin biosynthesis genes CYP71B15/PAD3 and CYP71A13 was not negatively affected in the triple myb mutant and the MYBs could not activate pCYP71B15::uidA expression in trans-activation assays with cultured Arabidopsis cells. In conclusion, this study reveals the importance of MYB factors regulating the generation of IAOx as precursor of camalexin.

  10. Host-Tree Monoterpenes and Biosynthesis of Aggregation Pheromones in the Bark Beetle Ips paraconfusus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm developed in the 1970s that Ips bark beetles biosynthesize their aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by hydroxylating myrcene, a host tree monoterpene. Similarly, host α-pinene was hydroxylated to a third pheromone component cis-verbenol. In 1990, however, we reported that amounts of ipsenol and ipsdienol produced by male Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae feeding in five host pine species were nearly the same, even though no detectable myrcene precursor was detected in one of these pines (Pinus sabiniana. Subsequent research showed ipsenol and ipsdienol are also biosynthesized from smaller precursors such as acetate and mevalonate, and this de novo pathway is the major one, while host tree myrcene conversion by the beetle is the minor one. We report concentrations of myrcene, α-pinene and other major monoterpenes in five pine hosts (Pinus ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. jeffreyi, P. sabiniana, and P. contorta of I. paraconfusus. A scheme for biosynthesis of ipsdienol and ipsenol from myrcene and possible metabolites such as ipsenone is presented. Mass spectra and quantities of ipsenone are reported and its possible role in biosynthesis of aggregation pheromone. Coevolution of bark beetles and host trees is discussed in relation to pheromone biosynthesis, host plant selection/suitability, and plant resistance.

  11. Comprehensive Characterization for Ginsenosides Biosynthesis in Ginseng Root by Integration Analysis of Chemical and Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues—periderm, cortex and stele—each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously. Gene-encoding enzymes involved in ginsenosides biosynthesis and modification were studied based on gene and molecule data. Eight widely-used ginsenosides were distributed unevenly in ginseng roots. A total of 182,881 unigenes were assembled with an N50 contig size of 1374 bp. About 21,000 of these unigenes were positively correlated with the content of ginsenosides. Additionally, we identified 192 transcripts encoding enzymes involved in two triterpenoid biosynthesis pathways and 290 transcripts encoding UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs. Of these UGTs, 195 UGTs (67.2% were more highly expressed in the periderm, and that seven UGTs and one UGT were specifically expressed in the periderm and stele, respectively. This genetic resource will help to improve the interpretation on complex mechanisms of ginsenosides biosynthesis, accumulation, and transportation.

  12. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) to discover genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hwan-Su; Lee, Hyoshin; Choi, Yong Eui

    2015-03-14

    Eleutherococcus senticosus, Siberian ginseng, is a highly valued woody medicinal plant belonging to the family Araliaceae. E. senticosus produces a rich variety of saponins such as oleanane-type, noroleanane-type, 29-hydroxyoleanan-type, and lupane-type saponins. Genomic or transcriptomic approaches have not been used to investigate the saponin biosynthetic pathway in this plant. In this study, de novo sequencing was performed to select candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. A half-plate 454 pyrosequencing run produced 627,923 high-quality reads with an average sequence length of 422 bases. De novo assembly generated 72,811 unique sequences, including 15,217 contigs and 57,594 singletons. Approximately 48,300 (66.3%) unique sequences were annotated using BLAST similarity searches. All of the mevalonate pathway genes for saponin biosynthesis starting from acetyl-CoA were isolated. Moreover, 206 reads of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and 145 reads of uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) sequences were isolated. Based on methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis, 3 CYPs and 3 UGTs were finally selected as candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. The identified sequences associated with saponin biosynthesis will facilitate the study of the functional genomics of saponin biosynthesis and genetic engineering of E. senticosus.

  14. Resistance of rice to insect pests mediated by suppression of serotonin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Ping; Luo, Ting; Fu, Hao-Wei; Wang, Long; Tan, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qing; Ye, Gong-Yin; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Lou, Yong-Gen; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2018-05-07

    Rice is one of the world's most important foods, but its production suffers from insect pests, causing losses of billions of dollars, and extensive use of environmentally damaging pesticides for their control 1,2 . However, the molecular mechanisms of insect resistance remain elusive. Although a few resistance genes for planthopper have been cloned, no rice germplasm is resistant to stem borers. Here, we report that biosynthesis of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in mammals 3 , is induced by insect infestation in rice, and its suppression confers resistance to planthoppers and stem borers, the two most destructive pests of rice 2 . Serotonin and salicylic acid derive from chorismate 4 . In rice, the cytochrome P450 gene CYP71A1 encodes tryptamine 5-hydroxylase, which catalyses conversion of tryptamine to serotonin 5 . In susceptible wild-type rice, planthopper feeding induces biosynthesis of serotonin and salicylic acid, whereas in mutants with an inactivated CYP71A1 gene, no serotonin is produced, salicylic acid levels are higher and plants are more insect resistant. The addition of serotonin to the resistant rice mutant and other brown planthopper-resistant genotypes results in a loss of insect resistance. Similarly, serotonin supplementation in artificial diet enhances the performance of both insects. These insights demonstrate that regulation of serotonin biosynthesis plays an important role in defence, and may prove valuable for breeding insect-resistant cultivars of rice and other cereal crops.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl 126 stimulates basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis of human adrenocortical H295R cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.-A.; Wang, P.-W.; Chang, Louis W.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on adrenal aldosterone biosynthesis, we have performed a systematical study to characterize the corresponding steroidogenic response of human adrenocortical cell line H295R to PCB126 exposure. We found that PCB126 at high concentrations stimulated basal and inducible aldosterone production. The aldosterone induction occurred concomitantly with activation of the CYP11B2 gene. Despite the fact that PCB126 acted in synergy with both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) in activation of aldosterone synthesis, PCB126 only modestly increased CYP11B2 mRNA expression in the presence of Ang II contrary to the synergistic transcriptional induction elicited by PCB126 and potassium. This implicated that PCB126 had differential interactions with the potassium and Ang II signaling systems in the regulation of aldosterone biosynthesis. In addition, high concentrations of PCB126 elevated transcriptional expression of the type I Ang II receptor (AT 1 ) and might thus sensitize the cellular Ang II responsiveness in both basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis. SF-1 was not involved in the PCB126-induced transcriptional regulation despite its importance in steroidogenic gene activation

  16. Elucidation and chemical modulation of sulfolipid-1 biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Jessica C; Holsclaw, Cynthia M; Schelle, Michael W; Botyanszki, Zsofia; Gilmore, Sarah A; Tully, Sarah E; Niederweis, Michael; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Leary, Julie A; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2012-03-09

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses unique cell-surface lipids that have been implicated in virulence. One of the most abundant is sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), a tetraacyl-sulfotrehalose glycolipid. Although the early steps in SL-1 biosynthesis are known, the machinery underlying the final acylation reactions is not understood. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence for the activities of two proteins, Chp1 and Sap (corresponding to gene loci rv3822 and rv3821), that complete this pathway. The membrane-associated acyltransferase Chp1 accepts a synthetic diacyl sulfolipid and transfers an acyl group regioselectively from one donor substrate molecule to a second acceptor molecule in two successive reactions to yield a tetraacylated product. Chp1 is fully active in vitro, but in M. tuberculosis, its function is potentiated by the previously identified sulfolipid transporter MmpL8. We also show that the integral membrane protein Sap and MmpL8 are both essential for sulfolipid transport. Finally, the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin disrupts Chp1 activity in M. tuberculosis, suggesting an avenue for perturbing SL-1 biosynthesis in vivo. These data complete the SL-1 biosynthetic pathway and corroborate a model in which lipid biosynthesis and transmembrane transport are coupled at the membrane-cytosol interface through the activity of multiple proteins, possibly as a macromolecular complex.

  17. pH induced protein-scaffold biosynthesis of tunable shape gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaorong; He Xiaoxiao; Wang Kemin; Ren Fang; Qin Zhihe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a pH-inductive protein-scaffold biosynthesis of shape-tunable crystalline gold nanoparticles at room temperature has been developed. By simple manipulation of the reaction solution's pH, anisotropic gold nanoparticles including spheres, triangles and cubes could be produced by incubating an aqueous solution of sodium tetrachloroaurate with Dolichomitriopsis diversiformis biomasses after immersion in ultrapure Millipore water overnight. A moss protein with molecular weight of about 71 kDa and pI of 4.9 was the primary biomolecule involved in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. The secondary configuration of the proteins by CD spectrum implied that the moss protein could display different secondary configurations including random coil, α-helix and intermediate conformations between random coil and α-helix for the experimental pH solution. The growth process of gold nanoparticles further showed that the moss protein with different configurations provided the template scaffold for the shape-controlled biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. The constrained shape of the gold nanoparticles, however, disappeared in boiled moss extract. The gold nanoparticles with designed morphology were successfully reconstructed using the moss protein purified from the gold nanoparticles. Structural characterizations by SEM, TEM and SAED showed that the triangular and cubic gold nanoparticles were single crystalline.

  18. Transformation of Aspergillus parasiticus with a homologous gene (pyrG) involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skory, C.D.; Horng, J.S.; Pestka, J.J.; Linz, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The lack of efficient transformation methods for aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus has been a major constraint for the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis at the genetic level. A transformation system with efficiencies of 30 to 50 stable transformants per μg of DNA was developed for A. parasiticus by using homologous pyrG gene. The pyrG gene from A. parasiticus was isolated by in situ plaque hybridization of a lambda genomic DNA library. Uridine auxotrophs of A. parasiticus ATCC 36537, a mutant blocked in aflatoxin biosynthesis, were isolated by selection on 5-fluoroorotic acid following nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Isolates with mutations in the pyrG gene resulting in elimination of orotidine monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase activity were detected by assaying cell extracts for their ability to convert [ 14 C]OMP to [ 14 C]UMP. Transformation of A. parasiticus pyrG protoplasts with the homologous pyrG gene restored the fungal cells to prototrophy. Enzymatic analysis of cell extracts of transformant clones demonstrated that these extracts had the ability to convert [ 14 C]OMP to [ 14 C]UMP. Southern analysis of DNA purified from transformant clones indicated that both pUC19 vector sequences and pyrG sequences were integrated into the genome. The development of this pyrG transformation system should allow cloning of the aflatoxin-biosynthetic genes, which will be useful in studying the regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis and may ultimately provide a means for controlling aflatoxin production in the field

  19. Co-expression analysis identifies CRC and AP1 the regulator of Arabidopsis fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinxin; Yin, Linlin; Xue, Hongwei

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) play crucial rules in signal transduction and plant development, however, the regulation of FA metabolism is still poorly understood. To study the relevant regulatory network, fifty-eight FA biosynthesis genes including de novo synthases, desaturases and elongases were selected as "guide genes" to construct the co-expression network. Calculation of the correlation between all Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) genes with each guide gene by Arabidopsis co-expression dating mining tools (ACT) identifies 797 candidate FA-correlated genes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of these co-expressed genes showed they are tightly correlated to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, and function in many processes. Interestingly, 63 transcription factors (TFs) were identified as candidate FA biosynthesis regulators and 8 TF families are enriched. Two TF genes, CRC and AP1, both correlating with 8 FA guide genes, were further characterized. Analyses of the ap1 and crc mutant showed the altered total FA composition of mature seeds. The contents of palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid are decreased, whereas that of oleic acid is increased in ap1 and crc seeds, which is consistent with the qRT-PCR analysis revealing the suppressed expression of the corresponding guide genes. In addition, yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that CRC can bind to the promoter regions of KCS7 and KCS15, indicating that CRC may directly regulate FA biosynthesis. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes in liver and muscle of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Tøien, Øivind; Stewart, Nathan C; Gracey, Andrew Y; Chang, Celia; Qin, Shizhen; Pertea, Geo; Quackenbush, John; Showe, Louise C; Showe, Michael K; Boyer, Bert B; Barnes, Brian M

    2009-04-10

    We conducted a large-scale gene expression screen using the 3,200 cDNA probe microarray developed specifically for Ursus americanus to detect expression differences in liver and skeletal muscle that occur during winter hibernation compared with animals sampled during summer. The expression of 12 genes, including RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), that are mostly involved in protein biosynthesis, was induced during hibernation in both liver and muscle. The Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichment analysis consistently showed a highly significant enrichment of the protein biosynthesis category by overexpressed genes in both liver and skeletal muscle during hibernation. Coordinated induction in transcriptional level of genes involved in protein biosynthesis is a distinctive feature of the transcriptome in hibernating black bears. This finding implies induction of translation and suggests an adaptive mechanism that contributes to a unique ability to reduce muscle atrophy over prolonged periods of immobility during hibernation. Comparing expression profiles in bears to small mammalian hibernators shows a general trend during hibernation of transcriptional changes that include induction of genes involved in lipid metabolism and carbohydrate synthesis as well as depression of genes involved in the urea cycle and detoxification function in liver.

  1. MreB and MurG as scaffolds for the cytoplasmic steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favini-Stabile, Sandy; Contreras-Martel, Carlos; Thielens, Nicole; Dessen, Andréa

    2013-12-01

    Peptidoglycan is a major determinant of cell shape in bacteria, and its biosynthesis involves the concerted action of cytoplasmic, membrane-associated and periplasmic enzymes. Within the cytoplasm, Mur enzymes catalyse the first steps leading to peptidoglycan precursor biosynthesis, and have been suggested as being part of a multicomponent complex that could also involve the transglycosylase MurG and the cytoskeletal protein MreB. In order to initialize the characterization of a potential Mur interaction network, we purified MurD, MurE, MurF, MurG and MreB from Thermotoga maritima and characterized their interactions using membrane blotting and surface plasmon resonance. MurD, MurE and MurF all recognize MurG and MreB, but not each other, while the two latter proteins interact. In addition, we solved the crystal structures of MurD, MurE and MurF, which indicate that their C-termini display high conformational flexibilities. The differences in Mur conformations could be important parameters for the stability of an intracytoplasmic murein biosynthesis complex. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by actinomycete Streptomyces viridogens strain HM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagurunathan, R; Radhakrishnan, M; Rajendran, R Babu; Velmurugan, D

    2011-10-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Streptomycetes from Himalayan Mountain was undertaken for the first time. Out of 10 actinomycete strains tested, four strains (D10, HM10, ANS2 and MSU) showed evidence for the intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles, among which the strain HM10 showed high potency. Presence of spherical and rod shaped gold nanoparticles in mycelium of the strain HM10 was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis. The average particle size ranged from 18-20 nm. UV spectral analysis indicated that the reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) occurred within 24 h of reaction period. Further, the strain HM10 showed enhanced growth at 1 and 10 mM concentration of HAuCl4. The gold nanoparticles synthesized by the strain HM10 showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli in well-diffusion method. The potential actinomycete HM10 strain was phenotypically characterized and identified as Streptomyces viridogens (HM10). Thus, actinomycete strain HM10 reported in this study is a newly added source for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles.

  3. Ageratum enation virus Infection Induces Programmed Cell Death and Alters Metabolite Biosynthesis in Papaver somniferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Srivastava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB, respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch’s postulates. Comprehensive microscopic analysis of infiltrated plants reveals severe structural anomalies in leaf and stem tissues represented by unorganized cell architecture and vascular bundles. Moreover, the characteristic blebs and membranous vesicles formed due to the virus-induced disintegration of the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles were also present. An accelerated nuclear DNA fragmentation was observed by Comet assay and confirmed by TUNEL and Hoechst dye staining assays suggesting virus-induced programmed cell death. Virus-infection altered the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. The biosynthesis potential of morphine, thebaine, codeine, and papaverine alkaloids reduced significantly in infected plants except for noscapine whose biosynthesis was comparatively enhanced. The expression analysis of corresponding alkaloid pathway genes by real time-PCR corroborated well with the results of HPLC analysis for alkaloid perturbations. The changes in the metabolite and alkaloid contents affect the commercial value of the poppy plants.

  4. A directed-overflow and damage-control N-glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; Jeffryes, James G.; Ziemak, Michael J.; Rocca, James R.; Wang, Bing; Rice, Jennifer; Roje, Sanja; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Edison, Arthur S.; Henry, Christopher S.; deCrécy-Lagard, Valérie; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multistep pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive, and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. Here we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA, respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic, and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis, yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multienzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites. PMID:25431972

  5. Relationship between aluminum stress and caffeine biosynthesis in suspension cells of Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Kú, Roberto; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Monforte-González, Miriam; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; González-Mendoza, Víctor M; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2018-04-01

    Toxicity by aluminum is a growth-limiting factor in plants cultivated in acidic soils. This metal also promotes signal transduction pathways leading to the biosynthesis of defense compounds, including secondary metabolites. In this study, we observed that Coffea arabica L. cells that were kept in the dark did not produce detectable levels of caffeine. However, irradiation with light and supplementation of the culture medium with theobromine were the best conditions for cell maintenance to investigate the role of aluminum in caffeine biosynthesis. The addition of theobromine to the cells did not cause any changes to cell growth and was useful for the bioconversion of theobromine to caffeine. During a short-term AlCl 3 -treatment (500μM) of C. arabica cells kept under light irradiation, increases in the caffeine levels in samples that were recovered from both the cells and culture media were evident. This augmentation coincided with increases in the enzyme activity of caffeine synthase (CS) and the transcript level of the gene encoding this enzyme (CS). Together, these results suggest that actions by Al and theobromine on the same pathway lead to the induction of caffeine biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Organization of chlorophyll biosynthesis and insertion of chlorophyll into the chlorophyll-binding proteins in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Grimm, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis requires chlorophyll (Chl) for the absorption of light energy, and charge separation in the reaction center of photosystem I and II, to feed electrons into the photosynthetic electron transfer chain. Chl is bound to different Chl-binding proteins assembled in the core complexes of the two photosystems and their peripheral light-harvesting antenna complexes. The structure of the photosynthetic protein complexes has been elucidated, but mechanisms of their biogenesis are in most instances unknown. These processes involve not only the assembly of interacting proteins, but also the functional integration of pigments and other cofactors. As a precondition for the association of Chl with the Chl-binding proteins in both photosystems, the synthesis of the apoproteins is synchronized with Chl biosynthesis. This review aims to summarize the present knowledge on the posttranslational organization of Chl biosynthesis and current attempts to envision the proceedings of the successive synthesis and integration of Chl into Chl-binding proteins in the thylakoid membrane. Potential auxiliary factors, contributing to the control and organization of Chl biosynthesis and the association of Chl with the Chl-binding proteins during their integration into photosynthetic complexes, are discussed in this review.

  7. An LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase defines a novel variant of the lysine biosynthesis pathway in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, André O; Singh, Bijay K; Leustek, Thomas; Gilvarg, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Although lysine (Lys) biosynthesis in plants is known to occur by way of a pathway that utilizes diaminopimelic acid (DAP) as a central intermediate, the available evidence suggests that none of the known DAP-pathway variants found in nature occur in plants. A new Lys biosynthesis pathway has been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that utilizes a novel transaminase that specifically catalyzes the interconversion of tetrahydrodipicolinate and LL-diaminopimelate, a reaction requiring three enzymes in the DAP-pathway variant found in Escherichia coli. The LL-DAP aminotransferase encoded by locus At4g33680 was able to complement the dapD and dapE mutants of E. coli. This result, in conjunction with the kinetic properties and substrate specificity of the enzyme, indicated that LL-DAP aminotransferase functions in the Lys biosynthetic direction under in vivo conditions. Orthologs of At4g33680 were identified in all the cyanobacterial species whose genomes have been sequenced. The Synechocystis sp. ortholog encoded by locus sll0480 showed the same functional properties as At4g33680. These results demonstrate that the Lys biosynthesis pathway in plants and cyanobacteria is distinct from the pathways that have so far been defined in microorganisms.

  8. Essential role of Bordetella NadC in a quinolinate salvage pathway for NAD biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Timothy J; Suhadolc, Ryan J; McKelvey, Pamela J; Armstrong, Sandra K

    2017-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is produced via de novo biosynthesis pathways and by salvage or recycling routes. The classical Bordetella bacterial species are known to be auxotrophic for nicotinamide or nicotinic acid. This study confirmed that Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis have the recycling/salvage pathway genes pncA and pncB, for use of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid, respectively, for NAD synthesis. Although these Bordetellae lack the nadA and nadB genes needed for de novo NAD biosynthesis, remarkably, they have one de novo pathway gene, nadC, encoding quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase. Genomic analyses of taxonomically related Bordetella and Achromobacter species also indicated the presence of an 'orphan' nadC and the absence of nadA and nadB. When supplied as the sole NAD precursor, quinolinate promoted B. bronchiseptica growth, and the ability to use it required nadC. Co-expression of Bordetella nadC with the nadB and nadA genes of Paraburkholderia phytofirmans allowed B. bronchiseptica to grow in the absence of supplied pyridines, indicative of de novo NAD synthesis and functional confirmation of Bordetella NadC activity. Expression of nadC in B. bronchiseptica was influenced by nicotinic acid and by a NadQ family transcriptional repressor, indicating that these organisms prioritize their use of pyridines for NAD biosynthesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The mbo operon is specific and essential for biosynthesis of mangotoxin in Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Víctor J; Arrebola, Eva; Cazorla, Francisco M; Murillo, Jesús; de Vicente, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Mangotoxin is an antimetabolite toxin produced by certain Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains. This toxin is an oligopeptide that inhibits ornithine N-acetyl transferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ornithine and arginine. Previous studies have reported the involvement of the putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase MgoA in virulence and mangotoxin production. In this study, we analyse a new chromosomal region of P. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158, which contains six coding sequences arranged as an operon (mbo operon). The mbo operon was detected in only mangotoxin-producing strains, and it was shown to be essential for the biosynthesis of this toxin. Mutants in each of the six ORFs of the mbo operon were partially or completely impaired in the production of the toxin. In addition, Pseudomonas spp. mangotoxin non-producer strains transformed with the mbo operon gained the ability to produce mangotoxin, indicating that this operon contains all the genetic information necessary for mangotoxin biosynthesis. The generation of a single transcript for the mbo operon was confirmed and supported by the allocation of a unique promoter and Rho-independent terminator. The phylogenetic analysis of the P. syringae strains harbouring the mbo operon revealed that these strains clustered together.

  10. Filling gaps in bacterial amino acid biosynthesis pathways with high-throughput genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For many bacteria with sequenced genomes, we do not understand how they synthesize some amino acids. This makes it challenging to reconstruct their metabolism, and has led to speculation that bacteria might be cross-feeding amino acids. We studied heterotrophic bacteria from 10 different genera that grow without added amino acids even though an automated tool predicts that the bacteria have gaps in their amino acid synthesis pathways. Across these bacteria, there were 11 gaps in their amino acid biosynthesis pathways that we could not fill using current knowledge. Using genome-wide mutant fitness data, we identified novel enzymes that fill 9 of the 11 gaps and hence explain the biosynthesis of methionine, threonine, serine, or histidine by bacteria from six genera. We also found that the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris synthesizes homocysteine (which is a precursor to methionine by using DUF39, NIL/ferredoxin, and COG2122 proteins, and that homoserine is not an intermediate in this pathway. Our results suggest that most free-living bacteria can likely make all 20 amino acids and illustrate how high-throughput genetics can uncover previously-unknown amino acid biosynthesis genes.

  11. Fungus-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and standardization of parameters for its biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidke, Pritish R; Gupta, Indarchand; Gade, Aniket K; Rai, Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    We report the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using a fungus Fusarium acuminatum. Mycosynthesis of Au-NPs was carried out by challenging the fungal cells filtrate with HAuCl 4 solution (1 mM), as nanoparticles synthesizing enzyme secrete extracellularly by the fungi. The AuNPs were characterized with the help of UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Zeta Potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We observed absorbance peak in between 520 nm-550 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon absorbance of the gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles synthesized in the present investigation were found to be capped by proteins. XRD results showed that the distinctive formation of crystalline gold nanoparticles in the solution. The spherical and polydispersed AuNPs in the range 8 to 28 nm with average size of 17 nm were observed by TEM analysis. We also standardized the parameters like the effect of pH, temperature and salt concentration on the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. It was found that acidic pH, 1 mM salt concentration and 37 (°)C temperature were found to be optimum for the synthesis of Au-NPs. Therefore, the present study introduces the easy, better and cheaper method for biosynthesis of AuNPs.

  12. Rapid extra-/intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liangwei; Xian, Liang; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2011-03-01

    In this work, the fungus Penicillium was used for rapid extra-/intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. AuCl4 - ions reacted with the cell filtrate of Penicillium sp. resulting in extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles within 1 min. Intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles was obtained by incubating AuCl4 - solution with fungal biomass for 8 h. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by means of visual observation, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The extracellular nanoparticles exhibited maximum absorbance at 545 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD spectrum showed Bragg reflections corresponding to the gold nanocrystals. TEM exhibited the formed spherical gold nanoparticles in the size range from 30 to 50 nm with an average size of 45 nm. SEM and TEM revealed that the intracellular gold nanoparticles were well dispersed on the cell wall and within the cell, and they are mostly spherical in shape with an average diameter of 50 nm. The presence of gold was confirmed by EDX analysis.

  13. In vivo kinetic analysis of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway using PAA stimulus response experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Amit T; Verheijen, Peter J T; Maleki Seifar, Reza; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2015-11-01

    In this study we combined experimentation with mathematical modeling to unravel the in vivo kinetic properties of the enzymes and transporters of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway in a high yielding Penicillium chrysogenum strain. The experiment consisted of a step response experiment with the side chain precursor phenyl acetic acid (PAA) in a glucose-limited chemostat. The metabolite data showed that in the absence of PAA all penicillin pathway enzymes were expressed, leading to the production of a significant amount of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APA) as end product. After the stepwise perturbation with PAA, the pathway produced PenG within seconds. From the extra- and intracellular metabolite measurements, hypotheses for the secretion mechanisms of penicillin pathway metabolites were derived. A dynamic model of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway was then constructed that included the formation and transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of pathway intermediates, PAA and the product penicillin-G (PenG). The model parameters and changes in the enzyme levels of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway under in vivo conditions were simultaneously estimated using experimental data obtained at three different timescales (seconds, minutes, hours). The model was applied to determine changes in the penicillin pathway enzymes in time, calculate fluxes and analyze the flux control of the pathway. This led to a reassessment of the in vivo behavior of the pathway enzymes and in particular Acyl-CoA:Isopenicillin N Acyltransferase (AT). Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-termination in aflR of Aspergillus sojae inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, K; Chang, P K; Yu, J; Abe, K; Bhatnagar, D; Cleveland, T E

    2001-05-01

    The aflR gene product is the main transcriptional regulator of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Although A. sojae strains do not produce aflatoxins, they do have an aflR homologue. When compared with the aflR of A. parasiticus, the A. sojae gene contains two mutations: an HAHA motif and a premature stop codon. To investigate the functionality of the A. sojae aflR gene product, we used a GAL4 one-hybrid system in yeast. The transcription-activating activity of AflR from A. sojae was 15% of that from A. parasiticus. The introduction of an additional aflR from A. sojae into an A. parasiticus strain did not affect aflatoxin productivity. A hybrid aflR comprising the amino-terminal region of A. sojae aflR and the carboxy-terminal region of A. parasiticus aflR suppressed the effect associated with pre-termination of the A. sojae AflR. We conclude that the premature stop codon of the A. sojae aflR is the key to its functionality and leads to prevention of aflatoxin biosynthesis through loss of the transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis-related genes.

  15. Apicobasal domain identities of expanding tubular membranes depend on glycosphingolipid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Abraham, Nessy; Khan, Liakot A; Hall, David H; Fleming, John T; Göbel, Verena

    2011-09-18

    Metazoan internal organs are assembled from polarized tubular epithelia that must set aside an apical membrane domain as a lumenal surface. In a global Caenorhabditis elegans tubulogenesis screen, interference with several distinct fatty-acid-biosynthetic enzymes transformed a contiguous central intestinal lumen into multiple ectopic lumens. We show that multiple-lumen formation is caused by apicobasal polarity conversion, and demonstrate that in situ modulation of lipid biosynthesis is sufficient to reversibly switch apical domain identities on growing membranes of single post-mitotic cells, shifting lumen positions. Follow-on targeted lipid-biosynthesis pathway screens and functional genetic assays were designed to identify a putative single causative lipid species. They demonstrate that fatty-acid biosynthesis affects polarity through sphingolipid synthesis, and reveal ceramide glucosyltransferases (CGTs) as end-point biosynthetic enzymes in this pathway. Our findings identify glycosphingolipids, CGT products and obligate membrane lipids, as critical determinants of in vivo polarity and indicate that they sort new components to the expanding apical membrane.

  16. Fibrillin 5 Is Essential for Plastoquinone-9 Biosynthesis by Binding to Solanesyl Diphosphate Synthases in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ha; Lee, Yongjik

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillins are lipid-associated proteins in plastids and are ubiquitous in plants. They accumulate in chromoplasts and sequester carotenoids during the development of flowers and fruits. However, little is known about the functions of fibrillins in leaf tissues. Here, we identified fibrillin 5 (FBN5), which is essential for plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Homozygous fbn5-1 mutations were seedling-lethal, and XVE:FBN5-B transgenic plants expressing low levels of FBN5-B had a slower growth rate and were smaller than wild-type plants. In chloroplasts, FBN5-B specifically interacted with solanesyl diphosphate synthases (SPSs) 1 and 2, which biosynthesize the solanesyl moiety of PQ-9. Plants containing defective FBN5-B accumulated less PQ-9 and its cyclized product, plastochromanol-8, but the levels of tocopherols were not affected. The reduced PQ-9 content of XVE:FBN5-B transgenic plants was consistent with their lower photosynthetic performance and higher levels of hydrogen peroxide under cold stress. These results indicate that FBN5-B is required for PQ-9 biosynthesis through its interaction with SPS. Our study adds FBN5 as a structural component involved in the biosynthesis of PQ-9. FBN5 binding to the hydrophobic solanesyl moiety, which is generated by SPS1 and SPS2, in FBN5-B/SPS homodimeric complexes stimulates the enzyme activity of SPS1 and SPS2. PMID:26432861

  17. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  18. Morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy involves two cell types: sieve elements and laticifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoyovwe, Akpevwe; Hagel, Jillian M; Chen, Xue; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics were used to establish the cell type-specific localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Polyclonal antibodies for each of six enzymes involved in converting (R)-reticuline to morphine detected corresponding antigens in sieve elements of the phloem, as described previously for all upstream enzymes transforming (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-reticuline. Validated shotgun proteomics performed on whole-stem and latex total protein extracts generated 2031 and 830 distinct protein families, respectively. Proteins corresponding to nine morphine biosynthetic enzymes were represented in the whole stem, whereas only four of the final five pathway enzymes were detected in the latex. Salutaridine synthase was detected in the whole stem, but not in the latex subproteome. The final three enzymes converting thebaine to morphine were among the most abundant active latex proteins despite a limited occurrence in laticifers suggested by immunofluorescence labeling. Multiple charge isoforms of two key O-demethylases in the latex were revealed by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Salutaridine biosynthesis appears to occur only in sieve elements, whereas conversion of thebaine to morphine is predominant in adjacent laticifers, which contain morphine-rich latex. Complementary use of immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics has substantially resolved the cellular localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  19. Diphthamide biosynthesis requires an organic radical generated by an iron-sulphur enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xuling; Torelli, Andrew T; Lee, Michael; Dzikovski, Boris; Koralewski, Rachel M; Wang, Eileen; Freed, Jack; Krebs, Carsten; Ealick, Steve E; Lin, Hening [Cornell; (Penn)

    2010-08-30

    Archaeal and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 contain a unique post-translationally modified histidine residue called diphthamide, which is the target of diphtheria toxin. The biosynthesis of diphthamide was proposed to involve three steps, with the first being the formation of a C-C bond between the histidine residue and the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). However, further details of the biosynthesis remain unknown. Here we present structural and biochemical evidence showing that the first step of diphthamide biosynthesis in the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii uses a novel iron-sulphur-cluster enzyme, Dph2. Dph2 is a homodimer and each of its monomers can bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Biochemical data suggest that unlike the enzymes in the radical SAM superfamily, Dph2 does not form the canonical 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical. Instead, it breaks the Cγ,Met-S bond of SAM and generates a 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl radical. Our results suggest that P. horikoshii Dph2 represents a previously unknown, SAM-dependent, [4Fe-4S]-containing enzyme that catalyses unprecedented chemistry.

  20. The MIEL1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Negatively Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Gil; Kim, Juyoung; Suh, Mi Chung; Seo, Pil Joon

    2017-07-01

    Cuticular wax is an important hydrophobic layer that covers the plant aerial surface. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is shaped by multiple layers of regulation. In particular, a pair of R2R3-type MYB transcription factors, MYB96 and MYB30, are known to be the main participants in cuticular wax accumulation. Here, we report that the MYB30-INTERACTING E3 LIGASE 1 (MIEL1) E3 ubiquitin ligase controls the protein stability of the two MYB transcription factors and thereby wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. MIEL1-deficient miel1 mutants exhibit increased wax accumulation in stems, with up-regulation of wax biosynthetic genes targeted by MYB96 and MYB30. Genetic analysis reveals that wax accumulation of the miel1 mutant is compromised by myb96 or myb30 mutation, but MYB96 is mainly epistatic to MIEL1, playing a predominant role in cuticular wax deposition. These observations indicate that the MIEL1-MYB96 module is important for balanced cuticular wax biosynthesis in developing inflorescence stems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.