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Sample records for syrian awassi ewes

  1. Serum concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol during the ovarian cycle of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2005-01-01

    It was possible, for the first time, to characterise hormonally and precisely the oestrous cycle of the Syrian Awassi ewes, and to determine normal progesterone and oestradiol concentrations during the different phases of oestrous cycle. It is concluded that progesterone and oestradiol concentrations showed a cyclic pattern during the oestrous cycle, in addition, a negative and significant correlation between the concentrations of the two hormones was found. (author)

  2. Evaluation of an accelerated lambing system in Syrian Awassi ewes, using hormonal treatments inside and outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2010-04-01

    An experiment was carried out on Syrian Awassi ewes to assess the accelerated lambing system (three lambings in 2 years) by synchronising and induction of oestrus and increasing ovulation rate using hormonal treatments (intravaginal sponges: FGA + equine chorionic gonadotrophin: eCG). Fifty intact cyclic Syrian Awassi ewes aged 2- 4 years with an average live weight of 51.4 kg were used for 4 years (6 lambings). Ewes were divided into 2 groups: 40 ewes in the treated (T) and 10 in the control (C). Ewes in the T group were treated with FGA for 14 days and injected intramuscularly at sponge withdrawal with 500 IU eCG. Results indicated that, throughout the 6 breeding periods, oestrus induction rate was 100%, and all ewes in the T group were mated within 1-5 days post sponge removal as compared to 10-11 days for ewes in the C group. Treated ewes had higher rates of lambing, multiple birth and fecundity. Repeated administration of eCG (6 times at 8 months interval) had no negative effect on fertility of Syrian Awassi ewes. However, anti-eCG antibodies were produced following eCG injections. (author)

  3. Growth and development in Syrian Awassi ewes during patterns of ovarian follicular different reproductive stages monitored by laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Soukouti, A.

    2009-06-01

    An in situ study was conducted on Syrian Awassi ewes, inside and outside the breeding season, untreated or treated with vaginal sponges together with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin aiming at monitoring the ovaries' diameters, number of different follicular categories, number, diameters and lifespan of corpora lutea in each ovary using a laparoscope and finding out the relationship among these parameters and progesterone concentration. For the first time, it has been possible to characterise the Syrian Awassi sheep at the ovarian follicles level during different reproductive stages using a laparoscope. (author)

  4. Response of the Syrian awassi ewes to the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirty Awassi ewes were divided equally into 3 groups. Ewes in the first (T10) and second groups (T15) were injected intramuscularly twice with either 10 mg (T10) or 15 mg (T15) of prosolvin, with an interval of 11 days. Whereas, the third group (C) was used as a control group. Progesterone levels were measured in the sera of the ewes using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Oestrus behaviour appeared in the ewes in group T10 on average after 83.3 hours, while oestrus appeared in the ewes in group T15 on average after 136.5 hours, after the second injection of prosolvin. In the control group (C), oestrus behaviour appeared on average after 251.2 hours, post ram introduction. The differences between the treated and the control animals in the time of oestrus behaviour was significant (p < 0.05). Average concentration of progesterone at mating was 0.64, 0.48 and 0.32 nmol/l for T10, T15 and C groups, respectively. The treatment had a luteolytic effect on the active corpora lutea. Progesterone concentration dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second prosolvin injection. The concentration dropped from 8.48 n mol/l to 0.52 n mol/l in the sera of group T10, and from 7.95 n mol/l to 0.45 n mol/l for the group T15. The treatment had no effect on the duration of pregnancy or birth weight. It could be concluded that it is possible to use the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronization in the local Awassi ewes inside the breeding season at the doses of 10 and 15 mg. (author)

  5. The evaluation of two doses of prostaglandin F2α analogue, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronisation of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty Awassi ewes were divided equally into 3 groups. Ewes in the first (T10) and second groups (T15) were injected intramuscularly twice with either 10 mg (T10) or 15 mg (T15) of prosolvin, with an interval of 11 days. Whereas, the third group (C) was used as a control group. Progesterone levels were measured in the sera of the ewes using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Oestrus behaviour appeared in the ewes in group T10 on average after 83.3 hours, while oestrus appeared in the ewes in group T15 on average after 136.5 hours, after the second injection of prosolvin. In the control group (C), oestrus behaviour appeared on average after 251.2 hours, post ram introduction. The differences between the treated and the control animals in the time of oestrus behaviour was significant (p < 0.05). Average concentration of progesterone at mating was 0.64, 0.48 and 0.32 nmol/l for T10, T15 and C groups, respectively. The treatment had a luteolytic effect on the active corpora lutea. Progesterone concentration dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second prosolvin injection. The concentration dropped from 8.48 n mol/l to 0.52 n mol/l in the sera of group T10, and from 7.95 n mol/l to 0.45 n mol/l for the group T15. The treatment had no effect on the duration of pregnancy or birth weight. It could be concluded that it is possible to use the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronization in the local Awassi ewes inside the breeding season at the doses of 10 and 15 mg. (author)

  6. Monitoring the reproductive performance in awassi ewes using progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone (P-4) concentrations were assessed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits for about 1 year in 16 local Awassi ewes aged about 1 year and weighing on average 37.4 ±4.9 (range 29.5-44.0 kg). Average pre-mating live weight of animals was different (P 0.05) between animals in average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration, maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes and in the length of the gestation period average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration was 0.62±0.44 (range 0-1.7 nmol l -1 ). Average maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes was 11.0±3.3 (range 5.8-18 nmol l -1 ). Length of gestation period varied from 149 to 155 days with an average of 152±2.3 days. Maximum P-4 concentration during gestation was different (P -1 ). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis at around 21 days pot-mating using RIA was 100%. It was concluded that Awassi sheep in Syria have a long breeding season that could start as early as April and last through September. Therefore, ewes might be included in oestrous synchronisation programmes to give three lambs in 2 years. It was also concluded that P-4 concentration under 3.18 nmol l -1 is indicative of either anoestrous or follicular and early luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in Awassi ewes kept in Syria and that RIA could be used for P-4 determination and successful early diagnosis of pregnancy in Awassi sheep. (author)

  7. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  8. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6±4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7±7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ±0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32±3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age of about

  9. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2002-08-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6 ± 4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7 ± 7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ± 0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32 ± 3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age

  10. Study of the ovarian function in Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out on indigenous Awassi ewes to study some reproductive criteria by measuring the changes of progesterone concentrations in the blood sera for about one year using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Average basal pre-mating progesterone concentration was 0.60 ± 0.42 n mol/1 (0-107 n mol/1). Average maximum progesterone concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes was 11.1 ± mol/1 (5.8-18.00 n mol/1). Average maximum progesterone concentration during gestation was 58.4 ± 20.9 n mol/1 (29.25-100.00 n mol/1). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis at around 21 days post mating using RIA was 100%. (author)

  11. Performance of Nursing Awassi Ewes Fed Different Levels of Bread By-product

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    B. S. Obeidat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of barley grain with bread by-product (BB on performance of Awassi ewes and their lambs. Forty Awassi ewes rearing single lambs were randomly allotted into four experimental diets containing various levels of BB. The experimental diets contained 0 (BB0, 10 (BB10, 15 (BB15, and 20% (BB20 of BB on dietary dry matter (DM. The study lasted for eight weeks, in which the first week was used as an adaptation period and seven weeks of data collection. Ewes and their lambs were penned individually where they were fed their lactating diets ad libitum. Ewes and lambs body weights were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. However, milk production and composition were evaluated biweekly. Feeding BB had no effect (p>0.05 on dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP intakes. However, neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake was the lowest (p0.05 on ewes body weight change and on lamb performance (i.e., weaning body weight and average daily gain. Similarly, no differences (p>0.05 were observed either in milk production or composition by the BB substitution. Inclusion of BB reduced feed cost by 9, 14, and 18% for the BB10, BB15, and BB20 diets, respectively. No differences were observed in milk efficiency (DM intake: milk production; p>0.05 among diets. However, cost of milk production ($US/kg milk was the lowest (p<0.05 in the diet containing BB20. Results of the present study indicate that feeding bread by-product up to 20% of the diet DM had no effect on performance of Awassi ewes and their lambs and reduced feed cost.

  12. Characterization of Awassi lamb fattening systems: a Syrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Birgitte Wiedemann; Iñiguez, Luis; Mueller, Joaquin; Wurzinger, Maria; Knaus, W F

    2010-10-01

    Intensive lamb fattening systems are evolving in developing Middle Eastern countries due to high demand for lambs at favorable prices; however, little is known about their characteristics and constraints. A survey was conducted in Syria involving 241 farmers to characterize the fattening production systems and main constraints, with emphasis on feeding, management, labor, and marketing. Most farmers (90%) considered the income from fattening to be from medium to high, and 57% expressed that lamb fattening along with alternative income sources compose the family's livelihood strategies. Fattening systems offer employment to family members. Market price was the main decision factor to buy and sell lambs, but this was only part of various marketing aspects. Male lambs usually bought at markets at the mean age of 4 months (mean weight of 31 kg) are sold after fattening at a 50-60 kg weight range. The average yearly fattening cycle was 2.7 batches, and the average number of lambs per batch was 232. For 65% (n = 241) of the farmers the major constraint to fattening was feeding cost, and for about a half of farmers (51%, n = 241), disease outbreaks and prices for veterinarian services constituted the second important constraint. Research on least-cost fattening diets and curbing disease problems to increase farmer's income margins is needed. It is expected that due to existing commonalities, the information emerging from this study regarding major constraints to Awassi lamb fattening systems could be useful for an across-synthesis on Awassi fattening production in the region.

  13. Effect of a synthetic prostaglandin (Prosolvin) on oestrus synchronization in local Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1997-04-01

    Two experiments have been carried out to evaluate the effect of Prosolvin, a synthetic prostaglandin, on oestrus synchronization in local Awassi ewes during the breeding season. In the first experiment, 8 Awassi ewes, aged about 3 years, and weighing on average 59.9 ± 4.4kg were used. In experiment 2, 22 local awassi ewes, at different ages, and weighing on average 53.0 ± 9.7 kg were used. The animals were divided into 2 groups in both experiments. Animals in group 1 (n= 15), received 2 i.m. injections of 1 ml of prosolvin at 11 day interval, whereas animals in group (n= 7) were considered as controls and received no treatment. Three fertile awassi rams were introduced to all animals 18 hours after the second injection of prosolvin for 5 days for oestrus detection and natural mating. Concentrations of progesterone hormone were measured in the blood using radioimmunoassay. The results from experiment 1 indicated that oestrus was induced in 1 animal in group 1, 44 hours after prosolvin injection, and was mated, conceived and lambed. Oestrus was induced in two animals in group 2 and mated, 44 hours after the second prosolvin injection, but only 1 animal conceived and lambed. The results obtained from experiment 2 showed that 47.7 % of the treated animals showed oestrus behaviour and mated within 68 hours after the second injection of Prosolvin, with an average of 54.3 ± 12.8 hours, which was significantly (p<0.05) to controls. None of the animals in the control group exhibited oestrus within 5 days of the introduction of the rams.There was significant (p<0.05) difference within the treated animals to the treatment. Among the treated ewes that showed oestrus, 71.4 % conceived and lambed. Progesterone concentrations dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second injection of prosolvin in 60 % of the animals that conceived and lambed. It could be concluded that synthetic prostaglandin could be used in oestrus synchronization of local Awassi ewes in the breeding

  14. Reproductive characteristics of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing system

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    Sabri Gül

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the reproductive responses of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing (CAMAL system. Ewes were randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The first group (control group consists of 20 ewes exposed to rams in September under conventional management system while the second group (CAMAL were divided into four sub-flocks contain 20 head of ewes each one were exposed to rams to obtain three lambing in two years with different breeding and lambing months. In CAMAL ewes, oestrus was synchronized using intra-vaginal sponges with progesterone and PMSG administration. Results revealed that within CAMAL group, the percentage of animals in heat, onset of oestrus, litter size, birth weight and weaning weight were affected by mating months. September and November were the most appropriate months for oestrus ratio (97.5 % and litter size (1.18 and 0.98, respectively. Lambs of control group were heavier at birth and weaning than those of CAMAL group. On the other hand lamb yield was not affected statistically by the CAMAL administration.

  15. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

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    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  16. The use of melatonin and progestagen-eCG to initiate reproductive activity in prepuberal Awassi ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Mohammad N; Kridli, Rami T; Jawasreh, Khalil I; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A

    2011-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of administering hormonal treatments (melatonin and progestagen/equine chronic gonadotropin (eCG)) on advancing puberty in Awassi ewe lambs. Fifty-one 6-month-old ewe lambs of similar body weights (around 28 kg) were randomly assigned into four treatment groups; control (CON; n = 14), melatonin (MEL; n = 13), melatonin plus progestagen-eCG (MELPP; n = 11), and progestagen-eCG (PP; n = 13). Ewe lambs in the PP and MELPP groups were fitted with intravaginal progestagen sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days; 400 IU eCG were administered to each of these ewe lambs on the day of sponge removal. Ewe lambs in the MEL and MELPP groups received subcutaneous melatonin implants (Regulin®, 18 mg melatonin) 36 days before sponge insertion. Hormonal treatment had no effect on ewe lamb body weight change. Estrous behavior was greater (p ewe lambs. The duration from ram introduction to onset of estrus was shorter (p ewe lambs. The number of ewe lambs showing luteal activity was greater (p ewe lambs in the current study either failed to cycle or stopped cycling following the induced estrus. Such failure in advancing puberty may be related to body weight of ewe lambs at the time of mating.

  17. Serum testosterone level and affecting factors in Syrian Awassi ram lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Results showed that testosterone exists in the blood of ram lams as early as the first month of age with no significant difference between single and twin births. This level, however, increased gradually with advancing age of ram lambs, indicating that the gonads (testes) of these growing lambs were active in secreting testosterone hormone after birth, but the rate of secretion differed with age of the lambs. A sharp increase in testosterone level was recorded at age of 8 months in twin births (5.32 ± 20.99 nmol/l) and in single births (7.26 ± 3.29 nmol/l). Throughout the study period, mean testosterone serum level was 3.29 ± 2.73 and 2.54 ± 2.15 nmol/l for single and twin births, respectively, as compared with an overall mean of 3.00 ± 2.49 nmol/l. However, the monthly difference in testosterone level between single and twin births was not significant (P>0.05) throughout the study period (10 months). Results also indicated an increase in live weight of lambs with advancing age, and live weight in single births was higher, but not significantly, than in twin births throughout the study period. Results of the study showed a sharp increase in the mean live weight of single births at age of 8 months (48.5 ± 10.8 kg) as compared with an overall live weight of the lambs (35.8 ± 15.2 and 32.7 ± 15.4 kg for single and twin births, respectively). A positive and significant correlation (r= 0.95, P>0.0001) was found between serum testosterone level and lamb live weight during the first 10 months of their age. Finally and for the first time, normal serum testosterone levels in Syrian Awassi ram lambs were determined during early stages. It was concluded, based on both, testosterone level and lamb live weight, that puberty in Awassi ram lambs could be reached at 8 months of age with a mean live weight of around 47 kg. Type of birth, lamb birth weight or weaning weight had no significant effect on testosterone level. (author)

  18. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  19. Surveillance and management of estrous cycle in Awassi and Lacaune ewes during out of season

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    Liviu Bogdan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to increase fertility in sheep by applying modern biotechnology: induction and synchronization of estrous in non- breeding season. The ewes were divided into 3 equal batches. In all batches intravaginal sponge (Veramix/Intervet containing 60 mg of MPA was left in the vagina for 14 days. Immediately after removal of the sponge an injections of prostaglandin (Dinolytic/Pfizer at the dose of 12.5 mg (2,5ml/animal was administered in batch II. Batch III received two injections: PMSG hormone (Folligon/Intervet at the dose of 500 IU/animal and prostaglandin (Dinolytic/Pfizer at the dose of 12.5 mg (2,5 ml/animal. The research focused on several directions: assessment of estrous manifestation; occurrence of estrous interval after completion of hormonal therapy; duration of estrous; appreciation of gestation after the first and second estrous clinically manifested; percentage of fecundity. From the results obtained it follows that induction and synchronization of estrous in non-breeding season showed economic advantages by shortening the time needed for the installation of gestation, the possibility of lambing distribution, preparation and organization of mating.

  20. Induction of oestrus and early pregnancy diagnosis in Awassi sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    1997-12-01

    An experiment on Syrian Awassi ewes and yearlings was conducted out-side the normal breeding season to study the possibility of inducing oestrus and increasing birth rate as an attempt to improve the reproductive efficiency, in addition to evaluating the possibility of early pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone radioimmunoassay kits. One-hundred-and fifty-five local female awassi sheep (96 ewes and 59 ewe lambs) were divided into 4 groups. Group T1 (n= 50 ewes) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days followd by 600 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C1 (n= 46 ewes) received no treatment. Group T2 (n= 41 yearlings) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of MAP for 14 days followed by 400 IU PMSG at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C2 (n= 18 yearlings) received no treatment. The females in both T1 and T2 groups responded to the hormonal treatment, and showed oestrus behaviour within 36-48 h of sponge withdrawal. Total oestrus rate was 96% and 92.7% for groups T1 and T2, respectively. Lambing rates were 80%, 32.6%, 78.0% and 5.6% for groups T1, C1, T2 and C2, respectively. Twinning rates increased to 32.5% and 33.3% for groups T1 and T2, respectively, compared to 6.7% and 0% for groups C1 and C2, respectively. There were no significant differences in pregnancy duration between groups T1 (151.7 ± 1.7 days), and T2 (154.4 ± 1.5 days), and between single (154.4 ± 1.8 daus and 151.5 ± 1.6 days) and twin-born lambs (151.7 ± 1.5 days and 150.8 ± 1.3 days) for single and twin born lambs in groups T1 and T2, respectively. Hormonal treatment had no effect on the overall average lamb birth weight, which was 4.3 ± 1.0 Kg, 4.4 ± 0.7 Kg and 3.9 ± 1.0 Kg for groups T1, C1, and T2, respectively, and the birth weight for the only lamb born in group C2 was 4.0 kg. However, average birth weight for single born lambs was

  1. Apocrine hidrocytoma in an Awassi sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Wael M. Hananeh; Mousa Daradka; Zuhair Bani Ismail; Huthaifa S. Ababneh

    2014-01-01

    Hidrocytomas are benign cystic lesions of sweat apocrine glands. It is a recognized condition in cats and dogs, but has never been reported in sheep. In this case, a 5-year-old Awassi ewe was presented for ocular evaluation. The left eye had a 1.0-cm-diameter dome shaped mass containing clear fluids and was protruded from the palpebral eyelid margin near the lateral canthus. The cyst was surgically removed and revealed apocrine hidrocytoma via histopathology. Seven months post-surgery, neithe...

  2. Apocrine hidrocytoma in an Awassi sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Hananeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidrocytomas are benign cystic lesions of sweat apocrine glands. It is a recognized condition in cats and dogs, but has never been reported in sheep. In this case, a 5-year-old Awassi ewe was presented for ocular evaluation. The left eye had a 1.0-cm-diameter dome shaped mass containing clear fluids and was protruded from the palpebral eyelid margin near the lateral canthus. The cyst was surgically removed and revealed apocrine hidrocytoma via histopathology. Seven months post-surgery, neither cyst recurrence nor additional masses were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of apocrine hidrocytoma in sheep.

  3. Effects of Long and Short-Term Progestagen Treatments Combined with PMSG on Oestrus Synchronization and Fertility in Awassi Ewes during the Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ustuner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of oestrus has been used to increase reproductive efficiency in most animals, including ewes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of the length of a progestagen treatment (12 d vs. 6 d on synchronization efficiency (oestrus response, time to onset of oestrus and duration of oestrus and fertility rate using fluorogestone acetate (FGA progestagen sponge treatment with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG administration applied at different times of sponge removal. Ewes (n = 68 were divided into two groups; long term (LT, n = 33 and short term (ST, n = 35 groups treated with FGA progestagen sponges. At the end of intravaginal sponge treatment period the animals of each group were divided into the 3 subgroups in relation to time of PMSG (300 IU treatment. PMSG treatment was applied 24 h before sponge removal, at sponge removal and 24 h after sponge removal for LT1 and ST1, LT2 and ST2, and LT3 and ST3, respectively. Each ewe was inseminated intra-cervically twice with skim cow milk-diluted semen (1000 × 106 motile cells/ml 40 h and 60 h after sponge removal. Non-return rates (NRR-30 were monitored from 12 day after sponge removal to 30 day with the aid of teaser rams. Onsets of oestrus response and oestrus cessation were significantly different (P P P >. The NRR-30 and lambing rate of the ST and LT after timed AI were 35.7% and 31.0% and 32.1% and 28.6%, respectively (P > 0.05.

  4. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  5. Ewing sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone cancer - Ewing sarcoma; Ewing family of tumors; Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET); Bone neoplasm - Ewing sarcoma ... Ewing sarcoma can occur anytime during childhood and young adulthood. But it usually develops during puberty, when bones are ...

  6. Effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil on milk somatic cell count, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in Awassi sheep with subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alekish, Myassar O.; Ismail, Zuhair B.; Awawdeh, Mofleh S.; Shatnawi, Shoroq

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil (EO) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of s...

  7. Ewe Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberg, Nan; Kpotufe, Prosper

    This volume consists of a guide to Ewe pronunciation and an Ewe textbook designed for students who are native speakers of English. Consonants, vowels and tones are introduced in the first section, and exercises that drill the contrasts between the segments are provided. The volume is divided into five units, each unit including a dialogue,…

  8. Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamanoue, Satoshi; Makimoto, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most frequent primary bone cancer affecting children or young adults. Advances in molecular biology have revealed common chromosomal translocations such as EWS-FLI1 among Ewing sarcoma and related diseases such as primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), so these are considered as Ewing sarcoma family tumor (ESFT). Although fewer than 10% of patients with ESFT survived before establishment of modern multiagent chemotherapy, the multimodal therapeutic regimens including combination chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery can cure 60% of patients with localized disease, due to the collaborative research in European-American or the international trials. The standard chemotherapy for localized ESFT now comprises vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin (VACD) in Europe or vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and etoposide (VDC-IE) in North America. Meanwhile, those with metastatic disease have a much worse outcome with an approximately 10-30% 5-year event-free survival rate. New American-European collaborative trials such as EURO-E.W.I.N.G. 99 are in progress for further improvement of the cure rate in localized and metastatic ESFT. In Japan, Japan Ewing Sarcoma Study Group (JESS) phase II clinical trial for localized ESFT, and some clinical trials including new drugs are ongoing and waiting for results. (author)

  9. Body weight and reproductive parameters in fast and weak growing Awassi ram lambs during different age stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz; Al-Daker, Al-Moutassem Billah

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on 30 Syrian Awassi ram lambs around 3 months of age. Lambs were divided equally in 2 groups as fast growing (FG) and weak growing (WG) lambs to identify body weight and reproductive parameters in each group during different age stages. Blood samples were collected to determine testosterone and leptin concentrations using radioimmunoassay. At puberty, average body weight and age of FG and WG lambs was 52.4 and 43.1 kg, and 225.9 and 248.0 days, respectively, with a significant (P age (below 1.0 nmol L(-1)) and increased with advancing age with a sharp increase occurring at 7 months of age and at puberty, averages were 12.58 and 11.86 nmol L(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences. At puberty, average leptin concentration was 3.16 and 2.98 ng mL(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) difference.

  10. Modification of milk fatty acid composition by feeding forages and agro-industrial byproducts from dry areas to Awassi sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbeddou, S; Rischkowsky, B; Richter, E K; Hess, H D; Kreuzer, M

    2011-09-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that certain underused forages and agro-industrial byproducts available in dry areas may positively influence fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidative properties of milk by their contents of residual oil or phenolic compounds or both. Sixty multiparous fat-tailed Awassi ewes were allocated to 6 groups in a completely randomized block design. During 50 d, the ewes were group-fed 2.5 kg of dry matter/d per ewe 1 of 6 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (forage:concentrate, 0.3:0.7). The test feeds, comprising 30% of the diets, replaced either barley straw [lentil straw, olive leaves, and Atriplex (saltbush) leaves, rich in phenolic compounds or electrolytes] or conventional concentrate ingredients (olive cake and tomato pomace; ∼10% lipids) from the control diet. The diets containing olive cake and tomato pomace were rich in oleic acid (18:1 cis-9; 27% of total dietary FA) and linoleic acid (18:2 cis-9,cis-12; 37%), respectively. Profiles of FA were determined in individual milk samples drawn on d 0 and in wk 1, 3, 5 and 7. Data was analyzed by repeated measurement analysis. No consistent treatment effects on yield and gross nutrient composition of the milk were observed, although some differences occurred. Milk resulting from the Atriplex leaf diet expressed the highest antiradical activity, which was low with control and olive leaves. Feeding the tomato pomace and olive cake diets decreased the proportions of short- and medium-chain FA, whereas oleic acid clearly increased in proportion to total FA. Olive leaves most effectively increased rumenic acid (18:2 cis-9,trans-11) and α-linolenic acid (18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15) in milk fat. This also resulted in the highest α-linolenic acid transfer rate from feed to milk and suggests that olive leaves affect ruminal biohydrogenation at several steps. Several alternative feeds exist with an added value, as they enhance FA with potential health benefits and the stability of the

  11. POSSIBILITIES OF ENRICHMENT OF PRAMENKA WITH AWASSI SHEEP IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Sinanović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production in Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the most promising branches of livestock production, and all measures should be taken in the direction of its modernization. Increasing Pramenka's dairy skills is one of the quality directions with expected positive results. Awassi, as a highly adaptable and dairy breed, has all the prerequisites to be a strategic meliorator towards the creation of high-dairy F1 generation with pramenka. Analyzing the production characteristics of these two breeds, geographic and socio-economic characteristics in BiH, and referring to positive experiences from Macedonia, the need of directing the sheep strategy in the aforementioned direction becomes clear. Also, it is an imperative to start a pilot project in BiH aimed at exploring the significance of enrichment of Pramenka with Awassi rams. Key words: enrichment, pramenka, awassi, milk, Bosnia and Herzegovina

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Ewing sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Ewing sarcoma Ewing sarcoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Ewing sarcoma is a cancerous tumor that occurs in bones ...

  13. Ewing tumors in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Ranft, Andreas; Jürgens, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors. We identified in the Munster data

  14. SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN DE OVEJA AWASSI Y RENDIMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO: UNA EXPERIENCIA DEL MEDIO ORIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami T. Kridli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jordania es un país predominantemente semiárido. La mayor parte de la tierra es incultivable y sólo se puede utilizar para el pastoreo de rumiantes pequeños. La oveja Awassi de cola gruesa es la raza nativa de ovejas en Jordania. Esta raza es popular por varias razones, tales como su adaptabilidad a ecosistemas difíciles, su producción lechera y por tener una carne con buenas características y un buen sabor. La industria ovejera en Jordania enfrenta muchos retos, el más importante es la escases de agua, que conlleva a una baja disponibilidad de forrajes y a un alza en los precios de los alimentos. A pesar de las dificultades, se realizan esfuerzos para mejorar la productividad de las ovejas Awassi mediante la selección, el cuidado veterinario, la evaluación de fuentes alternativas de alimentación y tratamientos hormonales para mejorar su fertilidad y fecundidad. Este estudio enfatiza la investigación principal llevada a cabo en ovejas Awassi en Jordania en la última década con un énfasis especial en el rendimiento reproductivo.

  15. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  16. Disrupting Syrian Economic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    funding the war effort through: One, taxation of licit and illicit economic activities; Two, movement 9 (for a fee) of money, arms, equipment...the legitimate taxation necessary to provide for governmental functions such as infrastructure, education, and security; while at the same time... double the dollar value of remittances in 2006. 70 Although current figures are not available, it is expected that with the collapse of the Syrian

  17. Imaging Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henk, C.B.; Grampp, S.; Kainberger, F.; Breitenseher, M.; Imhof, H.; Mostbeck, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasm of the bone whose origin is still uncertain. A strong relationship exists between Ewing's sarcoma and tumors of neural origin (Ewing family of tumors). Ewing's sarcoma must be distinguished from other round-cell tumors like lymphoma and neuroblastoma and also must be differentiated from osteogenic sarcomas. On plain radiographs, Ewing's sarcoma appears as a lytic or mixed lytic-sclerotic, rarely as predominantly sclerotic lesion with margins Lodwick grade III. It is located primarily in the diaphyseal and metadiaphyseal regions of the long bones of the lower extremities. A large soft tissue tumor is usually present. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice to evaluate the extent of the primary lesion, to monitor the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to follow up non-resected Ewing's sarcomas. Bone scintigraphy is necessary to detect skeletal metastasis, and 201 thallium scanning has been shown to be sensitive in the monitoring of treatment response. Today, computed tomography is not longer used to image the tumor site; however, spiral CT of the lungs plays a central role as a staging and follow-up tool. (orig.) [de

  18. Influence of feeding Mediterranean food industry by-products and forages to Awassi sheep on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbeddou, Souheila; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Hilali, Muhi El-Dine; Hess, Hans Dieter; Kreuzer, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Feeding agro-industrial by-products and unconventional forages, rich in potentially anti-nutritional factors, may influence the quality of the raw milk and the dairy products prepared therefrom. The aim of the present study was to determine side-effects on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese of feeding diets where one third were feeds either rich in lipids (tomato pomace and olive cake) or phenols (olive leaves and lentil straw) or electrolytes (Atriplex leaves). The diets, including a control diet, were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. They were fed in amounts of 25 kg dry matter/day per head during 50 days to 6×10 multiparous fat-tailed Awassi ewes. Milk samples were analysed for various physicochemical traits and fatty acid composition on days 0, 24, 36 and 48. Three times, milk pooled by group was processed to yoghurt and non-aged farmer-type cheese, which were analysed for their gross and fatty acid composition and texture, and were subjected to sensory evaluation. Feeding olive cake and tomato pomace reduced milk casein, but increased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids. There were some variations in minerals among test diets but, contrary to expectations, Atriplex did not increase milk sodium. The nutritional composition of yoghurt and cheese was not varied much by the test feeds, except for some changes in fatty acid profile similar to the milk. Yoghurt firmness declined with all test diets, but texture score tended to be lower only for olive cake and leaf diets relative to control. Cheese firmness was increased by feeding the Atriplex leaf and olive cake diets which was also reflected in the texture scores. No off-flavours were reported. Possible reasons for effects on the dairy products are discussed. In conclusion, the feeds investigated had certain effects on the physicochemical properties of dairy products, but these were neither very systematic nor large thus not prohibiting their use in Mediterranean sheep

  19. Ewe Basic Course. Revised Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Irene; And Others

    The purpose of this beginning text in Ewe is to provide the student with an introduction to the structure of the Ewe language and "reasonable practice" in speaking. It is intended to be taught with the assistance of a native speaker of Ewe. Linguistic terminology is minimal. Suggested teaching time ranges from two semesters of class meetings of…

  20. Effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis essential oil on milk somatic cell count, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in Awassi sheep with subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myassar O. Alekish

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO on milk somatic cell count (SCC, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of sage EO against Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the broth dilution method. Ewes were divided randomly into three main groups and received one of the following treatments; Group 1 (n=5: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO alone (5 ml; 0.2 ml of DMSO in 4.8 ml of saline, Group 2 (n=5: Amoxicillin alone (3 ml, and Group 3 (n=10: Sage EO (5 ml of sage EO solution [0.2 ml DMSO+1 ml EO+3.8 ml sterile saline]. All treatments were administered by intramammary infusion into each teat twice per day for 3 consecutive days. Milk samples for SCC and milk components determination and whole blood samples for hematology and serum biochemical analyses were collected before treatment (T0 and at 24 (T24 and 48 (T48 h after the last treatment. Results: The MIC and MBC of sage EO against S. aureus were 12.5% and 6.1%, respectively. SCC was decreased significantly (p<0.05 at T24 and T48 h in sage EO and amoxicillin treated groups. Milk fat and lactose were increased significantly (p<0.05 in sage EO and amoxicillin treated ewes while no significant changes were observed in the percentages of solids-not-fat, protein and total solids. No significant effects of sage EO treatment on any of the hematology or serum biochemical parameters were observed. There were no local or systemic side effects observed in any of the treated ewes. However, further clinical trials are warranted to determine safety and possible withdrawal times in milk before its recommendation for use in organic operations

  1. Effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil on milk somatic cell count, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in Awassi sheep with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekish, Myassar O; Ismail, Zuhair B; Awawdeh, Mofleh S; Shatnawi, Shoroq

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage ( Salvia officinalis ) essential oil (EO) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of sage EO against Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the broth dilution method. Ewes were divided randomly into three main groups and received one of the following treatments; Group 1 (n=5): Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone (5 ml; 0.2 ml of DMSO in 4.8 ml of saline), Group 2 (n=5): Amoxicillin alone (3 ml), and Group 3 (n=10): Sage EO (5 ml of sage EO solution [0.2 ml DMSO+1 ml EO+3.8 ml sterile saline]). All treatments were administered by intramammary infusion into each teat twice per day for 3 consecutive days. Milk samples for SCC and milk components determination and whole blood samples for hematology and serum biochemical analyses were collected before treatment (T0) and at 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h after the last treatment. The MIC and MBC of sage EO against S. aureus were 12.5% and 6.1%, respectively. SCC was decreased significantly (psage EO and amoxicillin treated groups. Milk fat and lactose were increased significantly (psage EO and amoxicillin treated ewes while no significant changes were observed in the percentages of solids-not-fat, protein and total solids. No significant effects of sage EO treatment on any of the hematology or serum biochemical parameters were observed. There were no local or systemic side effects observed in any of the treated ewes. However, further clinical trials are warranted to determine safety and possible withdrawal times in milk before its recommendation for use in organic operations. In this study, the intramammary infusion of sage EO to ewes affected with

  2. Chemokines in Ewing sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sand, L.G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive primary malignant bone tumor with high degree of tumor vascularization and is the second most common sarcoma of bone in children and young adults. Patients with disseminated disease at diagnosis or early relapse have a poor prognosis. To identify novel therapies and

  3. Protecting the dignity of displaced Syrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Mansour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available What does dignity mean to Syrian refugees and practitioners? And what can humanitarian organisations do – or abstain from doing – to help Syrians preserve and protect their dignity?

  4. Who will resettle single Syrian men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Turner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resettlement programmes for Syrian refugees severely restrict access to resettlement for single Syrian men, despite the conditions of vulnerability, insecurity and danger in which they live.

  5. Syrian refugees: thinking beyond gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lokot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant gender narratives among NGOs responding to Syrian refugees, and their subsequent interventions, are based on sometimes simplistic understandings of the ‘traditional’ Syrian household and power dynamics.

  6. sarcome d'ewing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mai 2012 ... INTRODUCTION. Le sarcome d'Ewing est une tumeur osseuse rare corres- pondant à la forme indifférenciée des tumeurs neurecto- dermiques primitives et périphériques. Avant l'âge de 20 ans, c'est la seconde tumeur osseuse maligne par ordre de fréquence (30 %) derrière l'ostéosarcome (60 %) (1).

  7. Genetic parameter estimation for pre-weaning growth traits in Jordan Awassi sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Jawasreh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations, and the genetic trends for pre-weaning growth traits including the birth weight (BWT, weaning weight (WWT, pre-weaning daily gain (PWDG, and weaning age (WA in Awassi lambs. Materials and Methods: A total of 5131 Awassi lambs from two Jordanian sheep breeding stations were used. A multitrait animal model and restricted maximum likelihood methods were used to estimate the covariances between the studied traits. Results: The mean±standard deviation of BWT, WWT, PWDG, and WA was 4.48±0.8 kg, 17.13±0.7 kg, 0.2±0.07 g, and 65.5±0.7 days, respectively. Heritability estimates were 0.30±0.04 for BWT, 0.19±0.04 for WWT and PWDG, and 0.2±0.04 for WA. Positive genetic correlations were obtained between BWT and other traits, while negative correlations were obtained between WWT, PWDG, and WA (-0.50±0.12 and between WWT and WA (-0.67±0.14. The positive phenotypic correlation was obtained between WA and PWDG (0.63±0.01. The highest additive genetic variance was obtained for WA (34.58, while the lowest was estimated for PWDG (6.22E-04. The highest phenotypic variance was obtained for WA (175.5, while the lowest value obtained was for BWT (0.54. Maternal additive variance ranged between 0.13 and 0.03. The genetic trends were around zero for all studied traits. Conclusion: Selection should be conducted using animals with high estimated breeding values through controlled breeding.

  8. EXTRA-OSSEOUS EWING SARCOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Hendrik; Heinen, Richard C.; van der Pal, Heleen J.; Merks, Johannes H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinical data and data on outcome of extra-osseous Ewing tumors are scarce. Procedure: After a search for Ewing tumors in the database of a single institution over a period of 20 years, 16 out of 192 cases were found to have extra-osseous primary tumors. Results: Ages at initial

  9. Leukocyte changes in pregnant Yankasa ewes experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy and trypanosomosis are associated with leukocyte changes. The leukocyte response of pregnant Yankasa ewes during experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection was determined using twenty pregnant ewes. They ewes were divided into 3 groups with 6 ewes in group A, while groups B and C were made up of ...

  10. Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma requires a qualified clinical, radiological, and pathohistological diagnosis and, in particular, an optimal therapy by an experienced team of oncological specialists. Important prognostic factors are the presence of hematogenous metastases at diagnosis, the initial tumor volume, the response to chemotherapy, and adequate local therapy. Presently, cure rates of more than 60% can be achieved for localized Ewing's sarcoma by combination of local therapy and chemotherapy. The four-drug combination VACA (vincristin, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin) can be considered as cytostatic gold standard. More aggressive regimens (VAIA, EVAIA, autologous bone marrow transplant) may be beneficial in subgroups and are under investigation. Concerning local therapy adequate radiotherapy plays a major role and achieves the same survival rates as radical surgery, comparable patient selection provided. Several factors have impact on radiotherapeutic results, especially total dose (45 Gy large volume, 55 Gy to the primary tumor), target volume (safety margin at least 2 cm according to the pretreatment volume, at least 5 cm in proximal and distal extension of long bones), timing of radiotherapy (as early as possible) and quality of treatment. Radiotherapy as sole local treatment is indicated in inoperable lesions (spine, sacrum, skull) and in small, good-responding tumors. High-risk patients should receive combined radiotherapeutic-surgical treatment, preferably as pre-operative irradiation. The value of hyperfractionation is not yet proven despite theoretical advantages. (orig.) [de

  11. 1983 Maurice Ewing Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, George G., Jr.; Spiess, Fred Noel

    The Maurice Ewing Medal is presented jointly by the U.S. Navy and AGU for significant contributions to one or more of the following areas: the understanding of physical, geophysical, and geological processes in the ocean; significant original contributions to scientific ocean engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and outstanding service to marine sciences. Fred Noel Spiess has done all of these things superlatively.If one is to work successfully in the oceans, it is useful (although not strictly necessary) to enjoy being at sea—Samuel Johnson, Charles Darwin and Lord Nelson notwithstanding. Fred Spiess combines this enjoyment of seagoing with a logical nature that leads him to the physical heart of a problem, an inventiveness that makes it natural to develop the tools that he needs when they don't exist, an ability to work well with others in a wide variety of disciplines, and leadership that persuades others to work on significant problems.

  12. Effect of lactation on single-dose pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soback, S; Gips, M; Bialer, M; Bor, A

    1994-01-01

    In a three-way crossover trial, six healthy Finnish-Merino-Awassi ewes were given a single intravenous injection of norfloxacin nicotinate (in a dose equivalent to 25 mg of norfloxacin base per kg of body weight) during nursing, 1 day after weaning, and 1 month after weaning. Blood and milk samples were collected at different time intervals following dosing, and norfloxacin concentrations were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The serum drug concentration versus time data were analyzed by a noncompartmental approach which was based on the statistical-moment theory. The total body clearance values were 4.2 +/- 1.3 (injection during nursing), 1.6 +/- 0.3 (injection 1 day after weaning), and 3.1 +/- 0.8 ml/min/kg (injection 1 month after weaning). The mean residence times were 335 +/- 83, 797 +/- 129, and 481 +/- 102 min and terminal half-lives were 266 +/- 51, 603 +/- 94, and 372 +/- 68 min for the respective treatments. The estimated volumes of distribution at steady state were 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.2 +/- 0.1, and 1.4 +/- 0.2 liter/kg for the respective treatments. Milk norfloxacin concentrations were up to 40 times higher than the corresponding concentrations in serum during lactation. Accordingly, in ewes with 1.5 liter of milk in the udder more than half of the drug in the animal appeared to be in the milk. Therapeutic concentrations of norfloxacin could be detected in the sera of suckling lambs, implicating that fluoroquinolone therapy should be discouraged during breast feeding. In lactating ewes and in ewes with full udders, moment analysis calculations did not show a significant difference between the system moment mean residence time and the system matrix mean residence time values. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin in the three groups could be described by the classical two-compartment open-body model with input and output occurring from the central compartment. The results did not support the existence of a distinguishable milk

  13. Geopolitical Dimensions of the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wakim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon geopolitical dimension of the Syrian conflict. The authors consider in details regional subdivision of Syria and relations of Syrian regions with border countries. The authors of the article conclude that Arab nationalism as the Syrian state ideology and positioning of Syria as the center of Arab world were indispensable taking into account multiconfessional nature of Syria. Authors study the geostrategical doctrine of Hafez Asad (1970-2000 aimed to restore the territorial integrity of Syria (return of the Golan heights and creation of Great Syria, bring to light reasons of the alliances of Syria with Soviet Union and Iran. The authors discover reasons of hostility toward Syria from such actors as United States, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. The hostile attitude of the US political elites toward the Syrian state can be explained by American intention to undermine strategic partnership between Syria and Iran. Enmity of Saudi hostility toward the Syrian regime began with the assassination of the Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri (2005. This action destroyed the political balance in Lebanon and was considered by the Saudis as a threat to their interests. Article contains analysis of the Syrian role in the Saudi-Iranian rivalry. To opinion of the authors, Turkish involvement in the Syrian conflict began with the attempts of the regime’s change in this country and evolved to the defense of Turkish national interests from the Kurdish factor. The authors make some conclusions about the role of US, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey in the Syrian conflicts. In the article it’s made some forecasts about the development of Syrian conflict. The authors especially predict possibility of disintegration of the Syrian state according to spheres of influence of the external actors involved to this conflict with Mediterranean coast, Homs and Damascus under the control of government, northern regions of the country under Kurdish control, Raqqa

  14. Evaluation of volatile compounds and free fatty acids in set types yogurts made of ewes', goats' milk and their mixture using two different commercial starter cultures during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Zehra; Gürsoy-Balcı, Alev Canan

    2011-08-01

    Six different types of yogurt were manufactured from Damascus goat milk, Awassi ewe milk and a mixture of equal portions of the 2 species of milk using 2 types of commercial yogurt cultures (CH-1 and YF-3331). Yogurts were chemically analysed at 1, 7, 14 and 21days of storage. Results showed that cultures significantly affected acetaldehyde (Pculture YF-3331, and increased during storage, while the levels of medium-chain free fatty acids, except for decanoic acid, were unchanged and the amount of long-chain free fatty acids decreased during storage. Cultures used and types of milk had no effect on long-chain free fatty acids in yogurts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concluding Remarks | Ewing | Rwanda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Concluding Remarks. Helen Ewing. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  16. Crisis in Lebanon: camps for Syrian refugees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Loveless

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon has absorbed the enormous Syrian influx but at a high costto both refugees and Lebanese populations. Current humanitarianprogrammes can no longer cope and new approaches are needed.

  17. Visas and qualifications: Syrian refugees in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto M A Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s humanitarian visa programme for Syrian refugees and its efforts to recognise their qualifications could offer lessons for refugee protection and integration across the region.

  18. Polymyopathy in a Syrian golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Syrian golden hamster suffered from general swelling of skeletal muscles. At microscopical observation the muscle tissue exhibited degeneration and necrosis, as well as regenerative features. The inflammatory response was very slight. The histopathological lesions were diagnosed as polymyopathy.

  19. Questioning the role of Facebook in maintaining Syrian social capital during the Syrian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Ramadan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Syrian crisis is considered the ‘world’s single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation’ (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016. The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country. However, the offline rift of the nation was extended to Facebook through promoting hate speech among opposed parties. Results of this study may advance the understanding of the role of Facebook on social capital in countries going through similar crisis situations.

  20. Questioning the role of Facebook in maintaining Syrian social capital during the Syrian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2017-12-01

    The Syrian crisis is considered the 'world's single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation' (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016). The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country. However, the offline rift of the nation was extended to Facebook through promoting hate speech among opposed parties. Results of this study may advance the understanding of the role of Facebook on social capital in countries going through similar crisis situations.

  1. Procholecystokinin as marker of human Ewing sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Koefoed, Pernille; Hansen, Thomas von O

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ewing sarcoma is a rapidly growing mesenchymal tumor in young adults. Although it was shown previously to express the cholecystokinin (CCK) gene, it is unknown whether CCK gene expression is detectable at protein level in Ewing sarcoma tumor cell lines, in tumor tissue, and in plasma from...... Ewing sarcoma patients, and, if so, whether CCK peptides might play a role as tumor markers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CCK gene expression was evaluated with in situ hybridization or reverse transcription-PCR in tumor tissue. CCK precursors and bioactive CCK were measured with specific RIAs in tumor tissue......, in cell culture medium, and in plasma of Ewing sarcoma patients before and after chemotherapy as well as after tumor recurrence. RESULTS: CCK mRNA was identified in 12 Ewing sarcoma biopsies sampled in two series and in four Ewing sarcoma cell lines but not in unrelated neoplasia. Immunoreactive pro...

  2. Effect of supplementary feeding to ewes and suckling lambs on ewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects on the performance of creep feeding suckling lambs and supplementing ewes that were grazing wheat stubble. Eight experimental units of South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) ewes and lambs were used in a 2 (supplementing ewes or not) x 2 (creep feeding lambs or not) ...

  3. Adrenal Ewing's Sarcoma in an Elderly Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kazuyoshi; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Yasuoka, Hidetoshi; Nishioka, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Tomaru, Takuya; Ozawa, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Tetsurou; Koshi, Hiromi; Segawa, Atsuki; Shimizu, Shin-Ichi; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yamada, Masanobu

    2018-02-15

    Ewing's sarcoma usually arises in the bones of children and adolescents. We herein report a 74-year-old man with Ewing's sarcoma in the adrenal gland. The diagnosis was confirmed by a genetic test, pathological studies, and several imaging studies. He already had multiple liver metastases when he was transferred to our hospital and died on the 37th day. The diagnosis was further confirmed by autopsy studies. Adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare, and our patient was older than other reported cases. Ewing's sarcoma should be considered even in elderly patients with adrenal tumors.

  4. Reproductive performance of Karakul ewes following different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of five different hormonal treatments of oestrous synchronization in Karakul ewes reared in southern Iran. During mid- to late spring, (outside the natural breeding season), 180 Karakul ewes were stratified based on age and body weight and then randomly allocated to six ...

  5. Imaging characteristics of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wai-Yung; Saunders, Dawn E.; Brock, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma accounts for 10-15% of all childhood malignant bone tumours and is second in prevalence to osteosarcoma. The skull bones are an unusual site of origin of primary Ewing sarcoma in children. Previous reports concentrate on the neurosurgical aspects and relatively good outcome compared to other bone tumours of the calvarium. Reported cases mainly describe the imaging characteristics on CT. To describe the MRI and CT features of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma. The neuroimaging of three cases of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma are reviewed. Our three cases show an extra-axial mass that is high attenuation on CT and low signal on T2-weighted MRI. Haemorrhagic components, dural extension and contrast enhancement are also characteristic features. CT attenuation and magnetic resonance signal characteristics reflect sheets of densely packed cells seen in Ewing sarcoma. (orig.)

  6. How to support the Syrian uprising?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohns, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria.......The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria....

  7. Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No line difference was observed in the period that ewes spent grooming. Ewes caring for viable multiples groomed their offspring for a longer period than those caring for singles. Mature ewes tended to groom their lambs for a longer period than primi-parous maidens. A higher proportion of High (H) line ewes groomed their ...

  8. The Lebanese–Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese–Syrian borders since 2011 as “displaced”, emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Methods Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. Results The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Conclusion Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives. The two major recommendations for future interventions are to ensure continuous and effective monitoring and sustainability in order to alleviate current and future suffering in Lebanon. PMID:27471417

  9. The Lebanese-Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese-Syrian borders since 2011 as "displaced", emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives. The two major recommendations for future interventions are to ensure continuous and effective monitoring and sustainability in order to alleviate current and future suffering in Lebanon.

  10. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2005-03-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  11. Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Azawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and viable bacterial count. Semen samples were diluted by sodium citrate-fructose-egg yolk. The diluted semen sample was divided into 7 parts. Six types of antibiotics were added to the semen diluent parts including; penicillin G 1000 IU ml-1 with streptomycin 1 mg ml-1, gentamicin sulphate 250 mg ml-1, tetracycline 0.5 mg ml-1, lincomycin 1 mg ml-1, cefoperazone sodium 1mg ml-1, cefdinir 1 mg ml-1 and the seventh part considered as a control group without antibiotic addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5 Co for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities, acrosomal defects and bacterial count every 24 h until 5 days. Comparing with the control, all the antibiotics examined were effective in controlling bacterial growth (P<0.05 from 24 h to 96 h of preservation at 5 Co. Cefdinir and cefoperazone sodium proved to be significantly (P<0.05 effective than other antibiotics in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 23.3 ± 3.7 x 103 / ml and 25.4 ± 6.2 x 103 / ml, respectively. Lincomycin, gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline proved ineffective in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 57.1 ± 20.1 x 103 / ml, 52.5 ± 29.4 x 103 / ml and 46.5 ± 8.8 x 103 / ml, respectively. The addition of tetracycline to diluted ram semen

  12. Leadership Styles at Syrian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Bayan; Ayoubi, Rami M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the two major types of leadership, i.e transactional and transformational, and organizational learning at public and private universities in Syria. It further aims at exploring the role of transactional and transformational leadership in enhancing organizational learning at Syrian universities.…

  13. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Turkish Economy: Regional Labour Market Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz Esen; Ayla Oğuş Binatlı

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and lengthened, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey increased and the Syrian population started to reside in the neighboring provinces and started to have important effects on the local economy. In 2016, Syrian refu...

  14. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  15. Procholecystokinin as marker of human Ewing sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Koefoed, Pernille; Hansen, Thomas von O

    2004-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma patients, and, if so, whether CCK peptides might play a role as tumor markers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CCK gene expression was evaluated with in situ hybridization or reverse transcription-PCR in tumor tissue. CCK precursors and bioactive CCK were measured with specific RIAs in tumor tissue...... in human cancer; Ewing sarcomas synthesize and secrete proCCK that can be identified in plasma as circulating tumor marker....

  16. Reproductive performance of Karakul ewes following different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFDARIAN

    During the study animals were housed in pens of ca. 25 × 4 m (10 ewes/pen) that allowed free access to water and food in the form of hay and dried ..... Tritschler, J.P., Duby, R.T., Parsons, E.M., Parsons, M.J. & Giordano, D.J., 1991. Comparison of two progestagens during out-of-season breeding in a commercial ewe flock.

  17. Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Pincus, David W.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

  18. Effect of ewe prolificacy potential and stocking rate on ewe and lamb performance in a grass-based lamb production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, E; McHugh, N; Boland, T M; Creighton, P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born per ewe per year) as dictated by sire breed type, stocking rate (SR; ewes per ha), and their interaction on ewe and lamb performance in a temperate grass-based lamb production system. The study was a 2 × 3 factorial design, consisting of 2 differing ewe PP and 3 SR which included 180 medium prolificacy potential (MP- Suffolk-sired crossbred ewes) and 180 high prolificacy potential ewes (HP- Belclare-sired crossbred ewes) allocated to 1 of 3 ( = 60 ewes) SR: low (LSR; 10 ewes per ha), medium (MSR; 12 ewes per ha) or high (HSR: 14 ewes per ha). Each treatment was managed in a 5-paddock rotational grazing system for the duration of the study. Medium prolificacy ewes were consistently heavier ( ewes, with HP ewes having a higher BCS at lambing and 6 wk post-lambing (PL; ewes had a higher BW ( ewes which did not differ from each other. Lambs born to MP ewes were heavier at birth and weaning ( Ewe PP had no effect on lifetime ADG or d to slaughter (DTS) with HP lambs yielding a higher carcass weight ( ewe PP by SR interaction existed for DTS, with MP lambs at the LSR reaching slaughter weight earlier ( ewes produced a higher average born ( ewe ( ewe PP and SR increased. Lambing difficulty, ewe mother ability and lamb viability did not differ by ewe PP or SR. In conclusion, the lack of interaction between ewe PP and SR on many key performance measures in this study demonstrates the potential to increase the live weight of lamb weaned per ha through the use of higher ewe PP and SR levels, with no effect of ewe PP on lifetime lamb performance even as SR increased, with reductions in lamb performance primarily occurring at the HSR.

  19. Effect of vitamins C or E supplementation to Tris diluent on the semen quality of Awassi rams preserved at 5 ̊C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Khudhur Hussein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to test the efficacy of adding vitamins C or E to Tris-fructose- egg yolk diluent to increase Awassi ram sperm storage period at 5 ̊C. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. The semen samples were diluted by Tris-glucose- egg yolk. Diluted semen sample was divided into three parts. The first part was added with 0.9 mg mL-1 vitamin C, the second part was added with 1 mg mL-1 vitamin E and the third part was considered as a control without any addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled gradually and preserved at 5 ̊C for five days. Sperms in cooled diluted semen samples were examined for motility, vitality, abnormalities and acrosomal defects every 24 hr for five days. Results of the present study showed an increase in the viability of spermatozoa diluted in the Tris diluent containing vitamins C or E stored at 5 ̊C for 120 hr compared with the control group. There were significant (p < 0.05 effects of vitamins C and E addition to semen diluents on sperm motility as well as the sperm viability in different times of preservation at 5 ̊C. Significant (p < 0.05 higher sperm abnormalities and acrosomal defects values (37.6 ± 1.3% and 71.5 ± 1.1%, respectively were found after 120 hr incubation in Tris free vitamin C (Control at 5 ̊C compared with those of containing vitamin C (18.8 ± 1.8% and 52.8 ± 4.3%, respectively. From the results of the present study, it could be concluded, that the addition of antioxidants such as vitamins C and vitamin E to semen preservation media could improve longevity and quality of cooled sperm in Awassi ram semen.

  20. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Syrian indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Syrian indigenous goat populations. Halima Hassen, Barbara Rischkowsky, Adnan Termanini, Ghassen Jessry, Aynalem Haile, Michael Baum, Samir Lababidi ...

  1. Syrian Kurdish Political Activism: A Social Movement Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietse van den Berge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Syrian Kurdish politics is complex. While the political parties appear rather similar in terms of their goals, fierce inter-party rivalry exists, nonetheless. Shedding some light on Syrian Kurdish politics using Social Movement Theory as a theoretical framework, this article deals with how and why Syrian Kurds choose a specific political party. Interviews with Syrian Kurdish political activists in Iraqi Kurdistan provide the data. The interviews point out that a striking cleavage exists: Respondents sympathizing with the dominant political party preferred social equality, while interviewees belonging to other parties have a preference for non-violence.

  2. Primary Disseminated Multifocal Ewing Sarcoma: Results of the Euro-EWING 99 Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladenstein, Ruth; Pötschger, Ulrike; Le Deley, Marie Cécile; Whelan, Jeremy; Paulussen, Michael; Oberlin, Odile; van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Hjorth, Lars; Michon, Jean; Lewis, Ian; Craft, Alan; Jürgens, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To improve the poor prognosis of patients with primary disseminated multifocal Ewing sarcomas (PDMES) with a dose-intense treatment concept. Patients and Methods From 1999 to 2005, 281 patients with PDMES were enrolled onto the Euro-EWING 99 R3 study. Median age was 16.2 years (range, 0.4 to

  3. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  4. Comparison of energy rationing systems for late gestation ewes: Impacts on ewe and lamb performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, F P; McGovern, F M; Lott, S; Fahey, A G; Creighton, P; Boland, T M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the effects of a ME () or a NE () system for rationing ewes during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance and 2) to investigate incremental increases in NE allocation above 100% of recommendation during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance. Fifty-two twin-bearing ewes ( = 13 per treatment) were rationed to either 100% of recommended ME requirements (100% ME) or 100, 110, or 120% of recommended NE requirements (100% NE, 110% NE, and 120% NE) from d 112 of gestation to parturition. Mean energy intake, measured as ME and NE, from Day 112 of gestation to parturition was higher in all NE treatments compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.01). Ewes offered the 3 NE treatments had a higher live weight at parturition compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.02), with 100% NE and 120% NE ewes still being heavier than 100% ME ewes at 35 d postpartum ( = 0.02). Increasing NE allowance resulted in a linear decrease in the level of BCS loss prepartum ( = 0.01) and a linear increase in the level of BCS loss postpartum ( = 0.01). There was no difference observed between any of the treatments in total colostrum produced to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.29) or in total colostrum intake to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.27). Increasing maternal NE allowance led to a linear increase in lamb serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum ( = 0.03). The estimated milk production of 120% NE ewes tended to be higher than all other treatments at wk 6 of lactation ( = 0.08). Colostral SFA levels from 100% ME ewes was lower than that of all 3 NE treatments ( = 0.01), and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) levels in colostrum of the 100% ME ewes were lower than those of the 100% NE ewes ( = 0.01). Cumulative levels of milk SFA, UFA, and MUFA did not differ between treatments ( = 0.19). Lamb growth rates during the first 5 wk postpartum were unaffected by treatment ( = 0.18) as were days to slaughter ( = 0.34). It can be concluded that both ME and NE systems used in this

  5. Dermatological face of Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The frequency and variety of dermatological diseases significantly changed after 2011 in the regions where the Syrian refugees migrated because of the civil war in Syria where is bordered by our country. To reveal these changing, the demographic and dermatological data of the Syrian refugees were retrospectively examined in faculty of medicine, department of dermatology of our city where a significant amount of Syrian refugees have been living. Materials and Methods: A total of 326 refugees immigrated to our city and have been living in tent cities, and applied to our department between September 2012-July 2014 were included to our study. Age, gender, dermatological and laboratory findings were retrospectively examined. Skin diseases were examined in 16 groups according to the their frequency. The patients were divided into 4 age groups as 0-20, 21-40, 41-60 and, 61 and over; three most common diseases for each age group were analyzed. Results: Of 326 patients, 126 (38.7% were males, 200 (61.3% were females and the difference was significant in term of gender. The age range of the patients was 0 to 77 years, and the mean age was 21.6±10.5. The majority of patients were in 0-20 age group. Dermatological infectious diseases were the most frequent diseases group and cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most diagnosed dermatological disease among patients. Conclusion: Preventive health care services should be performed to prevent dermatological infectious diseases which are commonly seen in Syrian refugees, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis which is already endemic in our country, and limitations to reach physicians of these patients should be amended.

  6. THE SYRIAN REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Rossen Koroutchev

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration pat...

  7. Kidney Disease Profile of Syrian Refugee Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbalik Kara, Mehtap; Demircioglu Kilic, Beltinge; Col, Nilgun; Ozcelik, Ayse Aysima; Buyukcelik, Mithat; Balat, Ayse

    2017-03-01

    Although preventative nephrology is the effective management of childhood kidney diseases, it is hard to provide it in this undesirable conditions. In this study, we aimed to document the kidney disease profile of Syrian refugee children admitted to our hospital. One hundred and thirty Syrian refugee children were admitted to the Pediatric Nephrology Department of the University of Gaziantep from September 2012 to January 2015. Demographic data, history, symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory investigations, diagnosis, disease outcome, and therapeutic procedures such as peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis were obtained from patient files. Of the 130 admitted children, 74 were girls (59.6%). The average age was 6.97 ± 4.2 years (range, 1 month to 17 years). Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract were found in 34 children (26.2%). Other morbidities were chronic kidney disease in 30 (23.1%), nephrotic syndrome in 24 (18.5%), urolithiasis in 9 (6.9%), acute kidney injury in 4 (3.1%), glomerulonephritis in 5 (3.8%), enuresis in 12 (9.2%), and others in 12 (9.2%). Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract and chronic kidney disease were highly prevalent in Syrian refugee children. Although free health care have been provided to all of these children, the continuation of political crisis and instability would increase the number of admissions and affect the quality of life of those children in a different environment from the home country.

  8. The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaras, Resat; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Tabak, Fehmi; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Yemisen, Mucahit; Sencan, Irfan; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-06-01

    The conflict in Syria is a big humanitarian emergency. More than 200,000 Syrians have been killed, with more than half of the population either having been displaced or having immigrated. Healthcare has been interrupted due to the destruction of facilities, a lack of medical staff, and a critical shortage of life-saving medications. It produced suitable conditions leading to the re-emergence of tuberculosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, polio, and measles. Lebanon and Jordan reported increased rates of tuberculosis among Syrian refugees. Cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks were noted not only in Syria but also in Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon. After a polio-free 15 years, Syria reported a polio outbreak. Ongoing measles outbreaks in the region was accelerated by the conflict. Iraq declared a cholera outbreak among the Syrian refugees. The healthcare facilities of the countries hosting immigrants, mainly Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt, are overburdened. The majority of the immigrants live in crowded and unsanitary conditions. Infectious diseases are big challenges for Syria and for the countries hosting immigrants. More structured support from international organizations is needed for the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

  9. Altering ewe nutrition in late gestation: I. The impact on pre- and postpartum ewe performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, F M; Campion, F P; Lott, S; Boland, T M

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of offering a single diet rationed to 80% (80% ME), 100% (100% ME), or 120% (120% ME) of recommended ME requirements from d 119 of gestation to lambing, with concurrent changes in other dietary nutrients. The effects on pre- and postpartum ewe performance, including estimated milk yield and milk fatty acid concentrations, were monitored. Sixty twin-bearing ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments ( = 20 per treatment) and individually fed for the final 4 wk of gestation. Metabolizable energy requirements were individually calculated for each ewe and amended according to treatment. Ewes were rationed daily on the basis of their treatment ME allocation, which led to concurrent alterations in other nutrient intakes. Diets were grass silage based and supplemented with concentrates to meet treatment ME allocation on an individual ewe basis. Ewes offered the 80% ME treatment had a lower liveweight ( = 0.04) and BCS ( = 0.03) at 24 h postpartum when compared with ewes offered the 120% ME diet. Although there was no difference in liveweight at either d 40 ( = 0.18) or 98 postpartum ( = 0.20), the difference in BCS persisted until d 40 postpartum ( = 0.02). Colostrum yield at 1 h postpartum ( = 0.03) and total yield up to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.04) was greater for ewes offered the 120% ME diet than either of the other treatment groups. Similarly, these ewes had a greater estimated milk yield during wk 3 of lactation ( = 0.04) and elevated concentrations of short-chain SFA ( = 0.02) and long-chain SFA ( ≤ 0.05) from wk 2 through 6 of lactation. In summary, the negative impact of applying a dietary insult to ewes in late gestation is reflected in colostrum and estimated milk yield and fatty acid composition, thus potentially influencing postpartum growth and development of the offspring.

  10. The Lebanese–Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherri Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeinab Cherri, Pedro Arcos González, Rafael Castro Delgado Unit for Research in Emergency and Disaster, Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain Background: Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese–Syrian borders since 2011 as “displaced”, emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Methods: Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. Results: The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Conclusion: Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives

  11. Lebanese municipalities and Syrian refugees: Building capacity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The response of the Lebanese government to the influx of Syrian refugees has been slow and partial, with a strong security orientation. This project's aim is to promote strategies and policies towards Syrian refugees, at the municipal and national level, that are more inclusive and that improve the livelihoods of both refugee ...

  12. Syrian refugees: Shifting from crisis response to opportunity | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-25

    Syrian refugees: Shifting from crisis response to opportunity. Roula El-Rifai. October 25, 2016. Children listen to their teacher at the Zaatari Refugee Camp, located near Mafraq, Jordan. Photo credit: UN Photo / Mark Garten. Welcoming over 30,000 Syrian refugees to Canada in the past year is a reflection of the shared ...

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2007-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a small round-cell tumor typically arising in the bones, rarely in soft tissues, of children and adolescents. Ewing's sarcoma has retained the most unfavorable prognosis of all primary musculoskeletal tumors. Prior to the use of multi-drug chemotherapy, long-term survival was less than 10%. The development of multi-disciplinary therapy with chemotherapy, irradiation, and surgery has increased current long-term survival rates in most clinical centers to greater than 50%. In addition, the preferred method of tumor resection has changed; limb salvage has nearly replaced amputation of the affected limb. Limb salvage procedures can be performed in place of amputation without compromising patient survival rates. Recent studies have revealed that the pathognomonic translocations involving the EWS gene on chromosome 22 and an ETS-type gene, which is most commonly the Fli1 gene on chromosome 11, are implicated in more than 95% of Ewing's sarcomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors and Askin's tumors. Therefore, these lesions have become regarded as a single entity, dubbed the Ewing's family of tumors. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect EWS-ETS gene arrangements is widely used to confirm the diagnosis of Ewing's family of tumors. Experimental results suggest that inhibition of the signaling pathway downstream of the EWS-ETS gene may lead to the development of molecularly targeted therapy in the future. (author)

  14. Ewe (for Togo): Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelka, Paul R.

    This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…

  15. Performance Characteristics of Lactating Djallonké Ewes Fed Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 7-week feed intake and growth performance study involving thirty lactating Djallonké ewes and their lambs was conducted. The ewes were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups resulting in 10 replications. The ewes were individually housed and offered 1000 g rice straw basal diet daily; Stylosanthes hamata ...

  16. Short Communications The effect of shearing pregnant ewes prior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shearing of winter-lambing ewes prior to lambing, although effects on lamb birth mass and survival were ... The effect on lambs of shearing ewes prior to lambing in pad- docks has not been researched to the same ..... production and feed intake in unmated and mated Border Leicester x. Romney crossbred ewes shorn in ...

  17. Mechanisms of Ewing sarcoma metastasis : biochemistry and biophysics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beletkaia, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a special type of bone cancer, first described by Dr. James Ewing in his paper ‘Diffusive endothelioma of bone’. Today Ewing sarcoma represents the second most common bone cancer among adolescents and young adults. Contrary to the positive achievement in treatment of localized

  18. Genetic parameters for ewe reproduction with objectively measured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships among ewe reproduction traits were high, ranging from 0.74 between TWW1 and NLB3 to 1.00 between NLW1 and TWW1. The genetic relationships of ewe reproduction traits with wool weights and staple length were positive. Fibre diameter (FD) and CY were unfavourably related to ewe reproduction traits.

  19. Aesthetics of Africanmusic and dance revisited: Acase of the ewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the aesthetics of Ewe music and dance from a multidisciplinary perspective, and the biological, socioeconomic, religious, and political factors that shape Ewe music and dance and form the basis of their evaluation. It focuses on the Ewe music and dance and culture but draws from other African cultures.

  20. Taste preferences of west African dwarf ewes at different trimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taste preferences of pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) ewes were studied at different trimester periods using the multiple choice preference test method. A total of twelve WAD ewes of average body weight of 15.96 ± 4.17 kg, divided into two groups (A and B) were used for the study. Six pregnant ewes (in group A) served ...

  1. Genetic and environmental parameters for ewe productivity in Merinos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data of 3272 lambing records collected on 818 ewes born from 689 dams and sired by 371 rams were used in the evaluation of ewe lifetime productivity (total number born, number weaned and total weight weaned). These records were collected from ewes born from 1969 to 1994 and which gave birth during the period ...

  2. Adverbial Placement in Ewe: A Role and Reference Grammar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article looks at adverbial placement and interpretation in Ewe. It takes from English adverbial placement in which several positions are possible. Implicitly, it looks at what is the same compared to English and what is different when we look at adverbials in Ewe. The study looks at Ewe adverbials from a Role and ...

  3. (q24: q12) translocation is common in Ewing's sarcoma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-06-09

    Jun 9, 2005 ... Ewing's sarcoma/PNET. The results demonstrated a strong concordance between molecular diagnostic methods and standard histopathologic diagnosis in all Ewing's sar- coma cases. Two cases showed discordance with a histo- pathologic diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma but a negative. RT-PCR based ...

  4. The Alligator Farther From the Canoe: Shaping the Post-Civil War Syrian Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    CIVIL WAR SYRIAN ARMY POST- CIVIL WAR SYRIAN ARMY SHAPING THE POST- CIVIL WAR SYRIAN ARMY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT Over the last four years, the Syrian Civil War has created a horrific internal humanitarian disaster, displaced...within the Levant region the United States should pursue the creation of a post- Civil War Syrian

  5. Clinical activity of pazopanib in metastatic extraosseous Ewing sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Attia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a response to pazopanib in a 69-year-old man with heavily pre-treated metastatic extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in addition to molecular profiling of his tumor. To our knowledge, this case is the earliest to demonstrate activity of an oral multi-targeted kinase inhibitor in Ewing sarcoma. This case provides rationale for adding a Ewing sarcoma arm to SARC024, a phase II study of regorafenib, another multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, in patients with liposarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing and Ewing-like sarcomas (NCT02048371. This national multi-institutional study is ongoing.

  6. THE SYRIAN REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen Koroutchev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration patterns are discussed in detail.

  7. Radiation-induced anorexia in Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, A.; Sattler, E.L.; Schraub, A.

    1980-01-01

    The recovery of Syrian hamsters after split dose application (interval 11 days) was studied on the basis of the weight response and of food uptake. Two periods of weight loss and anorexia can be distinguished, an early one immediately after irradiation and a secondary one 6-10 days later. The secondary response is a function of the radiation dose and allows to distinguish survivors from non-survivors, since it is much more pronounced and longerlasting in the latter than in the former. The first response appears not to be influenced by a previous conditioning irradiation. (orig.) [de

  8. Ultrasonographic findings in the ovine udder during lactogenesis in healthy ewes or ewes with pregnancy toxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagianni, Mariana S; Gouletsou, Pagona G; Valasi, Irene; Petridis, Ioannis G; Giannenas, Ilias; Fthenakis, George C

    2015-08-01

    Objective of the study was to record, by means of ultrasonographic examination, changes occurring during lactogenesis in the udder of healthy ewes and of ewes with pregnancy toxaemia. The work was carried out in 28 ewes, 16 with pregnancy toxaemia (group A) and 12 healthy controls (group B). B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic examination of the udder of ewes was performed. During the last month of pregnancy, grey-scale intensity values of mammary parenchyma in group A were significantly greater than in group B (P = 0.007), as was also the progressive increase in grey-scale intensity values in both groups (P 0.35). Differences between group A and group B in all other haemodynamic parameters studied were not significant, neither throughout the last month of pregnancy (P > 0.25), nor during the first week of lactation (P > 0.06). However, their progressive changes during the last month of pregnancy were significant (P < 0.02).

  9. Radiographic appearance of Ewing sarcoma of the hands and feet: report from the Intergroup Ewing Sarcoma Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinus, W.R.; Gilula, L.A.; Shirley, S.K.; Askin, F.B.; Siegal, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Review of current data from the Intergroup Ewing Sarcoma Study (IESS) shows that Ewing sarcoma is rare in bones of the hands and feet. The 12 patients from the IESS protocols with hand or foot Ewing sarcoma are comparable to those already reported in the literature. With the exception of lesions in the calcaneus, the prognosis for disease-free survival is excellent. The radiographic features of hand and foot Ewing sarcoma are generally those of classic Ewing sarcoma: permeation, soft-tissue mass, and often, associated sclerotic reaction. However, with the exception of sclerosis, features suggesting bone reaction and slow tumor growth in these patients were distinctly uncommon compared with Ewing sarcoma in general. Apparently location of the lesion is important, since in the reported cases in the literature and in this series, lesions of the calcaneus fared poorly. The importance of this set of patients therefore relates to awareness and early recognition of an unusual appearance and location of Ewing sarcoma

  10. The Ongoing Syrian Arab Republic Health Care Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven J

    2017-07-31

    Prior to the Syrian civil war, access and delivery of health care and health care information over the past 4 decades had steadily improved. The life expectancy of the average Syrian in 2012 was 75.7 years, compared to 56 years in 1970. As a result of the civil war, this trend has reversed, with the life expectancy reduced by 20 years from the 2012 level. The Syrian government and its allies have specifically targeted the health care infrastructure not under government control. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;page 1 of 3).

  11. Fairbanks receives 2001 Maurice Ewing Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Peter; Fairbanks, Richard G.

    Richard G. Fairbanks was awarded the Maurice Ewing Medal at the 2001 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on 12 December, in San Francisco, California. The medal is given for significant original contributions to understanding physical, geophysical, and geological processes in the ocean; to scientific ocean engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and outstanding service to marine sciences.

  12. Ewe characteristics associated with neonatal loss in Norwegian sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Waage, Steinar; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2014-06-01

    A case-control study was conducted to identify ewe characteristics that affect the risk of a ewe losing at least one lamb during the first 5 days post lambing. Data were from a national sheep registry, and only ewes that lambed in the spring of 2010 belonging to flocks that reported disease events were included. Ewes registered with abortion or stillbirth were excluded. Cases (n=4850) and controls (n=85,354) from 1153 flocks were studied using logistic regression models, accounting for within flock correlation. The odds of losing at least one lamb increased substantially when litter size exceeded two. For example, in 3-year-old ewes, the odds were 6 times greater for those with 3 lambs than for those with 1 lamb. However, the effect of litter size depended on the age of the ewe; for example for ewes giving birth to triplet lambs, the odds of losing at least one lamb were 2.7 times greater in 1-year-old ewes than in 3-year-old ewes. Dystocia was associated with increased risk of losing at least one lamb, but the effect varied by litter size. In ewes with single lambs, the odds of lamb loss were 5 times greater in those that experienced dystocia than in those that did not, while within subgroups of ewes with twins, triplets or >3 lambs, the corresponding odds ratio (OR) of losing one or more lambs was 2.2, 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. Compared with ewes of the Norwegian White breed, ewes of old Norwegian breeds were less likely to lose lambs (OR=0.8). We also examined the effects of several diseases experienced by the ewe during pregnancy or shortly postpartum on the risk of subsequent neonatal lamb loss. Significantly increased risk was found for ewes with abdominal hernia (OR=2.5) and for ewes treated for moderate to severe clinical mastitis (OR=1.6) when compared with ewes without these disorders. In conclusion, our large study population allowed for a detailed analysis of the combined effect of important ewe factors that affected survival of their lambs in the

  13. Organic and inorganic selenium: III. Ewe and progeny performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W C; Bobe, G; Pirelli, G J; Mosher, W D; Hall, J A

    2012-12-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient in sheep, and deficiency can limit lamb growth and survival. To evaluate how different chemical forms of Se administered to mature ewes at comparative dosages affect ewe and progeny performance, 240 ewes were divided into 8 treatment groups (n = 30 each) and drenched weekly with no Se; at the maximum FDA-allowed concentration with inorganic Na-selenite or organic Se-yeast (4.9 mg Se/wk); with inorganic Na-selenate (8.95 mg Se/wk); or with inorganic Na-selenite and organic Se-yeast at supranutritional concentrations (14.7 and 24.5 mg Se/wk, respectively). The treatment period started approximately 2 wk before breeding and lasted for 62.5 wk. Ewes of the no-Se and Se-yeast groups continued treatments for another 21 to 24 wk through a second lambing season. Chemical form or dosage of Se did not affect ewe reproductive performance based on proportion of ewes lambing in each treatment group, or number of lambs born, nursed, or weaned per ewe (all P > 0.10). Ewes receiving the highest supplementation rate of Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk had higher BCS (scale 1 to 5) at the end of yr 1 (2.95 vs. 2.66; P = 0.05) than ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk. Performance was better in lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk than in lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk or no Se. In yr 1, lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 vs. 4.9 mg Se/wk were heavier at 120 d of age (37.0 vs. 34.2 kg; P = 0.05). In yr 2, lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk were or tended to be heavier at 60 d of age than lambs from ewes receiving no Se (21.2 vs. 19.0 kg; P = 0.04) or lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk (19.2 kg; P = 0.09). This effect was more pronounced in ewes raising multiple lambs. We conclude that supranutritional supplementation of ewes with Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk improves lamb growth and ewe health without negatively affecting reproductive performance.

  14. Syrian Issue in the Discourses of Political Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Devran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Syrian conflict as a part of social movements called as Arab Spring has been turned into a civil war. As a result of this Turkey has come to face with the biggest refugee crisis of its entire history. Thus political parties have used different discourses on Syrian conflict and refugee crisis according to new social, economical and political conditions. In this paper political discourses used by Turkish political leaders between 2011-2015 are examined in the context of their politics for Syrian conflict and refugees. The main goal of this work is to contribute to a better contemplation on the Syrian conflict and refugee crisis by ascertaining political parties’ approaches.

  15. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome | Petrini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis. Keywords: Glucosamine, Hamster, Hesperidin, PEA, Urolithiasis ...

  16. Abandon or embrace: Functionalism perspective of photojournalists on Syrian refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuroyya; Tandyonomanu, D.; Dharmawan, A.

    2018-01-01

    This research examines photojournalist’ perspectives of Syrian refugees in Europe, encoding, and dissemination processes. It employs a qualitative approach and functionalism perspective of mass media by sending questionnaires to voluntary respondents. The findings show sharing similar background and/or having experiences in the Middle Eastern countries highly influence the perspective of photojournalists on Syrian refugees. The encoding process covers through research of priority issues, target audience, trustworthiness of photos, and audience interpretation. The distribution method includes taking advantages of personal social media to promote the links of photos. As part of mass media industry, photojournalists play a crucial role to contribute to social integration, particularly, in creating a shared understanding between European community and Syrian refugees. The current research serves as a basis to future investigations on the perspective of European community towards Syrian refugees, whether or not their perspective is influenced by such photos.

  17. Supplementing metabolizable protein to ewes during late gestation: II. Effects on ewe lamb performance and reproductive efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Emon, M L; Schauer, C S; Eckerman, S R; Maddock Carlin, K R; Vonnahme, K A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of maternal MP intake in isocaloric diets during late gestation on female offspring growth from birth to breeding and measure reproductive performance of those offspring in their first breeding season. In yr 1, maternal dietary treatments were applied at d 100 of gestation, were similar in total energy, and contained 60MP1, 60% of MP requirements; 80MP1, 80% of MP requirements; and 100MP1, 100% of the MP requirements on a DM basis during late gestation. In yr 2, maternal dietary treatments were similar in total energy and contained 60MP2, 60% of MP requirements; 100MP2, 100% of the MP requirements; and 140MP2, 140% of MP requirements on a DM basis during late gestation. While there was a quadratic effect ( = 0.003) for ewe lamb birth weight with the ewe lambs from 80MP1 ewes having increased birth weights compared with ewe lambs from 60MP1 and 100MP1 ewes in yr 1, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.22) of maternal diet on growth of ewe lamb offspring thereafter. A quadratic effect ( = 0.02) was observed for the percentage of ewe lambs bred during the first 17 d of the breeding season, with more ewe lambs born to ewes fed 80MP1 bred compared with ewe lambs born to ewes fed 60MP1 and 100MP1. Ewe lambs giving birth within the first 17 d of lambing season increased ( = 0.001) linearly as MP intake increased in the maternal diet. In yr 2, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.07) of maternal MP treatment during late gestation on growth of ewe lambs and reproductive performance except ADG from birth to weaning and lamb birth weight. There was a quadratic effect ( = 0.01) for ADG from birth to weaning of ewe lambs from ewes consuming 100MP2 being increased compared with ewe lambs from ewes fed 60MP2 and 140MP2. There was a linear ( = 0.04) reduction in birth weight of lambs born to ewe lambs as the dam's maternal dietary MP intake increased. The data from the current study suggest that feeding 80% or 100% of MP requirements

  18. Study on the Effect of Adding Bovine Serum Albumin to Semen Diluent on the Viability of Awassi Ram Semen Preserved at 5oC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ibrahim Azawi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to test the effect of adding bovine serum albumin (BSA to Tris-fructose-egg yolk diluent to increase the ram sperm storage period at 5ºC. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams used in this study. Semen samples were diluted by Tris-glucose-egg yolk. Diluted semen sample was divided into two parts. The first part BSA was added 10 mg ml-1 and the second part considered as a control group without any addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5oC for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal defects every 24 h until 5 days. Results of the present study showed an increased viability of spermatozoa diluted in the Tris diluent containing BSA stored at 5oC for 120 h of preservation compared with the control group. Spermatozoa motility and viability declined gradually in BSA Tris containing diluent when preserved at 5oC from 0 h to 120 h to 54.0±0.9% and 59.0±0.9 %, respectively compared to control of Tris diluent without BSA which was declined markedly to 35.9±1.9 %, 40.9±1.8 %, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that supplementation with BSA of ram semen diluents during semen preservation at 5oC, may exert beneficial effects on the quality of the Awassi ram semen.

  19. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Awawdeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC or acid-treated SOC (ASOC olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05 SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment. Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05 faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03 hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  20. Syrian Refugees in Turkey and Their Reflections in Gaziantep Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Kaya SANDAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wave of democracy the Arab Spring Caused got started in 18 December 2010, after a university graduate stallholder's stall has been taken hold of and his burning himself to protest government led to o range of event in Tunisia deeply affected Syria by causing populations to pay for this. The Syrian Civil War started in March 2011 and it was seen as a result of Arab Spring, that noteworthy affects this region. But, although it had been a few years the Arab Spring hasn't come to Syria yet. While Syrian people,neighbor countries and the people in the region were all waiting for the spring to come, the rising of the Civil Wars and the affects of military, political and the economics sports of the countries that Syrian Regime politically, economically and commercially aligned with, had been turned into a humanitarian tragedy. As a result of the civil attacks of the Regime of Syrian to his people, around 300.000 people did,around 6.5 million people have been displaced, the numbers of the people need help increased to 10 million and so the number of the Syrian refugees in the neighbor countries reached to 3.795.284. As a result of this civil war in Syria 1.679.963 Syrian Arab Republic citizens have come to our country as refuges since 2011. The number of Syrian refugees reached 326 333 in Gaziantep Province. In this study, distribution by province of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and reflections of refugees in Gaziantep province are analyzed

  1. Syrian Issue in the Discourses of Political Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Devran; Ömer Faruk Özcan

    2016-01-01

    Syrian conflict as a part of social movements called as Arab Spring has been turned into a civil war. As a result of this Turkey has come to face with the biggest refugee crisis of its entire history. Thus political parties have used different discourses on Syrian conflict and refugee crisis according to new social, economical and political conditions. In this paper political discourses used by Turkish political leaders between 2011-2015 are examined in the context of their politics for Syria...

  2. Lebanon: mental health system reform and the Syrian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie; El Chammay, Rabih; Richa, Sami; Naja, Wadih; Fayyad, John; Ammar, Walid

    2016-11-01

    The Lebanese Ministry of Public Health has launched a National Mental Health Programme, which in turn has established the Mental Health and Substance Use Strategy for Lebanon 2015-2020. In parallel, research involving refugees has been conducted since the onset of the Syrian crisis. The findings point to an increase in mental health disorders in the Syrian refugee population, which now numbers more than 1 million.

  3. Childhood casualties during civil war: Syrian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem

    2015-08-01

    In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights

  4. Low pasture allowance until late gestation in ewes: behavioural and physiological changes in ewes and lambs from lambing to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Ungerfeld, R; Hötzel, M J; Orihuela, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2017-02-01

    Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes' BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe-lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes' milk yield, lambs' BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes' body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs' BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (Pestablishment of the mother-young bond, nor the ewes' behavioural responses at weaning. Lambs reared by ewes that grazed on low pasture allowance during pregnancy presented fewer behavioural changes and a lower decrease of albumin concentration after weaning. Lambs' BW was not affected by the feeding received by their mothers.

  5. Carpal tunnel syndrome among ewe dairy farmers in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, John; Marras, Teresa; Murgia, Lelia; Tartaglia, Riccardo; Baldasseroni, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    The region of Sardinia, Italy is known internationally for the production of cheeses made from ewe's milk. Although the use of automated milking equipment is available in ewe dairy operations, traditional hand milking is still performed on many ewe farms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among farmers that manually milk ewes. Worker demographics, upper limb symptoms, and electrophysiologic studies were obtained on 76 ewe farmers recruited from a random sample of 109 in northern Sardinia. Characteristic hand symptoms and electrophysiologic studies were used in the case definition of CTS. Of the 76 farmers evaluated, 42 (55.3%) fit the case definition of CTS in at least one hand. Assuming that all non-respondents did not have CTS, the CTS prevalence ratio would have been 38.5% (42/109) among the randomized sample of ewe farmers. These findings suggest that CTS is a significant occupational health issue for ewe farmers that continue the traditional methods of manual milking. The recent trend in automated ewe milking machines may help reduce the prevalence of CTS among the next generation of Italian ewe farmers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of therapeutic results in Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.; Pomeroy, T.C.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy pervading the treatment approach to Ewing's sarcoma was to have therapy encompass all foci of disease, including sites of occult or potential involvement in addition to obvious clinical manifestations. The experience with integrated methods of treatment in 66 consecutive patients at the National Cancer Institute is reviewed. A median survival of 18 months (44 percent 2 year survival rate) for patients with recognizable metastases on admission bears impressive witness to the value of adjuvant therapy in Ewing's sarcoma. Even more encouraging, an uncorrected 5 year survival rate of 53 percent (42 percent continuously free of disease) for patients given ''pyrophylactic'', adjuvant therapy indicates the potential for permanent control of disease in a significant fraction of cases with clinically localized primary tumors. (U.S.)

  7. If Israel accepted Syrian refugees and IDPs in the Golan Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Plotner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Could re-opening the Golan Heights to Syrians displaced by the conflict be a beneficial option both for those fleeing the Syrian conflict and for Israel’s relations with its north-eastern neighbour?

  8. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Turkish Economy: Regional Labour Market Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz Esen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and lengthened, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey increased and the Syrian population started to reside in the neighboring provinces and started to have important effects on the local economy. In 2016, Syrian refugees were allowed to receive work permits and they became more dispersed geographically. This paper investigates the impact of Syrian refugees on regional labour markets. Panel data for the years 2004 through 2016 is utilized for 26 regions in Turkey. Syrian refugees are found to increase unemployment and decrease informal and formal employment.

  9. EWE: A computer model for ultrasonic inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S. R.; Chaplin, K. R.

    1991-11-01

    The computer program EWE simulates the propagation of elastic waves in solids and liquids. It was applied to ultrasonic testing to study the echoes generated by cracks and other types of defects. A discussion of the elastic wave equations is given, including the first-order formulation, shear and compression waves, surface waves and boundaries, numerical method of solution, models for cracks and slot defects, input wave generation, returning echo construction, and general computer issues.

  10. Von Herzen receives 1998 Maurice Ewing medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeda, Seiya; Von Herzen, Richard P.

    Richard P Von Herzen was awarded the 1998 Maurice Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 8, 1998, in San Francisco, California. The medal recognizes significant original contributions to understanding physical, geophysical, and geological processes in the ocean; significant original contributions to scientific ocean engineering, technology and instrumentation; and/or outstanding service to marine sciences. This medal is presented jointly by the U.S. Navy and AGU.

  11. Ewe: a computer model for ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.; Chaplin, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The computer program EWE simulates the propagation of elastic waves in solids and liquids. It has been applied to ultrasonic testing to study the echoes generated by cracks and other types of defects. A discussion of the elastic wave equations is given, including the first-order formulation, shear and compression waves, surface waves and boundaries, numerical method of solution, models for cracks and slot defects, input wave generation, returning echo construction, and general computer issues

  12. Ewing sarcoma of the thoracic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, W.

    1978-01-01

    Ewing's sarcomas in the chest wall have in common the facts that the ribs are mainly changed asteolytically; sclerosing is initially seen very seldom, it usually occurs after the therapy; and periosteal detachment with stratification or spicula formation was not observed. All our children had considerably larger intrathoracic tumors than tumors palpable at the chest wall and a notably low number of symptoms in regard of the partially gigantic tumors. (orig.) [de

  13. Breaking the Shackles of 1982: The Syrian Muslim Brotherhood in the 2011 uprising

    OpenAIRE

    DARA THERESE CONDUIT

    2017-01-01

    This thesis re-examined the history of the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood to both identify whether the 1982 Hama uprising has skewed interpretations of the movement, and to understand the role that the group is playing in the current Syrian conflict. Based on interviews with Brotherhood and Syrian opposition members, Arabic-language documents and archival research, it is argued that the group is neither as violent nor undemocratic as the Hama uprising implied. Nonetheless, the Syrian Muslim Brothe...

  14. Energy requirements of Dorper crossbred ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, K D; Jiang, C G; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Liu, J; Ma, T; Zhao, Y G; Xu, G S; Diao, Q Y

    2014-05-01

    The ME and NE requirements of Dorper crossbred ewe lambs grown from 35 to 50 kg BW were assessed in a comparative slaughter trial. Thirty-five ewe lambs (33.5 ± 0.6 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were used: 7 lambs were slaughtered at the start of the trial to provide baseline measures of body composition and 7 lambs were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 43 kg BW to provide intermediate measures of body composition. The remaining 21 lambs were divided into 3 groups of 7 lambs each and fed a pelleted mixed diet (concentrate:roughage = 44:56, DM basis) for ad libitum intake or 65 or 45% of ad libitum intake. All 3 groups were slaughtered when the ad libitum group reached 50 kg BW. Total body energy, N, fat, ash, and moisture content were measured. In a separate trial, 15 ewe lambs (39.5 ± 0.7 kg BW) of F1 crosses of purebred Dorper and thin-tailed Han sheep were housed in metabolism cages to evaluate the ME value of the diet at each of the 3 levels of feed intake. In vivo methane production was measured by open-circuit respirometry along with the collection of all feces and urine. The daily NEm requirement of the ewe lambs was 280 kJ/kg metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) or 292 kJ/kg metabolic shrunk BW (SBW(0.75)), whereas the daily ME requirement for maintenance was 418 kJ/kg BW(0.75) or 437 kJ/kg SBW(0.75), with a partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance of 0.67. The NEg requirement ranged from 1.37 to 3.94 MJ/d for ADG from 100 to 250 g BW, and the partial efficiency of ME utilization for gain was 0.44. The NE and ME requirements of Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ewe lambs were lower than the recommendations of the United States' nutritional system.

  15. Second malignancies after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, Susanne; Dunst, Juergen; Ruebe, Christian; Paulussen, Michael; Hoffmann, Christine; Juergens, Herbert

    1997-01-01

    Background: Some former retrospective studies have suggested that patients with Ewing's sarcoma might have a very high risk for developing secondary sarcomas if treated with radiotherapy. We have evaluated the risk of second malignancies (SM) in patients treated in the German Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Studies CESS 81 and CESS 86. Materials and methods: From January 1981 through June 1991, a total number of 674 patients was registered in the two multicentric Ewing's sarcoma trials CESS 81 (1981 through 1985) and CESS 86 (1986 through June 1991). The systemic treatment consisted in both studies of a four-drug-chemotherapy (VACA= vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and adriamycin; or VAIA= vincristine, actinomycin D, ifosfamide and adriamycin) and a total number of four courses, each lasting nine weeks, was recommended by the protocol. Local therapy was either complete surgery or surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy with 36-46Gy or definitive radiotherapy with 46 to 60Gy. The median follow-up at the time of this analysis was 7 years, the maximum follow-up 16 years. Results: Eight patients developed a SM, 4 were acute myelogenic leucemias, three sarcomas and one benign neurinoma. One of the sarcomas was considered as radiation-induced because of its location in the former radiation field. The interval between diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma and the diagnosis of the SM was 17 to 78 months for the four AMLs and 82 to 136 months for the three sarcomas. All solid second tumors occurred in irradiated patients. The cumulative risk of a SM is given in table 1. Three patients (all with AML) died of their SM, the other five were salvage by subsequent treatment and are in clinical remission with a median follow-up of 1 to 10 years. Conclusions: The risk of leukemia after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma is probably low in the range of 1-2% or less and accounts for about 1% of all deaths. There was no risk of solid tumors in surgically treated patients. Irradiated

  16. Profile of illness in Syrian refugees: A GeoSentinel analysis, 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Barbre, Kira A; Jensenius, Mogens; Larsen, Carsten S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Stauffer, William; Rothe, Camilla; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Hamer, Davidson H; Esposito, Douglas H; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Screening of 488 Syrian unaccompanied minor refugees (Syrian refugees examined at GeoSentinel clinics worldwide, cutaneous leishmaniasis affected one in three patients; other noteworthy infections were active tuberculosis (11%) and chronic hepatitis B or C (9%). These data can contribute to evidence-based guidelines for infectious disease screening of Syrian refugees.

  17. Social Representations of Social Media Users toward Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ozdemir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While the Syrian refugees crisis has increasingly continued its effect in both Turkey and other neighboring countries and European countries for more than five years, refugees do not adapt themselves to society in country of asylum, and are exposed to social exclusion. The purpose of the study is to explore social representations of social media users toward Syrian refugees in Turkey with a qualitative approach; because social representations may indicate the problems in the integration process of Syrian refugees and Turkish society, and the reasons of social exclusion toward Syrian refugees. Accordingly 98 entries, which were taken from frequently used social dictionaries in Turkey, were evaluated by researchers and seven thematic units were formed. Thematic units reflect (i perceived negative features of Syrian refugees, (ii perceived threats in Turkey due to Syrian refugees, (iii criticisms toward Syrian refugees policy of Turkish government, (iv positive attitudes toward Syrian refugees, (v perceived political importance of Syrian refugees, (vi proposed solutions toward perceived Syrian refugees problem, and (vii other criticisms toward Syrian refugees issue. Findings provide useful information which can be used to enable the social adaptation of Syrian refugees into Turkish society

  18. Education in Emergencies: Case of a Community School for Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    With the break of the civil war in Syria, many Syrians have been displaced either internally or as refugees. Turkey, one of the leading host of Syrian refugees, has made changes to the policies to accommodate the needs of Syrians. Education is one of the most prominent needs of displaced refugee children. While 80 percent of refugee children…

  19. Logical Demonomy Among the Ewe in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzobo, N. K.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the indigenous pattern of moral behavior among the Ewe, an ethnic and linguistic group in West Africa, and assesses its role in moral education within the African context. The author develops a conceptual framework he calls "logical demonomy" that he uses to define the Ewe system of moral laws. (JT)

  20. EWE: Toward electro-mechanical cardiac simulations with MOOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Ruprecht, D; Winkel, M; Krause, R

    2015-01-01

    We present the software framework EWE, which is designed for coupled electromechanical simulations in computational cardiology. EWE is build on the multi-physics framework MOOSE. Numerical simulations of coupled problems on an idealized geometry for a left ventricle are shown.

  1. Effects of exogenous oxytocin on cervical penetration of Iranian ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... has no significant effect on induced cervix penetration by OT. Therefore, this dose is the applicable dose for the cervix dilation and transcervical artificial insemination and embryo recovery in Iranian ewes. Key words: Iranian ewes, oxytocin, cervical dilation, transcervical artificial insemination, transcervical embryo transfer.

  2. Tumor - host immune interactions in Ewing sarcoma : implications for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on various aspects of tumor - host (immune) interactions in Ewing sarcoma patients with the aim to obtain leads for immunotherapeutic or targeted treatment strategies. We demonstrate a key role for interferon gamma (IFNg) in enhancing both Ewing sarcoma immunogenicity and

  3. The Relationship between Milk Constituents of Lactating Ewes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between milk constituents of ewes and linear body measurements of their lambs maintained under a semi-intensive management system. Twenty-eight ewes comprising 10 Yankasa (YA), 8 West African Dwarf (WAD) and 10 crossbred (YAxWAD) sheep with body ...

  4. The influence of supplementary feeding to ewes and creep feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARIN KOEP

    2015-03-24

    Mar 24, 2015 ... decrease in the nutrient intake by ewes. Supplementary ... suckled lambs when pastures decline in quality and quantity or when the growth potential of lambs is not being met with ... Mutton Merino ewes and creep feed for suckling lambs grazing wheat stubble during the dry summer period. Item. Content.

  5. Supplementation of lactating Dorper and Merino ewes on Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-04-14

    Apr 14, 1988 ... Body mass loss of lactating Merino and Dorper ewes was not reduced by either supplementary energy or CP ... Body mass loss of ewes was reduced by 50% and growth rate of their lambs improved markedly by combined ...... of starvation on bovine alimentary tract and its contents. Anim. Prod. 31, 111.

  6. Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent selection for multiple rearing ability from the same base population. ... likely than those in the H line to graze. The latter group of ewes was more likely to stand with their offspring at this stage. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol.32(1) 2002: 57-65 ...

  7. Conception rate and fecundity of Dohne Merino ewes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A self-formulated creep feed and lick was provided to the lambs and ewes, respectively, on an ad libitum basis. The experimental animals ... However, the sustainability of such a system needs to be tested further to determine the effect of the accelerated system on the productive lifespan of the ewes. Keywords: Accelerated ...

  8. Ovulatory response and embryo quality in Katahdin ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the superovulatory response (SR), embryo quality and embryonic development in Katahdin ewes that received a dietary supplement of palm oil (PO). Ten ewes were assigned to receive 35 g palm oil (n = 10, PO3) and 10 to receive 70 g palm oil (n = 10, PO6) for 25 days. On day 0, the ...

  9. Intracranial Dural Metastasis of Ewing's Sarcoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Yeop; Lee, Seung Koo; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Jin Na; Lee, Kyu Sung; Jung, Woo Hee; Kim, Dong Ik

    2008-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor that can occur anywhere in the body, but it is most commonly observed in the long bones of the arms and legs, the pelvis and in the chest. The predominant sites of metastasis include the lung (38%), bone (including the spine; 31%), and the bone marrow (11%). Metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to the central nervous system (CNS) is relatively rare, and most of the previous reports have demonstrated involvement of the bony calvarium or brain parenchyma. We describe here the imaging findings of dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma, and these imaging findings have not been previously reported on in the medical literature. In conclusion, dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma is very rare and its imaging characteristics are similar to those of a primary tumor, which mimic the findings of a schwannoma or meningioma. Despite its rarity, secondary Ewing's sarcoma may be included in the differential diagnosis of extra-axial dural masses

  10. Intracranial Ewing sarcoma: four pediatric examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael J; Whelan, Ros; Madden, Jennifer; Mulcahy Levy, Jean M; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K; Hankinson, Todd C; Foreman, Nicholas K; Handler, Michael H

    2018-03-01

    Ewing sarcoma typically arises in bone and is unrelated to intraparenchymal small blue cell embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumors previously designated primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). When the CNS is impacted, it is usually secondary to local extension from either the epidural space, skull, or intracranial or spinal metastases. Primary examples within the cranial vault are rare, usually dural-based, and are largely case reports in the literature. We detail four pediatric patients with solitary, primary intracranial Ewing sarcoma, all manifesting the archetypal EWRS1 gene rearrangement that confirms diagnosis. Neurosurgical Department records, spanning 21 years (1995-2016), were reviewed to identify patients. Demographics, clinical history, pathological/genetic features, and clinical course were retrieved from the medical record and personal files of the authors. Four patients, one male and three females, age 5 to 16 years, were identified. One presented in extremis from a large lesion, two with soft tissue masses, and the fourth as an incidental finding after being involved in a motor vehicle collision. Three had clear bony involvement: a 10-year-old girl with a large left temporal lesion had clear origin in the skull, with spiculated calcified striations throughout the mass; a 9-year-old girl presented with a bony left petrous apex mass; and a 16-year-old girl presented with a left temporal mass with extension to the dura and underlying bone erosion. Only the 5-year-old boy had a large left frontoparietal mass traversing the falx with no bony contact. All four tumors manifested the diagnostic EWSR1 mutation and were treated with an Ewing sarcoma regimen. Outcomes were variable, with one patient showing progressive metastatic disease and death 3 years after presentation, one patient with disease-free survival 10.5 years after completion of therapy, and one alive and well at the completion of therapy 1 year after diagnosis. One patient

  11. Ewing's sarcoma mimicking a meningioma in radiological findings: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hee Jin; Choi, Sun Seob

    2007-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an uncommon primary bone tumor. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranium is extremely rare and constitutes only 1% of all Ewing's sarcoma cases. Usually, primary Ewing's sarcoma of the carnium manifests as an expansile osteolytic malignant bone tumor with or without intracranial extension. We report here the radiological findings of a case of Ewing's sarcoma mimicking a meningioma in an 18-year-old man

  12. Mental health and psychosocial needs of Syrian refugees and the role of Syrian non-governmental organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoshmosh, Nadim; Mobayed, Mamoun; Aljendi, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Almost 5 million Syrians have been registered as refugees since the conflict started in 2011. Their mental health and psychosocial needs continue to grow as the situation at home gets more complicated. Syrian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and mental health professionals have been offering their support to help meet these needs. They have set up various centres and teams on the ground that focus their efforts on the most needy individuals. They train and supervise healthcare volunteers, encourage self-management and build on people's resilience. These NGOs require support to deal with the consequences of this unprecedented crisis.

  13. The importance of prolactin for lactation in the ewe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooley, R.D.; Campbell, J.J.; Findlay, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of 2-bromo-α-ergocryptine (bromocriptine) on the induction and maintenance of milk secretion was studied in post-parturient ewes and in ovariectomized ewes artificially induced to lactate by treatment with oestrogen plus progesterone and then dexamethasone. Treatment with bromocriptine (about 0.4 mk/kg every 3 days) lowered and maintained the plasma concentration of prolactin at < 12 ng/ml. Ewes receiving bromocriptine concurrently with oestrogen plus progesterone during the priming phase had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) mean cumulative milk yield than control ewes, although the milk of the treated ewes contained normal amounts of fat, protein and lactose. Administration of bromocriptine during dexamethasone-induced lactogenesis had no significant effect on the mean cumulative milk yield but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the milk fat and protein content. In establishing lactation, bromocriptine markedly reduced the milk yield in both intact and ovariectomised ewes. The concentration of protein was not significantly affected although the milk fat content was higher in the bromocriptine-treated than in the control ewes. The effects of bromocriptine on milk yield and composition during galactopoiesis could be reversed by concurrent infusion of prolactin and the results suggest that prolactin is an important hormone during mammogenesis and galactopoiesis in sheep. (author)

  14. FOXM1 is an oncogenic mediator in Ewing Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christensen

    Full Text Available Ewing Family Tumors (Ewing Sarcoma and peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor are common bone and soft tissue malignancies of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Chromosomal translocation in these tumors produces fusion oncogenes of the EWS/ETS class, with EWS/FLI1 being by far the most common. EWS/ETS chimera are the only well established driver mutations in these tumors and they function as aberrant transcription factors. Understanding the downstream genes whose expression is modified has been a central approach to the study of these tumors. FOXM1 is a proliferation associated transcription factor which has increasingly been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human cancers. Here we demonstrate that FOXM1 is expressed in Ewing primary tumors and cell lines. Reduction in FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines results in diminished potential for anchorage independent growth. FOXM1 expression is enhanced by EWS/FLI1, though, unlike other tumor systems, it is not driven by expression of the EWS/FLI1 target GLI1. Thiostrepton is a compound known to inhibit FOXM1 by direct binding. We show that Thiostrepton diminishes FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines and this reduction reduces cell viability through an apoptotic mechanism. FOXM1 is involved in Ewing tumor pathogenesis and may prove to be a useful therapeutic target in Ewing tumors.

  15. Nutritional knowledge assessment of syrian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louay Labban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge can affect someone to follow dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of Syrian university students and to find out if there was any relationship between anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic status, type of university and nutrition knowledge of the students. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using valid nutrition knowledge questionnaire, which covered six main sections. The questionnaire was designed for this study and was adapted from Parameter and Wardle. The number of students participated in the study was 998 students and were selected from four universities in Syria. They were asked to complete the nutrition knowledge questionnaire under supervision of trained nutritionist. Anthropometric measurements were taken for all participants by trained professional. The results were statistically analyzed and P 30 had the highest points in TNK. Females had higher TNK score as compared with males. Furthermore, students enrolled in the private university and in health-related programs showed typically better TNK scores than those enrolled in public universities and in nonhealth-related programs. The highest TNK score based on BMI was found among students with BMI >30. The results support the likely value of including nutrition knowledge as a target for health education campaigns aimed at promoting healthy eating.

  16. Ewing sarcoma versus osteomyelitis: differential diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, B.; Glodny, B.; Rudisch, A.; Trieb, T.; Loizides, A.; Judmaier, W.; Schocke, M.F.; Putzer, D.

    2013-01-01

    To find and evaluate characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns for the differentiation between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis. We identified 28 consecutive patients referred to our department for MRI (1.5 T) of an unclear bone lesion with clinical symptoms suggestive of Ewing sarcoma or osteomyelitis. MRI scans were re-evaluated by two experienced radiologists, typical MR imaging features were documented and a diagnostic decision between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis was made. Statistical significance of the association between MRI features and the biopsy-based diagnosis was assessed using Fisher's exact test. The most clear-cut pattern for determining the correct diagnosis was the presence of a sharp and defined margin of the bone lesion, which was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, but in none of the patients with osteomyelitis (P < 0.0001). Contrast enhancing soft tissue was present in all cases with Ewing sarcoma and absent in 4 patients with osteomyelitis (P = 0.0103). Cortical destruction was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, 4 patients with osteomyelitis did not present any cortical reaction (P = 0.0103). Cystic or necrotic areas were identified in 13 patients with Ewing sarcoma and in 1 patient with osteomyelitis (P = 0.004). Interobserver reliability was very good (kappa = 1) in Ewing sarcoma and moderate (kappa = 0.6) in patients with osteomyelitis. A sharp and defined margin, optimally visualized on T1-weighted images in comparison to short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images, is the most significant feature of Ewing sarcoma in differentiating from osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  17. Ongoing epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%.

  18. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  19. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  20. Ottawa shows support at screenings of documentary about Syrian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    Mar 22, 2017 ... “The project includes research on transitional justice issues, methods to conduct criminal prosecutions, options for reparations, ways to commemorate the dead, and approaches to national reconciliation,” McGurk said. “The ultimate goal is the development of a Syrian-led and implemented transitional ...

  1. Syrians' Acceptance of Digital Lectures: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2016-01-01

    Technology-based learning modules are mostly challenged by their acceptance. A single-case study and mixed research method are used to explore a unique situation of applying digital lectures at the postgraduate Programmes at the Faculty of Tourism at Damascus University as a solution for brain drain in the Syrian higher education system. Results…

  2. A Teacher's Retrospective View of the Syrian Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarad, Rami Abu

    2014-01-01

    This is a descriptive, as much as an interpretive, article about the Syrian educational system and the first-hand experience of an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) practitioner describing the system from within, as much as from without. "From within" because it is based on observations derived from his own teaching experience at a…

  3. The neglected health needs of older Syrian refugees in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Lupieri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Older refugees are often a neglected population, particularly when it comes to health. In Jordan, the specific health needs of older Syrian refugees tend to be overlooked, due in part to a lack of data, institutional biases and the nature of the humanitarian response.

  4. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Syrian indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Domestic goats in Syria may provide an interesting source of genetic variability due to its proximity to the centers of domestication. This study aimed to assess the morphological variation, genetic diversity and population substructure of the Syrian goat populations. Commonly, three goat genotypes are.

  5. Digital learning innovations for Syrian refugees and host communities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The impact of the Syrian conflict and accompanying refugee crisis on the education systems in Jordan and Lebanon is immense. Estimates ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for inclusive development.

  6. Unravelling Facebook: A Pedagogical Tool during the Syrian Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the role of Facebook in academia during the Syrian crisis. Data were collected by means of an online survey from 726 students at Damascus University (Males = 446, Females = 280). Results indicated that Facebook facilitated communication and resource sharing in times of war and crisis where safe commuting posed a…

  7. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of trade liberalisation on Syrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian agricultural policy should be characterized by a high level of government intervention, including fixed prices, government monopoly in strategic crop marketing, government distribution of industrial fertilizers, significant barriers on food and agricultural commodities import and so on. Although there were certain changes and liberalization in this area during several last years, the Syrian agriculture remains as the most regulated sector of national economy in Near east and northern Africa.On the other hand, we may state the fact that Syrian governmental agriculture policy was successful considering so called strategic crops most of all in achieving self-sufficiency in wheat production, also an essential increase of cotton production volume which represents most important export crop of this near east country, took a part. Besides this progress there was restriction of disparity development in countryside and municipal household’s incomes, which is partial reason for slowing down of Syrian countryside poverty. These positive outcomes were reached at the expense of increasing go­vern­men­tal expenses and worsening of resources efficiency usage both in agriculture production and energy sectors. Considering forecasted spend of oil sources, the Syrian government will be ne­ce­s­sa­ri­ly forced to search for alternative resources of economic growth and government budget incomes in near future.The last five year country plan presumes consequental delimitation of grants and implication of value added tax. There is to be a quite large liberalisation in agriculture sector, which should lead to consequential down of wheat production, sugar beet and cotton and increase of barley, lentil and chickpea production.

  9. The effects of pasture availability for twin- and triplet-bearing ewes in mid and late pregnancy on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, R A; Kenyon, P R; Stafford, K J; West, D M; Morris, S T; Oliver, M H

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of offering ewes two different feeding levels, during mid and late pregnancy, on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth. Romney ewes, bearing twin (n = 80) or triplet foetuses (n = 56), were allocated to a pasture sward height of 2 or 4 cm between 70 and 107 days of pregnancy. In late pregnancy (day 107 to 147), half of the ewes were reallocated the alternate sward height, which produced four treatments: 2-2, 2-4, 4-2 and 4-4. Ewes were weighed on days 65, 92, 107 and 130 of pregnancy and lamb live weights were recorded 12 to 24 h after birth. Twelve to 24 h after birth the maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewes were determined, whilst their lambs were tagged. After the lambs were released, the behaviour of each ewe and her lambs was observed for 5 min. Ewe treatment and litter size had no effect on ewe MBS. However, as MBS increased (ewes stayed closer to lambs during tagging), ewes bleated less in a high-pitch and were quicker to make contact with their lamb. During the observation period, ewes in the 4-4 treatment had a greater percentage of their bleats in a low pitch (P ewes in the 2-2 and 4-2 treatment (61.3% v. 41.3% and 38.8% low bleats, respectively) and more lambs born to 4-4 ewes (95%) bleated than lambs born to 2-2 ewes (84%; P ewes in the 2-2 treatment bleated earlier than lambs in all other treatments (P ewes were less likely (P ewes (3.1% v. 16.9% and 16.7%, respectively). These findings suggest that under the conditions of the present study, ewe nutrition had little effect on maternal behaviour. However, lambs born to ewes offered 2 cm pasture sward heights during mid and/or late pregnancy (2-2, 2-4 and 4-2 treatments) displayed behaviour that demonstrated greater 'need' whereas lambs born to ewes offered 4 cm during mid and late pregnancy sought less attention from their dam.

  10. Combinatorial Drug Screening Identifies Ewing Sarcoma-specific Sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Tsafou, Kalliopi P; Emdal, Kristina B.

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in survival for Ewing sarcoma pediatric and adolescent patients have been modest over the past 20 years. Combinations of anticancer agents endure as an option to overcome resistance to single treatments caused by compensatory pathways. Moreover, combinations are thought to lessen any...... associated adverse side effects through reduced dosing, which is particularly important in childhood tumors. Using a parallel phenotypic combinatorial screening approach of cells derived from three pediatric tumor types, we identified Ewing sarcoma-specific interactions of a diverse set of targeted agents...... including approved drugs. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC412, a multikinase inhibitor with strong...

  11. Bilateral parietal extradural metastatic ewing's sarcoma simulating acute epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, E.; Imran, M.; Faridi, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sarcomas usually metastasize to lugs. The following case report describes an unusual metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to extradural parietal region bilaterally. The primary was found at lower end of ulna. (author)

  12. Vaginoscopy in Ewes Utilizing a Laparoscopic Surgical Port Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Easley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginoscopy allows for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of the vaginal vault. A laparoscopic surgical port device and rigid telescope were utilized for serial vaginoscopy in 8 healthy anesthetized ewes. Vaginoscopy examinations were performed in each ewe at days 1, 14, and 28. This technique was well-tolerated and facilitated carbon dioxide vaginal inflation, complete vaginal examination, identification of the cervix, and targeted biopsy collection. No complications were encountered during or following the vaginoscopy procedures. The laparoscopic port device was well-suited to the ewe vulvar size. This technique could be applied to clinical evaluation in ewes for the purposes of examination, biopsy, culture, foreign body removal, and minor surgical procedures.

  13. Adherence of preventive oral care products in the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, D; Mahzia, R; Nakhleh, K; Joury, E

    2016-09-25

    No study has investigated the availability and adherence of preventive oral care products on the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations. Data were collected in 2012, and updated in 2016, in terms of availability, characteristics and adherence to evidence-based international recommendations. Few preventive products adhered to the recommendations. Despite the large decrease in the number of oral care products on the Syrian market, due to the Syrian crisis, nonadherence of some of the available products is still present. A multisectorial approach at a policy level is needed to address such important limitations. The Syrian Ministry of Health should reform regulations for fluoride products to become subject to drug monitoring systems; the Syrian Arab Committee for Measurements and Standards needs to update its standards; and the Syrian General Dental Association should distribute a preventive booklet to dental practitioners.

  14. Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Chronically Infected and Subsequently Challenged Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Thaís Rabelo; Faria, Gabriela da Silva Magalhães; Guerreiro, Bruna Martins; dal Pietro, Nathalia Helena Pereira da Silva; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; da Silva, Helenara Machado; Garcia, João Luis; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-01-01

    This experiment studied congenital transmission in sheep experimentally infected with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and reinfected at one of three stages of pregnancy. Twenty ewes were experimentally infected with T. gondii strain ME49 (day 0). After the T. gondii infection became chronic (IFAT≤512), the ewes were allocated with rams for coverage. After the diagnosis of pregnancy, these ewes were allocated into four experimental groups (n = 5): I-reinfected with T. gondii on the 40th day of gestation (DG); II-reinfected on DG 80; III-reinfected on DG 120; and IV-saline solution on DG 120 (not reinfected). Five ewes (IFATewes produced lambs serologically positive for T. gondii. The results of the mouse bioassay, immunohistochemistry and PCR assays revealed the presence of T. gondii in all 20 sheep and their lambs. The congenital transmission of T. gondii was associated with fetal loss and abnormalities in persistently infected sheep and in ewes infected and subsequently reinfected by this protozoan. Therefore, congenital T. gondii infection was common when ewes were chronically infected prior to pregnancy, with or without reinfection during at various stages of gestation. PMID:27788185

  15. Multiparous Ewe as a Model for Teaching Vaginal Hysterectomy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbage, Yohan; Cosson, Michel; Hubert, Thomas; Giraudet, Géraldine

    2017-12-01

    Despite being linked to improving patient outcomes and limiting costs, the use of vaginal hysterectomy is on the wane. Although a combination of reasons might explain this trend, one cause is a lack of practical training. An appropriate teaching model must therefore be devised. Currently, only low-fidelity simulators exist. Ewes provide an appropriate model for pelvic anatomy and are well-suited for testing vaginal mesh properties. This article sets out a vaginal hysterectomy procedure for use as an education and training model. A multiparous ewe was the model. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. The ewe was in a lithotomy position resembling that assumed by women on the operating table. Two vaginal hysterectomies were performed on two ewes, following every step precisely as if the model were human. Each surgical step of vaginal hysterectomy performed on the ewe and on a woman were compared side by side. We identified that all surgical steps were particularly similar. The main limitations of this model are costs ($500/procedure), logistic problems (housing large animals), and public opposition to animal training models. The ewe appears to be an appropriate model for teaching and training of vaginal hysterectomy.

  16. Survivin, a target to modulate the radiosensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greve, B.; Sheikh-Mounessi, F.; Ernst, I.; Eich, H.T.; Kemper, B.; Goette, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiotherapy constitutes an essential element in the multimodal therapy of Ewing's sarcoma. Compared to other sarcomas, Ewing tumors normally show a good response to radiotherapy. However, there are consistently tumors with a radioresistant phenotype, and the underlying mechanisms are not known in detail. Here we investigated the association between survivin protein expression and the radiosensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma in vitro. Material and methods: An siRNA-based knockdown approach was used to investigate the influence of survivin expression on cell proliferation, double-strand break (DSB) induction and repair, apoptosis and colony-forming ability in four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines with and without irradiation. Results: Survivin protein and mRNA were upregulated in all cell lines tested in a dose-dependent manner. As a result of survivin knockdown, STA-ET-1 cells showed reduced cell proliferation, an increased number of radiation-induced DSBs, and reduced repair. Apoptosis was increased by knockdown alone and increased further in combination with irradiation. Colony formation was significantly reduced by survivin knockdown in combination with irradiation. Conclusion: Survivin is a radiation-inducible protein in Ewing's sarcoma and its down-regulation sensitizes cells toward irradiation. Survivin knockdown in combination with radiation inhibits cell proliferation, repair, and colony formation significantly and increases apoptosis more than each single treatment alone. This might open new perspectives in the radiation treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. (orig.)

  17. An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and family planning behaviors and practice among pregnant Syrian refugees in various living conditions and multiple geographic areas of Lebanon. A field-based survey was conducted between July and October 2013 in 14 main geographic sites of refugee concentration. The assessment evaluated antenatal services among a non-randomized sample of 420 self-identified pregnant Syrian refugee women that included demographics, gestational age, living accommodation, antenatal care coverage, antenatal care content, antenatal health behaviors, antenatal health literacy, and family planning perception and practices. In total, 420 pregnant Syrian refugees living in Lebanon completed the survey. Of these, 82.9% (348) received some antenatal care. Of those with at least one antenatal visit, 222 (63.8%) received care attended by a skilled professional three or more times, 111 (31.9%) 1-2 times, and 15 (4.3%) had never received skilled antenatal care. We assessed antenatal care content defined by blood pressure measurement, and urine and blood sample analyses. Of those who had received any antenatal care, only 31.2% received all three interventions, 18.2% received two out of three, 32.1% received one out of three, and 18.5% received no interventions. Only (41.2%) had an adequate diet of vitamins, minerals, and folic acid. Access, content and health behaviors varied by gestational age, type of accommodation and location in Lebanon. Standards of antenatal care are not being met for pregnant Syrian refugee women in

  18. Health service access and utilization among Syrian refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert

    2016-07-14

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addressed. In light of the increasing challenges facing host governments and humanitarian actors to meet health needs of Syrian refugees and affected host communities, this study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Differences in household characteristics by geographic region, facility type, and sector utilized were examined using chi-square and t-test methods. Care-seeking was high with 86.1 % of households reporting an adult sought medical care the last time it was needed. Approximately half (51.5 %) of services were sought from public sector facilities, 38.7 % in private facilities, and 9.8 % in charity/NGO facilities. Among adult care seekers, 87.4 % were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 89.8 % of which obtained the medication. Overall, 51.8 % of households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for the consultation or medications at the most recent visit (mean US$39.9, median US$4.2). Despite high levels of care-seeking, cost was an important barrier to health service access for Syrian refugees in Jordan. The cessation of free access to health care since the time of the survey is likely to have worsened

  19. Effect of Ensiling and Urea Treatment of Wild ‎Reed Phragmites communis on Productive ‎Performance of Awassi Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ‎ A. Saeed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted using 24 Awassi male lambs at 4-6 months of age and mean initial weight of 20.59 kg, to investigate the effect of ensiling of wild reed and level of urea (0, 1 or 2% on productive performance of lambs. Results revealed that lambs fed reed consumed higher (P˂0.01 amounts of of all nutrients except digestible DM. Whereas, intake of roughage and total nitrogen (N and total digestible N were affected (P˂0.01 by urea treatment. Intake of all nutrients was significantly affected by interaction between ensiling and urea treatment as well. Final weight, total and daily gain were not affected by ensiling and level of urea, corresponding values were, 25.93, 78.86 and 5.52 for lambs fed reed silage vs. 27.18 kg, 86.83 g/day and 6.07 kg for reed respectively. Final weight gain was not affected by interaction between ensiling and level of urea, whereas, lambs fed reed treated with low level of urea gained higher average final and daily gain. Ensiling was significantly superior in feed conversion ratio (FCR estimated on basis of DM intake (7.74 vs, 8.86. Better (P<0.05 FCR was associated with lower level of urea. Lambs fed untreated reed silage recorded better FCR in comparison with other lambs. Ensiling improved digestibility coefficients of most nutrients, whereas, it decreased (P<0.05 CP digestibility, 67.03 and 69.59% for silage and reed, respectively. Digestibility was also affected by urea treatment, where, better values were generally achieved with 1% of urea except those of fiber components, in which, 2% level of urea was superior (P<0.01 in hemicellulose digestibility

  20. Prevalence of isolated maxillary lateral incisor agenesis in Syrian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Tamouh; Abdullah, Nagham; Rsheadat, Yasser; Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu

    2017-01-01

    This research is designed to obtain a better understanding and provide more insight of this phenomenon through evaluating the prevalence of congenital absence of maxillary lateral incisors in a Syrian population. The method involved clinical examination of 8000 school children with an equal number of males and females (age range 12-15 years) to identify students only affected by bilateral or unilateral congenital absence of maxillary lateral incisors. Agenesis was determined based on radiological evidence. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of isolated maxillary lateral incisors agenesis was 1.15%. In the sample studied, 66.3% of the patients were female and 33.7% were male (p agenesis in a Syrian population is within the average range with regard to other populations. A significant familial component to the etiology of maxillary lateral incisors agenesis was found.

  1. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis.

  2. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: What Nurses Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almontaser, Esmihan; Baumann, Steven L

    2017-04-01

    The civil war in Syria that began in 2011 has displaced millions of Syrians of all ages. While the number that have arrived in the United States is small in comparison to many other countries, it is important that nurses and other healthcare workers here understand that many of them have faced considerable trauma and endured stresses. Most of them are Muslims. Muslims in the United States and elsewhere represent a heterogeneous group of people with a long intellectual and cultural history. Islamic cultural patterns do pose unique barriers to a primarily Anglo-Saxon medical system that medical practitioners need to consider in order to avoid misunderstanding and provide culturally sensitive care. The authors discuss the Syrian refugee crisis and the experience of being a Muslim or Arab American patient in U.S. healthcare settings.

  3. Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees' access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey's United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey's refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey's remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee's flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

  4. Improving the specifications of Syrian raw phosphate by thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Watti

    2016-09-01

    In this research we treated the Syrian raw phosphate by thermal way in order to: (1 Enriching of studied Syrian raw phosphate that contains proportions of 28.60% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, 6.12% of carbonate, which we got after treatment at 850 °C for 30 min on a phosphate containing proportion of 33.95% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, small amount of carbonate 0.75% and almost free of organic materials. (2 Preparing phosphate fertilizer by thermal treatment in the presence of sodium carbonate, where it was found that the best conditions are adding 40% of sodium carbonate by weight of phosphate ore; temperature 1100 °C; time 120 min.

  5. The Effects of War on Syrian Refugees' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan; Kara, Ömer Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the effects of war on Syrian students' academic success. No one can deny the fact that wars have direct and indirect effects on children. Besides, no one can deny the fact that not only soldiers are targets in wars, but also children, women, and even old people are, who altogether make a society.…

  6. Level of food security of syrian refugees in Tukey

    OpenAIRE

    Dobiášová, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the proposal of change of policy of international actors in providing food security. In order to achieve it there is used the analysis of current level of food security and nutritional intake of Syrian refugees in Turkey since year 2011 when armed conflict in Syria has started. The bachelor thesis is divided into three parts. Theoretical part deals with theory of migration, legal definitions of status of refugees and demographic processes, analyzes a method of f...

  7. Leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite (sodium carbonate-bicarbonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Jamous, J.Kh.

    1991-01-01

    The leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite by sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution has been studied, using a batch technique. Parameters influencing percentage extraction of uranium that are considered and studies in this work are: Leachant concentration, particle size, heat treatment, leachant renewal, phosphorite renewal and contact time. All measurements of uranium from aqueous solutions were carried out by fluorometry. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Sectarianism or geopolitics? Framing the 2011 Syrian conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Nower, Tasmia

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict began as an uprising against the Assad regime for political and economic reform. However, as violence escalated between the regime and opposition, the conflict drew in Iran, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia, which backed both the regime and opposition with resources. The current conflict is described as sectarian because of the increasingly antagonistic relations between the Shiite/Alawite regime and the Sunni-dominated opposition. This thesis examines how sectarian identity is po...

  9. Coping Strategies Used by Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the coping strategies used by Syrian refugees in Jordan in relation to their demographics. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with a convenient sample of 550 Syrian refugees. Out of all the study participants, 88% reported seeking social support, 64.5% reported using avoidance, and 39.5% reported using problem solving. Participants who were male, single, and younger, and who had a higher education and a higher total income were satisfied with their income, were employed and free of chronic illnesses, and had higher problem-solving scores. Higher social support-seeking scores were associated with being female, older, and widowed; having a lower education and lower total income; being dissatisfied with their income; being nonemployed; and having chronic illnesses. A number of significant predictors were identified for each coping strategy. The results of this study could be used to formulate programs and develop services regarding the stressors encountered by Syrian refugees and their coping strategies.

  10. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  11. SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN THE SYRIAN LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam YOUSUF

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the most serious crises which confronts countries, and has many negative social effects; it justifies government intervention using mechanisms of the balance of supply and demand. It is one of the most severe problems that the Syrian labor market faces, which is under constant pressure because of the new flows of young people. The aim of this study is to shed light on the concepts which relate to the labor market, and provide a conceptual framework to understand the Syrian labor market during the war, as well as making some recommendations to help the Syrian labor market recover after the war. According to this study findings show that the unemployment rates in Syria remained stable during 2009 – 2010 (8.6%. Subsequently, the rate rose to (14.9% while in (2012 it rose sharply to (34.9 % as a result at the end of 2012 the unemployment rate was (26.8% higher than it was in 2009.

  12. Jordan’s migration diplomacy and the Syrian refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Taking its point of departure in the newly published World Bank Economic Outlook for Jordan (October 2016) the article discusses the recent political and economic realities in Jordan with a focus on the Syrian refugees and the so-called Jordan Compact programme, launched in connection with the co......Taking its point of departure in the newly published World Bank Economic Outlook for Jordan (October 2016) the article discusses the recent political and economic realities in Jordan with a focus on the Syrian refugees and the so-called Jordan Compact programme, launched in connection...... with the conference "Supporting Syria and the Region", held in London 4 February 2016. The initiative can be seen as an example of a successful migration diplomacy effort in the sense that Jordan mobilized strong international state actors and also the World Bank behind the Jordanian interests. At the conference...... they launched the mentioned programme, according to which 200,000 job opportunities for Syrian refugees would be offered "while they remain in the country, contributing to the Jordanian economy without competing with Jordanians for jobs", as it said in the document. Taking this move Jordan is to some degree...

  13. The Histological of Ewe Ovarium Post-Intrauterine Transplantation to Pseudopregnancy Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Sumarmin, R; Boediono, A; Winarto, A; Yusuf, TL

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histologycal of ewe ovarium post-intrauterin transplantation to pseudopregnancy rabbit. The experiment was concerned with the 1 or 7 days of pseudopregnancy to receive the ewe ovarian transplant. Post transplantation 5, 7 or 9 days of ewe ovarium were recollected. To determine histologically post-intrauterine transplantation of ewe ovarium, the histological preparat was prepared by the paraffin methods followed by HE staining. The result showed ...

  14. An Abattoir Study of Thyroid Histopathology in Ewes and their Fetus in Ahvaz City of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourjamshid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid structural changes in pregnant ewes and their fetuses were investigated. Out of 100 pairs of thyroid glands collected from ewes and their fetuses at the local municipal abattoir in Ahvaz city of Khuzestan province, multiple lesions were seen in 59% and 21% of the thyroid glands of ewes and fetuses, respectively. Histologically, ninety nine lesions in the ewes and twenty two lesions in the fetuses’ thyroid glands were noticed.

  15. Congenital extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma of chest wall--a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atla, Bhagyalakshmi; Prasad, B Satya Vara; Sri, K Satya; Vandana, Geeta

    2011-01-01

    Congenital extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma or peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is an extremely uncommon and invariably fatal tumor. We report a case of extraskeletal congenital Ewing's sarcoma in a female fetus delivered at 34 weeks of gestation who died immediately after birth. In English literature, majority of cases of Ewing's sarcoma in neonates reported were skeletal. To the best of our knowledge, very few cases of extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma in neonates are reported in the literature.

  16. Like or Dislike? Impact of Facebook on Ewing Sarcoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckenstuhl, Paul; Schippinger, Michael; Liebmann, Paul; Leithner, Andreas; Bernhardt, Gerwin

    2016-08-25

    An increasing number of patients are raising their voices in online forums to exchange health-related information. Facebook is the leading social media platform with more than 1 billion international daily users recorded in the summer of 2015. Facebook has a dynamic audience and is utilized in a number of ways, discussing medical issues being one of them. Ewing sarcoma mainly affects teenagers and young adults. Additionally, many individuals within this age group are regular users of Facebook. However, little is known about the impact of this modern way of communication via Web-based platforms on patients with Ewing sarcoma and their social environment. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare Ewing sarcoma patients' and relatives' behavior on Facebook to draw conclusions regarding the impact of Facebook on Ewing sarcoma treatment. We examined a Facebook group named "Ewing Sarcoma Awareness" that is used to exchange information for both patients and relatives regarding Ewing sarcoma. A self-designed questionnaire was used to compare patients' and relatives' answers. Additionally, we analyzed all processes (posts, likes, threads, links) in the group for 6 consecutive months. A total of 65 members of the Facebook group (26 patients, 39 relatives) out of 2227 international group members participated in our study. More than 70% (46/65) of all participants reported that they use the group Ewing Sarcoma Awareness as a source of information about Ewing sarcoma. Of the participants, 89% (58/65) agreed on our scale from a little to a lot that being in contact with other affected people through the group makes it easier to handle the diagnosis. In this study, 20% (13/65) of all participants reported that the group affected their choice of treatment and 15% (10/65) of participants were influenced in the selection of their specialist. Regarding the recommendation of the Facebook group toward other people, significant differences (P=.003) were found comparing patients

  17. Effect of Super-OV hormone on multiple births in Kurdish ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induction of super-ovulation in ewes requiring the production of multiple ova at a single estrus was used to determine if the commercial follicle-stimulating hormone (Super-OV, Canada) is effective in increasing multiple births in ewes. Thirty-two (32) Kurdish ewes were used for the study during a period of 12 months.

  18. Sarcome d'ewing du rocher | Kaffel | Journal Tunisien d'ORL et de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction : Primary cranial Ewing's sarcoma is rare. This tumor was first described in 1921, since then, only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Aim: the aim of this study is to report the clinical and therapeutic aspects of primary cranial Ewing's sarcoma. Method: We report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the ...

  19. The role of imaging in the evaluation of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary bone tumours account for 5% of all adolescent and child cancers. When Ewing's sarcoma arises in soft tissue rather than bone, it is referred to as extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (ESS). Computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Ewing's sarcoma are non-specific, and a ...

  20. Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma. Therapie des Ewing-Sarkoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J. (Strahlentherapeutische Klinik und Poliklinik, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)); Sauer, R. (Strahlentherapeutische Klinik und Poliklinik, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma requires a qualified clinical, radiological, and pathohistological diagnosis and, in particular, an optimal therapy by an experienced team of oncological specialists. Important prognostic factors are the presence of hematogenous metastases at diagnosis, the initial tumor volume, the response to chemotherapy, and adequate local therapy. Presently, cure rates of more than 60% can be achieved for localized Ewing's sarcoma by combination of local therapy and chemotherapy. The four-drug combination VACA (vincristin, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin) can be considered as cytostatic gold standard. More aggressive regimens (VAIA, EVAIA, autologous bone marrow transplant) may be beneficial in subgroups and are under investigation. Concerning local therapy adequate radiotherapy plays a major role and achieves the same survival rates as radical surgery, comparable patient selection provided. Several factors have impact on radiotherapeutic results, especially total dose (45 Gy large volume, 55 Gy to the primary tumor), target volume (safety margin at least 2 cm according to the pretreatment volume, at least 5 cm in proximal and distal extension of long bones), timing of radiotherapy (as early as possible) and quality of treatment. Radiotherapy as sole local treatment is indicated in inoperable lesions (spine, sacrum, skull) and in small, good-responding tumors. High-risk patients should receive combined radiotherapeutic-surgical treatment, preferably as pre-operative irradiation. The value of hyperfractionation is not yet proven despite theoretical advantages. (orig.)

  1. Opinions of Instructors about Reading Skills of Syrian Students Learning Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gün, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    The outbreak of domestic turmoil in Syria in 2011 forced Syrian people to seek refuge in the neighbouring countries, one of which was Turkey. This situation brought many problems, the primary of which was language. In this sense, teaching Turkish to Syrian students became a necessity. Therefore, conducting research on language skills was seriously…

  2. An Investigation of Forcibly Migrated Syrian Refugee Students at Turkish Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tösten, Rasim; Toprak, Mustafa; Kayan, M. Selman

    2017-01-01

    This study is a descriptive phenomenological research that aims to reveal Syrian refugee children' experiences within formal public schools in Turkey. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews from 28 teachers who teach these refugee Syrian students. Results show that the students are under the effect of post-traumatic stress…

  3. Psychological Security and Self-Efficacy among Syrian Refugee Students inside and outside the Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALharbi, Bassam H. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the degree of psychological security and self-efficacy among the Syrian refugee students inside and outside the camps. The sample consisted of 600 students from Syrian refugees inside and outside the camps in the second semester of the academic year 2014-2015. Scales for psychological security and self-efficacy…

  4. One Common Future, Two Education Systems: The Case of Syrian Children of Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Y. Yesim; Komsuoglu, Aysegul; Atesok, Z. Ozde

    2017-01-01

    The unexpected and vast Syrian refugee crisis with an ever-growing number of young Syrians appears to be one of the greatest challenges for the Turkish education system. While low enrollment rates are alarming, the dual system that emerged in the urban settings creates a main challenge to a comprehensive and supportive education system and…

  5. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Utilization by Syrian Refugees Residing in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıner, Ali Osman; Yeşil, Sıdıka Tekeli

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Many Syrians have left their country and migrated to other countries since March 2011, due to the civil war. As of March 2016, a total of 2,747,946 Syrian refugees had immigrated to Turkey. Some Syrian refugees have been living in camps, while 2,475,134 have been living in metropolitan areas, such as Ankara. Study Objective This study investigated Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization among Syrian refugees residing in Ankara. This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional database analysis using data obtained from the Department of EMS of the Ankara Provincial Health Directorate. Five stations in the Altındağ region of Ankara responded to 42% of all calls from Syrian refugees. Prehospital EMS in Ankara have been used mostly by Syrian refugees younger than 18-years-old. Study findings also suggest that medical staff in regions where Syrian refugees are likely to be treated should be supported and provided with the ability to overcome language barriers and cultural differences. Altıner AO , Tekeli Yeşil S . Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization by Syrian refugees residing in Ankara, Turkey. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):160-164.

  6. Psychological Impact of Life as Refugees: A Pilot Study on a Syrian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological Impact of Life as Refugees: A Pilot Study on a Syrian Camp in Jordan. Basheti IA ... Keywords: Syrian refugees, Jordan camps, Alzatary Camp, Psychological disorders, Mental health. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical ..... war and possible torture, talking and sharing stories is not expected to happen on the.

  7. War, memories and Little Waterfall; a Syrian village that is no more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Waterfall, field-visits to present-day Syria and previous fieldwork, the author revisits displaced people of the village, the memory of Little Waterfall and reflects on how memories of the Syrian inhabitants are shaped by their nostalgia of the village. The paper describes life-histories of these Syrian...

  8. Psychological Impact of Life as Refugees: A Pilot Study on a Syrian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate types and prevalence of psychological distresses endured by Syrian refugees at Alzatary Camp in Jordan. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a period of 2 months (November and December, 2012) at Alzatary Camp for Syrian refugees in Jordan. A validated questionnaire was ...

  9. A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF SYRIAN ARABIC (BASED ON THE DIALECT OF DAMASCUS). ARABIC SERIES, NUMBER SEVEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COWELL, MARK W.

    ARABIC, AS IT IS USED IN EVERYDAY CONVERSATION BY EDUCATED CITY-DWELLING SYRIANS, AND MOST PARTICULARLY BY NATIVES OF DAMASCUS, IS DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK. THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR IS INTENDED, FIRST OF ALL, FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE ALREADY ACQUIRED, OR ARE IN THE PROCESS OF ACQUIRING, AN ELEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE OF SYRIAN ARABIC, AND WHO WISH TO ENHANCE…

  10. Developing a comprehensive and sustainable integration strategy for Syrian refugee children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    A 2013 United Nations Refugee Agency report entitled The Future of Syria stated that two million Syrian children have been forced into exile as a result of the persistent civil war: “The world must act to save a generation of traumatized, isolated and suffering Syrian children from catastrophe. I...

  11. Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian Uprising screening in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... An event featuring excerpts from the IDRC-supported documentary Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian Uprising is being co-hosted by the permanent missions of Canada and the EU to the United Nations and the National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces, on September 7, 2017, ...

  12. Visceral caseous lymphadenitis in thin ewe syndrome: isolation of Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, and Moraxella spp from internal abscesses in emaciated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, H W; Graff, V P; Gates, N L

    1979-08-01

    The relationship between the visceral form of caseous lymphadenitis and a chronic debilitating condition of mature sheep designated as the thin ewe syndrome was investigated. Internal abscesses were found during necropsy in 81% of animals with thin ewe syndrome and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C ovis) was recovered from 86% of the animals with internal abscesses. Other pyogenic bacteria, including C pyogenes, C equi, Staphylococcus epidermis, S aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were often recovered in association with C pseudotuberculosis. Moraxella sp was recovered in 41% of the animals with internal abscesses. In some abscesses, Moraxella sp was the dominant microorganism isolated and in others, they were outnumbered only by C pseudotuberculosis. Species isolated included M bovis, M osloensis, and M nonliquefaciens. The potential importance of Moraxella sp to the cause and pathogenesis of the thin ewe syndrome is not known. The results of the present study indicate that visceral caseous lymphadenitis is either an important contributing factor to the development of thin ewe syndrome or that the presence of thin ewe syndrome may predispose affected sheep to the development of visceral caseous lymphadenitis. A skin test reagent prepared by sonicating C pseudotuberculosis was of limited value in detecting animals with visceral caseous lymphadenitis. Only 56% of the animals with abscesses caused by C pseudotuberculosis gave positive delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses.

  13. Primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma presenting as a chest wall lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie Hua; Abeysinghe, Vindya; Ryan, Anne Louise; Sieunarine, Kishore

    2017-09-27

    A 10-year-old boy presents with a rare case of primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma. The left-sided chest wall lesion was initially thought to be a benign haemangioma and treated with cryotherapy. Within 4 months, the lesion returned and post excision was found to be primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma on histology. Few cases of primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma exist in the literature, and although it is a rare differential for paediatric skin lesions, it is an important consideration due to the associated mortality risk in this young cohort. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Birth characteristics of Syrian refugees and Turkish citizens in Turkey in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Yildirim Topak, Nevruz; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Karakulak Gomleksiz, Mehtap; Ustunyurt, Emin; Ulku Turker, Ayse

    2017-04-01

    To compare the birth characteristics of Syrian refugees with those of Turkish citizens. In a retrospective study, data were obtained for singleton live births that occurred at a hospital in Bursa, Turkey, between June 1 and December 31, 2015. All Syrian refugees were eligible for inclusion; one Turkish citizen was included for each refugee. Overall, 545 Syrian refugees and 545 Turkish citizens were included. Cesarean delivery was undertaken for 176 (32.3%) Syrians and 235 (43.1%) Turks (PSyrian refugees (3110 g, range 540-4790; PSyrian refugees (PSyrians (P=0.014). Cesarean delivery is more common among pregnant Turkish citizens than among Syrian refugees. Other notable differences between the groups were recorded. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Neonatal outcomes of Syrian refugees delivered in a tertiary hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüktiryaki, Mehmet; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Alyamaç Dizdar, Evrim; Okur, Nilüfer; Kadıoğlu Şimşek, Gülsüm

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all Syrian immigrants from the TurkishSyrian border who delivered the Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity and Teaching Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Ankara, Turkey. Between January 2013 and December 2014 a total of 36,346 women gave birth at this center. Of these, 457 women were Syrian immigrants, comprising 1.2 % (457/36,346) of all deliveries. The number of births among Syrian refugees in Turkey appears to be increasing. Further research is needed to understand the relative morbidity of babies born to Syrian refugees compared to the local population, as well as the economic impact on facilities treating these cases.

  16. Adversarial Framing: President Bashar al-Assad’s Depiction of the Armed Syrian Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper evaluates how Syrian president Bashar al-Assad is framing his opponents in the context of the Syrian civil war. The question is addressed by conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of 13 interviews he gave to international television news networks and newspapers between March and November 2013. It is found that Al-Assad consequently labels the armed opposition as “terrorists” preponderantly composed of groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda. The “terrorists” are framed as posing a threat to the region as well as to international security on a global scale. Furthermore, Al-Assad denies the armed opposition its Syrian grassroots by portraying them as outside aggressors fighting for foreign interests. They are also depicted as “enemies of the Syrian people”, responsible for all the atrocities and human suffering committed during the Syrian civil war.' ' '

  17. Syrian Refugee Women's Health in Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan and Recommendations for Improved Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2017-06-01

    Since 2011, an estimated nine million Syrian refugees have fled to neighboring countries, and over four million have fled to neighboring countries of Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan. Seventy five percent of Syrian refugees are women and children. In times of conflict, women's health disproportionately suffers. Based on an assessment of academic literature and international policy and development reports, this study explores the vulnerabilities of Syrian women and girls in Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan, and how these countries approach Syrian refugee women's health care. In all settings, sexual and gender-based violence, reduced use of modern contraceptives, menstrual irregularity, unplanned pregnancies, preterm birth, and infant morbidity are ongoing issues. Recommendations for improved practice include taking a multilevel approach to eliminate social and service delivery barriers that prevent access to care, conducting thorough needs assessments, and creating policy and programmatic solutions that establish long term care for Syrian refugee women.

  18. Clinical mastitis in ewes; bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvitle Bjørg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. Methods The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway. Clinical examination and collection of udder secretions were carried out by veterinarians. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was performed on 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 64 ewes. Results and conclusion S. aureus was recovered from 65.3% of 547 clinically affected mammary glands, coagulase-negative staphylococci from 2.9%, enterobacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, from 7.3%, Streptococcus spp. from 4.6%, Mannheimia haemolytica from 1.8% and various other bacteria from 4.9%, while no bacteria were cultured from 13.2% of the samples. Forty percent of the ewes with unilateral clinical S. aureus mastitis also had a subclinical S. aureus infection in the other mammary gland. Twenty-four of 28 (86% pairs of S. aureus isolates obtained from clinically and subclinically affected mammary glands of the same ewe were indistinguishable by PFGE. The number of identical pairs was significantly greater than expected, based on the distribution of different S. aureus types within the flocks. One-third of the cases occurred during the first week after lambing, while a second peak was observed in the third week of lactation. Gangrene was present in 8.8% of the clinically affected glands; S. aureus was recovered from 72.9%, Clostridium perfringens from 6.3% and E. coli from 6.3% of the secretions from such glands. This study shows that S. aureus predominates as a cause of clinical ovine mastitis in Norway, also in very severe cases. Results also indicate that S. aureus is frequently spread between udder halves of infected ewes.

  19. Efficacy of ATR inhibitors as single agents in Ewing sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto-Soler, Maria; Morgado-Palacin, Isabel; Lafarga, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are pediatric bone tumors that arise from a driver translocation, most frequently EWS/FLI1. Current ES treatment involves DNA damaging agents, yet the basis for the sensitivity to these therapies remains unknown. Oncogene-induced replication stress (RS) is a known source...... efficacy in ES xenografts as single agents. Expression of EWS/FLI1 or EWS/ERG oncogenic translocations sensitizes non-ES cells to ATR inhibitors. Our data shed light onto the sensitivity of ES to genotoxic agents, and identify ATR inhibitors as a potential therapy for Ewing Sarcomas....

  20. A preliminary study of the effects of organic farming on oocyte quality in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casao, A; María, G A; Abecia, J A

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether feeding Rasa Aragonesa ewes certified organic feed, from 15 days before mating until lamb weaning, improved oocyte quality and in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) performances of the offspring. In a second experiment, ovaries from ewe lambs that were bred on an organic farm and were of the same breed were compared with those from conventionally bred animals. The number (± standard error of the mean) of healthy oocytes per ewe lamb did not differ significantly between organic (12.2 ± 3.3) and conventionally (13.6 ± 4.0) fed ewes. Ovaries from ewe lambs born on an organic farm had significantly (P ewe lamb (39.6 ± 5.2) than did those born on a conventional farm (25.0 ± 4.2), and higher IVM (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P ewe lambs, although organic feeding alone was insufficient to improve quality.

  1. Effect of post-mating GnRH analogue (buserelin) treatment on PGF2alpha release in ewes and ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T H; Beck, N F G; Mann, G E; Khalid, M

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of buserelin or saline treatment on ovarian function (Experiment 1), plasma PGFM concentrations and oxytocin stimulated prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) release (Experiment 2) in ewe lambs and ewes. Welsh Halfbred ewes (n=26) and ewe lambs (n=24) were mated to vasectomised rams at synchronised oestrus and on Day 12 post-mating each animal was injected intramuscularly either normal saline or 4 microg buserelin. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone and oestradiol concentrations were determined in samples collected by jugular venepuncture 1h before and at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment (n=7 per treatment group). Progesterone concentrations increased (Pewes than in ewe lambs but oestradiol levels were similar for both age groups. Ovulation rate, determined by laparoscopy on Day 14, was similar for both age groups (ewes 1.1; ewe lambs 1.0). Buserelin treatment induced accessory corpora lutea in ewes (4/7; 57%) but not in ewe lambs (0/7; 0%). In the Experiment 2, plasma PGFM concentrations were determined in samples collected at 20-min intervals for 6h on Day 14 and at 20-min intervals for 1h before and at 10-min intervals for 1h and then at 20-min intervals for a further 3h period after an intravenous injection of oxytocin (1IU/kg body weight) on Day 15 post-oestrus. In this experiment there were five ewe lambs and six ewes per treatment group. There was no effect of buserelin treatment or age on basal PGFM concentrations on either Day 14 or 15. Although peak PGFM concentrations tended to be lower in buserelin-treated animals, the difference was not significant (P>0.05). However, peak duration following oxytocin challenge on Day 15 post-mating was shorter (Pewes compared with control ewe lambs. In conclusion, buserelin treatment given on Day 12 post-oestrus enhances luteal function more in ewes than ewe lambs and after a transitory increase, reduces oestradiol concentrations in both ewes and

  2. Measures of lamb production efficiency in a temperate grass-based system differing in ewe prolificacy potential and stocking rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, E; Boland, T M; McHugh, N; Creighton, P

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of ewe prolificacy potential (PP; predicted number of lambs born ewe yr), as dictated by sire breed type, and stocking rate (SR; ewes ha) on ewe production efficiency (kg lamb live weight weaned:kg ewe live weight mated), lamb growth, lamb carcass output, and dry matter (DM; kg) and energy (UFL; unit of energy kg DM) consumption (in the form of both grazed and conserved herbage, concentrate supplementation, and total) in a temperate grass-based lamb production system. The study was a 2 × 3 factorial design, consisting of 2 differing ewe prolificacy potentials (medium prolificacy [MP]-Suffolk-sired crossbred ewes and high prolificacy [HP]-Belclare-sired crossbred ewes) and 3 stocking rates: low (LSR; 10 ewes ha), medium (MSR; 12 ewes ha), and high (HSR: 14 ewes ha). Each treatment was managed in a 5-paddock rotational system for the duration of the study. The HP treatment weaned more lambs ewe and ha ( ewes had a 4% higher production efficiency ( ewes. Ewe prolificacy potential had no effect on the total quantity of DM and UFL consumed ewe and lamb unit ( > 0.05). Increasing stocking rate increased the number of lambs weaned ha ( ewe and lamb unit and kg of lamb carcass produced ha increased as stocking rate increased ( ewes to be more efficient in the production of lamb. Increasing stocking rate provides the opportunity to increase lamb carcass output ha; however, achieving this increase in output required additional DM and UFL ewe and lamb unit above 12 ewes ha.

  3. Norm waste in oil and gas industry: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Syrian experience in respect to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) waste in Syrian oil and gas industry. NORM can be concentrated and accumulated in tubing and surface equipment of oil and gas production lines in the form of scale and sludge. NORM waste (scale, sludge, production water) is therefore generated during cleaning, physical or chemical treatment of streams. Uncontrolled disposal of this type of waste could lead to environmental pollution, and thus eventually to exposure of members of the public. The presence of NORM in Syrian oil fields has been recognized since 1987 and AECS has initiated several studies, in cooperation with oil companies, to manage such type of waste. Three categories of NORM waste in Syrian oil fields were identified. Firstly, hard scales from either decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubular using high-pressure water systems or mechanical cleaning at site are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra). Secondly, sludge wastes are generated with large amount but low levels of radium isotopes were found. Thirdly, contaminated soil with 226 Ra as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The first waste type (scale) is stored in Standard storage barrels in a controlled area; the number of barrels is increasing with time. High levels of radium isotopes were found in these scales. The options for disposal of these wastes are still under investigations; one of the most predominant thinking is the re-injection into abundant wells. For sludge waste, plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. Moreover, big gas power stations have been built and operated since the last ten years. Maintenance operations for these stations produce tens of tones of scales containing radon daughters, 210 Pb and 210 Po with relatively high concentrations. The common practice used to dispose

  4. Sarcoma de Ewing en paciente masculino Ewing's sarcoma in a male patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Millán Escalona

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El sarcoma de Ewing es un tumor óseo maligno de células redondas pequeñas. Es el segundo tumor óseo maligno más frecuente en la infancia, y se puede presentar en cualquier momento durante la niñez y comienzos de la edad adulta. El tumor puede originarse en cualquier parte del cuerpo, generalmente en los huesos largos de las extremidades, la pelvis o el tórax, al igual que en el cráneo o en los huesos planos del tronco. Se trata de un paciente masculino, mestizo, de 38 años de edad, que acude a consulta externa en el hospital de Nickerie, Suriname, por presentar aumento de volumen en la región lateral derecha del abdomen. Refiere que ha presentado pérdida de peso, decaimiento marcado y anorexia. Estos síntomas se iniciaron 3 meses antes, y se han incrementado paulatina y progresivamente. Tiene también dificultad para deambular y dolor en la pierna derecha.The Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor of round cells. The second malignant bone tumor more frequent in childhood and may to appear in any moment during this life stage and at onset of adulthood. Tumor may to originate in any place of body, generally in limbs long bones, pelvis or thorax as well as in skull or in trunk flat bones. This case is a black male patient aged 38 seen in external consultation in the hospital of Nickerie, Surinam presenting with a volume increase in the right lateral region of abdomen. He refers a weight loss, a marked weakness and anorexia. These symptoms appeared three months before increasing in a gradual and progressively way. He has difficulty to walk and pain in the right leg.

  5. Natural radionuclides in Syrian diet and their daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mukallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Khalili, H.; Hassan, M.; Assaf, H.; Amin, Y.; Nashawati, A.

    2004-01-01

    More than one hundred different food stuffs (meat, vegetables cereals, seafood,..) have been collected during 1998, 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for radioactivity as part of the National Food Monitoring Program in Syria. Results have shown that most of the observed concentrations were within the range of the worldwide values with the exception of relatively high levels of 210 Po being observed in fish, vegetables, mushrooms, herbs and flowers. The daily intakes of the radionuclides studied have been evaluated. Relatively high values, in comparison with some countries, were found for 210 Po (1.9 Bq/day). This is due to high content of 210 Po in wheat (2.3 Bq/kg) consumed by Syrians, the daily consumption of wheat by Syrians is about 526 g. In addition, natural and artificial radionuclides in some manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates have been determined. Seventeen manufactured food and eleven types of canned milk were collected from the local market and their radioactivity analyzed. 210 Po activity concentration varied between 0.38 and 2.89 Bq/kg dry wt. in canned milk while the highest concentration in infant food was found to be 1.69 Bq/kg dry wt. Other radionuclide concentrations were below the limit of detection of 3 Bq/kg dry wt. and 4 Bq/kg dry wt. for 22' 6Ra and 228 Ra, respectively, while uranium concentration varied between 2.2 and 10.5 μg/kg dry wt. in milk samples and 0.78-6.0 μg/kg dry wt. in other food samples. (author)

  6. Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Fouad, Fouad M; Pherali, Tejendra

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to redistribute the key functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and its partners to generate more coherence and efficiency.

  7. Microbiological studies on genital infections in slaughtered ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... Abstract. An abattoir survey was undertaken to investigate genital bacterial infections of ewes in tropical arid zone of. Nigeria. Vaginal and uterine samples were collected and cultured using standard bacteriological techniques. The results of the study showed that the isolates were Escherichia coli (32%), ...

  8. Age trends in economically important traits of Merino ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were recorded for annual reproduction, wool traits and pre-joining live weight of between 992 (for staple strength) to approximately 1200 production records of Merino ewes over the period from 1997 to 2002. The resource population has been divergently selected from the same base since 1986, either for (H line) or ...

  9. Response of Primiparous Uda Ewe to Concentrate Supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Uda weighing between 34-39kg, and aged 2-3years were used for this study. They were fed with 2kg of concentrate supplement (per day) divided into two parts (morning and evening). The weight all the ewes were taken before the commencement of feed supplementation, and for 14 weeks after at 2 weeks interval.

  10. Ectopic pregnancy through a caesarean scar in a ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozos, C; Karagiannis, I; Kiossis, E; Giadinis, N D; Boscos, C

    2013-11-01

    A routine ultrasonographic examination for pregnancy diagnosis in a 3-year-old ewe revealed a normal embryo located in the uterine cavity and an abnormal mass located in the abdomen. At the time of examination, the ewe was 4.5 months pregnant, but 10 months previously she had undergone a caesarean section due to dystocia. The abnormal mass (12 cm × 8 cm) was located outside the uterine cavity; it was anechoic at the periphery, and in the centre there was an echogenic embryo-like structure. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, which revealed an ectopic pregnancy through the caesarean scar. The ectopic foetus was excised and the caesarean scar was repaired. The ewe made a complete recovery and the intrauterine pregnancy was completed to full-term, resulting in the birth of a healthy female lamb 35 days after the removal of the ectopic foetus. Ectopic pregnancies have previously been described in ewes. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first report of an ectopic pregnancy through a caesarean scar in sheep or any other farm animal species.

  11. (q24: q12) translocation is common in Ewing's sarcoma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-06-09

    Jun 9, 2005 ... was used to detect the hybridization of probe (Levy and. Herrington 1995). 2.5 Sequencing of PCR ... FLI 1 transcript; lane 9, absence of EWS-FLI 1 transcript. Figure 2. Sequence electropherogram of type 1 ... assay for detecting the fusion transcript and the types in. Ewing's sarcoma/PNET. The results ...

  12. Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Introduction. In the past, several experiments were conducted at the Langgewens Experimental Farm in the Swartland area of the Western Cape to evaluate different types of supplementary feed for producing ewes while grazing low quality crop residues during the dry summer and early autumn months (Brand, et al, 2000).

  13. Copper and selenium supplementation of ewes gnazing on pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    camps which were grazed on a rotational basis. Before ewes were put into a camp, hand-picked pasture samples were collected from 10 different spots in the camp, dried, pooled and stored for the determination of trace minerals. .... nutrition of sheep in Victoria. Aust. Vet. J. 56, 160". DAVIES, H.L., 1966. The efffect of ...

  14. Localisation inhabituelle du sarcome d'Ewing des parties molles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ewing's sarcoma of soft parts is a rare mesenchymal tumor of poor prognosis. Receiving an early diagnosis increases the chance of survival. In the absence of clinical and radiological features, it seems necessary to include it in the differential diagnosis which includes all the primitive tumour of soft parts and to hypothesize ...

  15. Recurrence of Ewing Sarcomas of the Chest Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meys, Karlijn M. E.; Heinen, Richard C.; van den Berg, Henk; Aronson, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcomas (ES) of the chest wall are rare. Local recurrences occur in approximately 20% of these patients; however literature on this topic is scarce. Our aim was to analyze the influence of the extent of surgical resection on outcome, and to find positive prognostic factors for

  16. Factors affecting reproduction in Merino ewes of the Tygerhoek flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis across age groups, this model included lambing years, selection groups, ewe age and birth type as ... The second model corresponded to the fIrst in all the ana- lyses, but excluded the two-factor interactions, and included .... McCall & Hight (1981) reported a dam age effect on the hogget reproduction of Romneys, ...

  17. Microsatellites with Macro-Influence in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Lessnick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous molecular abnormalities contribute to the genetic derangements involved in tumorigenesis. Chromosomal translocations are a frequent source of these derangements, producing unique fusion proteins with novel oncogenic properties. EWS/ETS fusions in Ewing sarcoma are a prime example of this, resulting in potent chimeric oncoproteins with novel biological properties and a unique transcriptional signature essential for oncogenesis. Recent evidence demonstrates that EWS/FLI, the most common EWS/ETS fusion in Ewing sarcoma, upregulates gene expression using a GGAA microsatellite response element dispersed throughout the human genome. These GGAA microsatellites function as enhancer elements, are sites of epigenetic regulation and are necessary for EWS/FLI DNA binding and upregulation of principal oncogenic targets. An increasing number of GGAA motifs appear to substantially enhance EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression, which has compelling biological implications as these GGAA microsatellites are highly polymorphic within and between ethnically distinct populations. Historically regarded as junk DNA, this emerging evidence clearly demonstrates that microsatellite DNA plays an instrumental role in EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional regulation and oncogenesis in Ewing sarcoma. This unprecedented role of GGAA microsatellite DNA in Ewing sarcoma provides a unique opportunity to expand our mechanistic understanding of how EWS/ETS fusions influence cancer susceptibility, prognosis and transcriptional regulation.

  18. Haematological evaluation of pregnant ewes fed broiler - litter based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out for 10 weeks to assess changes in some haematological indices with advancing pregnancy in ewes fed Broiler Litter (BL) based rations. Blood samples were collected at each trimester of pregnancy and analyzed for Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC) counts ...

  19. Supplementation of lactating Dorper and Merino ewes on Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-04-14

    Apr 14, 1988 ... thesis submitted by HOdeW to the Department of Animal Science,. University of ... markedly by combined supplementation of energy plus CPo Irrespective of treatment, Dorper ewes lost 100% more body mass ... The superior animal performance on veld during the spring / summer, in comparison to the.

  20. William J. Jenkins Receives 2010 Maurice Ewing Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Scott C.; Kurz, Mark; Jenkins, William J.

    2011-02-01

    William J. Jenkins was awarded the 2010 Maurice Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 15 December 2010 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to the marine sciences.”

  1. Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed while grazing wheat stubble. T.S. Brand, B. Aucamp, A. Durand. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science: 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 17-18). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  2. Performance of autumn lambing ewes and lambs on irrigated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Performance of autumn lambing ewes and lambs on irrigated and dryland winter pastures. A. D. Lyle1, J. F. de Villiers2 and T. J. Dugmore2. 1Kokstad Research Station, Private Bag X501, Kokstad 4700. 2KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs. P Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200. Introduction.

  3. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth rate. The ewes receiving supplement succeeded in main- taining a higher (P < 0,05) average live mass during lactation than the unsupplemented control group. ... minerale en 'n ionofoor verryk, en vir 90 dae teen 500 g per ooi per dag aan SA ... Keywords: Enriched small grains, lamb growth, stubble grazing,.

  4. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lambs reared by ewes supplemented with enriched oats and triticale were heavier (P ≤ 0,05) at weaning, with faster (P ≤ 0,05) growth rates than control group lambs ... minerale en 'n ionofoor verryk, en vir 90 dae teen 500 g per ooi per dag aan SA Vleismerino-ooie tydens laatdragtigheid en laktasie as aanvulling gevoer.

  5. Supplementation of lactating Dorper and Merino ewes on Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of energy and crude protein (CP) supplementation on feed intake of lactating ewes grazing native .... Supplementary feeding can increase the nutrient intake of grazing animals (McClymont,. 1956) and correct deficiencies of pastures for animal production ...... The influence of fish meal and yellow maize on.

  6. THE RELEASE OF LUTEINIZINC HORMONE {LH) IN EWES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE RELEASE OF LUTEINIZINC HORMONE {LH) IN EWES DEPRIVED OF. PROLACTIN DURING .... Moseley & McNeilly,1972) and cows (Karg & Schams. Tyson, Friesen & Anderson (1972) are of the opinion. 1974). Evidence obtained by Pelletier & Thimonier that prolactin released in response to suckling in humans.

  7. Ewing Sarcoma: Current Management and Future Approaches Through Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Dirksen, Uta; Lewis, Ian J.; Ferrari, Stefano; Le Deley, Marie-Cecile; Kovar, Heinrich; Grimer, Robert; Whelan, Jeremy; Claude, Line; Delattre, Olivier; Paulussen, Michael; Picci, Piero; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; van den Berg, Hendrik; Ladenstein, Ruth; Michon, Jean; Hjorth, Lars; Judson, Ian; Luksch, Roberto; Bernstein, Mark L.; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Brennan, Bernadette; Craft, Alan W.; Womer, Richard B.; Juergens, Heribert; Oberlin, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive sarcoma of bone and soft tissue occurring at any age with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The treatment of ES relies on a multidisciplinary approach, coupling risk-adapted intensive neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies with surgery and/or

  8. Recurrence of Ewing sarcomas of the chest wall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meys, K.M.; Heinen, R.C.; Berg, H. van de; Aronson, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcomas (ES) of the chest wall are rare. Local recurrences occur in approximately 20% of these patients; however literature on this topic is scarce. Our aim was to analyze the influence of the extent of surgical resection on outcome, and to find positive prognostic factors for

  9. Emergency department visits of Syrian refugees and the cost of their healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur; Polat, Haci

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of Emergency Department (ED) visits made by Syrian refugees and to assess the cost of their healthcare. This retrospective study was conducted in adult Syrians who visited the ED of Adiyaman University Training and Research Hospital, Adiyaman Province, Turkey, between 01 January and 31 December 2015. We evaluated 10,529 Syrian refugees who visited the ED, of whom 9,842 were included in the study. The number of ED visits significantly increased in 2015 compared with 2010; the increase in the proportion of total ED visits was 8% (n = 11,275, dif: 8%, CI 95%: 7.9- 8.2, p refugees and the remaining 1.5% accounted for the visits made by other individuals. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) were the diseases most frequently presented (n = 4,656; 47.3%), and 68.5% of ED visits were inappropriate (n = 6,749). The median ED length of stay (LOS) of the Syrian refugees was significantly longer than that of the other individuals visiting the ED (p Syrian refugees who visited the ED was calculated as US$ 773,374.63. This study showed that Syrian refugees have increased the proportion of ED visits and the financial healthcare burden. The majority of ED visits made by Syrian refugees were inappropriate. In addition, their ED LOS was longer than that of other individuals making ED visits.

  10. The Perspective of Trabzon Public on the Syrians in the Scope of Temporary Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine GÖZÜBÜYÜK TAMER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the crisis environment that started in Syria in March 2011 and the conflicts that have been going on until today, millions of Syrians have had to leave their countries in order to provide life and property security and to find better life opportunities. They have migrated towards foremost Turkey, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan and European Union (EU countries. This movement of the Syrians towards other countries deeply affects many countries. Due to the fact that Turkey is a neighboring country, it is one of the countries most affected by this process. Besides its geographical proximity, the presence of religious, historical and cultural ties has also been instrumental in making this effect more noticeable. The aim of this study is to determine the issues about Syrians who fled from the ongoing civil war in Syria and took refuge in Turkey from the point of view of the public in Trabzon. For this purpose, firstly, Trabzon public opinion has been established on the basis of acceptance of the Syrians within the temporary protection to Turkey and the perspective on how to manage and what to do about the policies envisaged for the Syrians. Then the predictions about the permanence of the Syrians in Turkey were put forward and the view of the people of Trabzon on the long term was evaluated. However, in the case of Trabzon, it was tried to reveal the thoughts and expectatitions of the Syrian people under temporary protection of the Turkish society.

  11. Early Marriage and Barriers to Contraception among Syrian Refugee Women in Lebanon: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-07-25

    The Syrian conflict has displaced five million individuals outside their country with Lebanon hosting the largest numbers per capita. Around 24% of Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are women of reproductive age (15-49). Yet, a better understanding of the sexual and reproductive health needs of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon is required to improve provided services. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in four regions of Lebanon with 108 Syrian refugee women of reproductive age. Thematic analysis was used to examine the data. Interviewed women were mainly adults. They believed that, in Lebanon, they were subjected to early marriage compared to the norm in Syria due to their financial situation and uncertainty. Cost was reported as the main barrier to use contraception in Lebanon but some Syrian refugee women were not aware of free services covering sexual and reproductive health. In general, marriage, pregnancy, and family planning behavior of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon slightly differed from those in Syria pre-conflict in terms of age of marriage, conception subsequent to marriage, and contraception method. Hence, interventions to increase awareness of subsidized sexual and reproductive health services, including free contraceptives at primary health care centers, and those targeting protection from early marriage of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon are strongly recommended.

  12. A Comparison of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Syrian and Turkish Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Enver; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Sürücü, Hacer Altun; Ardic, Nurittin; Doni, Nebiye; Aksoy, Mustafa; Yesilova, Abdullah; Oghumu, Steve; Varikuti, Sanjay; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a significant public health problem with increasing incidence, especially in extreme circumstances. In this study, we compared the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 685 Syrian CL patients afflicted by the Syrian conflict and 685 Turkish CL patients in 2012. Patient age, gender, duration of disease, lesion size, type, and localization were evaluated. The duration of CL disease in Syrian CL patients (4.5 ± 4.3 weeks) was shorter than that of Turkish CL patients (11.9 ± 9.7 weeks). The number of lesions was greater in Syrian patients (2.46 ± 2.43) than in Turkish patients (1.93 ± 1.47). Lesion sizes were comparable between both groups (Syrian, 11.2 ± 8.7 mm; Turkish, 10.7 ± 7.7 mm). In Syrian CL patients, nodular type lesions were the most common (325 patients, 49.1%), whereas, in Turkish CL patients, ulcer type lesions were the most common (352 patients, 51.5%). Our results indicate variations in the clinicoepidemiological features of CL between Turkish and Syrian patients within Sanliurfa province. This highlights the impact of social unrest and environmental conditions on the epidemiology of CL within this region. Approaches to prevention, control, and treatment of CL in these areas should take into consideration the emerging changes in clinicoepidemiological parameters of the disease. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Identification of Genetic on Blood Serum Protein of Prolific Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiyono; Ondho, Y. S.; Setiatin, E. T.; Sutopo; Laily, A. N.; Prasetyowati, D. E.; Noviani, F.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to identify the genetic specification of blood plasma protein in ewes that are prolific. The material of study of local sheep in Bawen and Jambu Sub-district of Semarang Regency is 132 which is determined by purposive sampling that have been give lambing three times. Ewes were divided into three groups that always has a single child (L1), ever had twins (L2) and twins more than two (LM2). Blood sampling was performed using dispossible syringe in jugular vein as much as 5 ml per ewe. Blood plasma was analyzed by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis-Thin Layer (PAGETLE) method in Biochemistry Laboratory of Veterinary Faculty of Gadjah Mada University. Data analysis is using descriptive statistics and the laws of equilibrium Hardy-Weberg. The research parameters were comparison type of ewes and frequency genetic of protein of blood serum. The results showed that the parent comparisons of L1, L2 and LM2 were 66 (50.00%), 49 (37.12%) and 17 (12.88%), respectively. The frequency genes haven a high propensity to relationship of prolificacy nature parent are Pal2, AlbB, CPF, TFB, PTFS and AmlB on pointes, 67.65, 55.88, 91.17, 70.59, 79.41 and 91.18%. Conclusion the mostly LM2 ewes have genotypes Pal1Pal2, AlbBAlbC, CpFCpF, TfATfB, PtfSPtfS and AmlBAmlB whit frequency are 52.94%, 52.94%, 88.24, 47.06, 64.71 and 88.24% respectively.

  14. Hemithorax irradiation for Ewing tumors of the chest wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, Andreas; Ahrens, Susanne; Konarzewska, Agnieszka; Paulussen, Michael; Froehlich, Birgit; Koenemann, Stefan; Ruebe, Christian; Ruebe, Claudia E.; Dunst, Juergen; Willich, Normann; Juergens, Heribert

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In the Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study 86 and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study 92, hemithorax irradiation (RT) was performed in patients with Ewing tumors of the chest wall involving the pleura or contaminating the pleural cavity. In a retrospective analysis, the outcomes of these patients were evaluated and compared with those of patients with chest wall tumors who did not receive hemithorax RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1996, 138 patients presented with nonmetastatic Ewing tumors of the chest wall. They were treated in a multimodal treatment regimen that included polychemotherapy and local therapy depending on the tumor characteristics. Hemithorax RT was performed at a dose of 15 Gy for patients <14 years old and 20 Gy for patients ≥14 years old. Forty-two patients received hemithorax RT (Group 1) and 86 patients did not (Group 2). The data were insufficient for the other 10 patients. Results: Comparing both groups, the initial pleural effusion, pleural infiltration, and intraoperative contamination of the pleural space were significantly more frequent in Group 1. The event-free survival rate after 7 years was 63% for patients in Group 1 and 46% for patients in Group 2 (not statistically significant). The 7-year local relapse rate (including combined local-systemic relapses) was 12% in Group 1 and 10% in Group 2; the corresponding systemic relapse rates were 22% and 39%. Conclusion: Patients with chest wall tumors who received hemithorax RT were negatively selected; yet the rate of event-free survival was better for patients who received hemithorax RT than for those who did not (although the difference was not statistically significant). This result was due to a reduction of metastases, mainly lung metastases. Local control was equivalent between the two groups. These favorable results have caused us to continue using hemithorax RT to treat high-risk patients with Ewing tumors of the chest wall

  15. Histomorphological changes in follicular apparatus of ewe ovaries following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.; Stanikova, A.

    1985-01-01

    Histological changes in primary follicles of ewes after a five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays were studied by qualitative and micrometric methods. The experiment was carried out in the anoestrous period with 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, divided into three groups. The first control group (five ewes) was not irradiated. The second and third groups (each included eight ewes) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays for a period of five days to the total dose of 4.8 Gy. All ewes including the control ones were given Ampicillin Spofa 250 mg per head/day during the period of ten days after irradiation. The third group was administered apart from this a mixture of vitamins, Roboran H, at the dose of 10 g per head/day. The animals were slaughtered on the fifth day of irradiation and on the tenth day after the end of irradiation. The ovaries processed by a routine histological method were cut in 7 μm slices in a series of 70 μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosine. By qualitative histomorphological analysis of the oocytes of primary follicles, chromatin aggregation, pycnosis of nuclei, pronounced acidophilia of oocyte cytoplasm, their shrinking and disintegration were determined. In intact primary follicles, mitotic division of follicular cells stopped and the proportion of follicular cells with pycnotic nuclei increased after irradiation. The results show that the five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays to the total dose of 4.8 Gy caused pronounced degenerative changes in the anoestrous period. Administration of antibiotics or vitamins had no significant effect on the stated histomorphological changes. (author)

  16. Endotoxin-induced inflammation disturbs melatonin secretion in ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Przemysław Herman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study examined the effect of intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin—lipopolysaccharide (LPS —on the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and on the expression of enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewes, taking into account two different photoperiodic conditions: short-night (SN; n = 12 and long-night (LN; n = 12. Methods In both experiments, animals (n = 12 were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 6 and LPS-treated (n = 6 one. Two hours after sunset, animals received an injection of LPS or saline. Blood samples were collected starting one hour after sunset and continuing for 3 hours after the treatment. The ewes were euthanized 3 hours after LPS/saline treatment. The concentration of hormones in plasma was assayed by radioimmunoassay. In the pineal gland, the content of serotonin and its metabolite was determined by HPLC; whereas the expression of examined genes and protein was assayed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, respectively. Results Endotoxin administration lowered (p<0.05 levels of circulating melatonin in animals from LN photoperiod only during the first hour after treatment, while in ewes from SN photoperiod only in the third hour after the injection. Inflammation more substantially suppressed biosynthesis of melatonin in ewes from SN photoperiod, which were also characterised by lower (p<0.05 cortisol concentrations after LPS treatment compared with animals from LN photoperiod. In the pineal gland of ewes subjected to SN photoperiod, LPS reduced (p<0.05 serotonin content and the expression of melatonin biosynthetic pathway enzymes, such as tryptophan hydroxylase and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase. Pineal activity may be disturbed by circulating LPS and proinflammatory cytokines because the expression of mRNAs encoding their corresponding receptors was determined in this gland. Conclusion The present study showed that peripheral

  17. Rethinking the Insulator State: Turkey’s Border Security and the Syrian Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Turkey’s border security after the outbreak of the Syrian civil war from the viewpoint of the concept of the insulator state. First, it aims to explore Turkey’s border security policies with regard to the Syrian civil war. Turkey’s attempts to overcome and solve the difficulties rooted of Syrian civil war have been vital to its own border security in recent years. Second purpose is to rethink the concept of the insulator state. This article attempts to sophis...

  18. VIDEOLAPAROSCOPYC OVUM PICK-UP COMPARATIVE IN DORPER AND SANTA INES EWES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrigo Adonis Braga de Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the number of aspirated follicles, recovered oocytes, oocyte quality and viability between Dorper and Santa Inês ewes submitted to the videolaparoscopic ovum pick-up. To conduct this study, 118 follicular aspirations were performed, of which 65 were performed in Dorper ewes and 53 in Santa Ines ewes. The results for Dorper sheep were 28.31 ± 17.42 follicles/ewe, 12.21 ± 6.74 oocytes/ewe, recovery rate of 47.9% and 8.93 ± 5.25 viable oocytes/ewe. For Santa Inês ewes the results were 22.14 ± 16.08 follicles/ewe, 12.64 ± 8.29 oocytes/ewe, recovery rate of 55% and 8.92 ± 6.58 viable oocytes/ewe. There was no influence of breed on the number of aspirated follicles, recovered oocytes, recovery rate, oocyte quality and viability in videolaparoscopic ovum pick-up. Keywords: follicle; oocyte; sheep

  19. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  20. Exploiting social media for Army operations: Syrian crisis use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Al Amin, Tanvir; Abdelzaher, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    Millions of people exchange user-generated information through online social media (SM) services. The prevalence of SM use globally and its growing significance to the evolution of events has attracted the attention of the Army and other agencies charged with protecting national security interests. The information exchanged in SM sites and the networks of people who interact with these online communities can provide value to Army intelligence efforts. SM could facilitate the Military Decision Making Process by providing ongoing assessment of military actions from a local citizen perspective. Despite potential value, there are significant technological barriers to leveraging SM. SM collection and analysis are difficult in the dynamic SM environment and deception is a real concern. This paper introduces a credibility analysis approach and prototype fact-finding technology called the "Apollo Fact-finder" that mitigates the problem of inaccurate or falsified SM data. Apollo groups data into sets (or claims), corroborating specific observations, then iteratively assesses both claim and source credibility resulting in a ranking of claims by likelihood of occurrence. These credibility analysis approaches are discussed in the context of a conflict event, the Syrian civil war, and applied to tweets collected in the aftermath of the Syrian chemical weapons crisis.

  1. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80 's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the front-line officers. (author)

  2. The Repercussions of the Syrian crisis on Tourism in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Salem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon is characterised by a touristic industry, making of it the highest touristic destination in the Arab world before 1975, the year in which Lebanon's civil war has erupted, a war from which Lebanon still suffers until now. Moreover, Lebanon suffers from internal political conflicts and the repercussions of the geopolitical conflicts in the Middle East, the latest of which is the Syrian war. While the crises in Lebanon prevail- from political, security, economic, social to even environmental - Lebanese policymakers are still seeking to make out of Lebanon a country considered as a touristic one, and are working on achieving a sustainable touristic development. In this context, this study tackles the crisis that Lebanon is experiencing as a result of forced Syrian displacement into its territory, and sheds light on its negative and positive effects on Lebanese tourism. The study also aims to determine the effectiveness of sustainable tourism development in times of crisis, based on the study of Lebanese touristic data during a specific period of time.

  3. Sex division of labour in Syrian school textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabaa, Sami

    1985-12-01

    The sexist division of labour, particularly in the occupational sector, which is believed to be more eminent in developing countries than in the developed ones, is reinforced by school textbooks. This state of affairs is hampering sex-role equality on the way to emancipation. Various Syrian school textbooks have been scrutinized and proved to be malebiased in content and language. Despite quantitative growth of education, the emancipatory quality of the school textbooks leaves much to be desired. The government has had the chance since 1963 to produce textbooks conductive to its promise of sex-role equality in education. The textbooks portray males for a bustling world of decision making, while conditioning the females to seek fulfilment in the background where servitude and support are the only requirement. Females are derogated and victimized. These contents, which are internalized at school and reproduced in society, certainly do not serve development. The exclusion of one-half of the population from contributing to the tasks of development is a waste of human talent which no society can afford. Furthermore, the sexist portrayal of females in Syrian textbooks is a pale reflection of Arab women in Arab history and literature.

  4. Correlations and forecast of death tolls in the Syrian conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazuki; Shinomoto, Shigeru; Rocha, Luis E C

    2017-11-16

    The Syrian armed conflict has been ongoing since 2011 and has already caused thousands of deaths. The analysis of death tolls helps to understand the dynamics of the conflict and to better allocate resources and aid to the affected areas. In this article, we use information on the daily number of deaths to study temporal and spatial correlations in the data, and exploit this information to forecast events of deaths. We found that the number of violent deaths per day in Syria varies more widely than that in England in which non-violent deaths dominate. We have identified strong positive auto-correlations in Syrian cities and non-trivial cross-correlations across some of them. The results indicate synchronization in the number of deaths at different times and locations, suggesting respectively that local attacks are followed by more attacks at subsequent days and that coordinated attacks may also take place across different locations. Thus the analysis of high temporal resolution data across multiple cities makes it possible to infer attack strategies, warn potential occurrence of future events, and hopefully avoid further deaths.

  5. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the frontline officers. (author)

  6. Impact of gender on efficacy and acute toxicity of alkylating agent -based chemotherapy in Ewing sarcoma: secondary analysis of the Euro-Ewing99-R1 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Paulussen, Michael; Le Teuff, Gwénaël; Judson, Ian; Gelderblom, Hans; Dirksen, Uta; Brennan, Bernadette; Whelan, Jeremy; Ladenstein, Ruth Lydia; Marec-Berard, Perrine; Kruseova, Jarmila; Hjorth, Lars; Kühne, Thomas; Brichard, Benedicte; Wheatley, Keith; Craft, Alan; Juergens, Heribert; Gaspar, Nathalie; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Urban, Ch; Meister, B.; Fink, F. M.; Kerbl, R.; Stollinger, O.; Schmitt, K.; Ebetsberger, G.; Jones, N.; Ladenstein, R.; Gadner, H.; Maes, P.; Brichard, B.; Mazzeo, F.; Gil, T.; Dhooge, C.; Vermorken, J. B.; Klein, A.; Kruseova, J.; Krarup-Hansen, A.; Nielsen, O.; Capra, M.; Pautard, B.; Rialland, X.; Maillart, P.; Plouvier, E.; Vérité, C.; Bui N'guyen, B.; Boutard, P.; Delcambre, C.; Bay, J. O.; Demeocq, F.; Couillault, G.; Isambert, N.; Plantaz, D.; Desfachelles, A. S.; Piguet, C.; Marec-Bérard, P.; Blay, J. Y.; Gentet, J. C.; Duffaud, F.; Bertucci, F.; Sirvent, N.; Schmitt, C.; Rios, M.; Corradini, N.; Rolland, F.; Deville, A.; Thyss, A.; Michon, J.; Tabone, M. D.; Pierga, J. Y.; Millot, F.; Munzer, M.; Edan, C.; Vannier, J. P.; Guillemet, C.; Brun, E.; Berger, C.; Castex, M. P.; Roche, H.; Lejars, O.; Linassier, C.; Oberlin, O.; Le Cesne, A.; Bauer, S.; Ebeling, P.; Flasshove, M.; Hartmann, J. T.; Reichardt, P.; Mertens, R.; Osieka, R.; Gnekow, A.; Schlimok, G.; Henze, G.; Thuss-Patience, P.; Wickmann, L.; Potenberg, J.; Bode, U.; Schmidt-Wolf, I. G. M.; Eberl, W.; Wolff, Th; Pekrun, A.; Hofmann, A.; Andler, W.; Schneider, D.; Lauterbach, I.; Zickler, P.; Göbel, U.; Borkhardt, A.; Sauerbrey, A.; Holter, W.; Eggert, A.; Klingebiel, T.; Niemeyer, C.; Heinz, J.; Reiter, A.; Rummel, M.; Runde, V.; Lakomek, M.; Trümper, L.; Beck, J.; Dölken, G.; Lindemann, H.-W.; Körholz, D.; Schmoll, H.-J.; Schneppenheim, R.; Hossfeld, D. K.; Bokemeyer, C.; Keles, H.; Welte, K.; Klein, C.; Kulozik, A.; Egerer, G.; Cyran, J.; Strumberg, D.; Freier, W.; Graf, N.; Pfreundschuh, M.; Gruhn, B.; Leipold, A.; Bentz, M.; Wehinger, H.; Schrappe, M.; Nolte, H.; Berthold, F.; Wolf, J.; Sternschulte, W.; Voelpel, S.; Frieling, T.; Moessner, J.; Selle, D.; Bucsky, D.; Bartels, H.; Mohren, M.; Fischer, Th; Kluba, U.; Gutjahr, P.; Dittrich, M.; Reiter, S.; Dürken, M.; Neubauer, A.; Beyer, J.; Christiansen, H.; Erdlenbruch, B.; Burdach, S.; Schmid, I.; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, C.; Peschel, C.; Oduncu, F.; Jürgens, H.; Berdel, W.; Held, H.; Hofmann-Wackersreuther, G.; Müller, H.; Peters, O.; Andreesen, R.; Krause, S.; Heits, F.; Geib-König, R.; Kasbohm, M.; Bürger, D.; Burghard, R.; Dickerhoff, R.; Bielack, S.; Feddersen, I.; Clemens, M. R.; Handgretinger, R.; Debatin, K.-M.; Mayer-Steinacker, R.; Schoengen, A.; Schlegel, P.; Lee, V.; Chik, K.-W.; Rodenhuis, S.; Gelderblom, A. J.; Hoogerbrugge, P.; Bökkerink, J. P. M.; Pieters, R.; Corbett, R.; Österlundh, G.; Behrendtz, M.; Holmqvist, B.-M.; Hjorth, L.; Petersen, C.; Jakobson, Å; Hjalmars, U.; Ljungman, G.; Angst, R.; Kühne, T.; Paulussen, M.; Leyvraz, S.; Rischewski, J.; Feldges, A.; Greiner, J.; Hess, U.; Exner, G. U.; Niggli, F.; Knuth, A.; King, D.; McCarthy, A.; Henry, P.; Morland, B.; Rees, H.; Nicholson, J.; Traunecker, H.; Wallace, H.; Ronghe, M.; Simpson, E.; Cowie, F.; White, J.; Picton, S.; Lewis, I.; Leahy, M.; Stark, D.; Selby, P. J.; Heney, D.; Pizer, B.; McDowell, H.; Michalski, A.; Whelan, J.; Chisholm, J.; Pritchard-Jones, K.; Judson, I.; Brennan, B.; Hale, J.; Verrill, M.; Walker, D.; Sokal, M.; Wheeler, K.; Gerrard, M.; Woll, P.; Lorigan, P.; Robinson, M.; Kohler, J.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the randomised Euro-EWING99-R1 trial, vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide (VAC) may be able to replace vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide (VAI) in the treatment of standard-risk Ewing sarcoma. However some heterogeneity of treatment effect by gender was observed. The current

  7. Ewing's sarcoma: a neuroectodermal tumor of the chest wall; Sarcoma de Ewing/tumor neuroectodermico de pared toracica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M. J.; Lorente, M. L.; Martin, A. M. [Hospital Universitario de Getafe. Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, I. [Hospital Nacional del Nino Jesus. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. It is most prevalent between the ages of 10 and 15 years. There are present two cases of Ewing's sarcoma of the chest wall. The clinical, radiological and pathological features are described and the therapeutic options are discussed. (Author)

  8. The effect of nutrition and body condition of triplet-bearing ewes during late pregnancy on the behaviour of ewes and lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronqvist, Gabriella V; Corner-Thomas, Rene A; Kenyon, Paul R; Stafford, Kevin J; Morris, Stephen T; Hickson, Rebecca Edith

    2018-04-12

    Triplet-born lambs are less likely to survive to weaning than twin-born or single-born lambs. Appropriate ewe-lamb bonding behaviours and lamb vigour behaviours are necessary for survival of lambs. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether maternal nutrition during late pregnancy influenced behaviour of the ewe and her lambs soon after birth, and to determine whether mid-pregnancy body condition score (BCS) influenced any behavioural response. The experiments included ewes that were in BCS 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0 in mid-pregnancy and were fed either ad libitum or to pregnancy-maintenance requirements in late-pregnancy (day 115 until 136 in experiment one, and day 128 until 141 in experiment two). The time taken for lambs to stand, contact dam, suck from dam and follow dam was recorded three to 18 hours after birth. The number of high- and low-pitched bleats emitted by the ewe and lambs was recorded, along with maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewe. Lambs in experiment two underwent a maternal-recognition test at 12 or 24 h. There were significant effects of feeding treatment on bleating behaviour of ewes and lambs, but these were inconsistent among BCS groups and between experiments. Lamb vigour behaviours were not affected by feeding treatment. In experiment one, there was no effect of feeding treatment or BCS on MBS, but in experiment two, ewes in BCS3 in mid-pregnancy had greater MBS than ewes in BCS2 in mid-pregnancy (MBS 3.1/5 vs MBS 2.1/5; P<0.05). Given there were no repeatable effects on behaviour of ewes and lambs, ad libitum feeding rather than feeding for pregnancy-maintenance requirements can not be used to improve behaviours soon after birth of triplet-bearing ewes in BCS 2 - 3 and their lambs in extensive pastoral conditions.

  9. Frantic Waiting: NGO Anti-Politics and "Timepass" for Young Syrian Refugees in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin Wagner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Sukarieh and Tannock's political economy of youth approach, this paper explores how Syrian refugee youth is constituted in protracted displacement in Jordan. It investigates a juvenile population often overlooked in Forced Migration Studies, disenfranchised rural Syrians, who fail to develop practices of youthfulness, yet in exile are subjected to alternative productions of youth by the aid sector. Depoliticized NGO youth programming overlooks Syrians' limited access to the labour market and higher education. While educational trainings aim to produce entrepreneurial and citizen refugees, they ultimately contribute to the creation of timepass and precarious lives. This research is grounded in fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork with Syrian refugees in a border town in northern Jordan.

  10. Psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees living in Jordan: systematic review of unpublished needs assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Steel, Zachary; Abo-Hilal, Mohammad; Hassan, Abdul Halim; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian organisations supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan have conducted needs assessments to direct resources appropriately. To present a model of psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees and a peer review of research practices. Academic and grey literature databases, the United Nations Syria Regional Response website, key humanitarian organisation websites and Google were searched for needs assessments with Syrian refugees in Jordan between February 2011 and June 2015. Information directly reporting the views of Syrian refugees regarding psychosocial needs was extracted and a qualitative synthesis was conducted. Respondents reported that psychological distress was exacerbated by both environmental (financial, housing, employment) and psychosocial outcomes (loss of role and social support, inactivity), which are themselves stressors. Need for improvement in research methodology, participatory engagement and ethical reporting was evident. Participatory engagement strategies might help to address identified psychosocial outcomes. More rigorous qualitative methods are required to ensure accuracy of findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  11. War, memories and Little Waterfall; a Syrian village that is no more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of the Syrian war through accounts of conflict, social memories and reconstructed village identities. It looks at the question how memories of home and place are transformed by conflictual mobilities. Since the outbreak of civil war in Syria in March 2011, nine...... and deserted during the Syrian war. This paper reflects on trans-nationalism, social memories and village identities that are influenced by conflictual mobilities. Based on data and video footage collected between 1999 and 2004, complemented by recent filming and interviews with the community members of Little...... million Syrians are displaced. According to the UNHCR, over 3 million have fled to Syria's immediate neighbours Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq while about 6.5 million are internally displaced within Syria. Meanwhile, under 150,000 Syrians have declared asylum in the European countries, while member...

  12. Adapting to the new normal- Educating Syrian refugee children in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    RAND's evaluation of Jordan's Emergency Education Response Programme for Syrian refugee children identified significant successes and longer-term challenges. Key recommendations related to developing medium-term thinking and targeting gendered needs.

  13. Conflict and Care: Israeli Healthcare Providers and Syrian Patients and Caregivers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Savannah S; Lewis, Denise C; Gilbey, Peter; Eisenman, Arie; Schuster, Richard; Seponski, Desiree M

    2016-01-01

    Israel has provided immediate healthcare to Syrian children, civilians and fighters since early 2013 despite being in an official state of war with Syria since 1973. We present qualitative findings from a larger mixed-methods phenomenological study to understand how the geopolitical and social history of Israel and Syria influences healthcare providers and Syrian patient caregivers in northern Israel. Theories of humanization and cognitive dissonance guided this study and frame the beliefs and experiences of healthcare providers who treated wounded Syrians in Israeli hospitals. Findings indicate healthcare providers and Syrian caregivers adjusted their beliefs to allow for positive healthcare experiences. Qualitative analysis revealed two major themes: supportive and hindering systemic elements contributing to the healthcare provider-patient-caregiver relationship. Internal psychological developments, contextual factors, and relational processes influenced humanization of the other within the relationship. This study illuminates unique ethical and humanitarian demands relevant for healthcare workers and those with whom they interact.

  14. Rapid capillary electrophoresis approach for the quantification of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Francesca; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Cicino, Caterina; Palmieri, Camillo; Britti, Domenico

    2017-10-13

    The substitution of ewe milk with more economic cow milk is a common fraud. Here we present a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantification of ewe milk in ovine/bovine milk mixtures, which allows for the rapid and inexpensive recognition of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. We utilized a routine CE method for human blood and urine proteins analysis, which fulfilled the separation of skimmed milk proteins in alkaline buffer. Under this condition, ovine and bovine milk exhibited a recognizable and distinct CE protein profiles, with a specific ewe peak showing a reproducible migration zone in ovine/bovine mixtures. Based on ewe specific CE peak, we developed a method for ewe milk quantification in ovine/bovine skimmed milk mixtures, which showed good linearity, precision and accuracy, and a minimum amount of detectable fraudulent cow milk equal to 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Representations of Social Media Users toward Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Ozdemir; Bengi Oner Ozkan

    2017-01-01

    While the Syrian refugees crisis has increasingly continued its effect in both Turkey and other neighboring countries and European countries for more than five years, refugees do not adapt themselves to society in country of asylum, and are exposed to social exclusion. The purpose of the study is to explore social representations of social media users toward Syrian refugees in Turkey with a qualitative approach; because social representations may indicate the problems in the in...

  16. Frequency and outcomes of new patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Hatay province after Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğru, Sibel; Döner, Pınar

    2017-04-01

    It is known that tuberculosis is frequently seen among refugees. Hatay province is one of the cities that substantially expose to migration of refugees after Syrian civil war. In this study, it was aimed to compare frequency of new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and treatment success/cure rates between Turkish and Syrian patients. The study included 211 patients with PTB (178 Turkish and 33 Syrian patients) registered to Hatay Tuberculosis Outpatient Clinic between 2010 and 2013. On the basis of years, number of PTB patients registered was 53 (Turkish/Syrian: 52/1) in 2010, 44 (44/0) in 2011, 41 (39/2) in 2012, and 73 (43/30) in 2013. There were no significant differences between Turkish and Syrian patients regarding age groups, gender, marital status, contact history, smear result, and drug sensitivity assays when treatment success was considered (p>0.05). Directly observed therapy (DOT) rate was higher in patients who achieved successful treatment (97.6% vs. 2.4%; pSyrian patients (63.6% vs. 88.8%; pSyrian patients (30.3% vs. 3.9%; pSyrian and 3 Turkish patients. Although PTB frequency has increased in Hatay province within prior 4 years, treatment success among local population is still within limits established by World Health Organization (WHO). However, the treatment goal could not be achieved when considered together with refugees. To improve treatment success in refugees, implementation of a new national tuberculosis is needed control program in this population. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Whose problem is it anyway? The depiction of Syrian refugee influx in political cartoons

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Özlem; Özdemir, Emrah

    2017-01-01

    Political cartoons demonstrate the Syrian refugee crisis and their influx into bordering and European countries from different perspectives by using both visual and verbal metaphors in a caricaturised way. For this reason, this research aims to reveal how political cartoons represent the perilous journey of Syrian refugees and their families visually and verbally. In this regard, twelve political cartoons were selected randomly from the international political cartoon website cagle.com betwee...

  18. Tradable Refugee-Admission Quotas (TRAQs), the Syrian crisis and the new European agenda on migration

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ-HUERTAS MORAGA, Jesus; RAPOPORT, Hillel

    2015-01-01

    First online: 27 November 2015 The Syrian Civil War gave rise to the largest refugee flight reaching Europe since the Yugoslavian wars in the 1990s. The crisis evidenced the deficiencies of the European Union Asylum Policy, which struggled both to offer solutions to Syrian refugees and to efficiently allocate costs across Member States. We draw on previous theoretical work to simulate how a system of tradable refugee-admission quotas coupled with a matching mechanism assigning refugees to ...

  19. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Labor Market in Neighboring Countries: Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Fakih, Ali; Ibrahim, May

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes time-sensitive data on a humanitarian crisis in the Middle East. It aims to assess the impact of the steep influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan on the country's labor market since the onset of the conflict in Syria (March 2011). As of August 2014, nearly 3 million registered Syrians have sought refuge in neighboring countries (Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Turkey), according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Jordan and Lebanon are hosting the majo...

  20. Turkey's policy toward Syrian refugees: domestic repercussions and the need for international support

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadoun, Souad

    2014-01-01

    Turkey’s humanitarian activities toward Syrian refugees are part and parcel of its overall policy in the Syria conflict. Yet, it has become increasingly clear that the Turkish government has overestimated its capacities, and thus failed to deliver sufficient assistance to Syrian refugees on its territory. At the same time the government’s handling of the refugee issue has led to stark tensions among Turkey’s political and societal forces, as Turkey’s border regions contend with increasing sec...

  1. The Cyber Dimensions of the Syrian Civil War: Implications for Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    gain access to the Haifa municipal water control system, it may have demonstrated a capability to gain control of a SCADA system by using default...Water Supply SCADA System?” 38 Perlroth, “Hunting for Syrian Hackers Chain of Command.” 39 Anupika Khare, “Syrian Electronic Army Hacks Truecaller...attack itself is suspect—screenshots of a water system with Hebrew labels. Examining the images reveals that they are from the SCADA (supervisory

  2. The Impact of Military and Political Situation in Iraq on Syrian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Salum Hossam Eddin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the Syrian position towards the 2003 conflict in Iraq and the impact of the conflict on foreign and domestic Syrian policy. The author reveals the influence of the situation on the process of Middle East settlement, on the plan of Big Middle East building, as well as on U.S. plans on de-escalation of the USA presence in the region.

  3. Factors affecting ewe performance in a crossbred dairy sheep research flock in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T W; Berger, Y M; Holman, P W; Baldin, M; Burgett, R L; Thomas, D L

    2017-05-01

    The Spooner Agricultural Research Station operated the only dairy sheep research flock in North America through 2016. The original nondairy ewe flock was "bred up" to a crossbred dairy flock through the use of rams and semen of the East Friesian (EF) and Lacaune (LA) dairy breeds. The objective of this study was to determine the environmental and nonadditive genetic effects that influence performance of dairy ewes. The traits analyzed were 180 d adjusted milk (180d MY), fat (180d FY), and protein (180d PY) yields, percentage fat (%F) and protein (%P) in milk, lactation average somatic cell score (LSCS), and number of lambs born per ewe lambing (NLB). The univariate repeatability models included the fixed effects of year of lambing, age, weaning system (except for the trait of NLB), individual breed composition, and individual retained heterosis along with the random additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual effects. Estimates of heritability were moderate for 180d MY (0.32 ± 0.04), 180d FY (0.26 ± 0.04), and 180d PY (0.29 ± 0.04), high for %F (0.54 ± 0.04) and %P (0.61 ± 0.04), and low for LSCS (0.12 ± 0.03) and NLB (0.08 ± 0.02). Ewes that reared their lambs had lower ( ewes that had their lambs removed shortly after parturition. Relative to nondairy breeding, EF and LA breeding had positive ( ewes were predicted to have lower ( ewes. Purebred LA ewes were predicted to have a higher ( ewes. Purebred EF ewes were expected to be more ( ewes. Individual retained heterosis had a favorable ( ewe performance are important for dairy sheep producers to make more informed husbandry and breeding decisions.

  4. Impact of parity on ewe vaginal mechanical properties relative to the nonhuman primate and rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Katrina M; Moalli, Pamela A; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Barone, William R; Abramowitch, Steven D

    2016-08-01

    Parity is the leading risk factor for the development of pelvic organ prolapse. To assess the impact of pregnancy and delivery on vaginal tissue, researchers commonly use nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ewe as an alternative model by investigating the impact of parity on the ewe vaginal mechanical properties and collagen structure. Mechanical properties of 15 nulliparous and parous ewe vaginas were determined via uniaxial tensile tests. Collagen content was determined by hydroxyproline assay and collagen fiber thickness was analyzed using picrosirius red staining. Outcome measures were compared using Independent samples t or Mann-Whitney U tests. ANOVA (Gabriel's pairwise post-hoc test) or the Welch Alternative for the F-ratio (Games Howell post-hoc test) was used to compare data with previously published NHP and rodent data. Vaginal tissue from the nulliparous ewe had a higher tangent modulus and tensile strength compared with the parous ewe (p ewe vagina elongated 42 % more than the nulliparous ewe vagina (p = 0.015). No significant differences were observed in collagen structure among ewe vaginas. The tangent modulus of the nulliparous ewe vagina was not different from that of the NHP or rodent (p = 0.290). Additionally, the tangent moduli of the parous ewe and NHP vaginas did not differ (p = 0.773). Parity has a negative impact on the mechanical properties of the ewe vagina, as also observed in the NHP. The ewe may serve as an alternative model for studying parity and ultimately prolapse development.

  5. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS...... pore size. The proportions of particles in the B, C, D, S and O fractions were affected by cutting time of the silaage (P ewes fed grass silages....

  6. Progesterone Blood Level For Pregnancy Diagnosis And Prediction Of Twinning In Egyptian Ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NESSIM, M.Z.; KOTTB, M.K.I.; MUSTAFA, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty adult ewes were exposed to natural mating by fertile ram labelled on the chest, and marked ewes were separated from the crew. Blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein at the intervals 1, 10, 20,112,119,126,133,140 and 147 days after mating. Pregnancy test had been made through determination of progesterone (P4) level by radioimmunoassay. Plasma glucose, cholesterol and total lipids were determined during the last five weeks of pregnancy. Ewes were weighed on mating day and monthly until parturition and the lambs were weighed at birth. Significant difference (P<0.01) in P4 concentration was observed between day of mating and each of 10 and 20 days post-mating. Plasma P4 levels were increased with significant differences between pregnant ewes with single lamb and those with twin lambs at days 10 (P<0.05) and 20 (P<0.01) of pregnancy. The higher P4 level was detected in ewes carrying twins. Plasma P4 levels were increased during late pregnancy followed by a significant decrease (P<0.01) during the last two weeks of pregnancy, in both single and twin bearing ewes. Plasma glucose levels were found to be higher in twin pregnant ewes than single pregnant ewes at week 4 (P<0.05) and week 2 (P<0.01) before parturition. Non-significant differences were observed in plasma cholesterol and total lipids levels between pregnant ewes carrying single and twin lambs during late pregnancy. Monthly body weights were higher in twin than single pregnant ewes. Correlation between ewe and lamb body weights was observed in twin ewes only.

  7. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's scrcoma in the nasal cavity: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bo Young; Park, Seok Won; Km, Eo Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Lee, Eun Ja

    2013-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma presents a rare tumor of the head and neck, and even rarer in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses. We report the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity, as presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The CT and MRI examination reveals a mass in the left nasal cavity with extension to contralateral side, ethmoidal sinus, and nasopharynx. We provide an overview of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity and discuss radiologic findings of this unusual case.

  8. Nurses' Experiences in a Turkish Internal Medicine Clinic With Syrian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinç, Sibel

    2018-05-01

    The increasing flow of Syrian refugees to Turkey, coupled with their extended stay, highlights the need for culturally competent health care, which includes nursing interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of nurses who provide care for Syrian refugees in internal medicine clinics in a hospital located in Turkey. This descriptive study was based on qualitative content analysis using an inductive approach and involved discovery and description of the data. The study sample consisted of 10 nurses who work at the internal medicine clinic of a State Hospital in Turkey. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Three themes with related subthemes were derived from the data. Nurses who participated in the study experienced: (a) Nurses found communicating with Syrian refugees and their families difficult in the clinic. (b) Nurses observed and experienced differences and similarities in caring for Turkish and Syrian patients. (c) Nurses expressed and displayed compassion toward Syrian refugees during the caring process. In order for nurses to provide the best care for Syrian refugee patients, it is important to identify cultural caring behaviors observed by nurses in the promotion of culturally congruent nursing and health care.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazour, Francois; Zahreddine, Nada R; Maragel, Michel G; Almustafa, Mustafa A; Soufia, Michel; Haddad, Ramzi; Richa, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Lebanon is the main hosting country for the Syrian crisis, with more than one million Syrian refugees. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and identify its possible predictors, in a sample of Syrian refugees living in camps in Lebanon. We conducted a household survey on Syrian refugees between 18 and 65years old in 6 camps of the Central Bekaa region, using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) as a diagnostic tool. Among the 452 respondents, we found a lifetime prevalence of PTSD of 35.4%, and a point prevalence of 27.2%. The lifetime prevalence of SUD was 1.99% and the point prevalence 0.66%. Multivariate logistic regression could not identify any predictor of current PTSD among a list of demographic variables, but identified the Syrian hometown as a significant predictor of lifetime PTSD (p=.013), with refugees from Aleppo having significantly more PTSD than those coming from Homs (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.28, 3.56], p=.004). PTSD was a real mental health issue in our sample of adult Syrian refugees in Central Bekaa camps, unlike SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Politics of Syrian Refugees in Turkey: A Question of Inclusion and Exclusion through Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Koser Akcapar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey began to receive refugees from Syria in 2011 and has since become the country hosting the highest number of refugees, with more than 3.5 million Syrians and half a million people of other nationalities, mainly from Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran. An important turning point regarding the legal status of Syrian refugees has come with recent amendments to the Turkish citizenship law. Based on ongoing academic debates on integration and citizenship, this article will explore these two concepts in the case of Syrian refugees in Turkey. We will argue that the shift in the Turkish citizenship law is a direct outcome of recent migration flows. We further argue that the citizenship option is used both as a reward for skilled migrants with economic and cultural capital and as a tool to integrate the rest of the Syrians. It also reflects other social, political and demographic concerns of the Turkish government. Using our recent ethnographic study with Syrians and local populations in two main refugee hosting cities in Turkey, Istanbul and Gaziantep, we will locate the successes and weaknesses of this strategy by exemplifying the views of Syrian refugees on gaining Turkish citizenship and the reactions of Turkish nationals.

  11. [Seroprevalance Differences of Toxoplasma Between Syrian Refugees Pregnants and Indigenous Turkish Pregnants in Kahramanmaraş].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Aral, Murat; Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Kireçci, Ahmet; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Bakacak, Zeyneb

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the Syrian refugees and resident Turkish pregnant population in terms of Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Data acquired from Kahramanmaraş Necip Fazıl City Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results of 7201 Toxoplasma IgM tests and 4113 Toxoplasma IgG tests were evaluated. For 2012 and 2013 Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was found in Syrian refugees 4.76% and 4.84% respectively in our study. In the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity rates were 80% and 62.6%, respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity rates for the native peoples in Turkey in 2012 and 2013 was 1.96% and 2.34%, while in the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was detected 49.7% and 45.7% respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was statistically higher in Syrian refugees for each year (p Syrian refugees was statistically higher (p Syrian refugees living in the region of Kahramanmaraş were statistically higher than the rates of local inhabitants, we consider that this condition should be taken into account in the follow-ups of Syrian pregnant refugees outnumbering in Kahramanmaraş and its vicinity.

  12. Syrian refugees, between rocky crisis in Syria and hard inaccessibility to healthcare services in Lebanon and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, Ziad; Scales, David; Vearey, Jo; Forsberg, Birger C

    2013-09-03

    Around 3% of the world's population (n = 214 million people) has crossed international borders for various reasons. Since March 2011, Syria has been going through state of political crisis and instability resulting in an exodus of Syrians to neighbouring countries. More than 1 million Syrian refugees are residents of Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Egypt and North Africa. The international community must step up efforts to support Syrian refugees and their host governments.

  13. Ovarian activity, transuterine embryo migration and prenatal losses in Ethiopian highland ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, F; Tamrat, H; Bekana, M

    2007-02-01

    A study was conducted on 1442 Ethiopian highland ewes to determine the seasonality of ovarian activity, intrauterine embryo migration and prenatal reproductive wastage. Assessment of ovarian follicular activity revealed that a higher (p < 0.01) proportion of ewes ovulated in the dry season than in the heavy and light rainy seasons. However, there was a tendency (p = 0.057) of decline in the mean number of ovulations per ewes during the light rains. The mean diameter of the largest follicle on the ipsilateral ovary was higher (p < 0.01) in both ewes with single and those with twin corpora lutea (CL) than on the contralateral ovary; and, compared to ewes with single CL, it was higher (p < 0.05) in those with twin CL. The right ovary was more active (p < 0.001) only in single-ovulating ewes. Similarly, a higher (p < 0.001) proportion of ewes were pregnant in the right horn. Embryos migrated to the opposite horn in single-, twin- and triple-ovulating ewes. There was a higher (p < 0.001) tendency for the left-to-right migration than the opposite. There was significant (p < 0.01) association between embryo loss and site and number of ovulations. Embryo loss was higher (p < 0.01) in ewes with twin ovulations on the right ovary. It is very likely that these results indicate a better chance of embryo survival in the right uterine horn.

  14. Recent advances in targeted therapy for Ewing sarcoma [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen I. Pishas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neoplasm of solid bone that disproportionally afflicts the young. Despite intensive multi-modal therapy and valiant efforts, 70% of patients with relapsed and metastatic Ewing sarcoma will succumb to their disease. The persistent failure to improve overall survival for this subset of patients highlights the urgent need for rapid translation of novel therapeutic strategies. As Ewing sarcoma is associated with a paucity of mutations in readily targetable signal transduction pathways, targeting the key genetic aberration and master regulator of Ewing sarcoma, the EWS/ETS fusion, remains an important goal.

  15. Phenotypic characterization of the population of creole wool ewes in the highlands of Puebla State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-López, Samuel; Guerrero-Rodríguez, Juan de Dios; Rojas-Álvarez, Joel; Bustamante-González, Angel

    2012-12-01

    This study characterized the population of wool ewes in the highlands of the State of Puebla, Mexico, considering traits such as fleece color, weight, and body measurements. In this region, dominated by a temperate climate, sheep are a traditional animal species for farming systems. To carry out the work, 2,082 ewes were randomly selected from 14 communities and 124 flocks belonging to the six municipalities that have the largest inventory of sheep in the state. For each ewe, live weight, breed, fleece color pattern, and 18 other body measurements were recorded. Descriptive statistics were estimated for weight and body traits and the morphotype was classified by multivariate analysis. Factor analysis identified the bulk, size, and breed standard as the attributes that best describe the population of ewes. These elements varied in importance among the groups (p < 0.05). Cluster analysis helped to classify the population into small black-faced ewes (28.5 %), small white ewes (11.9 %), black-faced medium-sized ewes (24.1 %), large ewes (12.3 %), and white medium-sized ewes (23.2 %). The groups identified were similar to creole sheep present in rural communities in other environments, but have lower morphostructural values than specialized breeds.

  16. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vlčková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P<0.05 with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum.

  17. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy with simultaneous chemotherapy in Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Sauer, R.; Burgers, J.M.V.; Hawlicek, R.; Trott, K.R.; Juergens, H.

    1988-01-01

    In 1981, the German Society of Pediatric Oncology initiated a multi-institutional study for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. The protocol (Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study, CESS 81) consisted of four courses of a four-drug-regimen (VACA), each course taking nine weeks. Local therapy (radical surgery or resection plus irradiation or radiotherapy alone) was performed after the second course. The results of CESS 81 can be summarized as follows: VACA-chemotherapy is effective in controlling systemic disease. Initial tumor mass and response to initial chemotherapy are of major prognostic value for local control and survival. Permanent local control is a problem, especially in irradiated patients. The high local failure rate in irradiated patients in CESS 81 could be attributable to the following reasons: Late start of local therapy (after 18 weeks of chemotherapy), uneven distribution of prognostic parameters: Large tumors were more often irradiated than operated, protocol deviations in irradiated patients. (orig.)

  18. Intracardiac Low-grade Sarcoma Following Treatment for Ewing Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Michael V; Magnan, Heather; Slotkin, Emily K; Ambati, Srikanth R; Chou, Alexander J; Wexler, Leonard H; Meyers, Paul A; Walsh, Michael F; Heaton, Todd; Girardi, Leonard N; Wolden, Suzanne L; Price, Anita P; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Zehir, Ahmet; Hameed, Meera; Berger, Michael F; Kentsis, Alex; Shukla, Neerav

    2017-11-01

    A 16-year-old male was diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma of the ribcage with pulmonary metastases. Six months after completion of scheduled therapy, he was found to have a new intracardiac mass, presumed recurrent Ewing sarcoma. EWSR1 fusion was not detected by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction from blood plasma. After no improvement with salvage chemotherapy, he underwent surgical resection that identified a low-grade spindle cell sarcoma. Despite the near-synchronous presentation of 2 unrelated sarcomas, extensive genomic analyses did not reveal any unifying somatic or germline mutations nor any apparent cancer predisposition. This case also highlights the potential role of utilizing plasma cell-free DNA for diagnosing tumors in locations where biopsy confers high morbidity.

  19. Benzochloroporphyrin derivative photosensitizer-mediated photodynamic therapy for Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengxiong; Zhou, Chenghao; Zeng, Hui; Yin, Fei; Wang, Zhuoying; Yao, Jianzhong; Hua, Yingqi; Cai, Zhengdong

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the photodynamic efficacy of a new photosensitizer, benzochloroporphyrin derivative 18 (BCPD-18), in Ewing sarcoma. We found that BCPD-18 decreased the viability of TC-71 cells irradiated by 670nm laser in a concentration dependent manner. We also observed cells undergoing apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest at the G2M phase after BCPD-18-mediated photodynamic therapy (BCPD-PDT). In addition, in vivo study (subcutaneous and orthotopic models) showed that BCPD-PDT reduced tumor size, tumor weight and tumor-bearing leg weight. After PDT, apoptosis was shown in vivo. Bax expression was increased, and Bcl-2 expression was decreased. This study provides evidence that BCPD-18 could probably be a useful photosensitizer in PDT for Ewing sarcoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  1. BONE TUMOR ENVIRONMENT AS POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC TARGET IN EWING SARCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eREDINI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, ES is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops in osseous sites (85%, but also in extraskeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due to osteolysis. Osteoclast activation and subsequent bone resorption is responsible for the clinical features of bone tumors including pain, vertebral collapse and spinal cord compression. Based on the vicious cycle concept of tumor cells and bone resorbing cells, drugs which target osteoclasts may be promising agents as adjuvant setting for treating bone tumors, including Ewing sarcoma. There is also increasing evidence that cellular and molecular protagonists present in the bone microenvironment play a part in establishing a favorable niche for tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic value of drugs targeting the bone tumor microenvironment in Ewing Sarcoma. The first part of the review will focus on targeting the bone resorbing function of osteoclasts by means of bisphosphonates (BPs or drugs blocking the pro-resorbing cytokine Receptor Activator of NF-kappa B Ligand (RANKL. Second, the role of this peculiar hypoxic microenvironment will be discussed in the context of resistance to chemotherapy, escape from the immune system, or neo-angiogenesis. Therapeutic interventions based on these specificities could be then proposed in the context of Ewing sarcoma.

  2. The Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.

  3. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma resembling acute abdomen. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Soto Guerrero, María Teresa; Cedillo de la Cruz, María Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma is a rare tumor of neuroectodermal origin. It presents mainly in the soft tissue of the extremities and thorax. Histologically, it is similar to Ewing's sarcoma of the bone. We present the case of a male who arrived at the emergency room with acute abdomen, leucocytosis and imaging techniques (abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography) suggestive of complicated diverticular disease. He was treated with emergency surgery. Intraoperative findings were an unsuspected tumor (20 x 15 x 15 cm). Treatment consisted of extirpation of the tumor, separating it from the adjacent viscera and followed by chemotherapy based on epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and vincristine for six cycles. Because the control abdominal CT demonstrated tumor activity in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the ascending colon and cecum, further resection was decided upon. In a review of the literature, no previous reports of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma were found presenting as acute abdomen. Due to the rarity of this tumor, only case reports or series have been found in the literature without randomized or comparative studies. Surgery was the cornerstone of treatment, without reports of preoperative chemotherapy. If the patient's condition permits, percutaneous needle biopsy is mandatory to obtain optimum treatment as well as to improve prognosis.

  4. Targeting the p53 Pathway in Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Paul M.; Pishas, Kathleen I.; Callen, David F.; Thomas, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor plays a pivotal role in the prevention of oncogenic transformation. Cancers frequently evade the potent antitumour surveillance mechanisms of p53 through mutation of the TP53 gene, with approximately 50% of all human malignancies expressing dysfunctional, mutated p53 proteins. Interestingly, genetic lesions in the TP53 gene are only observed in 10% of Ewing Sarcomas, with the majority of these sarcomas expressing a functional wild-type p53. In addition, the p53 downstream signaling pathways and DNA-damage cell cycle checkpoints remain functionally intact in these sarcomas. This paper summarizes recent insights into the functional capabilities and regulation of p53 in Ewing Sarcoma, with a particular focus on the cross-talk between p53 and the EWS-FLI1 gene rearrangement frequently associated with this disease. The development of several activators of p53 is discussed, with recent evidence demonstrating the potential of small molecule p53 activators as a promising systemic therapeutic approach for the treatment of Ewing Sarcomas with wild-type p53. PMID:21197471

  5. The first European interdisciplinary ewing sarcoma research summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Heinrich; Alonso, Javier; Aman, Pierre; Aryee, Dave N T; Ban, Jozef; Burchill, Sue A; Burdach, Stefan; De Alava, Enrique; Delattre, Olivier; Dirksen, Uta; Fourtouna, Argyro; Fulda, Simone; Helman, Lee J; Herrero-Martin, David; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Kontny, Udo; Lawlor, Elizabeth R; Lessnick, Stephen L; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Metzler, Markus; Moriggl, Richard; Niedan, Stephan; Potratz, Jenny; Redini, Françoise; Richter, Günther H S; Riedmann, Lucia T; Rossig, Claudia; Schäfer, Beat W; Schwentner, Raphaela; Scotlandi, Katia; Sorensen, Poul H; Staege, Martin S; Tirode, Franck; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Ventura, Selena; Eggert, Angelika; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) provides an interaction platform for stakeholders in research and care of children with cancer. Among ENCCA objectives is the establishment of biology-based prioritization mechanisms for the selection of innovative targets, drugs, and prognostic markers for validation in clinical trials. Specifically for sarcomas, there is a burning need for novel treatment options, since current chemotherapeutic treatment protocols have met their limits. This is most obvious for metastatic Ewing sarcoma (ES), where long term survival rates are still below 20%. Despite significant progress in our understanding of ES biology, clinical translation of promising laboratory results has not yet taken place due to fragmentation of research and lack of an institutionalized discussion forum. To fill this gap, ENCCA assembled 30 European expert scientists and five North American opinion leaders in December 2011 to exchange thoughts and discuss the state of the art in ES research and latest results from the bench, and to propose biological studies and novel promising therapeutics for the upcoming European EWING2008 and EWING2012 clinical trials.

  6. The relationship between trace mineral concentrations of amniotic fluid with placenta traits in the pregnancy toxemia Ghezel ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Olfati

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Overall, determinations of these trace minerals in the AF ewes could have been used to obtain information on nutritional and reproductive status for the diagnosis of pregnancy toxemia in Ghezel ewes.

  7. Composition and sensory profiling of probiotic Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Braghieri, A; Sevi, A; Napolitano, F

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of different usually recognized as probiotic bacterial strains on chemical composition and sensory properties of Scamorza cheese manufactured from ewe milk. To define the sensory profile of Scamorza cheese, a qualitative and quantitative reference frame specific for a pasta filata cheese was constructed. According to the presence of probiotic bacteria, cheeses were denoted S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum 46 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. The designation for control Scamorza cheese was S-CO. Analyses were performed at 15d of ripening. The moisture content of Scamorza ewe milk cheese ranged between 44.61 and 47.16% (wt/wt), showing higher values in S-CO and S-BB cheeses than in S-LA cheese; the fat percentage ranged between 25.43 and 28.68% (wt/wt), showing higher value in S-LA cheese. The NaCl percentage in Scamorza cheese from ewe milk was 1.75 ± 0.04% (wt/wt). Protein and casein percentages were the highest in Scamorza cheese containing a mix of bifidobacteria; also, the percentage of the proteose-peptone fraction showed the highest value in S-BB, highlighting the major proteolysis carried out by enzymes associated with B. longum and B. lactis strains. Texture and appearance attributes were able to differentiate probiotic bacteria-added cheeses from the untreated control product. In particular, S-BB and S-LA Scamorza cheeses showed higher color uniformity compared with S-CO cheese. Furthermore, the control cheese showed higher yellowness and lower structure uniformity than S-BB. The control product was less creamy and grainy than S-BB; conversely, the inclusion of probiotics into the cheese determined lower adhesivity and friability in S-BB and S-LA than in S-CO. This study allowed the definition of the principal composition and sensory properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. The specific

  8. PNET Ewing's sarcoma: a case report of a 8-year-old child presenting with PNET Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauskar, Pratibha; Bhalavat, Rajendra; Chandra, Manish; Bauskar, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    PNET (Primitive Neuro-Ectodermal) mostly present in younger children. PNET Ewing sarcoma Ewing's sarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors, growth from undeveloped brain cells, with a tendency towards recurrence. We report the case of a 8-year-old girl who presented with a one year history of pain in her lower neck region with single episode of un-consciousness associate with left side upper and lower limb weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an abnormal marrow changes involving C5 vertebra and involvement of posterior elements showing expansive changes. Biopsy showed malignant small round cell tumor identifying as PNET Ewing sarcoma. Laminectomy and Decompression of cervical tumor. (author)

  9. Implementation of a SenseMaker® research project among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhache, Nour; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Bergquist, Harveen; Davison, Colleen; Bartels, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has displaced over 1.2 million Syrians into Lebanon. As a result of displacement, some Syrian families are turning to child marriage as a coping mechanism. The prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased and the average age of marriage decreased during the crisis. The aim of the project was to understand the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker®. This manuscript explores the process of implementing this novel research tool in a humanitarian setting. Twelve interviewers conducted SenseMaker® interviews with married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents, as well as married and unmarried men. Participants were asked to share a story about the lives of Syrian girls in Lebanon and to self-interpret the narratives by answering follow-up questions in relation to the story provided. Data collection occurred across three locations: Beirut, Beqaa, and Tripoli. In total 1422 narratives from 1346 unique participants were collected over 7 weeks. Data collection using SenseMaker® was efficient, capable of electronically capturing a large volume of quantitative and qualitative data. SenseMaker® limitations from a research perspective include lack of skip logic and inability to adjust font size on the iOS app. SenseMaker® was an efficient mixed methods data collection tool that was well received by participants in a refugee setting in Lebanon. The utility of SenseMaker® for research could be improved by adding skip logic and by being able to adjust font size on the iOS app.

  10. Udder and linear body measurement in ewes and does in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-eight lactating does and ewes were used to study partial milk yield, udder dimensions, linear body measurement in ewes, does and performance of their offspring under the traditional system of management. Milk yield, udder dimensions, linear body measurements of dam and offspring were significantly superior in ...

  11. Translating the Devil : religion and modernity among the Ewe in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141961236

    1999-01-01

    This book offers an ethnography of the emergence of a local Christianity and its relation to changing social, political and economic formations among the Peki Ewe in Ghana. Focusing on the Evangelical Presbyterian Church, which arose from encounters between the Ewe and German Piestist missionaries,

  12. Ewe (for Togo). Special Skills Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelka, Paul R., Comp.; Agbovi, Yao Ete, Comp.

    A book of language and cultural material for teachers and students of Ewe presents vocabulary lists and samples of Ewe language in various contexts, including letters, essays, and newspaper articles. Although not presented in lesson format, the material can be adapted by teachers or used by students for independent study. It is divided into two…

  13. the release of luteinizinc hormone {lh) in ewes deprived of prolactin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study aimed to ertablish whether prolactin secretion in lactating ewes influences the release of LH, and the respoffe of the ovary to gonadotropin stimulation. 20 Merino ewes which tambed over an eight-day penod u'ere diyided into two comparable groups of l0 animals. Between day l0 and 20 post-parlurn the lactaiing ...

  14. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  15. Short Communication Effect of selenium-vitamin E injections of ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The injections of Se plus vitamin E significantly increased the incidence of oestrus, fertility and prolificacy in ewes, lamb body weight at day 60 and daily weight gain of ewes for 60 days postpartum compared with the control group. Keywords: keyword; keyword; keyword. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol.

  16. Effect of Using Melatonin Implants on Reproductive Performances in Turcana Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pădeanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated by some authors that the administration of subcutaneous melatonin implants during a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performance in some sheep breeds. This study was conducted in Giarmata Mare, Timis County, on 78 lactating ewes and 75 dry ewes, which were individually inserted with implants containing 18 mg melatonin on 31 August 2009. Control group consisted of 100 lactating and dry ewes in equal proportions. The results shown that the main reproduction indices as prolificacy, birth rate and the lamb number productivity index are significantly (p < 0.05 higher in ewes from the experimental group, compared with ewes from the control group, and that treated ewes shortened the period of mating and lambing to half-time comparing to the control group. There is a suggestion that the use of melatonin implants Melovin ® type near the normal breeding season increases the reproductive performance of ewes from Turcana breed.

  17. The effect of supplementation on milk yield in Boer goat ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    remained relatively constant until the end of the 12-week period. A maximum intake of 721 g per ewe per day occurred during the 7th week of lactation. Supplemented ewes produced on average 11,5% (=. 0,2351/day) more milk than the control group during the. 12-week lactation period. This effect is also evident from.

  18. The value of local treatment in patients with primary, disseminated, multifocal Ewing sarcoma (PDMES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeusler, Julia; Ranft, Andreas; Boelling, Tobias; Gosheger, Georg; Braun-Munzinger, Gabriele; Vieth, Volker; Burdach, Stefan; van den Berg, Henk; Juergens, Heribert; Dirksen, Uta

    2010-01-01

    The value of local treatment in patients with primary, disseminated, multifocal Ewing sarcoma (PDMES) was investigated. We analyzed 120 patients registered into the European Ewing Tumor Working Initiative of National Groups (EURO-E.W.I.N.G. 99) trial at the trial center of Muenster from 1998 to

  19. (q24: q12) translocation is common in Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ewing's sarcoma family can present diagnostic difficulties. In the past the basis of diagnosis has been a exclusion. Identification of a specific translocation especially t(11; 22) (EWS-FLI 1 fusion gene), which is seen in nearly 85% of Ewing's sarcoma cases can help in precise diagnosis. We have carried out a study on ...

  20. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma, a case report on a rare diagnosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraosseous or extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is a very rare mesenchymal soft tissue malignancy. We report on a case of abdominal swelling in an 80-year-old woman caused by a large intra-abdominal EES. This case report illustrates that Ewing's sarcoma can occur in adults and elderly, and highlights the importance of ...

  1. Impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation in twin-bearing ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation (EEgest) in twin-bearing ewes. Multiparous twin-bearing ewes were fed either adequate (A: n = 10) or restricted to 60% of energy and protein requirements (R: n = 10) during the last 6...

  2. Primary ewing sarcoma of the anterior mandible localized to the midline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, E.; Brouns, E.R.E.A.; Korones, D.N.; Pochal, W.F.; Philipone, E.M.; Zegarelli, D.J.; Yoon, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant, small, round blue-cell tumor of the bone that is usually located in the long bones and the pelvis. Fewer than 3% of all Ewing sarcomas originate in the head and neck region and these are mostly located in the posterior mandible. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl

  3. Uterine Torsion in a West African Dwarf Ewe in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Uterine torsion, West African Dwarf Ewe, Ibadan A case of uterine torsion in a 21/2 year old pluriparous West Africa Dwarf (WAD) ewe raised semi intensively with adequate veterinary care before the death of the dam and the lamb is presented. The dam had been off feed for 3 days and was found straining a night ...

  4. Ewing Marion Kauffman School Evaluation Impact Report Year 4. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Demers, Alicia; Johnson, Cleo Jacobs; Gentile, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to raise the academic achievement of children from low-income families in Kansas City, Missouri, the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation founded the Ewing Marion Kauffman School in fall 2011. The Kauffman School's mission is "to prepare students to excel academically, graduate from college, and apply their unique…

  5. Ultilization of nitrogen from feed protein and NPN for milk protein synthesis in the ewe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.; Boldt, E.; Geissler, C.

    1989-01-01

    Two lactating Merino ewes with a rumen fistula were housed in metabolic boxes for N balance studies and fed a diet composed of oats, sugar beet pulp and hay. After adaptation on dietary ammonium sulfate suplementation the ewes received 21 g 15 N-ammonium sulfate daily lasting for 10 days. Uptake and utilization of nitrogen especially for protein syntheses were determined. (author)

  6. feed intake of non.pregnant, pregnant and lactating ewes on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY: The voluntary l'eed intake of non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating Merino- and S.A. Mutton Merino ewes on native pasture and ... On a lucerne diet it was tbund that the average feed intake of the ewes plus that of theirlambspermetabolicbody size of the ..... the calves was added to that of their mothers dunng the.

  7. Blood profile of ewes during third trimester of pregnancy and lactation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cell and leukocyte count of ewes in group A were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those in group B. However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in the potassium, bicarbonate and urea concentrations between ewes in groups A and B. The glucose, sodium and ...

  8. Effect of vitamin E on the immune system of ewes during late pregnancy and lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present experiment was designed to determine the effects of a regimen of repeated, intramuscular (i.m.) injections of vitamin E (VE) on innate and humoral components of the immune response of pregnant and lactating ewes. Pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to two treatments consisting of i.m. i...

  9. Gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis can predispose ewes to clinical mastitis after experimental mammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Gougoulis, D A; Gallidis, E; Ptochos, S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Fthenakis, G C

    2017-10-15

    Objective was to study, in an experimental model, the possible role of gastrointestinal nematode infection in predisposing ewes to mastitis during the lactation period. Twenty-four ewes (A or B [n=12]), free from nematode and trematode helminths, were used. Group A animals received 5000 third-stage larvae of a trichostrongylid helminth cocktail and group B ewes were unparasitised controls. Animals in group A developed gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis confirmed by >500epg in faecal samples; mean epg of group B ewes were mastitis; no ewe in group B developed clinical mastitis, but only subclinical (12 ewes) (P=0.002). M. haemolytica was isolated from 132/132 and 121/132 udder samples from group A or B, respectively (Pmastitis than in others which did not (0.709 and 0.162 versus 0.662 and 0.136, respectively; Pmastitis (in group A or B), inducible-lymphoid-follicles were observed in the teat, which were not observed in ewes with clinical disease. Total pathology scores summed over all days were 127 and 73 for group A or B ewes, respectively (maximum possible 192; Pmastitis. It is concluded that, in view of bacterial challenge, gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis and particularly Teladorsagia infection, might lead to clinical mastitis, through various pathogenetic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oesophageal obstruction in Dorper ewes caused by impaction of a pelleted ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anderson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Two adult Dorper ewes developed an oesophageal obstruction (choke by consuming a pelleted ration. The history, clinical signs and method of treatment were recorded in each case. One case was treated surgically via rumenotomy and the other conservatively. Both ewes recovered uneventfully and no recurrence was observed. Reasons for the compaction of the pelleted ration in the oesophagus are discussed.

  11. Effect of weaning age on hair sheep lamb and ewe production traits in an accelerated lambing system in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Weis, A J

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of weaning age on lamb and ewe productivity in an accelerated lambing system. St. Croix White (STX) and Dorper × St. Croix White (DRPX) lambs were assigned at birth based on breed, gender, and litter size to be weaned at 63 (Early-1; 106 lambs and 68 ewes) or 90 d of age (Late-1; 99 lambs and 60 ewes) in Exp.1 or at 63 (Early-2; 77 lambs and 57 ewes) or 120 d of age (Late-2; 75 lambs and 56 ewes) in Exp. 2. After weaning, lambs were weighed weekly and fed a concentrate ration (2% BW·lamb·d) while grazing guinea grass pastures. In Exp. 1, weaning weight was greater ( ewes than for Early-1 ewes (20.9 ± 0.8 vs. 17.4 ± 0.8 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency ([ewe BW at weaning/litter weaning weight] × 100) was greater ( ewes than for Early-1 ewes (50.7 ± 1.9 vs. 42.3 ± 1.8%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 90 d of age was lower ( ewes than in Early-2 ewes (27.2 ± 1.0 vs. 17.5 ± 0.9 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency was greater ( ewes than for Early-2 ewes (68.1 ± 2.2 vs. 41.9 ± 2.0%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 120 d of age was not different ( > 0.06) between Early-2 and Late-2 lambs (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 1 and 2, ewe BW at breeding and lambing and weaning and lambing rate were not different among weaning ages of lambs ( > 0.17). The Early-1 ewes exhibited estrus earlier than Late-1 ewes (10.9 ± 0.9 vs. 13.9 ± 1.0 d, respectively) but there was no difference ( > 0.63) between Early-2 and Late-2 ewes. Weaning hair lambs at 90 or 120 d of age can be done in an accelerated lambing system with no detrimental effect on lamb or ewe productivity. Late weaning resulted in a decreased number of days that lambs received high-cost, imported feed without a reduction in growth, resulting in savings of US$6 to $15 per lamb.

  12. Effect of the age of rams on reproductive performance of ewe hoggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, P R; Morel, P C H; Morris, S T; West, D M

    2007-08-01

    To determine the effect of the age of rams, used at a standardised ram-to-ewe ratio, on the breeding performance and pregnancy rate of ewe hoggets. Ewe hoggets ((1/2) Romney x (1/4) Texel x (1/4) Finnish Landrace; n=582) aged 7-8 months were exposed to nine two-tooth, harnessed, vasectomised teaser rams for a period of 17 days (Days 1-17). The ewe hoggets were then weighed and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (on Day 18) and joined with either four ram hoggets not used previously (n=194), four two-tooth rams not used previously (n=196), or four mixed-age mature rams (n=192) that had been used previously to mate mature ewes immediately before breeding with the ewe hoggets. The breeding period was 34 days. Ewe hoggets were identified as having been mated during the first 17 days only, during both 17-day periods, during the second 17 days only, or not mated. All ewe hoggets were scanned for pregnancy using ultrasound, 54 days after the end of the breeding period. Liveweights of ewe hoggets did not differ between treatment groups. More ewe hoggets were mated by the mature rams in the first 17 days than by either ram hoggets or two-tooth rams (pewe hoggets mated by mature rams returned to service (failed to conceive), and the percentage of ewe hoggets bred in the first 17 days only or pregnant from a service in the first 17 days did not differ significantly between groups. Fewer of the ewe hoggets joined with ram hoggets were diagnosed as pregnant after 34 days of breeding compared with those joined with either two-tooth or mature rams (pewe hoggets failed to be mated at all by ram hoggets compared with those joined with mature rams (pewe hoggets joined with ram hoggets not to be mated at all compared with those joined with two-tooth rams (p=0.07). Two-tooth rams previously unused and mature rams previously used for mating were a better option than unused ram hoggets to maximise the pregnancy rate of ewe hoggets to a 34-day breeding period. However

  13. Genetic correlations between body weight change and reproduction traits in Merino ewes depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; van der Werf, J H J; Thompson, A N; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-08-01

    Merino sheep in Australia experience periods of variable feed supply. Merino sheep can be bred to be more resilient to this variation by losing less BW when grazing poor quality pasture and gaining more BW when grazing good quality pasture. Therefore, selection on BW change might be economically attractive but correlations with other traits in the breeding objective need to be known. The genetic correlations (rg) between BW, BW change, and reproduction were estimated using records from approximately 7,350 fully pedigreed Merino ewes managed at Katanning in Western Australia. Number of lambs and total weight of lambs born and weaned were measured on approximately 5,300 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 4,900 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 3,600 4-yr-old ewes. On a proportion of these ewes BW change was measured: approximately 1,950 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 1,500 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 1,100 4-yr-old ewes. The BW measurements were for 3 periods. The first period was during mating period over 42 d on poor pasture. The second period was during pregnancy over 90 d for ewes that got pregnant on poor and medium quality pasture. The third period was during lactation over 130 d for ewes that weaned a lamb on good quality pasture. Genetic correlations between weight change and reproduction were estimated within age classes. Genetic correlations were tested to be significantly greater magnitude than 0 using likelihood ratio tests. Nearly all BW had significant positive genetic correlations with all reproduction traits. In 2-yr-old ewes, BW change during the mating period had a positive genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = 0.58); BW change during pregnancy had a positive genetic correlation with total weight of lambs born (rg = 0.33) and a negative genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = -0.49). All other genetic correlations were not significantly greater magnitude than 0 but estimates of genetic correlations for 3-yr-old ewes were

  14. The Educational Needs of and Barriers Faced by Syrian Refugee Students in Turkey: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hasan; Kaya, Yeliz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the educational status of Syrian refugees in Turkish schools, and the perspectives of teachers and school principals regarding the needs of Syrian refugee students in two inner-city elementary schools in Istanbul, Turkey. A qualitative interpretive case study method was employed. Eight participants (seven…

  15. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges Orion... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  16. The Role of L+ Turkish and English Learning in Resilience: A Case of Syrian Students at Gaziantep University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinkara, Emrah

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated Syrian students' resilience, the ability to bounce back from some form of disaster, disruption, stress, or change. The situation in Syria caused thousands of deaths and millions of refugees, which is the main source of disaster and Syrian students need to recover from this. According to UNHCR, Turkey welcomed around…

  17. A Content Analysis on the Representation of Syrian Asylum Seekers in the Turkish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Pandır

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a content analysis of the representation of Syrian asylum seekers in the Turkish press. The research sample includes news reports, columns and visuals published in 2014 in five national newspapers with the highest circulation figures (“Hürriyet”, “Sabah”, “Posta”, “Sözcü”, “Zaman”. The article is part of a larger research project, which is funded by TÜBİTAK, investigating the representation of Syrian asylum seekers between 2011 and 2015 in Turkish newspapers. Analysing news texts and columns is widely held in research projects. However, conducting a visual analysis on news photographs is usually overlooked. This study investigates news texts and news photographs together. The study shows that the coverage of Syrian asylum seekers has usually a positive or neutral content. However, the results also point out the ambivalence in the representations of asylum seekers. The representations of Syrian asylum seekers portray these individuals mostly as “poor” people “in need of help” as well as “threats” for social security. These frequently repeated representations and ambivalence show that the representation of Syrian asylum seekers in Turkish newspapers reproduces the stereotypical representation of asylum seekers as defined in international studies.

  18. Heart Disease in Syrian Refugee Children: Experience at Jordan University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ammouri, Iyad; Ayoub, Fares

    2016-01-01

    Since March 2011, an estimated 600,000 Syrian refugees crossed into Jordan, of which 52% were children. Demand for health care is overwhelming. The burden of heart disease in Syrian refugee children is not known. The aim of this study WAS to describe heart disease in Syrian refugee children in terms of diagnoses, presentation, outcome, and funding sources for treatment. From April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2014, data on Syrian refugee children who were referred to the Pediatric Cardiology Department at Jordan University Hospital and were found to have heart disease was recorded. In this study, we describe diagnoses, presentations, complications, and mortality. We discuss therapeutic procedures and their funding sources. Patients were followed until July 31, 2014. In all, 119 children, median age 2 years (6 days to 16 years), were diagnosed with heart disease. At presentation, 37% had failure to thrive, 13% had severe complications, and 32% of cyanotic patients had severe hypoxia with oxygen saturation of Syrian refugee children constitutes a major problem for both patients and health systems of host countries. Late presentation and diagnosis, high rate of complications, suboptimal living conditions, lack of funding, shortage of specialized centers and personnel, and high mortality rates are among the major challenges facing this patient population. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pregnancy outcomes among Syrian refugee and Jordanian women: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, K; Kassab, M; Ali, R; Mohammad, K; Shattnawi, K

    2017-12-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes of Syrian refugee women and Jordanian women. In the past few years, thousands of Syrians fled Syria to neighbouring countries such as Jordan as a result of the continuing conflict in their country. Pregnant refugee women are facing many difficulties that increase the prevalence of antenatal complications. However, there is limited awareness of whether Syrian refugee women have different risks of pregnancy outcomes than Jordanian women. Using a retrospective cohort design, we examined pregnancy outcomes for Syrian refugee (N = 616) and Jordanian women (N = 644) giving birth at two governmental hospital in northern Jordan, between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2014. A checklist of 13 variables was utilized. The primary outcome measures were delivery by Caesarean section, maternal complications, low birthweight (Syrian refugees and Jordan women is a healthcare priority. The findings could guide the planning and development of health policies in Jordan that would help to alleviate the situation regarding refugee populations. Action is required by policy makers, specifically targeting public and primary healthcare services, to address the problem of adequately meeting the needs for antenatal care of this vulnerable population. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Revisiting leishmaniasis in the time of war: the Syrian conflict and the Lebanese outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawieh, Ali; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Jaber, Amani; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Bizri, Abdul Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in many worldwide foci including the Middle East. Several outbreaks have occurred in the Middle East over the past decades, mostly related to war-associated population migration. With the start of the Syrian war, the frequency and magnitude of these outbreaks increased alarmingly. We describe the epidemiology of Leishmania infection in Lebanon and the most recent outbreak relevant to the Syrian war. We reviewed all leishmaniasis cases reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and the first quarter of 2014. The demographics and distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon were linked to reports of new Leishmania cases. In total, 1033 new cases of leishmaniasis were reported in 2013 compared to a previous annual number in the range of 0-6 cases. The majority of cases reported in 2013 involved Syrian refugees and their relevant areas of concentration. This new outbreak of leishmaniasis in Lebanon is the first of its kind for more than a decade. The sudden increase in Leishmania cases in Lebanon in 2013 is attributed to the increasing numbers and wide distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. This serves as an example of the risks associated with military conflicts and the ability of communicable diseases to cross borders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Social Media in the ‘Syrian Uprising’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araz Ramazan Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, which is entitled ‘The Role of Social Media in the ‘Syrian Uprising’ aimed to report on survey research conducted  which identify the role of played by social media  in the ‘Syrian Uprising’ Currently social media tools were good mediums of electronic communication among protesters in Syria. Further, it was a vital medium for spreading information such as photos, videos and documents about the revolution for national, regional and international spheres. This paper looked at the impact and relationship between protesters and Syrian people who used social media ,technology and the nature of its role in the ‘Syrian Uprising ‘ as well as the study has made a controversial argument between different views of scholars about the subject and its case. This paper has interviewed 30 protesters inside Syria through a survey. This study, demonstrate the appeal that social media can have both positive and negative points in the ‘Syrian uprising’.

  2. Whole-Body Radiation Therapy, Systemic Chemotherapy, and High-Dose Chemotherapy Followed By Stem Cell Rescue in Treating Patients With Poor-Risk Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-07

    Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  3. Relationships between prenatal ewe traits, milk production, and preweaning performance of twin lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, A S; Morel, P C H; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T

    2016-08-01

    There is limited information on factors affecting twin lamb growth before weaning, which limits the options available to farmers to actively manage lamb growth. Data from 2 multiyear experiments involving 402 twin-bearing Romney ewes were used to evaluate the effects of prenatal ewe traits (live weight at mating and set stocking and BCS at mating and set stocking) and combined twin lamb birth weight on ewe milk production and lamb growth from birth to weaning as well as the proportion of variation in twin lamb growth that could be explained by these variables. Additionally, the effect of accumulated ewe milk yield over a 42-d period (MY; Days 0 to 42) and accumulated milk components (protein, fat, and lactose) on twin lamb growth were investigated. The effects of prenatal variables on MY, birth weight, and combined twin lamb live weight gain from Day 0 to 42 (LWG) were inconsistent across the 2 experiments. In addition, prenatal ewe traits ( ewe MY ( = 0.43 for Exp. 1 and = 0.30 for Exp. 2). Lactose, fat, and milk CP yields explained 47 and 42% of the variation in lamb LWG in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Lactose and milk CP yield positively affected ( ewe traits had a minimal effect on milk yield and twin lamb growth to weaning. Milk yield and composition explained the greatest proportion of variation in LWG. This suggests that farmers should select ewes with higher milk yields to maximize twin lamb growth to weaning. However, less than 50% of the variation in LWG and weaning live weight was explained by the measured ewe and lamb parameters. Therefore, further studies are required to determine additional ewe or lamb variables that control variation in twin lamb growth.

  4. Variable expression of PIK3R3 and PTEN in Ewing Sarcoma impacts oncogenic phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Niemeyer

    Full Text Available Ewing Sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue affecting children and young adults. Ewing Sarcoma is driven by EWS/Ets fusion oncoproteins, which cause widespread alterations in gene expression in the cell. Dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, particularly involving IGF-1R, also plays an important role in Ewing Sarcoma pathogenesis. However, the basis of this dysregulation, including the relative contribution of EWS/Ets-dependent and independent mechanisms, is not well understood. In the present study, we identify variable expression of two modifiers of PI3K signaling activity, PIK3R3 and PTEN, in Ewing Sarcoma, and examine the consequences of this on PI3K pathway regulation and oncogenic phenotypes. Our findings indicate that PIK3R3 plays a growth-promotional role in Ewing Sarcoma, but suggest that this role is not strictly dependent on regulation of PI3K pathway activity. We further show that expression of PTEN, a well-established, potent tumor suppressor, is lost in a subset of Ewing Sarcomas, and that this loss strongly correlates with high baseline PI3K pathway activity in cell lines. In support of functional importance of PTEN loss in Ewing Sarcoma, we show that re-introduction of PTEN into two different PTEN-negative Ewing Sarcoma cell lines results in downregulation of PI3K pathway activity, and sensitization to the IGF-1R small molecule inhibitor OSI-906. Our findings also suggest that PTEN levels may contribute to sensitivity of Ewing Sarcoma cells to the microtubule inhibitor vincristine, a relevant chemotherapeutic agent in this cancer. Our studies thus identify PIK3R3 and PTEN as modifiers of oncogenic phenotypes in Ewing Sarcoma, with potential clinical implications.

  5. Successful induction of oestrus, ovulation and pregnancy in adult ewes and ewe lambs out of the breeding season using a GnRH+progesterone oestrus synchronisation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M F; McLeod, B; Tattersfield, G; Smaill, B; Quirke, L D; Juengel, J L

    2015-04-01

    A series of experiments was designed to assess the effect of a treatment protocol (U-synch) for inducing oestrus and ovulation out of the breeding season in adult ewes and ewe lambs. The protocol consisted of a 7-day treatment with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD), administration of GnRH at IPRD insertion on Day 0, and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and prostaglandin F2α at IPRD removal on Day 7. In Experiment 1, 50 or 100 μg GnRH were sufficient to induce ovulation at the beginning of the protocol in 3/9 and 4/9 ewes, respectively; while the resulting proportion of sheep ovulating after the treatment protocol was 88.9% and 77.8% in ewes initially treated with 50 or 100 μg GnRH, respectively. In Experiment 2, the proportion of Romney-cross ewe lambs ovulating was greater (Pewes and ewe lambs. High pregnancy rates to natural mating, with a low rate of triplet pregnancies, were also observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The potential interaction between ewe body condition score and nutrition during very late pregnancy and lactation on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Cranston

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe body condition score (BCS (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0 and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. Methods On day 142 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a BCS of 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 were allocated to a “Moderate’ or ‘Unrestricted’ nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning. The nutritional treatments aimed to achieve average herbage masses of 1,200 to 1,300 kg dry matter (DM/ha (Moderate and 1,500 to 1,800 kg DM/ha (Unrestricted. Results There were no three-way interactions between ewe BCS group, nutritional treatment and time for any ewe or lamb parameter. The nutritional treatments had no effect (p>0.05 on lamb birth or weaning weight. Lambs born to Moderate ewes had greater survival and total litter weight at weaning (p1,200 kg DM/ha during very late pregnancy and lactation.

  7. The potential interaction between ewe body condition score and nutrition during very late pregnancy and lactation on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, L M; Kenyon, P R; Corner-Thomas, R A; Morris, S T

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe body condition score (BCS) (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0) and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses) during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. On day 142 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a BCS of 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 were allocated to a "Moderate' or 'Unrestricted' nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning). The nutritional treatments aimed to achieve average herbage masses of 1,200 to 1,300 kg dry matter (DM)/ha (Moderate) and 1,500 to 1,800 kg DM/ha (Unrestricted). There were no three-way interactions between ewe BCS group, nutritional treatment and time for any ewe or lamb parameter. The nutritional treatments had no effect (p>0.05) on lamb birth or weaning weight. Lambs born to Moderate ewes had greater survival and total litter weight at weaning (p1,200 kg DM/ha during very late pregnancy and lactation.

  8. Endotoxin-induced inflammation disturbs melatonin secretion in ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Wojtulewicz, Karolina; Bochenek, Joanna; Krawczyńska, Agata; Antushevich, Hanna; Pawlina, Bartosz; Zielińska-Górska, Marlena; Herman, Anna; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    The study examined the effect of intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -on the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and on the expression of enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewes, taking into account two different photoperiodic conditions: short-night (SN; n = 12) and long-night (LN; n = 12). In both experiments, animals (n = 12) were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 6) and LPS-treated (n = 6) one. Two hours after sunset, animals received an injection of LPS or saline. Blood samples were collected starting one hour after sunset and continuing for 3 hours after the treatment. The ewes were euthanized 3 hours after LPS/saline treatment. The concentration of hormones in plasma was assayed by radioimmunoassay. In the pineal gland, the content of serotonin and its metabolite was determined by HPLC; whereas the expression of examined genes and protein was assayed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, respectively. Endotoxin administration lowered (pewes from SN photoperiod only in the third hour after the injection. Inflammation more substantially suppressed biosynthesis of melatonin in ewes from SN photoperiod, which were also characterised by lower (pewes subjected to SN photoperiod, LPS reduced (p<0.05) serotonin content and the expression of melatonin biosynthetic pathway enzymes, such as tryptophan hydroxylase and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase. Pineal activity may be disturbed by circulating LPS and proinflammatory cytokines because the expression of mRNAs encoding their corresponding receptors was determined in this gland. The present study showed that peripheral inflammation reduces the secretion of melatonin, but this effect may be influenced by the photoperiod.

  9. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R

    2013-05-01

    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (Psheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of breed type and lactation status on reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breed types and lactation status on reproductive performance of hormonally-treated Awassi ewes. A total of 282 ewes were treated with intravaginal progestagen sponges and equine chorionic gonadotropin. Ewes were mated with fertile rams following sponge removal.

  11. A Case of Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devorah Marks Stowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 2-year-old open Suffolk ewe presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex for evaluation of a left nasal mass. An ultrasound-guided aspirate and core biopsies were performed. An epithelial neoplasia with mild mixed inflammation (neutrophils and plasma cells was diagnosed on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. IHC and RT-PCR identified the presence of enzootic nasal tumor virus and confirmed the final diagnosis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma.

  12. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between lamb and ewe traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated between lamb and ewe traits in a flock of Sabi sheep reared at the Matopos Research Station. Direct additive estimates of heritability were: 0.28 ? 0.04; 0.17 ? 0.00; 0.25 ? 0.01; 0.39 ? 0.01; 0.59 ? 0.01; 0.50 ? 0.01; 0.68 ? .03; 0.12 ? 0.003; 0.25 ? 0.01; 0.11 ? 0.00; 0.12 ?

  13. Skull-base Ewing sarcoma with multifocal extracranial metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Thakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial occurrence of Ewing sarcoma (ES is unusual, with a skull-base location being anecdotal. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with rapidly progressive ophthalmoplegia, and was found to be harboring an infiltrative lesion involving the sphenoid sinus, sella, and clivus. He underwent trans-sphenoidal decompression of the lesion which was histologically suggestive of ES. He developed paraparesis 2 weeks after commencing adjuvant therapy. Imaging revealed two thoracic extradural lesions and florid vertebral and pulmonary metastases. This is the first report in indexed literature of a primary intracranial ES on the skull-base with disseminated extracranial disease.

  14. Comparative effects of direct-fed microbials alone or with a trace minerals supplements on the productive performance, blood metabolites, and antioxidant status in grazing Awassi lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, I A; Abdelrahman, M M; Khan, R U

    2016-12-01

    Twenty Awassi lambs were used to find the effects of direct-fed microbials (DFM) and long-acting trace minerals rumen bolus (TMB) supplements on performance, blood biochemical variables, and antioxidant status of the lambs under grazing conditions. The lambs were randomly distributed into four groups as follows: (1) untreated, (2) oral dose of 5 mL DFM, (3) TMB, or (4) oral dose of 5 mL DFM and TMB. The treatments were carried out for 90 days. Supplementation with TMB significantly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency compared with the control. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in blood albumin in the DFM and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in aspartate aminotrasferase were found in the lambs supplemented with TMB alone or in combination with DFM. Supplementing lambs with TMB resulted in higher glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001) and activity of superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05) compared with no supplementation and supplementation with DFM only. In conclusion, TMB supplementation had a positive impact on performance traits and the antioxidant system of the lambs under grazing condition.

  15. Ideological Tensions in the Ranks of Syrian Officers: the Trigger of Military Circles Transformation in the Country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kostrounova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the research by some authors on the Syrian Arab Republic and its stand in the Middle East Region, little is known about the perspective of the Syrian military, unofficially called the “elder statesman”, who rules this country. The overall image that emerges not only from the Arab media during the revolutionary year 2011 is ambivalent: lazy, corrupt, unpatriotic, apathetic soldiers with poor fighting spirits versus the Free Syrian Army newly formed in July 2011. This paper recovers some perspectives of the Syrian revolt and tries to answer, whether or whether not is the newly based military opposition in the country a real threat to the Assad regime. An analysis of historical background, Syrian veterans, relation between the official political doctrine and Islam brings new perspectives and own explanations that could even challenge some of the widely held assumptions about the Syrian military: 1 There is and won’t be any “civil war” in the Syrian Arab Republic at all; this conflict should be viewed as Islamic fitna and its roots come from the 1970’s. It is a regime strongly connected to rife corruption at the top ranks, hurting the morale of the lower, but stronger Islamic ranks; 2 Doctrinal relations between the Syrian army and official religious authorities in the Muslim world have been always tense; and 3 The Syrian army would have found the necessity of its own, inner transformation despite of the so-called “Arab Spring 2011”. This paper suggests that the character of the Syrian national revolt may be intended to reflect a deeper ideological antagonism between the Sunni and Shia Islam.

  16. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M.; Al-Ali, A.; Jubeli, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Groundwater radon data were recorded once every two months from six monitoring sites of the Syrian rift valley during the year 1996. Radon samples were measured from deep artesian wells and from continuously-flowing springs that are distributed along this most active seismic zone in Syria. The available data were integrated with previously measured groundwater radon data from the same stations in order to estimate the range of normal radon fluctuations in the region. The estimation of such range may enable the separation between usual groundwater radon variations from other outliers which may indicate possible tectonic activities or earthquake hazards in the study area. Periodical radon measurements based on two months intervals and long distance between sampling stations does not enable us to trust with high level of confidence the connection between radon values and any possible earth dynamics. Therefore, shorter measuring time with closer monitoring sites are highly recommended to achieve the optimum advantage of such application. (Author). 8 Figs., 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

  17. Enhancing need satisfaction to reduce psychological distress in Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Khabbaz, Farah; Legate, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Becoming a refugee is a potent risk factor for indicators of psychological distress such as depression, generalized stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though research into this vulnerable population has been scant, with even less work focusing on interventions. The current study applied principles from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) to develop and test an intervention aimed at increasing need-satisfying experiences in refugees of Syrian civil unrest. Forty-one refugees who fled Syria during the past 24 months and resettled in Jordan participated in the study and were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or a neutral comparison. The 1-week-long intervention alleviated some of the need frustration likely associated with refugee status, a major aim of the intervention, and also lowered refugees' self-reported symptoms of depression and generalized stress as compared to the comparison condition, though it did not reduce symptoms of PTSD. Discussion focuses on how these findings speak to the universal importance of need satisfaction for mental health, and how need-satisfying experiences can help buffer against the profound stress of being a refugee. Avenues for longer-term or more intensive interventions that may target more severe outcomes of refugee experiences, such as PTSD symptoms, are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. SOME ASPECTS OF THE INTEGRATION OF SYRIAN REFUGEES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bariscil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, Turkey -once a quite uniform country- is home for one of the largest refugees population on Earth. The massive influx of asylum-seekers did not only transform Turkey in terms of ethnic and religious diversity but featured a major challenge and national security issue. After six years of experience as a host country, the Middle Eastern nation is still in the learning phase of a much longer process of amalgamation of ethnic Turks, Kurds and other minorities with Turkish passport and Syrian refugees. In our current paper using a set of diverse sources (analysis, survey, description and fresh news and both quantitative and qualitative approaches, we would like to present a concise governmental policy designed to accommodate better those who are still considered to be special guests of the Turkish nation. This plan has five main steps to be analyzed. Namely, we have to deal with the questions of providing security, material goods, proper education and Turkish language instruction and an opportunity to work and do business. Finally, we would like to underline the fact that the success of this process largely depends on the quality of education of both refugees and Turks in order to better know and accept each other.

  19. Health system resilience: Lebanon and the Syrian refugee crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Kdouh, Ola; Hammoud, Rawan; Hamadeh, Randa; Harb, Hilda; Ammar, Zeina; Atun, Rifat; Christiani, David; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-12-01

    Between 2011 and 2013, the Lebanese population increased by 30% due to the influx of Syrian refugees. While a sudden increase of such magnitude represents a shock to the health system, threatening the continuity of service delivery and destabilizing governance, it also offers a unique opportunity to study resilience of a health system amidst ongoing crisis. We conceptualized resilience as the capacity of a health system to absorb internal or external shocks (for example prevent or contain disease outbreaks and maintain functional health institutions) while sustaining achievements. We explored factors contributing to the resilience of the Lebanese health system, including networking with stakeholders, diversification of the health system, adequate infrastructure and health human resources, a comprehensive communicable disease response and the integration of the refugees within the health system. In studying the case of Lebanon we used input-process-output-outcome approach to assess the resilience of the Lebanese health system. This approach provided us with a holistic view of the health system, as it captured not only the sustained and improved outcomes, but also the inputs and processes leading to them. Our study indicates that the Lebanese health system was resilient as its institutions sustained their performance during the crisis and even improved.

  20. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-22

    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Our vascular surgery experiences in Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İyad Fansa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, numerous vascular injured patients are admitted to our hospital with gunshot wounds. In this study, patients who admitted our hospital, diagnosed with vascular trauma due to gunshot were evaluated with the respect of injury site, additional injuries, surgical interventions and outcomes. Methods: The study included 58 patients wounded in Syrian war and admitted to our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.09.2014. Results= There were 5.1% (n=3 female and 94.9% (n=55 male patients. Age range is 5-75 years and the average of age was identified as 28.61. In 12.1% (n=7 of patients with extensive tissue defects of the muscle-nerve-bone injury has been identified, despite the vascular interventions in these patients, 8.6% (n=5 of patients, the limb has been amputated. Totally 15.5% (n=9 of 58 operated patients died. Two patients died because of major vascular injury with intra-abdominal organ injuries. In one patient; infection induced sepsis and multi organ failure was detected. Six patients were lost due to hypovolemic shock as a result of late arriving. Conclusion: In patients admitted with gunshot vascular injury arrival time, the presence of additional injuries and the location of injury affect mortality rates.

  2. Health system resilience: Lebanon and the Syrian refugee crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Kdouh, Ola; Hammoud, Rawan; Hamadeh, Randa; Harb, Hilda; Ammar, Zeina; Atun, Rifat; Christiani, David; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Background Between 2011 and 2013, the Lebanese population increased by 30% due to the influx of Syrian refugees. While a sudden increase of such magnitude represents a shock to the health system, threatening the continuity of service delivery and destabilizing governance, it also offers a unique opportunity to study resilience of a health system amidst ongoing crisis. Methods We conceptualized resilience as the capacity of a health system to absorb internal or external shocks (for example prevent or contain disease outbreaks and maintain functional health institutions) while sustaining achievements. We explored factors contributing to the resilience of the Lebanese health system, including networking with stakeholders, diversification of the health system, adequate infrastructure and health human resources, a comprehensive communicable disease response and the integration of the refugees within the health system. Results In studying the case of Lebanon we used input–process–output–outcome approach to assess the resilience of the Lebanese health system. This approach provided us with a holistic view of the health system, as it captured not only the sustained and improved outcomes, but also the inputs and processes leading to them. Conclusion Our study indicates that the Lebanese health system was resilient as its institutions sustained their performance during the crisis and even improved. PMID:28154758

  3. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2006-10-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites(Al Basset, Lattakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus persicus and Spondylus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus persicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  4. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites (Al Basset, Latakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus gaederopus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus decorus persicus and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus decoruspersicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  5. Representing Migration: Analysis of Media Portrayals of Syrian Migrant Women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhdan Uzun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The media coverage of women migrations has played an important role in shaping public opinion and governmental policies. This article aims at exploring the media portrayals of Syrian Migrant Women in Turkey. For this purpose, the research data were collected from the three Turkish online newspaper websites, Hürriyet, Birgün and Sabah, each of which has different editorial policy in representing migration, during one year period. The findings of quantitative content analysis of the news stories regarding Syrian migrant women would provide an understanding of the gender dimension of migration in Turkey. It concludes that Syrian Migrant Women in Turkey generally are reported on crime news and are framed as victims or perpetrators. However, the newspapers rarely report their hard living conditions.

  6. Voices and visions of Syrian video activists in Aleppo and Raqqa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of Syrian protesters took mobile phones to record the events taking place in front of their eyes, many recorded the bombings and other atrocities as well as countless videos that were uploaded on YouTube by various groups in the conflict, to be exposed to a worldwide audience. This paper...... Syrian video activists and their grassroot video work in Aleppo and Raqqa province. The research methodology is based on on-line visual observation of You Tube clips, original semi-structured interviews with video activists and field visits to Gaziantep in Turkey and Aleppo province in Syria, during...... Summer 2014. The paper provides an audiovisual ethnography and describes the background and life-stories of Syrian video activists and documentary filmmakers, considering their motivations behind on-line video work and looks at the complex relationships between them and the international media covering...

  7. Hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashour, H; Muhjazi, G

    2016-07-10

    This paper reviews the epidemiology and determinants of hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic as well as their treatment and prevention. A systematic search of Medline, PubMed and Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region was carried out in addition to a review of grey literature and relevant datasets in the Syrian Arab Republic. Low to low-intermediate levels of endemicity of both infections were noted at the national level. However, striking geographic differences and high prevalence among high-risk groups were noticeable. As a result of data limitations, further research is needed, and a national control strategy to combat hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic should be developed, especially during the current conflict.

  8. Effects of residual feed intake classification and method of alfalfa processing on ewe intake and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P ewes in the low than high RFI group (-0.27 vs. 0.27); however, RFI values did not differ (P = 1.0) between yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa. Dry matter intake was 22% less (P ewes in the low than high RFI group (2.5 vs. 3.2 kg/d) and 59% less (P ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa (2.2 vs. 3.5 kg/d). Initial and final BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P ewes fed pelleted alfalfa compared to chopped alfalfa. Final LMA did not differ (P = 0.77) between RFI groups, but final BF tended to be greater (P = 0.06) for high than low RFI yearling ewes (0.63 vs

  9. Transfer of radiocesium from different environmental sources to ewes and suckling lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Mayes, R.W.; Beresford, N.A.; Lamb, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor experiments are described that compare the transfer of radiocesium to ewe and lamb tissues from different sources. Lactating ewes were fed either perennial ryegrass contaminated by Chernobyl fallout, or saltmarsh vegetation contaminated by marine discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The transfer to ewe tissues and milk was greater from the Chernobyl contaminated herbage than from saltmarsh vegetation. Lambs receiving a mixture of vegetation and milk were given radiocesium from one of the two vegetation sources or from milk obtained from the experimental ewes. Transfer to lamb tissues declined in the order milk greater than Chernobyl fallout greater than Sellafield discharge. The radiocesium transfer to lamb tissues exceeded that to ewe tissues. Transfer coefficients for 137Cs in the Chernobyl fallout were higher than most previously published figures at 0.12 d kg-1 for ewe muscle and 0.50 d kg-1 for lamb muscle. The transfer coefficient for 137Cs from ewe milk to lamb muscle was 1.20 d kg-1

  10. Circalunar Rhythms Induced Changes in the Body Functions and Reproductive Performance in Pregnant Ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Darawany, A.A.; El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.

    2014-01-01

    A total number of 136 pregnant ewes with the same age and parity were used in the present study. The experimental ewes reared during Arabic months or lunar months, from the 1st Gomady to Zol-hega, 1432 AH. The available data for each animal were obtained from the records of Sheep Farm, Project of Experimental Farms. Lambing season started at months, Shawal to Zol-hega. After lambing, the ewes were divided into three groups according to moon phases. Ewes in the 1st group laboured in new moon phase period. The ewes in the 2nd and the 3rd groups laboured in full and old moon phases, respectively. The study was conducted to determine the changes in the body functions and reproductive of pregnant ewes due to the effect of lunar cycle which causes the increase of births by up to 72% in the full moon phase. The results showed that, a significant increase in feed and water consumption, the activity of liver enzymes, concentration of cholesterol, triglyceride, kidney functions and also the hormone thyroxine and triiodothyronine was recorded during full moon, on the contrary, there was a significant decrease in the concentration of total protein, albumin, glucose, calcium, phosphorus and cortisol in the blood of pregnant ewes was recorded during full moon phases followed by new and old moon. On the other hand, reproductive traits including litter size at birth and weaning and mortality rate were recorded during different moon phases.

  11. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  12. Neural Systems Mediating Seasonal Breeding in the Ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R. L.; Jansen, H.T.; Billings, H. J.; Coolen, L.M.; Lehman, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction in ewes is caused by a dramatic increase in response to oestradiol (E2) negative feedback during the non-breeding (anoestrous) season. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that A15 dopaminergic (DA) neurones in the retrochiasmatic area (RCh) play a key role in these seasonal changes. These A15 neurones are stimulated by E2 and inhibit GnRH secretion in anoestrus, but not the breeding season. Because A15 neurones do not contain estrogen receptors-α (ERα), it is likely that E2-responsive afferents stimulate their activity when circulating E2 levels increase during anoestrus. Retrograde tract tracing studies identified a limited set of ERα-containing afferents primarily found in four areas (ventromedial preoptic area, RCh, ventromedial and arcuate [ARC] nuclei). Pharmacological and anatomical data are consistent with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glutamate-containing afferents controlling A15 activity in anoestrus, with E2 inhibiting GABA and stimulating glutamate release at this time of year. Tract tracing demonstrated that A15 efferents project posteriorly to the median eminence and the ARC, suggesting possible direct actions on GnRH terminals or indirect actions via kisspeptin neurones in the ARC to inhibit GnRH in anoestrus. Identification of this neural circuitry sets the stage for development of specific hypotheses for morphological or transmitter/receptor expression changes that would account for seasonal breeding in ewes. PMID:20456601

  13. Comparison of antioxidant capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye; Ozcan, Tulay; Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Sahin, Saliha

    2018-02-21

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of using either grain or commercial starter culture on the antioxidative capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs. The antioxidant capacity of kefir samples during fermentation and 21 d of storage was assessed by using 3 assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolorization; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH • ) radical scavenging activity assay; and Fe +3 -reducing power (ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, FRAP). Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were also quantified. All kefir samples exhibited varying values for DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays depending on the starter culture and milk type. Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were similar in all kefir samples during storage. The results of this study suggest that milk type (cow or ewe) and culture type (kefir grains or commercial starter) were the significant parameters for the antioxidative activity of kefir. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ewe welfare and ovine milk and cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Causes of welfare reduction in dairy sheep flocks are presented and their impact on ovine milk and cheese quality is discussed. Attention is focused on climatic extremes, poor housing and milking hygiene, and nutritional imbalance: mechanisms are outlined through which stress-induced reduction of immune function can result in poor milk composition, deteriorated renneting ability of milk and altered proteolysis in cheese during ripening. In particular, the impact is brought out of exposure to high ambient temperature on the nutritional properties of ewe milk, in terms of increased short-chain and saturated fatty acids, and decreased unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. As well, the relationship is highlighted between ewe welfare and udder health. Especially under poor hygiene conditions the risk of mastitis markedly increases due to reduction of the natural defense mechanisms of the teat and mammary gland and increased number and pathogenicity of the micro-organisms in contact with the entrance of the teat canal. Evidence is provided that rise in milk somatic cell count, in response to bacteria penetration into the udder, can lead to decreased milk yield and altered composition of milk and cheese, due to extensive epithelium secretory cell damage.

  15. Radioactivity and concentration of some trace elements in sponges distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.; Ammar, I.

    2009-07-01

    natural and artificial radionuclides ( 210 Po, 210 Pb, 40 K, 137 Cs, 234 U, 238 U) and concentration of some trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in several types of sponges distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied. The samples were collected from four stations distributed at the Syrian coast (Al-Basset, Lattakia, Banise, Tartous). Concentration factors (CF) for the studied radionuclides and trace elements have been calculated in order to determine the sponges types to be used as biomonitors for the radionuclides and trace elements. (authors)

  16. Adversarial Framing: President Bashar al-Assad’s Depiction of the Armed Syrian Opposition

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Merz

    2014-01-01

    'This paper evaluates how Syrian president Bashar al-Assad is framing his opponents in the context of the Syrian civil war. The question is addressed by conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of 13 interviews he gave to international television news networks and newspapers between March and November 2013. It is found that Al-Assad consequently labels the armed opposition as “terrorists” preponderantly composed of groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda. The “terrorists” are framed as posing a threa...

  17. The authoritarian castling of the Syrian regime: from popular uprising to civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.

  18. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian Petroleum Company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Awad, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the syrian Petroleum Company Oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  19. Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Syrians affected by armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, G; Ventevogel, P; Jefee-Bahloul, H; Barkil-Oteo, A; Kirmayer, L J

    2016-04-01

    This paper is based on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which aims to provide information on cultural aspects of mental health and psychosocial wellbeing relevant to care and support for Syrians affected by the crisis. This paper aims to inform mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) staff of the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing issues facing Syrians who are internally displaced and Syrian refugees. We conducted a systematic literature search designed to capture clinical, social science and general literature examining the mental health of the Syrian population. The main medical, psychological and social sciences databases (e.g. Medline, PubMed, PsycInfo) were searched (until July 2015) in Arabic, English and French language sources. This search was supplemented with web-based searches in Arabic, English and French media, and in assessment reports and evaluations, by nongovernmental organisations, intergovernmental organisations and agencies of the United Nations. This search strategy should not be taken as a comprehensive review of all issues related to MHPSS of Syrians as some unpublished reports and evaluations were not reviewed. Conflict affected Syrians may experience a wide range of mental health problems including (1) exacerbations of pre-existing mental disorders; (2) new problems caused by conflict related violence, displacement and multiple losses; as well as (3) issues related to adaptation to the post-emergency context, for example living conditions in the countries of refuge. Some populations are particularly vulnerable such as men and women survivors of sexual or gender based violence, children who have experienced violence and exploitation and Syrians who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersex. Several factors influence access to MHPSS services including language barriers, stigma associated with seeking mental health care and the power dynamics of the helping relationship. Trust

  20. Phenotypic factors affecting coagulation properties of milk from Sarda ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzola, M; Dettori, M L; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Vacca, G M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, milk-coagulation properties (MCP) were characterized in the Sarda sheep breed. Milk composition and MCP [rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time [time to reach a curd firmness of 20mm (k20)], and curd firmness (a30), (a45), and (a60)] were obtained extending the lactodynamographic analysis from 30 to 60 min from a population of 1,121 ewes from 23 different farms. Managerial characteristics of farms and parity, individual daily milk yields and stage of lactation of ewes were recorded. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model procedure with fixed effects of days in milk, parity, daily milk yield, and flock size and the random effect of the flock/test day nested within flock size. Sampled farms were classified as small (600 ewes), often operated through hired workers. Daily milk yield was, on average, 1.58 ± 0.79 L/d and variability for this trait was very high. The average content of fat, protein, and casein was respectively 6.41, 5.39, and 4.20%. The class of flock size had a significant effect only on curd firmness, whereas days in milk affected RCT and k20. The flock test day, parity, and daily milk yield were important sources of variation for all MCP. The mean value of RCT (8.6 min) and the low occurrence of noncoagulating samples (0.44%) confirmed the excellent coagulation ability of sheep milk compared with cattle milk. A more rapid coagulation was observed in mid-lactating, primiparous, and high-yielding ewes. The k20 was usually reached in less than 2 min after gelation, with the most favorable values at mid lactation. The mean value of curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (a30) was, on average, 50mm and decreased to 46 and 42 mm respectively after 45 (a45) and 60 min (a60). The decreasing value of curd-firmness traits was likely to be caused by curd syneresis and whey expulsion. The correlation between RCT and a30 was much lower than in dairy cows and about null for a45 and a60. This means that curd firmness in dairy ewes is

  1. Puberty and Fertility of Ewe Lambs Fed on By-products of Palm and Olive Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-T arabany, A.A.; Mostafa, M.M.M.; Mohamed, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the effect of palm and olive oil by-products adding to rations on production and reproductive performance of Rahmani and Osimi female sheep. After weaning, Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs (24 for each) of similar birth type were identified to compare between two rations containing hard fatty acids (HFA) or olive cake (OC) on sexual puberty and fertility of two breeds. The lambs of both breed were randomly divided into three groups: the first group is considered control and received ration which contained concentrate feed mixture (CFM). The second group nourished (OC) consisted of CFM +HFA and the third group nourished (HFA) composed of CFM +OC. The CFM was offered as basal ration to all experimental lambs. Body weight, functions of the liver, kidney, thyroid and progesterone hormones at puberty, and the fertility traits were assayed in the two breeds of ewes. The average body weight of female lambs was higher (P<0.05) with OC than HFA. Female lambs supplied OC reached puberty faster and their thyroid and sexual hormones (progesterone) have been developed earlier than ewe lambs given HFA and those in the control group. Age at puberty and progesterone level in both Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs were better in ewes fed on OC , than other two groups. The fertility (%) from total ewe lambs and birth weight in ewe lambs fed on OC were higher than ewes fed on HFA and the control. It may be concluded that feeding ewe lambs on diet containing HFA from weaning had positive effects on age at puberty, reproductive fertility and prolificacy

  2. Characteristics of the wool produced by ewes raised for meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of wool produced by ewes of different genetic groups, ages, and reproductive statuses. A total of 115 ewes, of the following genetic groups, were used: 10 Corriedale, 37 Hampshire Down, 26 1/2 Hampshire Down + 1/2 Corriedale, 24 1/2 Ile de France + 1/2 Corriedale, and 18 1/2 Suffolk + 1/2 Corriedale. Age was determined by the number of permanent incisors, ranging from four teeth to eight teeth. Ewes were further classified by their reproductive status into: lambed, having reared one lamb; and not-lambed. Hampshire and half-blood Suffolk ewes were heavier (53.2 and 52.7 kg, respectively, while Corriedale animals were lighter (40.1 kg. Older ewes and not-lambed ewes were heavier as well. Fleece weight was higher for the Corriedale and its crossbred ewes (average of 2.9 kg. Genetic group did not affect yield after scouring (61.6%. Ewe age, reproductive status, and year of evaluation did not affect greasy fleece weight or yield. Fiber diameter and number of crimps were not affected by any tested variables, with mean values of 29.8 μm and 5.8 crimps per centimeter, respectively. Staple length was influenced only by genetic group, in which the Hampshire ewes showed the shortest staple (6.2 cm. In general, the character was classified as good to regular, and the worst was found in the Hampshire. That genetic group grew rough wool, while the others were rated as slightly soft to rough. All genetic groups presented wools with some medullation. The majority of the samples were classified from "Cruza 1" to "Cruza 3" in all five groups and, for quality, the majority of the samples were rated as Good. Wool produced by meat breeds presents variations of quantity and quality that should be considered by producers and industry.

  3. The effect of the maturity and prior breeding activity of rams and body condition score of ewe hoggets on the reproductive performance of ewe hoggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, P R; Smith, S L; Morel, P C H; Morris, S T; West, D M

    2009-10-01

    To determine the effect of age and prior use of mature rams at a given ram-to-ewe ratio, and the effect of body condition on breeding performance and pregnancy rate of ewe hoggets. Ewe hoggets (n=733) aged 7-8 months were weighed and their body condition scored, then randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (Day 0) and joined with either four two-tooth rams (20 months of age) not used previously (n=244; Two-tooth), four mixed-aged mature rams that had not been used earlier in the season (n=244; Mature-fresh), or four mixed-aged mature rams that had been used with mature ewes immediately prior to joining with hoggets (n=245; Mature-used). The breeding period was 34 days. Ewe hoggets were identified as having been marked during the first 17 days only, during both 17-day periods, during the second 17 days only, or not marked. Hoggets were re-weighed on Day 34, and pregnancy status determined using ultrasound on Day 92. The breeding soundness of the rams was assessed on Days -34 and -1. Semen samples obtained from the rams did not differ significantly in any of the parameters measured (p>0.05). Ewe hoggets joined with Mature-fresh rams were less likely (p0.05). Hoggets marked in the first 17 days only were heavier (pewe hoggets. Further studies are warranted to verify this result. The re-use of rams without reducing breeding performance would reduce breeding costs and may make breeding hoggets a more viable option for farmers. The BCS of ewe hoggets affected breeding performance, and can thus be used to identify those animals most suitable for breeding.

  4. Organic and inorganic selenium: IV. passive transfer of immunoglobulin from ewe to lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W C; Bobe, G; Vorachek, W R; Stang, B V; Pirelli, G J; Mosher, W D; Hall, J A

    2013-04-01

    Newborn lambs depend on their dams for passive transfer of immunoglobulins, primarily IgG, for protection from harmful pathogens until their own immunological defenses have developed. Previous studies have suggested that supplementation with Se results in a modest increase in IgG concentration in serum of newborn calves and lambs. To evaluate the effect of the Se source and supplementation rate in ewes during pregnancy on passive transfer of IgG to their lambs, 210 Polypay, Suffolk, or Suffolk × Polypay cross ewes were divided into 7 treatment groups (n = 30 each) and drenched weekly with no Se, at the maximum FDA-allowed concentration with inorganic Na-selenite or organic Se-yeast (4.9 mg Se/wk), or with inorganic Na-selenite and organic Se-yeast at supranutritional concentrations (14.7 and 24.5 mg Se/wk). Ewe serum IgG concentrations were measured within 30 d of parturition, ewe colostrum and lamb serum IgG concentrations were measured at parturition before suckling, and lamb serum IgG concentrations were measured again at 48 h postnatal. Ewes receiving 24.5 mg Se/wk tended to have or had, independent of Se source, greater colostral IgG concentrations than ewes receiving 4.9 mg Se/wk overall (81.3 vs. 66.2 mg/mL; P = 0.08) and for Polypay ewes only (90.1 vs. 60.7 mg/mL; P = 0.03). Polypay ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk transferred a greater calculated total IgG amount to their lambs than Polypay ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk (15.5 vs. 11.6 g; P = 0.02), whereas the converse was true (interaction between Se source and dose concentration; P = 0.03) for Polypay ewes receiving inorganic Na-selenite at 24.5 mg Se/wk vs. Na-selenite at 4.9 mg/wk (11.6 vs. 15.7 g; P = 0.08). Our results suggest that supranutritional Se supplementation of Polypay ewes during pregnancy increases colostral IgG concentrations but that the optimal supplementation rate for IgG transfer from ewe to lamb may differ for Na-selenite and Se-yeast.

  5. A typical case of hydrallantois accompanied by fetal monstrosity in a local ewe of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Hiranya Kumar; Hussain Dar, Shahid; Fazili, Mujeeb-Ur-Rehman; Hafiz, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A full termed local ewe with the history of continuous straining with labored breathing for last 24 hours was presented. The animal was disinclined to move with tense and round abdomen which developed rapidly during last two weeks. Caesarean section revealed hydrallantois accompanied by multiple fetal congenital abnormalities. The ewe was under observation for four weeks. Metritis developed 12 days post-operation and was treated successfully. The ewe was found active on 25 days post-surgery with gain of extra 3 kg bodyweight.

  6. 3. From Restitution to Redistribution of Ewe Heritage: Challenges and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Dorvlo, Kofi

    2018-01-01

    Introduction This chapter presents the rituals of Hogbetsotso, a migration festival of the Anlo-Ewe people, which is celebrated every year as the re-enactment of the migration of Ewe ancestors from present-day Togo to Ghana. Ewe believe that the rituals wash away the ill-feeling and negative thoughts capable of destroying the harmony of the state. The rituals include Dɔɖeɖe, or the physical removal of dirt in the community; Aƒekpɔkplɔ, mental cleansing to facilitate the unity of the s...

  7. A typical case of hydrallantois accompanied by fetal monstrosity in a local ewe of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Kumar Bhattacharyya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A full termed local ewe with the history of continuous straining with labored breathing for last 24 hours was presented. The animal was disinclined to move with tense and round abdomen which developed rapidly during last two weeks. Caesarean section revealed hydrallantois accompanied by multiple fetal congenital abnormalities. The ewe was under observation for four weeks. Metritis developed 12 days post-operation and was treated successfully. The ewe was found active on 25 days post-surgery with gain of extra 3 kg bodyweight.

  8. Neutrality of miniSTR D22S1045 marker by Ewing's sarcoma phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Deborah S B S; Raimann, Paulo E; Moro, Tatiane; Picanço, Juliane B; Abujamra, Ana L; de Farias, Caroline B; Roesler, Rafael; Brunetto, Algemir L; Alho, Clarice S

    2013-11-01

    Neutrality investigations of markers with forensic use are important to see if a phenotypic trait is being expressed in relation to the alleles of the marker. MiniSTR marker D22S1045 (locus 22q12.3) is localized near the breakpoint region of the EWS gene (22q12.2), which leads to the development of Ewing's Sarcoma. Analyzing allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium in Ewing's sarcoma patients and non-affected populations, we found that the marker mD22S1045 was neutral when related to Ewing's Sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary Vaginal Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Cranial Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Yip

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma is now regarded as a member of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET family. It typically involves the soft tissues of the chest wall, pelvis, paravertebral region, abdominal wall, retroperitoneal region and extremities of children, adolescents and young adults, but it seldom occurs in the female genital tract. We report an extremely rare case of retrospective diagnosis of vaginal extraosseous Ewing sarcoma/PNET which metastasized to the right frontoparietal scalp, skull, and dura. Surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in a favourable clinical outcome. Both the vaginal and head tumors had similar light microscopic features supporting the diagnosis.

  10. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's scrcoma in the nasal cavity: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Bo Young; Park, Seok Won; Km, Eo Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Lee, Eun Ja [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Ewing's sarcoma presents a rare tumor of the head and neck, and even rarer in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses. We report the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity, as presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The CT and MRI examination reveals a mass in the left nasal cavity with extension to contralateral side, ethmoidal sinus, and nasopharynx. We provide an overview of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity and discuss radiologic findings of this unusual case.

  11. The effects of GnRH analogue (buserelin) or hCG (Chorulon) on Day 12 of pregnancy on ovarian function, plasma hormone concentrations, conceptus growth and placentation in ewes and ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T H; Beck, N F G; Khalid, M

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of GnRH analogue (buserelin) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, Chorulon) treatment on Day 12 of pregnancy on ovarian function, plasma hormone concentrations, conceptus growth and placentation in ewes and ewe lambs. After oestrus synchronization with progestagen sponges and eCG, all the animals were mated with fertile rams. Both ewes and ewe lambs (20 per treatment group) were given either normal saline or 4 microg GnRH or 200 IU hCG on Day 12 post-mating. Pre- and post-treatment plasma hormone concentrations were determined in seven pregnant animals per treatment group in samples collected 1h before and 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. Overall mean progesterone concentrations were higher (Pewes as compared with ewe lambs in saline-treated controls. GnRH or hCG treatment increased (Pewes than in ewe lambs. Oestradiol concentrations were similar in the two control groups. In ewes, but not in ewe lambs, both GnRH and hCG treatments significantly (Pewes than in ewe lambs, whereas FSH release in ewes was less (Pewe lambs. The effects of GnRH or hCG on conceptus growth and placentation was determined at slaughter on Day 25. In ewes, GnRH treatment increased (Pewe lambs. In ewes, hCG treatment also enhanced (Pewe lambs, there was no difference (Pewes. However, these treatments were less effective in ewe lambs.

  12. Syrian Crisis in the Context of Emerging Multipolar International Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Khodynskaya-Golenischeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into the Syria crisis in the context of emerging multipolar, polycentric system of international relations. The author focuses on Washington's attempts to maintain its dominance in world affairs by any means, by consciously destabilizing political situations in certain countries to weaken them and then act according to the "divide and rule" principle. Syria is no exception. In this context, the author lists methods implied before in a number of specific regions aimed at destabilizing situations in different countries and describes specific objectives that the US and its allies are seeking to achieve thereby. The author also shows how these methods have been used in Syria. At the same the article says that objective trends in the world system, including emergence of new centers of political and economic power and, as a consequence, formation of a democratic multi-dimensional system of international relations, lead to a situation when the methods used by Washington to destabilize internal political situations, cease to work properly. The most powerful levers of political, economic, financial and informational pressure lose their effectiveness. In the case of Syria, the new political realities literally "squeezed" Washington into political and legal sphere, and instead of US bombardment of Syria the world saw an agreement on the destruction of Syrian chemical weapons which was carried out under international community control. It is emphasized that these trends will only be strengthened, and multipolar world order will gradually neutralize new Western attempts to destabilize regions for gaining geopolitical advantage. This in turn gives a chance to create an atmosphere for a process of finding a comprehensive political solution to the crisis in Syria, which Russia is currently making efforts to launch.

  13. Respiratory tract carcinogenesis induced by radionuclides in the Syrian hamister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Thomas, R.G.; Anderson, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were exposed to lung irradiation by various modalities that differed in degree of localization and the fraction of lung exposed. The animals were given alpha emitters under several exposure conditions: intratracheal (IT) instillation of 210 Po and 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 microspheres; inhalation (INH) of 238 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 particles; and/or intravenous (IV) injection of 238 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 microspheres. Beta-emitting 147 Pm was also administered; the radionuclide was incorporated into 10 μm diameter ZrO 2 microspheres and deposited in the lungs via the jugular vein. These microspheres lodge quantitatively in the pulmonary capillary bed for the duration of the animal's life span. Total IV Pu microsphere lung burdens have ranged from 0.14 nCi to 484 nCi and the number of spheres from 1500 to 880 000. Pu burdens from inhalation have ranged from 8 nCi to 101 nCi, IT Po burdens from 25 to 122 nCi, and Pm-laden microsphere burdens from 427 to 15 750 nCi. Intratracheal instillation of 210 Po solution gave nearly uniform alpha irradiation of the entire lung, intravenous injection of large numbers of ZrO 2 microspheres laden with 147 Pm gave whole lung exposures to low LET radiation, and IV injection of Pu-microspheres provided a gradation of focal alpha exposures. The Po and Pm exposures were highly tumorigenic, whereas the Pu microspheres produced tumors only when a large fraction of the lung was exposed to large radiation doses. However, Pu-ZrO 2 administered via inhalation was very carcinogenic and resulted in tumor incidences of 50% in some experiments. The IT instillation of Fe 2 O 3 following IV or IT Pu-ZrO 2 microsphere administration dramatically enhanced lung tumor induction

  14. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Ch2-290 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, 55905, MN (United States); Unni, K.Krishnan [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States); Dekutoski, Mark B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2004-09-01

    To determine the demographics, imaging findings, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of primary vertebral Ewing's sarcoma (PVES). A retrospective review of medical records and radiological studies of patients diagnosed with PVES from 1936 through 2001 in our institution and Department of Pathology consultation files was undertaken. Metastatic and soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma cases were excluded. From a total of 1,277 cases of Ewing's sarcoma, 125 (9.8%) had a primary vertebral origin. There were 48 females and 76 males. Patient ages ranged from 4 to 54 (mean 19.3, standard deviation 10.7, median 16) years. Vertebral column distribution was four cervical (3.2%), 13 thoracic (10.5%), 31 lumbar (25%), and 67 sacrum (53.2%). More than one vertebral segment was involved in ten cases (8%). Satisfactory imaging studies were available in 51 patients: 49 radiographs, 27 computerized tomography (CT), and 23 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The majority of tumors were lytic (93%). Three cases were mixed lytic and sclerotic (6%) and one sclerotic. In the nonsacral spine, the majority of lesions (12/20) involved the posterior elements with extension into the vertebral body. Five cases were centered in the vertebral body with extension into the posterior elements. Two cases were limited to the posterior elements, and one case solely involved the vertebral body. Ala was the most frequently affected site in the sacrum (18/26). Spinal canal invasion was frequent (91%). Detailed clinical information was available in 53 patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 30 (mean 7) months. Local pain was the first symptom and seen in all cases. Neurological deficits were present in 21 (40%) cases. All patients received radiation in various dosages; 70% additionally received chemotherapy. Twenty-five patients had surgery, and two patients received bone marrow transplantation. Forty-five patients had follow-up; the five-year disease-free survival probability is 0

  15. From the Field: “Teach Syrians how to live here, to communicate, how to exchange information and knowledge”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Horz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Refugees do heavily rely on (social media before and during migration, as the article by Anke Fiedler in this GMJ special issue impressively demonstrates. But what happens after refugees have reached their country of destination? Some become media producers like our interviewee, media and social media activist Monis Bukhari from Syria. He is the founder of Syrisches Haus (Syrian House in Germany, an information platform from and for fellow Syrians who arrived here as refugees. This Facebook group currently has over 132.000 members – a huge part of the Syrian community in Germany. We asked him about his motivation and the goals of Syrisches Haus.

  16. Antithesis and argument in the hymns of Ephrem the Syrian | Botha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reflects research on the semantic structure of antitheses. The thesis being proposed is that the defining quality of antitheses was implemented by the Syrian church father Ephrem as a rhetoric technique to enhance the power of arguments in his hymns. Examples are being investigated to explain the function of ...

  17. Polarity: The theology of anti-Judaism in Ephrem the Syrian's hymns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    century Syrian theologian Ephrem is investigated. This polarity is found to be polemical against the Jews. But since polarity is a constant feature in the work of Ephrem which serves to communicate his theological frame of mind, the question is ...

  18. What Does It Mean to Be Young for Syrian Men Living as Refugees in Cairo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Suerbaum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Syrian young men who fled to Egypt after the uprising in 2011. Their life was affected by the challenges stemming from displacement, such as their confrontation with new responsibilities, unknown vulnerabilities and emotions, liminality and precarity. They suffered from forced displacement in a gender- and age-specific way.

  19. The Views of Syrian Refugees Migrating to Turkey on the Turkish Language and Culture: Kilis Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Nursat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the views of the Syrian refugees migrating to Kilis, Turkey on the Turkish language and culture, as well as the impact of this situation on their daily life. For that purpose, this study was done in accordance with a mixed design, using quantitative and qualitative research methods together. The target population of…

  20. Dimensions of gender-based violence against Syrian refugees in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghida Anani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of the impact of the Syrian crisis indicate high levels of sexual and gender-based violence, with rape, assault, intimate partner violence and survival sex appearing increasingly common. Humanitarian agencies urgently need to work together to address this trend.

  1. Analysis of Leisure Time Activities of Syrian Children in Turkey as an Adaptation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Figen; Aslan, Faith

    2017-01-01

    Leisure is one of the important discussions among immigrants. Leisure time activities also carry importance for migrant children. These activities establish bridge between a migrant's own culture and the new country and help development of a new cultural understanding. Most of the Syrian children currently attend Temporary Education Centers in…

  2. An Analysis of Educational Policies for School-Aged Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the educational policies for Syrian school-aged refugees in Turkey. In this study, we identified the policy priorities for refugees by first examining the theoretical approaches to refugee education and the common problems observed for refugee education in different countries. Using this framework, we…

  3. "The Students Do Not Know Why They Are Here": Education Decision-Making for Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Fares J.; Monaghan, Christine; Yoder, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    This case study, conducted collaboratively between education scholars and education practitioners, describes and analyses the ways in which Syrian refugee teachers and an NGO are developing and implementing non-formal education (NFE) programming in three refugee settlements in Lebanon. Utilising the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in…

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder among Syrian refugees in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulbul, Feridun; Sagaltici, Eser; Bez, Yasin; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Dalkilic, Alican; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-03-01

    Refugees have had major challenges to meet their health care needs throughout history especially in war zones and natural disaster times. The health care needs of Syrian refugees have been becoming an increasingly important issue. We aimed to examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and explore its relation with various socioeconomic variables among Syrian refugees, who sought asylum in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tent city. Sample size calculation yielded 352 and the participants of the study were determined randomly. Experienced and native Arabic speaking, psychiatrist evaluated the participants. The frequency of PTSD was 33.5%. Through the binary logistic regression analysis, we calculated that the probability of having PTSD among Syrian refugees in our sample was 71%, if they had the following features: with female gender; being diagnosed with psychiatric disorder in the past; having a family history of psychiatric disorder; and experiencing 2 or more traumas. The findings of our study suggest that PTSD among Syrian refugees in Turkey might be an important mental health issue in refugee camps especially among female refugees, who were exposed to 2 or more traumatic events and had a personal or family history of psychiatric disorder.

  5. Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marc François; Yoon, Jim; Gorelick, Steven M.; Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, hundreds of thousands of refugees have migrated southward to Jordan to escape the Syrian civil war that began in mid-2011. Evaluating impacts of conflict and migration on land use and transboundary water resources in an active war zone remains a challenge. However, spatial and statistical analyses of satellite imagery for the recent period of Syrian refugee mass migration provide evidence of rapid changes in land use, water use, and water management in the Yarmouk–Jordan river watershed shared by Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Conflict and consequent migration caused ∼50% decreases in both irrigated agriculture in Syria and retention of winter rainfall in Syrian dams, which gave rise to unexpected additional stream flow to downstream Jordan during the refugee migration period. Comparing premigration and postmigration periods, Syrian abandonment of irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the stream flow increase, with the other half attributable to recovery from a severe drought. Despite this increase, the Yarmouk River flow into Jordan is still substantially below the volume that was expected by Jordan under the 1953, 1987, and 2001 bilateral agreements with Syria. PMID:27930317

  6. Quality of life of Syrian refugees living in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaddin A. Aziz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the perceived quality of life of Syrian refugees who have entered the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Two hundred and seventy participants residing in refugee camps in the Erbil region in Kurdistan completed the WHOQOL-BREF, which measures Quality of Life (QOL within four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly lower for general population norms on physical health, psychological and environment QOL, and score significantly lower for physical health and psychological QOL for refugees in the Gaza strip. However, respondents in the current sample scored significantly higher on environment QOL compared to refugees in the Gaza strip, and significantly higher on all the QOL domains than those reported for refugees in West Africa. Finally, Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly higher than general population norms for social relationships QOL. The current findings provide the first report of QOL domain scores among Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan camps and suggest that social relationships and environmental QOL circumstances are relatively satisfactory, and that further investigation might be focused on physical and psychological QOL.

  7. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  8. Revisiting leishmaniasis in the time of war: the Syrian conflict and the Lebanese outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alawieh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: This new outbreak of leishmaniasis in Lebanon is the first of its kind for more than a decade. The sudden increase in Leishmania cases in Lebanon in 2013 is attributed to the increasing numbers and wide distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. This serves as an example of the risks associated with military conflicts and the ability of communicable diseases to cross borders.

  9. Temporal organization of feeding in Syrian hamsters with a genetically altered circadian period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Overkamp, GJF; Stirland, JA; Daan, S

    2001-01-01

    The variation in spontaneous meal patterning was studied in three genotypes (tau +/+, tau +/- and tau -/-) of the Syrian hamster with an altered circadian period. Feeding activity was monitored continuously in 13 individuals from each genotype in constant dim light conditions. All three genotypes

  10. Metabolic rate changes proportionally to circadian frequency in tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S; Loudon, ASI; Stirland, AJ; Loudon, Andrew S.I.; Stirland, Anne J.

    1997-01-01

    The tau mutation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) is phenotypically expressed in a period of the circadian rhythm of about 20 h in homozygotes (SS) and about 22 h in heterozygotes (S+). The authors investigate whether this well-defined model for variation in circadian period exhibits

  11. Maternal and pup genotype contribution to growth in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Pen, Ido; Durieux, Geesje C.R.; Daan, Serge

    The single gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster-apart from its effect on the circadian organization of locomotor activity-has a pronounced influence on body weight. In this study we investigate the impact of maternal and pup genotypes at the tau-locus on the growth rate of pups. Homozygous tau

  12. Stimulatory effect of RFRP-3 on the gonadotrophic axis in the male Syrian hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancel, Caroline; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sébert, Marie-Emilie

    2012-01-01

    In seasonal mammals, a distinct photoneuroendocrine circuit that involves the pineal hormone melatonin tightly synchronizes reproduction with seasons. In the Syrian hamster, a seasonal model in which sexual activity is inhibited by short days, we have previously shown that the potent GnRH stimula......In seasonal mammals, a distinct photoneuroendocrine circuit that involves the pineal hormone melatonin tightly synchronizes reproduction with seasons. In the Syrian hamster, a seasonal model in which sexual activity is inhibited by short days, we have previously shown that the potent Gn...... in the Syrian hamster, is strongly down-regulated by melatonin in short days. Because a large body of evidence now indicates that RFamide-related peptide (RFRP)-3, the product of the rfrp gene, is an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion in various mammalian species, we sought to investigate its effect...... on the gonadotrophic axis in the Syrian hamster. We show that acute central injection of RFRP-3 induces c-Fos expression in GnRH neurons and increases LH, FSH, and testosterone secretion. Moreover, chronic central administration of RFRP-3 restores testicular activity and Kiss1 levels in the arcuate nucleus of hamsters...

  13. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines In the Matter of: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7... days the Order Temporarily Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air...

  14. Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marc François; Yoon, Jim; Gorelick, Steven M; Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury

    2016-12-27

    Since 2013, hundreds of thousands of refugees have migrated southward to Jordan to escape the Syrian civil war that began in mid-2011. Evaluating impacts of conflict and migration on land use and transboundary water resources in an active war zone remains a challenge. However, spatial and statistical analyses of satellite imagery for the recent period of Syrian refugee mass migration provide evidence of rapid changes in land use, water use, and water management in the Yarmouk-Jordan river watershed shared by Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Conflict and consequent migration caused ∼50% decreases in both irrigated agriculture in Syria and retention of winter rainfall in Syrian dams, which gave rise to unexpected additional stream flow to downstream Jordan during the refugee migration period. Comparing premigration and postmigration periods, Syrian abandonment of irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the stream flow increase, with the other half attributable to recovery from a severe drought. Despite this increase, the Yarmouk River flow into Jordan is still substantially below the volume that was expected by Jordan under the 1953, 1987, and 2001 bilateral agreements with Syria.

  15. 77 FR 20046 - Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB12 Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status Correction In notice document 2012-7498 appearing on pages 19026 through 19030 in...

  16. Quality of life of Syrian refugees living in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Izaddin A; Hutchinson, Claire V; Maltby, John

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the perceived quality of life of Syrian refugees who have entered the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Two hundred and seventy participants residing in refugee camps in the Erbil region in Kurdistan completed the WHOQOL-BREF, which measures Quality of Life (QOL) within four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly lower for general population norms on physical health, psychological and environment QOL, and score significantly lower for physical health and psychological QOL for refugees in the Gaza strip. However, respondents in the current sample scored significantly higher on environment QOL compared to refugees in the Gaza strip, and significantly higher on all the QOL domains than those reported for refugees in West Africa. Finally, Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly higher than general population norms for social relationships QOL. The current findings provide the first report of QOL domain scores among Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan camps and suggest that social relationships and environmental QOL circumstances are relatively satisfactory, and that further investigation might be focused on physical and psychological QOL.

  17. Evaluation of skeletal and dentoalveolar components in Syrian females with a gummy smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Hayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the dentoalveolar and skeletal components contributing to a gummy smile (G.S. in Syrian females. Materials and Methods: The G.S. group included 20 Syrian females, with an average age of 21.9 ± 3.9 years and a clinically diagnosed G.S. The control group included 20 Syrian females, with an average age of 22.05 ± 2.87 years and an acceptable smile. All subjects had Class I molar and canine relationships. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of all subjects were taken under similar conditions. Total cephalometric parameters measured included 11 angular measurements, 12 linear measurements and 7 ratios between the linear measurements. Results: Statistically significant increases in the total anterior facial height, lower anterior facial height, dentoalveolar heights and facial diversion angles were observed in the G.S. group as opposed to the control group. Conclusion: There was an obvious role played by the skeletal and dentoalveolar components in occurrence of a G.S. in Syrian females and these must be considered during orthodontic treatment planning.

  18. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  19. Evaluation of the Emergency Education Response for Syrian Refugee Children and Host Communities in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Education Response Programme (EER), launched by UNICEF, the Government of Jordan and partners in 2012, aims to provide free public formal education, as well as safe and appropriate supportive educational services, for Syrian refugee children living in Jordan. RAND's evaluation

  20. The precision of circadian clocks : Assessment and analysis in Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, S; Oklejewicz, M

    2003-01-01

    Locomotor activity recordings of Syrian hamsters were systematically analyzed to estimate the precision of the overt circadian activity rhythm in constant darkness. Phase variation, i.e., the standard deviation of phase markers around the regression line, varied with the definition of phase.

  1. Causes and consequences of Canada’s resettlement of Syrian refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Bélanger McMurdo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of February 2016, Canada had fulfilled its promise to resettle 25,000 Syrian refugees. However, this initiative has put a considerable strain on the settlement services that refugees receive after arrival, and raises questions about fair treatment for other refugees.

  2. Social identity continuity and mental health among Syrian refugees in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Çelebi, Elif; Acartürk, Ceren; Onkun, Samed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building upon social psychological work on social identity and mental health, this study among Syrian refugees in Turkey examined the importance of multiple group memberships and identity continuity for mental health and well-being. Method: A survey study was conducted among the very

  3. Identity and Christian-Muslim interaction : medieval art of the Syrian Orthodox from the Mosul area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, Bas

    2010-01-01

    As elsewhere in the Middle East, the Mosul area witnessed a flourishing of Christian art during the thirteenth century. Discussing both art-historical and written sources, this book examines the role of art in expressing the identity of Mosul’s Syrian Orthodox community, and explores the

  4. Identity, Investment and Language Learning Strategies of Two Syrian Students in Syria and Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, Anas

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal phenomenographic inquiry into understanding how two postgraduate Syrian students' ways of approaching English language learning in their homelands influenced the shape of their personal study abroad goals, language strategy use and L2 identity. It is guided by Norton's [(2013). "Identity and language…

  5. 78 FR 36211 - Extension of Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Security (DHS) took action to provide temporary relief to F-1 nonimmigrant students whose country of... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [DHS Docket No. ICEB-2013-0001] RIN 1653-ZA05 Extension of Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe Economic Hardship as a...

  6. Temporal organisation of hibernation in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Daan, S; Strijkstra, AM; Heldmaier, G.

    The temporal pattern of hibernation was studied in three genotypes of Syrian hamsters with different circadian periodicity to assess a potential circadian control of alternating torpor and euthermy. We recorded the pattern of hibernation by measuring activity in continuous dim light and constant

  7. Music in the Syrian city of Ebla in the late third millennium B.C.*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.

    2012-01-01

    Musicians and musical instruments in the (bilingual Sumero-Akkadian) lexical and administrative texts from the Syrian city of Ebla (± 2300 B.C.) with occasional reference to the musical instruments of the city of Mari (±1750 B.C.)

  8. HEALTH AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF EWE'S MILK PROCESSING FROM THE ASPECT OF FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pukáčová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Totally, 47 strains of S. aureus and 578 coagulase negative staphylococci were detected in samples from raw ewe milk. The 35 out 47 isolates of S. aureus from ewe milk were positive for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes: sea(4 %, sec (48 % a sed (48 %. Staphylococcus epidermis (33.04%, Staphylococcus caprae (21.28% were more prevalent. Staphylococcus chromogenes (7.44 %, Staphylococcus hominis (7.09%, Staphylococcus xylosus (6,92 %, a Staphylococcus warneri (6.40 % were isolated also in ewes milk. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3.11 %, Staphylococcus capitis (2.94 %, Staphylococcus simulans (2.08 % and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1.73 % were isolated very rarely from the taken individual milk ewe samples. Sporadically, only in few cases, the others coagulase negative staphylococci were isolated (Staphylococcus cohnii cohnii, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus closii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus auricularis and Staphylococcus equorum.   doi:10.5219/24

  9. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull: radical resection and immediate cranioplasty after chemotherapy. A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Maria; Rivero, Mónica; Marquez, Javier

    2013-02-01

    The current standard treatment of Ewing's sarcoma is chemotherapy followed by surgery, making an immediate cranial reconstruction in a one-step surgical procedure possible. We describe the technique used to repair a cranial defect after the resection of a primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull in a one-step surgical procedure. Bone repair with a custom-made cranioplasty immediately after resection of a primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull avoids deformities and late complications associated with reconstructive surgery after radiotherapy and not interfere with radiotherapy and neither with follow-up. A one-step surgical procedure after chemotherapy for primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull could be safer, less aggressive and more radical; avoiding deformities and late complications.

  10. Feeding levels during the growing phase affect the production of primiparous Finnish Landrace ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SORMUNEN-CRISTIAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different feeding levels on the performance of primiparous ewes was studied in 31 Finnish Landrace ewes bred to lamb at the age of one year. Ewe lambs, initially weighing on average 19.2 kg (SEM 0.63, were placed on a low (L, standard (S or high (H level of feeding from 2 months of age to the end of mating and from 2 months pre-partum to the end of 8-week lactation. Changes in live weight were affected by the diet. During rearing, the ewe lambs on L diet gained significantly less (18.0 vs. 24.1 kg/lamb, P

  11. Augmentation of luteal function in the lactating ewe after induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Ovarian capillary blood flow in seasonally anoestrous ewes induced to ovulate by treatment with GnRH. J. Reprod. Ferl. 84, 653. BUTCHER, R.L., 1977. Changes in gonadotropins and steroids associated with unilateral ovariectomy of the rat.

  12. A Novel Role for Keratin 17 in Coordinating Oncogenic Transformation and Cellular Adhesion in Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Savita; Tanner, Jason M.; Bell, Russell; Chaturvedi, Aashi; Randall, R. Lor; Beckerle, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma is caused by EWS/FLI, an aberrant transcription factor fusion oncogene. Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) is a critical target gene activated by EWS/FLI, but the mechanism by which GLI1 contributes to the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma was unknown. In this work, we identify keratin 17 (KRT17) as a direct downstream target gene upregulated by GLI1. We demonstrate that KRT17 regulates cellular adhesion by activating AKT/PKB (protein kinase B) signaling. In addition, KRT17 is necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma and accounts for much of the GLI1-mediated transformation function but via a mechanism independent of AKT signaling. Taken together, our data reveal previously unknown molecular functions for a cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein, KRT17, in coordinating EWS/FLI- and GLI1-mediated oncogenic transformation and cellular adhesion in Ewing sarcoma. PMID:24043308

  13. Genome sequencing of Ewing sarcoma patients reveals genetic predisposition | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The largest and most comprehensive genomic analysis of individuals with Ewing sarcoma performed to date reveals that some patients are genetically predisposed to developing the cancer.  Learn more...

  14. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity in blood of ewes on farms in different scrapie categories in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiríksson Tryggvi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preliminary studies indicated decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity in blood of ewes on scrapie-afflicted farms. Other studies have shown decreased GPX activity in brain of prion-infected mice and in prion-infected cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine the GPX activity in blood as well as the distribution of GPX-activity levels from ewes on farms in scrapie-afflicted areas in Iceland. Methods Blood samples were collected from 635 ewes (non-pregnant [n = 297] and pregnant [n = 338] on 40 farms in scrapie-afflicted areas during the years 2001–2005, for analysis of GPX activity. The farms were divided into three categories: 1. Scrapie-free farms (n = 14; 2. Scrapie-prone farms (earlier scrapie-afflicted, restocked farms (n = 12; 3. Scrapie-afflicted farms (n = 14. For comparison, 121 blood samples were also collected from non-pregnant ewes on one farm (farm A in a scrapie-free area (scrapie never registered. Chi-square test was used to test for normal distribution of GPX-results, and Kruskal-Wallis test to compare GPX-results between categories. Results The GPX-results appeared to be biphasically distributed in ewes in all three scrapie categories and on farm A. The presumptive breaking point was about 300 units g Hb-1. About 30–50% of the GPX-results from ewes in all three scrapie categories were below 300 units g Hb-1 but only about 13% of the GPX-results from ewes on farm A. The mean GPX activity was highest on farm A, and was significantly lower on scrapie-prone farms than on scrapie-free or scrapie-afflicted farms (non-pregnant and pregnant ewes: P Conclusions 1 the distribution of GPX-results in blood of Icelandic ewes apparently has a biphasic character; 2 the GPX-results were higher in ewes on one farm in a scrapie-free area than in ewes on farms in the scrapie-afflicted areas; 3 GPX-activity levels were significantly lowest on earlier scrapie-afflicted, restocked farms, which might have a

  15. Local control of Ewing's sarcoma: an analysis of 67 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.P.; Fixsen, J.A.; Plowman, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Local control of Ewing's sarcoma was analysed in a series of 67 patients treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy as well as combination chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was employed with or without surgery in 60 patients and produced an overall local control rate of 55%; complete excision of the primary lesion seemed to be beneficial. There was a marked variation in control rates depending on the site of the primary lesion: limb 85%, rib 53%, pelvis 31% and other sites 33%.Primary tumours greater than 10 cm in diameter were significantly less likely to be controlled. Using daily fractions of approximately 180 cGy, total doses in excess of 6000 cGy seem more likely to produce serious late morbidity amd may not increase the local control rate. No cases of second malignancy arising in irradiated tissue have been observed to date, but one patient developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (author)

  16. Effects of restricted feeding of prepubertal ewe lambs on growth performance and mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, L; Cinq-Mars, D; Lacasse, P

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of restricted feeding before puberty on growth performance and mammary gland development in replacement ewe lambs. At weaning, 72 Dorset ewe lambs were assigned to one of the three diets: an ad libitum control diet with medium-quality forage (MQF; diet A-MQF); a restricted diet with the same forage as A, but less feed concentrate (diet R-MQF); or a high-quality forage (HQF) diet (diet F-HQF). The quantity of concentrate offered to the group R-MQF and F-HQF ewe lambs was adjusted to obtain 70% of the control ewe lambs' growth rate. The diets were offered for 75 days after weaning to cover the allometric phase of mammary gland development. During this period, average daily gain (ADG) was 223 and 229 g/day for groups R-MQF and F-HQF, respectively, compared to 305 g/day for group A-MQF (P ewe lambs were slaughtered and their mammary gland was collected. Parenchymal fresh tissue weight tended to be higher for groups R-MQF and F-HQF compared to group A-MQF (P = 0.09). Stroma weight was greater (P ewe lambs than for those in the other treatments. Total DNA and total protein in parenchymal tissue tended to be greater for groups R-MQF and F-HQF (P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively). Dry fat-free tissue was greater for groups R-MQF and F-HQF (P ewe lambs were fed the same haylage and barley diet until their first lambing. During this period, compensatory growth was observed. ADG was greater (P ewe lambs.

  17. [Seasonal variations in estrus behavior and ovulatory activity in Chios and Serres ewes in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdi, M; Driancourt, M A; Chemineau, P

    1993-01-01

    Sheep are seasonal breeders, but a lower seasonality has been reported for sheep breeds from the Mediterranean countries enabling spring matings. To further substantiate this, the present study compared seasonal variation in oestrus behaviour and ovulation in two Greek breeds (Chios and Serres) maintained in the same environment. In 27 adult ewes of each breed, oestrus behaviour, the occurrence of ovulation and ovulation rate were monitored during 2 successive years by daily inspection by rams, weekly progesterone assay in circulating blood plasma and monthly ovarian laparoscopy. The periods of anoestrus (109 +/- 8 (wk) vs 178 +/- 5 d) and anovulation (63 +/- 8 vs 149 +/- 6 d) were significantly shorter (P duration of oestrus was also longer in Chios ewes (1.8 +/- 0.05 vs 1.5 +/- 0.06 d; P = 0.002). There were significant correlations between the duration of anovulatory periods of the 2 successive years in Chios (r = 0.43) but not Serres ewes. Ovulation rate was positively related to the onset of the sexual season in Serres but not in Chios ewes. The present data suggest that: i) the efficiency of Serres but not in Chios ewes. The present data suggest that: i) the efficiency of spring mating in these breeds is suboptimal since it is a period when the percentage of ewes exhibiting oestrus and ovulation as well as ovulation rate are limited, ii) owing to the large variation in seasonality within Chios ewes and to the good between year correlation in features of seasonality, selection against seasonality in Chios ewes could be worthwhile.

  18. Intracervical application of hyaluronan improves cervical relaxation in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, K; Haresign, W; Wathes, D C; Khalid, M

    2010-12-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) using frozen semen is a key method to enable rapid genetic improvement but its use in the sheep industry is currently limited by poor fertility. Laparoscropic AI is most effective but has not gained popularity due to cost and welfare considerations. Transcervical intrauterine AI (TCAI) may offer a practical alternative but the complex anatomy of the ovine cervix limits adequate penetration of the inseminating pipette. Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycoaminoglycan whose content in the cervix increases at oestrus and which may contribute to the degree of natural relaxation observed at this time. This study investigated the effect of intracervical application of HA on the depth of cervical penetration in sheep. Oestrus was synchronised on three occasions in 48 Welsh mountain ewes with progesterone sponges and PMSG. Each animal initially served as its own untreated control. Ewes were subsequently treated intracervically with 25 mg of: (2i) low molecular weight (MW) HA; (2ii) high MW HA or (2iii) both low and high MW HA (n = 16/group) at 52 h after sponge removal or with low MW HA at: (3i) 50 h; (3ii) 52 h or (3iii) both 50 h and 52 h. Depth of cervical penetration measured at 54 h was increased from 1.22 cm to 3.66 cm by treatment with low MW HA (P ≤ 0.001), with no differences between the number of treatments (1 or 2) or the time at which the HA was administered (50 or 52 h). High MW HA alone or together with low MW HA had no effect. In conclusion, intracervical application of low MW HA 52 h after sponge removal increases cervical penetration up to 3.4cm to allow TCAI in sheep. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Al Ward, Nada; Burton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9%) of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6%) and NGO/charity (16.6%) sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD), excluding cost of medications. Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  20. A qualitative study exploring child marriage practices among Syrian conflict-affected populations in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtada, Rima; Schlecht, Jennifer; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that child marriage among Syrians may be increasing as a result of displacement and conflict. This study sought to gather qualitative data about the factors that promote child marriage practices among Syrian refugees in Al Marj area in the Bekaa valley, Lebanon, where the majority of Syrian refugees have settled in Lebanon. The second aim of this study was to generate recommendations on how to mitigate the drivers and consequences of child marriage practices based on the findings. Eight focus group discussions were conducted separately with married and unmarried young women and mothers and fathers of married and unmarried women. Furthermore, researchers conducted 11 key informant interviews with service providers and stakeholders to understand how conflict and displacement influenced marriage practices of Syrian refugees in Al Marj community. Although child marriage was a common practice in pre-conflict Syria, new factors seem to contribute to a higher risk of child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Respondents cited conflict- and displacement-related safety issues and feeling of insecurity, the worsening of economic conditions, and disrupted education for adolescent women as driving factors. Service providers, young women, and parents also reported changes in some marriage practices, including a shorter engagement period, lower bride price, change in cousin marriage practices, and a reduced age at marriage. Recommendations for interventions to mitigate the drivers of child marriage and its negative consequences should be built on a clear understanding of the local refugee context and the drivers of child marriage in refugee settings. Interventions should involve multiple stakeholders, they should be adjusted to target each specific context, age group and marital status. For these interventions to be effective, they should be addressed concurrently, and they should be delivered in a culturally sensitive and practical manner.

  1. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Doocy

    Full Text Available The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings.A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households.Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9% of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6% and NGO/charity (16.6% sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD, excluding cost of medications.Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  2. Feasibility and benefits of the ewe as a model for vaginal surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbage, Yohan; Giraudet, Géraldine; Rubod, Chrystèle; Garabedian, Charles; Rivaux, Géraldine; Cosson, Michel

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ewe as an animal model for teaching and training in vaginal surgery. Twenty-nine postgraduate surgeons attended a training course on vaginal prolapse surgery. After a review of human and sheep anatomy, the participants performed transvaginal meshes, vaginal hysterectomy, SSLF (Richter), and OAS repair in ewes and human cadavers. Participants completed questionnaires on the whole course. Questionnaires showed the significant superiority of ewes over human cadavers for all items evaluated regarding surgical dissections. Only identification of the sacrospinous ligament and the spine were judged to be similar in ewes and human cadavers. Participants noticed that ewe model is appropriate for vaginal prolapse surgery training for resident and for postgraduate surgeons. Two vaginal hysterectomies were also performed. Operating time, surgery, and anatomy were nearly identical to that of humans. The same conclusions were made while performing sacrospinous ligament fixation (Richter) and obstetric anal sphincter injury repair. This series indicates that the ewe is a useful animal model for teaching vaginal surgery.

  3. Non-genetic factors of udder morphology traits in Istrian ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Držaić

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the facts that Istrian sheep is Croatian indigenous breed with the highest milk production, and increasing interest of local farmers for machine milking implementation, the aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting udder morphology traits of Istrian ewes. Ninetythree purebred Istrian ewes with symmetrical udders and no signs of clinical mastitis, from second to fourth lactation, were used for this study. Average udder depth of Istrian ewes was 15.85 cm, udder width 13.05 cm, udder circumference 39.66 cm, cistern height 1.44 cm, teat position 2.85 (scored from 1 to 5, teat angle 47.32°, teat length 3.43 cm and teat width 2.03 cm. The traits related to udder size (depth, width, and circumference were significantly (P<0.01 affected by lactation milk yield. These traits were also in high and positive correlations (P<0.01 with daily milk yield. With the increase of parity, the morphological aptitude of udder to mechanical milking become worse, with an increase (P<0.01 of cistern height, teat angle and position. As lactation of Istrian ewes continued morphological traits defining udder aptitude for machine milking improved (decrease of cistern height, teat angle and position. Ewes with two and more lambs had larger udder (P<0.05 than ewes with a single lamb.

  4. Management of fetal dystocia caused by carpal flexion in ewe: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dystocia or difficulty in parturition in a ewe may need veterinary assistance for the successful parturition. An adult ewe weighing 30 kg was presented to the Hospital of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the history of difficulty in giving birth. Physical examination of the ewe revealed that the animal was weak and in recumbent position. Head of a dead fetus was observed as protruding out from the vulva region. Through physical evaluation of the ewe by per vaginal examination, the condition was diagnosed as fetal dystocia. Treatment and management plans given to the ewe were episiotomy and manipulative delivery of the dead fetus via mutation and traction method. Post-operative treatment was given with Flunixin meglumine (dosed at 2.2 mg/kg bwt for 3 days, and Norodine (dosed at 1 mL/16-kg bwt once intramuscularly. The case was completely cured after 2 weeks. The risk of losing the lamb as well as the ewe increases with delay in treatment of dystocia.

  5. Effect of undernutrition in foetal life on energy expenditure during gestation in ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, Malin P

    2008-01-01

    The long-term effect of early life undernutrition on late gestation energy expenditure (EEgest) was investigated in sheep. Ewes were fed either adequate (100%) or restricted (60%) energy and protein during late foetal life as well as during last trimester of gestation later in life, resulting...... development (EEconceptus) and homeorhetic adaptations in maternal metabolism (EEhomeorhetic). Late gestational energy and protein restriction reduced the EEgest in the AR ewes (4.1 MJ x d(-1)) but not in the RR ewes (5.2 MJ x d(-1)) compared with the AA ewes (6.8 MJ x d(-1)). Based on conceptus......-weight, no significant difference was found in EEhomeorhetic among the groups; 172, 175 and 169 kJ/kg x d(-1) in AA, AR and RR ewes, respectively. However, EEconceptus was significantly lower in AR (135 kJ/kg x d(-1)) in comparison with AA (298 kJ/kg x d(-1)) and RR (252 kJ/kg x d(-1)) ewes. In conclusion, exposure...

  6. EFFECT OF FLUOROGESTONE ACETATE ON THE VAGINAL MICROBIOTA FROM EWES PELIBUEY IN THE PAPALOAPAN REGION

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    Nohemí Gabriela Cortés-López

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ewes are polyoestrous seasonal animals, however in order to increase their fertility, progesterone derivatives are used by means of impregnated sponges with 20 mg of fluorogestone acetate (FGA. Nevertheless, the use of sponges with FGA generates vaginitis, erythema and interferes with fertility. This paper studies the effect of FGA and sponge over the microbiota vaginal in ewes anestrous. To obtain experimental samples, fifteen ewes anestrous were used. Five ewes were used as control group. Ten ewes anestrous were used and data were collected before, withdrawal and 56 h after withdrawal of sponges with and without FGA, in order to quantify, identify and evaluate changes in the vaginal bacterial microbiota. In the normal microbiota were found Escherichia and Klebsiella strains; however, after removal of the devices, were found enteropathogenic coliform bacterias and some opportunistic as Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Also found that the device without FGA, induces a change in the vaginal microbiota, thus, causes vaginitis. In vitro sensitivity tests were performed on the strains identified using twelve different antibiotics; the results showed a higher sensibility to enoxacin, then to the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and ampicillin. Antibiotics use is necessary to prevent the vaginitis in ewes with dispositive. In conclusion, the intravaginal sponges promote of the vagina inflammation and produce coliform bacteria in vagina.

  7. Rapid effects of melatonin on hormonal and behavioral stressful responses in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, Vanessa; Malpaux, Benoît; Delagrange, Philippe; Spedding, Michael; Cornilleau, Fabien; Chesneau, Didier; Haller, József; Chaillou, Elodie

    2013-08-01

    Sheep are gregarious mammals with complex social interactions. As such, they are very sensitive to social isolation and constitute a relevant animal model to study specifically the biological consequences of social stress. We examined previously the behavioral and endocrine responses in ewes isolated socially in the familiar conspecific withdrawal model (FCW) and showed that stressful responses increased and maintenance behaviors decreased, confirming that social isolation is a strong stressor in sheep. Melatonin synchronizes seasonal and circadian rhythms; and several studies reported its implication in cognitive processes as emotion. Here we investigated its role in the modulation of social stressful responses. Firstly, we studied ewes in the FCW model during the day (characterized by low melatonin levels) and the night (characterized by high melatonin levels). We found lower stressful responses (significant lower levels of cortisol plasma, number of foot pawings, of circling attempts) during the night as compared to the day. To investigate whether these effects were due to melatonin or to darkness, we submitted ewes to FCW during the night with lights on, a condition that suppresses melatonin secretion. Ewes infused with melatonin under these conditions showed decreased stressful responses (significant lower levels cortisol plasma, number of vocalizations, time spent with the head out of the cage) as compared to ewes infused with saline. These findings demonstrate that melatonin diminishes the endocrine and behavioral impact of social isolation in ewes and support the idea that melatonin has a calming effect in socially stressful situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  9. The Role of the Environment in Triggering the Syrian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE POPA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Syrian Arab Republic, located in Southwest Asia, is bordered by Irak, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon and Turkey; displaying to the west it has a 180 km long coastline on the Mediterranean Sea. From 1963 to 1970 Syria was governed by the so cialist Baath Party, and since 1970 it has been ruled by the Al Assad family (Hafez al-Assad a nd Bashar al-Assad, the latter since the year 2000, who had the same political orientation. The d elay in political and democratic reforms, in a country placed since 1963 under a state of emergenc y, the government inefficiency in dealing with the socio-economic problems, as well as the even ts that occurred in Tunisia, Egypt or Lybia, have led to the outbreak of violent protests, first in the city of Deraa, in March 2011, then in Baniy as, Latakia, Horms, Hama, Aleppo or Damascus, which res ulted in more than 9000 casualties. Moreover, in Syria the natural environment is a restrictive f actor for the social-economic development as more than half of the country is semi-arid or arid, enjo ying less than 200 mm of precipitation per year. As far as the soil cover is concerned, in the areas where precipitation is less than 250 mm per year aridisols are common. Syria has a population o f about 22 million people, while the annual growth rate is 2%. In the last decades the populatio n has increased more than four times in comparison to the figure registered in 1960, when i t numbered only 4.5 million inhabitants. This proves the state’s inefficiency in adopting family planning measures, aimed at regulating the growth in accordance with the natural resources. The present political crisis, generated by people’s complaints, has been triggered by the seri ous drawbacks of the democracy, the inefficient management of the population growth and the slow socio-economic development, which can be explained by the restrictive geographic al environment, so vulnerable to degradation and possessing limited resources.

  10. Maternal Programming of Body Weight in Syrian Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Jeremy M; Schneider, Jill E; Rhinehart, Erin

    2017-12-01

    Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring. Few previous studies have used a lower level of food restriction, and no experiments, to the best of our knowledge, were designed to determine whether the effects of gestational restriction have postgestational effects independent of the effects that occurred during gestation. In the present experiment, Syrian hamsters were either restricted to 90% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum during pregnancy. All litters were cross-fostered at birth and all were fed ad libitum during lactation. Half of the litters from ad libitum-fed pregnant dams were fostered to dams that had been food restricted during pregnancy and half of the litters from food-restricted pregnant dams were fostered to ad libitum-fed dams. The latter group allowed us to test the hypothesis that the effects of having a gestationally food-restricted mother affects offspring characteristics independent of the prenatal programming. First, we found significant increases in the postnatal body weight of the offspring of ad libitum-fed mothers fostered to food-restricted dams, supporting the hypothesis that the effects of gestational restriction carry over to postnatal maternal ability (e.g., milk yield, milk content, or parental behavior). Second, the carry-over effects of gestational food restriction on offspring postnatal body weight were

  11. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ostrand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international

  12. Making sense of child, early and forced marriage among Syrian refugee girls: a mixed methods study in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan Andrea; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Kilzar, Lama; Bergquist, Harveen; Bakhache, Nour; Davison, Colleen; Bunting, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The Syrian conflict has resulted in over 2.3 million child refugees in the Middle East and the prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased among displaced Syrian families. This study explores the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the goal of informing community-based strategies to address the issue. Methods In July–August 2016, trained interviewers collected self-interpreted stories in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge’s SenseMaker, a mixed-method data collection tool. Participants included married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents as well as married and unmarried men. Each participant shared a story about the experiences of Syrian girls and then interpreted the story by plotting their perspectives on a variety of questions. Patterns in the responses were analysed in SPSS and the accompanying qualitative narratives were reviewed to facilitate interpretation of the quantitative results. Results 1422 self-interpreted stories from 1346 unique participants were collected with 40% of shared stories focused on (n=332) or mentioning (n=245) child marriage. Quantitative data summarised the different perspectives of female and male participants. Syrian girls and mothers were more likely to share stories about protection/security and/or education and were more likely to report that girls were overprotected. Male participants were more likely to share stories about financial security as well as sexual exploitation of girls and more often reported that girls were not protected enough. Despite these gendered perspectives, many of the shared narratives highlighted similar themes of financial hardship, lack of educational opportunities and safety concerns around sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Conclusions A complex myriad of factors contribute to early marriage including poverty, lack of educational opportunities and concerns about SGBV. Sexual exploitation under the guise of marriage

  13. [BACTERIA WITHOUT BORDERS: A HIGH CARRIAGE RATE OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA AMONG SYRIAN CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED IN GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour Kassem, Diana; Shahar, Naama; Ocampo, Smadar; Bader, Tarif; Zonis, Zeev; Glikman, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    As the civil war in Syria enters its fifth year, the Israeli government continues to provide humanitarian aid to Syrian civilians in Israeli hospitals. Many wounded Syrian children are treated at the Galilee Medical Center (GMC). Due to the patients' incomplete medical history and increasing infection rates in Syria, contact isolation and screening cultures for multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR's) are conducted upon admission for all Syrian children. To describe the rate of MDR carriage in Syrian children and compare it to hospitalized Israeli children. Prospective collection of screening culture data of Syrian patients admitted to GMC between 6/2013-11/2014 and comparison with Israeli children admitted between 1-3/2014. Extended-spectrum beta- lactamase-producing Enterobateriaceae (ESBL), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were considered MDR's. Of 47 pediatric Syrian patients, 41 were severely wounded. MDR's were found in 37 (79%) children; most of the isolates were ESBL+ Escherichia coli. Over half of the ESBL's were resistant to additional antibiotics such as sulfa and quinolones; no resistance to amikacin was found. In comparison, in 6 of 40 (15%) Israeli children, MDR's (all ESBL's) were found (pSyrian children, contact isolation and screening cultures for MDR's have an important role in the prevention of nosocomial transmission and establishment of empiric antimicrobial protocols. In suspected infections in Syrian children, amikacin and carbapenems are the antimicrobials of choice. MDR's are carried to a lesser extent in Israeli children but due to their importance, further largescale research is needed.

  14. Making sense of child, early and forced marriage among Syrian refugee girls: a mixed methods study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan Andrea; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Kilzar, Lama; Bergquist, Harveen; Bakhache, Nour; Davison, Colleen; Bunting, Annie

    2018-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has resulted in over 2.3 million child refugees in the Middle East and the prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased among displaced Syrian families. This study explores the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the goal of informing community-based strategies to address the issue. In July-August 2016, trained interviewers collected self-interpreted stories in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker, a mixed-method data collection tool. Participants included married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents as well as married and unmarried men. Each participant shared a story about the experiences of Syrian girls and then interpreted the story by plotting their perspectives on a variety of questions. Patterns in the responses were analysed in SPSS and the accompanying qualitative narratives were reviewed to facilitate interpretation of the quantitative results. 1422 self-interpreted stories from 1346 unique participants were collected with 40% of shared stories focused on (n=332) or mentioning (n=245) child marriage. Quantitative data summarised the different perspectives of female and male participants. Syrian girls and mothers were more likely to share stories about protection/security and/or education and were more likely to report that girls were overprotected. Male participants were more likely to share stories about financial security as well as sexual exploitation of girls and more often reported that girls were not protected enough. Despite these gendered perspectives, many of the shared narratives highlighted similar themes of financial hardship, lack of educational opportunities and safety concerns around sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). A complex myriad of factors contribute to early marriage including poverty, lack of educational opportunities and concerns about SGBV. Sexual exploitation under the guise of marriage is a reality for some Syrian girls. Gender

  15. Winter-feeding systems for gestating sheep I. Effects on pre- and postpartum ewe performance and lamb progeny preweaning performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2011-02-01

    Mature pregnant crossbred ewes (n = 90) were used in a randomized complete block design and assigned to 1 of 3 winter-feeding systems differing in primary feed source: haylage (HL), limit-fed corn (CN), or limit-fed dried distillers grains (DDGS). Effects of these winter-feeding strategies on ewe and lamb performance were determined. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1985) nutrient requirements during gestation and were fed from about d 60 of gestation until parturition. All ewes were fed a common diet postpartum. Every 2 wk during gestation, BW and BCS were collected and diets were adjusted to maintain similar BW gain for ewes fed CN and DDGS vs. HL. At 80 and 122 d of gestation, jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding to measure plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. At birth, 6 lambs per treatment were killed to measure body composition. At 28 ± 2 d postpartum, milk yield was measured. Lambs were weaned at 61 ± 4 d of age. During mid gestation (d 60 to 115), BW gain of ewes was similar among treatments; however, at d 115 of gestation ewes fed HL had a smaller (P = 0.04) BCS than ewes fed DDGS or CN. Plasma glucose concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.004) in ewes fed CN than in those fed HL or DDGS just before feeding on d 80 and 122 of gestation, whereas ewes fed DDGS vs. CN or HL had greater (P ≤ 0.04) plasma insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding. At parturition, ewe BW was greatest for DDGS, least for HL, and intermediate for CN (P ≤ 0.003). Ewes fed CN and DDGS had greater BCS at parturition than those fed HL, but by weaning, ewes fed DDGS had greater BCS (P ≤ 0.05) than those fed CN or HL. Birth BW tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier for lambs from ewes fed CN and DDGS than from those fed HL prepartum, but there was no difference (P = 0.19) due to ewe gestation diet on lamb BW at weaning. At birth, lamb muscle, bone, organ, and fat measures were not affected (P > 0.13) by

  16. Carry-over effects of body condition in the early pregnant ewe on peri-partum adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, J; Estopañan, G; Sanz, A; Dervishi, E; Govoni, N; Tamanini, C; Joy, M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the carry-over effects of ewe body reserves during early pregnancy on peri-partum adipose tissue metabolism. Forty-nine multiparous ewes were divided in three categories according to their body condition score (BCS) at day 30 of pregnancy (BCS  3, 3.25-3.5). Live-weight (LW) and BCS gains from 1st to 4th month of pregnancy were greater in ewes with BCS 3 animals. In contrast, in the last month of pregnancy, there was BCS decrease in all groups, although LW continued increasing. There were no differences in LW or BCS across ewe categories during this period. Peripheral leptin levels throughout the three last weeks of pregnancy were greater in ewes with BCS > 3 than in the rest, but this difference did not persist after lambing. Plasma metabolites related to energy metabolism, milk yield and lamb growth were not affected by ewe BCS in early pregnancy. Long-chain saturated milk fatty acids (FA) (C16-C24) were greater in ewes with lowest BCS (Ewes with greater BCS showed greater monounsaturated and lowest polyunsaturated milk FA content. Ewe post-mating body reserves affect both pre-partum leptinaemia and post-partum milk polyunsaturated fatty acids content, but it had little effect on lamb performance. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Supplementation of metabolizable protein during late gestation and fetal number impact ewe organ mass, maternal serum hormone and metabolite concentrations, and conceptus measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, T J; Lekatz, L A; Van Emon, M L; Perry, G A; Schauer, C S; Maddock Carlin, K R; Hammer, C J; Vonnahme, K A

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effects of maternal metabolizable protein (MP) supplementation during late gestation on serum hormone and metabolites and organ masses, multiparous ewes (n = 45) carrying singletons or twins were allotted randomly (within pregnancy group) to 1 of 3 treatments: 60% (MP60), 80% (MP80), or 100% (MP100) of MP requirements. Blood samples were drawn before the initiation of diets (day 100) and before slaughter (day 130) for chemistry panel analysis and weekly for hormone analysis including progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2). At day 130, ewe organ masses were recorded. Despite being fed isocaloric diets, MP60 ewes gained less weight throughout pregnancy compared with MP80 and MP100 ewes which were similar. Although diet did not impact E2 or P4 concentrations, ewes carrying twins had greater (P ewes near term. There was a diet by fetal number interaction (P = 0.03) for lactate dehydrogenase. Twin-carrying MP80 ewes had greater lactate dehydrogenase compared with all other groups on day 130 of gestation. Ewes that were fed MP80 had greater body weight on day 130 of gestation compared with MP60 ewes. Kidney and heart weights were lighter in MP60 ewes compared with MP80 ewes. There was a maternal diet by fetal number interaction (P = 0.05) on fetal weight per unit empty ewe body weight. In ewes carrying singletons, MP60 ewes supported less fetal weight compared with MP100. In contrast, MP60 ewes supported more fetal mass compared with MP100 ewes when carrying twins. The level of protein, and not just total energy, in the diet appears to impact some aspects of the maternal system. Moreover, it appears some measurements of mobilizing maternal body resources are enhanced in ewes carrying twins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the usefulness of prostaglandin E2 (Cervidil) for transcervical artificial insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Candappa, Ivanka B R

    2015-12-01

    The underlying theme of this study involved the evaluation of the dilatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the ovine cervix and thus the assessment of its potential applicability to transcervical artificial insemination (TCAI) in ewes. A novel method of prostaglandin E2 administration (controlled slow-release vaginal inserts) was examined, and the practical implications of this approach including cervical penetrability and posttreatment pregnancy rates were evaluated. The Guelph method of TCAI was performed during the seasonal anestrus (n = 40) and the breeding season (n = 40) on multiparous Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pretreatment with Cervidil (for a duration of 12 hours or 24 hours before TCAI). Cervical penetration rates averaged 82.5% (66 of 80), and they varied neither (P > 0.05) between the two seasons nor between Cervidil-treated ewes and their respective controls. Cervidil priming significantly reduced the total time required for TCAI during the breeding season in comparison with controls (54 vs. 98 seconds), especially after the 24-hour exposure (38 vs. 108 seconds). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the breed (percentage of Rideau Arcott genotype) and lifetime lamb production in seasonally anestrous ewes. Four out of 36 (11%) successfully penetrated ewes in the breeding season (three ewes allocated to the 12-hour control group and one ewe that had received Cervidil for 12 hours) became pregnant and carried the lambs to term. Vaginal mucus impedance at TCAI was significantly and positively correlated with the total time required to complete the procedure in cyclic ewes, and the negative correlation between vaginal mucus impedance and total time values at the time of controlled intravaginal drug release device removal approached to significance in anestrous ewes. The present results indicate a moderate benefit of using Cervidil for inducing cervical dilation before

  19. Do Syrian refugees have increased risk for worser pregnancy outcomes? Results of a tertiary center in İstanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Emre Sinan; Seval, Olcay; İlhan, Gülşah; Verit, Fatma Ferda

    2018-03-01

    To compare obstetric and perinatal outcomes of Syrian refugee pregnants and Turkish counterparts who gave birth at a tertiary center in İstanbul. A retrospective study including the birth records of 704 Syrian refugees and 744 Turkish pregnant women between January 2016 and May 2017 were analyzed. Demographic data, obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes and cesarean rates between the groups. The secondary outcomes were the use of antenatal vitamin supplementation, hemoglobin-hematocrit values, and maternal complications. Our results showed that the use of folic acid and iron supplementation rates during pregnancy were similar between the groups (folic acid supplementation 8.1% vs 6.5%, p=0.264; iron supplementation 20.7% vs 19.6%, p=0.125; respectively for Turkish women and Syrian refugees). Cesarean rates were significantly higher for Turkish patients than in Syrian refugees (42.7% vs 32.7%; pyrian refugees (37.7±2.3 vs 36.4±2.3 weeks, pyrian refugees, respectively, p=0.105). Although obstetric complications were seen more often in Syrian refugees, it did not reach statistical difference (9.7% vs 8.1%, respectively, p=0.285). Syrian refugees use antenatal vitamin supplementations at similar rates to Turkish citizens and obstetric and perinatal outcomes are similar between the groups.

  20. Maternal Health Care Utilization Among Syrian Refugees in Lebanon and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Burton, Ann; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-09-01

    Purpose The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan and Lebanon over the last 5 years presents an immense burden to national health systems. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of maternal health services among Syrian refugees in both countries. Description A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugees living in urban and rural (non-camp) settings was conducted using a two-stage cluster survey design with probability proportional to size sampling in 2014-2015. Eighty-six percent of surveyed households in Lebanon and 88% of surveyed households in Jordan included women with a live birth in the last year. Information from women in this sub-set of households was analyzed to understand antenatal and intrapartum health service utilization. Assessment A majority of respondents reported seeking antenatal care, 82% and 89% in Jordan and Lebanon, respectively. Women had an average of at least six antenatal care visits. Nearly all births (98% in Jordan and 94% in Lebanon) took place in a health facility. Cesarean rates were similar in both countries; approximately one-third of all births were cesarean deliveries. A substantial proportion of women incurred costs for intrapartum care; 33% of Syrian women in Jordan and 94% of Syrian women in Lebanon reported paying out of pocket for their deliveries. The proportion of women incurring costs for intrapartum care was higher in Jordan both countries for women with cesarean deliveries compared to those with vaginal deliveries; however, this difference was not statistically significant in either country (Jordan p-value = 0.203; Lebanon p-value = 0.099). Conclusion Syrian refugees living in Jordan and Lebanon had similar levels of utilization of maternal health services, despite different health systems and humanitarian assistance provisions. As expected, a substantial proportion of households incurred out-of-pocket costs for essential maternal and newborn health services, making cost a major factor in care

  1. Selection for superior growth advances the onset of puberty and increases reproductive performance in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-06-01

    The reproductive efficiency of the entire sheep flock could be improved if ewe lambs go through puberty early and produce their first lamb at 1 year of age. The onset of puberty is linked to the attainment of critical body mass, and therefore we tested whether it would be influenced by genetic selection for growth rate or for rate of accumulation of muscle or fat. We studied 136 Merino ewe lambs with phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values at post-weaning age (200 days) for live weight (PWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT). First oestrus was detected with testosterone-treated wethers and then entire rams as the ewes progressed from 6 to 10 months of age. Blood concentrations of leptin and IGF-I were measured to test whether they were related to production traits and reproductive performance (puberty, fertility and reproductive rate). In total, 97% of the lambs reached first oestrus at average weight 39.4 ± 0.4 kg (mean ± s.e.m.) and age 219 days (range 163 to 301). Age at first oestrus decreased with increases in values for PWT (P ewe lambs that achieved puberty was positively related with increases in values for EMD (P ewe lambs were pregnant at average weight 44.7 ± 0.5 kg and age 263 days (range 219 to 307). Ewe lambs that were heavier at the start of mating were more fertile (P ewe lambs. The metabolic hormones, IGF-I and leptin, might act as a physiological link between the growing tissues and the reproductive axis.

  2. No Evidence That RFamide-Related Peptide 3 Directly Modulates LH Secretion in the Ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decourt, C; Anger, K; Robert, V; Lomet, D; Bartzen-Sprauer, J; Caraty, A; Dufourny, L; Anderson, G; Beltramo, M

    2016-04-01

    The neuropeptide RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3) has been implicated in the control of gonadotropin secretion in both birds and mammals. However, in mammals, depending on species, sex and photoperiod, inhibitory, excitatory, or no effect of RFRP-3 on the plasma concentration of LH has been reported. In the ewe, treatment with RFRP-3 either reduced LH concentration or had no effect, and treatment with an RFRP-3 receptor antagonist (ie, RF9) resulted in increased concentration of plasma LH. To clarify these conflicting results in the present study, a set of experiments was performed in ewes. Multiple iv injections of RFRP-3 (6 × 50 μg) in ovariectomized ewes had no effect on plasma LH pulsatility. In intact ewes a bolus injection (500 μg) or an injection (250, 500, or 1000 μg) followed by a 4-hour perfusion (250, 500, or 1000 μg · h(-1)) of RFRP-3 had no effect on the LH pulse induced by kisspeptin (6.5 μg). In ovariectomized, estrogen-replaced ewes, the LH surge induced by estradiol benzoate was not modified by a 24-hour perfusion of RFRP-3 (500 μg h(-1)). Finally, although treatment with RF9 induced a robust release of LH, treatment with a more selective RFRP-3 receptor antagonist, GJ14, resulted in no evident increase of LH. In contrast to the inhibitory effect previously suggested, our data are more consistent with the concept that RFRP-3 has no direct effect on LH secretion in ewes and that RF9 effect on LH release is likely not RFRP-3 receptor mediated. Hence, RFRP-3 probably has a minor role on the control of LH secretion in the ewe.

  3. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  4. Effects of Using Melatonin Implants and Syncro-Part Pessaries + PMSG on Reproduction Performance in Transylvanian Merino Breed Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Padeanu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Sinnicolau Mare, western Romania, on a number of 70 yearling ewes of 17-18 months of age from the native Transylvanian Merino breed. Ewes included into study lambed for the first time as maiden-ewes at the age of 14-15 months, with their lambs being weaned at the age of two months. First group (V1, numbering 25 ewes received during out of season breeding (30.05.2011 a dose of 18 mg subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin®, while the second group (V2 consisting out of 25 ewes were treated with subcutaneous melatonin implants + 30 mg FGA (Syncro-Part pessaries + 500 IU PMSG. Control group was represented by 20 intact females. Ewes were put to ram in July 7th 2011. Researches shown that in ewes treated with melatonin, 30 mg FGA + 500 IU PMSG (V2 the conception rate was of 80%, with a prolificacy of 140%, with a weaning rate of 1 lamb/ewe. In V1 group, the weaning rate was of 0.84 lambs/ treated ewe, with significantly lower production costs. Ewes from the control group produced a weaning rate of 0.55 lambs/ewe, significantly less (p≤0.05 comparing to V1 and V2 experimental groups. It was concluded that in Transylvanian Merino breed, although the V2 group performed best (producing 28 lambs compared to V1 group (23 lambs, the difference of 5 lambs does not cover additional production costs, therefore the use of melatonin implants alone should be recommended.

  5. Factors associated with fetal losses in ewe lambs on a New Zealand sheep farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, A L; Vallee, E; Corner, R A; Kenyon, P R; Heuer, C

    2015-11-01

    As part of a production study of ewe lambs on a large farm in the Waikato region of New Zealand in 2011, pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken twice by trans-abdominal ultrasonography at 68-103 and 97-132 days of gestation. At the second pregnancy diagnosis 257/3,790 (6.8%) ewe lambs had evidence of non-viable fetuses or absence of a pregnancy that was present at the previous pregnancy diagnosis (fetal loss). Serum antibody titres for Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona appeared generally higher in 10 ewe lambs with fetal loss compared with 10 that were still pregnant. Histopathological investigation was not able to confirm that fetal loss was associated with leptospial infection. In the 2012-born cohort of ewe lambs 443 were vaccinated with a bivalent leptospirosis vaccine and 882 unvaccinated. Serum was collected from 124 non-vaccinated ewe lambs between January and December 2013 for measurement of antibodies to Leptospira serovar Pomona and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis using a microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Less than 5% of these ewe lambs were seropositive until May, but by August 85% and 48% of animals were seropositive to Leptospira serovars Hardjo-bovis and Pomona, respectively. Fetal loss in non-vaccinated ewe lambs was 78/882 (9%) compared with 23/443 (5%) in vaccinated ewe lambs. Combined data from the 2011- and 2012-born ewe lambs (n=5,115) were analysed using a logistic regression model and fetal loss as the dependent variable. In the final model fetal loss was associated with pre-mating bodyweight (p=0.003), weight change from pre-mating to initial pregnancy diagnosis (pewe lambs, there were associations between fetal loss and being seropositive to Leptospira serovar Pomona using titre cut-points of 1:48 and 1:768 (pewe lambs achieving target pre-mating weights and liveweight gains during pregnancy. Infection with Leptospira serovar Pomona was associated with fetal loss in the 2012-born cohort and the possibility of infection with this

  6. The periparturient relaxation of immunity in Merino ewes infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis: parasitological and immunological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, A M; Kahn, L P; Windon, R G

    2010-02-26

    The temporal association between the periparturient rise (PPR) in worm egg count (WEC) of grazing Merino ewes to infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis and the underlying causal mechanisms was investigated in an experiment that incorporated two levels of pregnancy (pregnant or unmated), two levels of infection (infected with 6000 T. colubriformis L(3)/week or uninfected) and, following lambing, three levels of lactation (non-lactating/"dry", early-weaned 2 days after parturition, or suckled). The 128 ewes in the experiment were monitored for a range of parasitological and host systemic and local immune responses from days -50 to 42, relative to the midpoint of lambing (day 0). Unmated/non-lactating (dry) ewes remained largely resistant to T. colubriformis infection with WEC remaining below 200 eggs per gram (epg) throughout the experiment. For infected ewes, the PPR in WEC commenced during late pregnancy and peaked at 1552epg on day 42. There was evidence of a relaxation of immunity that preceded the rise, as demonstrated by a reduction in circulating eosinophils and plasma total antibody (Tab) and lower titres of Tab and IgG(1) in the small intestine in pregnant ewes. Circulating eosinophils and plasma Tab remained low in suckled ewes, and at the local level, lactating ewes also had lower titres of Tab, IgG(1), IgM, IgA and IgE as well as fewer mast cells (MC), globule leucocytes (GL) and goblet cells (GC) in intestinal tissue. These effects were associated with higher worm burdens. Weaning at 2 days after lambing resulted in a rapid amelioration of immunological responsiveness and a reduction in WEC, worm burden and parasite establishment rate. A rapid increase in circulating eosinophils and Tab titre followed by an improvement in components of the local immune response was also observed. Over the 6-week period following lambing, weaned ewes exhibited higher titres of Tab, IgG(1), IgM, IgA and IgE as well as higher numbers of MC, GL and GC present in the

  7. Using Longitudinal Assessment on Extensively Managed Ewes to Quantify Welfare Compromise and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Stuart; Hemsworth, Paul; Doyle, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Sheep managed extensively can be exposed to several welfare challenges during the year, and the risk of some diseases can increase in warmer and wetter seasons. In this study, the welfare of Merino ewes was examined over a calendar year. The welfare of these animals, kept on a single farm with consistent management, varied substantially. Overall, the largest number of ewes experienced compromise and risk to welfare at weaning, indicating that this was the most vulnerable time. The main welfare issues identified were under and over feeding, ewe mortality, lameness, ecto-parasites (flystrike) and mastitis, all of which could be improved by modifying management practices, such as improved nutritional management and monitoring and better tail docking procedures. Future research must consider that significant variation in the on-farm welfare of ewes occurs during a calendar year, which needs to be accounted for when conducting on-farm assessments. Abstract This study examined variation in the welfare of extensively managed ewes and potential welfare risks. A total of 100 Merino ewes (aged 2–4 years) were individually identified and examined at three key stages: pregnancy, lactation and weaning. Eight animal-based welfare measures were used to assess welfare: flight distance, body condition score (BCS), fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score, lameness and mastitis. Data were analysed by ANOVA and McNemar’s statistics. Overall, the average BCS of the group was in agreement with industry recommendations. However, a number of animals were classified with inadequate condition (either too thin or too fat) across the three observation periods. The presence of heavy dags was greatest at mid-lactation (87%, P < 0.0001), lameness was greatest at weaning (14%, P = 0.01), clinical mastitis was 1% annually, and five ewes were lost from the study. Ewes had better health at mid-pregnancy compared to mid-lactation and weaning. The main welfare issues

  8. Determination of 210Po in tea, mat and their infusions and its annual intake by Syrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Polonium-210 was determined in 34 kinds of imported tea and 9 kinds of mat collected from the Syrian local market. The 210 Po concentration was found to vary from 5.5 to 39 Bq x kg -1 and 47 to 82 Bq x kg -1 in tea and mat samples, respectively. In addition 210 Po was also determined in tea and mat infusions where different infusion conditions have been examined: amount, temperature and infusion time. The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred from tea and mat leaves to the aqueous extract ranged from 9 to 21% and 3 to 15%, respectively. The annual intake of 210 Po by Syrians due to tea consumption and mat infusions was calculated and found to be 9 Bq and 151 Bq for tea and mat respectively: washing of mat with warm water is recommended before preparation the infusions to decrease the annual intake of 210 Po. (author)

  9. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    Full Text Available In 2012 a novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV, associated with severe respiratory disease emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, 55 human cases have been reported, including 31 fatal cases. Several of the cases were likely a result of human-to-human transmission. The emergence of this novel coronavirus prompts the need for a small animal model to study the pathogenesis of this virus and to test the efficacy of potential intervention strategies. In this study we explored the use of Syrian hamsters as a small animal disease model, using intratracheal inoculation and inoculation via aerosol. Clinical signs of disease, virus replication, histological lesions, cytokine upregulation nor seroconversion were observed in any of the inoculated animals, indicating that MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

  10. Humanitarian Medical Response to the Syrian Arab Republic (April 7, 2013 to April 23, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Motara, Feroza; Bham, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    The Syrian Arab Republic is entrenched in a deadly civil war, plunging the country into a state of chaos. With 3.2 million refugees abroad, 7.6 million internally displaced persons, and more than 200,000 killed, humanitarian assistance and international intervention are in dire need. This report outlines the response to the Syrian humanitarian crisis by a South African-based nongovernmental organization (NGO). It describes the experiences of a health care worker, the patient profiles, and the lessons learned in a war zone. Responding to a nation in need is of paramount importance. In order to maximize the benefit conferred, the team should always attempt to implement measures that leave a lasting legacy.

  11. Governing the Lebanese health system: strengthening the national response to the burden of Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alessio; McKee, Martin

    2017-08-20

    Lebanon is providing sanctuary to an estimated 1.5 million Syrian refugees, with potential consequences for its health system. Here, we analyse how it has responded to this challenge, identify sensitive areas where a strong national governance system is needed and explore how it might be implemented. An effective response to the Syrian refugee crisis requires concerted international action. Nonetheless, geography dictates that the Lebanese health system must play a central role. We identify some areas where a strengthened stewardship role of the Ministry of Public Health is urgently required. We argue that the Ministry is well placed to take a lead, with its detailed knowledge of the Lebanese health system and its legitimacy to formulate a national health response. Finally, we suggest that this crisis could be a catalyst for the strengthening of the Lebanese health system, based on evidence-informed policies that would benefit refugees and the Lebanese population alike.

  12. Factors in use of family planning services by Syrian women in a refugee camp in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lucy; Isotta-Day, Harriet; Ba-Break, Maryam; Morgan, Rosemary

    2016-03-09

    The Syrian conflict presents the fastest growing refugee crisis in the world today, with over four million people now displaced outside the country. Existing literature suggests that family planning services are often still neglected in crisis response efforts. A small-scale qualitative study conducted in May 2013, interviewing Syrian women residing in a Jordanian refugee camp about use and barriers to accessing family planning services. The study shows that significant barriers remain, and suggests that international attempts to address refugees' family planning needs remain inconsistent. Several practical measures are identified to address barriers to access, making the article of both practical and academic relevance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Evaluation of a short-term medical mission to Syrian refugee camps in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghothani, Nora; Alghothani, Yousef; Atassi, Bassel

    2012-10-01

    The escalating political and humanitarian crisis in Syria has left thousands detained, killed or displaced in neighboring countries. Given the permission and co-operation of the Turkish health authorities, a short-term medical mission to the Syrian refugee camps in the Hatay province was arranged. To assess this mission's impact and potential expansion to serve other more emergently inflicted areas both inside and outside the Syrian borders, an evaluation was conducted via survey questionnaire of participating physicians. While almost all respondents found the experience worthwhile and fulfilling, medical, social and educational challenges as well as possible solutions were outlined. The use of several specified principles to further guide efforts towards providing service, education, relief, and awareness would result in greater effect, sustainability and growth of the mission.

  14. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Genetic Characterization Of Syrian Erwinia Amylovora Strains By Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Arabi, M.; Shoaib, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty Erwinia amylovora strains, collected from the main rosaceous crop-growing regions in Syria, were chosen as representatives of all major pathogenicity groups and were genetically studied by AFLP. Eight primer combinations were utilized and approximately 300 scorable bands in total were generated. Based on similarity coefficient, E. amylovora strains were placed into a main cluster containing two sub clusters, indicating very low genetic variations among the studied pathogen. The existence of two plasmids, pEA29 (present in nearly all E. amylovora isolates) and pEL60 (present mainly in Lebanese strains), was confirmed using multiplex PCR in all tested Syrian E. amylovora strains, indicating that Lebanese and Syrian isolates may share a common origin.(author)

  16. Recovery of uranium from the Syrian phosphate by solid-liquid method using alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium concentrations were analyzed in the Syrian phosphate deposits. Mean concentrations were found between 50 and 110 ppm. As a consequence, an average phosphate dressing of 22 kg/ha phosphate would charge the soil with 5-20 g/ha uranium when added as a mineral fertilizer. Fine grinding phosphate produced at the Syrian mines was used for uranium recovery by carbonate leaching. The formation of the soluble uranyl tricarbonate anion UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- permits use of alkali solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts for the nearly selective dissolution of uranium from phosphate. Separation of iron, aluminum, titanium, etc., from the uranium during leaching was carried out. Formation of some small amounts of molybdates, vanadates, phosphates, aluminates, and some complexes metal was investigated. This process could be used before the manufacture of TSP fertilizer, and the final products would contain smaller uranium quantities. (author)

  17. Social identity continuity and mental health among Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Çelebi, Elif; Acartürk, Ceren; Onkun, Samed

    2017-10-01

    Building upon social psychological work on social identity and mental health, this study among Syrian refugees in Turkey examined the importance of multiple group memberships and identity continuity for mental health and well-being. A survey study was conducted among the very difficult to reach population of Syrian refugees (N = 361). With path analysis in AMOS the associations were examined between multiple group memberships, social identity continuity and mental health and psychological well-being. Indicate that belonging to multiple groups before migration was related to a higher likelihood of having preserved group memberships after migration (i.e., sense of social identity continuity), which, in turn, predicted greater life satisfaction and lower levels of depression. Multiple group membership, however, was also directly related to higher depression. Findings are discussed in relation to the importance of multiple group membership and feelings of identity continuity for refugees.

  18. Plasma lipids of golden Syrian hamsters fed dietary rose hip, sunflower, olive and coconut oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Escobar, M; Olivera, P

    1997-06-01

    Plasma lipids of male golden Syrian hamsters fed diets supplemented with 15% (w/w) rose hip, sunflower, olive, or coconut oils during four weeks were assessed. The results confirm the saturated fat hyperlipidemic effect on golden Syrian hamsters fed with the olive oil and coconut oil, reaching the highest triglyceride levels. The monounsaturated (olive oil) or polyunsaturated (rose hip and sunflower oils) fatty acid-rich-vegetable oils have a similar action on the HDL-cholesterol. No statistically significant difference was observed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels in the rose hip and sunflower groups, showing that the polyunsaturation degree of both oils does not affect those results. Compared with the plasma levels obtained in the olive and coconut oil groups, rose hip and sunflower oils present a marked hypolipidemic effect, which could be due to specific action of the series n-6 linoleic acid.

  19. Leadership Styles at Syrian Universities and the Differences Caused by Sector and Follower Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ayoubi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing two modern leadership styles: transactional leadership and transformational leadership at Syrian universities. It also aims at exploring whether or not there are differences in leadership styles caused by sector or follower demographics. A quantitative research paradigm was employed. Using a questionnaire survey method, the data was collected from managerial employees at two public and private universities. In total, 216 questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS. The findings revealed that there is a high level of transactional leadership except one of its dimensions, management by exception-passive, which occurred in a medium level. There is also a high level of transformational leadership except one of its dimensions, individualized consideration, which occurred in a medium level. Furthermore, the study found significant differences in leadership styles that are caused by follower demographics, but not sector. Suggestions for Syrian universities are presented. Proposals for future studies are highlighted in the study.

  20. iTRAQ-based proteomic profiling of granulosa cells from lamb and ewe after superstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiapeng; Wu, Yangsheng; Han, Bing; Chen, Ying; Wang, Liqin; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Mingjun; Huang, Juncheng

    2017-10-01

    The number of oocytes obtained from lambs after FSH treatment is far greater than those acquired from adult ewes. However, these oocytes typically have reduced viability in comparison with adult ewe oocytes. However, the molecular mechanisms of differences in viability between lamb and ewe oocytes remain unknown. In the present research, we applied iTRAQ coupled with LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis in order to investigate the proteomic expression profile of granulosa cells from lambs and ewes following stimulation with FSH. We detected 5649 proteins; 574 were differentially expressed between adults and juveniles. Based on Gene Ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis, the majority of DEPs are participated in metabolic processes, ribosome and MAPK signaling pathways. Expression levels in ewes turned out to be lower than lambs. Protein interaction network analysis generated by STRING identified MAPK1, SMAD2, SMAD4, CDK1, FOS and ATM as the major findings among 54 significant differentially expressed of proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was applied to verify the proteomic analysis. These proteins which were identified in lambs may contribute to the reduction of oocyte quality compared to adults. The present research provides understanding of the molecular mechanism for follicle development in lambs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Reproductive performance of Ile de France ewes under dietary supplementation before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of Ile de France ewes undergoing dietary supplementation before and during the breeding season, with and without association with management conditions (pre-mating shearing. Thirty-six ewes with an average body weight of 66 kg were used in the experiment. Treatments involved ewes receiving or not receiving concentrate supplementation (flushing, with groups subdivided according to the management condition to which animals were subjected: shearing or lack of it. Thus, ewes were divided into four treatments: flushed and shorn; flushed and unshorn; unflushed and shorn; and unflushed and unshorn. Flushing increased weight gain and body condition score, and when associated with shearing, it promoted anticipation of estrus. Fertility rate (86.05%, calving rate (77.77%, birth rate (113.83%, and type of birth (single: 82.29% and twin: 17.71% were not influenced. Birth weight (3.96 kg and prolificacy (1.25% also were not affected. Despite the lack of changes in reproductive traits, flushing adopted during the breeding season associated with shearing anticipated estrus in ewes.

  2. Epidemiology and effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on milk productions of dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez V.H.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 66 Pampinta breed ewes were studied during milking to evaluate the infection and the effect of gastrointestinal nematode on milk production sheep system. Naturally infected ewes on pasture were randomly allocated to two groups: TG, suppressively treated group every four weeks with levamisole and UG, untreated group. Faecal nematode egg counts and larval differentiation were conducted monthly. Successive groups of worm free tracer lambs were grazed with ewes and then slaughtered for worm counts. Test-day milk yield of individual ewes was recorded and ewe machine-milking period length (MPL were estimated. Faecal egg counts and tracer nematode numbers increased towards midsummer and declined sharply toward the end of the study. TG (188.0 ± 60 liters produced more (p < 0.066 milk liters than UG (171.9 ± 52.2 and TG had significantly more extended (p < 0.041 MPL than those of UG. The present study showed that dairy sheep were negatively affected by worms, even when exposed to short periods of high acute nematode (mainly Haemonchus contortus infection.

  3. Reproductive Response of Ewes Fed with Taiwan Grass Hay ( Schum. Supplemented with Duckweed ( sp. and sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zetina-Córdoba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of duckweed (DW supplementation was evaluated on dry matter intake (DMI, presence and duration of estrus, percentage of ewes repeating estrus and pregnancy rate, as well as the concentration of progesterone (P4 in multiparous crossbred ewes from Pelibuey, Dorper, and Katahdin breeds, fed with Taiwan grass hay (TWH. Eighteen ewes with 39.7±4 kg mean body weight, kept in individual pens, were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: T1: TWH, T2: TWH plus 200 g DW, T3: TWH plus 300 g DW. The ewes were synchronized with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA and 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure. DW supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (p>0.05; however, a slight decrease of TWH intake was observed as DW supplementation increased. No differences (p>0.05 were found in the beginning of estrus, percentage of ewes presenting it, its duration, or pregnancy rate. There were no differences (p>0.05 on P4 concentration among treatments, or treatmentxperiod interaction (p>0.05. However the period was significant (p<0.01, since the P4 levels increased as time increased after the removal of the FGA device and eCG application.

  4. Risk factors for Merino ewe mortality on the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, G A; Kahn, L P; Walkden-Brown, S W

    2014-03-01

    To measure the association of worm egg count (WEC), body weight (BW) and fat score (FS) with mortality in Merino ewes. On six farms, Merino ewes (n = 1440) were yarded at approximately 3-month intervals for 2 years for a range of experimental measurements. Mortality was defined by failure to present at two consecutive measurement days and at next shearing. Survival analysis was conducted with phenotypic traits measured both as continuous variables and categorised appropriately for industry guidelines. Overall mortality was 10%, with most deaths occurring in autumn followed by winter. Age class (2006 drop vs mature-age ewes) did not affect mortality. High WEC, low BW and low FS significantly increased the risk of mortality. WEC > 1200 epg significantly increased risk of mortality in summer (risk ratio 3.76) and autumn (risk ratio 3.61) compared with the reference group. Risk of mortality increased 1.1-fold for each kilogram unit decrease in BW and 7-fold for each unit decrease in FS. Mortality of Merino ewes can be significantly reduced by management methods that reduce WEC, maintain BW and increase the FS. For Merino ewes on the Northern Tablelands of NSW, improved animal welfare and economic benefits may be achieved by maintaining sheep with WEC 35 kg and FS > 2.5. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. The Relationship between Selenium and T3 in Selenium Supplemented and Nonsupplemented Ewes and Their Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Elghany Hefnawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pregnant ewes were selected and classified into two groups. The first group received subcutaneous selenium supplementation (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg BW at the 8th and 5th weeks before birth and 1st week after birth while the other was control group without selenium injection. Maternal plasma and serum samples were collected weekly from the 8th week before birth until the 8th week after birth and milk samples were taken from ewes weekly, while plasma and serum samples were collected at 48 hours, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 8th weeks after birth from the newborn lambs. Results demonstrated significant positive relationship between maternal plasma selenium and serum T3 in supplemented and control ewes (r=0.69 to 0.72, P<0.05. There was significant (P<0.001 increase in T3 in supplemented ewes and their lambs until the 8th week after birth. There was positive relationship between milk, selenium concentration, and serum T3 in the newborn lambs of the supplemented group (r=0.84, P<0.01, while the relationship was negative in the control one (r=-0.89, P<0.01. Muscular and thyroid pathological changes were independent of selenium supplementation. Selenium supplementation was important for maintaining T3 in ewes and newborn lambs until the 8th week after birth.

  6. Ewing's sarcoma: analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism in the EWS gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Deborah S B S; Sawitzki, Fernanda R; De Toni, Elisa C; Graebin, Pietra; Picanco, Juliane B; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; de Farias, Caroline B; Roesler, Rafael; Brunetto, Algemir L; Alho, Clarice S

    2012-11-10

    We aimed to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EWS gene breaking region in order to analyze Ewing's sarcoma susceptibility. The SNPs were investigated in a healthy subject population and in Ewing's sarcoma patients from Southern Brazil. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan® assay for allelic discrimination using Real-Time PCR. The analysis of incidence of SNPs or different SNP-arrangements revealed a higher presence of homozygote TT-rs4820804 in Ewing's sarcoma patients (p=0.02; Chi Square Test). About 300 bp from the rs4820804 SNP lies a palindromic hexamer (5'-GCTAGC-3') and three nucleotides (GTC), which were previously identified to be in close vicinity of the breakpoint junction in both EWS and FLI1 genes. This DNA segment surrounding the rs4820804 SNP is likely to indicate a breakpoint region. If the T-rs4820804 allele predisposes a DNA fragment to breakage, homozygotes (TT-rs4820804) would have double the chance of having a chromosome break, increasing the chances for a translocation to occur. In conclusion, the TT-rs4820804 EWS genotype can be associated with Ewing's sarcoma and the SNP rs4820804 can be a candidate marker to understand Ewing's sarcoma susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ewing sarcoma of the left big toe with trans-articular skip lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F. Kamal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of the patient who had Ewing Sarcoma in whom radiological and hystopathological appearances revealed a tumor mass in the left big toe along with trans-artikular skip lesion on the left diaphysis of tibia. In Cipto Mangunkusomo Hospital since 1995 until 2004 we have found 20 Ewing sarcoma cases, but only one skip lesion Ewing sarcoma was found. The diagnosis of transarticular skip lesion in association of Ewing sarcoma was confirmed in clinicopathological conferrence. The initial evaluation of all patients included the recording of the medical history, physical examination, and hematological studies. Radiographs of the chest and the site of the primary tumor were made routinely. Systemic staging was performed with use of total-body bone scan. Ray amputation of left big toe and open biopsy from mass of mid-shaft of tibia had been done to confirm the diagnosis. The patient underwent induction chemotherapy and above knee amputation. Ten months after diagnosis, he died because of advanced-distant metastasis. (Med J Indones 2008; 18: 139-44Key words: Ewing sarcoma, trans-articular skip lesion

  8. Strategic study on energy-protein requirements for local sheep: 5. Ewes during lactation phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six Javanese thin-tail ewes in the end of late pregnancy phase were set out to study the energy and crude protein requirements during the first eight-week of lactation phase. The ewes were penned individually in doors and randomly assigned to a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three levels of energy (low, medium and high and three levels of crude protein (low, medium and high diets with four ewes per treatment. The diets were pelleted and offered four times daily in approximately equal amount. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, body weight and milk production were recorded. Results showed that, total lamb birth weights was not affected, but protein content on the ration treatments significantly altered (P0.05, while crude protein content on the ration highly significantly affected (P<0.01. Based on data recorded, the energy and protein requirements for ewes during lactation phase are highly significantly depended on ewes’ live weight, milk production and the ratio of energy metabolism and crude protein of the ration. It was concluded that in order to fulfil the crude protein and energy needs of the ewes during lactation phase, the ration given should contain crude protein and energy as much as 16% (based on dry matter and 13.4 MJ/kg dry matter respectively.

  9. Creating space for fishermen's livelihoods : Anlo-Ewe beach seine fishermen's negotiations for livelihood space within multiple governance structures in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, M.

    2009-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides a detailed empirical description and analysis of the Anlo-Ewe beach seine fishery in Ghana. The Anlo-Ewe fishermen operate in a context of declining catches affecting their livelihoods. The study shows how the Anlo-Ewe beach seine fishermen actively negotiate livelihood

  10. Creating space for fishermen’s livelihoods : Anlo-Ewe beach seine fishermen’s negotiations for livelihood space within multiple governance structures in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides a detailed empirical description and analysis of the Anlo-Ewe beach seine fishery in Ghana. The Anlo-Ewe fishermen operate in a context of declining catches affecting their livelihoods. The study shows how the Anlo-Ewe beach seine fishermen actively negotiate livelihood

  11. IDH Mutation Analysis in Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ki Yong; Noh, Byeong-Joo; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Youn Wha; Santini Araujo, Eduardo; Park, Yong-Koo

    2015-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) with production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Dysfunctional IDH leads to reduced production of α-KG and NADH and increased production of 2-hydroxyglutarate, an oncometabolite. This results in increased oxidative damage and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α, causing cells to be prone to tumorigenesis. This study investigated IDH mutations in 61 Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), using a pentose nucleic acid clamping method and direct sequencing. We identified four cases of ESFTs harboring IDH mutations. The number of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations was equal and the subtype of IDH mutations was variable. Clinicopathologic analysis according to IDH mutation status did not reveal significant results. This study is the first to report IDH mutations in ESFTs. The results indicate that ESFTs can harbor IDH mutations in previously known hot-spot regions, although their incidence is rare. Further validation with a larger case-based study would establish more reliable and significant data on prevalence rate and the biological significance of IDH mutations in ESFTs.

  12. IDH Mutation Analysis in Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Na

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield α-ketoglutarate (α-KG with production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. Dysfunctional IDH leads to reduced production of α-KG and NADH and increased production of 2-hydroxyglutarate, an oncometabolite. This results in increased oxidative damage and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α, causing cells to be prone to tumorigenesis. Methods: This study investigated IDH mutations in 61 Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs, using a pentose nucleic acid clamping method and direct sequencing. Results: We identified four cases of ESFTs harboring IDH mutations. The number of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations was equal and the subtype of IDH mutations was variable. Clinicopathologic analysis according to IDH mutation status did not reveal significant results. Conclusions: This study is the first to report IDH mutations in ESFTs. The results indicate that ESFTs can harbor IDH mutations in previously known hot-spot regions, although their incidence is rare. Further validation with a larger case-based study would establish more reliable and significant data on prevalence rate and the biological significance of IDH mutations in ESFTs.

  13. Progress on major genes for high fecundity in ewes

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    Qiuyue LIU,Zhangyuan PAN,Xiangyu WANG,Wenping HU,Ran DI,Yaxing YAO,Mingxing CHU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of major genes affecting fecundity in sheep flocks throughout the world has been demonstrated. Three major genes whose mutations can increase ovulation rate have been discovered, and all related to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β superfamily. The mutant FecB of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR1B has an additive effect on ovulation rate. Six mutations (FecXI, FecXH, FecXG, FecXB, FecXL, FecXR of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 related with fertility have been identified that share the same mechanism. All the mutants can increase ovulation rate in heterozygotes and cause complete sterility in homozygotes. Homozygous ewes with two new mutations (FecXGr, FecXO of BMP15 had increased ovulation rate without causing sterility. There are five mutations in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 associated with sheep prolificacy where FecGE and FecGF have additive an effect on ovulation rate and litter size. The newly identified β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4GALNT2 gene of FecL is proposed as a new mechanism of ovulation rate regulation in sheep. Woodlands is an X-linked maternally imprinted gene which increases ovulation rate. In addition, several putative major genes need to be verified. This review is focused on the identification of the mutations and mechanisms whereby the major genes affecting ovulation rate.

  14. Ewing sarcoma in adults treated with modern radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Dana L.; Meyers, Paul A.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Magnan, Heather; Healey, John H.; Boland, Patrick J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate local control and survival outcomes in adults with Ewing sarcoma (ES) treated with radiotherapy (RT). Material and methods: Retrospective review of all 109 patients age ⩾18 treated for ES with RT to the primary site at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 1990 and 2011. RT was used as the definitive local control modality in 44% of patients, preoperatively for 6%, and postoperatively for 50%. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 27 years (range, 18–67). The 5-year local failure (LF) was 18%. Differences in LF were not identified when evaluated by modality of local control (RT versus combined surgery and RT), RT dose, fractionation, and RT technique. However, margin status at time of resection significantly predicted LF. The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 44% and 66% for patients with localized disease, compared with 16% and 26% for metastatic disease (p = 0.0005 and 0.0002). Tumor size, histopathologic response to chemotherapy, and treatment on or according to a protocol were also significantly associated with survival. Conclusions: This series of adults treated with modern chemotherapy and RT had prognostic factors and outcomes similar to adolescents with ES. All adults with ES should be treated with an aggressive, multidisciplinary approach

  15. Targeting the DNA repair pathway in Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Goshorn, Ross; Bradley, Cori; Griffiths, Lyra M; Benavente, Claudia; Twarog, Nathaniel R; Miller, Gregory M; Caufield, William; Freeman, Burgess B; Bahrami, Armita; Pappo, Alberto; Wu, Jianrong; Loh, Amos; Karlström, Åsa; Calabrese, Chris; Gordon, Brittney; Tsurkan, Lyudmila; Hatfield, M Jason; Potter, Philip M; Snyder, Scott E; Thiagarajan, Suresh; Shirinifard, Abbas; Sablauer, Andras; Shelat, Anang A; Dyer, Michael A

    2014-11-06

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a tumor of the bone and soft tissue that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. With current therapies, 70% of patients with localized disease survive, but patients with metastatic or recurrent disease have a poor outcome. We found that EWS cell lines are defective in DNA break repair and are sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPis). PARPi-induced cytotoxicity in EWS cells was 10- to 1,000-fold higher after administration of the DNA-damaging agents irinotecan or temozolomide. We developed an orthotopic EWS mouse model and performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies using three different PARPis that are in clinical development for pediatric cancer. Irinotecan administered on a low-dose, protracted schedule previously optimized for pediatric patients was an effective DNA-damaging agent when combined with PARPis; it was also better tolerated than combinations with temozolomide. Combining PARPis with irinotecan and temozolomide gave complete and durable responses in more than 80% of the mice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeting the DNA Repair Pathway in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma (EWS is a tumor of the bone and soft tissue that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. With current therapies, 70% of patients with localized disease survive, but patients with metastatic or recurrent disease have a poor outcome. We found that EWS cell lines are defective in DNA break repair and are sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPis. PARPi-induced cytotoxicity in EWS cells was 10- to 1,000-fold higher after administration of the DNA-damaging agents irinotecan or temozolomide. We developed an orthotopic EWS mouse model and performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies using three different PARPis that are in clinical development for pediatric cancer. Irinotecan administered on a low-dose, protracted schedule previously optimized for pediatric patients was an effective DNA-damaging agent when combined with PARPis; it was also better tolerated than combinations with temozolomide. Combining PARPis with irinotecan and temozolomide gave complete and durable responses in more than 80% of the mice.

  17. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi Khuri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation. These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery.

  18. Coenurus cerebralis cyst in the orbit of a ewe

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    Mohie Haridy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old Rahmani breed ewe was presented for surgery to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, South Valley University, Egypt with enlargement and protrusion of the eye ball, blepharitis and congestion of the conjunctiva. On examination, a cyst 2.5 cm x 3.5 cm in diameter containing sandy fluid was detected in the perioptic nerve fat. Histopathological examination revealed that the epithelial lining of the conjunctiva was necrotic and severely infiltrated by neutrophils. The underlying connective tissue was oedematous, hyperaemic and severely infiltrated by neutrophils. Desquamation of the corneal epithelium was seen, together with oedema of the stroma. The tissue surrounding the cyst was compressed and the lacrimal glands revealed pressure atrophy. The muscular tissue was atrophied and infiltrated by fat cells. The cyst wall was lined with white scolices protruding from the inner wall. Based on the gross and histopathological characteristics of the cyst observed, the cyst was diagnosed as Coenurus cerebralis. This is the first report of orbital coenurosis in a sheep.

  19. Factors Affecting Staff Retention Strategies Used in Private Syrian Companies during the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Moaz Nagib; Kahwaji, Ahmad Taha; Elrasheed, Mohammed Osman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of current study is to exam elements influencing retention among employees in private Syrian companies during the crisis. The factors are training and professional development, organizational rewards system, job insecurity and job satisfaction. For this reason, 102 organized surveys were gathered. Obtained results from the study questionnaire were analyzed and examined by using statistical tests as Correlation and Multiple Regression analysis. Results show that training and profession...

  20. Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: Impact on Reemerging Infections, Health Services, and Biosecurity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2016-01-01

    After the Arab Spring uprising, Syria descended into a civil war in 2011. By March 2016, the United Nations reported that 13.5 million Syrians required humanitarian assistance, including 6.6 million internally displaced persons and more than 4.8 million refugees outside of Syria. Turkey is currently hosting the largest number of Syrian refugees-more than 2.7 million. A limited number of refugees are living in camps settled around the border, and others are spread throughout Turkey. This explosive and unexpected increase in the Syrian population in Turkey has had several negative impacts on health and social determinants. The overload of healthcare facilities has led to shortages in childhood immunization programs, drugs, and access to clean water and food supplies. According to Ministry of Health data, more than 7.5 million Syrians were examined at outpatient clinics, and 299,240 were hospitalized; most of those hospitalized were injured and wounded victims who require and have been occupying intensive care units. The refugees generally live in crowded and unsanitary conditions, which may lead to the spread of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, and genital system infections. Currently, measles, poliomyelitis, leishmaniasis, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are the reemerging infections being most frequently recorded. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections seem to be an increasing problem in gunshot or surgical wounds. Hepatitis A, malaria, and varicella have been seen with a high incidence among the refugees. There are many problems waiting to be resolved for health and living standards in Turkey.