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Sample records for syrian arab republic

  1. Hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashour, H; Muhjazi, G

    2016-07-10

    This paper reviews the epidemiology and determinants of hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic as well as their treatment and prevention. A systematic search of Medline, PubMed and Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region was carried out in addition to a review of grey literature and relevant datasets in the Syrian Arab Republic. Low to low-intermediate levels of endemicity of both infections were noted at the national level. However, striking geographic differences and high prevalence among high-risk groups were noticeable. As a result of data limitations, further research is needed, and a national control strategy to combat hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic should be developed, especially during the current conflict.

  2. 77 FR 20046 - Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB12 Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status Correction In notice document 2012-7498 appearing on pages 19026 through 19030 in...

  3. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  4. The Ongoing Syrian Arab Republic Health Care Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven J

    2017-07-31

    Prior to the Syrian civil war, access and delivery of health care and health care information over the past 4 decades had steadily improved. The life expectancy of the average Syrian in 2012 was 75.7 years, compared to 56 years in 1970. As a result of the civil war, this trend has reversed, with the life expectancy reduced by 20 years from the 2012 level. The Syrian government and its allies have specifically targeted the health care infrastructure not under government control. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;page 1 of 3).

  5. Humanitarian Medical Response to the Syrian Arab Republic (April 7, 2013 to April 23, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Motara, Feroza; Bham, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    The Syrian Arab Republic is entrenched in a deadly civil war, plunging the country into a state of chaos. With 3.2 million refugees abroad, 7.6 million internally displaced persons, and more than 200,000 killed, humanitarian assistance and international intervention are in dire need. This report outlines the response to the Syrian humanitarian crisis by a South African-based nongovernmental organization (NGO). It describes the experiences of a health care worker, the patient profiles, and the lessons learned in a war zone. Responding to a nation in need is of paramount importance. In order to maximize the benefit conferred, the team should always attempt to implement measures that leave a lasting legacy.

  6. Communication dated 29 May 2006 received from the Resident Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Agency concerning a letter from the Secretary General of the League of Arab States to the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 29 May 2006 from the Resident Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic attaching a letter dated 28 May 2006 from Mr. Amre Moussa, Secretary General of the League of Arab States, to the Director General. In the light of the request expressed by the Resident Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic in his letter of 29 May 2006, his letter and the letter of the Secretary General of the League of Arab States are attached for the information of all Member States

  7. Economic feasibility study of onion and potato irradiation in the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; El-Den-Sharabi, N.; Midani, M.Ayman

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the economic and financial feasibility of a food irradiation project proposed by the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. The prime purpose of the project was to irradiate two important agricultural products, namely, onion and potato. The irradiation process has the effect of reducing sprouting significantly. In Syria onions are usually stored in well ventilated warehouses at ambient temperature. Our investigation showed that sprouting started after 1.5 months of storage. It is estimated that the sprouting rate reaches 100% after five months of storage. This implies a waste factor of 50%. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Agreement of 25 February 1992 between the government of the Syrian Arab Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The document contains two parts. The first one stipulates the agreement of the Syrian Arab Republic to accept Safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. The second part specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I

  9. Project and supply agreement: Agreement of 28 February 1992 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China concerning the transfer of a miniature neutron source reactor and enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of the Syrian Arab Republic and the People's Republic of China for the transfer of a 30 KW miniature neutron source reactor for radioisotope production, research and tracing and of approximately 980.40 grams of uranium enriched to approximately 90.2 percent by weight in the isotope uranium-235 contained in fuel elements for the supplied reactor. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1992, signed in Vienna on 28 February 1992, and entered into force on 18 May 1992. 1 tab

  10. A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF SYRIAN ARABIC (BASED ON THE DIALECT OF DAMASCUS). ARABIC SERIES, NUMBER SEVEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COWELL, MARK W.

    ARABIC, AS IT IS USED IN EVERYDAY CONVERSATION BY EDUCATED CITY-DWELLING SYRIANS, AND MOST PARTICULARLY BY NATIVES OF DAMASCUS, IS DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK. THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR IS INTENDED, FIRST OF ALL, FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE ALREADY ACQUIRED, OR ARE IN THE PROCESS OF ACQUIRING, AN ELEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE OF SYRIAN ARABIC, AND WHO WISH TO ENHANCE…

  11. Reforms and emerging noncommunicable disease: some challenges facing a conflict-ridden country--the case of the Syrian Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    The past year witnessed considerable turbulence in the Arab world-in this case, Syria, a lower middle-income country with a record of a strong public health infrastructure. This paper explores the current challenges facing its health system from reforms, civil strife and international sanctions all of which we argue have serious implications for population health. The health sector in Syria was little known, and until recently, it was well integrated to provide preventive and specialized care when needed. Regionally, it was one of the few countries ready and capable of addressing the challenges of demographic and epidemiologic transition with a long-standing emphasis on primary care and prevention, unlike most countries of the region. This context has changed dramatically through the recent implementation of reforms and the current civil war. Changes to financing, management and the delivery of health service placed access to services in jeopardy, but now, these are compounded by the destruction from an intractable and violent conflict and international sanctions. This paper explores some of the combined effects of reforms, conflict and sanctions on population health. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. African Journals Online: Syrian Arab Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Faeroe Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Fiji, Finland, France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, The, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala ...

  13. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  14. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  15. 76 FR 31673 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7488] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related... requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Arab Republic of Egypt and I hereby waive...

  16. [Psychometric Evaluation of an Arabic Version of the PHQ-4 Based on a Representative Survey of Syrian Refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, Sören; Mößle, Thomas; Klatt, Thimna; Fleischer, Stephanie; Kudlacek, Dominic; Kröger, Christoph; Brähler, Elmar; Beutel, Manfred E; Wiltink, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Background: This study addresses the need for methodologically sound, brief screening procedures (e. g., the PHQ-4) which need to be validated for refugees in their native languages. Method: A cohort of Syrian refugees in the state of Lower Saxony was investigated with the PHQ-4 translated into Standard Arabic language by a professional translation bureau. Based on representative data, the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders was estimated among refugees. N=864 persons of mainly male sex (68%) answered with a mean age of M=31.5 (SD=9.3 years, ranging from 16 to 93 years). Results: Internal consistency was good (PHQ-2, respectively GAD-2: α=0.76/0.83; women α=0.76/0.83; men: α=0.76/0.83). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good to excellent fit: RMSEA=0,068 [95%-KI: 0.028, 0.117], TLI=0.971, CFI=0.995. Measurement invariance was demonstrated for sex. The prevalence of depression was 20%, which corresponds to results reported for the German population; generalized anxiety was moderately higher in the Syrian sample (19.3 vs. 15.2%). Discussion: The Arabic version of the PHQ-4 is an ultra-short and valid screening procedure suitable for refugees from Arabic countries. The finding that the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms was moderate may be due to the sample composition, which comprised predominantly young men. Given the often traumatic circumstances of their flight, additional symptoms beyond the scope of this study (esp. PTSD) can be expected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Syrian Refugees in Turkey and Their Reflections in Gaziantep Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Kaya SANDAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wave of democracy the Arab Spring Caused got started in 18 December 2010, after a university graduate stallholder's stall has been taken hold of and his burning himself to protest government led to o range of event in Tunisia deeply affected Syria by causing populations to pay for this. The Syrian Civil War started in March 2011 and it was seen as a result of Arab Spring, that noteworthy affects this region. But, although it had been a few years the Arab Spring hasn't come to Syria yet. While Syrian people,neighbor countries and the people in the region were all waiting for the spring to come, the rising of the Civil Wars and the affects of military, political and the economics sports of the countries that Syrian Regime politically, economically and commercially aligned with, had been turned into a humanitarian tragedy. As a result of the civil attacks of the Regime of Syrian to his people, around 300.000 people did,around 6.5 million people have been displaced, the numbers of the people need help increased to 10 million and so the number of the Syrian refugees in the neighbor countries reached to 3.795.284. As a result of this civil war in Syria 1.679.963 Syrian Arab Republic citizens have come to our country as refuges since 2011. The number of Syrian refugees reached 326 333 in Gaziantep Province. In this study, distribution by province of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and reflections of refugees in Gaziantep province are analyzed

  18. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  19. Diglossia in Arabic Speech Communities: The Classical Language Compared with the Syrian Vernacular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Amal

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general overview of the linguistic setting of Arabic. Three main areas are covered. The first of these, diglossia, is defined in general terms and then examined more closely in relation to its historical development in Arabic-speaking countries (i.e., as resulting from geographic, socioeconomic, and…

  20. Ideological Tensions in the Ranks of Syrian Officers: the Trigger of Military Circles Transformation in the Country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kostrounova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the research by some authors on the Syrian Arab Republic and its stand in the Middle East Region, little is known about the perspective of the Syrian military, unofficially called the “elder statesman”, who rules this country. The overall image that emerges not only from the Arab media during the revolutionary year 2011 is ambivalent: lazy, corrupt, unpatriotic, apathetic soldiers with poor fighting spirits versus the Free Syrian Army newly formed in July 2011. This paper recovers some perspectives of the Syrian revolt and tries to answer, whether or whether not is the newly based military opposition in the country a real threat to the Assad regime. An analysis of historical background, Syrian veterans, relation between the official political doctrine and Islam brings new perspectives and own explanations that could even challenge some of the widely held assumptions about the Syrian military: 1 There is and won’t be any “civil war” in the Syrian Arab Republic at all; this conflict should be viewed as Islamic fitna and its roots come from the 1970’s. It is a regime strongly connected to rife corruption at the top ranks, hurting the morale of the lower, but stronger Islamic ranks; 2 Doctrinal relations between the Syrian army and official religious authorities in the Muslim world have been always tense; and 3 The Syrian army would have found the necessity of its own, inner transformation despite of the so-called “Arab Spring 2011”. This paper suggests that the character of the Syrian national revolt may be intended to reflect a deeper ideological antagonism between the Sunni and Shia Islam.

  1. The Syntax of Spoken Arabic: A Comparative Study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, and Kuwaiti Dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustad, Kristen E.

    This book is a comparative study of the syntax of Arabic dialects based on natural language data recorded in Morocco, Egypt, Syria, and Kuwait. These four dialect regions are distinct and geographically diverse and representative of four distinct dialect groups. The analytical approach of the book is both functional and descriptive, combining…

  2. The Views of Arab Students Regarding Turks, the Ottoman Empire, and the Republic of Turkey: A Case of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Arab and Turkish people lived together for nearly four hundred years under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, during which time both sides inevitably adopted a certain kind of attitude and view toward the other. This study is an attempt to explore Arab people's views toward Turks, the Ottoman Empire, and the Republic of Turkey. Through a case study…

  3. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Yemen Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic occupies a part of the southern Arabian Shield and has been subject to considerable faulting and movement. As far as is known no uranium exploration has ever been undertaken or is presently contemplated in the country. Uranium could occur in the Shield rocks and conditions are right for calcrete type uranium deposits. The Speculative Potential may be in category 2, i.e. between 1000 and 10,000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  4. Industrial gamma irradiation facility with a wet storage source in Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Moussa, A.; Stepanov, D.G.; Ermakov, V.

    1998-01-01

    A gamma radiation facility was built in Damascus, Syria. The plant (ROBO) is a Co-60 wet storage, batch/continuous facility with nominal capacity of 1.85x10 16 Bq. The initial activity is 3.7x10 15 Bq. The ratio of maximum absorbed dose to the minimum one within irradiated materials is around 1.3+/-0.03. The irradiator consists of two sections to select required sources for irradiation. Two pools were constructed. The main pool will serve as biological shield for the main sources frame. The second pool will host a fixed circular frame to be used as calibration source or to irradiate small samples to low doses. The conveyor consists of a chain facility moving along trucks. A repair section is provided on the conveyor route in the load-unload area for carrying out inspection, repair, etc. The trucks are holed with a rectangular frames. Loading, unloading and rearrangement of the products is carried out automatically. This mechanism is carried out by seven pneumatic cylinders, lifting devices and roller conveyors. Many safety features were included: push-back platform, followed by pit used as a physical barrier. Interlocks are connected to the platform, pit cover and to ionization chambers. In case of power failure or any overriding of interlocks, the irradiator comes to emergency dropping. Ventilation system, fire system, emergency power and closed water purification system are indicated on control panel. The facility will be utilized for medical products sterilization, research and calibration

  5. 77 FR 19026 - Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... the violence began, and new casualties are reported daily. The COI report pointed out that ``casualties rose steeply as the violence intensified'' in recent months. In fact, the UN's February 2012 death... neighboring countries of Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan. The deteriorating security situation in Syria compelled...

  6. Dietary patterns and oral health in schoolchildren from Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaghasi, I; Hatahet, W; Dashash, M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the association between dietary patterns and oral health in primary-school children from Damascus. A total of 504 children aged 6-12 years were enrolled and food frequency questionnaires were distributed to their guardians to evaluate food consumption. Dental health was evaluated by gingival index and presence of untreated dental caries. Consumption of food groups was lower than recommended frequencies, whereas consumption of sugars was high. High sugar consumption (OR 5.26), low consumption of dairy products (OR 2.45) and poor oral hygiene (OR 2.98) remained risk factors for dental caries in multiple regression analysis. Poor oral hygiene (OR 18.5), high consumption of sugars (OR 1.82) and low frequency of tooth brushing (OR 1.98) also remained as risk factors for gingivitis regardless of all confounders included in the analysis. Comprehensive educational programmes about dietary patterns and their relation to oral health should be provided for children and their guardians.

  7. Data from geologic investigations in the Yemen Arab Republic during 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolier, Maurice J.; Domenico, J.A.; Donato, Mary; Tibbitts, G.C.; Overstreet, W.C.; Ibrahim, Mohammad Mukred

    1977-01-01

    The results of semiquantitative spectrographic analyses for 31 elements in 126 specimens of rocks from the Yemen Arab Republic, collected mainly during February 1976 from the Precambrian area in the southeastern part of the country, provide background data for use in geochemical evaluation of areas potentially favorable for mineral deposits. Gold and thorium were undetected; the lower limits of determination are 10 parts per million (ppm) and 20 ppm, respectively. For the other elements, the abundances follow geochemical norms for crustal distribution: (1) Fe, Nb, and Zr in Holocene weathering products; (2) Ca and Sr in Pliocene limestone; (3) Mo in Pliocene(?) or Miocene(?) dikes; (4) Be, La, and Sn in Miocene(?) alkalic granite; (5) As, Be, and La in Tertiary and/or Cretaceous felsic tuff; (6) V in Tertiary and/or Cretaceous carbonaceous sedimentary rocks interbedded with volcanic rocks; (7) Be, La, Sn, and Zr in Tertiary and/or Cretaceous undivided volcanics; (8) Sn and W in Precambrian felsite and pegmatite; (9) Co, Cr, Ni, and Ti in Precambrian mafic rocks; (10) Mg and Sr in Precambrian marble and calcsilicate rocks; (11) Y in Precambrilan schist; (12) B and Sc dispersed in rocks of many ages; and (13) Ag, Ba, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn in a hydrothermal replacement deposit in Precambrian sediment. None of the rocks contained as much as 205 ppm equivalent uranium. The highest values for Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd were obtained on a sample of hydrothermally altered siltstone not personally collected by the writers. It was said to have come from the Ma'rib area in the eastern part of the Yemen Arab Republic. The source must be studied, because this single sample is high-grade base-metal ore. Among the samples collected by the writers, the economically most significant are altered tuffs, ignimbrites, and felsites exposed between Jibal Hufash and Manakhah on the road from Hudaydah to San'a'. They are strongly anomalous for As and weakly anomalous, variously

  8. The Arab American Way: The Success Story of an American Family from a Syrian Village in Global Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Escher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is possible to encounter people who are able to trace their roots back to Arab countries in almost every nation of the “New World.” That also includes approximately four million citizens of the United States, who live primarily in large metropolitan areas and in the eastern part of the country. Taking a large family and the associated clan of this group as an example, it is possible to show how Arab migrants, dispersed all over the globe, associate the different underlying conditions in countries of democratic America.

  9. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  10. A qualitative appraisal of the hydrology of the Yemen Arab Republic from Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolier, Maurice J.; Tibbitts, G. Chase; Ibrahim, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Six series of Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 images taken between 1972 and 1976 were analyzed to describe the flow regimens of streams and the regional distribution of vegetation in the Yemen Arab Republic. The findings provide a factual basis for planning a surface-water data collection program, and for preparing maps of plant distribution and agricultural land use. They lay the foundation for modernized water development, for effecting a program of country-wide water management. The work was undertaken as part of the program of the U.S. Agency for International Development with the cooperation of the Yemen Mineral and Petroleum Authority, Ministry of Economy. A false-color composite mosaic of the nine images which cover the country was prepared using Landsat 1 images taken at relatively low sun-angle in winter 1972-73. Catchment areas and the major drainage basins of the country were delineated on this mosaic. In order of increasing water availability, the four catchment areas of the YAR are: Ar Rub al Khali, Wadi Jawf (Arabian Sea), Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden. Most streams are ephemeral. No lakes were detected during the period under investigation, but sebkhas--salt flats or low salt-encrusted plains--are common along the Red Sea coast. In spite of resolution and scale constraints, streamflow was interpreted as perennial or intermittent, wherever it could be detected on several Landsat images covering the same scene at seasonal or yearly intervals. Much of the land under cultivation is restricted to valley floors, and to valley slopes and irrigated terraces adjacent to stream channels. Little or no vegetation could be detected over large regions of the Yemen Arab Republic. (USGS)

  11. Geopolitical Dimensions of the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wakim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon geopolitical dimension of the Syrian conflict. The authors consider in details regional subdivision of Syria and relations of Syrian regions with border countries. The authors of the article conclude that Arab nationalism as the Syrian state ideology and positioning of Syria as the center of Arab world were indispensable taking into account multiconfessional nature of Syria. Authors study the geostrategical doctrine of Hafez Asad (1970-2000 aimed to restore the territorial integrity of Syria (return of the Golan heights and creation of Great Syria, bring to light reasons of the alliances of Syria with Soviet Union and Iran. The authors discover reasons of hostility toward Syria from such actors as United States, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. The hostile attitude of the US political elites toward the Syrian state can be explained by American intention to undermine strategic partnership between Syria and Iran. Enmity of Saudi hostility toward the Syrian regime began with the assassination of the Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri (2005. This action destroyed the political balance in Lebanon and was considered by the Saudis as a threat to their interests. Article contains analysis of the Syrian role in the Saudi-Iranian rivalry. To opinion of the authors, Turkish involvement in the Syrian conflict began with the attempts of the regime’s change in this country and evolved to the defense of Turkish national interests from the Kurdish factor. The authors make some conclusions about the role of US, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey in the Syrian conflicts. In the article it’s made some forecasts about the development of Syrian conflict. The authors especially predict possibility of disintegration of the Syrian state according to spheres of influence of the external actors involved to this conflict with Mediterranean coast, Homs and Damascus under the control of government, northern regions of the country under Kurdish control, Raqqa

  12. General hydroisotopic study of direct infiltration and evaporation process through the unsaturated zone in Damascus oasis, Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2001-01-01

    Damascus oasis plays an important economical and environmental role in the city life because it presents the surrounding green places and the groundwater is the main sources for irrigation. In this study we will focus on the unsaturated zone in Damascus oasis. Environmental isotopes as 18 O, 2 H and 3 H are considered one of the most important techniques that are used in unsaturated zone study in order to study the water movement mechanism, estimate the effective velocity, the rate and spatial variations of the direct infiltration through this zone.The Deuterium profile allow to estimate the direct evaporation rate, and it is observed that the evaporation in the eastern part of the studied area is 5-6.5 mm/y. The Tritium peak of profile that is belonging to the atmospheric nuclear tests at the beginning of the sixties indicates the effective infiltration velocity of 27.8 mm/y. The effective porosity was estimated about 6.5% and the permeability parameter is 0.6*10 -10 m/s. The direct infiltration rate was estimated by the chemical Chloride balance in the studied profiles in addition to their spatial distribution where it was distinguished between the eastern area where the direct infiltration is less than 2 mm/y characterized by very fine clay soils and western area where the direct infiltration rate is more than 2 mm/y with sandy soils. It is thought that the lower part of the unsaturated zone indicated the direct infiltration rate about 3.5 mm/y, under more wet climatic conditions where the rainfall was about 423 mm/y, this wet period was extended from about 432 y to more than 760y ago.The Nitrate concentration variation with depth indicated that unsaturated zone play important role as purification zone, and the groundwater which has more than 5 m depth is prevented from pollution, whereas the groundwater that has less than 5 m depth is more prone to pollution by high concentration of Nitrates. (author)

  13. Breaking the Shackles of 1982: The Syrian Muslim Brotherhood in the 2011 uprising

    OpenAIRE

    DARA THERESE CONDUIT

    2017-01-01

    This thesis re-examined the history of the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood to both identify whether the 1982 Hama uprising has skewed interpretations of the movement, and to understand the role that the group is playing in the current Syrian conflict. Based on interviews with Brotherhood and Syrian opposition members, Arabic-language documents and archival research, it is argued that the group is neither as violent nor undemocratic as the Hama uprising implied. Nonetheless, the Syrian Muslim Brothe...

  14. Syrian Issue in the Discourses of Political Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Devran; Ömer Faruk Özcan

    2016-01-01

    Syrian conflict as a part of social movements called as Arab Spring has been turned into a civil war. As a result of this Turkey has come to face with the biggest refugee crisis of its entire history. Thus political parties have used different discourses on Syrian conflict and refugee crisis according to new social, economical and political conditions. In this paper political discourses used by Turkish political leaders between 2011-2015 are examined in the context of their politics for Syria...

  15. Labour emigration and economic development in the Yemen Arab Republic: an investigation of the case of employment in the building sector in San'a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G

    1984-01-01

    This study is concerned with the extent to which temporary labor migration benefits the country of origin, particularly with regard to the acquisition of skills abroad and their subsequent use following return. The focus is on the impact on the construction industry in the capital of the Yemen Arab Republic, San'a, and the data were obtained during the course of interviews undertaken in 1982 with 2,500 construction workers. The regions of origin of construction workers and their experience abroad are analyzed.

  16. Syrian Issue in the Discourses of Political Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Devran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Syrian conflict as a part of social movements called as Arab Spring has been turned into a civil war. As a result of this Turkey has come to face with the biggest refugee crisis of its entire history. Thus political parties have used different discourses on Syrian conflict and refugee crisis according to new social, economical and political conditions. In this paper political discourses used by Turkish political leaders between 2011-2015 are examined in the context of their politics for Syrian conflict and refugees. The main goal of this work is to contribute to a better contemplation on the Syrian conflict and refugee crisis by ascertaining political parties’ approaches.

  17. Adherence of preventive oral care products in the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, D; Mahzia, R; Nakhleh, K; Joury, E

    2016-09-25

    No study has investigated the availability and adherence of preventive oral care products on the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations. Data were collected in 2012, and updated in 2016, in terms of availability, characteristics and adherence to evidence-based international recommendations. Few preventive products adhered to the recommendations. Despite the large decrease in the number of oral care products on the Syrian market, due to the Syrian crisis, nonadherence of some of the available products is still present. A multisectorial approach at a policy level is needed to address such important limitations. The Syrian Ministry of Health should reform regulations for fluoride products to become subject to drug monitoring systems; the Syrian Arab Committee for Measurements and Standards needs to update its standards; and the Syrian General Dental Association should distribute a preventive booklet to dental practitioners.

  18. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  19. Scientific publications from Arab world in leading journals of Integrative and Complementary Medicine: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2015-09-04

    Bibliometric analysis is increasingly employed as a useful tool to assess the quantity and quality of research performance. The specific goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of research output originating from Arab world and published in international Integrative and Complementary Medicine (ICM) journals. Original scientific publications and reviews from the 22 Arab countries that were published in 22 international peer-reviewed ICM journals during all previous years up to December 31(st) 2013, were screened using the Web of Science databases. Five hundred and ninety-one documents were retrieved from 19 ICM journals. The h-index of the set of papers under study was 47. The highest h-index was 27 for Morocco, 21 for Jordan, followed by 19 for each Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and Egypt, and the lowest h-index was 1 for each of Comoros, Qatar, and Syrian Arab Republic. No data related to ICM were published from Djibouti, and Mauritania. After adjusting for economy and population power, Somalia (89), Morocco (32.5), Egypt (31.1), Yemen (21.4), and Palestine (21.2) had the highest research productivity. The total number of citations was 9,466, with an average citation of 16 per document. The study identified 262 (44.3 %) documents with 39 countries in Arab-foreign country collaborations. Arab authors collaborated most with countries in Europe (24.2 %), followed by countries in the Asia-Pacific region (9.8 %). Scientific research output in the ICM field in the Arab world region is increasing. Most of publications from Arab world in ICM filed were driven by societal use of medicinal plants and herbs. Search for new therapies from available low cost medicinal plants in Arab world has motivated many researchers in academia and pharmaceutical industry. Further investigation is required to support these findings in a wider journal as well as to improve research output in the field of ICM from Arab world region by investing in more national and

  20. Safety aspects of the FMPP (Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant) setup constructed by INVAP in the Arabic Republic of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinat, Enrique; Boero, Norma L.

    1999-01-01

    The FMPP is a fuel plates manufacturing plant for test reactors. This facility was designed, constructed in El Cairo and turned-key handled by INVAP SE to the Arabian Republic of Egypt. In this project, CNEA participated in the transference of technology, elaboration of documents, training of Egyptian personnel and technical services during the setup of the facility in El Cairo. These tasks were undertaken by UPMP (Uranium Powder Manufacturing Plant) and ECRI (Research Reactors Fuel Elements Plant) personnel. Both plants in CNEA served as a FMPP design basis. During the setup of the facility a fuel element with natural uranium was firstly manufactured and then another one using uranium with 20% enrichment. In this paper the responses of the system regarding safety, after finishing the first two stages of manufacturing, are analyzed and evaluated. (author)

  1. Dialect Variations and the Teaching of Arabic as a Living Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Sami A.; Greis, Naguib

    Because of the diversity of Arabic dialects (Lebanese, Iraqi, Syrian, Algerian, Moroccan, Libyan, Sudanese, Saudi Arabian, Palestinian, and Egyptian), and the fact that Arabic writing allows for a wide range of different pronunciations, the question faced by students is where to begin. It is instructive to consider how this problem is dealt with…

  2. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  3. Disrupting Syrian Economic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    funding the war effort through: One, taxation of licit and illicit economic activities; Two, movement 9 (for a fee) of money, arms, equipment...the legitimate taxation necessary to provide for governmental functions such as infrastructure, education, and security; while at the same time... double the dollar value of remittances in 2006. 70 Although current figures are not available, it is expected that with the collapse of the Syrian

  4. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: What Nurses Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almontaser, Esmihan; Baumann, Steven L

    2017-04-01

    The civil war in Syria that began in 2011 has displaced millions of Syrians of all ages. While the number that have arrived in the United States is small in comparison to many other countries, it is important that nurses and other healthcare workers here understand that many of them have faced considerable trauma and endured stresses. Most of them are Muslims. Muslims in the United States and elsewhere represent a heterogeneous group of people with a long intellectual and cultural history. Islamic cultural patterns do pose unique barriers to a primarily Anglo-Saxon medical system that medical practitioners need to consider in order to avoid misunderstanding and provide culturally sensitive care. The authors discuss the Syrian refugee crisis and the experience of being a Muslim or Arab American patient in U.S. healthcare settings.

  5. The Role of the Environment in Triggering the Syrian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE POPA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Syrian Arab Republic, located in Southwest Asia, is bordered by Irak, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon and Turkey; displaying to the west it has a 180 km long coastline on the Mediterranean Sea. From 1963 to 1970 Syria was governed by the so cialist Baath Party, and since 1970 it has been ruled by the Al Assad family (Hafez al-Assad a nd Bashar al-Assad, the latter since the year 2000, who had the same political orientation. The d elay in political and democratic reforms, in a country placed since 1963 under a state of emergenc y, the government inefficiency in dealing with the socio-economic problems, as well as the even ts that occurred in Tunisia, Egypt or Lybia, have led to the outbreak of violent protests, first in the city of Deraa, in March 2011, then in Baniy as, Latakia, Horms, Hama, Aleppo or Damascus, which res ulted in more than 9000 casualties. Moreover, in Syria the natural environment is a restrictive f actor for the social-economic development as more than half of the country is semi-arid or arid, enjo ying less than 200 mm of precipitation per year. As far as the soil cover is concerned, in the areas where precipitation is less than 250 mm per year aridisols are common. Syria has a population o f about 22 million people, while the annual growth rate is 2%. In the last decades the populatio n has increased more than four times in comparison to the figure registered in 1960, when i t numbered only 4.5 million inhabitants. This proves the state’s inefficiency in adopting family planning measures, aimed at regulating the growth in accordance with the natural resources. The present political crisis, generated by people’s complaints, has been triggered by the seri ous drawbacks of the democracy, the inefficient management of the population growth and the slow socio-economic development, which can be explained by the restrictive geographic al environment, so vulnerable to degradation and possessing limited resources.

  6. RUSSIAN-ARAB COOPERATION BEFORE AND AFTER THE "ARAB SPRING"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Anatolievna Sapronova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main stages of the Russian- Arab economic cooperation since the beginning of the 1990s up to the present time and changing the «Middle Eastern vector» of Russian foreign policy. Analyzes the problems faced by Russia in the development of foreign policy doctrine in the region of the Arab East, becoming the successor of the Soviet Union; difficulty in building bilateral relations with Iraq, Syria, Libya, and Russia's role as a co-sponsor of the Middle East settlement. Next is considered the foreign policy in 2000 and the return of Russia to the «Greater Middle East», analyzes the problems impeding effective Russian- Arab cooperation. Special attention is paid to the strengthening of bilateral relations with the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, the implementation of joint projects in various fields and to establish a constructive dialogue with the new government of Iraq and the establishment of a sound legal framework of mutual relations. Another important direction of Russian foreign policy in the 2000s, becoming the establishment of relations with the Organization of the Islamic Conference. Simultaneously being established permanent contacts with groups «Hamas» and «Hezbollah». In the last part of the article explores the specificity of modern political, trade and economic cooperation after the events of the «Arab Spring» of 2011. Particular attention is paid to the position of Russia in relation to processes taking place in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria. The crisis in Syria has demonstrated a fundamentally different approaches to its solution by Russia and the West. Ultimately, the firm position of Russia on the Syrian issue secured her role as an important political player in the Middle East. In general, regional transformation in 2011, despite their negative consequences for the Russian-Arab economic cooperation and opened new opportunities to promote the Russian Federation for Arab markets.

  7. Russian-Arab Cooperation Before And After The "Arab Spring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Anatolievna Sapronova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main stages of the Russian- Arab economic cooperation since the beginning of the 1990s up to the present time and changing the «Middle Eastern vector» of Russian foreign policy. Analyzes the problems faced by Russia in the development of foreign policy doctrine in the region of the Arab East, becoming the successor of the Soviet Union; difficulty in building bilateral relations with Iraq, Syria, Libya, and Russia's role as a co-sponsor of the Middle East settlement. Next is considered the foreign policy in 2000 and the return of Russia to the «Greater Middle East», analyzes the problems impeding effective Russian- Arab cooperation. Special attention is paid to the strengthening of bilateral relations with the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, the implementation of joint projects in various fields and to establish a constructive dialogue with the new government of Iraq and the establishment of a sound legal framework of mutual relations. Another important direction of Russian foreign policy in the 2000s, becoming the establishment of relations with the Organization of the Islamic Conference. Simultaneously being established permanent contacts with groups «Hamas» and «Hezbollah». In the last part of the article explores the specificity of modern political, trade and economic cooperation after the events of the «Arab Spring» of 2011. Particular attention is paid to the position of Russia in relation to processes taking place in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria. The crisis in Syria has demonstrated a fundamentally different approaches to its solution by Russia and the West. Ultimately, the firm position of Russia on the Syrian issue secured her role as an important political player in the Middle East. In general, regional transformation in 2011, despite their negative consequences for the Russian-Arab economic cooperation and opened new opportunities to promote the Russian Federation for Arab markets.

  8. Sex division of labour in Syrian school textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabaa, Sami

    1985-12-01

    The sexist division of labour, particularly in the occupational sector, which is believed to be more eminent in developing countries than in the developed ones, is reinforced by school textbooks. This state of affairs is hampering sex-role equality on the way to emancipation. Various Syrian school textbooks have been scrutinized and proved to be malebiased in content and language. Despite quantitative growth of education, the emancipatory quality of the school textbooks leaves much to be desired. The government has had the chance since 1963 to produce textbooks conductive to its promise of sex-role equality in education. The textbooks portray males for a bustling world of decision making, while conditioning the females to seek fulfilment in the background where servitude and support are the only requirement. Females are derogated and victimized. These contents, which are internalized at school and reproduced in society, certainly do not serve development. The exclusion of one-half of the population from contributing to the tasks of development is a waste of human talent which no society can afford. Furthermore, the sexist portrayal of females in Syrian textbooks is a pale reflection of Arab women in Arab history and literature.

  9. L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin El Sherif S. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.

  10. Protecting the dignity of displaced Syrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Mansour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available What does dignity mean to Syrian refugees and practitioners? And what can humanitarian organisations do – or abstain from doing – to help Syrians preserve and protect their dignity?

  11. Who will resettle single Syrian men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Turner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resettlement programmes for Syrian refugees severely restrict access to resettlement for single Syrian men, despite the conditions of vulnerability, insecurity and danger in which they live.

  12. Syrian refugees: thinking beyond gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lokot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant gender narratives among NGOs responding to Syrian refugees, and their subsequent interventions, are based on sometimes simplistic understandings of the ‘traditional’ Syrian household and power dynamics.

  13. 76 FR 78615 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ..., the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Postponement of Preliminary... India, the Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), The United Arab Emirates (``the UAE''), and the Socialist... of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of...

  14. 77 FR 15718 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Postponement of Preliminary... and tube from India, the Sultanate of Oman (Oman), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist... Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  15. A DICTIONARY OF SYRIAN ARABIC (DIALECT OF DAMASCUS), ENGLISH-ARABIC. ARABIC SERIES, NUMBER FIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANI, MOUKHTAR; STOWASSER, KARL

    THIS DICTIONARY IS BASED ON THE DIALECT OF DAMASCUS, AS SPOKEN BY EDUCATED MUSLIMS. DAMASCUS OCCUPIES A CENTRAL POSITION IN MORE THAN THE OBVIOUS GEOGRAPHICAL SENSE. THE CITY IS A MAJOR ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER OF THE AREA AND, HISTORICALLY, AN IMPORTANT SEAT OF ISLAMIC CULTURE AND LEARNING. A NUMBER OF POLITICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL, AND GEOGRAPHICAL…

  16. Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Syrians affected by armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, G; Ventevogel, P; Jefee-Bahloul, H; Barkil-Oteo, A; Kirmayer, L J

    2016-04-01

    This paper is based on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which aims to provide information on cultural aspects of mental health and psychosocial wellbeing relevant to care and support for Syrians affected by the crisis. This paper aims to inform mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) staff of the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing issues facing Syrians who are internally displaced and Syrian refugees. We conducted a systematic literature search designed to capture clinical, social science and general literature examining the mental health of the Syrian population. The main medical, psychological and social sciences databases (e.g. Medline, PubMed, PsycInfo) were searched (until July 2015) in Arabic, English and French language sources. This search was supplemented with web-based searches in Arabic, English and French media, and in assessment reports and evaluations, by nongovernmental organisations, intergovernmental organisations and agencies of the United Nations. This search strategy should not be taken as a comprehensive review of all issues related to MHPSS of Syrians as some unpublished reports and evaluations were not reviewed. Conflict affected Syrians may experience a wide range of mental health problems including (1) exacerbations of pre-existing mental disorders; (2) new problems caused by conflict related violence, displacement and multiple losses; as well as (3) issues related to adaptation to the post-emergency context, for example living conditions in the countries of refuge. Some populations are particularly vulnerable such as men and women survivors of sexual or gender based violence, children who have experienced violence and exploitation and Syrians who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersex. Several factors influence access to MHPSS services including language barriers, stigma associated with seeking mental health care and the power dynamics of the helping relationship. Trust

  17. 75 FR 78968 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This review covers respondents... People's Republic of China and the United Arab Emirates: Antidumping Duty Orders and Amended Final...

  18. Economic evaluation of three alternative methods for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syrian Arab Republic and Territories under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Extensive fresh fruit and vegetable production industries are developing in many parts of the world in response to the large demand for high quality fresh fruits and vegetables. Tephritid fruit flies, however, cause devastating direct losses to many of the fresh fruits and vegetables that investors target for the market place thus requiring regular insecticide treatments to protect the crop. In addition, few insects have a greater impact on international marketing and world trade in agricultural produce than the tephritid fruit flies. With expanding international trade, fruit flies, as major quarantine pests of fruits and vegetables, have taken on added importance. This will trigger additional demands by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Member States to implement area-wide national or regional (transboundary) control programs against fruit fly pests. The fresh fruit and vegetable industry is facing the dual demand of rapidly rising population in developing countries which requires more production for food security and nutrition as well as a demand by developed country importers for products with pesticide residues below critical levels. As part of this process new areas are being brought into production, which require control of fruit fly pests. Developed importing countries are giving increased attention to food safety issues, partially driven by the BSE crisis, food adulteration in Western Europe and outbreaks of food borne infections in the US. Concerns over insecticide residues in fresh fruits and vegetables have become widespread particularly as it affects children who are believed to be more vulnerable. These concerns are leading to changes in regulations of permissible pesticide residues. Thus, fruit fly control methods that require minimum insecticide use are welcomed by wholesalers and consumers alike. As part of globalization, trade in fresh fruits and vegetables is being liberalized on a worldwide basis. The issues of this trade are considered in many forums, among them the World Trade Organization (WTO), Codex Commission of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) of FAO, and other organizations with SPS (Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards) issues in the forefront of concerns. In order to be able to export their products many developing countries must comply with increasing stringent SPS measures being mandated. Pesticides are less and less acceptable and ways must be found to facilitate production to meet these requirements, which in turn provide trading opportunities to many developing countries. Newly adopted International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures under the IPPC of FAO serves to expand such opportunities through the establishment of areas of low prevalence, pest (fruit fly) free areas, systems approaches, etc. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) offers a comprehensive and effective alternative to chemical control, mitigating environmental and health concerns. Integration of the SIT with other control techniques offers the opportunity to control the pest over much of a geographical region, and will permit in the absence of insecticide sprays the implementation of effective biological control schemes against secondary insect pests. Applied for pre-harvest-control, as part of a systems approach in combination with post-harvest treatment of fruit, SIT used for routine control rather than eradication purposes does not preclude the creation of internationally recognized fly free or low prevalence areas to overcome these trade barriers to agricultural produce. Major breakthroughs from FAO/IAEA research and development, particularly the development of genetic sexing (male only) strains and improved rearing systems, served to increase the efficiency of the SIT and lower operational costs. Commercial application of the SIT will drive operational costs even lower with further improvements in sterile fly production, handling and release methods

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder among Syrian refugees in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulbul, Feridun; Sagaltici, Eser; Bez, Yasin; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Dalkilic, Alican; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-03-01

    Refugees have had major challenges to meet their health care needs throughout history especially in war zones and natural disaster times. The health care needs of Syrian refugees have been becoming an increasingly important issue. We aimed to examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and explore its relation with various socioeconomic variables among Syrian refugees, who sought asylum in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tent city. Sample size calculation yielded 352 and the participants of the study were determined randomly. Experienced and native Arabic speaking, psychiatrist evaluated the participants. The frequency of PTSD was 33.5%. Through the binary logistic regression analysis, we calculated that the probability of having PTSD among Syrian refugees in our sample was 71%, if they had the following features: with female gender; being diagnosed with psychiatric disorder in the past; having a family history of psychiatric disorder; and experiencing 2 or more traumas. The findings of our study suggest that PTSD among Syrian refugees in Turkey might be an important mental health issue in refugee camps especially among female refugees, who were exposed to 2 or more traumatic events and had a personal or family history of psychiatric disorder.

  20. The Repercussions of the Syrian crisis on Tourism in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Salem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon is characterised by a touristic industry, making of it the highest touristic destination in the Arab world before 1975, the year in which Lebanon's civil war has erupted, a war from which Lebanon still suffers until now. Moreover, Lebanon suffers from internal political conflicts and the repercussions of the geopolitical conflicts in the Middle East, the latest of which is the Syrian war. While the crises in Lebanon prevail- from political, security, economic, social to even environmental - Lebanese policymakers are still seeking to make out of Lebanon a country considered as a touristic one, and are working on achieving a sustainable touristic development. In this context, this study tackles the crisis that Lebanon is experiencing as a result of forced Syrian displacement into its territory, and sheds light on its negative and positive effects on Lebanese tourism. The study also aims to determine the effectiveness of sustainable tourism development in times of crisis, based on the study of Lebanese touristic data during a specific period of time.

  1. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. The First Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Meeting 2014: Meeting Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam Bakdash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The First Arab Forensic Science & Forensic MedicineMeeting 2014 was held in Riyadh (October 26-28, 2014at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS,Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This event of greatscientific importance was organized under the patronageof NAUSS by the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences andForensic Medicine (ASFSFM and in cooperation withthe College of Forensic Sciences (NAUSS. This was thesecond international event organized by the Arab Societyfor Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine during 2014.This regional event brought together 144 forensicscientists, forensic medicine specialists, jurists,criminologists, DNA specialists and forensic toxicologistsfrom 13 different Arab countries (Hashemite Kingdomof Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Bahrain,Republic of Algeria, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Republicof Sudan, Sultanate of Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Republic ofLebanon, Egypt, Kingdom of Morocco, and Republic ofYemen to present and discuss their latest achievementsand research findings in various disciplines of forensicsciences.

  3. Arab Di-Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mabry, Tristan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new conception of “Arab nationalism,” which conventionally means pan-Arab nationalism and defines an Arab as an Arabic speaker. Yet the term “Arabic” is elusive, as is the generic “Arabic speaker.” Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), derived from the Koran, is the official language of Arab League states, but is nobody’s mother tongue, or spoken language for that matter. Arabic vernaculars are deemed low status and are distinct from MSA. The division of “High” and “Low” languag...

  4. Crisis in Lebanon: camps for Syrian refugees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Loveless

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon has absorbed the enormous Syrian influx but at a high costto both refugees and Lebanese populations. Current humanitarianprogrammes can no longer cope and new approaches are needed.

  5. Visas and qualifications: Syrian refugees in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto M A Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s humanitarian visa programme for Syrian refugees and its efforts to recognise their qualifications could offer lessons for refugee protection and integration across the region.

  6. Polymyopathy in a Syrian golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Syrian golden hamster suffered from general swelling of skeletal muscles. At microscopical observation the muscle tissue exhibited degeneration and necrosis, as well as regenerative features. The inflammatory response was very slight. The histopathological lesions were diagnosed as polymyopathy.

  7. Ilmu Bahasa Arab Menuju IImu Sastra Arab

    OpenAIRE

    Sangidu, Sangidu

    1995-01-01

    Penulis ingin mengemukakan secara garis besar 6 (enam) mata kuliah linguistik Arab yang dipandang merupakan pijakan untuk mempelajari i1mu sastra Arab lebih lanjut. Karena itu, ilrnu sastra Arab pun juga akan dikemukakan secara garis besar di dalam tulisan ini.

  8. Questioning the role of Facebook in maintaining Syrian social capital during the Syrian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Ramadan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Syrian crisis is considered the ‘world’s single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation’ (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016. The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country. However, the offline rift of the nation was extended to Facebook through promoting hate speech among opposed parties. Results of this study may advance the understanding of the role of Facebook on social capital in countries going through similar crisis situations.

  9. Questioning the role of Facebook in maintaining Syrian social capital during the Syrian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2017-12-01

    The Syrian crisis is considered the 'world's single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation' (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016). The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country. However, the offline rift of the nation was extended to Facebook through promoting hate speech among opposed parties. Results of this study may advance the understanding of the role of Facebook on social capital in countries going through similar crisis situations.

  10. Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: Impact on Reemerging Infections, Health Services, and Biosecurity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2016-01-01

    After the Arab Spring uprising, Syria descended into a civil war in 2011. By March 2016, the United Nations reported that 13.5 million Syrians required humanitarian assistance, including 6.6 million internally displaced persons and more than 4.8 million refugees outside of Syria. Turkey is currently hosting the largest number of Syrian refugees-more than 2.7 million. A limited number of refugees are living in camps settled around the border, and others are spread throughout Turkey. This explosive and unexpected increase in the Syrian population in Turkey has had several negative impacts on health and social determinants. The overload of healthcare facilities has led to shortages in childhood immunization programs, drugs, and access to clean water and food supplies. According to Ministry of Health data, more than 7.5 million Syrians were examined at outpatient clinics, and 299,240 were hospitalized; most of those hospitalized were injured and wounded victims who require and have been occupying intensive care units. The refugees generally live in crowded and unsanitary conditions, which may lead to the spread of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, and genital system infections. Currently, measles, poliomyelitis, leishmaniasis, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are the reemerging infections being most frequently recorded. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections seem to be an increasing problem in gunshot or surgical wounds. Hepatitis A, malaria, and varicella have been seen with a high incidence among the refugees. There are many problems waiting to be resolved for health and living standards in Turkey.

  11. DEMONSTRATIVES IN A BEDOUIN ARABIC DIALECT OF WESTERN SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This article aims at describing the forms, the distribution and the functions of demonstratives in Kordofanian Baggara Arabic, an Arabic dialect spoken by semi-nomadic cattle herders living in the Southern Kordofan State of the Republic of Sudan. Based on an oral corpus gathered on field, the study analyses in typological perspective the morphosyntactic and the pragmatic features of demonstrative pronouns and determiners as well as of sentential and locational demonstr...

  12. Health Information in Sudanese (Arabic dialect) (Sudanese Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Sudanese (Arabic dialect) (Sudanese Arabic) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/sudanesearabicdialect.html Health Information in Sudanese (Arabic dialect) (Sudanese Arabic) To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Lebanon and The Syrian-Israeli Relations: an Analysis of Lebanon as a Microcosmos of The Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sánchez Mateos

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to assert that the Lebanese conflict had its origins in the domestic situation of the country, but that became acute, crossed the threshold towards open war and finally reached a stalemate due to regional politics and specifically Syrian-Israeli relations, a dynamics that determines the future of Lebanon.Furthermore, the author states that despite the relative success of the Middle East Peace Process in the Palestinian and Jordanian fronts, the eventual resolution of the Lebanese conflict is intimately linked to the Syrian-Israeli dispute on the Golan Heights,and that meaningful achievements on both issues are pre-conditions to fully normalize the relations among the Arab states and Israel.

  14. The Three Arab Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Rauch; Scott Kostyshak

    2009-01-01

    Given the attention currently focused on the Arab world in part as a result of adjustments in U.S. foreign policy, a fresh look at Arab socioeconomic performance is in order. The Arab world is defined by language rather than ethnicity. The League of Arab States, formed in 1945, consists of all countries in which (a dialect of) Arabic is the spoken language of the majority. It is useful to compare the human development diversity of the Arab world to that of Latin America, another vast geograph...

  15. Liga Arab Dan Demokratisasi Di Dunia Arab

    OpenAIRE

    Sugito, Sugito

    2012-01-01

    Arab world never deserted from International discussions. It related to long drawn conflict in that region, such as conflict of Palestine and Israel, Iraq condition after US attack, also terrorism issues which alleged to this region. The Arab world became identical with a region which full of conflict and have no political certainty. On this condition, Arab League as institutional cooperation of countries in this region forced to have articulative roles.

  16. Atomic energy in the Arab World, applications and frontiers with special emphasis on the legal and regulatory aspects and the role of the Arab Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraket, M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper aims at explaining the general activities of the Arab world in the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology. It first presents the nuclear facilities in the Arab world, and the damage ionizing radiations may cause. Then to regulate those activities, a legislative system of Atomic Energy has been implemented. It consists of laws to specify the safeguard regulations similar to the model of Federal Republic of Germany, and of regulatory guides. Finally the role of the Arab Atomic Energy Agency is described and the revised agreement on arab cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy is given. (TEC).

  17. How to support the Syrian uprising?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohns, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria.......The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria....

  18. SUMBANGAN BAHASA ARAB TERHADAP BAHASA INDONESIA DALAM PERSPEKTIF PENGEMBANGAN BAHASA DAN BUDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudin Nur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the Arabic contributions to the Bahasa Indonesia in the perspective of language and culture developments. The data are taken from Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI. Based on the analysis done shows that there are three important aspects of the Arabic contribution to the Bahasa Indonesia, namely vocabulary enrichment, grammar system, and cultural development. In the aspect of vocabulary enrichment, approximately 2.336 Arabic vocabularies have moved into Bahasa Indonesia. In the aspect of grammar, the Arabic grammatical system is used in the grammatical system of Bahasa Indonesian such as gender formation and formation of word that shows the meaning of nature. In the cultural aspect, the Arabic language also contribute to the development of Indonesian culture, such as the use of proper names in Arabic by the Indonesian Muslims, religious institutions, and state. Moreover, the Arabic terms are also used in everyday expressions, literature, and in the constitutional system of the Republic of Indonesia.

  19. The Lebanese–Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese–Syrian borders since 2011 as “displaced”, emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Methods Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. Results The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Conclusion Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives. The two major recommendations for future interventions are to ensure continuous and effective monitoring and sustainability in order to alleviate current and future suffering in Lebanon. PMID:27471417

  20. The Lebanese-Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese-Syrian borders since 2011 as "displaced", emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives. The two major recommendations for future interventions are to ensure continuous and effective monitoring and sustainability in order to alleviate current and future suffering in Lebanon.

  1. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2005-03-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  2. Synonymy in Jordanian Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomoush, Omar Ibrahim Salameh

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of synonymy in Jordanian Arabic. It has been assumed that synonymy in Jordanian Arabic has partial rather than complete synonymy. This means that the abundance of Jordanian Arabic in synonyms can be attributed to a number of explanations, namely dialectical variations, the speaker's attitude, and origin…

  3. Leadership Styles at Syrian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Bayan; Ayoubi, Rami M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the two major types of leadership, i.e transactional and transformational, and organizational learning at public and private universities in Syria. It further aims at exploring the role of transactional and transformational leadership in enhancing organizational learning at Syrian universities.…

  4. Find an Eye M.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sudan Suriname Svalbard & Jan Mayen Islands Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania-United Republic ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  5. Monkeypox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Congo Ethiopia Iraq Nigeria South Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Yemen Latest information » By country By ... of Africa. In 2009, an outreach campaign among refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo into the ...

  6. Virtual Universities for African and Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram LAASER

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet development in Africa is constrained by poor telephone infrastructure, low international bandwidth and high dials up tariffs levied on internet users. This means in Africa we find actually app. 1% of worldwide internet users whereas population share of world population may be around 13%. Nearly half of the internet users are concentrated in South Africa. Another one percent of world users is located in the Middle East. Therefore it is understandable that Africa and the Arab world are latecomers in developing net based educational systems. However today donor organizations put strong emphasis on creating Virtual Campuses for African States (EC, Word Bank and Mediterranean countries or plan to incorporate selected African States to other institutional arrangements (Commonwealth of Nations, UNESCO. In what follows we will discuss five of these projects differing in scope, structure and funding namely the Virtual African University, the Avicenna Project, the Virtual Arab University, the Syrian Open University and the proposal for a Virtual University for the Small States. From the analysis of the respective projects some tentative conclusions will be derived.

  7. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Turkish Economy: Regional Labour Market Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz Esen; Ayla Oğuş Binatlı

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and lengthened, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey increased and the Syrian population started to reside in the neighboring provinces and started to have important effects on the local economy. In 2016, Syrian refu...

  8. INIS: multilingual thesaurus. Arabic-Chinese-English-French-German-Russian-Spanish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This CD is based on the Joint Thesaurus Part I and II of the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series No. 1 (Rev. 2), October 2006. The translations of the terminology from the English version of the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Russian and Spanish were performed by specialists from the INIS centres of the Syrian Arab Republic, China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation and Spain, respectively.The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA in Vienna was responsible for coordinating the translations and transferring the machine readable terminology files to the IAEA computer in Vienna, as well as merging and performing numerous tests to ensure correctness and completeness. In addition, the INIS Secretariat was responsible for developing the software necessary for maintaining, updating and printing the multilingual files. The INIS Multilingual Thesaurus is a major tool for describing nuclear information and knowledge in a structured form, which assists in multilingual and semantic searches. The Multilingual Dictionary is intended as a tool to assist indexers, retrievers and other users of the INIS system whose mother tongue is not English. It supports the preparation of input to the system and utilization of its output products. In addition, it also intends to serve those workers in the nuclear field who are not directly connected with INIS, as well as translators, interpreters, authors and others working in the areas of languages, semantics or terminological reference. The domain of knowledge covered by the Joint Thesaurus includes physics (in particular, plasma physics, atomic and molecular physics, and especially nuclear and high-energy physics), chemistry, materials science, earth sciences, radiation biology, radioisotope effects and kinetics, applied life sciences, radiology and nuclear medicine, isotope and radiation source technology, radiation protection, radiation applications, engineering, instrumentation, fossil fuels, synthetic fuels, renewable

  9. Perspectives of displaced Syrian women and service providers on fertility behaviour and available services in West Bekaa, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Mourtada, Rima; Bashour, Hyam; Kak, Faysal El; Zurayk, Huda

    2017-10-01

    Prior to the conflict, Syria had relatively high fertility rates. In 2010, it had the sixth highest total fertility rate in the Arab World, but it witnessed a fertility decline before the conflict in 2011. Displacement during conflict influences fertility behaviour, and meeting the contraceptive needs of displaced populations is complex. This study explored the perspectives of women and service providers about fertility behaviour of and service provision to Syrian refugee women in Bekaa, Lebanon. We used qualitative methodology to conduct 12 focus group discussions with Syrian refugee women grouped in different age categories and 13 in-depth interviews with care providers from the same region. Our findings indicate that the displacement of Syrians to Lebanon had implications on the fertility behaviour of the participants. Women brought their beliefs about preferred family size and norms about decision-making into an environment where they were exposed to both aid and hardship. The unaffordability of contraceptives in the Lebanese privatised health system compared to their free provision in Syria limited access to family planning services. Efforts are needed to maintain health resources and monitor health needs of the refugee population in order to improve access and use of services.

  10. Eleventh Arab Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Arab conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy is an important station where Arab researchers and scientists meet to present the results of their scientific and applied research activities, to exchange views, experiences and knowledge and to strengthen the bonds of cooperation among them. Under this framework, the Arab Atomic Energy Agency organized the eleventh Arab conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy in cooperation with the Ministry of Science and Communications of the Republic of Sudan and the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission in Khartoum city during the period of 23-27 December 2012. The sessions of the conference included scientific papers, in addition to specialized lectures on topics of particular importance in the field of peaceful applications of atomic energy followed by panel discussions.

  11. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Syrian indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Syrian indigenous goat populations. Halima Hassen, Barbara Rischkowsky, Adnan Termanini, Ghassen Jessry, Aynalem Haile, Michael Baum, Samir Lababidi ...

  12. Syrian Kurdish Political Activism: A Social Movement Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietse van den Berge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Syrian Kurdish politics is complex. While the political parties appear rather similar in terms of their goals, fierce inter-party rivalry exists, nonetheless. Shedding some light on Syrian Kurdish politics using Social Movement Theory as a theoretical framework, this article deals with how and why Syrian Kurds choose a specific political party. Interviews with Syrian Kurdish political activists in Iraqi Kurdistan provide the data. The interviews point out that a striking cleavage exists: Respondents sympathizing with the dominant political party preferred social equality, while interviewees belonging to other parties have a preference for non-violence.

  13. Altering Courses in Unknown Waters: Interaction between Traditional and New Media during the first Months of the Syrian Uprising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Trombetta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This papers aims at investigating the relationship between traditional and social media during the first six months of the Syrian uprising. Thanks to direct testimony made available to the author by various cyber activists inside and outside Syria and through constant monitoring of the official propaganda and the coverage of the Syrian events by the two main pan-Arab satellite TVs, this article intends to investigate how both the regime and the activists attempt to represent the “real events on the ground”. In a country where the foreign and pan-Arab press have been mostly expelled since the beginning of the protests and the consequent repression, these two opposite poles heavily fight on the media level. On the one hand, the propaganda dominates traditional media and has sought to show familiarity with new methods, while maintaining the same content and rhetorical tone. On the other hand, the activists, masters of the new media, attempted to overcome the limitations of their tools, aiming at more traditional forms of communication. In both cases, the Internet has emerged as the main weapon of this media confrontation.

  14. Dermatological face of Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The frequency and variety of dermatological diseases significantly changed after 2011 in the regions where the Syrian refugees migrated because of the civil war in Syria where is bordered by our country. To reveal these changing, the demographic and dermatological data of the Syrian refugees were retrospectively examined in faculty of medicine, department of dermatology of our city where a significant amount of Syrian refugees have been living. Materials and Methods: A total of 326 refugees immigrated to our city and have been living in tent cities, and applied to our department between September 2012-July 2014 were included to our study. Age, gender, dermatological and laboratory findings were retrospectively examined. Skin diseases were examined in 16 groups according to the their frequency. The patients were divided into 4 age groups as 0-20, 21-40, 41-60 and, 61 and over; three most common diseases for each age group were analyzed. Results: Of 326 patients, 126 (38.7% were males, 200 (61.3% were females and the difference was significant in term of gender. The age range of the patients was 0 to 77 years, and the mean age was 21.6±10.5. The majority of patients were in 0-20 age group. Dermatological infectious diseases were the most frequent diseases group and cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most diagnosed dermatological disease among patients. Conclusion: Preventive health care services should be performed to prevent dermatological infectious diseases which are commonly seen in Syrian refugees, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis which is already endemic in our country, and limitations to reach physicians of these patients should be amended.

  15. THE SYRIAN REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Rossen Koroutchev

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration pat...

  16. Kidney Disease Profile of Syrian Refugee Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbalik Kara, Mehtap; Demircioglu Kilic, Beltinge; Col, Nilgun; Ozcelik, Ayse Aysima; Buyukcelik, Mithat; Balat, Ayse

    2017-03-01

    Although preventative nephrology is the effective management of childhood kidney diseases, it is hard to provide it in this undesirable conditions. In this study, we aimed to document the kidney disease profile of Syrian refugee children admitted to our hospital. One hundred and thirty Syrian refugee children were admitted to the Pediatric Nephrology Department of the University of Gaziantep from September 2012 to January 2015. Demographic data, history, symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory investigations, diagnosis, disease outcome, and therapeutic procedures such as peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis were obtained from patient files. Of the 130 admitted children, 74 were girls (59.6%). The average age was 6.97 ± 4.2 years (range, 1 month to 17 years). Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract were found in 34 children (26.2%). Other morbidities were chronic kidney disease in 30 (23.1%), nephrotic syndrome in 24 (18.5%), urolithiasis in 9 (6.9%), acute kidney injury in 4 (3.1%), glomerulonephritis in 5 (3.8%), enuresis in 12 (9.2%), and others in 12 (9.2%). Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract and chronic kidney disease were highly prevalent in Syrian refugee children. Although free health care have been provided to all of these children, the continuation of political crisis and instability would increase the number of admissions and affect the quality of life of those children in a different environment from the home country.

  17. The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaras, Resat; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Tabak, Fehmi; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Yemisen, Mucahit; Sencan, Irfan; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-06-01

    The conflict in Syria is a big humanitarian emergency. More than 200,000 Syrians have been killed, with more than half of the population either having been displaced or having immigrated. Healthcare has been interrupted due to the destruction of facilities, a lack of medical staff, and a critical shortage of life-saving medications. It produced suitable conditions leading to the re-emergence of tuberculosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, polio, and measles. Lebanon and Jordan reported increased rates of tuberculosis among Syrian refugees. Cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks were noted not only in Syria but also in Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon. After a polio-free 15 years, Syria reported a polio outbreak. Ongoing measles outbreaks in the region was accelerated by the conflict. Iraq declared a cholera outbreak among the Syrian refugees. The healthcare facilities of the countries hosting immigrants, mainly Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt, are overburdened. The majority of the immigrants live in crowded and unsanitary conditions. Infectious diseases are big challenges for Syria and for the countries hosting immigrants. More structured support from international organizations is needed for the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

  18. The Lebanese–Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherri Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeinab Cherri, Pedro Arcos González, Rafael Castro Delgado Unit for Research in Emergency and Disaster, Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain Background: Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese–Syrian borders since 2011 as “displaced”, emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Methods: Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. Results: The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Conclusion: Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives

  19. Lebanese municipalities and Syrian refugees: Building capacity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The response of the Lebanese government to the influx of Syrian refugees has been slow and partial, with a strong security orientation. This project's aim is to promote strategies and policies towards Syrian refugees, at the municipal and national level, that are more inclusive and that improve the livelihoods of both refugee ...

  20. Syrian refugees: Shifting from crisis response to opportunity | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-25

    Syrian refugees: Shifting from crisis response to opportunity. Roula El-Rifai. October 25, 2016. Children listen to their teacher at the Zaatari Refugee Camp, located near Mafraq, Jordan. Photo credit: UN Photo / Mark Garten. Welcoming over 30,000 Syrian refugees to Canada in the past year is a reflection of the shared ...

  1. Financial Assistance from Arab Countries and Arab Regional Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    P. van den Boogaerde

    1991-01-01

    Arab financial assistance to developing - particularly Arab - countries rose sharply between 1973 and 1980 but fell gradually through the 1980s, owing mainly to weakening oil prices. As a percent of GNP, however, Arab contributions remain the largest among major donors. This paper surveys the volume and distribution of Arab financing from 1973 to 1989.

  2. [Investigation of the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among female Syrian refugees with the complaints of vaginitis aged between 15-49 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentür Doni, Nebiye; Aksoy, Mustafa; Şimşek, Zeynep; Gürses, Gülcan; Hilali, Neşe Gül; Yıldız Zeyrek, Fadile; Özek, Behire; Yıldırımkaya, Gökhan

    2016-10-01

    Since the Syrian civil war began in 2011, most of the Syrian refugees have immigrated to Turkey due to its open gate policy and the width of the border. By the end of 2015, it was estimated that there were 2.5 million Syrian refugees in Turkey. Many of the Syrian refugees live in Sanliurfa due to its location on the border with Syria. Trichomonas vaginalis, apart from viral agents is the most common parasite among sexually transmitted infection agents. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T.vaginalis among female married Syrian refugees living outside of the camps in Sanliurfa city center, aged between 15-49 years with complaints of vaginitis. This multi-purpose survey was carried out between February and March of 2015, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and Harran University. This study was approved under the heading of "General Health Status of Female Syrian Refugees" by the Ethics Committee of Harran University Faculty of Medicine. A total of 460 Syrian refugees house were selected using the probability cluster sampling method, with a 95% confidence level and a 5% confidence interval with a design effect. Two women refused to participate in the study, and the response rate was 99.6%. Two Syrian nurses, one laboratory technician, and one interpreter who knew Kurdish and Arabic were hired for the field survey. A structured questionnaire written in Turkish was translated to Arabic and used to collect the sociodemographic data during face to face interviews. According to the questionnaire data, the women with the complaints of vaginal discharge, unusual vaginal bleeding and/or dyspareunia were invited to the Gynecology Department of Harran University Research and Training Hospital for a medical examination. During gynecological examination, swab samples obtained from posterior fornix were evaluated by direct microscopy and Giemsa staining methods for the presence of T.vaginalis trophozoites. Of 458 women who have

  3. Arab American Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  4. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  5. The Alligator Farther From the Canoe: Shaping the Post-Civil War Syrian Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    CIVIL WAR SYRIAN ARMY POST- CIVIL WAR SYRIAN ARMY SHAPING THE POST- CIVIL WAR SYRIAN ARMY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT Over the last four years, the Syrian Civil War has created a horrific internal humanitarian disaster, displaced...within the Levant region the United States should pursue the creation of a post- Civil War Syrian

  6. Young lives disrupted: gender and well-being among adolescent Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Jocelyn; Sbeity, Farah; Schlecht, Jennifer; Harfouche, Manale; Yamout, Rouham; Fouad, Fouad M; Manohar, Seema; Robinson, Courtland

    2017-01-01

    The conflict in Syria that began in 2011 has resulted in the exodus of over 5 million Syrian refugees to neighbouring countries, with more than one million refugees currently registered by UNHCR in Lebanon. While some are living in tented settlements, the majority are living in strained conditions in rented accommodation or collective shelters in the Bekaa Valley next to Syria. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable in any crisis. In 2013-4, the American University in Beirut in collaboration with the Women's Refugee Commission, Johns Hopkins and Save the Children, sought to understand the specific experiences of very young adolescents, those 10-14 years of age, in this protracted crisis context. The study was conducted in 2014 in Barelias and Qabelias - two urban areas located close to each other in the Beka'a valley that has a large concentration of Syrian refugees. Focus group discussions (FGDs), including community mapping and photo elicitation, were conducted with 10-12 and 13-14 year old Syrian refugee adolescents, in order to obtain information about their experiences and perspectives. FGDs were also implemented with 15-16 year old Syrian refugees and separately also with adult refugees, to consider their perspectives on the needs and risks of these adolescents. A total of 16 FGD (8 for each sex, with 6-9 participants in each) were conducted in Arabic across the two sites, with 59 female participants and 59 male participants. The experiences and risks faced by these adolescents were significantly impacted by economic strain and loss of educational opportunities during displacement, and only a minority of adolescents in the study reported attending school. Additionally, on-going protection risks for girls were felt to be higher due to the crisis and displacement. In Lebanon this has resulted in increased risks of child marriage and limitations in mobility for adolescent girls. Adolescents, themselves expressed tensions with their Lebanese counterparts and

  7. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.

  8. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  9. THE SYRIAN REFUGEE CRISIS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen Koroutchev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript analyzes the current refugee’s crisis in Europe and the situation of the Syrian refugees in Syria’s neighboring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. The presented comparative analysis between the first instance decisions in asylum policies of several European countries is accompanied by additional statistics of the refugee’s influx. Several suggestions related to the necessary measures to be taken in short and long term in order to ensure more sustainable migration patterns are discussed in detail.

  10. Radiation-induced anorexia in Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, A.; Sattler, E.L.; Schraub, A.

    1980-01-01

    The recovery of Syrian hamsters after split dose application (interval 11 days) was studied on the basis of the weight response and of food uptake. Two periods of weight loss and anorexia can be distinguished, an early one immediately after irradiation and a secondary one 6-10 days later. The secondary response is a function of the radiation dose and allows to distinguish survivors from non-survivors, since it is much more pronounced and longerlasting in the latter than in the former. The first response appears not to be influenced by a previous conditioning irradiation. (orig.) [de

  11. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome | Petrini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis. Keywords: Glucosamine, Hamster, Hesperidin, PEA, Urolithiasis ...

  12. Abandon or embrace: Functionalism perspective of photojournalists on Syrian refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuroyya; Tandyonomanu, D.; Dharmawan, A.

    2018-01-01

    This research examines photojournalist’ perspectives of Syrian refugees in Europe, encoding, and dissemination processes. It employs a qualitative approach and functionalism perspective of mass media by sending questionnaires to voluntary respondents. The findings show sharing similar background and/or having experiences in the Middle Eastern countries highly influence the perspective of photojournalists on Syrian refugees. The encoding process covers through research of priority issues, target audience, trustworthiness of photos, and audience interpretation. The distribution method includes taking advantages of personal social media to promote the links of photos. As part of mass media industry, photojournalists play a crucial role to contribute to social integration, particularly, in creating a shared understanding between European community and Syrian refugees. The current research serves as a basis to future investigations on the perspective of European community towards Syrian refugees, whether or not their perspective is influenced by such photos.

  13. Performing Arabness in Arab American Stand-up Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Selim Yasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the dramatic art of stand-up comedy. It locates Arab American stand-up comedy within a broader American humorous tradition and investigates the way Arab American performers use this art to negotiate and (reconstruct their identity. The main question in this article is the way Arab American stand-up comedians define their relationship to the Arab and the western worlds in the process of establishing their Arab American identity. Three humor theories - the relief theory, the incongruity theory, and the superiority theory - are deployed in the study to examine the representation of Arabness in selected Arab American performances. The study argues that Arab American comics minstrelize their own diasporic origin through reinscribing a range of orientalizing practices in order to claim their Americanness.

  14. Health Information in Levantine (Arabic dialect) (Levantine Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota B Expand Section Benefits of Exercise Health and Well-Being 4 - Exercise - Levantine Arabic (Levantine (Arabic dialect)) ... Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Office of Oral Health Healthy Teeth, Healthy ...

  15. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Resulting from Torture and Other Traumatic Events among Syrian Kurdish Refugees in Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hawkar; Hassan, Chiya Q.

    2017-01-01

    Political violence is known to cause psychological distress. There is a large body of empirical studies drawing correlations between war trauma, torture, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are few studies on the effects of war-related trauma among Syrian refugees after events following the ‘Arab Spring’ uprisings between 2010 and 2012. This study examines the association of PTSD symptoms with torture and other traumatic events among Syrian Kurdish refugees living in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The experiences and PTSD symptoms among 91 Syrian Kurdish refugees in the Arbat camp in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq were assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, sections I, IV, and V. Results showed that the estimated levels of PTSD symptoms were high: between 35 and 38%. There were no significant gender differences in the occurrence of PTSD symptoms. However, men reported more general traumatic experiences than women. There were significant positive correlations between PTSD symptoms with traumatic events and torture (r = 0.500, r = 0.366, respectively). Examining the mental health impact of torture and other traumatic events among refugees has possible implications for organizations managing rehabilitation programs for individuals who have been exposed to traumatic events. PMID:28265252

  16. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Resulting from Torture and Other Traumatic Events among Syrian Kurdish Refugees in Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hawkar; Hassan, Chiya Q

    2017-01-01

    Political violence is known to cause psychological distress. There is a large body of empirical studies drawing correlations between war trauma, torture, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are few studies on the effects of war-related trauma among Syrian refugees after events following the 'Arab Spring' uprisings between 2010 and 2012. This study examines the association of PTSD symptoms with torture and other traumatic events among Syrian Kurdish refugees living in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The experiences and PTSD symptoms among 91 Syrian Kurdish refugees in the Arbat camp in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq were assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, sections I, IV, and V. Results showed that the estimated levels of PTSD symptoms were high: between 35 and 38%. There were no significant gender differences in the occurrence of PTSD symptoms. However, men reported more general traumatic experiences than women. There were significant positive correlations between PTSD symptoms with traumatic events and torture ( r = 0.500, r = 0.366, respectively). Examining the mental health impact of torture and other traumatic events among refugees has possible implications for organizations managing rehabilitation programs for individuals who have been exposed to traumatic events.

  17. Lebanon: mental health system reform and the Syrian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie; El Chammay, Rabih; Richa, Sami; Naja, Wadih; Fayyad, John; Ammar, Walid

    2016-11-01

    The Lebanese Ministry of Public Health has launched a National Mental Health Programme, which in turn has established the Mental Health and Substance Use Strategy for Lebanon 2015-2020. In parallel, research involving refugees has been conducted since the onset of the Syrian crisis. The findings point to an increase in mental health disorders in the Syrian refugee population, which now numbers more than 1 million.

  18. Childhood casualties during civil war: Syrian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem

    2015-08-01

    In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights

  19. Arab Education Going Medieval: Sanitizing Western Representation in Arab Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Imed

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…

  20. Triglossia and Promoting Arabic Literacy in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kevin S.; Al Kahwaji, Bashar; Litz, David

    2017-01-01

    In response to globalisation, the United Arab Emirates has invested tremendous resources into their budding education system. Such investment has resulted in the increased use of a bilingual curriculum where Arabic and English are held in high regard. Unfortunately, such investment has not resulted in successful Arabic literacy among much of the…

  1. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  2. The Arab Gulf Cooperation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    AD-A202 042,,, ’q AIR WAR CoLLEGE * RESEARCH REPORT THE ARAB GULF COOPEwATION COUNCIL COLONEL MOHAMMAD) F. ALBISUI ROYAL SAUDI AIR FORCE 1988...THE ARAB GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL by Mohammad F. Albishi Colonel, Royal Saudi Air Force A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY in FULFILLMENT OF THE...4 Qatar........................................ 5 Saudi Arabia................................. 6 United Arab Emirates

  3. Arab Muslim Anti-Americanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    purpose of this chapter is to review literature on Arab Muslim antipathy toward the US in relating to this thesis. The compilation of various resources...Muslim society (Rubin 2002, 73). The review of the following literature focuses on how Arab governments and influential groups manipulate the Arab

  4. Modern Iraqi Arabic: A Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalesi, Yasin M.

    This book is an introductory textbook for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or for those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. The book is divided into 16 lessons: "Arabic Alphabet and Vowels"; "Greetings and Courtesy Expressions"; "Asking for Directions"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part…

  5. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  6. Levantine Arabic: Introduction to Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, James A.

    This introduction to Levantine Arabic pronunciation is designed to teach the student to recognize the major points of phonological interference between Levantine Arabic and American English, as well as the significant phonological contrasts within the dialect of Arabic itself, and to provide the student with a model for mimicry. Tape recordings…

  7. Performing Arabness in Arab American Stand-up Comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad Selim Yasser

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the dramatic art of stand-up comedy. It locates Arab American stand-up comedy within a broader American humorous tradition and investigates the way Arab American performers use this art to negotiate and (re)construct their identity. The main question in this article is the way Arab American stand-up comedians define their relationship to the Arab and the western worlds in the process of establishing their Arab American identity. Three humor theories - the relief theory...

  8. If Israel accepted Syrian refugees and IDPs in the Golan Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Plotner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Could re-opening the Golan Heights to Syrians displaced by the conflict be a beneficial option both for those fleeing the Syrian conflict and for Israel’s relations with its north-eastern neighbour?

  9. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Turkish Economy: Regional Labour Market Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz Esen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and lengthened, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey increased and the Syrian population started to reside in the neighboring provinces and started to have important effects on the local economy. In 2016, Syrian refugees were allowed to receive work permits and they became more dispersed geographically. This paper investigates the impact of Syrian refugees on regional labour markets. Panel data for the years 2004 through 2016 is utilized for 26 regions in Turkey. Syrian refugees are found to increase unemployment and decrease informal and formal employment.

  10. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad ... By: What's this? NIH Other U.S. Federal Agency Industry University/Organization Search Show Less Search by Category ...

  11. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Congo Ethiopia Iraq Nigeria South Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Yemen Latest information » By country By ... slums, and camps for internally displaced persons or refugees, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation ...

  12. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Congo Ethiopia Iraq Nigeria South Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Yemen Latest information » By country By ... such as war zones, and in camps for refugees or internally displaced populations (IDP), situations where sanitation ...

  13. Analisis Kontrastif Penulisan Arab Melayu Riau dan Penulisan Bahasa Arab Serta Implikasinya terhadap Pengajaran Bahasa Arab (Analisis Kontrastif Penulisan Kosa Kata Bahasa Indonesia yang Diadobsi dari Bahasa Arab)

    OpenAIRE

    Efendi, Aprijon

    2014-01-01

    Pada kaedah penulisan Arab Melayu klasik, semua kosa-kata yang berasal dari bahasa Arab mesti ditulis sesuai dengan tulisan bahasa asalnya yaitu bahasa Arab itu sendiri. Namun, pada kaedah penulisan Arab Melayu Riau saat ini, semua kosa-kata ditulis sesuai dengan konsonannya tanpa membedakan antara kosa-kata yang berasal dari bahasa Arab atau bukan bahasa Arab. Implikasi dari pergeseran kaedah penulisan ini, banyak kosa kata yang diadobsi dari bahasa Arab berbeda penulisannya dari bentuk asal...

  14. A DICTIONARY OF IRAQI ARABIC--ARABIC-ENGLISH. THE RICHARD SLADE HARRELL ARABIC SERIES, NUMBER TEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOODHEAD, D.R., ED.; BEENE, WAYNE, ED.

    THE PRESENT DICTIONARY IS BASED ON THE EDUCATED COLLOQUIAL ARABIC OF BAGHDAD. INTENDED AS A COMPREHENSION DICTIONARY FOR AMERICAN ENGLISH SPEAKERS, ITS USE REQUIRES A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF ARABIC STRUCTURE AND PHONOLOGY AS WELL AS AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE STANDARD ARRANGEMENT OF AN ARABIC DICTIONARY. THE ENTRIES, WHICH APPEAR IN PHONEMIC…

  15. Profile of illness in Syrian refugees: A GeoSentinel analysis, 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Barbre, Kira A; Jensenius, Mogens; Larsen, Carsten S; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Stauffer, William; Rothe, Camilla; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Hamer, Davidson H; Esposito, Douglas H; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Screening of 488 Syrian unaccompanied minor refugees (Syrian refugees examined at GeoSentinel clinics worldwide, cutaneous leishmaniasis affected one in three patients; other noteworthy infections were active tuberculosis (11%) and chronic hepatitis B or C (9%). These data can contribute to evidence-based guidelines for infectious disease screening of Syrian refugees.

  16. Social Representations of Social Media Users toward Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ozdemir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While the Syrian refugees crisis has increasingly continued its effect in both Turkey and other neighboring countries and European countries for more than five years, refugees do not adapt themselves to society in country of asylum, and are exposed to social exclusion. The purpose of the study is to explore social representations of social media users toward Syrian refugees in Turkey with a qualitative approach; because social representations may indicate the problems in the integration process of Syrian refugees and Turkish society, and the reasons of social exclusion toward Syrian refugees. Accordingly 98 entries, which were taken from frequently used social dictionaries in Turkey, were evaluated by researchers and seven thematic units were formed. Thematic units reflect (i perceived negative features of Syrian refugees, (ii perceived threats in Turkey due to Syrian refugees, (iii criticisms toward Syrian refugees policy of Turkish government, (iv positive attitudes toward Syrian refugees, (v perceived political importance of Syrian refugees, (vi proposed solutions toward perceived Syrian refugees problem, and (vii other criticisms toward Syrian refugees issue. Findings provide useful information which can be used to enable the social adaptation of Syrian refugees into Turkish society

  17. Education in Emergencies: Case of a Community School for Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    With the break of the civil war in Syria, many Syrians have been displaced either internally or as refugees. Turkey, one of the leading host of Syrian refugees, has made changes to the policies to accommodate the needs of Syrians. Education is one of the most prominent needs of displaced refugee children. While 80 percent of refugee children…

  18. Arab Media Discourse: Breaking Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mustapha Lahlali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development and change of Arab media discourse since mid-1990s. The paper looks at how the production and consumption of media discourse have changed dramatically in the Arab world over the last decade or so, notably in relation to taboos such as religion, governance and gender. The paper argues that transnational Arab media, particularly al-Jazeera, have contributed to this change by adopting a liberal and critical approach when dealing with Arab taboos. This change is clearly reflected in the new discourse adopted by both the Arab public and Arab media. Such a discourse practice shapes and is shaped by a new Arab social, cultural and political practice.

  19. The metaphor of the dog in Arabic Literature | Mohamed | Tydskrif vir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1) ...

  20. Learning Arabic through play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of educational games in the context of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a three-year project funded through Qatar National Research Fund. The scope of the project is teaching Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) to kindergarten students (5-6 years old) that are native...

  1. Yemeni Arabic II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    Instructional materials for advanced Sanaani Arabic, a dialect used predominantly for oral communication, include 25 units consisting of text derived from recordings of spontaneous conversations of native speakers in various communication situations. Some of the topics are: medical services, marriage, jobs, an interview, a car accident, proverbs…

  2. Yemeni Arabic I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    Instructional materials for beginning Sanaani Arabic, a dialect used predominantly for oral communication, include 40 units consisting of text derived from recordings of spontanous conversations of native speakers in various communication situations. Some of the lesson topics are: greetings, getting acquainted, appointments, telephone…

  3. DATABASES FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN ARABIC CHEQUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alohali, Y.; Cheriet, M.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an effort toward building Arabic cheque databases for research in recognition of handwritten Arabic cheques. Databases of Arabic legal amounts, Arabic sub­ words, courtesy amounts, Indian digits, and Arabic cheques are provided. This paper highlights the characteristics of the

  4. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slovakia (Slovak Republic), 4. Slovenia, 5. South Africa, 59. Spain, 60. Sri Lanka, 6. Sudan, 6. Sweden, 13. Switzerland, 15. Syrian Arab Republic, 16. Taiwan, 33. Tanzania, 25. Thailand, 43. Togo, 8. Trinidad and Tobago, 2. Tunisia, 168. Turkey, 242. Uganda, 7. Ukraine, 36. United Arab Emirates, 3. United Kingdom, 201.

  5. The reciprocal constitutive features of a Middle Eastern partnership: The Russian–Syrian bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Tudoroiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the concept of reciprocal socialization, this article argues that the Damascus–Moscow partnership has been since 1970 a reciprocal constitutive relation that has influenced considerably the actions, interests, and identities of the two partners. During the last two decades of the Cold War it represented an almost ideal-type example of a relationship between a super-power and its regional ally that, through its complex consequences, shaped significantly the two partners themselves, the Middle Eastern political and security environment, and the international system as a whole. Post-2003 developments and especially the present Syrian crisis also have influenced considerably the two states' identity-building processes. After the US invasion of Iraq, the patterns of renewed bilateral cooperation have mirrored, at least in part, the Cold War ones. The Arab Spring enforced this trend. Yet, today the International Relations identity of Russia is quite different from the Soviet era one. The main consequence is that Moscow's new identity prevents it from supporting the regime in Damascus at any cost. If military operations take a turn threatening seriously the survival of that regime, it is likely that the Kremlin will not escalate its pro-al-Asad involvement, thus accepting the possible fall of its Middle Eastern ally.

  6. Antecedents of job search self-efficacy of Syrian refugees in Greece and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, Sofija; Ulceluse, Magdalena; Kismihók, Gábor; Mol, Stefan T; den Hartog, Deanne N

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationships among psychological resources, career barriers, and job search self-efficacy in a sample of post-2014 Syrian refugees. Participants included 330 refugees in Greece and the Netherlands. Data were obtained using paper-based surveys, with all measures translated into Arabic. Drawing from career construction theory (Savickas, 2005), we hypothesized that adaptive readiness, operationalized in terms of psychological capital, would be positively related to job search self-efficacy through career adaptability. In addition, social and administrative career barriers were hypothesized to moderate the first stage of the indirect effect between psychological capital and job search self-efficacy, such that this relationship is weaker when refugees experience higher career barriers. Results indicated that individuals with higher psychological capital more confidently engaged in job search behavior in the destination country, mostly due to their enhanced career adaptability. However, this relationship weakened when participants experienced higher social barriers and strengthened when they experienced higher administrative barriers. The findings provide further support for the career construction model of adaptation (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012) and pinpoint career adapt-ability resources as critical self-regulatory strengths that help individuals in this particularly vulnerable group adapt to occupational transitions. Moreover, the results highlight the potentially detrimental role of social barriers in this process. Based on the results, we offer implications for formulating training and career construction theory-based career counseling focused on enhancing career adaptability and psychological capital.

  7. Internet Censorship Circumvention Tools: Escaping the Control of the Syrian Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Saqaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that authoritarian regimes tend to censor the media to limit potential threats to the status quo. While such censorship practices were traditionally aimed at broadcast and print media, the emergence of the Internet and social media in particular, prompted some authoritarian regimes, such as the Assad regime in Syria, to try and exert a similar level of censorship on the Internet as well. During the Arab Spring, the Syrian regime blocked hundreds of websites that provided social networking, news, and other services. Taking Syria as a case study, this paper examines whether Internet censorship succeeded in preventing Internet users from reaching censored online content during 2010−2012. By analyzing the use of Alkasir, a censorship circumvention tool created by the author, the paper provides empirical evidence demonstrating that users were in fact able to bypass censorship and access blocked websites. The findings demonstrate that censorship circumvention tools constituted a threat to the information control systems of authoritarian regimes, highlighting the potential of such tools to promote online freedom of expression in countries where Internet censorship is prevalent.

  8. Parental Perception of Oral Health-related Quality of Life of Syrian Refugee Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Sharat Chandra; Al-Sibai, Salam Atef; Rao, Akanksha S; Kazimoglu, Samira Najeebullah; Mosadomi, Hezekiah Adeyemi

    2017-01-01

    The conflict in Syria has resulted in the displacement of over 5 million people, many of whom intend to return home at the cessation of hostilities. Oral health plays a critical role in early childhood and this study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of these children. The quantitative assessment of OHRQoL was done using a validated Arabic version of the short-form Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire-8 (P-CPQ-8). The P-CPQ-8 was administered to 22 sets of parents of children in a community center catering to urban refugees. A focus group interview and thematic analysis of nine mothers were used to gain a qualitative insight into the problems that could affect the OHRQoL of their children. The P-CPQ-8 revealed that oral symptoms were the greatest concern of the parents with dental pain being the most commonly reported condition. Although mothers reported higher P-CPQ-8 scores among all domains than fathers, there were no significant differences in the concerns of the fathers and the mothers. The focus group interview raised three major themes - (1) access to dental care, (2) pain felt by the child, and (3) oral hygiene of the child. The parents interviewed in this study were aware of the importance of oral hygiene but reported being unable to look after their children's teeth. Children who are refugees from the Syrian conflict face significant OHRQoL challenges.

  9. ‘Close enough’ – The link between the Syrian Electronic Army and the Bashar al-Assad regime, and implications for the future development of nation-state cyber counter-insurgency strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Kenton Bertram

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The case of the Syrian Electronic Army (SEA offers the chance to study a counter response to the cyber activism of the Arab Spring. Research methods featured an adapted method of snowball sampling. The main technical finding of the study placed the SEA within two degrees of separation from a senior politician within the Assad regime. The core conclusion of the paper is the definition of a ‘close enough’ relationship between the SEA and the Assad regime, defined as distant enough to preserve plausible deniability but close enough to ensure the strategic alignment of the SEA to state policy goals.

  10. A Large Scale Corpus of Gulf Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Salam; Habash, Nizar; Abdulrahim, Dana; Hassan, Sara

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Most Arabic natural language processing tools and resources are developed to serve Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), which is the official written language in the Arab World. Some Dialectal Arabic varieties, notably Egyptian Arabic, have received some attention lately and have a growing collection of resources that include annotated corpora and morphological analyzers and taggers. Gulf Arabic, however, lags behind in that respect. In this paper, we present the Gumar Corpus...

  11. Libya: A Future Arab Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    Libya: A Future Arab Democracy by Lieutenant Colonel Jacob Kulzer United States Army United States Army War...Libya: A Future Arab Democracy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Lieutenant Colonel...Muammar Gadhafi with the aid of both Western and Arab militaries. The United States acted under the authority of U.N. mandate 1973 as part of a broad

  12. Arab League Boycott of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-19

    1 Members are: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen, Libya, Sudan, Morocco, Tunisia, Kuwait, Algeria, United Arab Emirates...Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Mauritania, Somalia, Palestinian Authority, Djibouti, and Comoros. In 2003, Eritrea joined the Arab League as an observer...Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RS22424 April 19, 2006 Arab League

  13. Arab countries are waking up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    Year after year, the Arab world is confirming its interest for the gas industry. In front of an increasing local consumption, a growth of export demand and a rise of rates, the Arab countries are multiplying the projects and partnerships in a sector for which the intervention of foreign expert companies and investment are often necessary. This paper presents an overview of the past year of the gas industry in Arab countries: the projects in progress, the penetration of occidental markets by Arab companies, and the difficulties encountered by the GTL (Gas to Liquid) industry. (J.S.)

  14. Mental health and psychosocial needs of Syrian refugees and the role of Syrian non-governmental organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoshmosh, Nadim; Mobayed, Mamoun; Aljendi, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Almost 5 million Syrians have been registered as refugees since the conflict started in 2011. Their mental health and psychosocial needs continue to grow as the situation at home gets more complicated. Syrian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and mental health professionals have been offering their support to help meet these needs. They have set up various centres and teams on the ground that focus their efforts on the most needy individuals. They train and supervise healthcare volunteers, encourage self-management and build on people's resilience. These NGOs require support to deal with the consequences of this unprecedented crisis.

  15. Arabic summarization in Tw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal El-Fishawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twitter, an online micro blogs, enables its users to write and read text-based posts known as “tweets”. It became one of the most commonly used social networks. However, an important problem arises is that the returned tweets, when searching for a topic phrase, are only sorted by recency not relevancy. This makes the user to manually read through the tweets in order to understand what are primarily saying about the particular topic. Some strategies were developed for summarizing English micro blogs but Arabic micro blogs summarization is still an active research area. This paper presents a machine learning based solution for summarizing Arabic micro blogging posts and more specifically Egyptian dialect summarization. The goal is to produce short summary for Arabic tweets related to a specific topic in less time and effort. The proposed strategy is evaluated and the results are compared with that obtained by the well-known multi-document summarization algorithms including; SumBasic, TF-IDF, PageRank, MEAD, and human summaries.

  16. Nutritional knowledge assessment of syrian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louay Labban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge is one of the factors that affect nutritional status and nutritional habits of individuals, families, and societies. Nutrition knowledge is an important tool in assessing the nutritional status of an individual, group or community. Researchers have been trying to design and develop reliable and valid questionnaires that distinguish and measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary behavior and diet-health awareness. Many studies have shown that nutrition knowledge can affect someone to follow dietary recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of Syrian university students and to find out if there was any relationship between anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic status, type of university and nutrition knowledge of the students. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using valid nutrition knowledge questionnaire, which covered six main sections. The questionnaire was designed for this study and was adapted from Parameter and Wardle. The number of students participated in the study was 998 students and were selected from four universities in Syria. They were asked to complete the nutrition knowledge questionnaire under supervision of trained nutritionist. Anthropometric measurements were taken for all participants by trained professional. The results were statistically analyzed and P 30 had the highest points in TNK. Females had higher TNK score as compared with males. Furthermore, students enrolled in the private university and in health-related programs showed typically better TNK scores than those enrolled in public universities and in nonhealth-related programs. The highest TNK score based on BMI was found among students with BMI >30. The results support the likely value of including nutrition knowledge as a target for health education campaigns aimed at promoting healthy eating.

  17. Basic Gulf Arabic Based on Colloquial Abu Dhabi Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This volume, developed for an introductory course in Gulf Arabic, utilizes the dialect of Abu Dhabi, a leading member of the Federation of Arab Emirates on the Persian Gulf. Although specifically developed for the University of Arizona Environmental Research Laboratory personnel, it can be used as a beginning textbook for college students and…

  18. Ongoing epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis among Syrian refugees, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar; Khalifeh, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%.

  19. Ongoing Epidemic of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Syrian Refugees, Lebanon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroufim, Maya; Charafeddine, Khalil; Issa, Grace; Khalifeh, Haifaa; Habib, Robert H.; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Rady, Alissar

    2014-01-01

    In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%. PMID:25279543

  20. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  1. Ottawa shows support at screenings of documentary about Syrian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    Mar 22, 2017 ... “The project includes research on transitional justice issues, methods to conduct criminal prosecutions, options for reparations, ways to commemorate the dead, and approaches to national reconciliation,” McGurk said. “The ultimate goal is the development of a Syrian-led and implemented transitional ...

  2. Syrians' Acceptance of Digital Lectures: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2016-01-01

    Technology-based learning modules are mostly challenged by their acceptance. A single-case study and mixed research method are used to explore a unique situation of applying digital lectures at the postgraduate Programmes at the Faculty of Tourism at Damascus University as a solution for brain drain in the Syrian higher education system. Results…

  3. A Teacher's Retrospective View of the Syrian Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarad, Rami Abu

    2014-01-01

    This is a descriptive, as much as an interpretive, article about the Syrian educational system and the first-hand experience of an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) practitioner describing the system from within, as much as from without. "From within" because it is based on observations derived from his own teaching experience at a…

  4. The neglected health needs of older Syrian refugees in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Lupieri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Older refugees are often a neglected population, particularly when it comes to health. In Jordan, the specific health needs of older Syrian refugees tend to be overlooked, due in part to a lack of data, institutional biases and the nature of the humanitarian response.

  5. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Syrian indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Domestic goats in Syria may provide an interesting source of genetic variability due to its proximity to the centers of domestication. This study aimed to assess the morphological variation, genetic diversity and population substructure of the Syrian goat populations. Commonly, three goat genotypes are.

  6. Digital learning innovations for Syrian refugees and host communities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The impact of the Syrian conflict and accompanying refugee crisis on the education systems in Jordan and Lebanon is immense. Estimates ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for inclusive development.

  7. Unravelling Facebook: A Pedagogical Tool during the Syrian Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Reem

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the role of Facebook in academia during the Syrian crisis. Data were collected by means of an online survey from 726 students at Damascus University (Males = 446, Females = 280). Results indicated that Facebook facilitated communication and resource sharing in times of war and crisis where safe commuting posed a…

  8. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  9. Arab American Experiences in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based upon field study and a review of the literature, this paper sought to describe the educational experiences that are common in the Middle East and North Africa. The paper explained the curriculum and pedagogy that are most commonly found in Arab schools. It also addresses the misconceptions that many Americans have regarding Arab education.…

  10. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of trade liberalisation on Syrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian agricultural policy should be characterized by a high level of government intervention, including fixed prices, government monopoly in strategic crop marketing, government distribution of industrial fertilizers, significant barriers on food and agricultural commodities import and so on. Although there were certain changes and liberalization in this area during several last years, the Syrian agriculture remains as the most regulated sector of national economy in Near east and northern Africa.On the other hand, we may state the fact that Syrian governmental agriculture policy was successful considering so called strategic crops most of all in achieving self-sufficiency in wheat production, also an essential increase of cotton production volume which represents most important export crop of this near east country, took a part. Besides this progress there was restriction of disparity development in countryside and municipal household’s incomes, which is partial reason for slowing down of Syrian countryside poverty. These positive outcomes were reached at the expense of increasing go­vern­men­tal expenses and worsening of resources efficiency usage both in agriculture production and energy sectors. Considering forecasted spend of oil sources, the Syrian government will be ne­ce­s­sa­ri­ly forced to search for alternative resources of economic growth and government budget incomes in near future.The last five year country plan presumes consequental delimitation of grants and implication of value added tax. There is to be a quite large liberalisation in agriculture sector, which should lead to consequential down of wheat production, sugar beet and cotton and increase of barley, lentil and chickpea production.

  12. Moriscos and Arabic studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegers, Gerard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay studies the contribution of Moriscos to Arabic studies. It concludes that the contributions of Moriscos in the Iberian peninsula remained modest. Some contributed actively to the knowledge of Arabic through their Arabic-Islamic learning. I show that the Mudejar convert known as Juan Andrés, who wrote one of the most influential treatises against Islam, was indeed a canon of the cathedral of Granada. I briefly discuss the contribution of Moriscos to the translations and interpretations of the Lead Books and studied their post-expulssion contribution to Arabic and Islamic studies. The last part focuses on the Dutch Republic, where, as a result of historical circumstances and contingent factors such as personal relations, Moriscos played an important role. Here, in addition to the study of the Arabic language itself, the physical sciences played a noteworthy role. This, I suggest, can be connected to the broad scope of the emergence of Arabic studies in Europe, which incorporated both the physical sciences and religion and philosophy, and an interest in North Africa itself because of developments in the physical sciences, including their application in daily life.

    Este artículo analiza la aportación de los moriscos a los estudios árabes, concluyendo que ésta fue modesta en la Península Ibérica. Algunos moriscos contribuyeron de forma activa al conocimiento del árabe a través de sus estudios sobre temas árabo-islámicos. Se demuesttra que el converso mudéjar conocido como Juan Andrés, autor de uno de los más influyentes tratados contra el Islam, fue un canónigo de la Catedral de Granada. Se aborda brevemente la cuestión de la contribución de los moriscos a la traducción e interpretación de los Libros Plúmbeos y se estudia su contribucción, con posterioridad a la expulsión, a los estudios árabes e islámicos. La última parte del trabajo se centra en Holanda (República de los Siete Países Bajos Unidos

  13. Arab Contributions to Civilization. ADC Issues #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macron, Mary

    This booklet, designed to provide educational materials on Arab history and culture, describes the contributions of Islamic civilization to western civilization. To be Arab, like American, was and is a cultural trait rather than a racial mark. To be Arab meant to be from the Arabic speaking world of common traditions, customs, and values shaped by…

  14. Arabization in the Maghreb: Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    The Arabization process in the Maghreb countries--Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia--is unique in that these countries are officially committed to the use of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) while widespread use of French, a colonial language, persists, and the formal Arabic used in Arabization differs from the colloquial forms used in each country. The…

  15. A Short Reference Grammar of Gulf Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This work seeks to fill important gaps existing in the study of Peninsular Arabic, especially that of the United Arab Emirates. It presents an explicit outline of the structure of Gulf Arabic, based on the dialect of Abu Dhabi. It is intended for students and teachers of Gulf Arabic, for linguists and dialectologists, and for other individuals who…

  16. "We are Arabs:" The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women's Lived Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-12-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity , and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and "We are Arabs." To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society's perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society's honor. "We are Arabs" describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being.

  17. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  18. An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and family planning behaviors and practice among pregnant Syrian refugees in various living conditions and multiple geographic areas of Lebanon. A field-based survey was conducted between July and October 2013 in 14 main geographic sites of refugee concentration. The assessment evaluated antenatal services among a non-randomized sample of 420 self-identified pregnant Syrian refugee women that included demographics, gestational age, living accommodation, antenatal care coverage, antenatal care content, antenatal health behaviors, antenatal health literacy, and family planning perception and practices. In total, 420 pregnant Syrian refugees living in Lebanon completed the survey. Of these, 82.9% (348) received some antenatal care. Of those with at least one antenatal visit, 222 (63.8%) received care attended by a skilled professional three or more times, 111 (31.9%) 1-2 times, and 15 (4.3%) had never received skilled antenatal care. We assessed antenatal care content defined by blood pressure measurement, and urine and blood sample analyses. Of those who had received any antenatal care, only 31.2% received all three interventions, 18.2% received two out of three, 32.1% received one out of three, and 18.5% received no interventions. Only (41.2%) had an adequate diet of vitamins, minerals, and folic acid. Access, content and health behaviors varied by gestational age, type of accommodation and location in Lebanon. Standards of antenatal care are not being met for pregnant Syrian refugee women in

  19. Health service access and utilization among Syrian refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert

    2016-07-14

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addressed. In light of the increasing challenges facing host governments and humanitarian actors to meet health needs of Syrian refugees and affected host communities, this study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Differences in household characteristics by geographic region, facility type, and sector utilized were examined using chi-square and t-test methods. Care-seeking was high with 86.1 % of households reporting an adult sought medical care the last time it was needed. Approximately half (51.5 %) of services were sought from public sector facilities, 38.7 % in private facilities, and 9.8 % in charity/NGO facilities. Among adult care seekers, 87.4 % were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 89.8 % of which obtained the medication. Overall, 51.8 % of households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for the consultation or medications at the most recent visit (mean US$39.9, median US$4.2). Despite high levels of care-seeking, cost was an important barrier to health service access for Syrian refugees in Jordan. The cessation of free access to health care since the time of the survey is likely to have worsened

  20. Afro-Arab Economic Relations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    the literature . It outlines a theoretical frame- work within which the Afro- Arab economic relationship can be understood and analyzes the scope and...7 AD-AO89 013 STATE UNIV OF NEW YORK AT ALBANY COMPARATIVE DEVELOPM-ETC F/ 5/4 AFRO- ARAB ECONOMIC RELATIONSV U UCL a I BAAKLINI 00S-1722- 02148... ARAB ECONOMIC RELTION~/7 5~f By AI./ aak~g Director_ <󈧜=ftVt.V VVV~TT lopment Studies Center / Graduate School of Public Affairs State University of

  1. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    her narrative performance within the histories of American orientalism, the emerging Cold War, and ethnic beauty pageants to provide a better understanding of the specific intersection in these 1950s hegemonic discourses that framed and enabled her public agency. Her analysis then looks at how Hakim...... herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  2. Attitudes of Arabic- and Non-Arabic Speaking Parents Toward the Importance of Learning Arabic in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Al Alili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To promote Arabic teaching, researchers examined attitudes and expectations of parents regarding the importance of their children's Arabic study. In four states Researchers surveyed 238 Arabic-speaking and 128 non-Arabic speaking parents of children at urban and suburban schools offering Arabic as part of their mainstream programs. Most parents demonstrated positive attitudes toward language learning. They involved and encouraged their children's Arabic study and involved themselves in it. Arabic-speaking parents believed Arabic important for their children to maintain communication and affinity with family; preserve culture, religion, and traditions; maintain cultural heritage in the United States; and maintain moral and professional values. Non-Arabic speaking parents expressed similar reasons. However, Arabic-speaking parents recognized a wider variety of benefits to learning Arabic. Researchers concluded that parental attitudes toward language learning have great impact on children's learning process, but noted a discrepancy between the attitudes and expectations of Arabic- versus non-Arabic-speaking parents regarding learning Arabic.

  3. Prevalence of isolated maxillary lateral incisor agenesis in Syrian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Tamouh; Abdullah, Nagham; Rsheadat, Yasser; Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu

    2017-01-01

    This research is designed to obtain a better understanding and provide more insight of this phenomenon through evaluating the prevalence of congenital absence of maxillary lateral incisors in a Syrian population. The method involved clinical examination of 8000 school children with an equal number of males and females (age range 12-15 years) to identify students only affected by bilateral or unilateral congenital absence of maxillary lateral incisors. Agenesis was determined based on radiological evidence. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of isolated maxillary lateral incisors agenesis was 1.15%. In the sample studied, 66.3% of the patients were female and 33.7% were male (p agenesis in a Syrian population is within the average range with regard to other populations. A significant familial component to the etiology of maxillary lateral incisors agenesis was found.

  4. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis.

  5. Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees' access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey's United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey's refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey's remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee's flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

  6. Improving the specifications of Syrian raw phosphate by thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Watti

    2016-09-01

    In this research we treated the Syrian raw phosphate by thermal way in order to: (1 Enriching of studied Syrian raw phosphate that contains proportions of 28.60% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, 6.12% of carbonate, which we got after treatment at 850 °C for 30 min on a phosphate containing proportion of 33.95% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, small amount of carbonate 0.75% and almost free of organic materials. (2 Preparing phosphate fertilizer by thermal treatment in the presence of sodium carbonate, where it was found that the best conditions are adding 40% of sodium carbonate by weight of phosphate ore; temperature 1100 °C; time 120 min.

  7. Association of polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolizing genes with breast cancer risk in Syrian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajin, Bassam; Alhaj Sakur, Amir; Ghabreau, Lina; Alachkar, Amal

    2012-08-01

    Dietary folate status as well as polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism genes may affect the risk of breast cancer through aberrant DNA methylation and altered nucleotide synthesis and DNA repair. A large number of studies investigated the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) polymorphisms in breast cancer with inconsistent results. Association between multiple polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism genes and breast cancer was not studied before in an Arab population. The purpose of the present study is to test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism genes are associated with breast cancer susceptibility in Syrian breast cancer women patients. A total of 245 subjects (119 breast cancer women patients and 126 healthy controls) were genotyped for MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms. Association was tested for under numerous genetic models. A statistically significant association was found for MTHFR A1298C polymorphism especially under the allele contrast model (odds ratio (OR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.16-2.45), P = 0.006). On the other hand, no significant association was found for MTHFR C677T or MTRR A66G under any of the genetic models tested. The effects of the compound genotypes were also examined. The 66GG genotype was found to be protective against breast cancer when combined with the 677CT or 1298AC genotype (OR = 0.18, 95% CI (0.04-0.82), P = 0.014; OR = 0.3, 95% CI (0.08-1.11), P = 0.058). In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that polymorphisms in one-carbon gene metabolisms modulate the risk for breast cancer, particularly the A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene.

  8. The Effects of War on Syrian Refugees' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan; Kara, Ömer Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the effects of war on Syrian students' academic success. No one can deny the fact that wars have direct and indirect effects on children. Besides, no one can deny the fact that not only soldiers are targets in wars, but also children, women, and even old people are, who altogether make a society.…

  9. Level of food security of syrian refugees in Tukey

    OpenAIRE

    Dobiášová, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the proposal of change of policy of international actors in providing food security. In order to achieve it there is used the analysis of current level of food security and nutritional intake of Syrian refugees in Turkey since year 2011 when armed conflict in Syria has started. The bachelor thesis is divided into three parts. Theoretical part deals with theory of migration, legal definitions of status of refugees and demographic processes, analyzes a method of f...

  10. Leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite (sodium carbonate-bicarbonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Jamous, J.Kh.

    1991-01-01

    The leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite by sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution has been studied, using a batch technique. Parameters influencing percentage extraction of uranium that are considered and studies in this work are: Leachant concentration, particle size, heat treatment, leachant renewal, phosphorite renewal and contact time. All measurements of uranium from aqueous solutions were carried out by fluorometry. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Sectarianism or geopolitics? Framing the 2011 Syrian conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Nower, Tasmia

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict began as an uprising against the Assad regime for political and economic reform. However, as violence escalated between the regime and opposition, the conflict drew in Iran, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia, which backed both the regime and opposition with resources. The current conflict is described as sectarian because of the increasingly antagonistic relations between the Shiite/Alawite regime and the Sunni-dominated opposition. This thesis examines how sectarian identity is po...

  12. America's Credibility at Stake: Arab Perceptions of US Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Michael

    2002-01-01

    ... and Arab governments as biased against the Arabs and in favor of Israel From the Arab view, two lesser factors that contribute to Arab feelings that US policies are unjust include the long-term American...

  13. Arab League Boycott of Israel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2007-01-01

    .... The boycott has three tiers. The primary boycott prohibits citizens of an Arab League member from buying, selling, or entering into a business contract with either the Israeli government or an Israeli citizen...

  14. Research into Contemporary Arab Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sch Soc, 1969

    1969-01-01

    The originality of Arab thought, literature, and art over the last one hundred years, and their contributions to modern world civilization were the themes discussed by 19 experts who met at UNESCO headquarters, Paris, May 29-June 3, 1969. (Author)

  15. Coping Strategies Used by Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the coping strategies used by Syrian refugees in Jordan in relation to their demographics. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with a convenient sample of 550 Syrian refugees. Out of all the study participants, 88% reported seeking social support, 64.5% reported using avoidance, and 39.5% reported using problem solving. Participants who were male, single, and younger, and who had a higher education and a higher total income were satisfied with their income, were employed and free of chronic illnesses, and had higher problem-solving scores. Higher social support-seeking scores were associated with being female, older, and widowed; having a lower education and lower total income; being dissatisfied with their income; being nonemployed; and having chronic illnesses. A number of significant predictors were identified for each coping strategy. The results of this study could be used to formulate programs and develop services regarding the stressors encountered by Syrian refugees and their coping strategies.

  16. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  17. SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN THE SYRIAN LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam YOUSUF

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the most serious crises which confronts countries, and has many negative social effects; it justifies government intervention using mechanisms of the balance of supply and demand. It is one of the most severe problems that the Syrian labor market faces, which is under constant pressure because of the new flows of young people. The aim of this study is to shed light on the concepts which relate to the labor market, and provide a conceptual framework to understand the Syrian labor market during the war, as well as making some recommendations to help the Syrian labor market recover after the war. According to this study findings show that the unemployment rates in Syria remained stable during 2009 – 2010 (8.6%. Subsequently, the rate rose to (14.9% while in (2012 it rose sharply to (34.9 % as a result at the end of 2012 the unemployment rate was (26.8% higher than it was in 2009.

  18. Jordan’s migration diplomacy and the Syrian refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Taking its point of departure in the newly published World Bank Economic Outlook for Jordan (October 2016) the article discusses the recent political and economic realities in Jordan with a focus on the Syrian refugees and the so-called Jordan Compact programme, launched in connection with the co......Taking its point of departure in the newly published World Bank Economic Outlook for Jordan (October 2016) the article discusses the recent political and economic realities in Jordan with a focus on the Syrian refugees and the so-called Jordan Compact programme, launched in connection...... with the conference "Supporting Syria and the Region", held in London 4 February 2016. The initiative can be seen as an example of a successful migration diplomacy effort in the sense that Jordan mobilized strong international state actors and also the World Bank behind the Jordanian interests. At the conference...... they launched the mentioned programme, according to which 200,000 job opportunities for Syrian refugees would be offered "while they remain in the country, contributing to the Jordanian economy without competing with Jordanians for jobs", as it said in the document. Taking this move Jordan is to some degree...

  19. Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    The population of the Dominican Republic was estimated at 6.4 million in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. The infant mortality rate is 96/1000, and life expectancy is 60 years. The literacy level is 68%. The gross domestic product (GDP) in the Dominican Republic in 1986 was US$5.59 billion, with a real annual growth rate of 1.3% and a per capita GDP of $873. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 45%; industry and commerce, 21% services, 14%; and government, 20%. The Dominican economy entered a recovery period in 1986, and expenditures were cut to create savings for a massive public investment program. This fiscal spending has created a domestically-led growth of the Dominican economy and increased purchasing power among the poor. However, it remains for the government to come to terms with fiscal and monetary imbalances so that a more sustainable, noninflationary growth of the Dominican economy is ensured. Since 1966, the Dominican Republic has been a representative democracy whose national powers are divided among independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

  20. Radiation uses in agricultural genetics in the United Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    Under the IAEA expert's guidance, the seeds of some important field crops were irradiated with gamma rays in order to obtain beneficial mutations, especially with regard to improving the quality of the product and increasing the yield potential in addition to increasing the resistance against disease and lodging and shortening the vegetation period and plant height. The irradiation was done with a cobalt-60 unit. Once the seeds were irradiated, they were examined for the degree of germination attained. About 45 days after irradiation, the seeds were planted at an agricultural experimental field at Inshas. For cytological investigations, i.e. for a study of the radiation effects on cell tissues, the root tips of the seedlings were cut off after the germination test and were examined by a special process. Another type of experiment carried out consisted in soaking small samples of certain seeds in a solution of radioactive phosphorus (phosphorus-32) before planting them. This was intended to obtain beneficial mutations in some of the morphological and physiological characteristics of the plants. Some of the seeds were soaked for 24 hours, others for 48 hours. Later they were washed in distilled water and planted at the Inshas experimental field

  1. Opinions of Instructors about Reading Skills of Syrian Students Learning Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gün, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    The outbreak of domestic turmoil in Syria in 2011 forced Syrian people to seek refuge in the neighbouring countries, one of which was Turkey. This situation brought many problems, the primary of which was language. In this sense, teaching Turkish to Syrian students became a necessity. Therefore, conducting research on language skills was seriously…

  2. An Investigation of Forcibly Migrated Syrian Refugee Students at Turkish Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tösten, Rasim; Toprak, Mustafa; Kayan, M. Selman

    2017-01-01

    This study is a descriptive phenomenological research that aims to reveal Syrian refugee children' experiences within formal public schools in Turkey. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews from 28 teachers who teach these refugee Syrian students. Results show that the students are under the effect of post-traumatic stress…

  3. Psychological Security and Self-Efficacy among Syrian Refugee Students inside and outside the Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALharbi, Bassam H. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the degree of psychological security and self-efficacy among the Syrian refugee students inside and outside the camps. The sample consisted of 600 students from Syrian refugees inside and outside the camps in the second semester of the academic year 2014-2015. Scales for psychological security and self-efficacy…

  4. One Common Future, Two Education Systems: The Case of Syrian Children of Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Y. Yesim; Komsuoglu, Aysegul; Atesok, Z. Ozde

    2017-01-01

    The unexpected and vast Syrian refugee crisis with an ever-growing number of young Syrians appears to be one of the greatest challenges for the Turkish education system. While low enrollment rates are alarming, the dual system that emerged in the urban settings creates a main challenge to a comprehensive and supportive education system and…

  5. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Utilization by Syrian Refugees Residing in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıner, Ali Osman; Yeşil, Sıdıka Tekeli

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Many Syrians have left their country and migrated to other countries since March 2011, due to the civil war. As of March 2016, a total of 2,747,946 Syrian refugees had immigrated to Turkey. Some Syrian refugees have been living in camps, while 2,475,134 have been living in metropolitan areas, such as Ankara. Study Objective This study investigated Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization among Syrian refugees residing in Ankara. This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional database analysis using data obtained from the Department of EMS of the Ankara Provincial Health Directorate. Five stations in the Altındağ region of Ankara responded to 42% of all calls from Syrian refugees. Prehospital EMS in Ankara have been used mostly by Syrian refugees younger than 18-years-old. Study findings also suggest that medical staff in regions where Syrian refugees are likely to be treated should be supported and provided with the ability to overcome language barriers and cultural differences. Altıner AO , Tekeli Yeşil S . Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization by Syrian refugees residing in Ankara, Turkey. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):160-164.

  6. Psychological Impact of Life as Refugees: A Pilot Study on a Syrian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological Impact of Life as Refugees: A Pilot Study on a Syrian Camp in Jordan. Basheti IA ... Keywords: Syrian refugees, Jordan camps, Alzatary Camp, Psychological disorders, Mental health. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical ..... war and possible torture, talking and sharing stories is not expected to happen on the.

  7. War, memories and Little Waterfall; a Syrian village that is no more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Waterfall, field-visits to present-day Syria and previous fieldwork, the author revisits displaced people of the village, the memory of Little Waterfall and reflects on how memories of the Syrian inhabitants are shaped by their nostalgia of the village. The paper describes life-histories of these Syrian...

  8. Psychological Impact of Life as Refugees: A Pilot Study on a Syrian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate types and prevalence of psychological distresses endured by Syrian refugees at Alzatary Camp in Jordan. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a period of 2 months (November and December, 2012) at Alzatary Camp for Syrian refugees in Jordan. A validated questionnaire was ...

  9. Developing a comprehensive and sustainable integration strategy for Syrian refugee children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    A 2013 United Nations Refugee Agency report entitled The Future of Syria stated that two million Syrian children have been forced into exile as a result of the persistent civil war: “The world must act to save a generation of traumatized, isolated and suffering Syrian children from catastrophe. I...

  10. Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian Uprising screening in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... An event featuring excerpts from the IDRC-supported documentary Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian Uprising is being co-hosted by the permanent missions of Canada and the EU to the United Nations and the National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces, on September 7, 2017, ...

  11. Birth characteristics of Syrian refugees and Turkish citizens in Turkey in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Yildirim Topak, Nevruz; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Karakulak Gomleksiz, Mehtap; Ustunyurt, Emin; Ulku Turker, Ayse

    2017-04-01

    To compare the birth characteristics of Syrian refugees with those of Turkish citizens. In a retrospective study, data were obtained for singleton live births that occurred at a hospital in Bursa, Turkey, between June 1 and December 31, 2015. All Syrian refugees were eligible for inclusion; one Turkish citizen was included for each refugee. Overall, 545 Syrian refugees and 545 Turkish citizens were included. Cesarean delivery was undertaken for 176 (32.3%) Syrians and 235 (43.1%) Turks (PSyrian refugees (3110 g, range 540-4790; PSyrian refugees (PSyrians (P=0.014). Cesarean delivery is more common among pregnant Turkish citizens than among Syrian refugees. Other notable differences between the groups were recorded. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Neonatal outcomes of Syrian refugees delivered in a tertiary hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüktiryaki, Mehmet; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Alyamaç Dizdar, Evrim; Okur, Nilüfer; Kadıoğlu Şimşek, Gülsüm

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all Syrian immigrants from the TurkishSyrian border who delivered the Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity and Teaching Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Ankara, Turkey. Between January 2013 and December 2014 a total of 36,346 women gave birth at this center. Of these, 457 women were Syrian immigrants, comprising 1.2 % (457/36,346) of all deliveries. The number of births among Syrian refugees in Turkey appears to be increasing. Further research is needed to understand the relative morbidity of babies born to Syrian refugees compared to the local population, as well as the economic impact on facilities treating these cases.

  13. Adversarial Framing: President Bashar al-Assad’s Depiction of the Armed Syrian Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper evaluates how Syrian president Bashar al-Assad is framing his opponents in the context of the Syrian civil war. The question is addressed by conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of 13 interviews he gave to international television news networks and newspapers between March and November 2013. It is found that Al-Assad consequently labels the armed opposition as “terrorists” preponderantly composed of groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda. The “terrorists” are framed as posing a threat to the region as well as to international security on a global scale. Furthermore, Al-Assad denies the armed opposition its Syrian grassroots by portraying them as outside aggressors fighting for foreign interests. They are also depicted as “enemies of the Syrian people”, responsible for all the atrocities and human suffering committed during the Syrian civil war.' ' '

  14. Syrian Refugee Women's Health in Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan and Recommendations for Improved Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2017-06-01

    Since 2011, an estimated nine million Syrian refugees have fled to neighboring countries, and over four million have fled to neighboring countries of Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan. Seventy five percent of Syrian refugees are women and children. In times of conflict, women's health disproportionately suffers. Based on an assessment of academic literature and international policy and development reports, this study explores the vulnerabilities of Syrian women and girls in Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan, and how these countries approach Syrian refugee women's health care. In all settings, sexual and gender-based violence, reduced use of modern contraceptives, menstrual irregularity, unplanned pregnancies, preterm birth, and infant morbidity are ongoing issues. Recommendations for improved practice include taking a multilevel approach to eliminate social and service delivery barriers that prevent access to care, conducting thorough needs assessments, and creating policy and programmatic solutions that establish long term care for Syrian refugee women.

  15. Resilience in Context: A Brief and Culturally Grounded Measure for Syrian Refugee and Jordanian Host-Community Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine; Hadfield, Kristin; Dajani, Rana; Eggerman, Mark; Ager, Alastair; Ungar, Michael

    2017-06-15

    Validated measures are needed for assessing resilience in conflict settings. An Arabic version of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM) was developed and tested in Jordan. Following qualitative work, surveys were implemented with male/female, refugee/nonrefugee samples (N = 603, 11-18 years). Confirmatory factor analyses tested three-factor structures for 28- and 12-item CYRMs and measurement equivalence across groups. CYRM-12 showed measurement reliability and face, content, construct (comparative fit index = .92-.98), and convergent validity. Gender-differentiated item loadings reflected resource access and social responsibilities. Resilience scores were inversely associated with mental health symptoms, and for Syrian refugees were unrelated to lifetime trauma exposure. In assessing individual, family, and community-level dimensions of resilience, the CYRM is a useful measure for research and practice with refugee and host-community youth. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  16. Egypt and the New Arab Coalition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorenz, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    .... These meetings are the mileposts of modern Arab diplomatic history. At conferences in Khartoum, Rabat, Baghdad, and Fez, new bearings were set in Arab-Palestinian relations and the conflict with Israel...

  17. Archives: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 17 of 17 ... Archives: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Journal Home > Archives: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. 76 FR 30656 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY... the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section 733 of the Tariff Act of... Arab Emirates: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Not Less Than Fair Value, 73 FR 33985 (June 16...

  19. The New Arab Left and 1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In Arab political culture, the Naksa of 1967 had a number of watershed effects. Scholars have paid a lot of attention to the decline of secular Arab nationalism and the concurrent rise of Islamism. Much less research has been done on the way 1967 spurred radical left organizations, also known as ...... moment that followed. This moment has had a lasting impact on Arab political culture and is being re-interpreted in interesting ways today by Arab revolutionaries post-2011....

  20. Contrastive Linguistic English Phonology Vs. Arabic Phonology

    OpenAIRE

    Mona M. Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Phonology is a wide area of study in any language specially English &Arabic Language, it needs books to cover every single part of these languages. This review paper aims at providing Arab learners and English learners with stem footnotes of these two languages in area of phonology, to ease their learning of English and Arabic languages as foreign or second language, this review paper provide learners with the main differences and rules of English and Arabic languages alphabets that the resea...

  1. Cystinuria in Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hermi, B.; Abbas, B.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and genetics of cystinuria. It is expected that future development will be based on molecular and gene therapy. Until then, the therapy in cystinuric patients remains a difficult task and the goal should be the prevention of recurrences. This can be achieved by full compliance with medical regimens that result in significantly reduced urinary cystine excretion and good long term prognosis in most patients. Such measures include urinary alkalinization with potassium citrate, modest reduction of dietary sodium and maintenance of a daily urinary volume of about three liters to prevent stone recurrence in adult cystinuric patients. The use of life-long pharmacological agents with disulfide chelators should be reserved for patients who fail the general conservative therapy. Invasive surgery should be used only minimally so as to preserve renal anatomy and function. However, repeated episodes of obstructive urotherapy, frequently complicated by infection may eventually result in the need for nephrectomy, and are significantly associated with development of chronic renal failure. In Arab World we lack properly designed epidemiological studies on renal stone-disease in general, and the cystine stone in particular. We recommend a multi-center study to determine the incidence of the disease and a molecular genetic analysis of cystinuric patients and their relatives, to determine the different mutations in our population and the types of the disease both the homozygotes and the heterozygotes. (author)

  2. Inter-Arab Conflict Contingencies and the Gap between the Arab Rich and Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    34" LEVEIK 44 Q • R-2371-NA * ( December 1978 Inter- Arab Conflict Contingencies and the Gap Between the Arab Rich and Poor C=I Malcolm Kerr, Nathan...0119. ibkavv of Coognras Cataloging Pinahblkatie Rmta Kerr, Malcolm H Inter- Arab conflict cor-tingencies and the gap between the Arab rich and Door...GOVT ACCESSION NO. . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 1) ( 27-2371-NA ~_____________ :Inter- Arab Conflict Contingencies and the Gap j9Interim r epf

  3. Religious Education in Syria: Unity and Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Monique C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the almost identical syllabuses of the Christian and Muslim religious education programmes of the Syrian Arab Republic. Content analysis of the students' textbooks and teachers' guides (in Arabic) reveals common themes of citizenship education and national unity. Classroom observations in Damascus also highlight how…

  4. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , 4. Sri Lanka, 1. Sudan, 2. Sweden, 1. Syrian Arab Republic, 5. Taiwan, 3. Tanzania, 1. Thailand, 4. Tunisia, 12. Turkey, 18. Ukraine, 3. United Arab Emirates, 1. United Kingdom, 9. United States, 60. Unknown, 4. Vietnam, 3. Zimbabwe, 1 ...

  5. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Russian Federation, 2. Saudi Arabia, 4. Senegal, 3. Singapore, 3. South Africa, 7. Spain, 2. Sweden, 1. Switzerland, 4. Syrian Arab Republic, 10. Taiwan, 3. Tanzania, 1. Thailand, 11. Trinidad and Tobago, 1. Tunisia, 39. Turkey, 24. Ukraine, 7. United Arab Emirates, 1. United Kingdom, 24. United States, 212. Unknown, 19.

  6. FONOLOGI DAN MORFOLOGI BAHASA ARAB 'AMIYAH MESIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrodi Mufrodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Arabic language, it is divided into two, namely Arabic fuṣhâ and ‘âmiyah. Arabic fuṣhâ  used as a written language, and Arabic ‘âmiyah used as a spoken language. In daily activities, Arab people used Arabic ‘âmiyah more frequently. This is due to a fairly high level of formality that is owned by Arabic fuṣhâ, that should be in the spoken language is communicative, consultative, relaxed and intimate, both in term of morphological and syntactical. In the Egyptian Arabic occur in phonological and morphological differences were deemed difficult for students who only learn Arabic fuṣhâ. The difficulty that arises due to the ignorance of students to the differences that occur between Arabic fuṣhâ  and Egyptian dialect. With an understanding of phonological and morphological of Arabic ‘âmiyah expected that the students of Arabic language or people who have learned fuṣhâ can understand-at least a few understanding-spoken language so that communication will run smoothly.DOI: 10.15408/a.v2i2.2184

  7. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is critical for…

  8. Arab Americans: Into the Multicultural Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Long-standing anti-Arab racism in the U.S. has worsened in recent decades, fueled by U.S. military involvement in the Middle East and by the September 11 attack on the U.S. Arab American and Muslim children have been the targets of misunderstanding and discrimination. Following a historical introduction, discrimination against Arab American and…

  9. Kuwaiti Arabic: Acquisition of Singleton Consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyad, Hadeel Salama; Bernhardt, B. May; Stemberger, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arabic, a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic variety, has a rich consonant inventory. Previous studies on Arabic phonological acquisition have focused primarily on dialects in Jordan and Egypt. Because Arabic varies considerably across regions, information is also needed for other dialects. Aims: To determine acquisition benchmarks…

  10. Norm waste in oil and gas industry: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Syrian experience in respect to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) waste in Syrian oil and gas industry. NORM can be concentrated and accumulated in tubing and surface equipment of oil and gas production lines in the form of scale and sludge. NORM waste (scale, sludge, production water) is therefore generated during cleaning, physical or chemical treatment of streams. Uncontrolled disposal of this type of waste could lead to environmental pollution, and thus eventually to exposure of members of the public. The presence of NORM in Syrian oil fields has been recognized since 1987 and AECS has initiated several studies, in cooperation with oil companies, to manage such type of waste. Three categories of NORM waste in Syrian oil fields were identified. Firstly, hard scales from either decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubular using high-pressure water systems or mechanical cleaning at site are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra). Secondly, sludge wastes are generated with large amount but low levels of radium isotopes were found. Thirdly, contaminated soil with 226 Ra as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The first waste type (scale) is stored in Standard storage barrels in a controlled area; the number of barrels is increasing with time. High levels of radium isotopes were found in these scales. The options for disposal of these wastes are still under investigations; one of the most predominant thinking is the re-injection into abundant wells. For sludge waste, plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. Moreover, big gas power stations have been built and operated since the last ten years. Maintenance operations for these stations produce tens of tones of scales containing radon daughters, 210 Pb and 210 Po with relatively high concentrations. The common practice used to dispose

  11. Natural radionuclides in Syrian diet and their daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mukallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Khalili, H.; Hassan, M.; Assaf, H.; Amin, Y.; Nashawati, A.

    2004-01-01

    More than one hundred different food stuffs (meat, vegetables cereals, seafood,..) have been collected during 1998, 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for radioactivity as part of the National Food Monitoring Program in Syria. Results have shown that most of the observed concentrations were within the range of the worldwide values with the exception of relatively high levels of 210 Po being observed in fish, vegetables, mushrooms, herbs and flowers. The daily intakes of the radionuclides studied have been evaluated. Relatively high values, in comparison with some countries, were found for 210 Po (1.9 Bq/day). This is due to high content of 210 Po in wheat (2.3 Bq/kg) consumed by Syrians, the daily consumption of wheat by Syrians is about 526 g. In addition, natural and artificial radionuclides in some manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates have been determined. Seventeen manufactured food and eleven types of canned milk were collected from the local market and their radioactivity analyzed. 210 Po activity concentration varied between 0.38 and 2.89 Bq/kg dry wt. in canned milk while the highest concentration in infant food was found to be 1.69 Bq/kg dry wt. Other radionuclide concentrations were below the limit of detection of 3 Bq/kg dry wt. and 4 Bq/kg dry wt. for 22' 6Ra and 228 Ra, respectively, while uranium concentration varied between 2.2 and 10.5 μg/kg dry wt. in milk samples and 0.78-6.0 μg/kg dry wt. in other food samples. (author)

  12. Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Fouad, Fouad M; Pherali, Tejendra

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to redistribute the key functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and its partners to generate more coherence and efficiency.

  13. Cross-Dialectal Arabic Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Harrat, Salima; Meftouh, Karima; Abbas, Mourad; Jamoussi, Salma; Saad, Motaz; Smaïli, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present, in this paper an Arabic multi-dialect study including dialects from both the Maghreb and the Middle-east that we compare to the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Three dialects from Maghreb are concerned by this study: two from Algeria and one from Tunisia and two dialects from Middle-east (Syria and Palestine). The resources which have been built from scratch have lead to a collection of a multi-dialect parallel resource. Furthermore, this collection has been ...

  14. The Hindu-Arabic numerals

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David Eugene

    1911-01-01

    The numbers that we call Arabic are so familiar throughout Europe and the Americas that it can be difficult to realize that their general acceptance in commercial transactions is a matter of only the last four centuries and they still remain unknown in parts of the world.In this volume, one of the earliest texts to trace the origin and development of our number system, two distinguished mathematicians collaborated to bring together many fragmentary narrations to produce a concise history of Hindu-Arabic numerals. Clearly and succinctly, they recount the labors of scholars who have studied the

  15. Emergency department visits of Syrian refugees and the cost of their healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur; Polat, Haci

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of Emergency Department (ED) visits made by Syrian refugees and to assess the cost of their healthcare. This retrospective study was conducted in adult Syrians who visited the ED of Adiyaman University Training and Research Hospital, Adiyaman Province, Turkey, between 01 January and 31 December 2015. We evaluated 10,529 Syrian refugees who visited the ED, of whom 9,842 were included in the study. The number of ED visits significantly increased in 2015 compared with 2010; the increase in the proportion of total ED visits was 8% (n = 11,275, dif: 8%, CI 95%: 7.9- 8.2, p refugees and the remaining 1.5% accounted for the visits made by other individuals. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) were the diseases most frequently presented (n = 4,656; 47.3%), and 68.5% of ED visits were inappropriate (n = 6,749). The median ED length of stay (LOS) of the Syrian refugees was significantly longer than that of the other individuals visiting the ED (p Syrian refugees who visited the ED was calculated as US$ 773,374.63. This study showed that Syrian refugees have increased the proportion of ED visits and the financial healthcare burden. The majority of ED visits made by Syrian refugees were inappropriate. In addition, their ED LOS was longer than that of other individuals making ED visits.

  16. The Perspective of Trabzon Public on the Syrians in the Scope of Temporary Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine GÖZÜBÜYÜK TAMER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the crisis environment that started in Syria in March 2011 and the conflicts that have been going on until today, millions of Syrians have had to leave their countries in order to provide life and property security and to find better life opportunities. They have migrated towards foremost Turkey, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan and European Union (EU countries. This movement of the Syrians towards other countries deeply affects many countries. Due to the fact that Turkey is a neighboring country, it is one of the countries most affected by this process. Besides its geographical proximity, the presence of religious, historical and cultural ties has also been instrumental in making this effect more noticeable. The aim of this study is to determine the issues about Syrians who fled from the ongoing civil war in Syria and took refuge in Turkey from the point of view of the public in Trabzon. For this purpose, firstly, Trabzon public opinion has been established on the basis of acceptance of the Syrians within the temporary protection to Turkey and the perspective on how to manage and what to do about the policies envisaged for the Syrians. Then the predictions about the permanence of the Syrians in Turkey were put forward and the view of the people of Trabzon on the long term was evaluated. However, in the case of Trabzon, it was tried to reveal the thoughts and expectatitions of the Syrian people under temporary protection of the Turkish society.

  17. Early Marriage and Barriers to Contraception among Syrian Refugee Women in Lebanon: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-07-25

    The Syrian conflict has displaced five million individuals outside their country with Lebanon hosting the largest numbers per capita. Around 24% of Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are women of reproductive age (15-49). Yet, a better understanding of the sexual and reproductive health needs of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon is required to improve provided services. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in four regions of Lebanon with 108 Syrian refugee women of reproductive age. Thematic analysis was used to examine the data. Interviewed women were mainly adults. They believed that, in Lebanon, they were subjected to early marriage compared to the norm in Syria due to their financial situation and uncertainty. Cost was reported as the main barrier to use contraception in Lebanon but some Syrian refugee women were not aware of free services covering sexual and reproductive health. In general, marriage, pregnancy, and family planning behavior of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon slightly differed from those in Syria pre-conflict in terms of age of marriage, conception subsequent to marriage, and contraception method. Hence, interventions to increase awareness of subsidized sexual and reproductive health services, including free contraceptives at primary health care centers, and those targeting protection from early marriage of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon are strongly recommended.

  18. A Comparison of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Syrian and Turkish Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Enver; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Sürücü, Hacer Altun; Ardic, Nurittin; Doni, Nebiye; Aksoy, Mustafa; Yesilova, Abdullah; Oghumu, Steve; Varikuti, Sanjay; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a significant public health problem with increasing incidence, especially in extreme circumstances. In this study, we compared the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 685 Syrian CL patients afflicted by the Syrian conflict and 685 Turkish CL patients in 2012. Patient age, gender, duration of disease, lesion size, type, and localization were evaluated. The duration of CL disease in Syrian CL patients (4.5 ± 4.3 weeks) was shorter than that of Turkish CL patients (11.9 ± 9.7 weeks). The number of lesions was greater in Syrian patients (2.46 ± 2.43) than in Turkish patients (1.93 ± 1.47). Lesion sizes were comparable between both groups (Syrian, 11.2 ± 8.7 mm; Turkish, 10.7 ± 7.7 mm). In Syrian CL patients, nodular type lesions were the most common (325 patients, 49.1%), whereas, in Turkish CL patients, ulcer type lesions were the most common (352 patients, 51.5%). Our results indicate variations in the clinicoepidemiological features of CL between Turkish and Syrian patients within Sanliurfa province. This highlights the impact of social unrest and environmental conditions on the epidemiology of CL within this region. Approaches to prevention, control, and treatment of CL in these areas should take into consideration the emerging changes in clinicoepidemiological parameters of the disease. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  20. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  1. Reading Arabic : legibility studies for the Arabic script

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahine, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    What is the cost of visual complexity? This dissertation sets out to determine the effect of the complexity of word formation on the legibility of Arabic and the role that vocalization plays in reading. This is carried out via a holistic approach to legibility research that combines the visual

  2. Health information in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabbagh, Dina; Alsharif, Khlood; Househ, Mowafa S

    2013-01-01

    Availability of online health information in the Arab world is growing rapidly, as well as the demand for it. Today, the Arab health consumer is searching for health information that is in Arabic and is culturally relevant. The purpose of this paper is to document the various initiatives around the development of online health information in the Arab world. The paper highlights the status of online health information in Arab counties with a specific focus on Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive search of both academic and gray literature was conducted in October 2012. Google Scholar, PubMed, the Google search engines were searched. Results show that there has been an increase in the number of health information websites being created in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. Examples of some these initiatives are discussed. Future challenges to the growth of health information content in the Arab world are also discussed.

  3. Rethinking the Insulator State: Turkey’s Border Security and the Syrian Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Turkey’s border security after the outbreak of the Syrian civil war from the viewpoint of the concept of the insulator state. First, it aims to explore Turkey’s border security policies with regard to the Syrian civil war. Turkey’s attempts to overcome and solve the difficulties rooted of Syrian civil war have been vital to its own border security in recent years. Second purpose is to rethink the concept of the insulator state. This article attempts to sophis...

  4. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  5. Exploiting social media for Army operations: Syrian crisis use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Al Amin, Tanvir; Abdelzaher, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    Millions of people exchange user-generated information through online social media (SM) services. The prevalence of SM use globally and its growing significance to the evolution of events has attracted the attention of the Army and other agencies charged with protecting national security interests. The information exchanged in SM sites and the networks of people who interact with these online communities can provide value to Army intelligence efforts. SM could facilitate the Military Decision Making Process by providing ongoing assessment of military actions from a local citizen perspective. Despite potential value, there are significant technological barriers to leveraging SM. SM collection and analysis are difficult in the dynamic SM environment and deception is a real concern. This paper introduces a credibility analysis approach and prototype fact-finding technology called the "Apollo Fact-finder" that mitigates the problem of inaccurate or falsified SM data. Apollo groups data into sets (or claims), corroborating specific observations, then iteratively assesses both claim and source credibility resulting in a ranking of claims by likelihood of occurrence. These credibility analysis approaches are discussed in the context of a conflict event, the Syrian civil war, and applied to tweets collected in the aftermath of the Syrian chemical weapons crisis.

  6. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80 's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the front-line officers. (author)

  7. Correlations and forecast of death tolls in the Syrian conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazuki; Shinomoto, Shigeru; Rocha, Luis E C

    2017-11-16

    The Syrian armed conflict has been ongoing since 2011 and has already caused thousands of deaths. The analysis of death tolls helps to understand the dynamics of the conflict and to better allocate resources and aid to the affected areas. In this article, we use information on the daily number of deaths to study temporal and spatial correlations in the data, and exploit this information to forecast events of deaths. We found that the number of violent deaths per day in Syria varies more widely than that in England in which non-violent deaths dominate. We have identified strong positive auto-correlations in Syrian cities and non-trivial cross-correlations across some of them. The results indicate synchronization in the number of deaths at different times and locations, suggesting respectively that local attacks are followed by more attacks at subsequent days and that coordinated attacks may also take place across different locations. Thus the analysis of high temporal resolution data across multiple cities makes it possible to infer attack strategies, warn potential occurrence of future events, and hopefully avoid further deaths.

  8. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the frontline officers. (author)

  9. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairy Abusyairi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to day, the materials of Arabic teaching that are developed and used widely in Indonesia in general are the teaching materials used in the madrassah in the Middle East. If the teaching material is the result of the development of amounts not so much. While the demands for innovation and the development of Arabic language teaching materials, today continues to roll, in line with the dynamics of the development of science and technology. Besides that , the demand for Arabic teaching materials that use Indonesian as the language develops in most introductory students, especially those with a general educational background. Thus, one needs to have a competence of teachers in performing their duties is developing instructional materials. Development of teaching materials a teacher is important for learning more effective, efficient, and does not deviate from the competency achieved. Arabic teaching materials can be developed through the following steps : a analysis, b design, c the writing and preparation of the material, d evaluation, e revision.

  10. Canavan disease: an Arab scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Hatem

    2015-04-10

    The autosomal recessive Canavan disease (CD) is a neurological disorder that begins in infancy. CD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the ASPA enzyme. It has been reported with high frequency in patients with Jewish ancestry, and with low frequency in non-Jewish patients. This review will shed light on some updates regarding CD prevalence and causative mutations across the Arab World. CD was reported in several Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Yemen, Kuwait, and Tunisia. The population with the highest risk is in Saudi Arabia due the prevalent consanguineous marriage culture. In several studies, four novel mutations were found among Arabian CD patients, including two missense mutations (p.C152R, p.C152W), a 3346bp deletion leading to the removal of exon 3 of the ASPA gene, and an insertion mutation (698insC). Other previously reported mutations, which led to damage in the ASPA enzyme activities found among CD Arab patients are c.530 T>C (p.I177T), c.79G>A (p.G27R), IVS4+1G>T, and a 92kb deletion, which is 7.16kb upstream from the ASPA start site. This review will help in developing customized molecular diagnostic approaches and promoting CD carrier screening in the Arab world in areas where consanguineous marriage is common particularly within Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Counseling Considerations among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a focus group interview conducted with a group of therapists in a large-scale, comprehensive family service agency in an Arab American community. The interview format was semistructured, and the results confirmed what little was already known about the population and supplemented that body of knowledge with updated…

  12. Syllable Structure in Rumthawi Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBzour, Naser N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating some phonological aspects of syllable structure in Rumthawi Arabic, a Levantine variety spoken in the northern region of Jordan. It basically sheds light on the OT constraint interaction that determines the surfacing onsets and codas of syllables in this dialect. The scope of this paper is more specifically…

  13. A Phonology of Darfur Arabic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roset, C.

    2015-01-01

    In the introduction of this article, I summon the state of the art of Sudanic Arabic and the language situation in Darfur. Then the inventory of the consonants and vowels in the language variety at issue are given, followed by phonological processes, syllable structure, word stress and historical

  14. Violent and Nonviolent Changes in the Images of Cities in the Arab Spring Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Yehya

    2017-10-01

    The Arab Spring transformations have caused tangible impacts on the urban environment throughout the Middle East with varying levels. In some cities in countries like Libya, Yemen and Syria, deliberate and accidental destruction has taken place, resulting in severe transformations in the image of these cities that could be considered as lasting or difficult to amend. In some cities, the damage caused to urban built environment could be considered a co-lateral damage as a result of internal fighting between the people and their regimes, or the fighting between the different factions in the country or from external interference of regional or international powers. Urbicide, which is defined as a deliberate destruction of cities is also another form of damaging the built environment or the city image, in which parties in an internal conflict tend to destroy symbols or quarters of their rivals to inflict a tangible damage to their social and moral believes. The impacts on the built environment and the image of the city, can result as well from non-destructive measures, for example changes in land uses or decisions to demolish specific buildings that belong to the former era will also result in a clear change in the city image. This paper highlights the types of transformation of the city images that took place as a result of the Arab Spring revolutions. The cases discussed in this paper focus mainly on cities from both Syria and Egypt. This highlighting is done in regard to the nature of change, as mentioned above, the violent transformation in the case of Syrian cities and few cases in Egypt and the nonviolent transformation with the examples from Egypt. In case of the Syrian cities the transformation is caused and sparked by the civil conflict, however the course of reconstruction of these cities after the conflict ends is argued to take one of three paths; reconstruction, renovation or redevelopment. While in case of the nonviolent transformation that is taking

  15. Arab Aid on the Rise 2011-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Rouis, Mustapha; Shomakhmadova, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Arab donors continue to be responsive to the needs of developing countries. Gulf countries, notably Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates; and Arab financial institutions have increased their financial assistance overtime, during the global financial crisis and in the aftermath of the Arab Spring for Arab countries in transition.

  16. Planned Miscommunication: The Arab-American Business Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of Arab-American business communication problems criticizes current Arabic instruction and argues that, if Western commercial interests are to participate in the Arab market, they must understand Arab interest in educating their own citizens to decrease dependency on foreigners and depend less on Arabs' knowledge of English. (MSE)

  17. Reducing early marriage of adolescent Syrian refugees in Lebanon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although the average age of marriage in the Arab world has risen, rates of early marriage remain high, especially in conflict-affected areas and among displaced populations. Early marriage leads to negative health and social consequences for adolescent girls, including risky early pregnancies, higher rates of school ...

  18. Changing therapeutic geographies of the Iraqi and Syrian wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewachi, O.; Skelton, M.; Nguyen, V.K.; Fouad, F.M.; Ghassan, A.S.; Maasri, Z.; Giacaman, R.

    2014-01-01

    The health consequences of the ongoing US-led war on terror and civil armed conflicts in the Arab world are much more than the collateral damage inflicted on civilians, infrastructure, environment, and health systems. Protracted war and armed conflicts have displaced populations and led to lasting

  19. PENGARUH BAHASA ARAB TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuba Pantu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discover and describe how the Arabic influence on the development of the Indonesian language,  which focused on the influence of the vocabulary,  the influence of the Arabic alphabet and its influences on Indonesian syntax,  as well as to discover how changes are absorbed Arabic vocabulary into Indonesian. The method used in this study is a literature review using the technique of content analysis,  which is a research technique for making inferences that can be replicable,  and valid the data by looking at the context. Sources of data in this study are the books relating to the object of research,  among Indonesian Dictionary and other books. The results showed that the effect of Indonesian Arabic is big enough. This can be seen in the uptake of the Arabic word which ranks third after Dutch and English 1, 495 words. In addition,  the use of Arabic script in Indonesian,  which until now still many books,  both Islamic religious books,  Arabic books,  tales,  literature,  written in Arabic alphabet Malay. Arabic influence on Indonesian syntax can be seen in books or Qur’an translations. The words of the absorption Arabic generally undergo changes in shape,  as adapted to the Indonesian grammar or phonemes. It also changes the meaning,  although the numbers are limited.

  20. Frantic Waiting: NGO Anti-Politics and "Timepass" for Young Syrian Refugees in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin Wagner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Sukarieh and Tannock's political economy of youth approach, this paper explores how Syrian refugee youth is constituted in protracted displacement in Jordan. It investigates a juvenile population often overlooked in Forced Migration Studies, disenfranchised rural Syrians, who fail to develop practices of youthfulness, yet in exile are subjected to alternative productions of youth by the aid sector. Depoliticized NGO youth programming overlooks Syrians' limited access to the labour market and higher education. While educational trainings aim to produce entrepreneurial and citizen refugees, they ultimately contribute to the creation of timepass and precarious lives. This research is grounded in fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork with Syrian refugees in a border town in northern Jordan.

  1. Psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees living in Jordan: systematic review of unpublished needs assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Steel, Zachary; Abo-Hilal, Mohammad; Hassan, Abdul Halim; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian organisations supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan have conducted needs assessments to direct resources appropriately. To present a model of psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees and a peer review of research practices. Academic and grey literature databases, the United Nations Syria Regional Response website, key humanitarian organisation websites and Google were searched for needs assessments with Syrian refugees in Jordan between February 2011 and June 2015. Information directly reporting the views of Syrian refugees regarding psychosocial needs was extracted and a qualitative synthesis was conducted. Respondents reported that psychological distress was exacerbated by both environmental (financial, housing, employment) and psychosocial outcomes (loss of role and social support, inactivity), which are themselves stressors. Need for improvement in research methodology, participatory engagement and ethical reporting was evident. Participatory engagement strategies might help to address identified psychosocial outcomes. More rigorous qualitative methods are required to ensure accuracy of findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  2. War, memories and Little Waterfall; a Syrian village that is no more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of the Syrian war through accounts of conflict, social memories and reconstructed village identities. It looks at the question how memories of home and place are transformed by conflictual mobilities. Since the outbreak of civil war in Syria in March 2011, nine...... and deserted during the Syrian war. This paper reflects on trans-nationalism, social memories and village identities that are influenced by conflictual mobilities. Based on data and video footage collected between 1999 and 2004, complemented by recent filming and interviews with the community members of Little...... million Syrians are displaced. According to the UNHCR, over 3 million have fled to Syria's immediate neighbours Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq while about 6.5 million are internally displaced within Syria. Meanwhile, under 150,000 Syrians have declared asylum in the European countries, while member...

  3. Adapting to the new normal- Educating Syrian refugee children in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    RAND's evaluation of Jordan's Emergency Education Response Programme for Syrian refugee children identified significant successes and longer-term challenges. Key recommendations related to developing medium-term thinking and targeting gendered needs.

  4. Conflict and Care: Israeli Healthcare Providers and Syrian Patients and Caregivers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Savannah S; Lewis, Denise C; Gilbey, Peter; Eisenman, Arie; Schuster, Richard; Seponski, Desiree M

    2016-01-01

    Israel has provided immediate healthcare to Syrian children, civilians and fighters since early 2013 despite being in an official state of war with Syria since 1973. We present qualitative findings from a larger mixed-methods phenomenological study to understand how the geopolitical and social history of Israel and Syria influences healthcare providers and Syrian patient caregivers in northern Israel. Theories of humanization and cognitive dissonance guided this study and frame the beliefs and experiences of healthcare providers who treated wounded Syrians in Israeli hospitals. Findings indicate healthcare providers and Syrian caregivers adjusted their beliefs to allow for positive healthcare experiences. Qualitative analysis revealed two major themes: supportive and hindering systemic elements contributing to the healthcare provider-patient-caregiver relationship. Internal psychological developments, contextual factors, and relational processes influenced humanization of the other within the relationship. This study illuminates unique ethical and humanitarian demands relevant for healthcare workers and those with whom they interact.

  5. The Biography and Contributions of Professor ‘Aun al-Sharif Qasim al-Sudani (Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdul Mun'im Ahmad Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research work emphasizes on the biography,publications and contributions of the Sudanese prominent scholar ‘Aun al-Sharif Qasim who born in the North of Al-Khartoum, the capital of the republic of Sudan in 1933 A.D.He wrote many books in Arabic language and his famous book “A Dictionary of Colloquial Dialect in Sudan” specially deals with the studies on the Sudanese Colloquial Arabic language and its impact on the literary Arabic language.Likewise he wrote in literature and language and enriched his scholastic life with many publications. This research work tries to convey the most important book and to give a short thought on it.

  6. Social Representations of Social Media Users toward Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Ozdemir; Bengi Oner Ozkan

    2017-01-01

    While the Syrian refugees crisis has increasingly continued its effect in both Turkey and other neighboring countries and European countries for more than five years, refugees do not adapt themselves to society in country of asylum, and are exposed to social exclusion. The purpose of the study is to explore social representations of social media users toward Syrian refugees in Turkey with a qualitative approach; because social representations may indicate the problems in the in...

  7. Frequency and outcomes of new patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Hatay province after Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğru, Sibel; Döner, Pınar

    2017-04-01

    It is known that tuberculosis is frequently seen among refugees. Hatay province is one of the cities that substantially expose to migration of refugees after Syrian civil war. In this study, it was aimed to compare frequency of new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and treatment success/cure rates between Turkish and Syrian patients. The study included 211 patients with PTB (178 Turkish and 33 Syrian patients) registered to Hatay Tuberculosis Outpatient Clinic between 2010 and 2013. On the basis of years, number of PTB patients registered was 53 (Turkish/Syrian: 52/1) in 2010, 44 (44/0) in 2011, 41 (39/2) in 2012, and 73 (43/30) in 2013. There were no significant differences between Turkish and Syrian patients regarding age groups, gender, marital status, contact history, smear result, and drug sensitivity assays when treatment success was considered (p>0.05). Directly observed therapy (DOT) rate was higher in patients who achieved successful treatment (97.6% vs. 2.4%; pSyrian patients (63.6% vs. 88.8%; pSyrian patients (30.3% vs. 3.9%; pSyrian and 3 Turkish patients. Although PTB frequency has increased in Hatay province within prior 4 years, treatment success among local population is still within limits established by World Health Organization (WHO). However, the treatment goal could not be achieved when considered together with refugees. To improve treatment success in refugees, implementation of a new national tuberculosis is needed control program in this population. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Whose problem is it anyway? The depiction of Syrian refugee influx in political cartoons

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Özlem; Özdemir, Emrah

    2017-01-01

    Political cartoons demonstrate the Syrian refugee crisis and their influx into bordering and European countries from different perspectives by using both visual and verbal metaphors in a caricaturised way. For this reason, this research aims to reveal how political cartoons represent the perilous journey of Syrian refugees and their families visually and verbally. In this regard, twelve political cartoons were selected randomly from the international political cartoon website cagle.com betwee...

  9. Tradable Refugee-Admission Quotas (TRAQs), the Syrian crisis and the new European agenda on migration

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ-HUERTAS MORAGA, Jesus; RAPOPORT, Hillel

    2015-01-01

    First online: 27 November 2015 The Syrian Civil War gave rise to the largest refugee flight reaching Europe since the Yugoslavian wars in the 1990s. The crisis evidenced the deficiencies of the European Union Asylum Policy, which struggled both to offer solutions to Syrian refugees and to efficiently allocate costs across Member States. We draw on previous theoretical work to simulate how a system of tradable refugee-admission quotas coupled with a matching mechanism assigning refugees to ...

  10. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Labor Market in Neighboring Countries: Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Fakih, Ali; Ibrahim, May

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes time-sensitive data on a humanitarian crisis in the Middle East. It aims to assess the impact of the steep influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan on the country's labor market since the onset of the conflict in Syria (March 2011). As of August 2014, nearly 3 million registered Syrians have sought refuge in neighboring countries (Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Turkey), according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Jordan and Lebanon are hosting the majo...

  11. Turkey's policy toward Syrian refugees: domestic repercussions and the need for international support

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadoun, Souad

    2014-01-01

    Turkey’s humanitarian activities toward Syrian refugees are part and parcel of its overall policy in the Syria conflict. Yet, it has become increasingly clear that the Turkish government has overestimated its capacities, and thus failed to deliver sufficient assistance to Syrian refugees on its territory. At the same time the government’s handling of the refugee issue has led to stark tensions among Turkey’s political and societal forces, as Turkey’s border regions contend with increasing sec...

  12. The Cyber Dimensions of the Syrian Civil War: Implications for Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    gain access to the Haifa municipal water control system, it may have demonstrated a capability to gain control of a SCADA system by using default...Water Supply SCADA System?” 38 Perlroth, “Hunting for Syrian Hackers Chain of Command.” 39 Anupika Khare, “Syrian Electronic Army Hacks Truecaller...attack itself is suspect—screenshots of a water system with Hebrew labels. Examining the images reveals that they are from the SCADA (supervisory

  13. The Impact of Military and Political Situation in Iraq on Syrian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Salum Hossam Eddin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the Syrian position towards the 2003 conflict in Iraq and the impact of the conflict on foreign and domestic Syrian policy. The author reveals the influence of the situation on the process of Middle East settlement, on the plan of Big Middle East building, as well as on U.S. plans on de-escalation of the USA presence in the region.

  14. Nurses' Experiences in a Turkish Internal Medicine Clinic With Syrian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinç, Sibel

    2018-05-01

    The increasing flow of Syrian refugees to Turkey, coupled with their extended stay, highlights the need for culturally competent health care, which includes nursing interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of nurses who provide care for Syrian refugees in internal medicine clinics in a hospital located in Turkey. This descriptive study was based on qualitative content analysis using an inductive approach and involved discovery and description of the data. The study sample consisted of 10 nurses who work at the internal medicine clinic of a State Hospital in Turkey. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Three themes with related subthemes were derived from the data. Nurses who participated in the study experienced: (a) Nurses found communicating with Syrian refugees and their families difficult in the clinic. (b) Nurses observed and experienced differences and similarities in caring for Turkish and Syrian patients. (c) Nurses expressed and displayed compassion toward Syrian refugees during the caring process. In order for nurses to provide the best care for Syrian refugee patients, it is important to identify cultural caring behaviors observed by nurses in the promotion of culturally congruent nursing and health care.

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazour, Francois; Zahreddine, Nada R; Maragel, Michel G; Almustafa, Mustafa A; Soufia, Michel; Haddad, Ramzi; Richa, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Lebanon is the main hosting country for the Syrian crisis, with more than one million Syrian refugees. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and identify its possible predictors, in a sample of Syrian refugees living in camps in Lebanon. We conducted a household survey on Syrian refugees between 18 and 65years old in 6 camps of the Central Bekaa region, using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) as a diagnostic tool. Among the 452 respondents, we found a lifetime prevalence of PTSD of 35.4%, and a point prevalence of 27.2%. The lifetime prevalence of SUD was 1.99% and the point prevalence 0.66%. Multivariate logistic regression could not identify any predictor of current PTSD among a list of demographic variables, but identified the Syrian hometown as a significant predictor of lifetime PTSD (p=.013), with refugees from Aleppo having significantly more PTSD than those coming from Homs (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.28, 3.56], p=.004). PTSD was a real mental health issue in our sample of adult Syrian refugees in Central Bekaa camps, unlike SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Politics of Syrian Refugees in Turkey: A Question of Inclusion and Exclusion through Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Koser Akcapar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey began to receive refugees from Syria in 2011 and has since become the country hosting the highest number of refugees, with more than 3.5 million Syrians and half a million people of other nationalities, mainly from Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran. An important turning point regarding the legal status of Syrian refugees has come with recent amendments to the Turkish citizenship law. Based on ongoing academic debates on integration and citizenship, this article will explore these two concepts in the case of Syrian refugees in Turkey. We will argue that the shift in the Turkish citizenship law is a direct outcome of recent migration flows. We further argue that the citizenship option is used both as a reward for skilled migrants with economic and cultural capital and as a tool to integrate the rest of the Syrians. It also reflects other social, political and demographic concerns of the Turkish government. Using our recent ethnographic study with Syrians and local populations in two main refugee hosting cities in Turkey, Istanbul and Gaziantep, we will locate the successes and weaknesses of this strategy by exemplifying the views of Syrian refugees on gaining Turkish citizenship and the reactions of Turkish nationals.

  17. [Seroprevalance Differences of Toxoplasma Between Syrian Refugees Pregnants and Indigenous Turkish Pregnants in Kahramanmaraş].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Aral, Murat; Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Kireçci, Ahmet; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Bakacak, Zeyneb

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the Syrian refugees and resident Turkish pregnant population in terms of Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Data acquired from Kahramanmaraş Necip Fazıl City Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results of 7201 Toxoplasma IgM tests and 4113 Toxoplasma IgG tests were evaluated. For 2012 and 2013 Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was found in Syrian refugees 4.76% and 4.84% respectively in our study. In the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity rates were 80% and 62.6%, respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity rates for the native peoples in Turkey in 2012 and 2013 was 1.96% and 2.34%, while in the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was detected 49.7% and 45.7% respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was statistically higher in Syrian refugees for each year (p Syrian refugees was statistically higher (p Syrian refugees living in the region of Kahramanmaraş were statistically higher than the rates of local inhabitants, we consider that this condition should be taken into account in the follow-ups of Syrian pregnant refugees outnumbering in Kahramanmaraş and its vicinity.

  18. Syrian refugees, between rocky crisis in Syria and hard inaccessibility to healthcare services in Lebanon and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, Ziad; Scales, David; Vearey, Jo; Forsberg, Birger C

    2013-09-03

    Around 3% of the world's population (n = 214 million people) has crossed international borders for various reasons. Since March 2011, Syria has been going through state of political crisis and instability resulting in an exodus of Syrians to neighbouring countries. More than 1 million Syrian refugees are residents of Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Egypt and North Africa. The international community must step up efforts to support Syrian refugees and their host governments.

  19. Arabic text classification using Polynomial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayy M. Al-Tahrawi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Arabic statistical learning-based text classification system has been developed using Polynomial Neural Networks. Polynomial Networks have been recently applied to English text classification, but they were never used for Arabic text classification. In this research, we investigate the performance of Polynomial Networks in classifying Arabic texts. Experiments are conducted on a widely used Arabic dataset in text classification: Al-Jazeera News dataset. We chose this dataset to enable direct comparisons of the performance of Polynomial Networks classifier versus other well-known classifiers on this dataset in the literature of Arabic text classification. Results of experiments show that Polynomial Networks classifier is a competitive algorithm to the state-of-the-art ones in the field of Arabic text classification.

  20. Guiding Digital and Media Literacy Development in Arab Curricula through Understanding Media Uses of Arab Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…

  1. Studying Arabic as a foreign second language together with Arab heritage language learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhahir, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article reports on my study of the sociocultural-interactive Strategies (SCISs) used by a mixed group of learners of Arabic at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The group consists of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (FLLs) and Arab Heritage Language Learners (AHLLs). FLLs...

  2. How Muslim Arab-Israeli Teachers Conceptualize the Israeli-Arab Conflict in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit; Gamal, Eshan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how Muslim Arab-Israeli teachers conceptualize the Israeli-Arab conflict with their students. The findings show that Arab schools are in a constant state of tension between opposing poles of identity and belonging. The teachers emphasize their students' alienation from the Israeli establishment and their lack…

  3. Arab Maghreb Union: Achievement and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADU1ATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A283 604 THESIS w ’ : ’ ARAB MAGHREB UNION: ACHIEVEMENT AND PROSPECTS by Abderrahmen Messaoudi...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1994 June Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Arab Maghreb Union...release; distribution is unlimited. *A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 wordsj February 17, 1989, witnessed the signing of the Arab Maghreb Union. This union has

  4. The Arab Spring: Causes, Consequences, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-18

    January 16, 2011, linked from Arabic Literature (in English) Home Page, at http://arablit.wordpress.com/2011/01/16/two-translations- of-abu-al-qasim-al...The Arab Spring: Causes, Consequences, and Implications by Lieutenant Colonel El Hassane Aissa Moroccan Army...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Arab Spring: Causes, Consequences, and Implications 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  5. The Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.

  6. ANDRAGOGI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasyim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to get empirical evidence whether there is a significant difference between the class which is taught by andragogy technique and which is taught by conventional technique. This article describes that technique is one of the important factors in conducting Arabic class. This study categorized as an experimental research. The data is collected by giving the test for both experimental and conventional class. The result of the study shows that experimental class which is taught by applying andragogy technique get higher score than the conventional one. Means that Al-Ittihad Islamic Boarding School get higher score than Ulil Albâb. It seems that technique influences the quality of teaching and learning Arabic.DOI: 10.15408/a.v2i1.1512

  7. Energy planning in the Arab world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafei, A.N.

    1979-09-01

    Efficient use of energy is of interest to the energy-surplus regions as well as the energy-deficit regions. Similarly, concern about energy conservation is not confined to the industrially developed regions of the world. This article discusses energy planning from the Arab point of view. A framework for Arab energy modeling is first described. Then the application of a computer model - that of Mesarovic and Pestel - to Arab energy-planning needs is discussed and some of the results are presented. Finally, current priorities in Arab energy-modeling studies are outlined. The Appendix surveys some existing models which address regional and international energy problems.

  8. Implementation of a SenseMaker® research project among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhache, Nour; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Bergquist, Harveen; Davison, Colleen; Bartels, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has displaced over 1.2 million Syrians into Lebanon. As a result of displacement, some Syrian families are turning to child marriage as a coping mechanism. The prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased and the average age of marriage decreased during the crisis. The aim of the project was to understand the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker®. This manuscript explores the process of implementing this novel research tool in a humanitarian setting. Twelve interviewers conducted SenseMaker® interviews with married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents, as well as married and unmarried men. Participants were asked to share a story about the lives of Syrian girls in Lebanon and to self-interpret the narratives by answering follow-up questions in relation to the story provided. Data collection occurred across three locations: Beirut, Beqaa, and Tripoli. In total 1422 narratives from 1346 unique participants were collected over 7 weeks. Data collection using SenseMaker® was efficient, capable of electronically capturing a large volume of quantitative and qualitative data. SenseMaker® limitations from a research perspective include lack of skip logic and inability to adjust font size on the iOS app. SenseMaker® was an efficient mixed methods data collection tool that was well received by participants in a refugee setting in Lebanon. The utility of SenseMaker® for research could be improved by adding skip logic and by being able to adjust font size on the iOS app.

  9. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  10. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  11. PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DI ERA POSMETODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhbib Abdul Wahab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed to answer two essential problems; (1 development map of Arabic learning method from 1990s until today which has been formulated unclearly, and (2 developing Arabic learning in posmethod era by optimilizing teacher’s strategic role in the process of Arabic learning. This article used bibliographic sources from some books and articles in scientific journal about linguistic and Arabic learning. The interpretation data of academician thought and Arabic linguistic experts was done by using historical-critical approach and content analysis for substancial interpretation. B. Kumaravadivelu concept in Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching (2003 which requires teacher to play three essential roles; pasif technician, reflective practician, and transformative intelectual is very inportant in Arabic learning in posmethod era. The principle of at-tharîqatu ahammu min al-mâddah (method is more important than content can be developed to be main principle “spirit, profesionality and strategic role of language educator is more important in teaching Arabic than the method itself”, since basically there is no most appropriate and ideal method for any goals and situation of Arabic learning.DOI: 10.15408/a.v2i1.1519

  12. Industrial zones and Arab industrialization in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Michael; Schnell, Izhak; Drori, Israel

    1996-01-01

    Since the 1970s there has been increased integration of the Arab sector into the Israeli economy. This integration has been characterized by the increase in industrial entrepreneurship in the Arab settlements. Critical to the industrialization process are factors related to the availability of

  13. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation is the official publication of the Arab Society of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation. It publishes original articles pertaining to various aspects of renal medicine, as well as editorials, reviews, case reports, short communications, guidelines and statistical data pertaining ...

  14. ARABIC DIALECT STUDIES, A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOBELMAN, HARVEY; AND OTHERS

    FOUR BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW ARTICLES ON ARABIC DIALECT STUDIES THAT HAD PREVIOUSLY APPEARED WERE CORRECTED AND UPDATED FOR PUBLICATION. THE PURPOSE OF THESE REVISED ARTICLES IS TO PROVIDE THE INTERESTED STUDENT WITH A CAREFULLY EVALUATED LIST OF ALL THE SIGNIFICANT SCHOLARLY WORK PUBLISHED ON ARABIC DIALECTS. THE AUTHORS OF THE ORIGINAL FOUR…

  15. Propionic acidemia in the Arab World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Hatem

    2015-06-15

    The autosomal recessive disease propionic acidemia (PA) is an inborn error of metabolism with highly variable clinical manifestations, caused by a deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) enzyme, due to mutations in either PCCA or PCCB genes, which encode the alpha and beta subunits of the PCC enzyme, respectively. The classical clinical presentation consists of poor feeding, vomiting, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, lethargy, neurological problems, and developmental delay. PA seems to be a prevalent disease in the Arab World. Arab patients with PA seem to have the same classical clinical picture for PA with distinctive associated complications and other diseases. Most of the mutations found in Arab patients seem to be specific to the Arab population, and not observed in other ethnic groups. In this review, I will discuss in details the clinical and molecular profile of Arab patients with PA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Educational Needs of and Barriers Faced by Syrian Refugee Students in Turkey: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hasan; Kaya, Yeliz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the educational status of Syrian refugees in Turkish schools, and the perspectives of teachers and school principals regarding the needs of Syrian refugee students in two inner-city elementary schools in Istanbul, Turkey. A qualitative interpretive case study method was employed. Eight participants (seven…

  17. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges Orion... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  18. The Role of L+ Turkish and English Learning in Resilience: A Case of Syrian Students at Gaziantep University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinkara, Emrah

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated Syrian students' resilience, the ability to bounce back from some form of disaster, disruption, stress, or change. The situation in Syria caused thousands of deaths and millions of refugees, which is the main source of disaster and Syrian students need to recover from this. According to UNHCR, Turkey welcomed around…

  19. Islam and the Arabs in the work of a Maronite scholar in the service of the Catholic church (Abraham Ecchellensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyberger, Bernard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As an expert in Arabic documents in the “Republic of Letters”, Abraham Ecchellensis devoted himself in his work to an attempt at synthesis that was characteristic of his time: he tried to reconcile contemporary scholars’ expectations of specialised knowledge both with his Catholic and controversialist commitments and with his status, in his role as a Maronite, as a spokesman for Arabic and even Muslim culture. Ecchellensis provided the public with translations of Arabic Muslim philosophical and scientific texts which he deemed to have drawn on universal “wisdom”. However, a disinterested curiosity concerning Islam could not be publicly advertised and had to be cloaked in the form of anti-Protestant controversy or Catholic apology. In the work of Ecchellensis this stance was accompanied by an expurgation of all Islamic terminology from the Arabic language and by a recourse to the Christian Arabic literature writen during the first centuries of the Hijra.

    [fr] Expert en documents arabes dans la « République des Lettres », Abraham Ecchellensis se livre dans son oeuvre à un essai de synthèse caractéristique de son temps : il tente de concillier l’attente de connaissances des savants de son temps avec son engagement catholique et controversiste, et avec son identification, en tant que maronite, comme porte-parole de la culture arabe, y compris musulmane. Il fournit au public des traductions de textes philosophiques et scientifiques arabes musulmans qui lui paraissent participer d’une « sagesse » universelle. Mais une curiosité désintéressée pour l’islam ne peut s’afficher : elle doit prendre les formes de la controverse anti-protestante ou de l’apologie catholique. Chez Ecchellensis cette posture s’accompagne d’une expurgation de toute terminologie islamique dans la langue arabe, et d’un recours à la littérature arabe chrétienne élaboré aux premiers siècles de l’Hégire.

  20. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US.ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%.Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  1. The Phonetic Nature of Vowels in Modern Standard Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Mohammad Yahya Bani; Abu-Melhim, Abdel-Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the phonetic nature of vowels in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Although Arabic is a Semitic language, the speech sound system of Arabic is very comprehensive. Data used for this study were elicited from the standard speech of nine informants who are native speakers of Arabic. The researchers used themselves as…

  2. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  3. Supporting Transitions in the Arab World | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting Transitions in the Arab World. The Arab Awakening, which started in Tunisia and swept through Egypt, has triggered profound transformation both within Arab states and in the region. These changes will ultimately shape the nature of state-society relations in the Arab world. This three-year project will help the ...

  4. A study in the lexicographical treatment of Arabic synonyms | Heliel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently three dictionaries of Arabic synonyms were published with the aim of helping Arabic learners, writers and translators. Though Classical Arabic lexicography distinguishes itself in the field of synonymy, Modern Standard Arabic lacks reliable dictionaries in the field and hence the importance of analysing these three ...

  5. Teaching about Arab Americans: What Social Studies Teachers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud

    External influences in the universal culture have significantly affected the image of Arab Americans and their children. Although Arab Americans are less visible than other minorities, the anti-Arab perception in the media makes them more visible in a negative way. Based on an ethnographic study investigating the experiences of Arabic-speaking…

  6. A Content Analysis on the Representation of Syrian Asylum Seekers in the Turkish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Pandır

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a content analysis of the representation of Syrian asylum seekers in the Turkish press. The research sample includes news reports, columns and visuals published in 2014 in five national newspapers with the highest circulation figures (“Hürriyet”, “Sabah”, “Posta”, “Sözcü”, “Zaman”. The article is part of a larger research project, which is funded by TÜBİTAK, investigating the representation of Syrian asylum seekers between 2011 and 2015 in Turkish newspapers. Analysing news texts and columns is widely held in research projects. However, conducting a visual analysis on news photographs is usually overlooked. This study investigates news texts and news photographs together. The study shows that the coverage of Syrian asylum seekers has usually a positive or neutral content. However, the results also point out the ambivalence in the representations of asylum seekers. The representations of Syrian asylum seekers portray these individuals mostly as “poor” people “in need of help” as well as “threats” for social security. These frequently repeated representations and ambivalence show that the representation of Syrian asylum seekers in Turkish newspapers reproduces the stereotypical representation of asylum seekers as defined in international studies.

  7. Heart Disease in Syrian Refugee Children: Experience at Jordan University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ammouri, Iyad; Ayoub, Fares

    2016-01-01

    Since March 2011, an estimated 600,000 Syrian refugees crossed into Jordan, of which 52% were children. Demand for health care is overwhelming. The burden of heart disease in Syrian refugee children is not known. The aim of this study WAS to describe heart disease in Syrian refugee children in terms of diagnoses, presentation, outcome, and funding sources for treatment. From April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2014, data on Syrian refugee children who were referred to the Pediatric Cardiology Department at Jordan University Hospital and were found to have heart disease was recorded. In this study, we describe diagnoses, presentations, complications, and mortality. We discuss therapeutic procedures and their funding sources. Patients were followed until July 31, 2014. In all, 119 children, median age 2 years (6 days to 16 years), were diagnosed with heart disease. At presentation, 37% had failure to thrive, 13% had severe complications, and 32% of cyanotic patients had severe hypoxia with oxygen saturation of Syrian refugee children constitutes a major problem for both patients and health systems of host countries. Late presentation and diagnosis, high rate of complications, suboptimal living conditions, lack of funding, shortage of specialized centers and personnel, and high mortality rates are among the major challenges facing this patient population. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pregnancy outcomes among Syrian refugee and Jordanian women: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, K; Kassab, M; Ali, R; Mohammad, K; Shattnawi, K

    2017-12-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes of Syrian refugee women and Jordanian women. In the past few years, thousands of Syrians fled Syria to neighbouring countries such as Jordan as a result of the continuing conflict in their country. Pregnant refugee women are facing many difficulties that increase the prevalence of antenatal complications. However, there is limited awareness of whether Syrian refugee women have different risks of pregnancy outcomes than Jordanian women. Using a retrospective cohort design, we examined pregnancy outcomes for Syrian refugee (N = 616) and Jordanian women (N = 644) giving birth at two governmental hospital in northern Jordan, between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2014. A checklist of 13 variables was utilized. The primary outcome measures were delivery by Caesarean section, maternal complications, low birthweight (Syrian refugees and Jordan women is a healthcare priority. The findings could guide the planning and development of health policies in Jordan that would help to alleviate the situation regarding refugee populations. Action is required by policy makers, specifically targeting public and primary healthcare services, to address the problem of adequately meeting the needs for antenatal care of this vulnerable population. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  9. Revisiting leishmaniasis in the time of war: the Syrian conflict and the Lebanese outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawieh, Ali; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Jaber, Amani; Berry, Atika; Ghosn, Nada; Bizri, Abdul Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in many worldwide foci including the Middle East. Several outbreaks have occurred in the Middle East over the past decades, mostly related to war-associated population migration. With the start of the Syrian war, the frequency and magnitude of these outbreaks increased alarmingly. We describe the epidemiology of Leishmania infection in Lebanon and the most recent outbreak relevant to the Syrian war. We reviewed all leishmaniasis cases reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and the first quarter of 2014. The demographics and distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon were linked to reports of new Leishmania cases. In total, 1033 new cases of leishmaniasis were reported in 2013 compared to a previous annual number in the range of 0-6 cases. The majority of cases reported in 2013 involved Syrian refugees and their relevant areas of concentration. This new outbreak of leishmaniasis in Lebanon is the first of its kind for more than a decade. The sudden increase in Leishmania cases in Lebanon in 2013 is attributed to the increasing numbers and wide distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. This serves as an example of the risks associated with military conflicts and the ability of communicable diseases to cross borders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Social Media in the ‘Syrian Uprising’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araz Ramazan Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, which is entitled ‘The Role of Social Media in the ‘Syrian Uprising’ aimed to report on survey research conducted  which identify the role of played by social media  in the ‘Syrian Uprising’ Currently social media tools were good mediums of electronic communication among protesters in Syria. Further, it was a vital medium for spreading information such as photos, videos and documents about the revolution for national, regional and international spheres. This paper looked at the impact and relationship between protesters and Syrian people who used social media ,technology and the nature of its role in the ‘Syrian Uprising ‘ as well as the study has made a controversial argument between different views of scholars about the subject and its case. This paper has interviewed 30 protesters inside Syria through a survey. This study, demonstrate the appeal that social media can have both positive and negative points in the ‘Syrian uprising’.

  11. The influence of socioeconomic status on oral health-related quality of life among Syrian children with cleft lip, or palate, or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dak-Albab, Rahaf J; Dashash, Mayssoon A

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among Syrian children with cleft lip, or palate, or both (CL/P). A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Pediatric Dentistry Department, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria from April 2010 to May 2011. After excluding subjects with mental disorders, dumb and/or deaf, as well, 87 cleft-children have completed the Arabic version of the Child Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (COHRQoL, 36-item) that was divided into 4 different domains (Oral Symptoms, Functional Limitations, Emotional Well-Being, Social Well-Being). The SES was measured by 5 questions, and based on those questions, it was divided into 3 categories (high, moderate, low). The chi square test, and ANOVA test were used to perform statistical analysis. Overall, the 4 COHRQoL domains, and each Oral Symptoms, Emotional Well-Being, and Social Well-Being domain separately showed significant differences between cleft-children in different SES levels (p<0.05). Children that belonged to a low level of SES were more worried than the others, and they also have lost more school lessons, and avoided social activities. We found that the decrease of SES can affect negatively the OHRQoL among children with CL/P. Low SES cleft-children may require special psychological and social support.

  12. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    OpenAIRE

    Belal Abuata; Asma Al-Omari

    2015-01-01

    Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to d...

  13. Arab Youth: A Contained Youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Gertel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Young people in the Arab world increasingly have to struggle with economic hardship and difficulties to start their own lives, although the majority is better educated than ever before. The problematic labor market situation combined with weak public schemes to support young careers force large sections of young people to postpone their ambitions to marry. This period of delayed marriage is captured as 'waithood'. I will argue that this term is misleading. Two points of critique apply: The social dimension of waiting exceeds the status of remaining inactive until something expected happens; the ever-changing present continuously generates new realities. Simultaneously uncertainties and insecurities have dramatically expanded since 2011 and further limit livelihood opportunities and future perspectives, particularly of the youth. Young people are hence becoming both, increasingly frustrated and disadvantaged the longer they "wait", and even more dependent on parents and kin networks. This hinders them to develop their personality – they rather have to accommodate with values that are not always suitable to master the present requirements of a globalizing world. In this paper I will inquire, in how far young people of the Arab world have thus to be considered as a “contained youth”.

  14. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M.; Al-Ali, A.; Jubeli, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Groundwater radon data were recorded once every two months from six monitoring sites of the Syrian rift valley during the year 1996. Radon samples were measured from deep artesian wells and from continuously-flowing springs that are distributed along this most active seismic zone in Syria. The available data were integrated with previously measured groundwater radon data from the same stations in order to estimate the range of normal radon fluctuations in the region. The estimation of such range may enable the separation between usual groundwater radon variations from other outliers which may indicate possible tectonic activities or earthquake hazards in the study area. Periodical radon measurements based on two months intervals and long distance between sampling stations does not enable us to trust with high level of confidence the connection between radon values and any possible earth dynamics. Therefore, shorter measuring time with closer monitoring sites are highly recommended to achieve the optimum advantage of such application. (Author). 8 Figs., 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

  15. Enhancing need satisfaction to reduce psychological distress in Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Khabbaz, Farah; Legate, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Becoming a refugee is a potent risk factor for indicators of psychological distress such as depression, generalized stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though research into this vulnerable population has been scant, with even less work focusing on interventions. The current study applied principles from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) to develop and test an intervention aimed at increasing need-satisfying experiences in refugees of Syrian civil unrest. Forty-one refugees who fled Syria during the past 24 months and resettled in Jordan participated in the study and were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or a neutral comparison. The 1-week-long intervention alleviated some of the need frustration likely associated with refugee status, a major aim of the intervention, and also lowered refugees' self-reported symptoms of depression and generalized stress as compared to the comparison condition, though it did not reduce symptoms of PTSD. Discussion focuses on how these findings speak to the universal importance of need satisfaction for mental health, and how need-satisfying experiences can help buffer against the profound stress of being a refugee. Avenues for longer-term or more intensive interventions that may target more severe outcomes of refugee experiences, such as PTSD symptoms, are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. SOME ASPECTS OF THE INTEGRATION OF SYRIAN REFUGEES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bariscil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, Turkey -once a quite uniform country- is home for one of the largest refugees population on Earth. The massive influx of asylum-seekers did not only transform Turkey in terms of ethnic and religious diversity but featured a major challenge and national security issue. After six years of experience as a host country, the Middle Eastern nation is still in the learning phase of a much longer process of amalgamation of ethnic Turks, Kurds and other minorities with Turkish passport and Syrian refugees. In our current paper using a set of diverse sources (analysis, survey, description and fresh news and both quantitative and qualitative approaches, we would like to present a concise governmental policy designed to accommodate better those who are still considered to be special guests of the Turkish nation. This plan has five main steps to be analyzed. Namely, we have to deal with the questions of providing security, material goods, proper education and Turkish language instruction and an opportunity to work and do business. Finally, we would like to underline the fact that the success of this process largely depends on the quality of education of both refugees and Turks in order to better know and accept each other.

  17. Health system resilience: Lebanon and the Syrian refugee crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Kdouh, Ola; Hammoud, Rawan; Hamadeh, Randa; Harb, Hilda; Ammar, Zeina; Atun, Rifat; Christiani, David; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-12-01

    Between 2011 and 2013, the Lebanese population increased by 30% due to the influx of Syrian refugees. While a sudden increase of such magnitude represents a shock to the health system, threatening the continuity of service delivery and destabilizing governance, it also offers a unique opportunity to study resilience of a health system amidst ongoing crisis. We conceptualized resilience as the capacity of a health system to absorb internal or external shocks (for example prevent or contain disease outbreaks and maintain functional health institutions) while sustaining achievements. We explored factors contributing to the resilience of the Lebanese health system, including networking with stakeholders, diversification of the health system, adequate infrastructure and health human resources, a comprehensive communicable disease response and the integration of the refugees within the health system. In studying the case of Lebanon we used input-process-output-outcome approach to assess the resilience of the Lebanese health system. This approach provided us with a holistic view of the health system, as it captured not only the sustained and improved outcomes, but also the inputs and processes leading to them. Our study indicates that the Lebanese health system was resilient as its institutions sustained their performance during the crisis and even improved.

  18. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  19. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-22

    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Our vascular surgery experiences in Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İyad Fansa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, numerous vascular injured patients are admitted to our hospital with gunshot wounds. In this study, patients who admitted our hospital, diagnosed with vascular trauma due to gunshot were evaluated with the respect of injury site, additional injuries, surgical interventions and outcomes. Methods: The study included 58 patients wounded in Syrian war and admitted to our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.09.2014. Results= There were 5.1% (n=3 female and 94.9% (n=55 male patients. Age range is 5-75 years and the average of age was identified as 28.61. In 12.1% (n=7 of patients with extensive tissue defects of the muscle-nerve-bone injury has been identified, despite the vascular interventions in these patients, 8.6% (n=5 of patients, the limb has been amputated. Totally 15.5% (n=9 of 58 operated patients died. Two patients died because of major vascular injury with intra-abdominal organ injuries. In one patient; infection induced sepsis and multi organ failure was detected. Six patients were lost due to hypovolemic shock as a result of late arriving. Conclusion: In patients admitted with gunshot vascular injury arrival time, the presence of additional injuries and the location of injury affect mortality rates.

  1. Health system resilience: Lebanon and the Syrian refugee crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Walid; Kdouh, Ola; Hammoud, Rawan; Hamadeh, Randa; Harb, Hilda; Ammar, Zeina; Atun, Rifat; Christiani, David; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Background Between 2011 and 2013, the Lebanese population increased by 30% due to the influx of Syrian refugees. While a sudden increase of such magnitude represents a shock to the health system, threatening the continuity of service delivery and destabilizing governance, it also offers a unique opportunity to study resilience of a health system amidst ongoing crisis. Methods We conceptualized resilience as the capacity of a health system to absorb internal or external shocks (for example prevent or contain disease outbreaks and maintain functional health institutions) while sustaining achievements. We explored factors contributing to the resilience of the Lebanese health system, including networking with stakeholders, diversification of the health system, adequate infrastructure and health human resources, a comprehensive communicable disease response and the integration of the refugees within the health system. Results In studying the case of Lebanon we used input–process–output–outcome approach to assess the resilience of the Lebanese health system. This approach provided us with a holistic view of the health system, as it captured not only the sustained and improved outcomes, but also the inputs and processes leading to them. Conclusion Our study indicates that the Lebanese health system was resilient as its institutions sustained their performance during the crisis and even improved. PMID:28154758

  2. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2006-10-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites(Al Basset, Lattakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus persicus and Spondylus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus persicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  3. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites (Al Basset, Latakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus gaederopus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus decorus persicus and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus decoruspersicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  4. Representing Migration: Analysis of Media Portrayals of Syrian Migrant Women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhdan Uzun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The media coverage of women migrations has played an important role in shaping public opinion and governmental policies. This article aims at exploring the media portrayals of Syrian Migrant Women in Turkey. For this purpose, the research data were collected from the three Turkish online newspaper websites, Hürriyet, Birgün and Sabah, each of which has different editorial policy in representing migration, during one year period. The findings of quantitative content analysis of the news stories regarding Syrian migrant women would provide an understanding of the gender dimension of migration in Turkey. It concludes that Syrian Migrant Women in Turkey generally are reported on crime news and are framed as victims or perpetrators. However, the newspapers rarely report their hard living conditions.

  5. Voices and visions of Syrian video activists in Aleppo and Raqqa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of Syrian protesters took mobile phones to record the events taking place in front of their eyes, many recorded the bombings and other atrocities as well as countless videos that were uploaded on YouTube by various groups in the conflict, to be exposed to a worldwide audience. This paper...... Syrian video activists and their grassroot video work in Aleppo and Raqqa province. The research methodology is based on on-line visual observation of You Tube clips, original semi-structured interviews with video activists and field visits to Gaziantep in Turkey and Aleppo province in Syria, during...... Summer 2014. The paper provides an audiovisual ethnography and describes the background and life-stories of Syrian video activists and documentary filmmakers, considering their motivations behind on-line video work and looks at the complex relationships between them and the international media covering...

  6. Translating the insomnia severity index into Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Khaled H; Yates, Bernice C

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) into Arabic (Fusha dialect), and obtain preliminary reliability and validity estimates for the translated version. Arabic populations experience sleep problems that interfere with their vitality and quality of life. The ISI was established to screen for insomnia in both clinical and research situations. This study used a descriptive correlational design. The ISI was translated into Arabic using the back-translation method and compared with three other sleep measures: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Vitality Subscale from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36. These measures were administered to 35 healthy Arabic bilingual participants from three community locations. The mean ISI score was 9.2 (SD = 5.8; range 0-20). Internal consistency reliability was 0.84. The correlations between the total ISI score and the single items ranged from 0.49 to 0.92 (p translated ISI demonstrated adequate reliability and validity. The translated ISI needs further testing in a larger sample of both clinical and healthy Arabic populations in their own countries. Preliminary psychometric estimates show that the translated ISI is reliable and valid in this community-dwelling Arabic sample. The translated ISI allows for Arabic researchers to screen for insomnia and plan for future intervention studies. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Quality of diabetes care in Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlie, Helen D; Herman, William H; Brown, Morton B; Hammad, Adnan; Jaber, Linda A

    2008-02-01

    The quality of care received by Arab American patients with type 2 diabetes residing in a city with a large migrant Arab population has not been examined. Arab American adults with a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes were identified in a rigorous cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study conducted in Dearborn, MI. Quality of diabetes care was determined by assessing adherence to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) clinical practice recommendations. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provided data for a national comparison. Among the 53 participants, mean age was 59+/-12 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 11.3+/-13.3 years. The ADA goal for an A1c of Arab American subjects studied were treated less aggressively with pharmacologic agents than recommended by the ADA. 26% of the Arab Americans had an A1c>9.5% as compared to 18% of the national population. Arab Americans generally had worse blood pressure control but better lipid control compared to the national sample. This is the first report of the quality of diabetes care in an Arab American population, and demonstrates sub-optimal quality of care according to the ADA clinical practice recommendations.

  8. Preference for Democracy in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al-Ississ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We take a new look at the question of the Arab democratic exception by looking at the preference for democracy among individuals in the Arab world in a comparative context. We use the new sixth wave of the World Value Survey, which was collected between 2012 and 2013, and which included for the first time 12 Arab countries (up from only four in wave 5 and 68 non-Arab countries. We innovate empirically by measuring the preference for democracy over strong rule in a way that, we argue, is more adapted to an understanding of the Arab world than other measures used in past studies. Our statistical analysis reveals a democratic gap in the Arab region compared to global experience, which is especially marked among the more educated individuals, and to a lesser extent among the youth and the middle class. We conclude by discussing the reasons that may explain the Arab exceptionalism, and argue that it is unlikely to be related to culture alone.

  9. Some comments about the situation of the Steel Industry in the Arab Countries (Arab Steel Summit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Y.; Astier, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Arab Steel Summit, that convened in Abu Dhabi in April, gave us another opportunity to review the situation of the Arab Iron and Steel Industry, with regard to the present World economic context. We will address: - the World situation of steel production, focusing on the Arab Countries; - the related situation of steel consumption; - the steel trade, including imports, exports and prices; - the consequences for technology and economy. (authors)

  10. Saddam Hussein: Portrait of an Arab Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    AD-A240 117 SADDAM HUSSEIN . PORTRAIT OF AN ARAB LEADER A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in...Hussein: Protrait of an Arab Leader 6. AUTHOR(S) Maj Ray T. Bradley, USAF 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...89) j.] SADDAM HUSSEIN PORTRAIT OF AN ARAB LEADER A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and GenprIl qtaff College in parti.i

  11. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...... with the culture. As a preliminary test of this option, the article compares the explicitness of the referring expressions in an American novel, Sula by Toni Morrison, and its Arabic translation, and in this way the article applies Aziz’ method, but instead of going from Arabic to English like Aziz, it goes...

  12. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin

    2008-01-01

    have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...... with the culture. As a preliminary test of this option, the article compares the explicitness of the referring expressions in an American novel, Sula by Toni Morrison, and its Arabic translation, and in this way the article applies Aziz' method, but instead of going from Arabic to English like Aziz, it goes...

  13. Arab-American Literature: Origins and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Suhair Majaj

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Arab-American literature has been in existence in the U.S. for over a century, it has only recently begun to be recognized as part of the ethnic landscape of literary America. However, the last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in publication by Arab-American writers. This literary burgeoning reflects in part the shifting historical, social, and political contexts that have pushed Arab-Americans to the foreground, creating both new spaces for their voices and new urgencies of expression, as well as the flourishing creativity of these writers.

  14. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    with the culture. As a preliminary test of this option, the article compares the explicitness of the referring expressions in an American novel, Sula by Toni Morrison, and its Arabic translation, and in this way the article applies Aziz’ method, but instead of going from Arabic to English like Aziz, it goes...... have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...

  15. Radioactivity and concentration of some trace elements in sponges distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.; Ammar, I.

    2009-07-01

    natural and artificial radionuclides ( 210 Po, 210 Pb, 40 K, 137 Cs, 234 U, 238 U) and concentration of some trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in several types of sponges distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied. The samples were collected from four stations distributed at the Syrian coast (Al-Basset, Lattakia, Banise, Tartous). Concentration factors (CF) for the studied radionuclides and trace elements have been calculated in order to determine the sponges types to be used as biomonitors for the radionuclides and trace elements. (authors)

  16. Adversarial Framing: President Bashar al-Assad’s Depiction of the Armed Syrian Opposition

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Merz

    2014-01-01

    'This paper evaluates how Syrian president Bashar al-Assad is framing his opponents in the context of the Syrian civil war. The question is addressed by conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of 13 interviews he gave to international television news networks and newspapers between March and November 2013. It is found that Al-Assad consequently labels the armed opposition as “terrorists” preponderantly composed of groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda. The “terrorists” are framed as posing a threa...

  17. The authoritarian castling of the Syrian regime: from popular uprising to civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.

  18. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian Petroleum Company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Awad, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the syrian Petroleum Company Oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  19. The Classical and Modern Concept of Unity in Arabic Poem (Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of harmony and unity in the Arabic criticism and poem is of prime concern, which gained the great importance in modern criticism; as various critiques are of the different opinions regarding its existence, significance, applications and concepts even; in both ancient Arabic criticism and modern poetry. The present study will investigate to find out its roots in the ancient Arabic criticism and poetry; and to prove its references in modern Arabic criticism and poetry while indicating how this issue is kept alive by contemporary poets.

  20. PERANAN PEMBELAJARAN MATA KULIAH BAHASA ARAB PADA KEMAMPUAN MENULIS BERBAHASA ARAB BAGI MAHASISWA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA ARAB (PBA ANGKATAN 2009 JURUSAN TARBIYAH STAIN PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Burhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the role of Arabic teaching in increasing academic writing skill of the students of 2009 who were studying at Arabic Teaching Program of STAIN Pekalongan. The result showed that most of them (60% declared not ready to write their minithesis in Arabic. They were not enough well-prepared in Arabic academic writing. Their grades in overall Arabic subject were 68 in range 0 - 100: starting at General Arabic (Arabic I, II, and III; structure (nahwu and Sharf, pronounciation (Qirâ-ah, listening (Istimâ’, speaking (Kalâm, up to writing skill (kitâbah. It verified that student who had a good grade in a lingual subject, like Arabics, is not equal with his language skill, especially in writing skill.

  1. Providing mental health services to Arab Americans: recommendations and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, C D; al-Timimi, N R

    2001-11-01

    Arab Americans are an extremely heterogeneous and frequently misunderstood group whose unique characteristics and cultural heritage have received little attention in the mental health literature. To effectively address the needs of Arab Americans, mental health professionals need to be aware of their own biases and misperceptions regarding Arab Americans, have an accurate understanding of Arab cultural and sociopolitical backgrounds, and be able to identify culturally appropriate interventions for use with Arab American clients. This article reviews common stereotyped beliefs many Americans have about Arab Americans and the negative impact these stereotypes can have on the development of a positive Arab American ethnic identity. It also provides detailed information about the cultural and sociopolitical experiences of Arab Americans and offers specific recommendations for providing culturally relevant mental health services to Arab American clients.

  2. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation.

  3. THE USSR AND THE ARAB EAST,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is concerned with Soviet policy toward the Arab states in what the Soviet Union customarily defines as the Near East -- which includes the UAR, Syria, the two Yemens and the Sudan. (Author)

  4. Arab women continue rights struggle | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-29

    Jan 29, 2013 ... A campaign that won legal recognition for Arab women's citizenship rights in nine jurisdictions is providing inspiration and tactical lessons for women facing growing discrimination across the Middle East.

  5. Arab Customs and Culture. Second Edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Richard A; Glass, Robert G; Gasper, Eberhard; Rizzo, Samuel R; Edsall, Curtis C

    1983-01-01

    .... interests along with international understanding and friendship, it is crucial for American Soldiers operating in the Middle East to have a basic understanding of the Arab people, their customs...

  6. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  7. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    . The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is......This paper deals with the policies and practices employed in the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew at a school belonging to the “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel”. Its focus is on strategies that the school has developed in order to support the acquisition of biliteracy......, that by implementing a curriculum which puts emphasis on the equal presentation and representation of the cultural heritage, religious beliefs, and historical narratives of both communities, equality, understanding, respect, reduction fear & prejudice, would be achieved. The linguistic & cultural goal of bilingualism...

  11. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    . The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is......, that by implementing a curriculum which puts emphasis on the equal presentation and representation of the cultural heritage, religious beliefs, and historical narratives of both communities, equality, understanding, respect, reduction fear & prejudice, would be achieved. The linguistic & cultural goal of bilingualism...... the teaching stuff and the parents population (the Jewish teachers and parents have little or no knowledge of Arabic while the Arab teachers and parents are virtually bilinguals), the absence of bilingual teacher-training programs and lack of bilingual teaching materials production, that have to be addressed...

  12. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. “We are Arabs:” The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women’s Lived Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Mau...

  14. Syllable Structure in Rumthawi Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser N. AlBzour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating some phonological aspects of syllable structure in Rumthawi Arabic, a Levantine variety spoken in the northern region of Jordan. It basically sheds light on the OT constraint interaction that determines the surfacing onsets and codas of syllables in this dialect. The scope of this paper is more specifically confined to examining the optimal candidates that surface when the definite article morpheme is prefixed. It thus proves that OT constraints in RA interact in an interestingly distinctive way that triggers divergence and sometimes convergence with other dialects due to the parametrical ranking of these constraints in this dialect unlike some other dialects. It is hoped that this humble endeavor will give insight to many interested researchers to deeply investigate various phonological aspects of this dialect. Keywords: optimality, syllable structure, onset, coda, epenthesis, constraints, faithfulness, markedness

  15. Legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations in the arab counties a comparative analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baroudy, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the developments taking place in nuclear sciences and technologies during the twentieth century and the resulting increase of useful applications of these technologies, the international efforts aiming at helping different countries to establish nuclear safety systems. This was also increased through the promulgation of legislations that render the practices, which could be accompanied with exposure to ionizing radiations, more safe within a firm legal system that is also backed by promulgating suitable executive regulations. Most Arab countries are keen to promulgate their legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations and protection against their dangers. Those legislations usually get their genesis and provisions from the international recommendations as well as from the general legal system of the country. The present work consists of four chapters. The first chapter deals with the definition of legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations. Chapter two discusses the international trend to promulgate legislations for protection against ionizing radiations. Chapter three includes an analytical comparative study on the legislations that regulates the work with ionizing radiations in the Arab countries. Finally, chapter four deals with the legislations for protection against ionizing radiations in the Arab Republic of Egypt

  16. Automatic Dialect Detection in Arabic Broadcast Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ahmed; Bell, Peter; Renals, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We investigate different approaches for dialect identification in Arabic broadcast speech, using phonetic, lexical features obtained from a speech recognition system, and acoustic features using the i-vector framework. We studied both generative and discriminate classifiers, and we combined these featuresusing a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM).We validated our results on an Arabic/English language identification task, with an accuracy of 100%. We used these features in a binary class...

  17. Automatic Dialect Detection in Arabic Broadcast Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ahmed; Dehak, Najim; Cardinal, Patrick; Khurana, Sameer; Yella, Sree Harsha; Glass, James; Bell, Peter; Renals, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate different approaches for dialect identification in Arabic broadcast speech. These methods are based on phonetic and lexical features obtained from a speech recognition system, and bottleneck features using the i-vector framework. We studied both generative and discriminative classifiers, and we combined these features using a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM). We validated our results on an Arabic/English language identification task, with an accuracy of 1...

  18. Syrian Crisis in the Context of Emerging Multipolar International Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Khodynskaya-Golenischeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into the Syria crisis in the context of emerging multipolar, polycentric system of international relations. The author focuses on Washington's attempts to maintain its dominance in world affairs by any means, by consciously destabilizing political situations in certain countries to weaken them and then act according to the "divide and rule" principle. Syria is no exception. In this context, the author lists methods implied before in a number of specific regions aimed at destabilizing situations in different countries and describes specific objectives that the US and its allies are seeking to achieve thereby. The author also shows how these methods have been used in Syria. At the same the article says that objective trends in the world system, including emergence of new centers of political and economic power and, as a consequence, formation of a democratic multi-dimensional system of international relations, lead to a situation when the methods used by Washington to destabilize internal political situations, cease to work properly. The most powerful levers of political, economic, financial and informational pressure lose their effectiveness. In the case of Syria, the new political realities literally "squeezed" Washington into political and legal sphere, and instead of US bombardment of Syria the world saw an agreement on the destruction of Syrian chemical weapons which was carried out under international community control. It is emphasized that these trends will only be strengthened, and multipolar world order will gradually neutralize new Western attempts to destabilize regions for gaining geopolitical advantage. This in turn gives a chance to create an atmosphere for a process of finding a comprehensive political solution to the crisis in Syria, which Russia is currently making efforts to launch.

  19. Respiratory tract carcinogenesis induced by radionuclides in the Syrian hamister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Thomas, R.G.; Anderson, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    Syrian hamsters were exposed to lung irradiation by various modalities that differed in degree of localization and the fraction of lung exposed. The animals were given alpha emitters under several exposure conditions: intratracheal (IT) instillation of 210 Po and 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 microspheres; inhalation (INH) of 238 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 particles; and/or intravenous (IV) injection of 238 239 PuO 2 -ZrO 2 microspheres. Beta-emitting 147 Pm was also administered; the radionuclide was incorporated into 10 μm diameter ZrO 2 microspheres and deposited in the lungs via the jugular vein. These microspheres lodge quantitatively in the pulmonary capillary bed for the duration of the animal's life span. Total IV Pu microsphere lung burdens have ranged from 0.14 nCi to 484 nCi and the number of spheres from 1500 to 880 000. Pu burdens from inhalation have ranged from 8 nCi to 101 nCi, IT Po burdens from 25 to 122 nCi, and Pm-laden microsphere burdens from 427 to 15 750 nCi. Intratracheal instillation of 210 Po solution gave nearly uniform alpha irradiation of the entire lung, intravenous injection of large numbers of ZrO 2 microspheres laden with 147 Pm gave whole lung exposures to low LET radiation, and IV injection of Pu-microspheres provided a gradation of focal alpha exposures. The Po and Pm exposures were highly tumorigenic, whereas the Pu microspheres produced tumors only when a large fraction of the lung was exposed to large radiation doses. However, Pu-ZrO 2 administered via inhalation was very carcinogenic and resulted in tumor incidences of 50% in some experiments. The IT instillation of Fe 2 O 3 following IV or IT Pu-ZrO 2 microsphere administration dramatically enhanced lung tumor induction

  20. ORIENTALIS DAN PERANANNYA DALAM MEMPELAJARI BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustiar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur'an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x'self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur'an, Al-Hadist, Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  1. Orientalis dan Peranannya dalam Mempelajari Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustiar Agustiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur’an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x’self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur’an, Al- Hadist , Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  2. ORIENTALIS DAN PERANANNYA DALAM MEMPELAJARI BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    = Agustiar =

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur'an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x'self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur'an, Al-Hadist, Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  3. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  4. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  5. Arab Americans in Literature and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Banerjee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hollywood has a long history of stereotyping the Arab. From The Cafe in Cairo to The Siege, this Arab – invariably male – figures as the religious fundamentalist who sees in terrorism the only way to spread Islam over the entire globe. Having said this, this is not to argue either that Hollywood is ideologically corrupt, or that Arab (Americans are the only ethnic group stereotyped in Hollywood's cultural imagination. Yet while Hollywood’s Orientalism, which is actually based on a fascination with ancient Middle Eastern heritage, reflects a stereotypical depiction of everything Arab, Arab American literature can be seen as the other side of this projection or stereotype. Where Hollywood dramatizes, through the busting of ancient statues for the cause of terrorism, the Arab's disregard for his own culture, novels such as Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner and Nada Awar Jarrar's Somewhere, Home set out to preserve precisely a distinct cultural heritage, and go on to celebrate the contemporaneity and complexity of diasporic Afghan and Lebanese experience.

  6. Changing therapeutic geographies of the Iraqi and Syrian wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewachi, Omar; Skelton, Mac; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim; Fouad, Fouad M; Sitta, Ghassan Abu; Maasri, Zeina; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-02-01

    The health consequences of the ongoing US-led war on terror and civil armed conflicts in the Arab world are much more than the collateral damage inflicted on civilians, infrastructure, environment, and health systems. Protracted war and armed conflicts have displaced populations and led to lasting transformations in health and health care. In this report, we analyse the effects of conflicts in Iraq and Syria to show how wars and conflicts have resulted in both the militarisation and regionalisation of health care, conditions that complicate the rebuilding of previously robust national health-care systems. Moreover, we show how historical and transnational frameworks can be used to show the long-term consequences of war and conflict on health and health care. We introduce the concept of therapeutic geographies--defined as the geographic reorganisation of health care within and across borders under conditions of war. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. From the Field: “Teach Syrians how to live here, to communicate, how to exchange information and knowledge”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Horz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Refugees do heavily rely on (social media before and during migration, as the article by Anke Fiedler in this GMJ special issue impressively demonstrates. But what happens after refugees have reached their country of destination? Some become media producers like our interviewee, media and social media activist Monis Bukhari from Syria. He is the founder of Syrisches Haus (Syrian House in Germany, an information platform from and for fellow Syrians who arrived here as refugees. This Facebook group currently has over 132.000 members – a huge part of the Syrian community in Germany. We asked him about his motivation and the goals of Syrisches Haus.

  8. Antithesis and argument in the hymns of Ephrem the Syrian | Botha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reflects research on the semantic structure of antitheses. The thesis being proposed is that the defining quality of antitheses was implemented by the Syrian church father Ephrem as a rhetoric technique to enhance the power of arguments in his hymns. Examples are being investigated to explain the function of ...

  9. Polarity: The theology of anti-Judaism in Ephrem the Syrian's hymns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    century Syrian theologian Ephrem is investigated. This polarity is found to be polemical against the Jews. But since polarity is a constant feature in the work of Ephrem which serves to communicate his theological frame of mind, the question is ...

  10. What Does It Mean to Be Young for Syrian Men Living as Refugees in Cairo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Suerbaum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Syrian young men who fled to Egypt after the uprising in 2011. Their life was affected by the challenges stemming from displacement, such as their confrontation with new responsibilities, unknown vulnerabilities and emotions, liminality and precarity. They suffered from forced displacement in a gender- and age-specific way.

  11. The Views of Syrian Refugees Migrating to Turkey on the Turkish Language and Culture: Kilis Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Nursat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the views of the Syrian refugees migrating to Kilis, Turkey on the Turkish language and culture, as well as the impact of this situation on their daily life. For that purpose, this study was done in accordance with a mixed design, using quantitative and qualitative research methods together. The target population of…

  12. Dimensions of gender-based violence against Syrian refugees in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghida Anani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of the impact of the Syrian crisis indicate high levels of sexual and gender-based violence, with rape, assault, intimate partner violence and survival sex appearing increasingly common. Humanitarian agencies urgently need to work together to address this trend.

  13. Analysis of Leisure Time Activities of Syrian Children in Turkey as an Adaptation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Figen; Aslan, Faith

    2017-01-01

    Leisure is one of the important discussions among immigrants. Leisure time activities also carry importance for migrant children. These activities establish bridge between a migrant's own culture and the new country and help development of a new cultural understanding. Most of the Syrian children currently attend Temporary Education Centers in…

  14. An Analysis of Educational Policies for School-Aged Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the educational policies for Syrian school-aged refugees in Turkey. In this study, we identified the policy priorities for refugees by first examining the theoretical approaches to refugee education and the common problems observed for refugee education in different countries. Using this framework, we…

  15. "The Students Do Not Know Why They Are Here": Education Decision-Making for Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Fares J.; Monaghan, Christine; Yoder, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    This case study, conducted collaboratively between education scholars and education practitioners, describes and analyses the ways in which Syrian refugee teachers and an NGO are developing and implementing non-formal education (NFE) programming in three refugee settlements in Lebanon. Utilising the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in…

  16. Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marc François; Yoon, Jim; Gorelick, Steven M.; Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, hundreds of thousands of refugees have migrated southward to Jordan to escape the Syrian civil war that began in mid-2011. Evaluating impacts of conflict and migration on land use and transboundary water resources in an active war zone remains a challenge. However, spatial and statistical analyses of satellite imagery for the recent period of Syrian refugee mass migration provide evidence of rapid changes in land use, water use, and water management in the Yarmouk–Jordan river watershed shared by Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Conflict and consequent migration caused ∼50% decreases in both irrigated agriculture in Syria and retention of winter rainfall in Syrian dams, which gave rise to unexpected additional stream flow to downstream Jordan during the refugee migration period. Comparing premigration and postmigration periods, Syrian abandonment of irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the stream flow increase, with the other half attributable to recovery from a severe drought. Despite this increase, the Yarmouk River flow into Jordan is still substantially below the volume that was expected by Jordan under the 1953, 1987, and 2001 bilateral agreements with Syria. PMID:27930317

  17. Quality of life of Syrian refugees living in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaddin A. Aziz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the perceived quality of life of Syrian refugees who have entered the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Two hundred and seventy participants residing in refugee camps in the Erbil region in Kurdistan completed the WHOQOL-BREF, which measures Quality of Life (QOL within four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly lower for general population norms on physical health, psychological and environment QOL, and score significantly lower for physical health and psychological QOL for refugees in the Gaza strip. However, respondents in the current sample scored significantly higher on environment QOL compared to refugees in the Gaza strip, and significantly higher on all the QOL domains than those reported for refugees in West Africa. Finally, Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly higher than general population norms for social relationships QOL. The current findings provide the first report of QOL domain scores among Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan camps and suggest that social relationships and environmental QOL circumstances are relatively satisfactory, and that further investigation might be focused on physical and psychological QOL.

  18. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  19. Revisiting leishmaniasis in the time of war: the Syrian conflict and the Lebanese outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alawieh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: This new outbreak of leishmaniasis in Lebanon is the first of its kind for more than a decade. The sudden increase in Leishmania cases in Lebanon in 2013 is attributed to the increasing numbers and wide distribution of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. This serves as an example of the risks associated with military conflicts and the ability of communicable diseases to cross borders.

  20. Temporal organization of feeding in Syrian hamsters with a genetically altered circadian period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Overkamp, GJF; Stirland, JA; Daan, S

    2001-01-01

    The variation in spontaneous meal patterning was studied in three genotypes (tau +/+, tau +/- and tau -/-) of the Syrian hamster with an altered circadian period. Feeding activity was monitored continuously in 13 individuals from each genotype in constant dim light conditions. All three genotypes

  1. Metabolic rate changes proportionally to circadian frequency in tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S; Loudon, ASI; Stirland, AJ; Loudon, Andrew S.I.; Stirland, Anne J.

    1997-01-01

    The tau mutation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) is phenotypically expressed in a period of the circadian rhythm of about 20 h in homozygotes (SS) and about 22 h in heterozygotes (S+). The authors investigate whether this well-defined model for variation in circadian period exhibits

  2. Maternal and pup genotype contribution to growth in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Pen, Ido; Durieux, Geesje C.R.; Daan, Serge

    The single gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster-apart from its effect on the circadian organization of locomotor activity-has a pronounced influence on body weight. In this study we investigate the impact of maternal and pup genotypes at the tau-locus on the growth rate of pups. Homozygous tau

  3. Stimulatory effect of RFRP-3 on the gonadotrophic axis in the male Syrian hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancel, Caroline; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sébert, Marie-Emilie

    2012-01-01

    In seasonal mammals, a distinct photoneuroendocrine circuit that involves the pineal hormone melatonin tightly synchronizes reproduction with seasons. In the Syrian hamster, a seasonal model in which sexual activity is inhibited by short days, we have previously shown that the potent GnRH stimula......In seasonal mammals, a distinct photoneuroendocrine circuit that involves the pineal hormone melatonin tightly synchronizes reproduction with seasons. In the Syrian hamster, a seasonal model in which sexual activity is inhibited by short days, we have previously shown that the potent Gn...... in the Syrian hamster, is strongly down-regulated by melatonin in short days. Because a large body of evidence now indicates that RFamide-related peptide (RFRP)-3, the product of the rfrp gene, is an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion in various mammalian species, we sought to investigate its effect...... on the gonadotrophic axis in the Syrian hamster. We show that acute central injection of RFRP-3 induces c-Fos expression in GnRH neurons and increases LH, FSH, and testosterone secretion. Moreover, chronic central administration of RFRP-3 restores testicular activity and Kiss1 levels in the arcuate nucleus of hamsters...

  4. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines In the Matter of: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7... days the Order Temporarily Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air...

  5. Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marc François; Yoon, Jim; Gorelick, Steven M; Avisse, Nicolas; Tilmant, Amaury

    2016-12-27

    Since 2013, hundreds of thousands of refugees have migrated southward to Jordan to escape the Syrian civil war that began in mid-2011. Evaluating impacts of conflict and migration on land use and transboundary water resources in an active war zone remains a challenge. However, spatial and statistical analyses of satellite imagery for the recent period of Syrian refugee mass migration provide evidence of rapid changes in land use, water use, and water management in the Yarmouk-Jordan river watershed shared by Syria, Jordan, and Israel. Conflict and consequent migration caused ∼50% decreases in both irrigated agriculture in Syria and retention of winter rainfall in Syrian dams, which gave rise to unexpected additional stream flow to downstream Jordan during the refugee migration period. Comparing premigration and postmigration periods, Syrian abandonment of irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the stream flow increase, with the other half attributable to recovery from a severe drought. Despite this increase, the Yarmouk River flow into Jordan is still substantially below the volume that was expected by Jordan under the 1953, 1987, and 2001 bilateral agreements with Syria.

  6. Quality of life of Syrian refugees living in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Izaddin A; Hutchinson, Claire V; Maltby, John

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the perceived quality of life of Syrian refugees who have entered the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Two hundred and seventy participants residing in refugee camps in the Erbil region in Kurdistan completed the WHOQOL-BREF, which measures Quality of Life (QOL) within four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly lower for general population norms on physical health, psychological and environment QOL, and score significantly lower for physical health and psychological QOL for refugees in the Gaza strip. However, respondents in the current sample scored significantly higher on environment QOL compared to refugees in the Gaza strip, and significantly higher on all the QOL domains than those reported for refugees in West Africa. Finally, Syrian refugees in Kurdistan scored significantly higher than general population norms for social relationships QOL. The current findings provide the first report of QOL domain scores among Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan camps and suggest that social relationships and environmental QOL circumstances are relatively satisfactory, and that further investigation might be focused on physical and psychological QOL.

  7. Evaluation of skeletal and dentoalveolar components in Syrian females with a gummy smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Hayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the dentoalveolar and skeletal components contributing to a gummy smile (G.S. in Syrian females. Materials and Methods: The G.S. group included 20 Syrian females, with an average age of 21.9 ± 3.9 years and a clinically diagnosed G.S. The control group included 20 Syrian females, with an average age of 22.05 ± 2.87 years and an acceptable smile. All subjects had Class I molar and canine relationships. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of all subjects were taken under similar conditions. Total cephalometric parameters measured included 11 angular measurements, 12 linear measurements and 7 ratios between the linear measurements. Results: Statistically significant increases in the total anterior facial height, lower anterior facial height, dentoalveolar heights and facial diversion angles were observed in the G.S. group as opposed to the control group. Conclusion: There was an obvious role played by the skeletal and dentoalveolar components in occurrence of a G.S. in Syrian females and these must be considered during orthodontic treatment planning.

  8. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  9. Evaluation of the Emergency Education Response for Syrian Refugee Children and Host Communities in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Education Response Programme (EER), launched by UNICEF, the Government of Jordan and partners in 2012, aims to provide free public formal education, as well as safe and appropriate supportive educational services, for Syrian refugee children living in Jordan. RAND's evaluation

  10. The precision of circadian clocks : Assessment and analysis in Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, S; Oklejewicz, M

    2003-01-01

    Locomotor activity recordings of Syrian hamsters were systematically analyzed to estimate the precision of the overt circadian activity rhythm in constant darkness. Phase variation, i.e., the standard deviation of phase markers around the regression line, varied with the definition of phase.

  11. Causes and consequences of Canada’s resettlement of Syrian refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Bélanger McMurdo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of February 2016, Canada had fulfilled its promise to resettle 25,000 Syrian refugees. However, this initiative has put a considerable strain on the settlement services that refugees receive after arrival, and raises questions about fair treatment for other refugees.

  12. Social identity continuity and mental health among Syrian refugees in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Çelebi, Elif; Acartürk, Ceren; Onkun, Samed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building upon social psychological work on social identity and mental health, this study among Syrian refugees in Turkey examined the importance of multiple group memberships and identity continuity for mental health and well-being. Method: A survey study was conducted among the very

  13. Identity and Christian-Muslim interaction : medieval art of the Syrian Orthodox from the Mosul area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, Bas

    2010-01-01

    As elsewhere in the Middle East, the Mosul area witnessed a flourishing of Christian art during the thirteenth century. Discussing both art-historical and written sources, this book examines the role of art in expressing the identity of Mosul’s Syrian Orthodox community, and explores the

  14. Identity, Investment and Language Learning Strategies of Two Syrian Students in Syria and Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, Anas

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal phenomenographic inquiry into understanding how two postgraduate Syrian students' ways of approaching English language learning in their homelands influenced the shape of their personal study abroad goals, language strategy use and L2 identity. It is guided by Norton's [(2013). "Identity and language…

  15. 78 FR 36211 - Extension of Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Security (DHS) took action to provide temporary relief to F-1 nonimmigrant students whose country of... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [DHS Docket No. ICEB-2013-0001] RIN 1653-ZA05 Extension of Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe Economic Hardship as a...

  16. Temporal organisation of hibernation in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Daan, S; Strijkstra, AM; Heldmaier, G.

    The temporal pattern of hibernation was studied in three genotypes of Syrian hamsters with different circadian periodicity to assess a potential circadian control of alternating torpor and euthermy. We recorded the pattern of hibernation by measuring activity in continuous dim light and constant

  17. Music in the Syrian city of Ebla in the late third millennium B.C.*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.

    2012-01-01

    Musicians and musical instruments in the (bilingual Sumero-Akkadian) lexical and administrative texts from the Syrian city of Ebla (± 2300 B.C.) with occasional reference to the musical instruments of the city of Mari (±1750 B.C.)

  18. The evolution of Arabic(s): Making the Idiom speak for the Deme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite its rather shallow origin, Arabic forms the largest group of extant Semitic languages and one of the most geographically widespread languages of the world. The current distribution of its linguistic variants is the product of a phylogeography of the populations that spoke them, and Arabic dialects have captured in their ...

  19. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  20. Personality Traits of Minority Arab Teachers in the Arab Educational System in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hussain, Jamal; Abu Hussain, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The present research examined the personality traits prevalent among Arab teachers as a minority in the Arab educational system in Israel. Personality traits has much significance in the prediction of human behavior in various situations. Personality traits affect a person's behavior. Usually personality traits do not change, and they are…

  1. BEGINNING ARABIC, A LINGUISTIC APPROACH--FROM CULTIVATED CAIRENE TO FORMAL LITERARY ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREIS, NAGUIB; HANNA, SAMI A.

    WRITTEN FOR THE LINGUISTICALLY-ORIENTED STUDENT, THIS NINE-UNIT TEXT PRESENTS A CAREFULLY STRUCTURED INTRODUCTION TO THE ARABIC LANGUAGE. THE CONTENT MOVES FROM SOUNDS TO LETTERS, FROM SPOKEN PATTERNS TO WRITTEN FORMS, AND FROM FAMILIAR TO FORMAL STYLE. PREFACING THE LESSON UNITS ARE INTRODUCTORY NOTES ON THE ARABIC LANGUAGE AND THE STRUCTURAL AND…

  2. Etudes de linguistique semitique et arabe (Studies of Semitic and Arabic Linguistics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    Various aspects of Arabic and Semitic linguistics are discussed in this text. The nine chapters include: (1) fundamental Semitic vocabulary and the classification of southern dialects; (2) observations on nominal derivation by affixation in several Semitic languages; (3) an automatic analysis of literary Arabic; (4) "Addad" and…

  3. ARABIC PROGRAM ON COT KALA LANGSA STREAMING RADIO SEBAGAI STRATEGI BARU PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiauddin Dhiauddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means learn to communicate. The goal of learning Arabic by using communicative approach is to stimulate the student to be able to master both receptive and productive skill. Receptive skills includes listening and reading skill, while productive skills includes speaking and writing skills. The objective of this study is to describe the streaming radio as a strategy in Arabic learning for the student of Arabic Department at Cot Kala Langsa State Islamic Institute. The result at the study shows that the streaming radio strategy gives a good response in conducting the Arabic class. Means that streaming radio can enhance the quality of teaching and learning Arabic at this institute.DOI: 10.15408/a.v2i1.1480

  4. Arab gene geography: From population diversities to personalized medical genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O.; Sastry, Konduru S.; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic disorders are not equally distributed over the geography of the Arab region. While a number of disorders have a wide geographical presence encompassing 10 or more Arab countries, almost half of these disorders occur in a single Arab country or population. Nearly, one-third of the genetic disorders in Arabs result from congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, which are also responsible for a significant proportion of neonatal and perinatal deaths in Arab populations. Strikingly, about two-thirds of these diseases in Arab patients follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. High fertility rates together with increased consanguineous marriages, generally noticed in Arab populations, tend to increase the rates of genetic and congenital abnormalities. Many of the nearly 500 genes studied in Arab people revealed striking spectra of heterogeneity with many novel and rare mutations causing large arrays of clinical outcomes. In this review we provided an overview of Arab gene geography, and various genetic abnormalities in Arab populations, including disorders of blood, metabolic, circulatory and neoplasm, and also discussed their associated molecules or genes responsible for the cause of these disorders. Although studying Arab-specific genetic disorders resulted in a high value knowledge base, approximately 35% of genetic diseases in Arabs do not have a defined molecular etiology. This is a clear indication that comprehensive research is required in this area to understand the molecular pathologies causing diseases in Arab populations. PMID:25780794

  5. Being a neighbor to Syria: a retrospective analysis of patients brought to our clinic for cranial gunshot wounds in the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, M; Altaş, M; Yilmaz, A; Serarslan, Y; Yilmaz, N; Yengil, E; Urfali, B

    2014-10-01

    Toward the end of 2010, the Arab spring, the waves of revolutionary demonstrations and protests influenced also Syria, where violent clashes turned into a civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people became refugees. The use of excessive force unfortunately culminated in numerous deaths and injuries in many cities. Being the closest city to Aleppo, Damascus and Homs, the biggest cities of Syria, Antioch/Hatay has been the city where initial emergency treatments were performed. For this reason, we examined and retrospectively analyzed the medical records of the patients treated in the clinics of our hospital due to cranial gunshot wounds during the war. The medical records of 186 patients who were injured in the Syrian War and brought to, followed up and treated in the Neurosurgery Clinic of Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine in Hatay, a Turkish city on the Syrian border, between April 2011 and June 2013. A total of 186 patients were evaluated in a period of more than 2 years. Of all 91.4% of the patients were adults (male/female: 152/18) and 8.6% of them were pediatric patients (male/female: 14/2). The average age of the patients was 31 years, with an age range of between 2 months and 67 years. According to Glasgow coma score (GCS) of the patients at the time of admission, GCS was 3 in 32 patients (17.2%), between 4 and 7 in 70 patients (37.6%), and between 8 and 15 in 84 patients (45.1%). We observed that the patients with GCS of 4-7 had a significantly lower mortality among the 56 patients treated surgically compared with the 14 patients treated medically. Cranial gunshot wounds are responsible for high mortality and morbidity. A multiplicity of factors plays a role on morbidity and mortality. These are the duration of transport, the injury pattern, the velocities of the weapons used, and the Glasgow Coma Scales of the patients at the time of admission. The authors recommend that the patients with cranial gunshot wounds who has GCS of 4-7 should be

  6. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Al Ward, Nada; Burton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9%) of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6%) and NGO/charity (16.6%) sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD), excluding cost of medications. Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  7. A qualitative study exploring child marriage practices among Syrian conflict-affected populations in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtada, Rima; Schlecht, Jennifer; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that child marriage among Syrians may be increasing as a result of displacement and conflict. This study sought to gather qualitative data about the factors that promote child marriage practices among Syrian refugees in Al Marj area in the Bekaa valley, Lebanon, where the majority of Syrian refugees have settled in Lebanon. The second aim of this study was to generate recommendations on how to mitigate the drivers and consequences of child marriage practices based on the findings. Eight focus group discussions were conducted separately with married and unmarried young women and mothers and fathers of married and unmarried women. Furthermore, researchers conducted 11 key informant interviews with service providers and stakeholders to understand how conflict and displacement influenced marriage practices of Syrian refugees in Al Marj community. Although child marriage was a common practice in pre-conflict Syria, new factors seem to contribute to a higher risk of child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Respondents cited conflict- and displacement-related safety issues and feeling of insecurity, the worsening of economic conditions, and disrupted education for adolescent women as driving factors. Service providers, young women, and parents also reported changes in some marriage practices, including a shorter engagement period, lower bride price, change in cousin marriage practices, and a reduced age at marriage. Recommendations for interventions to mitigate the drivers of child marriage and its negative consequences should be built on a clear understanding of the local refugee context and the drivers of child marriage in refugee settings. Interventions should involve multiple stakeholders, they should be adjusted to target each specific context, age group and marital status. For these interventions to be effective, they should be addressed concurrently, and they should be delivered in a culturally sensitive and practical manner.

  8. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Doocy

    Full Text Available The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings.A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households.Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9% of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6% and NGO/charity (16.6% sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD, excluding cost of medications.Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  9. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  10. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation: About this journal. Journal Home > Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Marked vs. Unmarked Structures in Modern Written Arabic (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalji, Abdel-Majid I.

    1986-01-01

    Considers marked and unmarked structures in modern Arabic in terms of defending a basic unmarked structure which carries the least presuppositional background to which other surface orders can be related and a lexical treatment of number in Arabic. (CB)

  14. Maternal Programming of Body Weight in Syrian Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Jeremy M; Schneider, Jill E; Rhinehart, Erin

    2017-12-01

    Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring. Few previous studies have used a lower level of food restriction, and no experiments, to the best of our knowledge, were designed to determine whether the effects of gestational restriction have postgestational effects independent of the effects that occurred during gestation. In the present experiment, Syrian hamsters were either restricted to 90% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum during pregnancy. All litters were cross-fostered at birth and all were fed ad libitum during lactation. Half of the litters from ad libitum-fed pregnant dams were fostered to dams that had been food restricted during pregnancy and half of the litters from food-restricted pregnant dams were fostered to ad libitum-fed dams. The latter group allowed us to test the hypothesis that the effects of having a gestationally food-restricted mother affects offspring characteristics independent of the prenatal programming. First, we found significant increases in the postnatal body weight of the offspring of ad libitum-fed mothers fostered to food-restricted dams, supporting the hypothesis that the effects of gestational restriction carry over to postnatal maternal ability (e.g., milk yield, milk content, or parental behavior). Second, the carry-over effects of gestational food restriction on offspring postnatal body weight were

  15. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ostrand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international

  16. the Arab boycott of Israel: economic political warfare against Israel.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilat, Eliyau Zeev

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the effectiveness of the Arab Boycott of Israel from an economic and a political perspective. This study covers the Arab boycott from 1946 until 1990. It demonstrates that economically and politically, the Arab boycott had three distinct phases. The first of these was the period from the declaration of the Arab boycott in 1946 until the 1973 War. The second phase took place between the 1973 War...

  17. Greek, Indian and Arabic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2004-01-01

    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...

  18. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  19. Making sense of child, early and forced marriage among Syrian refugee girls: a mixed methods study in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan Andrea; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Kilzar, Lama; Bergquist, Harveen; Bakhache, Nour; Davison, Colleen; Bunting, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The Syrian conflict has resulted in over 2.3 million child refugees in the Middle East and the prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased among displaced Syrian families. This study explores the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the goal of informing community-based strategies to address the issue. Methods In July–August 2016, trained interviewers collected self-interpreted stories in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge’s SenseMaker, a mixed-method data collection tool. Participants included married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents as well as married and unmarried men. Each participant shared a story about the experiences of Syrian girls and then interpreted the story by plotting their perspectives on a variety of questions. Patterns in the responses were analysed in SPSS and the accompanying qualitative narratives were reviewed to facilitate interpretation of the quantitative results. Results 1422 self-interpreted stories from 1346 unique participants were collected with 40% of shared stories focused on (n=332) or mentioning (n=245) child marriage. Quantitative data summarised the different perspectives of female and male participants. Syrian girls and mothers were more likely to share stories about protection/security and/or education and were more likely to report that girls were overprotected. Male participants were more likely to share stories about financial security as well as sexual exploitation of girls and more often reported that girls were not protected enough. Despite these gendered perspectives, many of the shared narratives highlighted similar themes of financial hardship, lack of educational opportunities and safety concerns around sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Conclusions A complex myriad of factors contribute to early marriage including poverty, lack of educational opportunities and concerns about SGBV. Sexual exploitation under the guise of marriage

  20. [BACTERIA WITHOUT BORDERS: A HIGH CARRIAGE RATE OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA AMONG SYRIAN CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED IN GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour Kassem, Diana; Shahar, Naama; Ocampo, Smadar; Bader, Tarif; Zonis, Zeev; Glikman, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    As the civil war in Syria enters its fifth year, the Israeli government continues to provide humanitarian aid to Syrian civilians in Israeli hospitals. Many wounded Syrian children are treated at the Galilee Medical Center (GMC). Due to the patients' incomplete medical history and increasing infection rates in Syria, contact isolation and screening cultures for multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR's) are conducted upon admission for all Syrian children. To describe the rate of MDR carriage in Syrian children and compare it to hospitalized Israeli children. Prospective collection of screening culture data of Syrian patients admitted to GMC between 6/2013-11/2014 and comparison with Israeli children admitted between 1-3/2014. Extended-spectrum beta- lactamase-producing Enterobateriaceae (ESBL), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were considered MDR's. Of 47 pediatric Syrian patients, 41 were severely wounded. MDR's were found in 37 (79%) children; most of the isolates were ESBL+ Escherichia coli. Over half of the ESBL's were resistant to additional antibiotics such as sulfa and quinolones; no resistance to amikacin was found. In comparison, in 6 of 40 (15%) Israeli children, MDR's (all ESBL's) were found (pSyrian children, contact isolation and screening cultures for MDR's have an important role in the prevention of nosocomial transmission and establishment of empiric antimicrobial protocols. In suspected infections in Syrian children, amikacin and carbapenems are the antimicrobials of choice. MDR's are carried to a lesser extent in Israeli children but due to their importance, further largescale research is needed.

  1. Making sense of child, early and forced marriage among Syrian refugee girls: a mixed methods study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan Andrea; Michael, Saja; Roupetz, Sophie; Garbern, Stephanie; Kilzar, Lama; Bergquist, Harveen; Bakhache, Nour; Davison, Colleen; Bunting, Annie

    2018-01-01

    The Syrian conflict has resulted in over 2.3 million child refugees in the Middle East and the prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased among displaced Syrian families. This study explores the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the goal of informing community-based strategies to address the issue. In July-August 2016, trained interviewers collected self-interpreted stories in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker, a mixed-method data collection tool. Participants included married and unmarried Syrian girls, Syrian parents as well as married and unmarried men. Each participant shared a story about the experiences of Syrian girls and then interpreted the story by plotting their perspectives on a variety of questions. Patterns in the responses were analysed in SPSS and the accompanying qualitative narratives were reviewed to facilitate interpretation of the quantitative results. 1422 self-interpreted stories from 1346 unique participants were collected with 40% of shared stories focused on (n=332) or mentioning (n=245) child marriage. Quantitative data summarised the different perspectives of female and male participants. Syrian girls and mothers were more likely to share stories about protection/security and/or education and were more likely to report that girls were overprotected. Male participants were more likely to share stories about financial security as well as sexual exploitation of girls and more often reported that girls were not protected enough. Despite these gendered perspectives, many of the shared narratives highlighted similar themes of financial hardship, lack of educational opportunities and safety concerns around sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). A complex myriad of factors contribute to early marriage including poverty, lack of educational opportunities and concerns about SGBV. Sexual exploitation under the guise of marriage is a reality for some Syrian girls. Gender

  2. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ali Mahmoud T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.

  3. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O; Nair, Pratibha; Obeid, Tasneem; Al Ali, Mahmoud T; Al Khaja, Najib; Hamamy, Hanan A

    2009-01-01

    Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA) database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity. PMID:19811666

  4. Arab ESL Secondary School Students’ Spelling Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Mohammad Saeed Al-Sobhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available English spelling has always been described by many language researchers and teachers as a daunting task especially for learners whose first language is not English. Accordingly, Arab ESL learners commit serious errors when they spell out English words. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the types as well as the causes of spelling errors made by Arab ESL secondary school students. In order to collect the data, a fifty-word standardised spelling test was administered to seventy Arab student participants. The students’ types of spelling errors were detected, analysed and then categorised according to Cook’s (1999 classification of errors namely substitution, omission, insertion and transposition. In total, 2,873 spelling errors of various categories were identified. The study findings revealed that errors of substitution constituted the highest percentage of the students’ type of errors. In addition, the study indicated that the main causes of the students’ spelling errors were possibly attributed to the anomalous nature of the English spelling system, the Arab students’ lack of awareness of English spelling rules as well as L1 interference. Despite being conducted in an ESL context, the study was almost consistent with the findings indicated by other studies which were carried out in many Arabic EFL context. The findings suggest that spelling instruction should be emphasised while teaching English and should also be integrated with the skills and subskills of reading, writing, pronunciation and vocabulary in order to develop the students’ spelling accuracy.

  5. The Soviet Union and Iraq Since 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    the United Arab Republic. Both the present day Iraqi and Syrian Ba’th parties maintain the fiction that there is a single, overarching Ba’th National...the Kurds seem to be the bfte noire of the army. This attitude distinguishes military hardliners from their civilian counterparts. There is no

  6. Early Childhood Development and Social Integration: The Mediterranean Experience. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Nico; Wazir, Rekha

    This paper explores early childhood education (ECD) and social integration within a common framework and against the backdrop of experience gained in these fields in the following 12 Mediterranean nations: Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Turkey. The paper notes that…

  7. Health issues in the Arab American community. Arab Americans in publicly financed substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Koch, Alison L

    2007-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of Arab Americans receiving treatment and to compare them with individuals of other ethnic groups. We used admission data (FY2005) for Michigan publicly funded substance abuse treatment (N=69,989). Arab American ethnicity (n=224 or 0.3% of admissions) was defined by codes for race, ethnicities or primary language of Arabic (n=21). Other ethnicities examined were American Indian, Hispanic, African American, and White. The number of Arab American admissions was lower than expected for the population (RR=0.25). Admissions were concentrated (81%) in metropolitan Detroit as is the community (82%, RR=.99), unlike other ethnicities. Primary drugs of abuse were alcohol (34.8%), marijuana (17.9%), heroin (17.4%) and crack cocaine (15.6%). Mean duration of use (11.2 yrs) was significantly lower than for other ethnicities. Arab American admissions were predominately male (76.3%), unemployed (62.1%) and with criminal justice involvement (58%), similar to other ethnicities. Using administrative database has its limits and may misclassify ethnicities. Based upon the available data, it appears that Arab Americans accounted for a small percentage of admissions to publicly funded substance abuse treatment in Michigan. Most of the admissions listed English as the primary language, raising concern that language may be a barrier to entry. Admission profiles were generally similar across ethnicities, except that Arab Americans were entering treatment after shorter duration of use. These data can inform development of treatment programs and outreach efforts.

  8. Morphological structure in the Arabic mental lexicon: Parallels between standard and dialectal Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2013-12-01

    The Arabic language is acquired by its native speakers both as a regional spoken Arabic dialect, acquired in early childhood as a first language, and as the more formal variety known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), typically acquired later in childhood. These varieties of Arabic show a range of linguistic similarities and differences. Since previous psycholinguistic research in Arabic has primarily used MSA, it remains to be established whether the same cognitive properties hold for the dialects. Here we focus on the morphological level, and ask whether roots and word patterns play similar or different roles in MSA and in the regional dialect known as Southern Tunisian Arabic (STA). In two intra-modal auditory-auditory priming experiments, we found similar results with strong priming effects for roots and patterns in both varieties. Despite differences in the timing and nature of the acquisition of MSA and STA, root and word pattern priming was clearly distinguishable from form-based and semantic-based priming in both varieties. The implication of these results for theories of Arabic diglossia and theories of morphological processing are discussed.

  9. Security Sector Reform in the Arab Region | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governance reform is impossible in most Arab states, however, without addressing the sensitive issue of security sector reform. ... Le Rapport sur le développement humain dans le monde arabe 2002 souligne un " déficit en matière de libertés " fondamental dans le monde arabe se traduisant dans toute la région par des.

  10. An Arabic creole in Africa : the Nubi language of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner

    2003-01-01

    At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble

  11. Morphology and Spelling in Arabic: Development and Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, two experiments were carried out: the first tested the development of derivational root and word-pattern morphological awareness in Arabic; the second tested morphological processing in Arabic spelling. 143 Arabic native speaking children with normal reading skills in 2nd, 4th and 6th grade participated in the study. The…

  12. Development and Evaluation of the Arabic Filial Piety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the validity and reliability of a new Arabic Filial Piety scale (AFPS) for use with informal Arab caregivers. Background: Filial piety, a term used to describe a set of family values in relation to parental care. This is the first measure of this construct for use with Arab populations in Israel. Method: A random sample of…

  13. Educating the Arab American Child: Implications for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud F.

    This article presents relevant information about Arab American children as a guide for multicultural teachers. Given the alarming impact of cultural conditioning in American society, the previously invisible Arab Americans and their children have become visible in a negative way. Current cultural conditioning does not allow Arabs to see themselves…

  14. Building Arab Americans' Cultural Identity and Acceptance with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Bucher, Katherine T.

    2008-01-01

    Literature can help children develop their own cultural identity, as it helps them understand and appreciate the culture of others. Research shows that in elementary schools some Arab American students are not exposed to stories that represent their culture. In addition, many teachers are not familiar with literature about Arabs or Arab Americans.…

  15. At Risk of Prejudice: The Arab American Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikaly, Zeina Azzam

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the stereotypes associated with Arab Americans. States that these stereotypes must be abandoned to stop prejudice against their community. Provides background information on Arab Americans. Discusses the role that educators and counselors have in helping Arab American students deal with prejudice against them. Includes resources on…

  16. Arab American Students in Public Schools. ERIC Digest, Number 142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews ways to provide Arab Americans with a supportive school environment and all students with an accurate and unbiased education about the Middle East. The school climate will make Arab American students feel more welcome if Arab culture is included in multicultural courses and activities, and if the staff works to eliminate…

  17. Attitudes of Arab Americans toward Persons with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative cross-sectional study examines the overall attitudes of a sample of Arab Americans toward persons with disabilities. A convenience sample of 372 Arab Americans was recruited from various not-for-profit Arab organizations within 30 States. Participants in the study completed an online self-administered (Qualtrics) survey that…

  18. Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and Displacement. The past century has witnessed disruptions in Middle Eastern politics, economics, religion and society that have taken their toll on Arab families and youth. Yet despite the centrality of family and youth in Arab society, there exists little scientific ...

  19. Practical EFL Techniques for Teaching Arabic-Speaking Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorkey, Richard

    This paper first explains the diversity of the Arab World, the unifying force of Classical Arabic, and that Modern Standard Arabic, less complicated in structure and less ornate in rhetoric, is sufficiently Different from colloquial dialects to require considerable instruction in schools. For contrastive analysis to be useful as a basis for EFL…

  20. Do Syrian refugees have increased risk for worser pregnancy outcomes? Results of a tertiary center in İstanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Emre Sinan; Seval, Olcay; İlhan, Gülşah; Verit, Fatma Ferda

    2018-03-01

    To compare obstetric and perinatal outcomes of Syrian refugee pregnants and Turkish counterparts who gave birth at a tertiary center in İstanbul. A retrospective study including the birth records of 704 Syrian refugees and 744 Turkish pregnant women between January 2016 and May 2017 were analyzed. Demographic data, obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes and cesarean rates between the groups. The secondary outcomes were the use of antenatal vitamin supplementation, hemoglobin-hematocrit values, and maternal complications. Our results showed that the use of folic acid and iron supplementation rates during pregnancy were similar between the groups (folic acid supplementation 8.1% vs 6.5%, p=0.264; iron supplementation 20.7% vs 19.6%, p=0.125; respectively for Turkish women and Syrian refugees). Cesarean rates were significantly higher for Turkish patients than in Syrian refugees (42.7% vs 32.7%; pyrian refugees (37.7±2.3 vs 36.4±2.3 weeks, pyrian refugees, respectively, p=0.105). Although obstetric complications were seen more often in Syrian refugees, it did not reach statistical difference (9.7% vs 8.1%, respectively, p=0.285). Syrian refugees use antenatal vitamin supplementations at similar rates to Turkish citizens and obstetric and perinatal outcomes are similar between the groups.

  1. Studying Arabic as a foreign second language together with Arab heritage language learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhahir, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article reports on my study of the sociocultural-interactive Strategies (SCISs) used by a mixed group of learners of Arabic at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The group consists of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (FLLs) and Arab Heritage Language Learners (AHLLs). FLLs...... questionnaire and qualitative (interviews). The major findings of the study was that the group follows the general patterns of SCISs, to ask, cooperate and communicate, and that AHLLs’ presence only partially increases and promotes the opportunities of sociocultural interaction in the learning environment....

  2. Maternal Health Care Utilization Among Syrian Refugees in Lebanon and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Burton, Ann; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-09-01

    Purpose The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan and Lebanon over the last 5 years presents an immense burden to national health systems. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of maternal health services among Syrian refugees in both countries. Description A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugees living in urban and rural (non-camp) settings was conducted using a two-stage cluster survey design with probability proportional to size sampling in 2014-2015. Eighty-six percent of surveyed households in Lebanon and 88% of surveyed households in Jordan included women with a live birth in the last year. Information from women in this sub-set of households was analyzed to understand antenatal and intrapartum health service utilization. Assessment A majority of respondents reported seeking antenatal care, 82% and 89% in Jordan and Lebanon, respectively. Women had an average of at least six antenatal care visits. Nearly all births (98% in Jordan and 94% in Lebanon) took place in a health facility. Cesarean rates were similar in both countries; approximately one-third of all births were cesarean deliveries. A substantial proportion of women incurred costs for intrapartum care; 33% of Syrian women in Jordan and 94% of Syrian women in Lebanon reported paying out of pocket for their deliveries. The proportion of women incurring costs for intrapartum care was higher in Jordan both countries for women with cesarean deliveries compared to those with vaginal deliveries; however, this difference was not statistically significant in either country (Jordan p-value = 0.203; Lebanon p-value = 0.099). Conclusion Syrian refugees living in Jordan and Lebanon had similar levels of utilization of maternal health services, despite different health systems and humanitarian assistance provisions. As expected, a substantial proportion of households incurred out-of-pocket costs for essential maternal and newborn health services, making cost a major factor in care

  3. Attitudes towards Bilingual Arab-Hebrew Education in Israel: A Comparative Study of Jewish and Arab Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Shoham, Meyrav; Amara, Muhammad; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; 'Ali, Nohad

    2011-01-01

    This study examines attitudes towards bilingual Jewish-Arab education among Jewish and Arab adults in Israel. The sample consisted of 1014 respondents who participated in a national phone survey in late 2006. Results indicate that Arabs are significantly more supportive of bilingual education in Israel than Jews. Positive attitudes regarding the…

  4. Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Arab Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ozkan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey's foreign policy has been drawing considerable attention particularly because of the momentous transformations in the Middle East. The visits of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davuoglu to Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia in September 2011 and their subsequent visits to the region underscored the rise of Turkey's involvement in the region. The Arab Spring came at a time when Turkey's relations with the United States, Israel and the European Union were going through significant turbulence. 2010 proved to be a particularly difficult year for Turkey's place in the transatlantic community. The Gaza flotilla crisis in June 2010 - ending with Israeli forces killing eight Turkish citizens - and Turkey's "no" vote to a new round of sanctions against Iran at the United Nations (UN Security Council that same month triggered a heated debate on Turkey's relations with the West, which led popular American columnists such as Tom Friedman to go as far as arguing that Ankara was now joining the "Hamas- Hezbollah-Iran resistance front against Israel." While this was a clear exaggeration, it indicated the scope of debate on the eve of the Arab Spring. Since the Arab Spring, the Western discourse about Turkey has dramatically changed. Instead of asking "who lost Turkey" or complaining about the Islamization of Turkish foreign policy, analysts began discussing whether the new regimes in the Arab world would follow the "Turkish model." This article aims to analyze the Turkish approach to the Middle East and the Arab revolutions, the main determinants of Turkish foreign policy and diplomacy in the Middle East and the debate on "Turkish Model. What has changed, or has not, during and after the Arab Spring?

  5. India and The Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ivanovich Lounev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that Indian-Arab relations are very complex and are affected by many positive and negative factors. From a political point of view, the Middle East does not rank high in the priorities of India’s modern foreign policy. In the bipolar period, India tried to strengthen ties with all developing countries with the aim of becoming a leader of the South. In this respect, the region (especially Egypt in the 1950-1970s played a special role. Now India pays attention mainly to vital actors. Policy of non-interference in regional conflicts is typical for India. Delhi has focused on the developing of ties with the countries of the Persian Gulf, due mainly to economic reasons that are of primary importance to India. This subregion is a major supplier of hydrocarbons to India, that is extremely vital for further rapid economic growth of the country (oil and gas account for about a third of India’s imports. In addition to this, millions of Indian citizens live in the Persian Gulf, and India (due to them has become the world leader by the volume of migrant remittances. The largest semi-peripheral countries, among which India should be mentioned particularly, began to play a special role in the new world system. However, the politics of balancing is characteristic for India both on global level as well as on regional one. But a real great power (and the desire to obtain such high status was always the main goal for an Asian giant should demonstrate a clear vision of global and regional issues, play an active role and offer its own solution of different conflicts and contradictions.

  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIJAB CONCEPT IN ARAB HOUSE PASAR KLIWON SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Hapsari Putri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was motivated by the existence of the Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon which is a heteroginity settlement, composed of Arab,   Javanese and Chinese with the Arab community is larger than the Chinese community. The multicultural life happens at Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon  will directly affect the process of inter-ethnic interaction. Islam is a way of life in the Arab culture. The house of arab is an islamic architecture product which applies hijab and estimated retained. Therefore, in this study will be assessed the extent of the implementation of the hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon. This study used the rationalistic paradigm and purposive sampling method of data collection which Arab house aged over 50 years. Analysis of the data using the parameters: (1 the physical hijab is permanent physical elements (walls, doors, windows and mashrabbiya and non permanent physical elements (furniture and plants and (2 non physical hijab is non physical elements (behavioral or user activity .The results showed that the concept of hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon is symbolized by: (1 the physical hijab is spatial zone that separates public and private space, and (2 non physical hijab is behavior or etiquette of visiting the implementing Islamic culture. Keywords:  : islamic architecture, arab house, hijab     Abstrak Penelitian ini dimotivasi oleh kehadiran perkampungan Arab di Pasar Kliwon yang merupakan permukiman yang heterogen, terdiri dari Arab, Jawa, dan Cina dengan komunitas Arab lebih besar daripada komunitas Cina. Kehidupan multikultural yang terjadi di permukiman Arab di Pasar Kliwon akan secara langsung mempengaruhi proses  interaksi  antar  etnis.  Islam  merupakan  jalan  hidup  budaya Arab.  Rumah Arab  merupakan  produk arsitektur Islam yang mengaplikasikan hijab dan perhitungan pertahanan. Karena itulah dalam tulisan ini akan diperkirakan luasnya implementasi hijab pada rumah Arab di Pasar

  7. Speech Recognition Challenge in the Wild: Arabic MGB-3

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ahmed; Vogel, Stephan; Renals, Steve

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Arabic MGB-3 Challenge - Arabic Speech Recognition in the Wild. Unlike last year's Arabic MGB-2 Challenge, for which the recognition task was based on more than 1,200 hours broadcast TV news recordings from Aljazeera Arabic TV programs, MGB-3 emphasises dialectal Arabic using a multi-genre collection of Egyptian YouTube videos. Seven genres were used for the data collection: comedy, cooking, family/kids, fashion, drama, sports, and science (TEDx). A total of 16 hours ...

  8. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...... representatives, journalists, policy makers and students, the event focused on the changing state of aid in the Arab world in the wake of the Arab Uprisings and its significance for the region. With the profound hope that accompanied the democratic revolutions across the Arab world since December 2010...

  9. MOOC in the Arab world: a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Khalid

    2016-12-19

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been spreading and receiving attention worldwide in the last few years. Universities mainly in the USA led the trend in distributing online courses to interested students across the globe. The Middle East is no exception. Recently, the MOOC movement started to gain some popularity in this region. The end of year 2013 witnessed the beginning of the fi rst Arabic MOOC in the Arab World, namely Rwaq. What makes this initiative unique is that the course content is in Arabic, and presented by Arab lecturers to Arabic-speaking students.

  10. The reliability of the Arabic version of osteoporosis knowledge assessment tool (OKAT) and the osteoporosis health belief scale (OHBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Hassan, Rima M; Bashour, Hyam N

    2013-04-08

    Knowledge and awareness about osteoporosis and its related risk factors are important contributors to osteoporosis preventive behavior. There is a need to assess the reliability of international osteoporosis-related knowledge and belief measurement tools in Arabic community. This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Arabic version of Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) among Syrian women. The study included two phases. The first phase included a forward and backward translation of the osteoporosis-related tools (OKAT and OHBS) followed by a pilot testing. The second phase was an assessment of the test-retest reliability of the tools among a convenience sample of one hundred working women at Damascus Faculty of Medicine and its teaching hospitals. For this purpose each instrument was administered twice to all women at an interval of two weeks. Data collection took place in the fall of 2011, and was facilitated by a trained interviewer whose task was to administer the tools and collect some background data from the women who consented to participate in the study. A total of one hundred women were recruited in this study for the reliability test-retest of the Arabic version of the tools. The mean age of studied women was 37.1 (SD = 8.4) years. Most of the women were married and nearly one-half of them had a university education. The internal consistency values for OHBS (Cronbach's alpha = 0.806) as well as the OKAT (Cronbach's alpha = 0.824) met the 0.7 Cronbach's alpha value requirement. Item analysis did not necessitate any omissions in either tool. McNemar's test identified only three items on the OKAT questionnaire that significantly differed from the test to the retest. The OKAT mean score (SD) for the test was 9.4 (2.6) and that for the re-test was 10.1 (2.9). Paired t test did not show significant difference (P = 0.068). The Arabic version of both the Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT

  11. National politics and ethnic identity in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Paulino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Struggle of Democratie Politics in the Dominican Republic. JONATHAN HARTLYN. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. xxi + 371 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 17.95 Holocaust in the Caribbean: The Slaughter of 25,000 Haitians by Trujillo in One Week. MIGUEL AQUINO. Waterbury CT: Emancipation Press, 1997. xxii +184 pp. (Paper n.p. Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii +161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 Azücar, Arabes, cocolos y haitianos. ORLANDO INOA. Santo Domingo: Ed. Cole and FLACSO, 1999. 219 pp. (Paper n.p. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the publication of books about the Dominican Republic and Dominicans in the United States. This can be partly attributed to the increase of Dominican communities.1 Moreover, Dominican and Dominican-American writers who underscore the trials and tribulations of the immigrant experience are becoming more visible in the mainstream print.2

  12. Depression Among Arab American and Arab Immigrant Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelezam, Nadia N; Fontenot, Holly B

    The difficult and tense political climate Arab populations are currently facing may be exacerbating mental health issues, reducing forms of social support in friend circles, and decreasing the desire to seek health care. There is room to better understand the mental health needs of Arab women residing in the United States and to develop policies and interventions that keep these women safe and in care. This column reviews two recent studies; the first examines barriers to reporting intimate partner violence and depression among Arab American women and the second highlights stressors and social support for Arab women immigrants throughout their immigration experience. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. The evolution of Arabic(s) Making the Idiom speak for the Deme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ,. Afro-Asiatic, phylogenetic ..... Although the rate of change is higher, language transmission is social and not parental and horizontal ..... presence of Arabic influence from Egyptian and levantine varieties, as showed in light blue on Figure 6.

  14. Determination of 210Po in tea, mat and their infusions and its annual intake by Syrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Polonium-210 was determined in 34 kinds of imported tea and 9 kinds of mat collected from the Syrian local market. The 210 Po concentration was found to vary from 5.5 to 39 Bq x kg -1 and 47 to 82 Bq x kg -1 in tea and mat samples, respectively. In addition 210 Po was also determined in tea and mat infusions where different infusion conditions have been examined: amount, temperature and infusion time. The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred from tea and mat leaves to the aqueous extract ranged from 9 to 21% and 3 to 15%, respectively. The annual intake of 210 Po by Syrians due to tea consumption and mat infusions was calculated and found to be 9 Bq and 151 Bq for tea and mat respectively: washing of mat with warm water is recommended before preparation the infusions to decrease the annual intake of 210 Po. (author)

  15. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    Full Text Available In 2012 a novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV, associated with severe respiratory disease emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, 55 human cases have been reported, including 31 fatal cases. Several of the cases were likely a result of human-to-human transmission. The emergence of this novel coronavirus prompts the need for a small animal model to study the pathogenesis of this virus and to test the efficacy of potential intervention strategies. In this study we explored the use of Syrian hamsters as a small animal disease model, using intratracheal inoculation and inoculation via aerosol. Clinical signs of disease, virus replication, histological lesions, cytokine upregulation nor seroconversion were observed in any of the inoculated animals, indicating that MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

  16. Governing the Lebanese health system: strengthening the national response to the burden of Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alessio; McKee, Martin

    2017-08-20

    Lebanon is providing sanctuary to an estimated 1.5 million Syrian refugees, with potential consequences for its health system. Here, we analyse how it has responded to this challenge, identify sensitive areas where a strong national governance system is needed and explore how it might be implemented. An effective response to the Syrian refugee crisis requires concerted international action. Nonetheless, geography dictates that the Lebanese health system must play a central role. We identify some areas where a strengthened stewardship role of the Ministry of Public Health is urgently required. We argue that the Ministry is well placed to take a lead, with its detailed knowledge of the Lebanese health system and its legitimacy to formulate a national health response. Finally, we suggest that this crisis could be a catalyst for the strengthening of the Lebanese health system, based on evidence-informed policies that would benefit refugees and the Lebanese population alike.

  17. Factors in use of family planning services by Syrian women in a refugee camp in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lucy; Isotta-Day, Harriet; Ba-Break, Maryam; Morgan, Rosemary

    2016-03-09

    The Syrian conflict presents the fastest growing refugee crisis in the world today, with over four million people now displaced outside the country. Existing literature suggests that family planning services are often still neglected in crisis response efforts. A small-scale qualitative study conducted in May 2013, interviewing Syrian women residing in a Jordanian refugee camp about use and barriers to accessing family planning services. The study shows that significant barriers remain, and suggests that international attempts to address refugees' family planning needs remain inconsistent. Several practical measures are identified to address barriers to access, making the article of both practical and academic relevance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Evaluation of a short-term medical mission to Syrian refugee camps in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghothani, Nora; Alghothani, Yousef; Atassi, Bassel

    2012-10-01

    The escalating political and humanitarian crisis in Syria has left thousands detained, killed or displaced in neighboring countries. Given the permission and co-operation of the Turkish health authorities, a short-term medical mission to the Syrian refugee camps in the Hatay province was arranged. To assess this mission's impact and potential expansion to serve other more emergently inflicted areas both inside and outside the Syrian borders, an evaluation was conducted via survey questionnaire of participating physicians. While almost all respondents found the experience worthwhile and fulfilling, medical, social and educational challenges as well as possible solutions were outlined. The use of several specified principles to further guide efforts towards providing service, education, relief, and awareness would result in greater effect, sustainability and growth of the mission.

  19. Genetic Characterization Of Syrian Erwinia Amylovora Strains By Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Arabi, M.; Shoaib, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty Erwinia amylovora strains, collected from the main rosaceous crop-growing regions in Syria, were chosen as representatives of all major pathogenicity groups and were genetically studied by AFLP. Eight primer combinations were utilized and approximately 300 scorable bands in total were generated. Based on similarity coefficient, E. amylovora strains were placed into a main cluster containing two sub clusters, indicating very low genetic variations among the studied pathogen. The existence of two plasmids, pEA29 (present in nearly all E. amylovora isolates) and pEL60 (present mainly in Lebanese strains), was confirmed using multiplex PCR in all tested Syrian E. amylovora strains, indicating that Lebanese and Syrian isolates may share a common origin.(author)

  20. Recovery of uranium from the Syrian phosphate by solid-liquid method using alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium concentrations were analyzed in the Syrian phosphate deposits. Mean concentrations were found between 50 and 110 ppm. As a consequence, an average phosphate dressing of 22 kg/ha phosphate would charge the soil with 5-20 g/ha uranium when added as a mineral fertilizer. Fine grinding phosphate produced at the Syrian mines was used for uranium recovery by carbonate leaching. The formation of the soluble uranyl tricarbonate anion UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- permits use of alkali solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts for the nearly selective dissolution of uranium from phosphate. Separation of iron, aluminum, titanium, etc., from the uranium during leaching was carried out. Formation of some small amounts of molybdates, vanadates, phosphates, aluminates, and some complexes metal was investigated. This process could be used before the manufacture of TSP fertilizer, and the final products would contain smaller uranium quantities. (author)

  1. Social identity continuity and mental health among Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Çelebi, Elif; Acartürk, Ceren; Onkun, Samed

    2017-10-01

    Building upon social psychological work on social identity and mental health, this study among Syrian refugees in Turkey examined the importance of multiple group memberships and identity continuity for mental health and well-being. A survey study was conducted among the very difficult to reach population of Syrian refugees (N = 361). With path analysis in AMOS the associations were examined between multiple group memberships, social identity continuity and mental health and psychological well-being. Indicate that belonging to multiple groups before migration was related to a higher likelihood of having preserved group memberships after migration (i.e., sense of social identity continuity), which, in turn, predicted greater life satisfaction and lower levels of depression. Multiple group membership, however, was also directly related to higher depression. Findings are discussed in relation to the importance of multiple group membership and feelings of identity continuity for refugees.

  2. Plasma lipids of golden Syrian hamsters fed dietary rose hip, sunflower, olive and coconut oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Escobar, M; Olivera, P

    1997-06-01

    Plasma lipids of male golden Syrian hamsters fed diets supplemented with 15% (w/w) rose hip, sunflower, olive, or coconut oils during four weeks were assessed. The results confirm the saturated fat hyperlipidemic effect on golden Syrian hamsters fed with the olive oil and coconut oil, reaching the highest triglyceride levels. The monounsaturated (olive oil) or polyunsaturated (rose hip and sunflower oils) fatty acid-rich-vegetable oils have a similar action on the HDL-cholesterol. No statistically significant difference was observed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels in the rose hip and sunflower groups, showing that the polyunsaturation degree of both oils does not affect those results. Compared with the plasma levels obtained in the olive and coconut oil groups, rose hip and sunflower oils present a marked hypolipidemic effect, which could be due to specific action of the series n-6 linoleic acid.

  3. Leadership Styles at Syrian Universities and the Differences Caused by Sector and Follower Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ayoubi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing two modern leadership styles: transactional leadership and transformational leadership at Syrian universities. It also aims at exploring whether or not there are differences in leadership styles caused by sector or follower demographics. A quantitative research paradigm was employed. Using a questionnaire survey method, the data was collected from managerial employees at two public and private universities. In total, 216 questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS. The findings revealed that there is a high level of transactional leadership except one of its dimensions, management by exception-passive, which occurred in a medium level. There is also a high level of transformational leadership except one of its dimensions, individualized consideration, which occurred in a medium level. Furthermore, the study found significant differences in leadership styles that are caused by follower demographics, but not sector. Suggestions for Syrian universities are presented. Proposals for future studies are highlighted in the study.

  4. Arabic Language WEKA-Based Dialect Classifier for Arabic Automatic Speech Recognition Transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    Alshutayri, A; Atwell, ES; Alosaimy, A; Dickins, J; Ingleby, M; Watson, J

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an Arabic dialect identification system which we developed for the Discriminating Similar Languages (DSL) 2016 shared task. We classified Arabic dialects by using Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) data analytic tool which contains many alternative filters and classifiers for machine learning. We experimented with several classifiers and the best accuracy was achieved using the Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) algorithm for training and testing process...

  5. Factors Affecting Staff Retention Strategies Used in Private Syrian Companies during the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Moaz Nagib; Kahwaji, Ahmad Taha; Elrasheed, Mohammed Osman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of current study is to exam elements influencing retention among employees in private Syrian companies during the crisis. The factors are training and professional development, organizational rewards system, job insecurity and job satisfaction. For this reason, 102 organized surveys were gathered. Obtained results from the study questionnaire were analyzed and examined by using statistical tests as Correlation and Multiple Regression analysis. Results show that training and profession...

  6. Prevalence of depression in Syrian refugees and the influence of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Wadih J; Aoun, Michaelangelo P; El Khoury, Eliane L; Abdallah, Fabiola J Bou; Haddad, Ramzi S

    2016-07-01

    Many surveys have underlined the high levels of distress Syrian refugees have endured since the conflict aroused in their country, yet few have used reliable diagnostic tools for the clinical assessment of resulting mental disorders. The aim of our study is to assess for the onset of new depressive disorders following the Syrian war, and to investigate the correlation of religiosity with depression. Single individual interviews were used, in a sample of 310 Syrian forced migrants, retrospectively assessing for depressive disorders with onset at different timelines of the conflict outbreak. Religiosity was assessed in a cross-sectional design using a reliable, recently developed and tested tool. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used with a level of significance at 0.05. The prevalence of current depression was 43.9% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 38.5-49.4%) with no difference across all socio-demographic factors, including gender. The overall mean for religiosity for the current sample was moderate (mean=9.76; standard deviation SD=2.34). No substantial correlation was found with religiosity. The prevalence rate for pre-war depression was 6.5% (95% CI: 4.2-9.8%) following the global pattern of socio-demographic epidemiological characteristics. Prevalence for past depression was 27.1% (95% CI: 22.5-32.3%); for current dysthymia: 4.5% (95% CI: 2.7-7.4%); for prewar and past dysthymia: 1% (95% CI: 0.3-2.8%), all with no significant differences detected across all demographic variables. In this retrospective study on a sample of Syrian refugees who fled their country after the war, we found a substantial emergence of depressive disorders with no meaningful correlation with the level of religiosity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropsychiatric disorders among Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Jordan: a retrospective cohort study 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica D; Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-01-01

    The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in refugees is likely high, but little has been reported on the neuropsychiatric disorders that affect Syrian and Iraqi refugees in a country of first asylum. This analysis aimed to study the cost and burden of neuropsychiatric disorders among refugees from Syria and Iraq requiring exceptional, United Nations-funded care in a country of first asylum. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees works with multi-disciplinary, in-country exceptional care committees to review refugees' applications for emergency or exceptional medical care. Neuropsychiatric diagnoses among refugee applicants were identified through a retrospective review of applications to the Jordanian Exceptional Care Committee (2012-2013). Diagnoses were made using International Classification of Disease-10(th) edition codes rendered by treating physicians. Neuropsychiatric applications accounted for 11% (264/2526) of all Exceptional Care Committee applications, representing 223 refugees (40% female; median age 35 years; 57% Syrian, 36% Iraqi, 7% other countries of origin). Two-thirds of neuropsychiatric cases were for emergency care. The total amount requested for neuropsychiatric disorders was 925,674 USD. Syrian refugees were significantly more likely to request neurotrauma care than Iraqis (18/128 vs. 3/80, p = 0.03). The most expensive care per person was for brain tumor (7,905 USD), multiple sclerosis (7,502 USD), and nervous system trauma (6,466 USD), although stroke was the most frequent diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most costly and frequent diagnosis among the psychiatric disorders (2,269 USD per person, 27,226 USD total). Neuropsychiatric disorders, including those traditionally considered outside the purview of refugee health, are an important burden to health among Iraqi and Syrian refugees. Possible interventions could include stroke risk factor reduction and targeted medication donations for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and

  8. Identifying Early Target Cells of Nipah Virus Infection in Syrian Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Baseler, Laura; Scott, Dana P.; Saturday, Greg; Horne, Eva; Rosenke, Rebecca; Thomas, Tina; Meade-White, Kimberly; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; de Wit, Emmie

    2016-01-01

    Background Nipah virus causes respiratory and neurologic disease with case fatality rates up to 100% in individual outbreaks. End stage lesions have been described in the respiratory and nervous systems, vasculature and often lymphoid organs in fatal human cases; however, the initial target organs of Nipah virus infection have not been identified. Here, we detected the initial target tissues and cells of Nipah virus and tracked virus dissemination during the early phase of infection in Syrian...

  9. Serum concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol during the ovarian cycle of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2005-01-01

    It was possible, for the first time, to characterise hormonally and precisely the oestrous cycle of the Syrian Awassi ewes, and to determine normal progesterone and oestradiol concentrations during the different phases of oestrous cycle. It is concluded that progesterone and oestradiol concentrations showed a cyclic pattern during the oestrous cycle, in addition, a negative and significant correlation between the concentrations of the two hormones was found. (author)

  10. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Abboud; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-11-22

    The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical), and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%-95.0%), 1000-kernel weight (35.2-46.9 g) and the test weight (82.2-88.0 kg/hL). All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours). A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **), as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *). Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **), extensibility (r = 0.8 **), and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = -0.69 **). Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **). Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  11. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  12. Visionnement du film Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 sept. 2017 ... Une projection d'extraits du documentaire subventionné par le CRDI intitulé Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian Uprising, organisée conjointement par les missions permanentes du Canada et de l'Union européenne auprès des Nations Unies et la Coalition nationale des forces de l'opposition et ...

  13. Health service utilization and access to medicines among Syrian refugee children in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Weiss, William

    2016-01-01

    With over one million Syrian refugee children in the region, we undertook this study to characterize care-seeking behaviors and health service utilization for child refugees with the aim of informing humanitarian programming for non-camp settings in Jordan. A survey of Syrian refugees living outside of camps in Jordan was conducted using a 125 × 12 cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling to obtain a representative sample. The questionnaire focused on access to health services, including a module on care seeking for children. Care seeking was high with 90.9% of households with a child less than 18 years seeking medical care the last time it was needed. Households most often sought care for children in the public sector (54.6%), followed by private (36.5%) and charity sectors (8.9%). Among child care seekers, 88.6% were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 90.6% of which obtained the medication. Overall, 49.4% of households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for either the consultation or prescribed medications at the most recent visit (mean $US21.1 and median $US0). Syrian refugees had good access to care for their sick children at the time of the survey; however, this has likely deteriorated since the survey because of the withdrawal of free access for refugees. The number of refugees in Jordan and relative accessibility of care has resulted in a large burden on the health system; the Jordanian government will require additional support if current levels of health access are to be maintained for Syrian refugees. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Syrian Kurdish Autonomy: A Decisive Strategy for Bashar al-Assad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    SUBJECT TERMS Assad, Autonomy, Kurds, Rojava , Syria. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...al-Assad could take in order to assure the survival of his regime. In the Northern Syrian area of Rojava are the Kurds whose militia, the People’s...actively engage with Syria’s Kurdish population in order to negotiate territorial autonomy of Rojava on terms that decisively benefit the GOS

  15. Associations between poor living conditions and multi-morbidity among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Rima R; Mikati, Diana; Hojeij, Safa; El Asmar, Khalil; Chaaya, Monique; Zurayk, Rami

    2016-12-01

    Syrian migrant farmworkers are among the most marginalized populations in Lebanon, living in poverty, lacking basic legal protections and frequent targets of discrimination. These realities produce living conditions that undermine their basic health and wellbeing. This study explores associations between household living conditions and acute and chronic health problems among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in the Bekaa region of Lebanon. A survey was carried out in summer of 2011 with a sample of 290 migrant agriculture workers and members of their household living in a migrant farmworker camp. The survey assessed participants living conditions, assets and health conditions. Regression analyses were carried out to examine associations between multi-morbidity and quality of household and neighborhood living conditions. The mean age for the population was 20 years. Forty-seven percent of participants reported health problems. Almost 20% reported either one acute or chronic illness, 15% reported two health problems and 13% reported three or more. The analysis showed a significant positive association between multi-morbidity and poor housing and infrastructure conditions among study participants. The situation for migrant communities in Lebanon has likely further deteriorated since the study was conducted, as hundreds of thousands of new migrants have entered Lebanon since the outbreak of the Syrian armed conflict in 2011. These findings should inspire multi-faceted community development initiatives that provide basic minimums of neighborhood infrastructure and housing quality for Syrian migrant informal settlements across Lebanon, safeguarding the health and wellbeing of community residents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. Intervention effects on tobacco use in Arab and non-Arab American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia H; Weglicki, Linda S; Templin, Thomas; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experimental design was used to test a modified Project Towards No Tobacco (TNT) use program on cigarette smoking in 380 Arab American and 236 non-Arab American 9th graders in the Midwest. Tenth grade Non-Arab American students given the intervention as 9th graders were 23% less likely to experiment (Odds Ratio=1.31, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.64) or to have smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days (Odd Ratio=1.43 times, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.01) compared to Arab American youth. Arab American students reported greater experimentation with water pipe smoking than cigarettes (38% vs. 22%), and more current (16% vs. 6%) and regular (7% vs. 3%) use of water pipes than cigarettes, respectively. The intervention designed to focus on cigarette smoking had non-significant effects on water pipe smoking. These findings provide support for a school-based intervention revised to focus on prevention as well as cessation and to be culturally consistent. They also call for further research and intervention tailoring to address the problem of water pipe smoking in a growing Arab American adolescent population.

  17. THE ROLE OF TRANSLATION FROM ARABIC TO TURKISH IN RECOGNITION OF ARABIC CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfem KURT

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though definitions about translation have changed with developing and changing societies and disc overy of new translation theories, the translation in general refers to transfer of a written text in a language to another language while preserving its semantic content and formal structure in a definite platform. Beyond being a linguistic phenomenon of translation, it is now recognized by many theorists that translation is a complex process that can change the history. For this reason, the translation has an important mission in the social relations and penetrates directly into the target culture because it is an interlingual and intercultural transfer. Accordingly, it gains an important place in this culture. In this context, the Arabic culture, through the translations from Arabic into Turkish, has gained a place in Turkish society and thereby had oppor tunity to introduce its own culture. The aim of this study is to determine cultural transfer in translations made from Arabic to Turkish. In this context, firstly, definition of translation, its scope, fuction and translation - culture transfer relationship was clarified. The study ended with examples through some literary works translated from Arabic to Turkish. This study is a survey research. Firstly, some theoretical information was obtained by reviewing the literature. Later, the relationship between tra nslation - culture transfer was found via examples of translated works from Arabic to Turkish. In this study, only translations of literary works that belong to modern period Arabic literature were taken into consideration, excluding classical period or reli gious literature translations.

  18. Well-Being and Posttraumatic Growth Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, Niveen; Segal, Steven P

    2018-04-01

    The Syrian War has created a mass exodus of Syrian citizens to neighboring countries and exposed them to many atrocities. We explored factors affecting well-being and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of refugees residing in Jordan. Participants (N = 250) were surveyed via nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Outcome criteria included a global well-being rating and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Trauma exposure assessment included The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and The War Events Questionnaire. Ordinary least squares regression examined associations between potential contributors to refugee well-being and PTG, including work, age, sex, income, education, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, physical pain, health, NGO assistance, psychotic/affective mental disorder, and length of residence in Jordan. Mean participant score on the PTSD-HTQ scale was 2.37 (SD = 0.63; range: 1 [no symptoms] to 3.88 [extremely severe symptoms]). Additionally, 74.6% of participants received NGO assistance and 92.7% experienced war events. Univariate and multivariate results indicated enhancement of well-being was associated with income, r = .34, β = .26, p Syrian refugees' mental health. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. Chronic Diseases, Lack of Medications, and Depression Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. Methods In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants’ demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Results Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Conclusion Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population. PMID:25633485

  20. Social intervention with syrian refugees from a resilient perspective through Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current globalization system interconnects conflicts, problems and social policies in such a way that they do not only concern their countries of origin, but all the nations in the world. This paper is a bibliographic review with two main lines. The first one is focused on the root causes of the Syrian War and, as a consequence, the thousands of Syrian refugees it created. They were forced to flee from their country, and had to face several difficulties and overcome all kind of obstacles, which has been the source of many tragedies. The contribution of resilience as a social intervention approach with Syrian refugees from the point of view of Social Work is the second line of this paper. This social intervention approach is aimed at strengthening and empowering people against adversity in order to cope with trauma. This objective and the purpose of Social Work are one and the same: to guarantee and promote Human Rights all over the world.  

  1. Chronic diseases, lack of medications, and depression among Syrian refugees in Jordan, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammouh, Omar Salem; Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-29

    Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants' demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population.

  2. Outpatient admissions and hospital costs of Syrian refugees in a Turkish university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirbegolli, Bernard; Çavdar, Sabanur; Çetinkaya Sümer, Esin; Akdeniz, Sıdıka I; Vehid, Suphi

    2016-07-01

    To examine the most frequent admitted polyclinics, diagnoses, and the costs of Syrian refugee patient in a Turkish university hospital in the metropolitan city of Istanbul, Western part of Turkey.  Research methodology consist of analyzing outpatient admissions to the Hospital Polyclinics of Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey from January-June 2014. We carried out diagnosis groups as classified in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification, and analyzed the hospital cost of first admission through records based in the hospital information system.  Median age of 251 Syrian refugee patients is 19 years, inter quartile rate 7-34 years. Patients aged 65 and older compared with those until 18 years and 19 to 64 years aged groups have made statistically significant (p less than 0.001) less hospital admissions. The Most frequented clinic was the emergency clinic. On June there have been significantly (p less than 0.001) more admissions compared with other months. The most common diagnoses were diseases of the respiratory system. The costs of per admission was estimated nearly 48 US Dollar/per patient and the total amount of hospital admissions was 12,031.93 US Dollar.  On the specified dates, the clinics were mostly frequented from Syrian refugees until 18 years group. The most common presenting symptoms are respiratory diseases and most frequented clinic is emergency.

  3. Investigating the Effect of Syrian Refugees on the Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Amirah; Alabbadi, Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Syrian refugees on the pharmaceutical sector in Jordan. Based on a standardized methodology developed by the WHO, Level II Facility (2009) structured questionnaires (including: medicine access [availability, affordability and geographical accessibility], quality, and rational use of medicines) were used to investigate the effect of Syrian refugees influx on the pharmaceutical sector in Jordan. Lists of essential medicines (N = 50) were included in the survey forms. The results showed more progress in all indicators for the public sector compared with the previous results in the 2009 survey and in comparison to the private sector. For example, access to medicines improved in the public sector while it decreased (if it did not remain the same) in the private sector. Also, average stock out duration time decreased dramatically in both public and private sectors. As indicated by the median price ratio (MPR), brand prices increased much in the public health facilities while they decreased by 23%-30% in the private sector. In northern areas where most Syrian refugees stay, a significant decrease in availability was noticed, in addition to the dramatic decrease in days of average stock out and adequate inventory record percentage of those medicines. In conclusion, despite the international help received to support health care provision and medications procurement for the refugees, more support is needed immediately.

  4. Health and health care access for Syrian refugees living in İstanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Perihan; Mücaz Karaaslan, Meltem; Sandıklı, Büşra; Acar, Ceyda; Shurtleff, Ellyn; Dhrolia, Sophia; Herek, Bülent

    2018-04-09

    The study was conducted to assess the health needs of urban refugees living in İstanbul. A mixed methods approach was adopted to interview Syrian women from households, doctors, decision makers and NGO representatives. The data were collected between June and October 2015. The main challenges were the cost of living in İstanbul, increased rent and language barrier. Almost half (49.6%) of the interviewed women did not know about free health care rights for Syrians. In the last 30 days preceding the interview, 58.6% of the participants sought health care primarily through state hospitals, primary health care centres and pharmacies. The participants had difficulty in accessing health care due to the language barrier and a lack of knowledge of the Turkish health care system. Waiting time at hospitals and negative attitudes of health care staff reduced satisfaction in these services. In relation to life in Turkey, the main issues for Syrian refugees were not directly related to health. They have been given the right to access health care, although had many difficulties in understanding and accessing services in a crowded city.

  5. Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Colin P; Mohtadi, Shahrzad; Cane, Mark A; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan

    2015-03-17

    Before the Syrian uprising that began in 2011, the greater Fertile Crescent experienced the most severe drought in the instrumental record. For Syria, a country marked by poor governance and unsustainable agricultural and environmental policies, the drought had a catalytic effect, contributing to political unrest. We show that the recent decrease in Syrian precipitation is a combination of natural variability and a long-term drying trend, and the unusual severity of the observed drought is here shown to be highly unlikely without this trend. Precipitation changes in Syria are linked to rising mean sea-level pressure in the Eastern Mediterranean, which also shows a long-term trend. There has been also a long-term warming trend in the Eastern Mediterranean, adding to the drawdown of soil moisture. No natural cause is apparent for these trends, whereas the observed drying and warming are consistent with model studies of the response to increases in greenhouse gases. Furthermore, model studies show an increasingly drier and hotter future mean climate for the Eastern Mediterranean. Analyses of observations and model simulations indicate that a drought of the severity and duration of the recent Syrian drought, which is implicated in the current conflict, has become more than twice as likely as a consequence of human interference in the climate system.

  6. The Syrian public health and humanitarian crisis: A 'displacement' in global governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzada, Sumaira; Mackey, Tim K

    2017-02-04

    Ongoing failure by the international community to resolve the Syrian conflict has led to destruction of critical infrastructure. This includes the collapse of the Syrian health system, leaving millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in urgent need of healthcare services. As the conflict intensifies, IDP populations are suffering from infectious and non-communicable disease risks, poor maternal and child health outcomes, trauma, and mental health issues, while healthcare workers continually exit the country. Healthcare workers who remain face significant challenges, including systematic attacks on healthcare facilities and conditions that severely inhibit healthcare delivery and assistance. Within this conflict-driven public health crisis, the most susceptible population is arguably the IDP. Though the fundamental 'right to health' is a recognised international legal principle, its application is inadequate due to limited recognition by the UN Security Council and stymied global governance by the broader international community. These factors have also negatively impacted other vulnerable groups other than IDPs, such as refugees and ethnic minorities, who may or may not be displaced. Hence, this article reviews the current Syrian conflict, assesses challenges with local and global governance for IDPs, and explores potential governance solutions needed to address this health and humanitarian crisis.

  7. Children in the Syrian Civil War: the Familial, Educational, and Public Health Impact of Ongoing Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafti, Abdallah Mohamed; van Berlaer, Gerlant; Al Safadi, Mohammad; Debacker, Michel; Buyl, Ronald; Redwan, Atef; Hubloue, Ives

    2016-12-01

    The Syrian civil war since 2011 has led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history. The objective of this study was to document the impact of the conflict on the familial, educational, and public health state of Syrian children. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in May 2015. Health care workers visited families with a prospectively designed data sheet in 4 Northern Syrian governorates. The 1001 children included in this study originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%), and Lattakia (8%). The children's median age was 6 years (range, 0-15 years; interquartile range, 3-11 years), and 61% were boys. Almost 20% of the children were internally displaced, and 5% had deceased or missing parents. Children lacked access to safe drinking water (15%), appropriate sanitation (23%), healthy nutrition (16%), and pediatric health care providers (64%). Vaccination was inadequate in 72%. More than half of school-aged children had no access to education. Children in Idleb and Lattakia were at greater risk of having unmet public health needs. Younger children were at greater risk of having an incomplete vaccination state. After 4 years of civil war in Syria, children have lost parents, live in substandard life quality circumstances, and are at risk for outbreaks because of worsening vaccination states and insufficient availability of health care providers. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:874-882).

  8. Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Colin P.; Mohtadi, Shahrzad; Cane, Mark A.; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan

    2015-03-01

    Before the Syrian uprising that began in 2011, the greater Fertile Crescent experienced the most severe drought in the instrumental record. For Syria, a country marked by poor governance and unsustainable agricultural and environmental policies, the drought had a catalytic effect, contributing to political unrest. We show that the recent decrease in Syrian precipitation is a combination of natural variability and a long-term drying trend, and the unusual severity of the observed drought is here shown to be highly unlikely without this trend. Precipitation changes in Syria are linked to rising mean sea-level pressure in the Eastern Mediterranean, which also shows a long-term trend. There has been also a long-term warming trend in the Eastern Mediterranean, adding to the drawdown of soil moisture. No natural cause is apparent for these trends, whereas the observed drying and warming are consistent with model studies of the response to increases in greenhouse gases. Furthermore, model studies show an increasingly drier and hotter future mean climate for the Eastern Mediterranean. Analyses of observations and model simulations indicate that a drought of the severity and duration of the recent Syrian drought, which is implicated in the current conflict, has become more than twice as likely as a consequence of human interference in the climate system.

  9. Systemic violence against Syrian refugee women and the myth of effective intrapersonal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmine, Rola; Moughalian, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Since the uprising in Syria in March 2011, over 4.3 million Syrians have fled to neighboring countries. Over a million have sought refuge in Lebanon, constituting almost a quarter of the Lebanese population and becoming the largest refugee population per capita in the world. With inequitable health coverage being a longstanding problem in Lebanon, Syrian refugee women's health, and specifically their sexual and reproductive health, is disproportionately affected. An increase in gender-based violence and early marriage, a lack of access to emergency obstetric care, limited access to contraception, forced cesarean sections, and high cost of healthcare services, all contribute to poor sexual and reproductive health. In this commentary, we conceptualize violence against Syrian refugee women using the ecological model, exploring the intersections of discrimination based on ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, while critiquing interventions that focus solely on the intrapersonal level and ignore the role of microsystemic, exosystemic, and macrosystemic factors of negative influence. These social determinants of health supersede the individual realm of health behavior, and hinder women in taking decisions about their sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. After the Spring: Reforming Arab Armies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Arab region, and intercultural communication . She was previously assigned to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Defence College and the...and provides solutions to strategic Army issues affecting the national security community . The Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute...concern topics having strategic implications for the Army, the Department of Defense, and the larger national security community . In addition to its

  11. Arabic Libraries' Catalogs Available Over The Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim A.Rady

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A Study about the Arabic libraries catalogs available over the internet , the study collects the web sites of the catalogs, and its distribution according to types of libraries and countries, then it discuss two samples of the union catalogs : the Egyptian Libraries Network, and the Electronic Directory of Palestinian Libraries.

  12. United Arab Emirates students at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the last two months, CERN played host to more than a hundred young physicists who attended the summer student programme. However, the difference in culture has been more pronounced for some than others: among this year's attendees have been five female theoretical physics and medical physics students from the United Arab Emirates.

  13. Doing Business in the Arab World 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2009-01-01

    Doing Business in the Arab World 2010 is a regional report that draws on the global doing business project and its database as well as the findings of doing business 2010: reforming through difficult times, the seventh in a series of annual reports investigating regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This report presents a summary of doing business indicato...

  14. Doing Business Regional Profile 2012 : Arab World

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2012-01-01

    This regional economy profile presents the doing business indicators for Arab World. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2011 (except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January December 2010). Doing business sheds light on how easy or...

  15. The Arabic Revolt: Context, Perspectives and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Mandelc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss three interrelated topics, framed within discourses of individual and collective human rights, right of self-determination, democratic processes, people`s uprisings, and geopolitical (imbalances. First, we are interested in the situation of Western Sahara and the 37 years of ongoing Moroccan occupation; we refer to this country as Africa’s last colony. Discussion leads us to reflection of the political strategies of Sahrawis to achieve their national liberation, one of them being Gdeim Izik camp, understood by some relevant authors as the beginning of the »Arab spring«. The »Arab spring« is the second focus of our discussion. We offer a timetable and stress the context of events from the Western Sahara attempt in Gdeim Izik, popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen that ended in the resignations of their leaders and governments, civil wars in Syria and Libya, to bigger and smaller protests and their consequences in Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Mauretania, Algeria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Djibouti. We try to offer a deconstruction and reconstruction of the »Arab spring«. In the third part, we discuss the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and the perspectives for solution. The conclusion reflects on the strategic, social and political implications of the »Arab spring«, the role and response of the international community, and the new global wave of resistance against political and financial elites.

  16. A Beginner's Course in Tunisian Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Taoufik Ben

    This guide is designed for the Arabic language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Tunisia and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It contains 15 lessons, each made up of: a teacher's guide sheet, which outlines specific objectives, contents, and materials needed; a dialogue introducing the lesson's theme; a…

  17. Faculty Research Productivity in Six Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab…

  18. The Arab genome: Health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-05

    The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YUSHMANOV, N.V.

    THE PRESENT STUDY IS A TRANSLATION OF THE WORK "STROI ARABSKOGO YAZYKA" BY THE EMINENT RUSSIAN LINGUIST AND SEMITICS SCHOLAR, N.Y. YUSHMANOV. IT DEALS CONCISELY WITH THE POSITION OF ARABIC AMONG THE SEMITIC LANGUAGES AND THE RELATION OF THE LITERARY (CLASSICAL) LANGUAGE TO THE VARIOUS MODERN SPOKEN DIALECTS, AND PRESENTS A CONDENSED BUT…

  20. An Intelligent System For Arabic Text Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syiam, M.M.; Tolba, Mohamed F.; Fayed, Z.T.; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed S.; Ghoniemy, Said A.; Habib, Mena Badieh

    Text Categorization (classification) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. In this paper, an intelligent Arabic text categorization system is presented. Machine learning algorithms are used in this system. Many algorithms for stemming and