as the civil war in Syria expands, with al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia and militia elements loyal to Iran, Muqtada al- Sadr, or Sunni tribal leaders now...and weapons crossing into Syria and Syria launching retaliatory attacks on their sites in Lebanon. Al‑Qaeda in Mesopotamia was once encouraged by...al-Assad is described as moody, unpredictable, irrational, and Janus-faced. One scholar stated, Al–Qaeda in Mesopotamia was once encouraged by
After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...... for considerable cultural and economic continuity rather than devastation and unrelenting decline. Much new, and increasingly non-elite, architectural evidence and an ever-growing corpus of material culture indicate that Syria-Palestine entered a new age of social richness in the early Islamic period, even...
Nyrop, Richard; And Others
This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…
IDRC has supported research in Syria since 1977, focusing on two comple- mentary areas: agriculture and water. Among other results, researchers have shown how better crop rotation could improve yields and enhance soil fertility. They have also enabled farmers to store water more effectively for use in irrigation and ...
Full Text Available Since spring 2003 the region has seen a massive migratory movement from Iraq into its neighbouring countries. Syria is the primary destination of refugees due to the historical relations between the two countries, and because the regulations in force do not require them to obtain anentrance visa.
Full text: Director General Amano has been quoted in a news story as saying today that a site in Syria allegedly destroyed by Israel was a nuclear reactor under construction. The Director General did not say that the IAEA has reached the conclusion that the site was definitely a nuclear reactor. The IAEA continues to seek further information on the nature of the Dair Alzour site. (IAEA)
Santucci, Fabio M.
The author analyses present difficulties of conventional agriculture in Syria. Market opportunities, in Syria and abroad, are illustrated. Possible actions and participatory approach are thus covered.
Schøtt, Anne Sofie
to the mobilisation of the Syrian Kurds during the current Syrian civil war. The brief examines how regime repression and lack of external support for the Kurdish struggle in Syria made the Syrian Kurds prefer non-violent action and complicity with the regime from the time of independence and onwards. It also...... are divided along political lines. Some Kurds are fighting for the so-called ‘Rojava revolution’ in the autonomous Kurdish regions, others participate in the Geneva peace talks as part of the Syrian opposition, yet others act as independent actors advocating liberal democracy and human rights....
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to outline the local occurrence and recent distribution of carnivores in Syria (Syrian Arab Republic in order to offer a starting point for future studies. The species of large dimensions, such as the Asiatic lion, the Caspian tiger, the Asiatic cheetah, and the Syrian brown bear, became extinct in historical times, the last leopard being reputed to have been killed in 1963 on the Alauwit Mountains (Al Nusyriain Mountains. The checklist of the extant Syrian carnivores amounts to 15 species, which are essentially referable to 4 canids, 5 mustelids, 4 felids – the sand catbeen reported only recently for the first time – one hyaenid, and one herpestid. The occurrence of the Blandford fox has yet to be confirmed. This paper is almost entirely the result of a series of field surveys carried out by the author mainly between 1989 and 1995, integrated by data from several subsequent reports and sightings by other authors.
Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei
In recent decades, Islam has enhanced its role as an important social and ideological force in Arab societies. In this context, a central debate concerns the desirable role and position of women, the so-called "woman question." Arab states are no longer alone in defining national community when...... in the work force and thus indirectly questioning the gender ideals of secular Arab nationalism. In Syria too, Islamization has occurred, as is evident from the increased numbers of young muhajabat women, the construction of new mosques and the significant growth in Islamic charity organizations. However......, as the statements and practices of the women in this study show, this is not the whole story, for the secular nationalism of the Syrian state has not disappeared. On the contrary, I will argue in this article that the Syrian regime is still successful in mobilizing large sectors of the population...
Nikita A. Smirnov
Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the
The educational status of women has been advanced in Syria over the past 20 years. In 1973 a law was passed that made school attendance compulsory for all children up to 13 years of age. 9 years of schooling are required for both sexes up to the age of 16 years. As a result, 90% of girls are enrolled in primary school and over 50% are enrolled in lower secondary school. Female literacy has dropped from 60% in the 1970s to 30% today. Literacy classes for those aged 13-45 years is compulsory. Female attendance at these classes increases at the rate of over 10%/year. Women have also attained prominent status as members of parliament (21 female members) and ministers (2), and as lawyers and doctors. The Syrian Constitution guarantees equal rights and opportunities and labor laws insure equal pay and maternity benefits. Nonetheless, fertility is still high at over 6 children. The high fertility is attributed to lack of family planning use and encouragement in pronatalist law to bear as many as 10 children. Family planning efforts were weak in the past. Efforts have begun to expand services; there are presently 560 maternal and child health clinics throughout the country. The pronatalist law was overturned in 1988. The government now understands the importance of maintaining health through family planning. Efforts are underway to develop a population and family planning policy.
by a Lebanese Christian, Antun Saadeh, gained numerous adherents. The SSNP called for the creation of a "Greater Syria " encompassing Lebanon...the country or were convicted of conspiracy. Conse- quently, the SSNP disappeared as an effective political force in Syria . In 1957 the Baathists...Party ( SSNP ), which is banned in Syria but has numerous surreptitious supporters, has made the quest for a Greater Syria the cornerstone of its
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Syria. 746.9 Section 746.9 Commerce... CONTROLS § 746.9 Syria. General Order No. 2, Supplement No. 1 to part 736 of the EAR, sets forth special controls for exports and reexports to Syria. [71 FR 9442, Feb. 24, 2006] ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is the world's leading information system on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology and it is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. An overview of INIS products, services, philosophy and operation is given. INIS hold a database containing over 2.5 million references increasing at approximately 85,000 references per year and a collection of full text non-conventional, or grey literature that would be hard to obtain elsewhere. In addition, the PC-based software for inputs preparation (WinFIBRE) is demonstrated. INIS national center in Syria is considered as a regional center for INIS inputs preparation. The center is responsible for selecting the relevant nuclear literature produced and published in Syria and preparing the national inputs and send them to INIS Secretariat to be included in the INIS database. The center also provides INIS services and products to users within Syria. Availability of INIS Database on CD-ROMs, which updated monthly, and the internet version, which updated weekly, and the NCL collections are also presented. Finally, translation activity of the center, such as INIS Booklet entitled Presenting INIS, and the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic were mentioned. This was an in-kind contribution from the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria to support the valuable work of the INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) section and will contribute significantly the dissemination of information among the researchers and scientists in the Arab Countries. (author)
Darder, Antonia; Mayo, Peter
Reports from Syria are incredibly alarming and disconcerting, in particular this latest news cycle. It is common knowledge that Syria, along with numerous other nations around the world (including the US), has chemical weapons. Also common knowledge, Syria refused to sign the Chemical Weapons Convention or the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and is known to have four major chemical weapons plants. Given this information, why did the US not work comprehensively with allies to diplomatically addr...
The "madrasa" began to spread in Syria ("Bilad al-Sham") as a higher institution for religious education since the Zangid rule (521H./1127 to 569H./ 1173). During the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods, main cities of Syria were characterized by many madrasas, especially the major cities that served the political rule like, Damascus,…
...; who makes decisions irrespective of domestic political considerations in Syria. This thesis challenges that conceptualization by arguing that domestic concerns are the central element in the making of Syrian foreign policy...
Full Text Available Although restitution of property should underpin any post-conflict agreement, in Syria this will be a complex exercise. Adherence to the UN’s Pinheiro Principles will be critical.
Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.
Full Text Available In Syria, there is not expected to break out of the revolution of this magnitude. Most people of Syria before others did not expect that the revolution breaks out originally because the regime governs Syria in an oppressive security manner. The regime controls the situation that making it difficult of any popular movement. Political life is not existent in the country. There are no civil society organizations and trade unions are not real and not real parties or political groupings, making it difficult with the outbreak of the revolution in the country in such a dictatorship, security control, which controls everything in people's lives. So Syria was apparently outside the US and global thinking. It has been stated by some officials in America and has had their expectations outbreak of the revolution in Syria minimal because the global system was not ready to abandon the Assad regime because the regime is better for them. However, the revolution in Syria broke out, caught and swept across the country, confusing international systems that were not planning to substitute for the Syrian regime. The Syrian regime is no doubt that one of the major hubs in the region.
Meeks, Robert W
Syria's support to the Iraq insurgency and Washington's inability to ameliorate the regime's behavior, or to achieve its other national interests with regard to Syria, threaten America's Middle East objectives...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...
Tappis, Hannah; Biermann, Elizabeth; Glass, Nancy; Tileva, Margarita; Doocy, Shannon
A domestic violence questionnaire was administered to 701 adult females in a sample of 813 Iraqi households in Syria; unmarried women and women whose husbands were away were excluded, yielding a final sample of 486. Lifetime physical, verbal, or emotional abuse was reported by 30%, and approximately 20% experienced abuse within the past year. Non-Damascus residence, children Syria were associated with increased risk of domestic violence within the past year. Support services are inadequate and should be expanded; and longer-term prevention measures also should be implemented.
Caitlin A. Buckley
Full Text Available The international community has reached an impasse. The violence committed by Syrian President Assad's government against opposition forces, who have been calling for democratic reform, regime change, and expanded rights, has necessitated a response from the international community. This article explores various ways the international community could respond to the crisis in Syria and the consequences of each approach. It compares the current calamity in Syria to the crisis in Libya and examines the international community's response to the violence perpetrated by Qaddafi's regime. It further analyzes reports, primarily from the UN and news sources, about the ongoing predicament in Syria. The article concludes that the international community should proceed with achieving a ceasefire via dialogue but must begin by conveying newly imposed sanctions that affect the Sunni merchant class and thus threaten Assad's grip on power to make that dialogue more effective. World leaders should also identify a Syrian leader who could replace Assad, who must be removed from power because of the crimes against humanity that have been committed by his regime. Western states must accept that they will have to engage peacekeeping forces in the region to aid the transition of power in Syria.
the Iraqi government directly accused the Asad regime of hosting terrorist training camps and those responsible for the attacks. The series of...businesses from investing in Syria. According to one report, General Electric, the French power company Alstom , and Japanese-owned Mitsubishi all
Full Text Available Forced displacement is now a defining characteristic of Iraqi society and will remain so for years to come. Many have chosen to leave for neighbouring countries, particularly Syria and Jordan, but remain in a limbo of temporary protection.
Commission on Syria: Health in conflict” for The Lancet, one of the most prestigious medical and health science publications in the world. The journal has adopted a series of global commissions that convene groups of experts for a limited time to ...
company, Coca Cola , uses a bottling factory in Syria itself, while 36 “Sanctions on...include Riad al Seif, 61, a former member of parliament suffering from prostate cancer , Dr. Kamal Labwani, a physician, and Michel Kilo and Mahmoud
controls large areas of northeastern and central Syria, from which it continues to launch assaults on forces opposed to and aligned with the government of...northeastern and central Syria, from which it continues to launch assaults on forces aligned with the Asad government as well as other armed groups...Caliphate and Operation Inherent Resolve. In February 2014, Al Qaeda formally disavowed the Islamic State because of the group’s interference in Syria
Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier
The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.
Olson, Robert W.
Up to 1975-76, Syria's Hafiz al-Asad was successful in consolidating his power, securing the maintenance of his regime, and broadening his base of political power. His system started weakening in 1975 due to increased opposition stemming from Syria's intervention in the Lebanese civil war. (AM)
Partner: Syrian Center for Political and Strategic Studies (SCPSS) Duration: July 2012-August 2013. Status: Closing Budget: CAD 441,000. A Syria Transition Roadmap, produced through an IDRC-funded project called Building a Vision for the Transition in Syria, has been officially endorsed by the Syrian National Coalition.
Weggemans, D.; Peters, R.; Bakker, E.; Bont, de R.
Destination Syria is an exploratory study providing insights on the daily lives of western citizens that have travelled to the area, torn by conflict to join jihadist groups like ISIS and Jabhat al-Nusra. Specific attention has been paid to daily life in ISIS territories and in areas controlled by
Kelley, C. P.; Mohtadi, S.; Cane, M. A.; Seager, R.; Kushnir, Y.
From 2005 to 2010, Syria experienced the most severe and persistent drought in the instrumental record, devastating the agriculture and causing widespread crop failure. A mass migration of farming families to urban peripheries followed the resulting food shortages, unemployment, and disruption of rural social structure. The addition of nearly 1.5 million drought refugees to the recent influx of Iraqi refugees greatly exacerbated conditions in the urban slums. Anger at the government's failure to respond to the drought's impacts contributed to the political unrest that began in March 2011. The recent decrease in Syrian precipitation is a combination of natural variability and long-term drying trend, and the unusual severity of the observed drought is here shown to be highly unlikely without the trend. Precipitation changes in Syria are linked to rising mean sea-level pressure in the Eastern Mediterranean, which also shows a long-term trend. Compared to the natural variability alone, the trend has made the occurrence of such a severe drought eight times more likely. There has been also a long-term warming trend in Syria, adding to the drawdown of soil moisture. No natural cause is apparent for these trends, whereas the observed drying and warming are consistent with observed increases in greenhouse gases. Furthermore, model studies show an increasingly drier and hotter future mean climate for the Eastern Mediterranean. The severity and duration of the recent Syrian drought, implicated as a cause of the current conflict, is highly likely to be a consequence of human interference in the climate system.
Javier Lion Bustillo
Full Text Available The risk of Syrian civil war violence spreading towards Lebanon is high. This can be explained by various factors deriving as much from the neighbouring conflict as from other existing factors in Lebanese politics, which have led to the significant collaboration of Lebanon’s Future Movement and Hezbollah with their respective allies in Syria, and to undermining Najib Mikati’s dissociation policies. However, the leaders of those parties tend to balance their will to preserve their confessional leadership with an image of being the defender of national interests. This limits the possibility of an openly sectarian conflict, but it does not totally eliminate it.
Pitre, Mindy C; Koliński, Rafał; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz
Cereal grinding has been practiced in Mesopotamia since the Upper Palaeolithic. While evidence of cereal grinding is clear from the archaeological and textual records, what remains unclear is whether the activity leaves signs on the skeleton in the form of markers of occupational stress (MOS). A particular constellation of MOS (e.g., osteoarthritis, traumatic injuries, and accessory articular facets) has previously been used to infer the habitual grinding of grain. These same MOS were recently observed in the skeleton of a female discovered in the Middle Bronze Age cemetery at Tell Arbid, NE Syria. Through differential diagnosis our results suggest that it remains problematic to identify grain-processing activities from the skeleton, even when a bioarchaeological approach is carried out.
Merkin, Rebecca S; Ramadan, Reem
This study highlights Syrian communication practices using comparative tests with the United States communication as a baseline. Additionally, theoretical findings on individualism and collectivism theory are extended to include findings from Syria. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance was used to test culture's effect in demographically similar (in age, SES, and education) student convenience samples, with the covariate communication adaptability, on dependent variables: empathy, social confirmation, social composure, friendships, non-verbal immediacy, social self-efficacy, and general self-efficacy. Results indicated that Syrians possess more empathy, social confirmation, and perceived general self-efficacy in comparison to U.S. citizens who have greater social composure, friendships, non-verbal immediacy and social self-efficacy. These results indicate that Syrians have the strength of self-efficacy to succeed in intercultural relationships while U.S. Americans have the assets of warmth and sociability to enable successful interactions with Syrians.
In February 1982, Syrian President Assad's military and security forces surrounded, assaulted, and leveled the fourth largest city in Syria, Hama, killing between 5,000-25,000 Syrians in less than three weeks...
From 1985 to 1991, Syria experienced a severe economic crisis. In response, the regime of Hafiz al-Asad implemented economic reforms designed to move the Syrian economy toward free-market capitalism...
Gavin David White
Full Text Available Palestine refugees in Syria find themselves once more engulfed in a cycle of conflict and displacement that exacerbates their underlying vulnerability and highlights the ongoing need for durable solutions.
fighters in Aziza, near Aleppo in April, 2013 A FP P H O TO G U ILLA U M E B R IQ U ET SYRIA’S SALAFI NETWORKS SYRIA SUPPLEMENTAL FEATURES | 47 to...that a Muslim ruler, even if flawed , must be obeyed. These likely represent the largest group of Syrian Salafists. Many tra- ditional Salafists follow...moderate Salafists in Syria will likely be tested by similar disagreements and challenges concerning political participation as were faced by their
In International Historical Sociology, states and states systems co-constitute each other. While IHS focuses on state formation, this paper argues that state de-formation, and in its extremes, state failure, is also “co-constituted.” In Syria and Iraq, state failure was co-constituted through an interaction between internal insurgencies and the Western interventions aiming at regime change. Iraq and Syria were created by Western imperialism as weak states suffering from identity fragmentation...
but relatively less populated areas of northeast and central Syria, including most of the Euphrates River valley and some areas adjacent to Syria’s... chemical weapons and toxic chemicals as weapons of war since late 2012. Several governments—including the government of Syria and the United States—have...some cases confirms and in others suggests that chemical weapons and/or toxic chemicals have been used in attacks. Syrian civilians, opposition
Full Text Available The sale of oil and gas is one of the most important components of the Syrian economy. Unfortunately, since the discovery of these resources, the Syrian people have not benefited from the revenues earned. This study deals with the development of oil and gas production and the geographical distribution of fields, as well as production control, deterioration of production, refining and selling mechanisms, and the resulting health and environmental impacts following Islamic State’s (IS control of the majority of oilfields in Syria. Since summer 2015, IS controls 80% of the fields with a production of 65,000 barrels per day (b/d; the Assad regime controls 8% of fields with 10,000 b/d; and Kurdish forces dominate the remaining 12% with 25,000 b/d. IS depends on oil as a major source of financing for its military and civilian activities, and has also managed to set up an extensive network of middlemen in neighbouring territories and countries, with the aim of trading crude oil for cash and other resources. IS produces and exports within its areas of control and sells part of the oil to the Assad regime, and another portion to the liberated areas, as well as to Iraq and Turkey.
Tjarsono, Idjang; khsan, Fadhly
This research is intended to analyze the Saudi Arabia foreign policy toward Syria Crisis. In March 2011,Student of a School in Syria had written anti-governent slogan on their Schools wall. Syrian Police arrested tand tortured them as punishment to the Student, this action cause Syria people movement to protest the government regime and ask for freedom and democratic transformation. In this case, Syria government tried to handle demonstration with the military action, This conflict increase...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8460] Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria... Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used...: (1) Determined that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of international...
Kharita, M H; Khazzam, S
The radiation doses to patient in computed tomography (CT) in Syria have been investigated and compared with similar studies in different countries. This work surveyed 30 CT scanners from six different manufacturers distributed all over Syria. Some of the results in this paper were part of a project launched by the International Atomic Energy Agency in different regions of the world covering Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. The dose quantities covered are CT dose index (CTDI(w)), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (E) and collective dose. It was found that most CTDI(w) and DLP values were similar to the European reference levels and in line with the results of similar surveys in the world. The results were in good agreement with the UNSCEAR Report 2007. This study concluded a recommendation for national diagnostic reference level for the most common CT protocols in Syria. The results can be used as a base for future optimisation studies in the country.
Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney donors and recipients with a focus upon transplants since 2003. Results: The kidney transplant rate has increased from 7 kidney transplants per million populations in 2002 to more than 17 in 2007. In the meantime, a substantial decline in the rate of kidney transplantation performed on Syrian nationals abroad was observed from 65% of all kidney transplantations in 1998 to less than 2% in 2007. Despite the prohibition to buy a kidney in Syria, vendors had found ways to sell their kidneys through disreputable brokers. Potential related donors were not inclined to donate kidneys to their relatives as long as kidneys could be bought from a non-related donor. By 2008, the percent of related donors in private sector represented only 8% of all donors, as compared to 50% in public hospitals. Consequently, in January 2008, the government of Syria issued a pronouncement restricting kidney transplantation to the public sector with a new national regulatory oversight of transplantation practices. Since this 2008 Administrative Order was promulgated, the kidney transplant rate in public hospitals has substantially increased by 55% with the establishment of new public transplant centers in the 3 largest cities in Syria. Conclusion: The recommendations of the Istanbul Declaration and the Revised Guiding Principles of the World Health Organization have yet to be implemented in Syria but the expansion of kidney transplants in the public sector is an important initial step for initiating a deceased
Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney donors and recipients with a focus upon transplants since 2003. The kidney transplant rate has increased from 7 kidney transplants per million populations in 2002 to more than 17 in 2007. In the meantime, a substantial decline in the rate of kidney transplantation performed on Syrian nationals abroad was observed from 65% of all kidney transplantations in 1998 to less than 2% in 2007. Despite the prohibition to buy a kidney in Syria, vendors had found ways to sell their kidneys through disreputable brokers. Potential related donors were not inclined to donate kidneys to their relatives as long as kidneys could be bought from a non-related donor. By 2008, the percent of related donors in private sector represented only 8% of all donors, as compared to 50% in public hospitals. Consequently, in January 2008, the government of Syria issued a pronouncement restricting kidney transplantation to the public sector with a new national regulatory oversight of transplantation practices. Since this 2008 Administrative Order was promulgated, the kidney transplant rate in public hospitals has substantially increased by 55% with the establishment of new public transplant centers in the 3 largest cities in Syria. The recommendations of the Istanbul Declaration and the Revised Guiding Principles of the World Health Organization have yet to be implemented in Syria but the expansion of kidney transplants in the public sector is an important initial step for initiating a deceased organ donation program as an essential component of
Burcu Togral Koca
Turkey has followed an "open door" policy towards refugees from Syria since the March 2011 outbreak of the devastating civil war in Syria. This â€œliberalâ€ policy has been accompanied by a â€œhumanitarian discourseâ€ regarding the admission and accommodation of the refugees. In such a context, it is widely claimed that Turkey has not adopted a securitization strategy in its dealings with the refugees. However, this article argues that the stated â€œopen doorâ€ approach and its limitations ha...
Albache, Nizar; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considerable public health problem, but data on the prevalence and correlates of T2DM in Syria are scarce. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable estimates of the prevalence of T2DM in Syria. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in Aleppo, Syria (population 2.5 million), in 2006. The study was conducted on a random sample of 1168 subjects ≥25 years of age (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information regarding a personal history of diabetes and other risk factors was collected, followed by measurement of weight, height, and the waist:hip ratio (WHR). Of the 1168 participants, 806 provided fasting blood samples that were analyzed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c. The prevalence of T2DM based on FPG ≥126 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥6.5% was 15.6% (11.2% self-reported; 5.0% diagnosed) and 14.8%, respectively. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG ≥110 and Syria. Many of those with T2DM are unaware of their disease and most have unsatisfactory control of their disease. © 2009 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Silver, Minna; Rinaudo, Fulvio; Morezzi, Emanuele; Quenda, Francesca; Moretti, Maria Laura
CIPA is contributing with its technical knowledge in saving the heritage of Syria by constructing an open access database based on the data that the CIPA members have collected during various projects in Syria over the years before the civil war in the country broke out in 2011. In this way we wish to support the protection and preservation of the environment, sites, monuments, and artefacts and the memory of the cultural region that has been crucial for the human past and the emergence of civilizations. Apart from the countless human atrocities and loss, damage, destruction and looting of the cultural heritage have taken place in a large scale. The CIPA's initiative is one of the various international projects that have been set up after the conflict started. The Directorate-General of the Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) of Syria as well as UNESCO with its various sub-organizations have been central in facing the challenges during the war. Digital data capture, storage, use and dissemination are in the heart of CIPA's strategies in recording and documenting cultural heritage, also in Syria. It goes without saying that for the conservation and restoration work the high quality data providing metric information is of utmost importance.
Haydar, F.; Pediaditi, K.
Syria is a country experiencing rapid change, undergoing a process of political and governance decentralisation, opening its markets to the private sector, and experiencing a rise in infrastructure development. In light of these economic growth targeted changes, knowledge of the status and capacity of the Syrian EIA system to ensure environmental protection becomes of paramount importance. Syria first introduced EIA as a Draft Decree in 1995, which was not formally adopted until 2008. To date, no structured evaluation of Syria's EIA system has been conducted, a knowledge gap addressed through this paper. The research presented herein comprises a review and comparative evaluation of Syrian legislation and procedures, to the EU EIA Directive and World Bank Operational Directive, as well as a series of interviews with Syrian stakeholders involved in EIA implementation. The investigation concluded that the new EIA provisions provide a sound legal basis. From interviews however, it was ascertained that EIA implementation faces a number of barriers such as, a lack of EIA integration into existing decision making and licensing processes and persistent exclusion of public projects from EIA. A number of recommendations are proposed, perceived necessary for the enhancement of EIA implementation in Syria.
Al Ali, Radwan; Mzayek, Fawaz; Rastam, Samer; M Fouad, Fouad; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Maziak, Wasim
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Estimating the future burden of diabetes is instrumental to guide the public health response to the epidemic. This study aims to project the prevalence of T2DM among adults in Syria over the period 2003-2022 by applying a modelling approach to the country's own data. Future prevalence of T2DM in Syria was estimated among adults aged 25 years and older for the period 2003-2022 using the IMPACT Diabetes Model (a discrete-state Markov model). According to our model, the prevalence of T2DM in Syria is projected to double in the period between 2003 and 2022 (from 10% to 21%). The projected increase in T2DM prevalence is higher in men (148%) than in women (93%). The increase in prevalence of T2DM is expected to be most marked in people younger than 55 years especially the 25-34 years age group. The future projections of T2DM in Syria put it amongst countries with the highest levels of T2DM worldwide. It is estimated that by 2022 approximately a fifth of the Syrian population aged 25 years and older will have T2DM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is the world's leading information system on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology and it is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. An overview of INIS products, services, philosophy and operation is given. INIS hold a database containing over 3 million references increasing at approximately 100,000 references per year and a collection of full text non-conventional, or grey literature that would be hard to obtain elsewhere. INIS national center in Syria is considered as a regional center for INIS inputs preparation. The center is responsible for selecting the relevant nuclear literature produced and published in Syria and preparing the national inputs and send them to INIS Secretariat to be included in the INIS database. The center also provides INIS services and products to users within Syria. Availability of INIS Database on CD-ROMs, which updated monthly, and the internet version, which updated weekly, and the NCL collections are also presented. Finally, translation activity of the center, such as INIS Booklet entitled Presenting INIS , INIS Database Interface, and the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic were mentioned. This was an in-kind contribution from the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria to support the valuable work of the INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) section and will contribute significantly the dissemination of information among the researchers and scientists in the Arab Countries. (author)
-2011 Syria. However, it argues that repetition need not be conceptualised as dulling and inhibiting for the devotee. Rather, repetition can be seen like a heartbeat: something alive and pulsating. The repetition of the prayers among the followers is seen as unforced, a voluntary response to a grace...
The development of civil society institutions in Syria has been largely controlled by the governing regime, never reaching the level of inclusion, participation, and pluralism needed to achieve an open and democratic society. In order for Syrians to work towards an inclusive and pluralistic society that respects human rights, ...
Full Text Available CIPA is contributing with its technical knowledge in saving the heritage of Syria by constructing an open access database based on the data that the CIPA members have collected during various projects in Syria over the years before the civil war in the country broke out in 2011. In this way we wish to support the protection and preservation of the environment, sites, monuments, and artefacts and the memory of the cultural region that has been crucial for the human past and the emergence of civilizations. Apart from the countless human atrocities and loss, damage, destruction and looting of the cultural heritage have taken place in a large scale. The CIPA’s initiative is one of the various international projects that have been set up after the conflict started. The Directorate-General of the Antiquities and Museums (DGAM of Syria as well as UNESCO with its various sub-organizations have been central in facing the challenges during the war. Digital data capture, storage, use and dissemination are in the heart of CIPA’s strategies in recording and documenting cultural heritage, also in Syria. It goes without saying that for the conservation and restoration work the high quality data providing metric information is of utmost importance.
Full Text Available The struggles endured by men who remain inside Syria and the obstacles faced by others who choose to remove themselves from the fighting by fleeing the country demonstrate a need to redefine classic conceptions of vulnerability and to consider civilian men and their needs as part of a solution rather than a problem.
Aarts, P.; Cavatorta, F.
What are the dynamics of civic activism in authoritarian regimes? How do new social actors--many of them informal, "below the radar" groups--interact with these regimes? What mechanisms do the power elite employ to deal with societal dissidence? The authors of Civil Society in Syria and Iran explore
Schrøder, Niels; Jensen, Gitte; Limborg, Magnus
the main changes in human activities in the areas. It also confirms that the climatic histories of the sites are closely correlated - with strong ties to global causes of climate change. The NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) caused contrasting rainfall conditions in Denmark and Levant. Over a period of one......Classical sites for studies of human occupation and climatic changes in Denmark and Syria - have been re-examined. A detailed geological/geophysical mapping of selected sites and geochemical /palynological analysis of cores/profiles confirms that climate change has been the decisive factor behind....... The changes in human occupation in Syria and in Denmark both seems to correlate with the proxies of climate change esp. the change from Atlantic to Subboreal around 4000BC, the change from Subboreal to Subatlantic around 500 BC are marked in as well the climate record and archaeological records (monsoon...
Full Text Available Hezbollah has been an important political and military actor in Lebanon and the Middle East since the mid-1980s. Its popularity grew especially after successfully deterring the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 2006. With the emergence of the so-called Arab Spring, however, the party’s popularity declined for many reasons. One of these was its military intervention in Syria on the side of the Syrian government. This event has been interpreted in various ways, sometimes explaining it as religiously-motivated decision, due to Hezbollah’s strong affiliation to Shia Islam. This empirical research finds that, on the contrary, Hezbollah’s intervention is politically rather than religiously motivated. The data presented here shows that Hezbollah politicizes certain aspects of the religious sensitivities in the region in order to mobilize troops, yet, a study of its military activities inside Syria indicates that Hezbollah actually follows its political and geostrategic interests.
Ali, Ali Yaseen
The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
the export of liquid petroleum gas ( LPG ) to Syria, since it is widely used by ordinary households for heating and cooking. Since new sanctions were...MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution ...chemical weapons program suggests that nerve gas and mustard gas production and storage infrastructure is concentrated at facilities in and around Al
Full Text Available Prefabrication is a manufacturing process conducted at a specialized facility, in which various materials are joined to form a component part of the final installation. Prefabrication techniques have been progressively adopted in the construction industry in various countries. The demand was at its peak in the early 1970s in Eastern and Western Europe for the construction of new towns. Worldwide, the highest precast levels in 1996 were located in Denmark (43%, the Netherlands (40%, Sweden and Germany (31%. In Asia, the precast levels in Japan and Singapore were about 15% and 8%, respectively, recently, the use of prefabrication is further encouraged to increase productivity and build ability. In Syria too, the first residential project in Damascus: the establishment of 2400 housing units in the year (77-80. Except that the rate of construction pre-cast in Syria is still not exceed 2% of Building of reinforced concrete. In order to participate in the reconstruction of Syria, after the destruction and devastation caused by the war over four years, this search evaluates successful international experiences in rapid construction technique, and modeled system that could serve the current Syrian reality. Introduction of this technology as a new method in the world of construction in Syria requires a good base, relying on the availability of the necessary raw materials and nearness of work site, as well as the need to replace old technology into modern technology, and analyzing the economic, social, environmental criteria, to make the decision about the best solution. Cost and time will form the most important indicators that will be analyzed and calculated, before the final model mode, in order to be able to use this system later in Syrian construction companies.
as many as 12,000 foreign fighters have travelled to Syria, including more than 1,000 Europeans, and more than 100 U.S. citizens .2 Previous U.S...executions of U.S. citizens James Foley and Stephen Sotloff suggest the group is attempting to portray itself as responding to U.S. aggression, a...Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.33 Increased cooperation between Damascus and Baghdad could alter the dynamics in both conflicts. It could
strike a known Syrian military unit.” 32 Britain, Denmark, and Australia have also acknowledged that their aircraft participated in the strike...identity of the people of Syria, particularly those living in neighboring countries and among the youth , and promote the use of traditional art, music... unemployment , high inflation, limited upward mobility, rampant corruption, lack of political freedoms, and repressive security forces. These factors fueled
Al-Mariri, A.; Abou-Younes, A.
The 66 milk collected from all province of Syria, were examined for the presence of Listeria sp. using a several technique, and L. monocytogenes serotypes associated with human listeriosis were also identified in the product. The PCR based method identified 117 strains of Listeria, L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. gravi, and L. welshimeri. The API Listeria system identified 94% of the isolates whereas FTIR identification was 98% for all Listeria species. (author)
Mateiciucová, Inna; Milo, Peter; Tencer, Tomáš; Vlach, Marek
From August 25 to September 4, 2008, geophysical surveys were carried out at the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron Age tell- and non-tell settlements in the Khabur region in Northeastern Syria (Syrian-Polish-Czech expedition) (Fig. 1). Four sites were prospected: Tell Arbid Abyad, Tell Arbid (West-hill), Khirbet Shane, Khirbet Bezi. The Scintrex Navmag SM-5 – Caesium Magnetometer was used for the measurement of the vertical gradient of the local magnetic field. The measurement resoluti...
Alachkar, Amal; Jaddouh, Ahmad; Elsheikh, Muhammad Salem; Bilia, Anna Rita; Vincieri, Franco Francesco
The use of Traditional Arabic Medicine (TAM) for various diseases has been popular but scarcely studied in Syria. In the present study, we carried out ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological research on the plants traditionally used to cure various diseases in northern Syria. The information was collected from the city and villages of the Aleppo governorate "Mohaafazah" in the north of Syria, collecting data directly on the basis of a detailed survey of inhabitants and herbalists. In this survey, we found that hundreds of plant species are still in use in TAM for the treatment of various diseases. We selected the most common 100 species, used in the treatment of more than 25 diseases. Among these plants, 53 are used for treating gastrointestinal disorders, 38 for respiratory system diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and cough, 34 for skin diseases, 21 for diabetes, 17 for kidney and urinary disorders, 16 for cardiac disorders, 14 for infertility and sexual impotency, 13 for treating liver diseases, 13 for several types of cancer, 9 for enhancing breast milk excretion, 8 for weight loss, 5 for reducing cholesterol, and three for weight gain. Plants were collected and identified: scientific Latin names, local names, the used parts of the plant, the herbal preparations and the local medical uses are described. Scientific literature concerning the activity of the investigated species is also reported and discussed according to their traditional uses.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Kalam, Faiza
Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15-18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females). Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.
Full Text Available introduction. Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. objective. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. materials and method. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15–18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females. Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. results. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. conclusion. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.
T. V. Verbitskaia
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of problematic issues of the change of modern international relations system. It was found that such changes have affected the very essence of international relations: actors (the emergence of non-governmental actors, the importance of which is increasing, methods (the scope of military diplomacy has been expanded, objects (the nature of armed confl icts, both international and non-international, has been changed; the concept of international crime is determined by the danger posed to the international community. The author sets time frameworks of the changes, studies the characteristics of international system and its elements. The study focuses on the phenomenon of military diplomacy and criteria of its effectiveness. These criteria for the effectiveness of military diplomacy are applied to the Russia’s actions in Syria as part of its fi ght against international terrorism. The key documents of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic are analyzed. The research is focused on Russian measures in its war against terror in Syria. The author posits that Russia’s actions in Syria represent a model which refl ects the role of non-governmental actors in world politics, the methods used in international affairs and the specifi cs of international crimes.
... Order 13582 of August 17, 2011 Blocking Property of the Government of Syria and Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to Syria By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws... additional steps with respect to the Government of Syria's continuing escalation of violence against the...
... to the Actions of the Government of Syria Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice... of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8545] Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the... determination was made that the Government of Syria used chemical weapons in violation of international law or... sanctions against the Government of Syria. Section 307(b) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...
... the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria...
... to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty...
... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria... Government of Syria. To deal with this national emergency, Executive Order 13338 authorized the blocking of...
... the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria...
Syria and Turkey differ in styles of government and patterns of media use. Syria is governed by a military junta; factionalism, intolerance of opposition, and the lack of any options except the use of force to gain political power, have inhibited political stability. Syrian newspapers have low credibility and are characterized by low standards,…
Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim
This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…
Building a Vision for the Transition in Syria. The development of civil society institutions in Syria has been largely controlled by the governing regime, never reaching the level of inclusion, participation, and pluralism needed to achieve an open and democratic society. In order for Syrians to work towards an inclusive and ...
Full Text Available Historical process between Syria and Turkey has always high tension. According to Turkey, Syria is the country,which has hosted the Turkish enemies, which causes problems in the sharing of water resources and geographically it is seen as ‘’enemy country’’ because of interfering in Turkey's territorial integrity; According to Syria, Turkey is "enemy" is because it doesn’t share water resources in a fair way and as supporters of western countries, claiming rights over their territory (Hatay. In short, for many years strained relations with Syria-Turkey relations , by signing of the Treaty of Adana in 1998, good relations has been established with unpredictable speed in a short time . Escalating positive relations between Turkey and Syria in the years 1998-2011, and relations has again strained the outbreak of the Syria Civil War in 2011, and was even worse off period before 1998. Therefore the main goal of this study "Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in terms of Social Geography" is to examine the dynamics of it. For this purpose, treaties defining the Turkey-Syria relationship, the protocols, briefings given by officials were examined. Historical background of the two countries' relations in terms of social geography has been tried to put forward in chronological order
...-04 of January 29, 2013--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Relating to Syria Memorandum of... Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Relating to Syria Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the... 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C...
OVERSEAS CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS Observations on the Use of Force Management Levels in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria... OPERATIONS Observations on the Use of Force Management Levels in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria What GAO Found Military officials planning for...and executing operations under force management levels have taken various actions to maximize military capabilities deployed to countries under those
Alburaki, Mohamed; Bertrand, Bénédicte; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Alburaki, Ali; Sheppard, Walter Steven; Garnery, Lionel
Apiculture has been practiced in North Africa and the Middle-East from antiquity. Several thousand years of selective breeding have left a mosaic of Apis mellifera subspecies in the Middle-East, many uniquely adapted and survived to local environmental conditions. In this study we explore the genetic diversity of A. mellifera from Syria (n = 1258), Lebanon (n = 169) and Iraq (n = 35) based on 14 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the context of reference populations from throughout the Old World (n = 732). Our data suggest that the Syrian honeybee Apis mellifera syriaca occurs in both Syrian and Lebanese territories, with no significant genetic variability between respective populations from Syria and Lebanon. All studied populations clustered within a new fifth independent nuclear cluster, congruent with an mtDNA Z haplotype identified in a previous study. Syrian honeybee populations are not associated with Oriental lineage O, except for sporadic introgression into some populations close to the Turkish and Iraqi borders. Southern Syrian and Lebanese populations demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity compared to the northern populations. This study revealed the effects of foreign queen importations on Syrian bee populations, especially for the region of Tartus, where extensive introgression of A. m. anatolica and/or A. m. caucasica alleles were identified. The policy of creating genetic conservation centers for the Syrian subspecies should take into consideration the influence of the oriental lineage O from the northern Syrian border and the large population of genetically divergent indigenous honeybees located in southern Syria.
Al-Charideh, A.; Abou Zakhem, B.
Chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were monitored at 12 stations distributed over the entire region in Syria for a period of 4 years from December 1999 to April 2003. Amount of precipitation and mean air temperature of rain monthly were also recorded. The conductivity of rain waters varies between 35 μ/cm in the mountainous stations and 336 μ/cm at Deir Az-Zor station. Excepted Tartous station, the mean value of Cl in the rainfall in all station is 3.8 mg/l. The seasonal variations in δ 18 O are smaller at west stations than to the east stations due to low seasonal temperature variations. All stations are characterized by water lines with slopes significantly lower than GMWL, except Bloudan, suggesting the influence of local factors on the isotopic composition of the precipitation. d-excess values decrease from 19% in the western part to 13% in the eastern part of Syria, indicating the influence of the precipitation generated by the air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea over Syria. A reliable altitude effect represent by depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about -0.21, and -1.47, per 100 m elevation of 18 O and δ 2 H, respectively. Monthly tritium activity and seasonal variations pattern are low in the west stations than at the east stations. The weighted mean tritium values are between 3 to 9 TU during 2000-2003, and it is increasing with distance from the Syrian coast by 1 TU /100 Km. (author)
Murad, Hossam; Moasses, Faten; Dabboul, Amir; Mukhalalaty, Yasser; Bakoor, Ahmad Omar; Al-Achkar, Walid; Jarjour, Rami A
Objectives β-Thalassemia disease is caused by mutations in the β-globin gene. This is considered as one of the common genetic disorders in Syria. The aim of this study was to identify the geographical distribution of the β-thalassemia mutations in Syria. Methods β-Globin gene mutations were characterized in 636 affected patients and 94 unrelated carriers using the amplification refractory mutations system-polymerase chain reaction technique and DNA sequencing. Results The study has revealed the presence of 38 β-globin gene mutations responsible for β-thalassemia in Syria. Important differences in regional distribution were observed. IVS-I.110 [G > A] (22.2%), IVS-I.1 [G > A] (17.8%), Cd 39 [C > T] (8.2%), IVS-II.1 [G > A] (7.6%), IVS-I.6 [T > C] (7.1%), Cd 8 [-AA] (6%), Cd 5 [-CT] (5.6%) and IVS-I.5 [G > C] (4.1%) were the eight predominant mutations found in our study. The coastal region had higher relative frequencies (37.9 and 22%) than other regions. A clear drift in the distribution of the third common Cd 39 [C > T] mutation in the northeast region (34.8%) to the northwest region (2.5%) was noted, while the IVS-I.5 [G > C] mutation has the highest prevalence in north regions. The IVS-I.6 [T > C] mutation had a distinct frequency in the middle region. Ten mutations -86 [C > G], -31 [A > G], -29 [A > G], 5'UTR; +22 [G > A], CAP + 1 [A > C], Codon 5/6 [-TG], IVS-I (-3) or codon 29 [C > T], IVS-I.2 [T > A], IVS-I.128 [T > G] and IVS-II.705 [T > G] were found in Syria for the first time. Conclusions These data will significantly facilitate the population screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in Syrian population.
Very little information is available to IAEA on the geology and uranium potential of Syria. In 1975 a contract was awarded to Huntings Geology and Geophysics Ltd by the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources to carry out a study of the country's mineral resources with particular reference to phosphate uranium, chrome and industrial materials. The results of this survey are not known. Apart from the assumption of some possibility of uranium recovery as a by-product from phosphate production it is assumed that the Speculative Potential is likely to be less than 1000 tonnes uranium. (author)
Çelikel, Adnan; Karaarslan, Bekir; Demirkıran, Dua Sümeyra; Zeren, Cem; Arslan, Muhammet Mustafa
A considerable number of deaths due to firearm injuries have occurred during wars all over the world. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate demographic characteristics and injury properties of cases died during civil war in Syria. The postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 321 forensic deaths occurred between January and December 2012 were analyzed, retrospectively. Of the 321 forensic deaths,186 cases were injured and died in the civil war in Syria and, therefore, included in the scope of the study. Four cases died by natural causes or traffic accidents were excluded. Cases were most commonly (n=73, 39.2%) aged between 21 and 30 years, and 21.5% (n=40) of cases aged under 20 years. Of females, 68.8% (n=11) were children and young adults under 20 years of age. An overwhelming majority of deaths (n=125, 67.2%) were caused by explosive and shrapnel injuries, followed by (n=49, 26.3%) gunshot injuries related deaths. This study indicated that a significant proportion of those who died after being injured in the Syrian war were children, women and elderly people. The nature and localization of the observed injuries indicated open attacks by military forces regardless of targets being civilians and human rights violations.
Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Bahelah, Raed; Fouad, Fouad M; Coutts, Adam; Wilcox, Meredith; Maziak, Wasim
To document the ongoing destruction as a result of the tragic events in Syria, to understand the changing health care needs and priorities of Syrians. A directed examination of the scientific literature and reports about Syria before and during the Syrian conflict, in addition to analyzing literature devoted to the relief and rebuilding efforts in crisis situations. The ongoing war has had high direct war casualty, but even higher suffering due to the destruction of health system, displacement, and the breakdown of livelihood and social fabric. Millions of Syrians either became refugees or internally displaced, and about half of the population is in urgent need for help. Access to local and international aid organizations for war-affected populations is an urgent and top priority. Syrians continue to endure one of the biggest human tragedies in modern times. The extent of the crisis has affected all aspects of Syrians' life. Understanding the multi-faceted transition of the Syrian population and how it reflects on their health profile can guide relief and rebuilding efforts' scope and priorities.
Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.
13 meteoric stations were selected in syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the syrian or local meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.63 and that of both syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude was determined by 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14% and - 0.84%/100 m elevation respectively). The spatial variability of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content of precipitation, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern mediterranean climate type over this region. (author)
Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R; Jubeli, Y.
The values and distribution of the radioelements e U, e Th, % K and Ur units in the surface geological formations of the west and south sectors of Syrian region, were estimated using carbone gamma ray spectrometric survey. The radiometric maps were prepared, as well as, many geological profiles, cross sections studied in different locations and geochemical samples were analyzed by laboratory gamma ray spectrometry and by x-ray diffractometry, the results of the all sets were compared. In general, the survey shows, low radioelement concentrations in the area, especially on basic rocks (Jabal Al-arab, Hawran) south Syria, and on ultra basic rocks (ophiolitic complex) north-west Syria, but there are some separate anomalous spots were connected with phosphate rocks, detected on cretaceous and Palaeogene age. Some times we noticed high radioelement concentrations haloes associated with fractured zones were already arise from secondary uranium mineralization, as a result of solutions movement through fissures in carbonatic and/or chalk like limestone rocks. finally, the obtained concentrations, represent a background values which has no significant importance for uranium exploration point of view. (author)
Al-Masri, M. S.; Shaik Khalil, H.
Lead 210 atmospheric fluxes were determined by collecting 51 profiles from Syrian soil during 1998. Lead 210 fluxes in Syria calculated from lead 210 inventory in soil ranged from 15 Bq.m -2 .y -1 and 407 Bq.m -2 .y -1 with an average value of 128 Bq.m -2 .y -1 . the highest fluxes were found to be in Hama area due to the Gaab fault, which is considered as a radon source in the area. In addition, fluxes were also high in most sites, which are located in Syria valleys and around the lakes. Moreover, the study has indicated that there is no linear relation between lead 210 flux values and other parameters such as annual rainfall and bulk density of the soil. On the other hand, an effect, of those two factors on lead 210 distribution with depth has been observed. In addition, the results of variable lead 210 fluxes from site to another have proved that it is necessary, in order to obtain a representative mean value of lead 210 flux obtained in this study is within the worldwide range for lead 210 flux. (Author)
This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.
Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim
This report provides the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Syria, where such data are still scarce. A population-based household survey was conducted in Aleppo (population >2.5 million), involving 1,168 subjects ≥25 years old (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information about socio-demographics, personal behavior, and other CVD risk factors was collected. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained. The prevalence of clinical risk factors of CVD (ClinRFs) was 45.6% for hypertension, 43.2% for obesity, 21.9% for hypercholesterolemia and 15.6% for diabetes. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors (BehRFs) was 82.3% for physical inactivity, 39.0% for smoking, and 33.4% for unhealthy diet. All ClinRFs increased with age, while gender was associated only with obesity and smoking. Education was associated with obesity and diabetes (P Syria have some of the world's highest prevalence of CVD risk factors. Unhealthy behaviors and social norms unfavorable to women may explain some of such risk profiles.
Stillinger, Michele D.
The ancient city-state of Urkesh, located at Tell Mozan, Syria, was the political and religious center of the Hurrians, a unique culture that inhabited the northern Syro-Mesopotamian region during the 3rd millennium BCE. The chronology of Urkesh has been divided into seven primary occupational phases, dating from the Early Dynastic II period (2800--2500 BCE) to the Middle Babylonian/ Mitanni Period (1500--1300 BCE). The site has provided an abundance of distinguishing ceramics, seals, seal impressions, and cuneiform tablets, which serve as the foundation for the Urkesh chronology. Working under the assumption that the archaeologically derived chronology at Mozan was reliable, this research tested the accuracy of archaeomagnetic dating using pottery samples from six successive occupational phases. Samples underwent a suite of magnetic mineral characterization tests and archaeointensity measurements using the Thellier-style absolute paleointensity technique of Tauxe and Staudigel (2004). Archaeointensity experiments displayed an 88% success rate and 80% of the samples correlated well with their archaeologically determined dates. A small subset of samples appeared to indicate a possible intensity spike occurring around 2000 BCE. The final results refine the archaeointensity curve for Syria between 2350 and 1200 BCE.
Shweikani, R.; Suman, H.
The work described in this paper is concerning the regulatory control set by the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) for the contaminated sites with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in the oil industries in the northeast of Syria. These sites lie in a desert region with poor population density and low occupancy. The decision was made to use the activity concentration of 226 Ra per unit mass as a measure to identify the need for cleanup. Two limits were set for this purpose so that contamination concentration above the higher limit is defined as waste that has to be excavated from the site, while contamination concentration between the two limits can be dealt with on site. Contamination concentration below the lower limit was looked at as acceptable. Remediation plan to transfer the contaminated soil, with radium concentration over the higher limit, to an engineered disposal pit was adopted. Proper stabilisation measures and environmental monitoring programme were requested by the AECS and considered as essential parts of the remediation plan. (author)
Saeed, Bassam; Derani, Rania; Hajibrahim, Maher; Roumani, Jawad; Al-Shaer, Mohd Bassam; Saeed, Rida; Damerli, Sahar; Al-Saadi, Rebhi; Kayyal, Bachar; Haddad, Milad
In the absence of formal registry data, the volume and causes of organ failure in Syria are difficult to establish with certainty. However, we evaluated in this study the extent of organ failure by collecting data from health care authorities in different medical institutions who are involved in caring for patients with organ failure. Subsequently, we assessed the problem of the widening gap between organ supply and demand in our country and we highlighted the obstacles to initiating a national deceased donation program as a viable option to address the challenge of organ shortage. The estimated prevalence of corneal blindness in Syria is 2.3 per one thousand population. The estimated incidence of viral-induced cirrhosis is 49 - 67 per one million population (pmp); these include both HCV and HBV, which constitute the leading causes of liver failure. We estimated the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to be from 80 - 100 pmp. Obstacles to initiating a national deceased donation program include lack of awareness of the public at large and health care professionals to the importance of organ donation and transplantation. Other obstacles include lack of adequate resources in terms of finance, personnel and services and the unavailability of a national center for organ transplantation that influences public attitude, sets national guidelines and supervises all activities related to organ donation and transplantation.
Full Text Available Epidemic diseases that cause mass death has been one of the greatest fears of the society in the past century Usually due to poor living conditions, poverty, the inadequate treatment. Plague is one of them. Plague word is sometimes used synonymously with t he word tâûn, sometimes considered to be a greater sense of the Word plague. These outbreaks occured repeatedly in human society and many times occured between XIII - XV. centuries. Our research aims to examine the plague occured in Syria in the Mamluk state domination discussed period. One of the outbreaks have occured in the period between the years 1347 - 1351. Epidemic was looming at the same time with the European named the black death or large extinction. Many people have been killed in Syria as in other places where the epidemic has spread. Rumors about them are given in the source is situated in the form of the issuance of the number of people who died in one day and sometimes the total number of deaths took place at a given date range. In this study, we aimed to determine which is more severe than the others in the outbreak, to assess the rumor about the number of deaths from this cause, to reveal the difficulties of the funeral of the dead, to uncover practices that people do to get rid of this disease.
Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Nasser, R.
The regional radiometric gamma-ray spectrometry map of Syria, scaled 1/1000000, for surficial concentration of the total radioactivity (Ur), eU, eTh and %K was completely achieved after normalizing the airborne and carbon data sets to match each other. It worthy notice that, the anomalies found to be closely related to either phosphate and/or glauconite deposits. It is worth mentioning that throughout the survey work many scattered occurrences of secondary uranium mineralization were found as spots in some formations and phosphate rocks. Where this phenomena attributes to chemical and physical disseminating instead of accumulating the radioelements. So, that leads to a weak expectation for usual surface uranium deposits where attributed to the oxidizing condition. Then this expectation remains, as an open question requires answering through planning to subsurface prospecting. (Author)
Francioch, Gregory A
... for a sustainable, peaceful, and just international system of interactions between nation states. Syria and Lebanon pose some of the most challenging problems to policy makers working to achieve these conditions...
Francioch, Gregory A
.... Exploring the historical origin of nationalism and sectarianism in Ottoman Greater Syria prior to the outbreak of World War I in 1914, may offer important insights as to unique regional attitudes...
Keywords: Rotational grazing, full protection, continuous grazing species richness, species diversity, soil seed bank, Bayesian methods, Salsola vermiculata, seed longevity, rangeland management, Syria. Rangelands represent 70% of the semi-arid and arid Mediterranean land mass. It is a
Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.
The objective of this study is to determine isotopic characteristics of precipitation, the climatic and geographical conditions affecting isotopic composition in order to obtain the input function of groundwater to evaluate the water resources.13 meteoric stations were selected in Syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the Syrian meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.62 and that of both Syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude of 18 O was about 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14 % and -0.84% /100m respectively). The spatial distribution of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern Mediterranean climate type over this region.(author)
Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert
The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All
Dzvarai, Tatenda Jane
On August 21, 2013, a relatively large-scale chemical weapons attack was executed in the Ghouta area of Damascus, Syria. This incident was the culmination of a series of chemical attacks perpetrated by the Assad regime. Syria's use of chemical weapons violated its treaty commitments and customary international law, especially the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention that explicitly bans the use of chemical weapons. The attacks caused tensions within the United Nations Sec...
Shehab, Adwan; Mamkhair, Inrahim; Amr, Zuhair
Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...
Sharif A. Ismail
Conclusions: Five years into the crisis, some progress has been made in disease surveillance, but governance and coordination problems, variable immunization coverage, and the dynamic and indiscriminate nature of the conflict continue to pose a serious threat to population health in Syria and surrounding countries. The risk of major cross-border communicable disease outbreaks is high, and challenges for health in a post-conflict Syria are formidable.
Salamah, Salim; Heide-Jørgensen, Mette Lundsfryd
Introduction The Palestinian exile and distribution all over the geography of Syria goes back to 1947–1949 following the Arab-Israeli war on the land of Palestine and the displacement of at least 300,000 Palestinian refugees. In Syria, most of them settled in refugee tent camps with primitive buildings and limited or no infrastructure. Prior to the current-day Syrian crisis, these were urban quarters integrated with their urban surroundings, housing Syrians and Palestinians alike. Yet, August...
Grunow, Roland; Jacob, Daniela; Klee, Silke; Schlembach, Dietmar; Jackowski-Dohrmann, Sabine; Loenning-Baucke, Vera; Eberspächer, Bettina; Swidsinski, Sonja
A teenage woman migrating from Syria arrived in May 2015 in Germany. She gave birth to a healthy child in early 2016, but became febrile shortly after delivery. Blood cultures revealed Brucella melitensis. In retrospect, she reported contact with sheep in Syria and recurrent pain in the hip joints over about five months before diagnosis of brucellosis. We discuss consequences for adequate treatment of mother and child as well as for clinical and laboratory management. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.
Girgin, T.; Ozdogan, M.
Until recently, agricultural production in Syria has been an important source of revenue and food security for the country. At its peak, agriculture in Syria accounted for 25 percent of the country's GDP. In 2014, Syrian agriculture accounted for less than 5 percent of the GDP. This decline in agricultural productivity is the cause of a 3-year long drought that started in 2007, followed by a still-ongoing conflict that started in mid-2011. Using remote sensing tools, this paper focuses on the impact that the 2007-2010 drought had on agricultural production, as well as the impact that the ongoing conflict had on the agricultural production in northern Syria. Remote sensing is a powerful and great solution to study regions of the world that are hard-to-reach due to conflict and/or other limitations. It is particularly useful when studying a region that inaccessible due to an ongoing conflict, such as in northern Syria. Using multi-temporal Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images from August 2006, 2010 and 2014 and utilizing the neural networks algorithm, we assessed for agricultural output change in northern Syria. We conclude that the ongoing Syrian conflict has had a bigger impact on the agricultural output in northern Syria than the 3-year long drought.
Now that the United Nations resolution has been voted, the most complicated task begins: ensuring that Syria entirely and definitively gets rid of its chemical arsenal, which unfortunately has every chance of enduring. In this respect three scenarios are possible, each of which would have different repercussions for the region, notably regarding the Iranian nuclear issue, which is now being considered in a new light following Hassan Rohani's charm offensive. Yet, these consequences could also have a profound and lasting effect on the relationship between the United States and its allies. In the first scenario the agreement with Syria will be applied in a satisfactory manner, and could serve as a positive example to Iran, which might be more inclined to signing a nuclear deal. To date, Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Guide, has been wary of the ongoing negotiations, considering that it is impossible to trust the Western States whose sole objective is the downfall of the Iranian regime. Russia, buoyed by its new role in the region, would contribute in a more constructive manner to the resolution of the Iranian nuclear issue... Care must be taken, however, as Iran could just as well conclude as a result of the events of the summer of 2013, particularly from U.S. procrastination, that Western States are not willing to use force in the Middle East, and thus on the contrary draw out the negotiations without fearing the possibility of a U.S. strike. According to the second scenario, Syria will not implement the agreement, the crisis will be renewed, and will end with a Western strike, most probably without a U.N. mandate. This scenario would boost the confidence of U.S. allies in the region, who have a tendency to doubt the United States' determination to defend them. This could be seen as a warning to Iran, but the lessons that Iran would take from this scenario would undoubtedly depend on the balance of power in Tehran at the time: the moderates would push for a
The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design
Full Text Available The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as to whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003 to 2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near-surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa.On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria (associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.
Pu, B.; Ginoux, P. A.
The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD) dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003-2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabian to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa. On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.
Pu, Bing; Ginoux, Paul
The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as to whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD) dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003 to 2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near-surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa.On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria (associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria) is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.
Full Text Available Hani Barakat1, Hanniya Barakat1, Mohamad K Baaj21Kalamoon Private University Medical School, Deir Attieh, Syria; 2Aleppo University Medical School, Aleppo, SyriaPurpose: Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria's cardiovascular disease (CVD epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian's health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally.Methods: PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates.Results: Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years.Conclusion: Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries.Keywords: Syria, CVD, obesity, risk
Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors that may be associated with acne among university students in Syria, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the Syrian International University for Science and Technology in December 2009. A sample of 500 students was chosen. Each participant was subjected to an interview and clinical examination of acne in addition to height and weight measurements. Acne prevalence was 34.7% (172/496. Male students had higher rate of acne compared to females (42.9% versus 23.6%, P<0.0001 and their acne started significantly at a younger age (18.13 versus 19.04 years old, P<0.0001. Face was the commonest site for acne in both males and females. Washing face frequently per day in both sexes has a significant relation with a decreased prevalence of acne. Moreover, psychological stress particularly when the students were away from family was associated with a significant higher rate of acne. We found that the prevalence of acne steadily increased with increasing body mass index. Acne is a health and psychological problem among university students particularly when affecting the face. Several factors such as gender, body mass index, and stress were found to be associated with acne formation.
Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed; AlSaleh, Yaser
The past 18 months have witnessed considerable turmoil in countries of the MENA region. The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR) is one such country, currently in the midst of a civil war. This report draws attention to some of the recent achievements of its health services, where, despite a dearth of published materials, the country achieved remarkable declines in maternal mortality and infant mortality rates. Its health sector now faces destruction from on-going violence compounded by economic sanctions that has affected access to health care, to medicines and to basic essentials as well as the destruction of infrastructure. This paper draws attention to the achievements of the country's health services and explores some of the consequences of conflict and of sanctions on population health. Readers need to be mindful that the situation on the ground in a civil war can alter on a daily basis. This is the case for Syria with much destruction of health facilities and increasing numbers of people killed and injured. We retain however our focus on the core theme of this paper which is on conflict and on sanctions.
Full Text Available One year after Kofi Annan presented his six-point plan for ending the Syrian civil war, it can only be called a failure. But it is necessary to recall the situation facing the UN-Arab League envoy and his team in early 2012. The Syrian conflict had created serious tensions between the major powers. A Western military intervention appeared unlikely but could not be ruled out with absolute certainty. This commentary contends that Annan’s initial priority was to reduce the level of uncertainty inside and outside Syria, thereby creating a framework for political talks. However, in lowering the level of uncertainty, Annan reduced his own leverage as the Syrian government correctly concluded that it would not be punished for failing to cooperate in good faith. The commentary concludes that there are occasions where it is advisable for international mediators to maintain and exploit a degree of uncertainty about how a conflict may develop.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD, mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. Methods The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Results Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81% of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Conclusion Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.
Rastam, Samer; Al Ali, Radwan; Maziak, Wasim; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon
Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD), mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81%) of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.
Mahmoud, Ali Bassam; Grigoriou, Nicholas
This study examines and compares word of mouth (WOM) behaviour among university students in Syria. To date, little is known about this important phenomenon which is surprising given the deregulated education market in Syria that allows for private universities to compete for students alongside public universities. Using a mixed methods research…
Moughrabieh, Anas; Weinert, Craig
The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country.
Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert
The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country. PMID:26788827
DeJong, Jocelyn; Ghattas, Hala; Bashour, Hyam; Mourtada, Rima; Akik, Chaza; Reese-Masterson, Amelia
Introduction Women and children account for a disproportionate morbidity burden among conflict-affected populations, and yet they are not included in global accountability frameworks for women’s and children’s health. We use Countdown to 2015 (Millennium Development Goals) health indicators to provide an up-to-date review and analysis of the best available data on Syrian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey and internally displaced within Syria and explore data challenges in this conflict setting. Methods We searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Popline and Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region Office and relevant development/humanitarian databases in all languages from January 2011 until December 2015. We met in person or emailed relevant key stakeholders in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Turkey to obtain any unpublished or missing data. We convened a meeting of experts working with these populations to discuss the results. Results The following trends were found based on available data for these populations as compared with preconflict Syria. Birth registration in Syria and in host neighbouring countries decreased and was very low in Lebanon. In Syria, the infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate increased, and coverage of antenatal care (one visit with a skilled attendant), skilled birth attendance and vaccination (except for DTP3 vaccine) declined. The number of Syrian refugee women attending more than four antenatal care visits was low in Lebanon and in non-camp settings in Jordan. Few data were available on these indicators among the internally displaced. In conflict settings such as that of Syria, coverage rates of interventions are often unknown or difficult to ascertain because of measurement challenges in accessing conflict-affected populations or to the inability to determine relevant denominators in this dynamic setting. Conclusion Research, monitoring and evaluation in humanitarian settings could better inform public health
Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of self-determination of the Kurdish ethnos in Syria. Kurds are an indigenous people in this territory and for a long time lived within a single space within the Ottoman Empire. The artificial division of the Middle East into states in the interests of European powers led to ignoring the interests and rights of the Kurdish ethnos. Self-organization of Kurds in Syria occurred gradually and mainly under the influence of external factors. The first one was the political activity of Kurds in neighboring countries, the second – the assimilation efforts of the Syrian authorities. Although the Kurdish population, basically, retained its identity, half a century of assimilation policy led to the erosion of the Kurdish ethnic enclaves in the north of the country. Moreover, self-organization and political mobilization of Kurds in Syria began to be accompanied by disagreements and splits of the main political forces. Kurdish political parties sought to act as a “third force” in the course of the civil war in Syria. However, disagreements prevented this, as well as certain pressure from Western countries, which pushed the Syrian Kurds to support the moderate opposition. The power vacuum in the north of Syria was able to fill the center-left party “Democratic Union”. This political force is in contact with the official Syrian authorities and, at the same time, receives US support. Created by the efforts of the “Democratic Union” the Kurdish autonomy in the north of the country provides stability in territories with the Kurdish and mixed populations, and also performs socio-economic functions. This makes the Kurdish autonomy an important element of negotiations about the future political structure of Syria.
Almasri, Radwan; Muneer, Tariq; Cullinane, Kevin
Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. - Highlights: → Car ownership in Syria is low, but has more than doubled since 2004. → Air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors are analysed. → Air quality can be improved by using greener and more public transport. → Policy should incentivise efficient energy consumption in all sectors. → The use of renewable energy resources should be promoted.
DeJong, Jocelyn; Ghattas, Hala; Bashour, Hyam; Mourtada, Rima; Akik, Chaza; Reese-Masterson, Amelia
Women and children account for a disproportionate morbidity burden among conflict-affected populations, and yet they are not included in global accountability frameworks for women's and children's health. We use Countdown to 2015 (Millennium Development Goals) health indicators to provide an up-to-date review and analysis of the best available data on Syrian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey and internally displaced within Syria and explore data challenges in this conflict setting. We searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Popline and Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region Office and relevant development/humanitarian databases in all languages from January 2011 until December 2015. We met in person or emailed relevant key stakeholders in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Turkey to obtain any unpublished or missing data. We convened a meeting of experts working with these populations to discuss the results. The following trends were found based on available data for these populations as compared with preconflict Syria. Birth registration in Syria and in host neighbouring countries decreased and was very low in Lebanon. In Syria, the infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate increased, and coverage of antenatal care (one visit with a skilled attendant), skilled birth attendance and vaccination (except for DTP3 vaccine) declined. The number of Syrian refugee women attending more than four antenatal care visits was low in Lebanon and in non-camp settings in Jordan. Few data were available on these indicators among the internally displaced. In conflict settings such as that of Syria, coverage rates of interventions are often unknown or difficult to ascertain because of measurement challenges in accessing conflict-affected populations or to the inability to determine relevant denominators in this dynamic setting. Research, monitoring and evaluation in humanitarian settings could better inform public health interventions if findings were more widely shared
Hussam H. M. Husein
Full Text Available Soil catena concept is a sequence of soils extends across relief positions and is developed from similar parent material. This study highlighted on the important aspects and properties of soil catena of Daher El-Jabal in Jabal Al-Arab mountainous area South eastern of Syria, by implementing pedologic study in 2010-2012. Six soil profiles have been studied along pedo-genetic transect in order to highlight the soil catena prevailing properties. The results reveal that the soil has formed from igneous basaltic parent casts, related to Neogen era, where reliefs had the key role in the developing of soil solum. Consequently, Entisols were dominated on eroded summits, Inceptisols on back slops and mountain flanks, Mollisols on depressions. Both water erosion of soil surface and leaching inside soil solum processes were responsible for variation of soil texture, as such soils showed evident of changing in particles size distribution as well as in clay content. Cation exchange capacity (CEC was less than moderate with domination of Magnesium cation. Soil trace elements were poor to somewhat poor. Soil pH values in general were low; which reflect the pedo-genic character of igneous parent material in which soil drifted from. In some cases, where soil body subjected to continuous leaching of soil bases, in particular calcium cation; soil profiles became totally freed from calcium carbonates. Accordingly soil problems related to downing of soil reaction (pH are more expected to be increasing by time. This is main reason for some physical diseases, which beginning arise on pomes fruits, particularly bitter pit.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 87-107
Othman, I.; Yassine, T.
Water samples from 48 sites, covering the major water sources in the southern and middle parts of Syria, were collected twice and analyzed for 222 sup Rn, 226 sup Rn, 210 sup Po, and total uranium. the results obtained were generally low and comparable with those found for other countries. the highest values were found in regions around the phosphate mines in the middle part of Syria with 113 kBq m - 1 for 222 sup Rn, 350 Bq m - 1 for 226 sup Ra, 8 Bq m - 1 for 210 sup Po, and 350 Bq m - 1 for total uranium. (author). 1 Fig., 2 Tabs., 12 Refs
This paper describes the reserves of petroleum deposits and gives statistical data on the production of the main oil fields in Syria. Petroleum production has grown from 160000 barrels per day in 1984 to 515000 barrels per day in 1992 and a production at a level of 600000 barrels per day is waited in 1993. Several petroleum companies, operating in Syria, have contributed to this rise, especially Al-Furat Petroleum Company (AFPC), joint venture between Syrian Petroleum Company (SPC) and Pecten/Shell/Deminex, followed by Deiz Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), association between the french company Elf Aquitaine and SPC. 2 tabs
Brønd, Thomas Vladimir
Events unfolding in Syria since 2011 have all too often been depicted too simply as a “sectarian war”. Against the backdrop of such accounts, this article investigates the lived revolutionary experience of Syrians active in the peaceful revolutionary movement and the local coordination committees...... of the peaceful movement not only counteract the narratives of the regime. It also offers a window into revolutionary subjectivity and ideology in Syria’s peaceful movement as part of broader social changes occurring in Syria in the context of devastating war and destruction....
Thy, Peter; Willcox, George; Barfod, Gry
Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event. The !ndi......Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event...
Local Dynamics Shift in Response to U.S.-Led Airstrikes in Syria, ISW blog , October 1, 2014, http://iswresearch.blogspot.com/2014/10/local-dynamics...Study of War Blog . October 1, 2014. http://iswresearch.blogspot.com/2014/10/local-dynamics-shift-in-response-to-us.html. ---. “Peace-talks between...the Islamic State and Jabhat al-Nusra in Syria,” Institute for the Study of War Blog . November 15, 2014, http://iswresearch.blogspot.com/2014/11
Devakumar, Delan; Birch, Marion; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Osrin, David; Sondorp, Egbert; Wells, Jonathan C K
The war in Syria, now in its fourth year, is one of the bloodiest in recent times. The legacy of war includes damage to the health of children that can last for decades and affect future generations. In this article we discuss the effects of the war on Syria's children, highlighting the less documented longer-term effects. In addition to their present suffering, these children, and their own children, are likely to face further challenges as a result of the current conflict. This is essential to understand both for effective interventions and for ethical reasons.
Full Text Available A decade after the bad seeds of sectarian conflict and instability have been firmly planted in Iraq, it takes little imagination to see them growing even worse in Syria. The mayhem in Syria defies every description: mass-murders and individual atrocities are committed every day and the domestic conflict is spilling over to most of its neighbors. Let us try to sketch a few scenarios; the worst, the best and the two most likely that may come out of the Syrian conflict.
Sankari, Abdulghani; Atassi, Basel; Sahloul, Mohammed Zaher
Since the war started in Syria nearly two years ago several independent organizations reported the use of medicine as a weapon by the Syrian authorities, killing of doctors and arresting patients who were admitted to the hospitals for treatment. In year 2012 the World Health Organization (WHO) found nearly 50% of hospitals are not functioning due to lack of staff, equipment and medicine. This report highlights how the doctors in Syria are creative and courageous to risk their own lives to save thousands of innocent lives.
intervention.html?itemid=id#591 (accessed December 14, 2011). 57 Blake Hounshell, “6 ways the U.S. has faltered on Syria.”, CNN, http://edition.cnn.com/2012/03...Syrian rebels and 64% state that the U.S. has no responsibility to engage in Syria. Sara Sorcher, Pew: Majority of Americans Don’t Support Intervention...Intervention, ed. J.L. Holzgreve and Robert O. Keohane, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (2003). Hounshell, Blake . “6 ways the U.S. has faltered on
Al-Haj Rasheed, Zaki
A general idea about naturaly occured uranium minerals such as uranite, pechblende, carnotite, coffinit, and bronnerit is given. At the same time, different geophysical methods and detecting devices applied for uranium exploration have been demonstrated. Investigations and studies carried out in Syria point to a uranium content of 100 ppm in the exploited Syrian phosphorite. 1 fig., 1 tab
Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier P.; Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; van der Plicht, Johannes
The site of Tell Sabi Abyad in Syria offers a superb stratified sequence passing, from the aceramic (pre-pottery) to pottery-using Neolithic around 7000 BC Surprisingly the first pottery arrives fully developed with mineral tempering, burnishing and stripey decoration in painted slip. The expected,
Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha
This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…
Akkermans, Peter M.M.G.; Brüning, Merel L.; Hammers, Neeke Mineke
This article presents the remains of a T-shaped burnt building found in trench V6 in Operation II at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. The burnt building closely resembles the so-called Burnt Village excavated earlier at Tell Sabi Abyad in Operation I, level 6, but is slightly older. Many...
Driven by the recognition that more needs to be done, the Council of Ministers adopted a new EU Strategy for Syria on the eve of the April 2017 Brussels donor. This Overview explores the potential of, and limits to, the different roles of the EU in the pursuit of its own (constitutional) objectives
Walmsley, Alan George
Coin data from archaeological excavations can provide interesting perspectives on changing economic conditions over time, but the interpretative pitfalls are many. The presentation and analysis of coin material needs to be conducted within a wider archaeological context should historical conclusi...... conclusions be sought from the material, as the coinage of late antique and early Islamic Syria-Palestine demonstrates....
... Order 13572 of April 29, 2011 Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses..., finding that the Government of Syria's human rights abuses, including those related to the repression of... have engaged in human rights abuses, constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national...
Full Text Available The paper explores conditions and possibilities for innovation activity in the field of architecture of Syrian hotels. A concept of “innovation” applied to architectural activity has been analyzed in the paper. Hitherto there is no unequivocal interpretation of effects due to innovation activity not only in respect of hotel architecture but also in respect of architecture as a whole and it concerns urban planning, climatic and socioeconomic conditions of Syria. Factors determining innovative development represent natural, industrial, scientific and technical, technological and other resources. An effort to avoid outof-date design solutions, requirements in development and growth of economic and social living standards can be considered as a driving force for qualitative development of hotel architecture in the resort areas of Syria. Prior to outbreak hostilities in the country the economic and social living standards have been achieved commonly due to high tourist activity. Naturalclimatic and historical potential of Syria contribute to an increase of tourist flows and quantitative composition of hotels. So the purpose of the paper is to reveal the possibilities for qualitative development of new architecture in respect of resort hotels, as the most required hotels by tourists in Syria. It is an obvious fact that architecture of hotels should not only reflect traditions and culture of the region, but it must be also technically modern in order to satisfy a global principle of sustainable development.
Akkermans, PMMG; Cappers, R; Cavallo, C; Nieuwenhuyse, O; Nilhamn, B; Otte, IN
The 2001-2003 excavations at Tell Sabi Abyad in northern Syria have provided important new information on the nature and development of the Pottery Neolithic settlement at the site in the seventh and sixth millennia B.C. The fieldwork has produced it long sequence of small and continually shifting
Ayoubi, Rami M.; Alzarif, Kahla; Khalifa, Bayan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the desired employability skills of business graduates in Syria from the perspective of both higher education policymakers and employers in the private sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: Interviews were conducted with 12 higher education policymakers and managers from the business sector. Content…
Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.
A total of 206 wheat and 200 barley farmers were interviewed in northeastern Syria to understand farmer perceptions and practice relating to modern varieties, seed sources and seed quality. Wheat farmers had better awareness and grew modern varieties (87%), applied fertilizers (99.5%), herbicides
This article explores the implications of the Iraqi refugee crisis for Syria, which is believed to host up to 1.5 million Iraqi refugees. Many policy makers, activists and analysts, sometimes inspired by the conflict repercussions of refugee crises witnessed elsewhere, have warned against the
Navest, A.; de Koning, M.; Moors, A.
The increasing number of women migrating to Syria from Europe has not only drawn the attention of the media and the security forces but also of researchers. Publications often either undervalue or overvalue women's agency, presenting them as victims of unscrupulous men or foregrounding their
This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and
Full Text Available At the end of August 2013, the international prices of Brent crude rose to a 17-month high ($ 117.8 /barrel as Western powers, mainly USA, readied a military strike against Syria, and traders and analysts cited concerns over stability in the Middle East. The main concern was the risk that Western intervention in Syria could prompt a wider regional conflict, given the support that Iran has provided to the regime of Syria. The attack failed to materialize, because U.S. and Russia reached an agreement with the goal of disarming Syria’s chemical weapon arsenal, and consequently the prices declined, but the risk of geopolitical and social unrest movementsAlpha is still high, so that a reactivation of geopolitical tensions in the extended area of Middle East and north Africa is anytime possible with the afferent disruptive effects on the international oil market. We tried to answer to some questions in order to clear up the background of the problem: 1 What was the real stake of the U.S. plan to intervene in Syria: the concern generated by chemical weapons or U.S. geostrategic interests in the wider Middle East? 2 Why Syria matters to oil market, given that it is not a major oil producer (as was Libya, nor is it a major transit point for oil and gas exports (as is Egypt? 3 The aftermath of a serious military action targeted against the Middle Eastern country and “qui prodest”? 4 Will Iran’s possible return to the world oil market send oil prices down, and how much?
Full Text Available Over the past several years, terrorist and insurgent groups have established sophisticated networks in Syria to facilitate the movement of foreign fighters into Iraq. These networks are worth closer scrutiny since foreign fighters, facilitated through Syria, have been responsible for some of the most spectacular attacks on Iraqis and coalition forces. Given the priority that Iraq and Syria both play in the Obama administration's efforts to stabilize the Middle East, as well as the wealth of information now available on Syrian-based foreign fighter facilitation networks, this article provides a case study of Syria, foreign fighters in the Iraqi insurgency, and their economic impact. Foreign fighters' use of third party countries for training, fundraising, and transit is not merely an operational phenomenon; it is an economic one as well. There are direct and indirect economic consequences – both positive and negative – that result from the existence and operation of foreign fighter networks in a country like Syria. These consequences impact Syria and its government, various elements of the Syrian populace, Iraq as the foreign fighters' destination, and other countries in the region. Developing realistic strategies to contend with foreign fighter networks that operate in third party countries is contingent upon first developing a holistic understanding of the phenomenon, including its economic impact.
Fouad, Fouad M; Sparrow, Annie; Tarakji, Ahmad; Alameddine, Mohamad; El-Jardali, Fadi; Coutts, Adam P; El Arnaout, Nour; Karroum, Lama Bou; Jawad, Mohammed; Roborgh, Sophie; Abbara, Aula; Alhalabi, Fadi; AlMasri, Ibrahim; Jabbour, Samer
The conflict in Syria presents new and unprecedented challenges that undermine the principles and practice of medical neutrality in armed conflict. With direct and repeated targeting of health workers, health facilities, and ambulances, Syria has become the most dangerous place on earth for health-care providers. The weaponisation of health care-a strategy of using people's need for health care as a weapon against them by violently depriving them of it-has translated into hundreds of health workers killed, hundreds more incarcerated or tortured, and hundreds of health facilities deliberately and systematically attacked. Evidence shows use of this strategy on an unprecedented scale by the Syrian Government and allied forces, in what human rights organisations described as a war-crime strategy, although all parties seem to have committed violations. Attacks on health care have sparked a large-scale exodus of experienced health workers. Formidable challenges face health workers who have stayed behind, and with no health care a major factor in the flight of refugees, the effect extends well beyond Syria. The international community has left these violations of international humanitarian and human rights law largely unanswered, despite their enormous consequences. There have been repudiated denunciations, but little action on bringing the perpetrators to justice. This inadequate response challenges the foundation of medical neutrality needed to sustain the operations of global health and humanitarian agencies in situations of armed conflict. In this Health Policy, we analyse the situation of health workers facing such systematic and serious violations of international humanitarian law. We describe the tremendous pressures that health workers have been under and continue to endure, and the remarkable resilience and resourcefulness they have displayed in response to this crisis. We propose policy imperatives to protect and support health workers working in armed conflict
As Syria completes two years of western sanctions (2011-13), their dramatic effects on health are being highlighted with first reports of starvation deaths among children in the suburbs of Damascus. Although heavy fighting has taken place in this area, experts had predicted for some time the unworkability of sanctions for regime change, arguing that only civilians would pay the price in a country (Syria in this case) which was once well on the way to meeting the Millennium Development Goals 4 targets on reducing child mortality. In this, as in the case of other "sanctioned" countries, it is not just "civilians" but the most vulnerable among them--children, who are experiencing the tragic consequences of sanctions.
Habbal, Wafa; Monem, Fawza
Hepatitis B virus patients are usually treated in Syria with alpha interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogues. Genotypic viral factors causing inadequate response or relapse following initial response are not routinely investigated. This study aimed to explore and discuss local therapeutic decisions from a molecular perspective. Fifty patients with hepatitis B from Syria were tested for HBV genotyping and drug-resistance mutations by DNA sequencing. All patients had genotype D, which is characterized by relatively low response to interferon-based therapy. Drug-resistant viral mutant variants were detected in one fifth of the enrolled patients, and distributed similarly in both nucleos(t)ide analogues-naïve and -treated patients. However, nucleos(t)ide analogues-based therapy was associated with the existence of more mutations and hence increased resistance. Investigating HBV genotypes and drug-resistance mutations to support treatment decisions is critically needed for efficient therapy and patients' survival.
Othman, I.; Yassine, T.
Water samples from 48 sites, covering the major drinking water sources in the southern and middle parts of Syria were collected twice and analyzed for 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 210 Po and total uranium. Also all samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, physical properties and Hardness. The results obtained were generally low and comparable with those found for other countries. The highest values were found in regions around the phosphate mines in the middle par of Syria with 113 Kb.m -3 for 222 Rn, 350 Bq.m -3 for 226 Ra, 8 Bq.m -3 for 210 Po and 350 Bq.m -3 for total uranium. (author). 6 tabs
Abushaikha, Lubna; Massah, Rana
The barriers that face fathers during childbirth are an understudied phenomenon. The objective of our study was to explore Syrian parents' perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth. A descriptive phenomenological qualitative approach based on Colaizzi's method was used with a purposive sample of 23 mothers and 14 fathers recruited from a major public maternity hospital in Syria. In our study, four themes on barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth were found: 1) sociocultural influences and rigidity; 2) being unprepared; 3) unsupportive policies and attitudes; and 4) unfavorable reactions and circumstances. Common and current sociocultural norms in Syria do not encourage fathers to be present or contribute during childbirth. Therefore, establishing culturally sensitive supportive policies and practices is a vital step toward overcoming these barriers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The civil war in Syria coupled with the attacks by ISIS, has resulted in one of the largest humanitarian crises since World War II. Although international efforts have resulted in regaining control of important cities, these military approaches have escalated and inflamed the violence of which innocent civilians bear the consequences. The continuing violence and resulting threats or insecurities negatively affect the lives, freedom, dignity and development of the people to name but a few. For that reason, the aim is to explore the applicability of a human security approach to the conflict in Syria that focuses on, among other aspects, minimising violence, mitigating the effects of the conflict, protecting people, restoring peace and eliminating the grounds that resulted in the development of these conditions in the first place.
Othman, I; Baydon, S.A.; Dawood, S.
Seasonal variations of solar UVB (285-320) and UVA (320-400) were measured in three sites in Syria (33-37 N sup O) for two years: 1992-1993. UVB measurements were performed using polysulphone films and Robertson-Berger meter, while UVA measurements were done by NVA intensity meter. Two sets of measurements were carried out : - Maximal daily doses three times a week (every other day) - Diurnal variations from sun-rise to sun-set every two hours twice a month (every fortnight). The biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation withreference to some epidemiological data of skin cancer incidence in Syria since 1980 were discussed .(author). 36 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs
Full Text Available Several surveys were carried out to evaluate the occurrence of bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm in Syria, especially in the North-West provinces Latakiaand Tartous. The surveys revealed typical disease symptoms in greenhouses where the tomato cvs. Dima, Huda and Astona were grown, such as dark brown to black lesions on the leaf margins, wilting of whole plants, stunting, and vascular discoloration. The disease incidence in such greenhouses was 15% in the spring of 2007, and up to 70% by the end of July. Ten isolates obtained from diseased plants at different locations in these two provinces were identified as Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis using classical microbiological tests as well as PCR. This is the first detailed proof of the occurrence of bacterial canker of tomato in Syria.
Walmsley, Alan George
Studies on trade in the Byzantine and Islamic east Mediterranean have persistently focused on interregional trade, especially the exchange of prestige goods, and much less on what can be perceived as the more mundane business of how local networks operated at the regional level. However, a fuller...... and glass to base coinage, in order to map out in greater detail the geographical reach and level of activity in regional trade networks in Syria-Palestine between the Byzantine and early Islamic periods. Work to date reveals that local networks were especially vibrant in this period, and probably...... a significant factor in the prosperity of Syria-Palestine at that time, facilitating not only local exchange but also, on a wider scale, the transportation of goods from outside the immediate region. Crucial to this trade system at the local level was the shop. Archaeological evidence for a shop-based market...
Cope, James R; Doocy, Shannon; Frattaroli, Shannon; McGready, John
Various measures are used to represent socioeconomic status (SES) in health research, including income. However, reliability of income data can be low. Household expenditures are an accepted proxy for income as a more reliable measure but have been studied little in refugee populations. Health and SES measures from cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi refugees in Jordan and Syria were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the interchangeability of household income and expenditures. In Jordan, odds ratios in the regression models including income quartiles were frequently similar to odds ratios found in the models including expenditure quartiles, indicating interchangeability. In Syria, fewer similarities were observed. This study provides some evidence that household expenditures may be used interchangeably with household income for some populations, allowing for the potential collection and use of data related to expenditures as a measure of SES, similar in importance to that of income.
Dardar, Marah A.; Belal, Hamzeh M.R.; Basheer, Abedlnabi M.
An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved. PMID:23909877
Barakat, Hani; Barakat, Hanniya; Baaj, Mohamad K
Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria's cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian's health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally. PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates. Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years. Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries.
Ali, Ali Abdul Kadir
This paper examines security in Syria through the conceptual lens of the security gap, understood as the gap between security practices and objectives which have implications for individual and collective security. Practices of security can be the state apparatus, the military, and militias. The objective – safety – can refer to the safety or security of a range of collectives including the state, political parties, and ethnic groups, while individual security re...
Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al
Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
history of Syria in the latter half of the twentieth century is interwoven with the thread of the postcolonial narrative, as the independent state... postcolonial criticism focused on the inability for the subject to participate in the debate. 27 The role of women within ISIL is difficult to...Debate on SATI in Colonial India," Cultural Critique, Vol. 7, Fall 1987, p. 119-156. On the postcolonial interpretation see Gayatri Chakravorty
On 4 January 2016, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague announced that the process of destroying Syrian chemical weapons had been completed. Despite that declaration of success, problems obviously persist. Since April 2014, the civil war parties have accused each other in more than one hundred cases of having used chemical weapons. In more than twenty incidents the OPCW has confirmed the use of chemical weapons. The United States also accuses Syria of h...
religious ties through the minority Allawite sect , the armed resistance has continued to grow through desertions. Coordinated attacks including...Allawite sect of Islam (7% of the population) maintains power in Syria through the al-Assad family. The regime retains a large loyal military base as...videos of Syrian government violence in his home city of Homs due to the lack of Western reporting. 30 “UN: Kids killed, Sexually Tortured in
Viet - nam War, and wars in Iraq and Afghanistan all straddled the categories of civil war with two opposed, domestic sides, and international...populations willing to tolerate or unable to restrain gangs of radical or nihilistic entrepreneurs of violence . Jihadism becomes a mobiliza- tion tool...January 12, 2014, available at <www.nytimes.com/2014/01/13/opin- ion/treading-water-on-syria.html? partner =rssnyt&emc=rss&_r=0>. 2 Scott Clement
Konflik antara Kristen dengan Islam tampil dalam sejarah agama. Karena memiliki sumber asal yang sama, kedua agama selalu terlibat dalam kontak kekerasan. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengkaji secara mendalam geraja orthodoks Syria dan ditemukan akan adanya akar yang sama dengan Islam. Ditemukan pula adanya paralelisasi dalam aspek teologinya, khususnya pelaksanaan kewajiban agama. Data yang didapatkan menunjukkan arti penting dalam pengembangan dialog antara Islam dengan Kristen
The increasingly vibrant political culture emerging in Lebanon and Syria in the 1930s and early 1940s is key to the understanding of local approaches towards the Nazi German regime. For many contemporary observers in Beirut and Damascus, Nazism not only posed a risk to Europe, but threatened...... with the Nazi regime as part of an intellectual quest for orientation in the years between the break-up of the Ottoman Empire and national independence....
Abstract Main obstacle to development in the dry areas in Central Syria is the scarce and erratic rainfall. Water resources therefore run short in meeting the demand. Water harvesting has shown to be an appropriate means to garantee the sustainability of water resources designed for use in agricultural production and drinking water supply. Scope of the study is the determination of appropriate sites and techniques for water harves...
Zubchenko Sergiy Oleksandrovich
Full Text Available The article deals with some aspects of the Syrian conflict and its impact on security in regional and global context. It defines problematic factors that contribute an escalation of tensions, hinder the implementation of political initiatives to end the fighting in Syria and have negative influence on the overall situation in SAR. Humanitarian diplomatic mechanisms for creating an auspicious environment for peaceful settlement of the conflict are offered in accordance with international law.
Cleary, Jessica E
.... This thesis examines the relationship between the tendency of state policies regarding Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria to create isolation or integration, and the relative extent...
Hamzeh, A.; Kaadan, M.
The electricity authority has, over the years, connected most of population to the electric grid. But for very small villages (2000 villages which are yet to be electrified) and newly established Bedouins settlements (80,000 Bedouin families), the cost of grid connections would be high. The purpose of this paper is to propose planning schemes for off-grid hybrid PV-wind power systems that are suitable for energy requirements and general conditions of Syrian remote small villages. A case study will be introduced where a village with 25 houses and a school is to be supplied by hybrid PV-wind AC systems. The paper presents first a survey and operation evaluation of the PV power systems installed in Syria. Three types of stand-alone PV electrification systems (centralized, individual DC and individual AC systems) with a total capacity of about 100 kW were installed in Syria. Furthermore, the paper presents a summary of the renewable energy development plans, especially PV and PV hybrid systems, included in the renewable energy master plan that was recently performed for Syria. The master plan suggests activities to develop wind, bio-energy, solar, hydro and hybrid systems, which will provide heat and power to Syrian energy needs until 2010. (authors)
Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily
To identify unmet needs and assistance priorities of displaced and female-headed households in government-controlled areas of Syria. In mid-2016, we undertook a survey of accessible areas, largely urban and government-controlled, to identify unmet needs and assistance priorities. We used a cluster design with probability sampling to attain a final sample of 2405 households from 10 of 14 governorates; 31 of 65 (47.7%) districts were included that are home to 38.1% of people in need. Displaced and female-headed households were more vulnerable than nondisplaced and male-headed households in numerous sectors. Despite approximately half of surveyed households reporting receipt of humanitarian assistance in the preceding month and apparently effective targeting of assistance by vulnerability, unmet needs were nearly ubiquitous. The humanitarian situation in inaccessible areas of Syria is likely to be considerably worse; thus, findings presented here likely underestimate humanitarian needs. Efforts to expand support to Syria's most vulnerable households are desperately needed as are innovative targeting and modalities that enable more efficient and effective assistance.
The war in Syria that started in March 2011 has destroyed much of the country's infrastructure including many hospitals. The total number of kidney transplants performed in Syria in 2010 was 385 transplants before the number gradually declined to 154 transplants in 2013, a decrease of 60%. In addition, the number of operational kidney transplant centers has decreased from 8 to 4 centers. Unrelated-donor kidney transplant decreased from 70% during the years that preceded the crisis to 47% in 2013. More than 50% of physicians and surgeons involved in kidney transplant are not practicing transplant currently in their centers. Difficulties in the provision of immunosuppressive drugs for all patients in all provinces constitute a major challenge for the health authorities and transplant patients, especially patients who cannot arrange an alternate source. The project to initiate liver transplant came to a halt because foreign trainers could not visit Syria. The autologous bone marrow transplant program continued to function, but in a smaller and irregular manner. The commitment of transplant teams despite the large challenges was, and still is, extraordinary. In conclusion, all aspects of organ transplant have been affected, paralyzing new projects and negatively affecting existing programs.
Sen, Kasturi; Hussain, Hamid; Al-Faisal, Waleed
Ethical challenges facing research and reporting from conflict-affected zones are well known; among them is the difficulty of finding reliable information; the tendency to take sides and define actors as either good or evil; the precarious security situation of residents and the ever-changing scenarios on the ground. We observed, however, that these challenges go unacknowledged in research and reporting on health state and on the health system from the conflict in Iraq and Syria, with the lines between science and journalistic reporting routinely blurred in the literature. What should be the restraining factor of academic research against prejudiced reporting on injury, death and the healthcare system has mostly failed in the Syrian conflict. Even social media, with its promise of 'independent' and 'citizens' voice', can be skewed, with much of the output in the Syria crisis coming from one side only, largely due to access issues. While researchers in conflict-affected zones, such as Syria, may need to take a position on one side or another when reporting, death, destruction and disease, it is important that they admit to the challenges of accessing unbiased data, the near impossibility of obtaining representative samples and the risk of the contamination of evidence, clinical or otherwise. The example of the Syrian and Iraqi conflicts (as context) indicates a need to reassess research ethics in conflict zones and their implications for policy.
Mowafi, Hani; Hariri, Mahmoud; Alnahhas, Houssam; Ludwig, Elizabeth; Allodami, Tammam; Mahameed, Bahaa; Koly, Jamal Kaby; Aldbis, Ahmed; Saqqur, Maher; Zhang, Baobao; Al-Kassem, Anas
The Syrian civil war has resulted in large-scale devastation of Syria's health infrastructure along with widespread injuries and death from trauma. The capacity of Syrian trauma hospitals is not well characterized. Data are needed to allocate resources for trauma care to the population remaining in Syria. To identify the number of trauma hospitals operating in Syria and to delineate their capacities. From February 1 to March 31, 2015, a nationwide survey of 94 trauma hospitals was conducted inside Syria, representing a coverage rate of 69% to 93% of reported hospitals in nongovernment controlled areas. Identification and geocoding of trauma and essential surgical services in Syria. Although 86 hospitals (91%) reported capacity to perform emergency surgery, 1 in 6 hospitals (16%) reported having no inpatient ward for patients after surgery. Sixty-three hospitals (70%) could transfuse whole blood but only 7 (7.4%) could separate and bank blood products. Seventy-one hospitals (76%) had any pharmacy services. Only 10 (11%) could provide renal replacement therapy, and only 18 (20%) provided any form of rehabilitative services. Syrian hospitals are isolated, with 24 (26%) relying on smuggling routes to refer patients to other hospitals and 47 hospitals (50%) reporting domestic supply lines that were never open or open less than daily. There were 538 surgeons, 378 physicians, and 1444 nurses identified in this survey, yielding a nurse to physician ratio of 1.8:1. Only 74 hospitals (79%) reported any salary support for staff, and 84 (89%) reported material support. There is an unmet need for biomedical engineering support in Syrian trauma hospitals, with 12 fixed x-ray machines (23%), 11 portable x-ray machines (13%), 13 computed tomographic scanners (22%), 21 adult (21%) and 5 pediatric (19%) ventilators, 14 anesthesia machines (10%), and 116 oxygen cylinders (15%) not functional. No functioning computed tomographic scanners remain in Aleppo, and 95 oxygen cylinders (42
The main disaster concern in Syria is the Earthquakes since that Northwest of Syria is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift Afro-Arabian rift System Those areas are tectonically active and cause time to time a lot of seismically events This faulting zone system represent a unique structural feature in the Mediterranean Region The system formed initially as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate since the mid-Cenozoic The other disaster concern in Syria is Landslides whom caused significant damaging in Syria during the last decades especially in the Northwestern and Southwestern regions Landslide disasters killed some people and destroyed many mud and cement houses coastal mountains and cut off some roads few years ago It is known that many of the earthquakes and landslides that ever happened on our planet are located in active faults zones So it is of most important to obtain detailed information on regional tectonic structures The main approach of active faults survey at present is to use geological and geophysical methods such as in-situ measuring drilling and analysis of gravity and magnetic fields However because of the magnitude of the work there are still many uncertainties that we cannot figure out by traditional approaches Remote sensing has been brought forward for many years and has applications in many hazard
Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.
Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that question the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…
Strong, Jonathan; Varady, Christopher; Chahda, Najla; Doocy, Shannon; Burnham, Gilbert
The flight of Syrian and Palestinian families into Lebanon from Syria included a number of older refugees. This study sought to characterize the physical and emotional conditions, dietary habits, coping practices, and living conditions of this elderly population arriving in Lebanon between March 2011 and March 2013. A systematic selection of 210 older refugees from Syria was drawn from a listing of 1800 refugees over age 60 receiving assistance from the Caritas Lebanon Migrant Center (CLMC) or the Palestinian Women's Humanitarian Organization (PALWHO). CLMC and PALWHO social workers collected qualitative and quantitative information during 2013. Two-thirds of older refugees described their health status as poor or very poor. Most reported at least one non-communicable disease, with 60% having hypertension, 47% reporting diabetes, and 30% indicating some form of heart disease. Difficulties in affording medicines were reported by 87%. Physicial limitations were common: 47% reported difficulty walking and 24% reported vision loss. About 10% were physically unable to leave their homes and 4% were bedridden. Most required medical aids such as walking canes and eyeglasses. Diet was inadequate with older refugees reporting regularly reducing portion sizes, skipping meals, and limiting intake of fruits, vegetables, and meats. Often this was done to provide more food to younger family members. Some 61% of refugees reported feeling anxious, and significant proportions of older persons reported feelings of depression, loneliness, and believing they were a burden to their families. 74% of older refugees indicated varying degrees of dependency on humanitarian assistance. The study concluded older refugees from Syria are a highly vulnerable population needing health surveillance and targeted assistance. Programs assisting vulnerable populations may concentrate services on women and children leaving the elderly overlooked.
Mahfoud, Maysa; Al Najjar, Mona; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak
Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a serious clinical challenge due to its frequent involvement in nosocomial infections and its tendency towards multidrug resistance. This study uncovered antibiotic susceptibility patterns in 177 isolates from inpatients in three key hospitals in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria. Exceptionally low susceptibility to most routinely used antibiotics was uncovered; resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was 64.9% and 70.3%, respectively. Contrarily, susceptibility to colistin was the highest (89.1%). Multidrug resistance was rife, found at a rate of 53.67% among studied P. aeruginosa isolates.
Full Text Available The fundraising efforts of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS have impressed academics, journalists, and government officials alike. The literature has thus far explored the methods via which ISIS acquire funds and transfer their proceeds across international borders. This article aims to expand upon these entries by analysing the failures of EU and US policy to counter terrorist financing since the 9/11 attacks, particularly with regards to the inability of both entities to adjust to digital transfer methods. The value of military operations will also be discussed within the context of halting the Islamic State’s fundraising capabilities.
Broekmans, T.; Adriaens, A.; Pantos, E.
Within the framework of a technological and socio-economical study of pottery production in Tell Beydar (NE-Syria) during the third millennium BC, the chemical composition and mineralogy of cooking pottery from that site has been studied using polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray detection (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction by means of synchrotron radiation (SR-XRD). The obtained data were used to make inferences concerning the pottery's technology, such as clay preparation and firing techniques
Al-Mariri, A.; Sharabi, N. D.
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (Authors)
Al-Mariri, A.; Sharabi, N. D.
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (author)
Center on Contemporary Conflict; Palkki, David
Performer: Texas A&M University Project Lead: David Palkki Project Cost: $59,000 FY15-16 Objective: Leaders of both Iraq (Saddam Hussein, 1988) and Syria (Bashar al-Assad, recently) have used chemical weapons against their own people. There is now extensive documentation of Iraq’s chemical weapon decision-making in 1988, making it a uniquely rich case study. This project will produce a monograph contrasting Iraq’s chemical decision-making with Syria’s recent use of ch...
Thirty-three archaeological ceramic fragment samples from Damascus Castle archaeological site, Damascus city, Syria, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 36 elements were determined. These elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Factor analysis confirms that 84.8% of the ceramics samples classified by cluster analysis are correctly classified by cluster analysis. The results provided persuasive evidence that Castle pottery used at least four different clay sources. Moreover, by means of systematic local analysis it will be clear whether these sources are local or not. (author)
Diggle, Emma; Welsch, Wilhelmina; Sullivan, Richard; Alkema, Gerbrand; Warsame, Abdihamid; Wafai, Mais; Jasem, Mohammed; Ekzayez, Abdulkarim; Cummings, Rachael; Patel, Preeti
The Syrian armed conflict is the worst humanitarian tragedy this century. With approximately 470,000 deaths and more than 13 million people displaced, the conflict continues to have a devastating impact on the health system and health outcomes within the country. Hundreds of international and national non-governmental organisations, as well as United Nations agencies have responded to the humanitarian crisis in Syria. While there has been significant attention on the challenges of meeting health needs of Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey, very little has been documented about the humanitarian challenges within Syria, between 2013 and 2014 when non-governmental organisations operated in Syria with very little United Nations support or leadership, particularly around obtaining information to guide health responses in Syria. In this study, we draw on our operational experience in Syria and analyse data collected for the humanitarian health response in contested and opposition-held areas of Syria in 2013-4 from Turkey, where the largest humanitarian operation for Syria was based. This is combined with academic literature and material from open-access reports. Humanitarian needs have consistently been most acute in contested and opposition-held areas of Syria due to break-down of Government of Syria services and intense warfare. Humanitarian organisations had to establish de novo data collection systems independent of the Government of Syria to provide essential services in opposition-held and contested areas of Syria. The use of technology such as social media was vital to facilitating remote data collection in Syria as many humanitarian agencies operated with a limited operational visibility given chronic levels of insecurity. Mortality data have been highly politicized and extremely difficult to verify, particularly in areas highly affected by the conflict, with shifting frontlines, populations, and allegiances. More
Asfar, Taghrid; Al-Ali, Radwan; Ward, Kenneth D; Vander Weg, Mark W; Maziak, Wasim
To document primary health care (PHC) providers' tobacco use, and how this influences their smoking cessation practices and attitudes towards tobacco-control policies. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to PHC providers in 7 randomly selected PHC centers in Aleppo, Syria. All PHC providers completed the questionnaires (100% response rate). A quarter of these providers smoke cigarettes and more than 10% smoke waterpipes. Physicians who smoke were less likely to advise patients to quit (OR=0.29; 95% CI, 0.09-0.95), assess their motivation to quit (OR=0.13, 95% CI=0.02-0.72), or assist them in quitting (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.06-0.99). PHC providers who smoke were less likely to support a ban on smoking in PHC settings (68.2% vs. 89.1%) and in enclosed public places (68.2% vs. 86.1%) or increases in the price of tobacco products (43.2% vs. 77.4%) (PSyria and will negatively influence implementation of anti-smoking program in PHC settings. Smoking awareness and cessation interventions targeted to PHC providers, and training programs to build providers' competency in addressing their patients' smoking is crucial in Syria. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Safarjalani, A.; Nasir, S.
Alkali basalt spread northeast part of Shamah volcanic field (Southwest of Syria) belonging to the Neogene and Quaternary ages, which are coexisted with a great quantity of mafic and ultramafic xenoliths and megacrysts. Field observations and data of geochemical and petrographical studies results, for xenoliths coexisted with alkali basalt speared over the northwest part of the arabian plate (Syria) indicate availability of a proper environment where various kinds of xenoliths of lower crustal and upper mantle were formed, this indicates that these xenoliths have been formed under different thermo barometric conditions. The study of available mineral para genesis and geothermobarometrics on coexisting minerals suggests equilibration conditions, ranging between 6-8 kba for pressure and 850-920 Centigrade for temperature, and that is for xenoliths of gabbroic nature formed in the lower crustal between 20-27 km depth. With regard to the formation conditions of the xenoliths formed in the upper mantle (Pyroxenite and Lherzolite); they rang between 13.5 - 14.5 kba for pressure and 950-1060 Centigrade for temperature. (Author)
Doocy, Shannon; Tappis, Hannah; Lyles, Emily; Witiw, Joseph; Aken, Vicki
The war in Syria has left millions struggling to survive amidst violent conflict, pervasive unemployment, and food insecurity. Although international assistance funding is also at an all-time high, it is insufficient to meet the needs of conflict-affected populations, and there is increasing pressure on humanitarian stakeholders to find more efficient, effective ways to provide assistance. To evaluate 3 different assistance programs (in-kind food commodities, food vouchers, and unrestricted vouchers) in Idleb Governorate of Syria from December 2014 and March 2015. The evaluation used repeated survey data from beneficiary households to determine whether assistance was successful in maintaining food security at the household level. Shopkeeper surveys and program monitoring data were used to assess the impact on markets at the district/governorate levels and compare the cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of transfer modalities. Both in-kind food assistance and voucher programs showed positive effects on household food security and economic measures in Idleb; however, no intervention was successful in improving all outcomes measured. Food transfers were more likely to improve food access and food security than vouchers and unrestricted vouchers. Voucher programs were found to be more cost-efficient than in-kind food assistance, and more cost-effective for increasing household food consumption. Continuation of multiple types of transfer programs, including both in-kind assistance and vouchers, will allow humanitarian actors to remain responsive to evolving access and security considerations, local needs, and market dynamics.
Hayani, Kinan; Dandashli, Anwar; Weisshaar, Elke
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a worldwide disease caused by an infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania transmitted via sand flies. It is endemic in many of the poorest countries of all continents. "Aleppo boil" is one of the recognised names given to this disease in the medical literature. Although CL used to be well-controlled and well-documented in Syria, its incidence has dramatically increased since the beginning of the war; however, there is lack of documentation. Here, we present the past and current epidemiological situation of the disease in Syria. We also draw attention to gross and highly unusual clinical variants of CL presented to the Department of Dermatology in Aleppo covering the important differential clinical diagnoses, since this disease is already known to mimic other conditions. Diagnostic procedures and treatment as well as prevention are summarised. Due to the increased ability to travel, and especially the flight of Syrians to neighbouring countries, as well as to Europe, CL may become a new threat in formerly unaffected regions. Through this account, we hope to give weight to the aspiration that CL does not remain a neglected and often clinically overlooked tropical dermatosis.
Full Text Available This research develops a theoretical model of sustainable leadership, organizational trust and satisfaction at work in higher education environment in Syria. The model assesses staff perception of outstanding leadership behaviors and examines its relationship with perceived organizational trust in the field of higher education institutions in Syria. This research examines a conceptual framework identifying outstanding leadership styles and behaviors which are associated with sustainable leadership, organisational trust identified by members’ trust in their coworkers, and job satisfaction at an institutional level. The research methodology applied in this research develops a quantitative approach through application of questionnaire survey. To measure the dimensionality of scale factors an exploratory factor analysis is conducted. Reliability analysis is performed, Cronbach alpha test indicates that the research scales are internally consistent. The sample of the study employed a convenience sample from higher education institutions. The managerial implication of the research study recommends application and adoption of sustainable leadership behaviors among functional, mid and senior levels of managers and academics in management positions in higher education institutions. The limitation of research is mainly indicated in the sample size and measurement scales of sustainable leadership, organizational trust and job satisfaction.
Brooks, Julia; Erickson, Timothy B; Kayden, Stephanie; Ruiz, Raul; Wilkinson, Stephen; Burkle, Frederick M
The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict poses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel, and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law-likely amounting to a war crime-for which continued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to current and future conflicts. This debate article calls upon concerned states, organizations, and individuals to respond urgently and unequivocally to this serious breach of international legal and humanitarian norms. Based on health, humanitarian, and legal findings, this article calls for concrete action to: 1) reduce the risk of chemical weapons being used in current and future conflicts; 2) review and support the preparedness equipment and antidote supplies of first responders, humanitarian organizations, and military forces operating in Syria; 3) support international mechanisms for monitoring and enforcing the prohibition on chemical weapons, including through criminal accountability; 4) support civilian victims of chemical weapons attacks, including refugees; and 5) re-commit to the complete elimination of chemical weapons in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993), a comprehensive treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their complete destruction. All involved states and organizations should take urgent steps to ensure the protection of the most vulnerable victims of conflict, including victims of chemical weapons attacks in Syria, and to reinforce international law in the face of such serious violations.
Hughes, P; Hijazi, Z; Saeed, K
The conflict in Syria has led to an unprecedented humanitarian crisis that extends across multiple countries in the area. Mental health services were undeveloped before and now face huge strain and unmet need. The World Health Organization and others have developed a programme to build capacity in the delivery of mental health services in an integrated healthcare package to refugees and displaced people. The tool used for this is the mhGAP Intervention Guide and complementary materials. In this paper we refer to training in Turkey, Iraq and Syria where health professionals were trained to roll out this community-based integrated approach through primary healthcare. We describe field case examples that show the complexity of situations that face refugees, displaced people and those caught in active conflict. Training improved the knowledge and skills for managing mental health disorders in primary healthcare. Further work needs to be done to demonstrate greater access to and utilisation of services, client outcomes and organisational change with this approach.
Full Text Available There is an apparent tendency to increase activism among Balkan Muslims (mostly Sunni denomination within Islam and their desire to participate in solving the problems of Muslims globally. As a result of this trend, the involvement of individuals from the ranks of radical Islamist groups in the armed conflict in Syria is not surprising. What characterizes these individuals is going through the complex process of radicalization at the individual level within which strong motivation is formed for taking part in such an extreme form of social conflict such as a civil war. Due to the strong indoctrination, they perceive the participation in this conflict as their duty to the whole community of believers, accepting even the possibility of their own death which they see as martyrdom. The connection of these individuals with the global Islamistic terrorist network may affect the Balkan countries' security. After the end of the Syria conflict or earlier, a number of these individuals will be directed to other crisis areas, while some of them will return to their home countries. Additionally indoctrinated with acquired combat experience and military expertise, these people can play a key role in planning, preparation or commission of terrorist acts in the Balkans and Europe as a whole. Taking adequate and timely measures is a necessary condition for an effective opposition to this kind of religious based terrorism.
Kelley, C. P.; Mohtadi, S.; Cane, M. A.; Seager, R.; Kushnir, Y.
Prior to the Syrian uprising that began in 2011, the greater Fertile Crescent experienced the most severe drought in the instrumental record. For Syria, a country marked by poor governance and unsustainable agricultural and environmental policies, the drought had a catalytic effect contributing to political unrest. We show that the recent decrease in Syrian precipitation is a combination of natural variability and a long-term drying trend, and the unusual severity of the observed drought is here shown to be highly unlikely without this trend. Precipitation changes in Syria are linked to rising mean sea-level pressure in the Eastern Mediterranean, which also shows a long-term trend. There has been also a long-term warming trend in the Eastern Mediterranean, adding to the drawdown of soil moisture. No natural cause is apparent for these trends, whereas the observed drying and warming are consistent with model studies of the response to increases in greenhouse gases. Furthermore, model studies show an increasingly drier and hotter future mean climate for the Eastern Mediterranean. Analyses of observations and model simulations indicate that a drought of the severity and duration of the recent Syrian drought, which is implicated in the current conflict, has become more than twice as likely as a consequence of human interference in the climate system.
Mourad, Khaldoon A; Berndtsson, Justyna C; Berndtsson, Ronny
Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shweikani, R.; Hushari, M.
The aim of this work is to measure the concentration of the radon ( 222 Rn) in soil air, 222 Rn exhalation from soil and 222 Rn in outdoor air which may have great influence on 222 Rn levels in houses. 222 Ra activity concentrations were also determined in soil samples. The studied areas are located in southern part of Syria. The common bed rock of this area is black and massive granite which are poor in uranium content [Jubeli Y.M., 1990. Uranium exploration in Syria. Internal Technical Report, vol. 1 (in English), vol. 2 (in Arabic), SAEC, Damascus; Technoexport (USSR), 1966. In: Ponikarov (Ed.), The Geological Map of Syria Scale: 1:200.000, Ministry of Industry, Damascus, Syria]. Results showed that the maximum measurement in all areas was 32500Bqm -3 in soil air with an exhalation rate of 9Bqm -2 s -1 in Darra region and 66.43Bqm -3 of radon in open air, with 77Bqkg -1 of radium content in soil (Damascus suburb). In addition, correlations between Rn in soil and exhalation of Radon from soil and radon in houses were found in some areas (Sweda and Darra), while, no correlations were found in other studied areas. Moreover, no correlation between radon in houses and radon measurements in soil and in outdoors were found. This was attributed to the methodology used and the influence of building design and inhabitants behavior
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…
Meiqari, Lana; Hoetjes, Maartje; Baxter, Louisa; Lenglet, Annick
Few data are available to evaluate the impact of Syrian war on civilian population; to describe this impact on child health, this article uses data from Médecins Sans Frontières-Operational Centre Amsterdam's activities in Tal-Abyad and Kobane cities, northern Syria (2013-2016). Data were obtained
Boesman, J.L.J.; Berbers, A.; d'Haenens, L.; Van Gorp, B.
This paper investigates the framing construction of Flemish newspaper journalists regarding the so-called ‘Syria-warriors’. When the Syrian conflict developed, the rebels against the Assad regim were joined by young muslims from Western European countries. Figures of the number of Belgian fighters
Meiqari, Lana; Hoetjes, Maartje; Baxter, Louisa; Lenglet, Annick
Few data are available to evaluate the impact of Syrian war on civilian population; to describe this impact on child health, this article uses data from Médecins Sans Frontières-Operational Centre Amsterdam's activities in Tal-Abyad and Kobane cities, northern Syria (2013-2016). Data were obtained from routine medical datasets and narrative reports, for out-patient clinics, immunisation, nutritional monitoring and assessments, and in-patient care, and were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Infections were the largest contributor to morbidity. The proportion of Syria; however, immunisation coverage could not be calculated. Results from our routine data must be compared cautiously, due to differences in settings and disease categories. With such scattered interventions, routine data are limited in providing a quantified evidence of emergency's health impact; however, they help in drawing a picture of children's health status and highlighting difficulties in providing curative and preventive services, in order to reflect part of population's plight. What is Known • Few data exist to evaluate the impact of the Syrian war on the health of children; • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF-OCA) has worked in northern Syria during different times since 2013. What is New • Quantitative and qualitative analysis of MSF's routine medical data and situtation reports show that one fifth of all consultations in children Syria 2013-2016 were due to communicable diseases; • The analysis also highlights the burden of chronic conditions that were prevalent in Syria before the war, e.g. thalassemia.
Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Jawad, Mohammed
The association between education and wealth, as fundamental determinants of health, and smoking is well-established. Yet, social inequalities have received little attention in the expanding field of tobacco research in the Arab region. In this study, we examine inequalities in cigarette smoking by education and wealth in four Arab countries. Utilizing the most recently available population-level data sets (Syria 2009 PAPFAM, Jordan 2012 DHS, Palestine 2010 Family Health Survey, and Lebanon 2004 PAPFAM), we tested the association between cigarette smoking and education and wealth-controlling for age, marital status, and region of residence-for each country, and among men and women depending on data availability. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Arab men is high- 51.3% in Syria, 39.7% in Palestine, and 42.1% in Lebanon; among women, prevalence is 8.4% in Syria, 10.9% in Jordan, and 24.3% Lebanon. Cigarette smoking shows the expected patterns inequalities by education among men in Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, and among women in Jordan and Lebanon. On the other hand, wealth does not show a clear pattern in its association with cigarette smoking and, in some cases (men in Palestine and women in Syria) the behavioral risk is higher among the wealthiest. Available data from 2004-2012 show that cigarette smoking among men and women in the four Arab countries is predominant among those with limited access to education as a fundamental cause. The weak or absent negative association between wealth and cigarette smoking suggests that access to material resources does not precipitate a reduction in the consumption of tobacco.
Almerie, Yara; Almerie, Muhammad Q; Matar, Hosam E; Shahrour, Yasser; Al Chamat, Ahmad Abo; Abdulsalam, Asmaa
Investigating severe maternal morbidity (near-miss) is a newly recognised tool that identifies women at highest risk of maternal death and helps allocate resources especially in low income countries. This study aims to i. document the frequency and nature of maternal near-miss at hospital level in Damascus, Capital of Syria, ii. evaluate the level of care at maternal life-saving emergency services by comparatively analysing near-misses and maternal mortalities. Retrospective facility-based review of cases of near-miss and maternal mortality that took place in the years 2006-2007 at Damascus Maternity University Hospital, Syria. Near-miss cases were defined based on disease-specific criteria (Filippi 2005) including: haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, dystocia, infection and anaemia. Main outcomes included maternal mortality ratio (MMR), maternal near miss ratio (MNMR), mortality indices and proportion of near-miss cases and mortality cases to hospital admissions. There were 28,025 deliveries, 15 maternal deaths and 901 near-miss cases. The study showed a MNMR of 32.9/1000 live births, a MMR of 54.8/100,000 live births and a relatively low mortality index of 1.7%. Hypertensive disorders (52%) and haemorrhage (34%) were the top causes of near-misses. Late pregnancy haemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal mortality (60%) while sepsis had the highest mortality index (7.4%). Most cases (93%) were referred in critical conditions from other facilities; namely traditional birth attendants homes (67%), primary (5%) and secondary (10%) healthcare unites and private practices (11%). 26% of near-miss cases were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Near-miss analyses provide valuable information on obstetric care. The study highlights the need to improve antenatal care which would help early identification of high risk pregnancies. It also emphasises the importance of both: developing protocols to prevent/manage post-partum haemorrhage and training health
Morishita, Naomi; Haj Ismail, Salah; Cetin, Rukiye
The scale of destruction caused by seven years of on-going war in Syria has caused mass migration of the Syrian people within and outside of Syria. The situation calls for a means to provide the internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria with humane post-war affordable housing that can be quickly and easily built with few resources. Fossil fuel resources are not only scarce because of the war, but are also being used as a valuable commodity to finance the war economy, and thus, housing should minimize consumption of energy for heating and cooling because of the fossil fuel scarcity while providing high thermal comfort to the inhabitants. The housing parameters for the proposed solution are to integrate as much of the local building materials in the Aleppo region as possible using existing regional building traditions. Imported products such as building materials, machinery, equipment, as well as foreign labour and knowhow are to be kept to a minimum while incorporating recycled rubble from destroyed buildings. A comparative study of current disaster relief housing illustrates the appropriateness of each design solution in relation to the above-proposed housing parameters. A detailed analysis of the physical properties of an existing case study building in Dabiq, a town 40 km northeast of Aleppo, outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the building tradition to determine which aspects of the construction may be improved for better thermal comfort and resistance against earthquakes. The simulation results from WUFI Plus show the building behaviour of the case study house. This paper offers a concept for transitional single-family housing for IDPs based upon the adobe tradition in the rural areas of Aleppo. Reducing the heating and cooling loads can also drastically reduce fossil fuel requirements during the construction and operation phases of the single-family homes while maintaining a high level of indoor thermal comfort. Traditional construction techniques
Syria is a country of many civilizations, Marie, Aramaic, Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine, Islamic, Ottoman civilizations. Unfortunally the recent war is the reason for many cultural heritage items to be destroyed, beyond the thausand civilian people killed. In 2010, just before the war, the A. made a touristic trip together with Crua (Recreational Club of the Ancona University). It was the occasion to make some fast documentation of some Syrian CH monuments. Mostly of the images were taken by the A. not to make a survey, but as a photographic report, as fast and complete as possible. For a regular survey project, the tripod, the spherical head should be used for the takings and the 3x3 Cipa rules should be followed, that occurred only in the three main projects, say the survey of the citadel walls in Aleppo, the survey of the Umayyads Mosque in Damascus, and the survey of the minaret of the Umayyads Mosque in Aleppo. All the other documentation surveys have been carried out with hand-held camera taking the dimension of the model from Google earth high resolution, when available. But, apart the regular surveys, due to the explosion of the unexpected war, the photographs taken in such a touristic way, have been used to try to get some usable plottings an restitutions and it worked successfully mostly of the times. These surveys could be useful in case of reconstruction and in case of lack of suitable alternative metric documentation. Because of the continuing threats, all six Syrian World Heritage properties were inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, at the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cambodia last June: Ancient City of Aleppo, Ancient City of Bosra, Ancient City of Damascus, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria, Krak des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din ans finally the Site of Palmyra. See the following links: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=kr.a3e0DL5sA and https
Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density, and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques to characterize the basaltic areas largely extended in Southern Syria. Statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept has been adapted for such characterization, where four kinds of basalt have been identified: very hard basalt, hard basalt, fractured basalt, and basalt alteration products. The spectrometric gamma technique has also been applied on the retrieved rock samples in order to determine the radioactive content (eU, eTh, and K%) of the basaltic section in the study area. No radioactive anomalies have been detected, the radioactive values are normal and in the expected range.
Jubeli, Y.M.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.
To complete the radiometric map of Syria, and to estimate the natural background radiation levels for environmental monitoring, a carborne survey was undertaken over the Deir Az-Zor area. This area was not covered by a previous airborne survey, except for peripheral regions in the south and west. To complete the radiometric map, results of the carborne and airborne surveys had to be merged. This paper presents the merging procedure which was used after normalizing the two data sets to match each other. No anomalies suitable for radioelement exploration were found. However, the overall radiometric maps resulting from the present work were consistent with the maps of the areas covered by the airborne survey. (author)
Full Text Available There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the abundance of armed groups who all need to generate revenue. Secondly, the paper argues that organised crime also affects the intensity and duration of war by enabling militants to reproduce themselves materially and to build institutions amongst the communities where they are active. The relationships between armed groups and local populations emerge as a central theme in understanding the crime-conflict nexus.
Al-Bachir, M.; Sharabi, N.; Midani, M.A.
Ionizing radiation has been used for food preservation in many ways, among them sprout inhibition in onion and potato. Experiments showed that irradiation of these crops using doses between 50 - 150 Gy prevented sprouting for up to 6 months during storage. Priliminary experiments in Syria proved the effectiveness of such treatment in these two crops. In addition to the technical, social, and political feasibility, this study includes, general description of the suggested plant ( 60 Co 3.7 PBq), estimated cost, location, and the tentative operation schedual. The study showed that the cost of irradiation will be about $ 8.7 per ton, this will save the country about $ 3.760.000 per year. The study showed the possitive effect of establishing this plant. (author). 74 refs., 44 tabs., 15 figs
Al-Faham, Zaid; Habboub, Ghaith; Takriti, Farah
Overuse of antibiotics has contributed to the development of organism resistance. The acquisition of antibiotics without prescription by the general population seems to be common practice in pharmacies of Damascus, Syria. This study aimed to determine the proportion of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without medical prescription and without seeing the patient. A cross-sectional study involving a sample of 224 pharmacies was conducted in Damascus. To obtain antibiotics without medical prescription, the investigators posed as individuals who had a sister with symptoms of sinusitis. From 200 pharmacies visited, 87% agreed without insistence from the investigator to sell antibiotics without prescription. This figure increased to 97% when the investigators who were at first denied antibiotics insisted on having the antibiotics. Dispensing of antibiotics is high in Damascus despite federal regulations. Health education programs should be directed to pharmacies and also to the population.
Full Text Available Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT survey was carried out at Abu Baara earth dam in northwestern Syria, in order to delineate potential pathways of leakage occurring through the subsurface structure close to the dam body. The survey was performed along two straight measuring profiles of 715 and 430 m length in up- and downstream sides of the dam’s embankment. The analysis of the inverted ERT sections revealed the presence of fractured and karstified limestone rocks which constitute the shallow bedrock of the dam reservoir. Several subsurface structural anomalies were identified within the fractured bedrock, most of which are associated with probable karstic cavities, voids, and discontinuity features developed within the carbonates rocks. Moreover, results also showed the occurrence of a distinguished subsiding structure coinciding with main valley course. Accordingly, it is believed that the bedrock and the other detected features are the main potential causes of water leakage from the dam’s reservoir.
Full Text Available Through a brief overview of the Armenian experience in Syria since the 1920s (post-genocide mass resettlement, the article shows that the emergence of centralising, authoritarian regimes in the 1950s and 1960s has substantially restricted the communal autonomy of the Armenians, with the result of damaging their strategy of cultural self-preservation. The article critically suggests, however, that since President Hafiz Al-Asad seized power in 1970, the position of the Armenian community has partially recovered. While officially denying their relevance, the Syrian regime has continued to use ethnic and sub-ethnic allegiances as channels to connect with components of the Syrian society. This context has created for the Armenians some protected spaces where the community could continue to preserve – within certain limits, and among increasing economic difficulties - its diversity.
Adel Shakeeb Mohsen
Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the effect of oil price, external debt and population on the government investment in Syria over the period 1970-2010. The Johansen cointegration test showed that oil price, external debt and population have a positive and significant long run relationship with government investment. The Granger causality test indicates bidirectional long-run causality relationships between oil price, external debt, population, and government investment. There are also unidirectional short-run causality relationships running from oil price and population to government investment, and bidirectional short-run causality relationship between external debt and government investment. The study result indicates that, external debt have the biggest effect on the government investment, as well as oil price and population can play an important role in supporting the government investment in the country.
In recent years, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has attempted to go beyond its role as a provider of relief and basic services in Palestinian refugee camps and emphasize its role as a development agency. In this article, I focus on the Neirab Rehabilitation Project, an UNRWA-sponsored development project taking place in the Palestinian refugee camps of Ein el Tal and Neirab in northern Syria. I argue that UNRWA's role as a relief-centered humanitarian organization highlights the everyday suffering of Palestinian refugees, suffering that has become embedded in refugees’ political claims. I show that UNRWA's emphasis on “development” in the refugee camps is forcing Palestinian refugees in Ein el Tal and Neirab to reassess the political narrative through which they have understood their relationship with UNRWA.
Madania, Ammar; Habous, Maya; Zarzour, Hana; Ghoury, Ifad; Hebbo, Barea
In order to characterize mutations causing rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of M. tuberculosis in Syria, 69 rifampicin resistant (Rif(r)) and 72 isoniazid resistant (Inh(r)) isolates were screened for point mutations in hot spots of the rpoB, katG and inhA genes by DNA sequencing and real time PCR. Of 69 Rif(r) isolates, 62 (90%) had mutations in the rifampin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene, with codons 531 (61%), 526 (13%), and 516 (8.7%) being the most commonly mutated. We found two new mutations (Asp516Thr and Ser531Gly) described for the first time in the rpoB-RRDR in association with rifampicin resistance. Only one mutation (Ile572Phe) was found outside the rpoB-RRDR. Of 72 Inh(r) strains, 30 (41.6%) had a mutation in katGcodon315 (with Ser315Thr being the predominant alteration), and 23 (32%) harbored the inhA(-15C-->T) mutation. While the general pattern of rpoB-RRDR and katG mutations reflected those found worldwide, the prevalence of the inhA(-15C-->T mutation was above the value found in most other countries, emphasizing the great importance of testing the inhA(-15C-->T) mutation for prediction of isoniazid resistance in Syria. Sensitivity of a rapid test using real time PCR and 3'-Minor groove binder (MGB) probes in detecting Rif(r) and Inh(r) isolates was 90% and 69.4%, respectively. This demonstrates that a small set of MGB-probes can be used in real time PCR in order to detect most mutations causing resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid.
Liver transplant is the criterion standard for patients with end-stage liver disease. Yet there is no liver transplant in Syria. Traveling abroad for a liver transplant is a luxury few Syrians can afford. There is currently an on-going debate whether to start a liver transplant program using living or deceased donors. In 2003, a new law was enacted, authorizing the use of organs from volunteer strangers and deceased donors. Despite the positive aspects of this law (allowing unrelated donors to increase the number of transplants in the country); the negative aspects also were obvious. The poor used the law to sell their organs to the rich, and this model is in violation of the Istanbul Declaration. To better document transplant communities' perceptions on organ donation, an e-mail survey was sent to a nationally representative sample of physicians (n = 115) that showed that 58% of respondents did not support the start of liver transplant from live donors, as they fear a considerable risk for the donor and the recipient. Seventy-one percent of respondents believe that unrelated kidney donation has contributed to tarnishing the reputation of transplant, and 56% believe that a deceased-donor program can run in parallel with unrelated organ donations. The interest in deceased-donor program has been affected negatively by the systematic approach of using poor persons as the source of the organ. This lack of interest has affected starting a liver program that relies on deceased donors; especially the need for kidneys is more than livers. Health authorities in Syria were inclined to initiate a liver transplant program from live donors, despite the risks of serious morbidities and mortality. In conclusion then, paid kidney donation in actual effect is actually a hindrance to establishing a deceased-donor liver program.
Rastam, Samer; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim
Objective Examine the association of physical impairment with gender, depression, and socio-demographics in the community in Aleppo, Syria. Method We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study in Aleppo on adults aged 18–65 (N = 2,038). We used a computerized interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Physical impairment was measured via an adapted 12-item World Health Organization, Health State Description Individual Questionnaire which includes both physical and emotional items. We used physical impairment items score to classify individuals into low, middle, and high physical impairment category. Self-report of physician-diagnosed depression and chronic diseases active in the past year and their current treatment status were obtained. Results Sample mean age (SD) was 35.3 (12.1) years, 55% were female, and 4.5% had depression. Female gender, low socioeconomic status (SES), and depression were associated with high physical impairment. Women had more impairment (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.15–5.21) with little change after controlling for depression and chronic diseases, but significantly decreased after controlling for socio-demographics (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.84–2.73). The association with low (vs. high) SES was prominent (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.32–4.67) after controlling for all variables. Depression’s association (OR = 4.85, 95% CI: 1.93–12.15) lost significance after controlling for chronic diseases (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 0.96–8.25), but further adjustment for socio-demographics had little effect. Conclusion Women and individuals of low SES appear more vulnerable to physical impairment in the community in Aleppo. Depression’s association with physical impairment may be mediated through co-existing chronic diseases. Public health planning regarding physical impairment in Syria should encompass these as putative risk factors. PMID:20195569
Stillinger, M. D.; Feinberg, J. M.; Frahm, E.
In order to construct meaningful site chronologies, Near Eastern archaeologists have traditionally relied on relative dating techniques, such as ceramic seriation and textual/glyptic evidence. The introduction of radiocarbon dating provided archaeologists with an absolute dating tool to address age discrepancies. However, many sites do not contain sufficient or suitable materials for radiocarbon analysis, requiring the need for an alternative absolute dating tool. Archaeomagnetic dating provides such an alternative. Excavations at Tell Mozan (Bronze-Age Urkesh) in northeastern Syria have revealed evidence for nearly 5000 years of occupation in strata containing a variety of diagnostic ceramic artifacts, which form the basis for a well-established relative site chronology. In order to test the agreement between seriation ages and paleomagnetic-derived ages, archaeointensity experiments were conducted on pottery specimens from six well-stratified occupational layers spanning more than a thousand years of the site's primary occupation. Archaeointensity was determined using the IZZI paleointensity protocol of Tauxe and Staudigel (2004), and all estimates were corrected for remanence anisotropy and cooling rate effects, resulting in an 88% success rate (n = 51). The magnetic mineral assemblage of each sample was also characterized using a comprehensive suite of rock magnetic techniques. Final results were compared with previous archaeointensity studies in the region, and 70% of the magnetically-derived ages agree with the archaeologically-derived dates within a 1σ confidence interval, while 76% agreed within 2σ. Artifacts showing disagreement with the seriation chronology are most likely objects in use long after their original firing or the result of contamination of strata from the re-use of previous occupational materials in construction. One specimen appears to confirm the presence of a geomagnetic spike around 1000 BCE previously identified in Syria, Israel
Ali Abdul Kadir Ali
Full Text Available This paper examines security in Syria through the conceptual lens of the security gap, understood as the gap between security practices and objectives which have implications for individual and collective security. Practices of security can be the state apparatus, the military, and militias. The objective – safety – can refer to the safety or security of a range of collectives including the state, political parties, and ethnic groups, while individual security refers to the general safety of inhabitants and the protection of human rights. This paper compares the security situation in so-called ‘rebel-held’ areas of Syria where alternative governance structures have emerged, examining the security approaches of Local Administrative Councils and Rebel Councils in Deir Azzor, Manbij, Dera, and areas dominated by the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD. It argues that security and safety are strongly influenced by authority formation and the nature of deals and relationships involved in the formation of these nascent authorities. It also argues that security in these areas is strongly influenced by the Syrian government, which disrupts collectives that threaten its own collective security while giving limited support to those which serve its agenda of retaining power. It also demonstrates the limited utility of the ‘regime’ vs. ‘rebel-held’ dichotomy, as rebel groups at times must accommodate the Syrian state in limited ways for instrumental purposes. The article is based on fieldwork conducted in Turkey in 2013–2014, interviews conducted in 2015, and secondary sources based on field research.
An alternative approach using nuclear neutron-porosity and electrical resistivity well logging of long (64 inch) and short (16 inch) normal techniques is proposed to estimate the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity ( K) of the basaltic aquifers in Southern Syria. This method is applied on the available logs of Kodana well in Southern Syria. It has been found that the obtained K value by applying this technique seems to be reasonable and comparable with the hydraulic conductivity value of 3.09 m/day obtained by the pumping test carried out at Kodana well. The proposed alternative well logging methodology seems as promising and could be practiced in the basaltic environments for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity parameter. However, more detailed researches are still required to make this proposed technique very performed in basaltic environments.
Al-Masri, M. S.; Byrakdar, E.; Amin, Y.; Abu Baker, S.
Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria have been determined. Samples were collected during the year of 2000 at two periods from the main water sources, from which water being transported for drinking or from houses. Results have shown that most concentrations of the measured naturally occurring radionuclides ( 222 Rn, 222 Ra, 210 Po, 234 U, 238 U) were within the natural levels and below the higher permissible limits of International Organizations. In addition, variations in concentrations from region to another have been observed; these variations may be due to differences in geological formations and water sources (well, spring, surface water). Moreover, the obtained data in this study and other published data for other regions can be used for establishing the radiation map for natural radioactivity in drinking water in Syria. (author)
Lajin, Bassam; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Ghabreau, Lina; Mohamed, Ali; Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin; Alachkar, Amal
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates catechol estrogens by methylation and thus may play a protective role against mutations induced by estrogen metabolites. In this study we investigated the relationship between the Vall58Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and breast cancer risk in a population-based case control study in Syria. We examined 135 breast cancer patients and 107 healthy controls in North Syria to determine the association between the functional genetic Val158Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and female breast cancer risk. There was no significant overall association between the COMT genotype and individual susceptibility to breast cancer. Our data suggest that there may be no overall association between the COMT genotype and breast cancer.
Grussenmeyer, P.; Khalil, O. Al
The paper presents photogrammetric archives from Aleppo (Syria), collected between 1999 and 2002 by the Committee for maintenance and restoration of the Great Mosque in partnership with the Engineering Unit of the University of Aleppo. During that period, terrestrial photogrammetric data and geodetic surveys of the Great Omayyad mosque were recorded for documentation purposes and geotechnical studies. During the recent war in Syria, the Mosque has unfortunately been seriously damaged and its minaret has been completely destroyed. The paper presents a summary of the documentation available from the past projects as well as solutions of 3D reconstruction based on the processing of the photogrammetric archives with the latest 3D image-based techniques.
Full Text Available The paper presents photogrammetric archives from Aleppo (Syria, collected between 1999 and 2002 by the Committee for maintenance and restoration of the Great Mosque in partnership with the Engineering Unit of the University of Aleppo. During that period, terrestrial photogrammetric data and geodetic surveys of the Great Omayyad mosque were recorded for documentation purposes and geotechnical studies. During the recent war in Syria, the Mosque has unfortunately been seriously damaged and its minaret has been completely destroyed. The paper presents a summary of the documentation available from the past projects as well as solutions of 3D reconstruction based on the processing of the photogrammetric archives with the latest 3D image-based techniques.
Bouajila, A; Zoghlami, N; Murad, S; Baum, M; Ghorbel, A; Nazari, K
To investigate the level of genetic differentiation and diversity among Pyrenophora teres isolate populations originating from different agro-ecological areas of Syria and Tunisia and to determine the potential of AFLP profiling in genotyping Pyrenophora teres f. teres. In this study, AFLP markers have been employed to identify patterns of population structure in 20 Pyrenophora teres f. teres populations from Syria and Tunisia. Ninety-four isolates were studied by the use of a protocol that involved stringent PCR amplification of fragments derived from digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes EcoRI and MesI. Based on 401 amplified polymorphic DNA markers (AFLP), variance analyses indicated that most of the variation was partitioned within rather than between populations. Genotypic diversity (GD) was high for populations from Rihane, local landraces and different agro-ecological zones (GD = 0·75-0·86). There was high genetic differentiation among pathogen populations from different host populations in Syria (Gst = 0·31, ht = 0·190) and Tunisia (Gst = 0·39, ht = 0·263), which may be partly explained by the low gene flow around the areas sampled. A phenetic tree revealed three groups with high bootstrap values (55, 68, 76) and reflected the grouping of isolates based on host, or agro-ecological areas. AFLP profiling is an effective method for typing the genetically diverse pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres. The study represents a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity in P. teres isolates from two countries spanning two continents and also shows that several distinct P. teres genotypes may be found in a given environment. The implications of these findings for Pyrenophora teres f. teres evolutionary potential and net blotch-resistance breeding in Syria and Tunisia were also discussed. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Kharita, M. H.; Khedr, M. S.; Wannus, K. M.
This study covered comprehensive evaluation for diagnostic radiography and fluorography equipment used in medicine by applying SAEC quality control rules. The results showed that most of considered x-ray equipment have an acceptable performance but few reached 21.6% in radiography and 36.8% in fluorography need repair and recalibration. Also recommendations and guidance for repair and preventative maintenance are required and quality assurance program should be applied in all diagnostic radiology institutions in Syria.(author)
Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Schwetlick, Miriam; Mueller, Thomas; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos
Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria. Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East. In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0%) were male and 255 (29.0%) female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84). 222 (25.2%) of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%), followed by medical (321, 36.5%) and psychiatric (137, 15.6%). In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%). Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%), followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8%) and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%). There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%), followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3%) and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%). Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (pSyria when compared to other nationalities of asylum seekers from the Middle East.
Tapete, Deodato; Cigna, Francesca; Sowter, Andrew; Marsh, Stuart
36 ENVISAT ASAR images acquired in 2002 to 2010 along descending passes with nominal revisiting time of 35 days were processed over the whole region of Homs, western Syria, by implementing the low-pass Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique. More than 280,000 coherent pixels with ~100m ground resolution were obtained. We analysed pixel spatial distribution in respect of local geology and land use, to assess to what extent these factors can influence the performance of ...
El-Khatib, Ziad; Scales, David; Vearey, Jo; Forsberg, Birger C
Around 3% of the world's population (n = 214 million people) has crossed international borders for various reasons. Since March 2011, Syria has been going through state of political crisis and instability resulting in an exodus of Syrians to neighbouring countries. More than 1 million Syrian refugees are residents of Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Egypt and North Africa. The international community must step up efforts to support Syrian refugees and their host governments.
Blaabjerg, Karoline; D'Costa, Lauren Lindsey; Grønbech, Peter; Hansen, Gultiano Hansen
This thesis investigates the effect of water scarcity in the Middle East on political stability at the local, regional and global scale. Guided by a comprehensive Conceptual Framework encompassing theories and concepts of scales, national- human- and environmental security, the thesis is structured as a multiscale case study of Syria. The analyses each present a narrative about water scarcity and political stability specific to their scale. As such, it is established how water scarcity in the...
Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob
It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.
Silver, M.; Törmä, M.; Silver, K.; Okkonen, J.; Nuñez, M.
The present paper concentrates on the use of remote sensing by satellite imagery for detecting ancient tracks and roads in the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates in Syria. The Syrian desert was traversed by caravans already in the Bronze Age, and during the Greco-Roman period the traffic increased with the Silk Road and trade as well as with military missions annexing the areas into empires. SYGIS - the Finnish archaeological survey and mapping project traced, recorded and documented ancient sites and roads in the region of Jebel Bishri in Central Syria in 2000-2010 before the outbreak of the civil war in Syria. Captured data of ancient roads and bridge points bring new light to the study of ancient communication framework in the area. Archaeological research carried out by the project on the ground confirmed the authenticity of many road alignments, new military and water harvesting sites as well as civilian settlements, showing that the desert-steppe area was actively used and developed probably from the second century AD. The studies further demonstrated that the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates was militarily more organised already in the second and third centuries AD than earlier believed. Chronologically, the start of this coincided with the "golden age" of the Palmyrene caravans in the second century AD. Topography and landscape were integral parts of the construction of graves/tumuli as sign-posts guiding in the desert, as well as roads and all kinds of settlements whether military or civilian.
Mourad, Jamil; Monem, Fawza
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex multifactorial chronic disease. The importance of human leukocyte antigen as a major genetic risk factor for RA was studied worldwide. Although it is widely distributed in different Syrian areas, studies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles' role are absent. The aim of our study was to determine the association of HLA-DRB1 alleles with the susceptibility and severity of RA in Syria. Eighty-six RA patients and 200 healthy controls from Syria were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP). Anti-CCP antibodies were measured by ELISA. Rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and disease activity score 28 (DAS-28) values were obtained from patients' medical records. DAS-28 was used to assess the clinical severity of the patients. The HLA-DRB1*01, *04, and *10 frequencies showed a strong association with the disease susceptibility (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.11-4.75, P = 0.022; OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 2.0 -4.8, P < 0.0001; OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.07-5.51, P = 0.029 respectively), while the frequencies of HLA-DRB1*11, and *13 were significantly lower in RA patients than in controls (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8, P = 0.004; OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.15-0.69, P = 0.002, respectively). The other HLA-DRB1 alleles showed no significant difference. The frequency of anti-CCP antibodies was higher in shared epitope (SE) positive patients compared with SE-negative patients (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 2-15.1, P = 0.00054). DAS-28 of RA patients didn't show significant difference between the SE negative and the SE positive groups. Our results indicate that HLA-DRB1*01, *04, and *10 alleles are related with RA, while HLA-DRB1*11 and *13 protect against RA in the Syrian population.
Jackson, H.; Bailey, G.; Clayton, E.; Stelcer, E.
Jebel Khalid, on the West bank of the Euphrates River in Northern Syria, has been excavated by an Australian team from Canberra and Melbourne Universities since 1987. It is a Seleucid settlement, probably founded by Seleucus I (one of Alexander's generals who 'inherited' a large tract of his empire) or one of his successors in the early third century BCE. The pottery which is the main subject of this report was all excavated from the housing area, which lies on a south-facing slope facing the higher peak, on which stood the Governor's Palace. Very few whole pots were excavated so we have to rely on diagnostic sherds to recreate the types of vessels used. The volume and range is enormous; it covers large amphorae and jars, cooking pots, kitchen vessels and tableware which can be quite fine. Some of the latter is imported and easily identified as such by its appearance, particularly the even surface of glossy black or glossy red. The majority, however, if painted at all, has a dull red surface, with drips running down. This is what we tend to call 'local' pottery without really knowing where it was made. No kilns have been found on site but would surely have been down in the valley with the source of the clay, near the river for water supply. North Syria has long been suspected of having an important role in pottery production during the Hellenistic period, but no specific site has been proved. Antioch-on-the-Orontes is a strong contender and it seems likely that at least some of the Jebel Khalid pottery was brought in from there. But there must have been a nearer source and we cannot determine the extent and range of imports from Antioch until we can distinguish between the clays. Publications of pottery from Syrian Hellenistic sites (including Antioch) tend to date from early in the century when such analysis was not available, or are often given less attention because they are incidental to the excavation of another earlier period. Where clays are described, it is
Full Text Available Due to social, economic and political reasons, informal settlements are considered as a challenging problem in the third world countries. These create problems to the society and to the local government. The present study aims to discuss informal settlements of Latakia city (Syria during 1970 and 2005 using satellite data. Where based on all the information available, until today the present study is the first one carried out in Syria concerning the development of informal settlements. In this study, we put a headline to solve the informal settlement problem in Latakia city by achievement 4 goals: • INCORPORATION: This goal requires that the inhabitants of an informal settlement are recognized as full citizens of the city, town or village with which they are associated.• IMPROVEMENT: This goal requires an integrated approach to development, that seeks to meet the most important needs of the whole community. It also requires that those needs and priorities are determined by all the stakeholders. The choice of strategies also requires an inclusive process that takes all factors into account. • DEVELOPMENT: The vital elements of this goal are the provision of opportunities and encouragement. • PLANNING: This goal includes, Anticipate the future. Identification and addressing the implications for the informal settlements in a comprehensive manner. We suggested 4 guiding principles to achieve the previous goals: • Integration: Considering the informal settlements as a part of the whole city, is a very important point in the integration process. • Participation: Participation of people and groups of people with the local authority effectively in a process. • Communication: communication is the exchange of thoughts, messages, information and meeting between people and the authority. • Minimum relocation: is to provide the people with opportunities to stay and settle, because every move is disruptive and costly. Also in the present study
Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C
This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An account is given of the application of multielement reconnaissance rock chemistry, coupled with ground scintillation γ-ray measurements, to the investigation of the dispersion patterns of uranium and other major and trace elements in the rocks of the arid Palmyrides region of central Syria. The region is underlain by 10 km of sediments that accumulated in an interplatform depression during the Mesozoic and Caenozoic. Uranium and associated elements were syngenetically incorporated into the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Palaeogene sediments - especially phosphorites, which are well represented in the region. The oxidizing environment of the region has facilitated the subsequent geochemical redistribution of uranium. In the investigation more than 400 lithogeochemical samples collected from an area of approximately 9000 km 2 were analysed for over 30 elements. The resulting data were interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate statistical methods and the areal distribution of uranium, its associated elements, multivariate geochemical functions and factor scores were mapped with the use of computer graphics. Anomalies of U are accompanied by concentrations of As, Se, V, Mo, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and P in various combinations. The highest U concentrations are found in the Upper Cretaceous, which contains a high proportion of phosphatic rocks; younger sediments contain progressively less U. Uranium anomalies close to faults, which have provided conduits for wider U migration, are superimposed on this pattern. Lithogeochemical methods thus define geochemical dispersion patterns with good contrast and delineate areas for further investigation. (author)
Four strains of a novel asexual ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from Malva sp. flowers in Syria. Sequencing of the regions spanning the small subunit, 5.8S, and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal RNA genes showed that the isolates were conspecific. Comparative analysis of these sequences and the corresponding sequences of the type strains of ascomycetous yeasts revealed that the novel species is phylogenetically related to members of the Starmerella clade. Its closest relative is Candida vaccinii. For the new species the name Starmerella syriaca is proposed. Its strains are osmotolerant and produce pseudohypha-like structures capable of penetrating agar media. The type strain is 2-1362(T) (=CBS 13909(T) = NCAIM Y.02138(T) = CCY 090-003-001(T)). The GenBank accession numbers for its nucleotide sequences are: JX515986 (D1/D2 LSU), JX515987 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and JX515988 (SSU). Mycobank: MB 810090.
Jubeli, Y.M.; Hale, M.
Multielement reconnaissance geochemistry coupled with ground scintillation gamma ray measurements has been used to investigate the dispersion patterns of uranium and other major and trace elements in the arid Palmyrides region of central Syria. Over 500 geochemical samples of outcropping rock, wadi and playa sediments, overburden and groundwaters were taken over an area of approximately 9000 sq km. Most samples were analyzed for 25 major and trace elements by nebulization ICPAES; for As, Sb, Bi and Se by hydride generation and ICPAES; and for U, Th and La and other REE by neutron activation analysis. The resulting data were interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate statistical methods. The areal distributions of U, its associated elements, multivariate geochemical functions and factor scores were mapped using computer graphics. Results of the factor analysis indicate that the primary lithogeochemical dispersion patterns of uranium and associated elements are controlled by a combination of structural, lithological and environmental factors. Uranium and associated elements have subsequently been leached out of the phosphorite and other U enriched clayey limestones and carbonate rocks into the hydro- geologic regime. Redistribution of these elements is taking place along fracture zones and major faults. A degree of urnaium accumulation in a Neogene aquifer of the Ad-Daww basin is evident
Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P
The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.
Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.
The ratios of stable isotopes ( 18 O and 2 H), tritium content, together with the chemical composition of major ions of the Euphrates and Balikh (Euphrates tributary) Rivers, and the groundwaters of four wells drilled close to the Euphrates River course, were measured on a monthly basis. The Euphrates River water was monitored at twelve stations along its course in Syria during the period from January 2004 to December 2006, whereas those of the Balikh and groundwaters were only investigated during 2005. Although, the spatial variations of heavy stable isotope concentrations are moderated with respect to other large rivers in the world, the concentrations of these isotopes increase generally downstream the Euphrates River, with a sharp enrichment at Al-Assad Lake. This sharp increase could be explained by the effect of direct evaporation from the river and its tributaries; and the effect of drainage return flows of irrigation waters, isotopically more enriched. Enrichment of stable isotopes in the Euphrates River water was used as a direct indicator of evaporation. Based on an experimental evaporation result of a Euphrates water sample and the integral enrichment of heavy stable isotopes in the Euphrates River system, the amount of water losses by evaporation from Al-Assad Lake was estimated to be about 1.26 to 1.62 billion m''3, according to 18 O and deuterium ( 2 H), respectively. This amount represents about 12-16% of the renewable surface water resources in the country. (author)
Rozemarijn van Spaendonck
Full Text Available At the international, national and local level, authorities seek to prevent citizens from travelling to the Middle East to join fighting parties or settle in the ISIS caliphate (also referred to as IS, ISIS or its Arab language acronym, Daesh. As some travellers have not reached the age of majority, the authorities should take the best interests of the child (Article 3 Convention on the Rights of the Child into account while addressing this so-called foreign fighter phenomenon. This article explores to what extent the best interests of the child are considered at the international (United Nations, Council of Europe, European Union, national (the Netherlands and local (The Hague level when preventing minors from travelling to Syria and Iraq. In general, it finds that little distinction is made between the position of children and young adults. The position of children is explicitly addressed when measures are taken to prevent radicalization. Attention for the position of children is often lacking when repressive measures such as criminal and administrative measures are taken.
Mathbout, Shifa; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Martin-Vide, Javier; Bech, Joan; Rodrigo, Fernando S.
This paper analyses the observed spatiotemporal characteristics of drought phenomenon in Syria using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Temporal variability of drought is calculated for various time scales (3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months) for 20 weather stations over the 1961-2012 period. The spatial patterns of drought were identified by applying a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the SPI and SPEI values at different time scales. The results revealed three heterogeneous and spatially well-defined regions with different temporal evolution of droughts: 1) Northeastern (inland desert); 2) Southern (mountainous landscape); 3) Northwestern (Mediterranean coast). The evolutionary characteristics of drought during 1961-2012 were analysed including spatial and temporal variability of SPI and SPEI, the frequency distribution, and the drought duration. The results of the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test applied to the SPI and SPEI series indicate prevailing significant negative trends (drought) at all stations. Both drought indices have been correlated both on spatial and temporal scales and they are highly comparable, especially, over a 12 and 24 month accumulation period. We concluded that the temporal and spatial characteristics of the SPI and SPEI can be used for developing a drought intensity - areal extent - and frequency curve that assesses the variability of regional droughts in Syria. The analysis of both indices suggests that all three regions had a severe drought in the 1990s, which had never been observed before in the country. Furthermore, the 2007-2010 drought was the driest period in the instrumental record, happening just before the onset of the recent conflict in Syria.
de Lima Pereira, Alan; Southgate, Rosamund; Ahmed, Hikmet; O’Connor, Penelope; Cramond, Vanessa; Lenglet, Annick
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015. Methods: We implemented a pre-SIA survey in 135 randomly-selected households in Kobanê using a vaccination history questionnaire for all children Syria. The VPD Risk Analysis prioritised measles, Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib) and Pneumococcus vaccinations. In the measles SIA, 3410 children aged 6-59 months were vaccinated. The use of multiple small vaccination sites to reduce risks associated with crowds in this active conflict setting was noted as a lesson learnt. The post-SIA survey estimated 82% (95%CI: 76.9-85.9%; n=229/280) measles vaccination coverage in children 6-59 months. Discussion: As a result of the conflict in Syria, the progressive collapse of the health care system in Kobanê has resulted in low vaccine coverage rates, particularly in younger age groups. The repeated displacements of the population, attacks on health institutions and exodus of healthcare workers, challenge the resumption of routine immunization in this conflict setting and limit the use of SIAs to ensure sustainable immunity to VPDs. We have shown that the risk for several VPDs in Kobanê remains high. Conclusion: We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of routine immunisation activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five years are adequately protected for VPDs as soon as possible. PMID:29511602
de Lima Pereira, Alan; Southgate, Rosamund; Ahmed, Hikmet; O'Connor, Penelope; Cramond, Vanessa; Lenglet, Annick
In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015. We implemented a pre-SIA survey in 135 randomly-selected households in Kobanê using a vaccination history questionnaire for all children Syria. The VPD Risk Analysis prioritised measles, Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib) and Pneumococcus vaccinations. In the measles SIA, 3410 children aged 6-59 months were vaccinated. The use of multiple small vaccination sites to reduce risks associated with crowds in this active conflict setting was noted as a lesson learnt. The post-SIA survey estimated 82% (95%CI: 76.9-85.9%; n=229/280) measles vaccination coverage in children 6-59 months. As a result of the conflict in Syria, the progressive collapse of the health care system in Kobanê has resulted in low vaccine coverage rates, particularly in younger age groups. The repeated displacements of the population, attacks on health institutions and exodus of healthcare workers, challenge the resumption of routine immunization in this conflict setting and limit the use of SIAs to ensure sustainable immunity to VPDs. We have shown that the risk for several VPDs in Kobanê remains high. We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of routine immunisation activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five years are adequately protected for VPDs as soon as possible.
Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva
As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.
Environmental isotopic variations have been used to investigate the source of recharge and age in the basaltic and deep limestone aquifers system in the Yarmouk basin, SW of Syria. Isotopic results show that recharge of basaltic aquifer is directly related to infiltration of rainwater from high and transitional zones. However, the homogeneity noted of stable and radioactive isotopes values (δ 18 O= -5.58± 0.25%, 14 C=46.2± 4.45 % pmc) in Laja plateau and central zone, confirm the mechanism of common recharge and critical role of this plateau in absorbing great amount of precipitation. In addition these values indicate, to a high rate mixing taking place in this plateau and the central zone. In the Kahiel area, the groundwater is of recent age as shown from the high values of 14 C activity ( 14 C= 66.3 ± 5.3 % pcm) accompanied by enriched 18 O (δ 18 O=-4.7±0.22 %). The recharge of groundwater is related to the leakage of water from dams and drainage network. The tectonic setting in this area constitutes an additional factor in increasing this recharge. Netpath model was used to determine the age of groundwater. the age of groundwater in the basaltic aquifer is generally modern and reaches 2000 y BP in discharge area. Preliminary conclusion of deep limestone aquifer, indicate that its groundwater occur under high piezometric pressure. The salinity is less than 1g/L and the temperature water varied between 35 to 45 degreed centigrade. The low 14 C activities in deep groundwater suggest pleistocene and holocene recharge, although their stable isotopes values indicate recharge by modern meteoric precipitation. The corrected age of this groundwater determined by Netpath model indicate that this age fall between recent water in recharge area and 20 Ky BP. (author)
Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan
Traffic has long been recognized as the major contributor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Stationary combustion sources, including residential space heating systems, are also a major contributor to PAH emissions. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAHs in stack flue gas emissions from different kinds of space heaters in order to increase the understanding of the scale of the PAH pollution problem caused by this source. This study set out to first assess the characteristics of PAHs and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent emissions from a few types of domestic heaters and central heating systems to the urban atmosphere. The study, enabled for the first time, the characterization of PAHs in stationary combustion sources in the city of Damascus, Syria. Nine different types of heating systems were selected with respect to age, design, and type of fuel burned. The concentrations of 15 individual PAH compounds in the stack flue gas were determined in the extracts of the collected samples using high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence detectors. In general, older domestic wood stoves caused considerably higher PAH emissions than modern domestic heaters burning diesel oil. The average concentration of ΣPAH (sum of 15 compounds) in emissions from all types of studied heating systems ranged between 43 ± 0.4 and 316 ± 1.4 μg/m(3). Values of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent ranged between 0.61 and 15.41 μg/m(3).
Ward, Kenneth D; Ahn, SangNam; Mzayek, Fawaz; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Asfar, Taghrid; Fouad, Fouad; Maziak, Wasim
Cigarette smoking has well known effects on body weight, with current smokers weighing less than never-smokers, and cessation producing weight gain. Use of waterpipe (or "hookah") is increasing in many parts of the world but its effects on body weight are not known. We compared body mass index (BMI) among 2,536 adults (age ≥ 18 years old), who were never, former, current nondaily, or current daily waterpipe smokers, drawn from 2 representative, population-based household surveys of adults in Aleppo, Syria. Overall, 84.1% (n = 2,134) never-smoked waterpipe, 4.6% (n = 116) were former smokers, 9.9% (n = 251) were current nondaily smokers, and 1.4% (n = 35) were current daily smokers. Mean BMI of the sample was 30.2 kg/m(2) (SD = 6.3). Adjusted for cigarette smoking, number of chronic diseases, age, gender, income, and marital status, daily waterpipe users were 2.26 BMI units greater than never-smokers (beta = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.79-3.72), and had nearly threefold odds of being obese (odds ratio = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.06-7.76). Nondaily and former waterpipe users were similar to never-smokers in terms of BMI and obesity risk. Results indicate that daily waterpipe users, compared to never-users, have higher BMI, translating into 6 extra kilograms of weight on average, and are 3 times as likely to be obese. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Background: Although a majority of countries in the Middle East show intermediate or high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, which clearly poses a serious public health problem in the region, the situation in the Republic of Syria remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the hepatitis B vaccination status, to assess the number of vaccinations administered, and to estimate the annual incidence of needlestick injuries (NSIs among healthcare workers (HCWs in Aleppo University hospitals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional design with a survey questionnaire was used for exploring details of NSIs during 2008, hepatitis B vaccination status, and HBV infection among a random stratified sample of HCWs in three tertiary hospitals in Aleppo (n= 321. Results: Two hundred and forty-six (76.6% HCWs had sustained at least one NSI during 2008. Nine (2.8% had HBV chronic infection and 75 HCWs (23.4% were never vaccinated. Anesthesiology technicians had the greatest exposure risk when compared to office workers [OR=16,95% CI (2.55-100, P< 0.01], doctors [OR=10,95% CI (2.1 47.57, P < 0.01], and nurses [OR = 6.75,95% CI (1.56-29.03, P = 0.01]. HCWs under 25 and between the age of 25 and 35 years were at increased risk for NSI when compared to HCWs older than 45 years [OR = 3.12,95% CI (1.19-8.19, P = 0.02] and [OR = 3.05,95% CI (1.42-6.57, P < 0.01], respectively. Conclusion: HCWs at Aleppo University hospitals are frequently exposed to blood-borne infections. Precautions and protection from NSIs are important in preventing infection of HCWs. Education about the transmission of blood-borne infections, vaccination, and post-exposure prophylaxis must be implemented and strictly monitored.
Jubeli, Y.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Rayes, A.; El-Sharabi, N.A.
Investigation studies in general, demonstrate that background levels of U in plant ash are less than 2 ppm and plant materials which contain more in excess of this amount are indicative either of local uranium mineralization, or the presence of high background levels of uranium in the substrate. Uranium concentrations in different plant parts grown on decomposite phosphate rocks in the mountain coast region of Syria was investigated. Mean uranium concentrations in the soil ranged between 0.44 - 3.91 ppm in the reference area and 22 - 92 ppm in the area of outcrop in phosphate rocks. The results showed that low-order plant forms (Fuaria, Lycopodium, and Pteridium) readily accumulate uranium, whereas high-order forms accumulate uranium in certain parts only. The greatest amount of uranium in flowering parts is concentrated in the plant roots, followed by leaves, twigs and fruits. In addition, results showed that there is a good correlation between uranium in soil and uranium in plant roots. the study demonstrate that Galium Canum could be considered as a good uranium indicator plant for two reason: It was distributed on decomposite phosphate rocks only, and the high concentration of uranium in aerial part similar to the concentration in soil (89.9 ppm). Lagurus Ovatus may be considered as uranium indicator plant, because it was highly dense on the outcrop phosphate rocks, and has a high uranium concentration in its roots (up to 93 ppm) and aerial parts (up to 33 ppm) compared to concentrations in roots and aerial parts in the reference area (10.2 and 0.37 ppm) respectively. (Author)
Barhoum, Masad; Tobias, Samuel; Elron, Moshe; Sharon, Aviram; Heija, Tariq; Soustiel, Jean F
As an expected consequence of the civil war in Syria, emergent neurosurgical care for battlefield trauma has been provided for severely head-injured Syrians transferred to Northern Israel. Sixty-six patients suffering from brain injury were brought to the border and then referred to the institution after initial resuscitation. Both the time and type of injury were recorded based on paramedic testimony, forensic material or on details provided by patients. A retrospective analysis of all medical charts and imaging material was performed. Most injuries were combat-related, either caused by blast (13.6%), shrapnel (24.2%), assault (28.8%) or gunshot wound (15.2%). Only a minority of patients (18.2%) suffered from injuries that were not directly caused by weapon. A total of 55 surgical procedures were performed in 46 out of 66 patients, including craniotomies in 40 patients, burr hole alone for placement of intraparenchymal intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor in nine instances and ventricle peritoneal shunt in two patients. Decompressive craniectomy was used only for the treatment of gunshot wound and was performed in eight out of 10 patients. The most common complication consisted in cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (16.7%). Post-operative infections occurred in seven patients (10.6%). Short-term outcomes were favourable in 60.7%, with a mortality rate of 4.5%. The present findings suggest that aggressive surgery and neuro-intensive care measures may lead to good functional results, even in the presence of seemingly devastating injuries in some selected patients.
Full Text Available Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab. Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recording the number of larvae emerged from these fruits. In addition, suspected overwintering refuges were sampled at weekly intervals during the three coldest months of the year (December – February and the number of collected larvae was recorded. The results of trap catches and fruit sampling studies showed a similar pattern of occurrence of medfly populations in the study areas, particularly in Damascus Ghota, during the three years of the study. In Damascus Ghota, flies were caught continuously from early June to late December with some variability between years. Two distinct periods of high fly activity were observed: the first one occurred in August and the second in November with a much higher amplitude. In general, seasonal fluctuations in the pattern of occurrence were influenced by differences in temperature and abundance of preferred host fruits. Traps on fig Ficus carica and oriental persimmon Diospyros kaki trees caught the highest numbers of flies, and fruits collected from these trees showed the highest level of infestation, reaching 100% for fig fruit late in the season. Sampling fruits (in Damascus Ghota from trees during the three coldest months of the year showed that a small population of medfly larvae was able to survive winter conditions in prickly pear Opuntia vulgaris fruit left on the trees. In the other areas of the study (Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab, only a few flies were caught.
Hainoun, A.; Othman, I.; Seef Eldin, M.; Almostafa, S.
In cooperation with the IAEA and in the framework of Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) the AECS performed a comprehensive study to analyse the future energy and electricity demand and to identify the optimal expansion plan of electric generation system. The future energy demand was projected according to various scenarios of possible socio-economic and technological development of the country using the IAEA's end-use approach MAED. The optimal expansion plan including the role of nuclear power in the future electricity supply has been identified on the basis of a least-cost expansion approach using the IAEA's tool WASP-IV. The results of the reference case study show that the final energy demand would increase annually at about 5%, electricity demand at 5.5%, and the peak load at about 5.2%. The analysis of the least-cost expansion of the generation system shows that natural gas and combined cycle power plants would play the dominant role in Syrian future electricity generation and the nuclear power would become competitive option after the year 2022. During the study period the annual electricity per capita will increase from about 1000 kWh to 2800 kWh and the final energy intensity will decrease continuously from about 0.73 kgoe/US$ in the base year to 0.48 kgoe/US in the year 2030 indicating intensive final energy consumption in Syria compared to developing countries. Furthermore, the study provides some recommendations regarding the energy conservation measures in the various energy consumption sectors. Additional analysis are being under consideration aiming the optimization of national and regional supply options to meet the estimated future energy and electricity demand. (author)
Häsler, Robert; Kautz, Christian; Rehman, Ateequr; Podschun, Rainer; Gassling, Volker; Brzoska, Pius; Sherlock, Jon; Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Hoppenstedt, Gesine; Schubert, Sabine; Ferlinz, Astrid; Lieb, Wolfgang; Laudes, Matthias; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Scholz, Jens; Harmsen, Dag; Franke, Andre; Eisend, Swantje; Kunze, Thomas; Fickenscher, Helmut; Ott, Stephan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan
Multidrug-resistant bacteria represent a substantial global burden for human health, potentially fuelled by migration waves: in 2015, 476,649 refugees applied for asylum in Germany mostly as a result of the Syrian crisis. In Arabic countries, multiresistant bacteria cause significant problems for healthcare systems. Currently, no data exist describing antibiotic resistances in healthy refugees. Here, we assess the microbial landscape and presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in refugees and German controls. To achieve this, a systematic study was conducted in 500 consecutive refugees, mainly from Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan and 100 German controls. Stool samples were subjected to PCR-based quantification of 42 most relevant ARGs, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing-based microbiota analysis, and culture-based validation of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. The fecal microbiota of refugees is substantially different from that of resident Germans. Three categories of resistance profiles were found: (i) ARGs independent of geographic origin of individuals comprising BIL/LAT/CMA, ErmB, and mefE; (ii) vanB with a high prevalence in Germany; and (iii) ARGs showing substantially increased prevalences in refugees comprising CTX-M group 1, SHV, vanC1, OXA-1, and QnrB. The majority of refugees carried five or more ARGs while the majority of German controls carried three or less ARGs, although the observed ARGs occurred independent of signatures of potential pathogens. Our results, for the first time, assess antibiotic resistance genes in refugees and demonstrate a substantially increased prevalence for most resistances compared to German controls. The antibiotic resistome in refugees may thus require particular attention in the healthcare system of host countries.
Alabed, Samer; Guul, Aisha; Crighton, Claire; Alahdab, Fares; Fares, Munes; Morad, Mohammad; Sonbol, Mohamad B; Madmani, Mohammed E; Sasa, Anas; Unwin, Nigel
Palestinian refugees have been a displaced group of people since 1948, many of whom are living in refugee camps in the Middle East. They are entitled to free health care from the United Nations Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA). They show a higher prevalence of diabetes than the population in their host countries in the Middle East. This study examined the realities of care for diabetic patients in UNRWA health clinics in Damascus, Syria. The aim was three-fold: To investigate the level of diabetes care, to probe patients' level of general understanding of their disease and its management, and to search for areas of potential improvement. Data on patient education and care was gathered over a 1 month period from August 4, 2008 to September 4, 2008 using questionnaires and direct observation of the workflow at the clinics. Clinic-led care was observed by the study team using checklists during patient visits. All of the clinic staff and sampled patients were interviewed. The main areas of care assessed were: Patient follow-up; examination of eyes and feet; availability of medications; and patient education. A total of 154 people with diabetes were sampled from three refugee camps situated around Damascus. A total of 154 patients, three doctors and seven nurses composed the sample of the study. Foot examinations were almost always neglected by health staff and eye examinations were not offered by the UNRWA clinics. Interviews with patients showed that: 67% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.59-0.70) had to buy their medication at their own expense at least once due to medication shortage in the UNRWA clinics, 48% (95% CI: 0.40-0.55) displayed poor knowledge regarding the cause and exacerbating factors of diabetes, 65% (95% CI: 0.56-0.72) had not heard of insulin, and 43% (95% CI: 0.35-0.51) did not know for how long they needed to take their medications.
Asfahani, J.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.
In previously published research, a factor analysis approach has been applied to airborne spectrometric data of the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria. A model of four factors (F1-F4) has proven to be sufficient to represent the acquired data, where 94% of the total data variance is explained. A scored lithological map including 11 radiometric units is established. Uranium migration trends have been determined for the first time through airborne spectrometric data of the study region, where different regional maps explaining the migration behavior have been established. A radioactive-geological model of such a migration is established and clearly shows that directions of uranium migration are strongly influenced by network drainage, topography, and fracturing systems in the region. Lithology of the 11 studied units also plays a dominant role in the rate of uranium migration. It was found that the four lithological phosphatic units P1-P4 are the main uranium sources in the study region, where the uranium migration is outward from these regions. The other seven lithological units C1-C3, M1-M4 are successively enriched by uranium during the geological evolution of the crust, where uranium migration is in an inward direction. It was also shown that uranium migration has occurred from its source for a short distance, limited by the boundaries of the lithological units which surround the phosphatic units. This finding is important from a prospecting and exploration point of view, and suggests that future uranium investigation activities are close to the phosphatic sources, if this process is creating the uranium distribution
Bakraji, E.H.; Othman, I.; Karajou, J.
The radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method was applied to studies of the provenance of the ceramics fragments originated from the Mar-Takla site in Syria. The samples were irradiated 1000s by a 109 Cd radioisotope source and 13 elements (Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb) were determined in 35 samples. The data were subjected to two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and principal components analysis (PCA). It was shown from the combination of the statistical techniques and the determination of elemental composition of the samples that 94% of the ceramic samples analyzed can be considered to be manufactured using two sources of raw materials
Abdul Ghani, B.; Mouna, M.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Amin, Y.
In the present study, a computer program has ben prepared to manage the environmental data of the results of the different analyzed environmental samples (soil, water and air), which collected from different places in syria and analyzed by environmental protection division in the Department of Protection and Safety. This program was designed to display the results of these analyzed samples. In addition, the calculations of some environmental factors such as inventory of radionuclides in soil, transfer factor of soil to plant or food to organ and external of internal radiation dose for the population are also presented. Maps of main cities, water resources, soil classification and annual rain rate can be displayed. (author)
Bakraji, E. H.; Karajou, J.; Othman, I.
The radioisotope x-ray fluorescence method was applied to provenance studies of ceramics fragments originated from the Mar-Takla site in Syria. 35 samples were analyzed, where each sample was irradiated 1000 s by sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd radioisotope source and the elements (As, Ca, fe, Ga, Nb, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, Y, Zn, and Zr) were determined. The data were subjected to two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and principal component analysis (PCA). The study show that 94% of the samples can be considered to be manufactured using two sources of raw materials. (Authors)
Alice M W Hunt
Full Text Available Neo-Assyrian Palace Ware is an 8th-7th century B.C.E. fine-ware which originated in Northern Mesopotamia and spread throughout the greater Levant. The mechanism by which Palace Ware moved across the Neo-Assyrian imperial landscape (trade or local imitation/emulation is of great archaeological interest. This dataset provides chemical compositional data, generated using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA, for Palace Ware vessels from Nimrud and Nineveh, in the Assyrian imperial core (Iraq, Dūr-Katlimmu, in one of the annexed provinces (Syria, and Tell Jemmeh, located outside the Neo-Assyrian provincial system (Israel.
Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller
Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population
Full Text Available Sheep husbandry represents a significant source of methane (CH4 in semiarid grassland regions such as Syria. However, the contribution of sheep to CH4 emissions in Syria is still unknown. This study was designed to quantify CH4 emissions and identify possible mitigation strategies for their reduction. Methodology developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC was used to estimate CH4 emissions. A survey was conducted on 64 farms from different locations in Syria in 2009. Data were collected concerning sheep-keeping systems (SKSs, body mass, milk and wool yield, farm locations, feed rations, periods of grazing on the Steppe, the duration of pasturing on agricultural residuals and time periods when sheep were kept in stables. Using a linear statistical model, the influence of SKS, geographical region and sheep body mass on emitted CH4 were analysed. The results showed that the geographical region, SKS and sheep body mass had significant effects (P < 0.05 on CH4 emissions. According to the model, the mean values of estimated CH4 emissions from extensive, semi-intensive and intensive SKSs were 26 ± 0.9, 22.5 ± 1.3 and 13.5 ± 1.7 kg/sheep year, respectively. In comparing differences between the least square means of CH4 emissions, the extensive and semi-intensive SKSs produced 92% and 66% higher CH4 emissions compared to intensive SKS. The differences in CH4 emissions within the distinct SKSs were attributed to dietary composition. Extensive SKS used a less concentrated feeding regime (98 ± 17 day/year than semi-intensive SKS (114 ± 47 day/year, and intensive SKS employed concentrated feeding year round. Furthermore, it was observed that sheep with the same body mass produced higher CH4 emissions in extensive SKS than in semi-intensive and intensive SKSs. Moreover, the semi-intensive SKS occupied more natural pastures than extensive SKS, which caused an overuse of the Steppe. Therefore, an effective mitigation
Abboud, R; Issa, H; Abed-Allah, Y D; Bakraji, E H
Statistical analysis based on chemical composition, using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence, have been applied on 39 ancient pottery fragments coming from the excavation at Tell Al-Kasra archaeological site, Syria. Three groups were defined by applying Cluster and Factor analysis statistical methods. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was investigated on three sherds taken from the bathroom (hammam) on the site. Multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) was used to estimate the paleodose value, and the gamma spectrometry was used to estimate the dose rate. The average age was found to be 715±36 year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that resonate with cultural values and help it ultimately recruit supporters and deter foes.
This article draws upon developments in UK research on political rhetoric and political performance in order to examine the incident in 2013 when French President François Hollande committed French forces to a US-led punitive strike against Syria, after the use of chemical weapons in a Damascus suburb on 21 August. The US-led retaliation did not take place. This article analyses Hollande's declaration on 27 July and his TV appearance on 15 September. His rhetoric and style are best understood...
Ahmad, Balsam; Fouad, Fouad M; Elias, Madonna; Zaman, Shahaduz; Phillimore, Peter; Maziak, Wasim
To explore through empirical qualitative data health system barriers to effective management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Syria before the crisis, and how such analysis can inform the building of a post-crisis system. Data were collected through document review, semi-structured key informant interviews, and fieldwork in clinics. Institutional commitment to address the increasing burden of CVD and diabetes in Syria was limited and uncoordinated. Challenges included an increasingly split healthcare system, with private provision for those who could afford it, and a residual state health sector for the majority. Public trust in the system had been declining. We conclude that lack of effective management of CVD and diabetes indicated weaknesses of the state and its retracting role in providing effective healthcare. Such weaknesses that existed before the crisis are now compounded by new challenges resulting from wide destruction of the health system due to the ongoing war. The rebuilding of post-conflict heath care system may benefit from insights into the structural problems of the pre-crisis system.
Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.; Raeva, P.; Hůlková, M.
In 1999, a big project for the documentation of the Great Omayyad mosque in Aleppo / Syria under UNESCO was conducted. By end of the last century, still analogue cameras were still being used, like the UMK Zeiss, RolleiMetric System. Digital cameras and digital automatic data processing were just starting to be on the rise and laser scanning was not relevant. In this situation, photogrammetrical measurement used stereo technology for complicated situations, and object and single-image technology for creating photoplans. Hundreds of photogrammetric images were taken. However, data processing was carried out on digital stereo plotters or workstations; it was necessary that all analogue photos were converted to digital form using a photogrammetric scanner. The outputs were adequate to the end of the last century. Nowadays, after 19 years, the photogrammetric materials still exist, but the technology and processing is completely different. Our original measurement is historical and nowadays quite obsolete. So we was it decided to explore the possibilities of the new processing of historical materials. Why? The reason is that in the last few years there has been civil war in Syria and the above mentioned monument was severely damaged. The existing historical materials therefore provide a unique opportunity for possible future reconstruction. This paper refers to the completion of existing materials, their evaluation and possibilities of new processing with today's technologies.
Wilcox, Meredith L; Mason, Helen; Fouad, Fouad M; Rastam, Samer; al Ali, Radwan; Page, Timothy F; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin; Maziak, Wasim
This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to lower coronary heart disease in Syria. Costs and benefits of a health promotion campaign about salt reduction (HP); labeling of salt content on packaged foods (L); reformulation of salt content within packaged foods (R); and combinations of the three were estimated over a 10-year time frame. Policies were deemed cost-effective if their cost-effectiveness ratios were below the region's established threshold of $38,997 purchasing power parity (PPP). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to account for the uncertainty in the reduction of salt intake. HP, L, and R+HP+L were cost-saving using the best estimates. The remaining policies were cost-effective (CERs: R=$5,453 PPP/LYG; R+HP=$2,201 PPP/LYG; R+L=$2,125 PPP/LYG). R+HP+L provided the largest benefit with net savings using the best and maximum estimates, while R+L was cost-effective with the lowest marginal cost using the minimum estimates. This study demonstrated that all policies were cost-saving or cost effective, with the combination of reformulation plus labeling and a comprehensive policy involving all three approaches being the most promising salt reduction strategies to reduce CHD mortality in Syria.
Chavan, A. A.; Bhandari, S.
The modern era of planetary exploration has revealed fluvial or fluvial like landforms on the extraterrestrial surfaces of planets and moons of our solar system. This has posed as interesting challenges for advancing our fundamental understanding of fluvial processes and their associated landforms on the planetary surfaces especially on Mars. It has been recognized through earlier studies that the channels and valleys are extensively dissected on Mars. The Valleys are low lying, elongate troughs surrounded by elevated topography. Moreover, valley networks on Mars are the most noticeable features attesting that different geological processes and possibly climatic conditions prevailed in the past and played a vital role in formulating the Martian topography. Channel incisions which are a domino effect both tectonic and surface runoff and groundwater sapping. The components of surface runoff have been deciphered with the help of morphometric exercises. Further, the geomorphological studies of these landforms are critical in understanding the regional tectonics. The present work is an assessment of Fluvio geomorphic set-up of Noctis Fossae in Noctis Labyrinthus of Syria-Planum Provenance, Mars. This study focuses on the fluvio geomorphology of the southern highlands (00 to 400S to 850-1200W) to determine how these features were formed, which process formed these valleys and includes the probable causes resulting into the development of the topography. Keywords: Noctis Fossae; Noctis Labyrinthus; Syria Planum; Mars
Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.
Full Text Available In 1999, a big project for the documentation of the Great Omayyad mosque in Aleppo / Syria under UNESCO was conducted. By end of the last century, still analogue cameras were still being used, like the UMK Zeiss, RolleiMetric System. Digital cameras and digital automatic data processing were just starting to be on the rise and laser scanning was not relevant. In this situation, photogrammetrical measurement used stereo technology for complicated situations, and object and single-image technology for creating photoplans. Hundreds of photogrammetric images were taken. However, data processing was carried out on digital stereo plotters or workstations; it was necessary that all analogue photos were converted to digital form using a photogrammetric scanner. The outputs were adequate to the end of the last century. Nowadays, after 19 years, the photogrammetric materials still exist, but the technology and processing is completely different. Our original measurement is historical and nowadays quite obsolete. So we was it decided to explore the possibilities of the new processing of historical materials. Why? The reason is that in the last few years there has been civil war in Syria and the above mentioned monument was severely damaged. The existing historical materials therefore provide a unique opportunity for possible future reconstruction. This paper refers to the completion of existing materials, their evaluation and possibilities of new processing with today’s technologies.
Background Care for women during the third stage aims to reduce the risk of major haemorrhage, but is very variable. The current World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendation is that care should include administration of a uterotonic (oxytocin, if it is available) soon after birth of the baby, delayed cord clamping, and delivery of the placenta by controlled cord traction. Methods To ascertain care policies used during the third stage of labour in maternity units in Syria, we conducted a survey of 69 maternity units in obstetric and general public hospitals. A brief questionnaire was administered by face to face interview or telephone with senior obstetricians and midwives. Outcome measures were the use of prophylactic uterotonic drugs, timing of cord clamping, use of controlled cord traction, and treatment for postpartum haemorrhage. Obstetricians were asked about both vaginal and caesarean births, midwives only about vaginal births. Results Responses were obtained for 66 (96%) hospitals: a midwife and an obstetrician were interviewed in 40; an obstetrician only in 20; a midwife only in 6. Responses were similar, although midwives were more likely to report that the umbilical cord was clamped after 1-3 minutes or after cessation of pulsation (2/40 obstetricians and 9/40 midwives). Responses have therefore been combined. One hospital reported never using a prophylactic uterotonic drug. The uterotonic was Syntometrine® (oxytocin and ergometrine) in two thirds of hospitals; given after delivery of the placenta in 60 (91%) for vaginal births, and in 47 (78%) for caesarean births. Cord clamping was within 20 seconds at 42 hospitals 64%) for vaginal births and 45 (75%) for caesarean births. Controlled cord traction was never used in a quarter (17/66) of hospitals for vaginal births and a half (32/60) for caesarean births. 68% of respondents (45/66) thought there was a need for more randomised trials of interventions during the third stage of labour. Conclusion Most
Full Text Available This work was aimed to evaluate genetic diversity among five local and six introduced apple cultivars in the germplasm which located in the South of Syria based on 29 morphological characters of leaf and fruit. The analysis of variance showed significant differences at P < 0.05 for all measured parameters, however the mean values of Limb length and width, fruit weight, length, and width indicated to a wide range of diversity between local and introduced cultivars, that the introduced cultivars have mostly the highest mean value while the local cultivars have the lowest mean values, that clearly found in the local apple cultivar Ksairi (K which revealed the lowest mean value of fruit weight (FW, fruit length (FL and fruit diameter (FD in the comparison with all studied cultivars. Likewise, principal component analysis (PCA was used and the first 4 principal components accounted for 76.4% of the total variance, with eigen values 29.2%, 18.8%, 16.9% and 11.5% respectively. The main important characters in PC1 are correlated with the high mean value of width of stalk cavity (WP, fruit weight (FW, fruit diameter (FD, fruit length (FL, core length (CL, width of calyx cavity (WC, core width (CW, depth of stalk cavity (DP, stalk diameter (SD, seed width (SeW and leaf margin (LM. PC2 discriminated among cultivars depending on Fruit shape (FS, leaf shape (LS, over color (OC, maturity time (MT, core shape (CS, limp length (LL and leaf base (LB which were able to differentiate between all studied cultivars . PC3 is correlated with the high mean value of Stalk length (SL, titratable acidity (TA, total sugar (TS, and total soluble solids (TSS. PC4 is correlated with the high mean value of depth of calyx cavity (DC, leaf apices (LA and fruit cross section (FCS. Cluster analysis was also used that divided the studied cultivars into two clusters, the first cluster included all local apple cultivars, in addition to Leaz Golden (LG cultivar, however AbouGhabra (AG
Othman, Basem M; Monem, Fawza S
In studies of risk factors among patients presenting with acute and chronic hepatitis C, a history of intravenous drug use is the most common finding, accounting for 40% or more of subjects. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies among intravenous drug users is considered one of the highest numbers among high risk groups. Whether hepatitis C virus is transmitted efficiently or at all via sexual contact remains controversial. Therefore, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among a group of Syrian intravenous drug users, prostitutes, and blood donors was studied. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus in a population of 38 Syrian intravenous drug abusers, 102 Syrian prostitutes, and 2100 blood donors, was carried out in the laboratory of Al-Assad University Hospital, Damascus, Syria. Antibodies of hepatitis C virus were studied by 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay. Hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B core were carried out using enzyme immunoassays. Liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase) and total bilirubin were measured using reagents on chemistry autoanalyzer (Hitachi 911). Intravenous drug users group (38) was aged 31 5.6 years, 33 males and 5 females. Prostitutes group (102) were aged 25.1 7 years. Blood donors group (2100) aged were 26.3 10.3 years, 1960 males and 140 females. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies was 60.5% among intravenous drug abusers, 1.96% among the prostitutes group, and 0.95% among blood donors group. Whereas, the positivity of hepatitis B surface antigen was 5.3% among the intravenous drug abusers, 10.8% among the prostitutes group, and 3.8% among blood donors group. Biochemical parameter results were compared to the results of these parameters that were determined in a group of healthy members (blood donors) during our study. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among intravenous drug abusers is considered the highest number among high risk
Fritzsch, Dagmar; Thiemeyer, Heinrich
Tell Chuera is an Early Bronze Age settlement mount in NE-Syria close to the Turkish border. With a diameter of almost 1 km and a height of 18 m it is one of the biggest tells in the region between the rivers Balikh and Khabur. In 1958 the structures of the city wall was known first by Orthmann (1990). This city wall was built of air-dried mud bricks. The age of the founding of this construction is not yet clear. The earliest pottery from the place is dated around 2500 BC to 2350 BC. Inside the fortification a road was detected, which was first excavated by Novak (1995). We took sediment monoliths in 2004 from a new trench, which shows the same situation of the road. A geomagnetic prospection, that included the whole site, suggests that the road was part of the planned extension of the lower town and serves as a circular road (Meyer, in prep.). The micromorphological investigation focussed on the question, how the road was used. Did animals have had access to the town? The thin sections show different indications of the anthropogenic influence. In all samples pseudomorphs after straw are visible. In many parts ash, charred wood fragments, bone fragments, melted material and fragments of basalt and flint were observable, too. These materials are typical for sediments in streets (cf. Goldberg & Macphail, 2006). In some parts of the thin sections faecal spherulites and dung remains with faecal spherulites give an idea that ruminants used the road as well as men. Trampling structures support this assumption. Moreover, leaching of calcite, its redeposition in mottles, pseudomycels and concretions, hydromorphic stains and the translocation of silt indicate postdepositional pedogenic processes. Literature Goldberg, P., & Macphail, R. I. (2006). Practical and theoretical geoarchaeology: UK Blackwell Publishing. Meyer, J.-W. (in prep.). Überlegungen zur Siedlungsstruktur - eine erste Analyse der Ergebnisse der geomagnetischen Prospektion. In J.-W. Meyer (Ed.), Ausgrabungen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Care for women during the third stage aims to reduce the risk of major haemorrhage, but is very variable. The current World Health Organisation (WHO recommendation is that care should include administration of a uterotonic (oxytocin, if it is available soon after birth of the baby, delayed cord clamping, and delivery of the placenta by controlled cord traction. Methods To ascertain care policies used during the third stage of labour in maternity units in Syria, we conducted a survey of 69 maternity units in obstetric and general public hospitals. A brief questionnaire was administered by face to face interview or telephone with senior obstetricians and midwives. Outcome measures were the use of prophylactic uterotonic drugs, timing of cord clamping, use of controlled cord traction, and treatment for postpartum haemorrhage. Obstetricians were asked about both vaginal and caesarean births, midwives only about vaginal births. Results Responses were obtained for 66 (96% hospitals: a midwife and an obstetrician were interviewed in 40; an obstetrician only in 20; a midwife only in 6. Responses were similar, although midwives were more likely to report that the umbilical cord was clamped after 1-3 minutes or after cessation of pulsation (2/40 obstetricians and 9/40 midwives. Responses have therefore been combined. One hospital reported never using a prophylactic uterotonic drug. The uterotonic was Syntometrine® (oxytocin and ergometrine in two thirds of hospitals; given after delivery of the placenta in 60 (91% for vaginal births, and in 47 (78% for caesarean births. Cord clamping was within 20 seconds at 42 hospitals 64% for vaginal births and 45 (75% for caesarean births. Controlled cord traction was never used in a quarter (17/66 of hospitals for vaginal births and a half (32/60 for caesarean births. 68% of respondents (45/66 thought there was a need for more randomised trials of interventions during the third stage of labour
Kann, Peter Herbert; Juratli, Nour; Kabalan, Younes
Prolactinomas and hyperprolactinaemia cause hypogonadism and impairment of sexual and reproductive function. In this transcultural study, clinical characteristics of prolactinoma/hyperprolactinaemia were compared between a liberal, western, industrialised country and a more traditional, Islamic, oriental society. Sixty-two Syrian patients with hyperprolactinaemia were compared to 62 German patients with hyperprolactinaemia. In Syria and Germany, prolactinoma and hyperprolactinaemia were more frequent in females than in males (Syria 87% females; Germany 63% females). Prolactinomas were larger in males, males were older at diagnosis in both countries. Recorded clinical symptoms were comparable, even if culturally determined differences in spontaneous reporting of and asking for symptoms might be considered. The average age of the Syrian patients at diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia was more than 6 years lower than in the German cohort (33.4 ± 10.4 vs. 39.7 ± 17.6 years). In Germany, a variety of therapeutic regimens were applied. In Syria, bromocriptine was prescribed exclusively. The differences may be attributed to culturally determined differences in sexual and reproductive behaviour, i.e. sexual intercourses of young, unmarried girls and women in association to the use of oral contraceptives regulating the menstrual cycle, maternal age at first delivery and birth frequency. Exclusive prescription of bromocriptine in Syria may be associated to limited resources and the safety of bromocriptine during pregnancy.
Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses
This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…
Boesman, J.L.J.; Berbers, A.; d'Haenens, L.; Van Gorp, B.
This article seeks to understand the genesis of frame-building based on the early coverage of the Belgian Syria fighters in the four leading newspapers in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. For a period of 6 weeks, a frame analysis of news stories was linked to reconstruction interviews
Scheucher, Tobias Simon
The study attempts to reconstruct aspects of the culture and knowledge transfer as involved in the import of cuneiform writing from Mesopotamia to Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. It therefore analyzes the manuscripts called 'lexical lists' that were excavated at the Anatolian and Syrian
Cakirlar, Canan; Sesen, Ridvan
The much debated link between the collapse of urban centres in northern Syria and climate change at the end of third millennium BC is arguably one of the best known cases about human societies' struggle with the unpredictable nature of the Holocene. Fine-grained analyses of bioarchaeological
Trelles, Miguel; Dominguez, Lynette; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Kisswani, Katrin; Zerboni, Alberto; Vandenborre, Thierry; Dallatomasina, Silvia; Rahmoun, Alaa; Ferir, Marie-Christine
Since 2011, civil war has crippled Syria leaving much of the population without access to healthcare. Various field hospitals have been clandestinely set up to provide basic healthcare but few have been able to provide quality surgical care. In 2012, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) began providing surgical care in the Jabal al-Akrad region of north-western Syria. Based on the MSF experience, we describe, for the period 5th September 2012 to 1st January 2014: a) the volume and profile of surgical cases, b) the volume and type of anaesthetic and surgical procedures performed, and c) the intraoperative mortality rate. A descriptive study using routinely collected MSF programme data. Quality surgical care was assured through strict adherence to the following minimum standards: adequate infrastructure, adequate water and sanitation provisions, availability of all essential disposables, drugs and equipment, strict adherence to hygiene requirements and universal precautions, mandatory use of sterile equipment for surgical and anaesthesia procedures, capability for blood transfusion and adequate human resources. During the study period, MSF operated on 578 new patients, of whom 57 % were male and median age was 25 years (Interquartile range: 21-32 years). Violent trauma was the most common surgical indication (n-254, 44 %), followed by obstetric emergencies (n-191, 33 %) and accidental trauma (n-59, 10 %). In total, 712 anaesthetic procedures were performed. General anaesthesia without intubation was the most common type of anaesthesia (47 % of all anaesthetics) followed by spinal anaesthesia (25 %). A total of 831 surgical procedures were performed, just over half being minor/wound care procedures and nearly one fifth, caesarean sections. There were four intra-operative deaths, giving an intra-operative mortality rate of 0.7 %. Surgical needs in a conflict-afflicted setting like Syria are high and include both combat and non-combat indications, particularly
Abboud, R.; Issa, H.; Abed-Allah, Y.D.; Bakraji, E.H.
Statistical analysis based on chemical composition, using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence, have been applied on 39 ancient pottery fragments coming from the excavation at Tell Al-Kasra archaeological site, Syria. Three groups were defined by applying Cluster and Factor analysis statistical methods. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was investigated on three sherds taken from the bathroom (hammam) on the site. Multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) was used to estimate the paleodose value, and the gamma spectrometry was used to estimate the dose rate. The average age was found to be 715±36 year. - Highlights: • Providing new additional data of Syrian archaeological ceramics. • This work investigates both elemental content and dating of Syrian ceramics. • Elemental analysis and dating were performed by XRF and TL dating respectively.
Kawash, A.; Khedr, M.; Wannus, K.; Souliman, J.; Al-Oudat, M.
Lead equivalent thicknesses of various kinds of blocks (Hollow core, solid, filled, roof) with different thicknesses were determined. These blocks are widely used for building the diagnostic X-rya departments in Syria. Different applied voltages at X-ray tube (65, 85, 100, 125, 150 KVp) were examined. The results showed that the highest lead equivalent thicknesses for hollow core blocks were at 100 KVp. These equivalent thicknesses were 0.4372, 0.7008 and 0.928 mm for block thicknesses of 10, 15 and 20 cm, respectively. it was also found that, the lead equivalent thicknesses for filled, solid and concrete block were 3.5 to 4 times higher than that of the hollow core block for the same thicknesses and the applied KVp. Values obtained for roof blocks were similar to that of hollow core for the same conditions and geometry. (Author)
Marcela Guerrero Turbay
Full Text Available In recent years there have been changes in the foreign policy of Syria and Iran, showing how their goals are far from immutable. Typically they have been associated and in some circles they talk of an alliance. However, this paper aims to show that although there is a convergence in a number of issues, their foreign policy priorities put them away. For this, the text is divided into two parts. First, there is a comparison of the internal links that condition the foreign policy in each state. Secondly, regional (and global? projection of the two nations is contrasted. Throughout the document, the notion of James Rosenau´s comparative study of foreign policy will be taken as a reference.
Alsadat, Reem; Dakak, Abdulrahman; Mazlooms, Mouna; Ghadhban, Ghasan; Fattoom, Shadi; Betelmal, Ibrahim; Abouchala, Nabil; Kherallah, Mazen
Objectives: To describe the epidemiologic characteristics, clinical features, and outcome of severe cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza A infections who were admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) in Damascus, Syria. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, we collected clinical data on all patients who were admitted to the ICU with confirmed or suspected diagnosis of severe 2009 H1N1 influenza A with respiratory failure at 4 major tertiary care hospitals in Damascus, Syria. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II system was used to assess the severity of illness within the first 24 h after admission. The outcome was overall hospital mortality. Results: Eighty patients were admitted to the ICU with severe 2009 H1N1 infection. The mean age was 40.7 years; 69.8% of patients had ≥1 of the risk factors: asthmatics 20%, obesity 23.8%, and pregnancy 5%; and 72.5% had acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome, 12.5% had viral pneumonia, 42.5% had secondary bacterial pneumonia, and 15% had exacerbation of airflow disease. Mechanical ventilation was required in 73.7% of cases. The mean hospital length of stay was 11.7 days (median 8 days, range 0–77 days, IQR: 5–14 days). The overall mortality rate was 51% for a mean APACHE II score of 15.2 with a predicted mortality of 21% (standardized mortality ratio of 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.7–3.2, P value < 0.001). Conclusion: Critically ill patients with severe 2009 H1N1 infection in this limited resource country had a much higher mortality rate than the predicted APACHE II mortality rate or when compared with the reported mortality rates for severe cases in other countries during 2009 H1N1 pandemic. PMID:23210019
Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Ward, Kenneth D; Asfar, Taghrid; Bahelah, Raed; Maziak, Wasim
The development of evidence-based smoking cessation programs is in its infancy in developing countries, which continue to bear the main brunt of the tobacco epidemic. Adherence to treatment recommendations is an important determinant of the success of smoking cessation programs, but little is known about factors influencing adherence to either pharmacological or behavioral treatment in developing countries settings. Our study represents the first attempt to examine the predictors of adherence to cessation treatment in a low-income developing country. Predictors of adherence to pharmacological and behavioral treatment were identified by analyzing data from a multi-site, two-group, parallel-arm, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial in primary care clinics in Aleppo, Syria. Participants received 3 in-person behavioral counseling sessions plus 5 brief follow-up phone counseling sessions, and were randomized to either 6 weeks of nicotine or placebo patch. Of the 269 participants, 68% adhered to pharmacological treatment, while 70% adhered to behavioral counseling. In logistic regression modeling, lower adherence to pharmacological and behavioral treatment was associated with higher daily smoking at baseline, greater withdrawal symptoms, and perception of receiving placebo instead of active nicotine patch. Women showed lower adherence than men to behavioral treatment, while being assigned to placebo condition and baseline waterpipe use were associated with lower adherence to pharmacological treatment. Adherence to cessation treatment for cigarette smokers in low-income countries such as Syria may benefit from integrated cessation components that provide intensive treatment for subjects with higher nicotine dependence, and address concurrent waterpipe use at all stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
M. H. Kharita
Full Text Available Introduction: Extensive use of diagnostic radiology is the largest contributor to total population radiation doses. Thus, appropriate equipment and safe practice are necessary for good-quality images with optimal doses. This study aimed to perform quality control (QC audit for radiography and fluoroscopy devices owned by private sector in Syria (2005-2013 to verify compliance of performance of X-ray machines with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. Materials and Methods: In this study, QC audit included 487 X-ray diagnostic machines, (363 radiography and 124 fluoroscopy devices, installed in 306 medical diagnostic radiology centers in 14 provinces in Syria. We employed an X-ray beam analyzer device (NERO model 8000, Victoreen, USA, which was tested and calibrated at the National Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory traceable to the IAEA Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Standard QC tool kits were used to evaluate tube and generator of the X-ray machines, which constituted potential (kVp, timer accuracy, radiation output consistency, tube filtration, small and large focal spot sizes, X-ray beam collimation and alignment, as well as high- and low-resolution and entrance surface dose in fluoroscopy. Results: According to our results, most of the assessed operating parameters were in compliance with the standards stipulated by the National Regulatory Authority. In cases of noncompliance for the assessed parameters, maximum value (28.77% pertained to accuracy of kVp calibration for radiography units, while the lowest value (2.42% belonged to entrance surface dose in fluoroscopy systems. Conclusion: Effective QC program in diagnostic radiology leads to obtaining information regarding quality of radiology devices used for medical diagnosis and minimizing the doses received by patients and medical personnel. The findings of this QC program, as the main part of QA program, illustrated that most
Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is the most important fungal disease of grapevine in southern Syria. The purpose of this study was to determine the development of chasmothecia and their role as a primary inoculum in spring. Leaves and/or branches were examined by a stereo binocular from July to December 2014 and 2015. The number of chasmothecia was estimated on both surfaces of the leaves, and their viability was estimated by microscopic examination. During 2 years of survey chasmothecia were detected in 45.5% of vineyards. The initial development of chasmothecia on infected leaves was observed in the second half of July. Their numbers increased from July to October, and the sudden reduction at the beginning of November was noted. Chasmothecia were formed on 38.7% of infected leaves, with 12.5%, 18.4%, and 7.5% on the upper, under and on both surfaces of infected leaves respectively. Chasmothecia were more frequent on the leaf under side (0.6 / leaf than on the leaf upper side (0.4 / leaf, but their occurrence on both sides together was relatively low (0.2 / leaf, and their numbers were highly variable between vineyards and years. Microscopic examination showed that chasmothecia contained 1–5 (usually three asci with 1–4 (usually three ascospores in each asci, and 65.6% of chasmothecia were empty. Their viability decreased between December and February, with an average viability of 1.2% and 0.2% in March and April, respectively. Chasmothecia were not detected on bark and ascospores were not trapped at the beginning of the season. These results indicate that the ascospores have no or little role in the initiation of spring infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of E. necator chasmothecia development and their role in the initiating infection on grapevine in Syria.
Seren, S.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Bayirli, E.
Site The roman town "Caesarea", which was named "Sezer" and used as a citadel in middle ages, is located within the modern town "Shayzar" in the north-west of Syria. The modern buildings, power lines and the streets with a lot of cars cause a very noisy environment for geophysical prospection. A football ground of about 50x90 m was chosen for testing both methods, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR), to detect archaeological structures. Instruments and survey area The magnetic survey was carried out using a fluxgate magnetic acquisition system with 4 sensors in gradient array from the manufacturer FÖRSTER® mounted on a one wheel cart. The cart was developed in our institute and allows to record high quality data in areas with difficult field conditions. An optical distance measurement system on the wheel ensures an exact positioning of the magnetic data. The measurement grid was 50x10 cm. GPR survey was carried out using a NOGGIN system with 250 MHz antenna from the manufacturer Sensors & Software. A new base plate was mounted on the antenna for the easy moving at rough surface conditions. The measurement grid was 50x5 cm. Data processing The magnetic data are processed using the self developed software ApMag. The main steps of the processing are filtering, removing of the line pattern, interpolation to a grid of 10x10 cm, geo-referencing and producing of a grey scale magnetogramm for visualizing in a geographical information system (GIS). The GPR data are automatically processed using the self developed software package ApRadar. Several pre-processing steps were carried out including removing of constant shifts, automatic detection of the starting point (time zero), frequency dependent high-pass filtering and a background removal filter to get the best results for each measurement. There is no gain control algorithm applied to the traces of a section but a statistical correction of each depth-slice for each section. This is equal to an automatic gain
Alahdab, Fares; Firwana, Belal; Hasan, Rim; Sonbol, Mohamad Bassam; Fares, Munes; Alnahhas, Iyad; Sabouni, Ammar; Ferwana, Mazen
Teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) should be evaluated and guided by evidence of its own effectiveness. However, no data are available on adoption of EBM by Syrian undergraduate, postgraduate, or practicing physicians. In fact, the teaching of EBM in Syria is not yet a part of undergraduate medical curricula. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course that took place in 2011. The course included didactic lectures as well as interactive hands-on workshops on all topics of EBM. A comprehensive questionnaire, that included the Berlin questionnaire, was used to inspect medical students' awareness of, attitudes toward, and competencies' in EBM. According to students, problems facing proper EBM practice in Syria were the absence of the following: an EBM teaching module in medical school curriculum (94%), role models among professors and instructors (92%), a librarian (70%), institutional subscription to medical journals (94%), and sufficient IT hardware (58%). After the course, there was a statistically significant increase in medical students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (56.9%), searching for evidence (39.8%), appraising the evidence (27.3%), understanding statistics (48%), and applying evidence at point of care (34.1%). However, mean increase in Berlin scores after the course was 2.68, a non-statistically significant increase of 17.86%. The road to a better EBM reality in Syria starts with teaching EBM in medical school and developing the proper environment to facilitate transforming current medical education and practice to an evidence-based standard in Syria.
Background Teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) should be evaluated and guided by evidence of its own effectiveness. However, no data are available on adoption of EBM by Syrian undergraduate, postgraduate, or practicing physicians. In fact, the teaching of EBM in Syria is not yet a part of undergraduate medical curricula. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course. Methods The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course that took place in 2011. The course included didactic lectures as well as interactive hands-on workshops on all topics of EBM. A comprehensive questionnaire, that included the Berlin questionnaire, was used to inspect medical students’ awareness of, attitudes toward, and competencies’ in EBM. Results According to students, problems facing proper EBM practice in Syria were the absence of the following: an EBM teaching module in medical school curriculum (94%), role models among professors and instructors (92%), a librarian (70%), institutional subscription to medical journals (94%), and sufficient IT hardware (58%). After the course, there was a statistically significant increase in medical students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (56.9%), searching for evidence (39.8%), appraising the evidence (27.3%), understanding statistics (48%), and applying evidence at point of care (34.1%). However, mean increase in Berlin scores after the course was 2.68, a non-statistically significant increase of 17.86%. Conclusion The road to a better EBM reality in Syria starts with teaching EBM in medical school and developing the proper environment to facilitate transforming current medical education and practice to an evidence-based standard in Syria. PMID:22882872
Conclusions: This study showed that the pyrosequencing applied to katG, inhA promoter and ahpC-oxyR intergenic region was able to detect a relatively large proportion of Syrian INH-resistant MTB isolates (80.7% in Syria. This strategy may be inappropriate for Lebanese strains, as the genetic mechanisms of resistance remain unidentified for approximately half of the isolates, so it is quite possible to detect the presence of other mechanisms of resistance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM should be evaluated and guided by evidence of its own effectiveness. However, no data are available on adoption of EBM by Syrian undergraduate, postgraduate, or practicing physicians. In fact, the teaching of EBM in Syria is not yet a part of undergraduate medical curricula. The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course. Methods The authors evaluated education of evidence-based medicine through a two-day intensive training course that took place in 2011. The course included didactic lectures as well as interactive hands-on workshops on all topics of EBM. A comprehensive questionnaire, that included the Berlin questionnaire, was used to inspect medical students’ awareness of, attitudes toward, and competencies’ in EBM. Results According to students, problems facing proper EBM practice in Syria were the absence of the following: an EBM teaching module in medical school curriculum (94%, role models among professors and instructors (92%, a librarian (70%, institutional subscription to medical journals (94%, and sufficient IT hardware (58%. After the course, there was a statistically significant increase in medical students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (56.9%, searching for evidence (39.8%, appraising the evidence (27.3%, understanding statistics (48%, and applying evidence at point of care (34.1%. However, mean increase in Berlin scores after the course was 2.68, a non-statistically significant increase of 17.86%. Conclusion The road to a better EBM reality in Syria starts with teaching EBM in medical school and developing the proper environment to facilitate transforming current medical education and practice to an evidence-based standard in Syria.
Nina V. Volodina
Full Text Available In the present article author conducts research and compares certain elements of Islamic Laws with norms of constitutional law having special value in the countries of Middle East. Legal norms and religious dogmas coincide in Islam on the functioning mechanism as standard regulators of life. Features of constitutional legal regulation of the states of Syria and Iraq relationships with religious associations are considered. It is noted that in any Islamic state the conventional principles and norms of international law correspond to the Quran. In the conclusion author outs forward an idea that: law is closely connected with policy, and the legal base is most often formed depending on political ambitions and religious views of the leader or group of leaders influencing policy in this or that country, not an exception is also the sphere of the state and religious associations relationship. When forming relationship with such country as Syria, it is necessary to consider also those facts, for example, that the leader of this country is an alafit and his religious views are closely connected with imamat, i.e. with ideas of the Talib. Note that in Russian Federation the religious organization "Taliban" is defined as extremist and terrorist. Besides, young people from different countries (including Russia in the desire to improve their religious education go to countries of the Middle East, including Syria in which the number of madrasah increases every year. On the example of Syria in spite of the fact that constitution of this country has a secular focus and leaders put forward the thesis about modernization and good breeding of society, in practice there is a real Islamization of the country and discrimination of other religious beliefs.
Charlson, F J; Lee, Y Y; Diminic, S; Whiteford, H
Epidemiological models are frequently utilised to ascertain disease prevalence in a population; however, these estimates can have wider practical applications for informing targeted scale-up and optimisation of mental health services. We explore potential applications for a conflict-affected population, Syria. We use prevalence estimates of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in conflict-affected populations as inputs for subsequent estimations. We use Global Burden of Disease (GBD) methodology to estimate years lived with a disability (YLDs) for depression and PTSD in Syrian populations. Human resource (HR) requirements to scale-up recommended packages of care for PTSD and depression in Syria over a 15-year period were modelled using the World Health Organisation mhGAP costing tool. Associated avertable burden was estimated using health benefit analyses. The total number of cases of PTSD in Syria was estimated at approximately 2.2 million, and approximately 1.1 million for depression. An age-standardised major depression rate of 13.4 (95% UI 9.8-17.5) YLDs per 1000 Syrian population is estimated compared with the GBD 2010 global age-standardised YLD rate of 9.2 (95% UI 7.0-11.8). HR requirements to support a linear scale-up of services in Syria using the mhGAP costing tool demonstrates a steady increase from 0.3 FTE in at baseline to 7.6 FTE per 100 000 population after scale-up. Linear scale-up over 15 years could see 7-9% of disease burden being averted. Epidemiological estimates of mental disorders are key inputs into determining disease burden and guiding optimal mental health service delivery and can be used in target populations such as conflict-affected populations.
Bouajila, A; Zoghlami, N; Al Ahmed, M; Baum, M; Ghorbel, A; Nazari, K
The aim of this study is to investigate the pathogenic diversity and virulence groups among Pyrenophora teres f. teres isolates, sampled from Syria and Tunisia, and to identify the most effective source of resistance in barley that could be used in breeding programmes to control net blotch in both countries. One hundred and four isolates of P. teres f. teres were collected from barley in different agroecological zones of Tunisia and Syria. Their virulence was evaluated using 14 barley genotypes as differential hosts. The UPGMA clustering identified high pathogenic variability; the isolates were clustered onto 20 pathotypes that were sheltered under three virulence groups, with high, intermediate and low disease scores. According to susceptibility/resistance frequencies and mean disease ratings, CI05401 cultivar ranked as the best differential when inoculated with the Syrian isolates. However, CI09214 cultivar was classified as the best effective source of resistance in Tunisia. All P. teres f. teres isolates were differentially pathogenic. CI09214 and CI05401 cultivars were released as the most effective sources of resistance in Syria and Tunisia. National and international barley breeding programmes that seek to develop resistance against P. teres f. teres in barley should strongly benefit from this study. This resistance cannot be achieved without the proper knowledge of the pathogen virulence spectrum and the sources of host resistance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Hainoun, A.; Omar, H.; Almoustafa, A.; Seif Al-din, M.Kh.
This report presents the outcomes of a two years CRP project entitled (Developing an optimal energy supply strategy for Syria in view of GHG reduction with least-cost climate protection). The main activity deals with a case study concerning the assessment of optimal Syrian energy supply strategy taking into account the impact of environmental constraints related to GHG reduction on the cost and prospects of energy sources and technologies with special emphasis on renewable and nuclear options. In a previous activity the future long-term development of Syrian energy and electricity demand has been analyzed according to various scenarios of socio-economic and technological development of the country. The results indicate that energy demand will grow rapidly in the next decades as consequent of many socio-economic and technological factors given by Syria's high population growth, its current economic transition, and its expected economic and technological development, particularly in the industry sector. To meet the projected future energy demand up to 2030, an optimal reference energy supply strategy with minimal supply cost has been developed taking into account, in particular, the availability of national energy resources and diversity of supply options. The analysis has been performed using the IAEA's optimization tool MESSAGE. MESSAGE is suitable to formulate and evaluate alternative energy supply strategies consistent with pre-defined constraints including limits on new investment, fuel availability and trade, environmental regulations, and market penetration rates for new technologies. To evaluate the potential of GHG reduction in the Syrian power sector an alternative energy supply scenario - Mitigation Scenario (Ren S ce) has been introduced reflecting the most probable adaptation measures of this sector to mitigate GHG emission by more dependency on renewable options. Compatible with the Kyoto agreement for developing countries, the CDM is being considered
Bashour, Hyam; Saad-Haddad, Ghada; DeJong, Jocelyn; Ramadan, Mohammed Cherine; Hassan, Sahar; Breebaart, Miral; Wick, Laura; Hassanein, Nevine; Kharouf, Mayada
The maternal near-miss approach has been increasingly used as a tool to evaluate and improve the quality of care in maternal health. We report findings from the formative stage of a World Health Organization (WHO) funded implementation research study that was undertaken to collect primary data at the facility level on the prevalence, characteristics, and management of maternal near-miss cases in four major public referral hospitals - one each in Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria. We conducted a cross sectional study of maternal near-miss cases in the four contexts beginning in 2011, where we collected data on severe maternal morbidity in the four study hospitals, using the WHO form (Individual Form HRP A65661). In each hospital, a research team including trained hospital healthcare providers carried out the data collection. A total of 9,063 live birth deliveries were reported during the data collection period across the four settings, with a total of 77 cases of severe maternal outcomes (71 maternal near-miss cases and 6 maternal deaths). Higher indices for the maternal mortality index were found in both Al Galaa hospital, in Egypt (8.6%) and Dar Al Tawleed hospital in Syria (14.3%), being large referral hospitals, compared to Ramallah hospital in Palestine and Rafik Hariri University hospital in Lebanon. Compared to the WHO's Multicountry Survey using the same data collection tool, our study's mortality indices are higher than the index of 5.6% among countries with a moderate maternal mortality ratio in the WHO Survey. Overall, haemorrhage-related complications were the most frequent conditions among maternal near-miss cases across the four study hospitals. In all hospitals, coagulation dysfunctions (76.1%) were the most prevalent dysfunction among maternal near-miss cases, followed by cardiovascular dysfunctions. The coverage of key evidence-based interventions among women experiencing a near-miss was either universal or very high in the study hospitals
O. S. Vonsovych
Full Text Available The prospects of the Syria conflict’s settlement in the context of exasperation of Russian-American relations have been investigated. Nowadays this conflict is one of the largest centers of danger in the world. Moreover, after the intervention of Russian Federation and United States of America in the conflict, it gained even greater complexity, contradictions and urgency. We should say that after analyzing the positions of participants of the conflict, it is clear that the rapid resolution of the situation shouldn’t be expected. Such factors as differences in views and positions, antagonistic mood, uncompromising, aggressive behavior, the prevalence of power factor, terrorist activity and others do not allow improving the performance reconciliation of the parties’ process. Important thing is that exasperation of Russian-American relations is one of the key negative external factors, which makes it impossible to establish meaningful strategic dialogue between the conflicting parties. The process of further settlement will depend on how quickly Russian and American parties will find understanding regarding key issues of the conflict. Not less important is the conflict settlement processes. Now this process seems to be very complicated. Divergence of interests and views of direct participants and key «players» Russia and the United States do not allow to speak about the presence of compromise and constructive dialogue. If they are not achieved soon, it can lead to unpredictable consequences, such as the expansion of «geography» of the conflict or its transfer to other areas. We should pay attention to the fact that further exasperation of Russian-American relations may cause open military confrontation between this two countries about which people have recently started talking more often. This confrontation complicates not only the progress of the conflict, but also creates some additional problems that affect negatively the dynamic of
Full Text Available This study was conducted on 240 samples, 80 muscle, 80 kidney and 80 liver samples, which were collected from 80 calves’ carcasses (between 1-3 years old from Western Syria (Latakia, Tartus, Jableh and Safita. Samples were analyzed for the arsenic contamination using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. The results showed that concentrations of arsenic in the kidney, liver and muscle of the calves in Latakia region were 0.7175, 0.602 and 0.4715 mg/kg, respectively. In Jableh region they were 0.43, 0.3425 and 0.2665 mg/kg, respectively, in Tartus region 0.5035, 0.4545 and 0.2918 mg/kg, respectively, and in Safita region 0.3615, 0.342 and 0.2168 mg/kg, respectively. Results also revealed that the highest arsenic concentration was detected in the kidney followed by liver and muscle, and was higher in the samples from Latakia and Tartus regions compared to the samples from Jableh and Safita regions.
Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J
Treatment of non-communicable diseases such as cancer in refugees is neglected in low-income and middle-income countries, but is of increasing importance because the number of refugees is growing. The UNHCR, through exceptional care committees (ECCs), has developed standard operating procedures to address expensive medical treatment for refugees in host countries, to decide on eligibility and amount of payment. We present data from funding applications for cancer treatments for refugees in Jordan between 2010 and 2012, and in Syria between 2009 and 2011. Cancer in refugees causes a substantial burden on the health systems of the host countries. Recommendations to improve prevention and treatment include improvement of health systems through standard operating procedures and innovative financing schemes, balance of primary and emergency care with expensive referral care, development of electronic cancer registries, and securement of sustainable funding sources. Analysis of cancer care in low-income refugee settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is needed to inform future responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sahloul, Mohammed Z; Monla-Hassan, Jaber; Sankari, Abdulghani; Kherallah, Mazen; Atassi, Bassel; Badr, Safwan; Abbara, Aula; Sparrow, Annie
The Syrian crisis, now in its fifth year, has created an unprecedented strain on health services and systems due to the protracted nature of the warfare, the targeting of medics and health care infrastructure, the exodus of physicians and nurses, the shortage of medical supplies and medications, and the disruption of medical education and training. Within a few short years, the life expectancy of resident Syrians has declined by 20 years. Over the first 4 years of the conflict, more than 75,000 civilians died from injuries incurred in the violence. More than twice as many civilians, including many women and children, have died prematurely of infectious and noninfectious chronic diseases for want of adequate health care. Doctors, local administrators, and nongovernmental organizations are struggling to manage the consequences of the conflict under substandard conditions, often using unorthodox methods of health care delivery in field hospitals and remotely by telehealth communication. Much-needed medical supplies are channeled through dangerous routes across the borders from Lebanon, Jordan, and Turkey. Physicians in the United States and other western nations have helped Syrian physicians make the most of the situation by providing training on introducing innovations in technology and treatment. Portable ultrasound machines have been introduced and are being used extensively in the management of trauma and shock. This report, prepared by members of the Syrian American Medical Society, documents current needs for health care relief within Syria, focusing on pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine, and some of the efforts currently underway to meet those needs.
Al-Assil, Bodour; Mahfoud, Maysa; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak
Recently, there has been a notable surge in urinary tract infections (UTIs) by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, which considerably limits treatment options. This study aimed to determine prevalence, phenotypic patterns, and ESBL-production status of E coli in isolates from UTI patients along with uncovering locally relevant risk factors for contracting ESBL-producing E coli infections. One hundred four nonrepetitive urine samples were collected from 3 major hospitals in Aleppo, Syria. Antibiotic susceptibility and ESBL production were studied by disc diffusion and double disk synergy tests according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Epidemiologic analysis was done using χ(2) and multivariate logistic regression tests. This study revealed high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E coli reaching 63%, whereas ESBL-producing E coli exceeded 52%. The latter exhibited alarmingly elevated levels of coresistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics leading to vast increase in MDR rates in comparison with non-ESBL-producing E coli (83.6% vs 12.2%, respectively). We found previous exposure to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones to be a significant risk factor for ESBL-producing E coli infections, in addition to other known factors such as hospitalization and catheterization. Tigecycline and carbapenems demonstrated near perfect efficacy against tested E coli, so they rank high among treatment options. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available How did Syria’s conflict interact with the broader wave of regional protest known as the Arab Spring? This article uses a unique, complete Twitter dataset of tweets including the word “Syria” in English or Arabic to empirically test how Syria’s conflict was discussed online. The analysis shows a high level of interaction between Syria and other Arab countries through 2011. Other Arab countries experiencing popular protests (“Arab Spring countries” were referenced far more often in 2011 than were Syria’s immediate neighbors, while keyword analysis shows the framing of the conflict in terms of Syria’s “regime” aligned the conflict with other Arab uprisings. In 2012–2013 this changed sharply, with significantly fewer mentions of other Arab countries, particularly Arab Spring countries, more fundraising and political appeals across the Gulf, and growing Islamization. These findings offer one of the first empirical demonstrations of the integration and disintegration of a unified Arab discourse from 2011 to 2013, with significant implications for theories of the diffusion of protest and ideas.
Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; de Gelder, Giovanni I. N. O.; van der Goes, Freek C.; Morris, Antony
Formation of new subduction zones represents one of the cornerstones of plate tectonics, yet both the kinematics and geodynamics governing this process remain enigmatic. A major subduction initiation event occurred in the Late Cretaceous, within the Neo-Tethys Ocean between Gondwana and Eurasia. Suprasubduction zone ophiolites (i.e., emerged fragments of ancient oceanic lithosphere formed at suprasubduction spreading centers) were generated during this subduction event and are today distributed in the eastern Mediterranean region along three E-W trending ophiolitic belts. Several models have been proposed to explain the formation of these ophiolites and the evolution of the associated intra-Neo-Tethyan subduction zone. Here we present new paleospreading directions from six Upper Cretaceous ophiolites of Turkey, Cyprus, and Syria, calculated by using new and published paleomagnetic data from sheeted dyke complexes. Our results show that NNE-SSW subduction zones were formed within the Neo-Tethys during the Late Cretaceous, which we propose were part of a major step-shaped subduction system composed of NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE segments. We infer that this subduction system developed within old (Triassic?) lithosphere, along fracture zones and perpendicular weakness zones, since the Neo-Tethyan spreading ridge formed during Gondwana fragmentation would have already been subducted at the Pontides subduction zone by the Late Cretaceous. Our new results provide an alternative kinematic model of Cretaceous Neo-Tethyan subduction initiation and call for future research on the mechanisms of subduction inception within old (and cold) lithosphere and the formation of metamorphic soles below suprasubduction zone ophiolites in the absence of nearby spreading ridges.
Ghosh, Shibani; Pellett, Peter L; Aw-Hassan, Aden; Mouneime, Youssef; Smriga, Miro; Scrimshaw, Nevin S
Previous studies have shown an effect of lysine fortification on nutrition and immunity of poor men, women, and children consuming a predominantly wheat-based diet. To examine the lysine value of diets and the effect of lysine fortification on functional protein status, anthropometry, and morbidity of men, women, and children in rural Syria. At baseline of a two-phase study using 7-day household food intake inventories (n = 98), nutrient availabilities per adult male equivalent were estimated. In the intervention phase, a 16-week double-blind trial, households (n = 106) were randomly assigned to control and lysine groups. Hematologic and anthropometric data were collected from men (n = 69; 31 control, 38 lysine), women (n = 99; 51 control, 48 lysine), and children (n = 69; 37 control, 32 lysine) at baseline, 12 weeks, and 16 weeks. Total CD3 T lymphocytes as well as T lymphocytes bearing the receptors CD4, CD8, and CD56, IgM, IgG, IgA, complement C3, C-reactive protein, serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, hemoglobin, and hepatitis B surface antigen were determined. Health status and flour usage were monitored. Paired- and independent-sample t-tests and chi-square tests were performed. Mean nutrient availability per adult equivalent was 2,650 +/- 806 kcal, 70.1 +/- 26.4 g protein, 65 +/- 14% cereal protein, and 41.9 +/- 0.8 mg lysine per gram of protein. Complement C3 was significantly higher in men receiving lysine than in controls (p children, who have much higher morbidity and mortality rates from this disease than school-age children or adults.
Balbo, Andrea L; Iriarte, Eneko; Arranz, Amaia; Zapata, Lydia; Lancelotti, Carla; Madella, Marco; Teira, Luis; Jiménez, Miguel; Braemer, Frank; Ibáñez, Juan José
We present the results of the microstratigraphic, phytolith and wood charcoal study of the remains of a 10.5 ka roof. The roof is part of a building excavated at Tell Qarassa (South Syria), assigned to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (PPNB). The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) period in the Levant coincides with the emergence of farming. This fundamental change in subsistence strategy implied the shift from mobile to settled aggregated life, and from tents and huts to hard buildings. As settled life spread across the Levant, a generalised transition from round to square buildings occurred, that is a trademark of the PPNB period. The study of these buildings is fundamental for the understanding of the ever-stronger reciprocal socio-ecological relationship humans developed with the local environment since the introduction of sedentism and domestication. Descriptions of buildings in PPN archaeological contexts are usually restricted to the macroscopic observation of wooden elements (posts and beams) and mineral components (daub, plaster and stone elements). Reconstructions of microscopic and organic components are frequently based on ethnographic analogy. The direct study of macroscopic and microscopic, organic and mineral, building components performed at Tell Qarassa provides new insights on building conception, maintenance, use and destruction. These elements reflect new emerging paradigms in the relationship between Neolithic societies and the environment. A square building was possibly covered here with a radial roof, providing a glance into a topologic shift in the conception and understanding of volumes, from round-based to square-based geometries. Macroscopic and microscopic roof components indicate buildings were conceived for year-round residence rather than seasonal mobility. This implied performing maintenance and restoration of partially damaged buildings, as well as their adaptation to seasonal variability.
Being a large apple producer, Syria is facing difficulties in exporting its surplus because of the high level of pesticide residues from the control of Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. etc. In addition, these species are under quarantine in some countries. A solution could be in using the sterile insect release technique (SIRT) for Codling moth. This method, however, has some limitations. It requires a thorough knowledge of biology and ecology of the pest species. It is also specific and effective towards particular pest species. A disadvantage could be the necessity to spray for other apple pests. Reporting the life history of the Codling moth in the apple producing regions, this paper discusses the possibility of using the SIRT for codling moth eradication. The results of the study indicate that the Codling moth has two distinct generations in the three main producing regions of the country. They also show that the separation between generations is very clear which may facilitate decision making in Codling moth control and eradication methods and reduces the number of required pesticide sprays. This also could be useful in adjusting Codling moth mass reading and release operations in a sterile insect release programme. Sex ratio is about 1:1 (males to females) and fecundity of the summer generation is higher than the spring one. The results also show that a very small percentage of the spring generation larvae enter diapause, while most of the summer generation larvae and all of those maturing in September do so. Studies on population density show that it is more than 5 times higher in neglected orchards than in commercial ones. Also the Codling moth summer generation increases about three times more than the spring generation, due probably to higher fecundity and favourable climatic conditions. (author)
Balbo, Andrea L.; Iriarte, Eneko; Arranz, Amaia; Zapata, Lydia; Lancelotti, Carla; Madella, Marco; Teira, Luis; Jiménez, Miguel; Braemer, Frank; Ibáñez, Juan José
We present the results of the microstratigraphic, phytolith and wood charcoal study of the remains of a 10.5 ka roof. The roof is part of a building excavated at Tell Qarassa (South Syria), assigned to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (PPNB). The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) period in the Levant coincides with the emergence of farming. This fundamental change in subsistence strategy implied the shift from mobile to settled aggregated life, and from tents and huts to hard buildings. As settled life spread across the Levant, a generalised transition from round to square buildings occurred, that is a trademark of the PPNB period. The study of these buildings is fundamental for the understanding of the ever-stronger reciprocal socio-ecological relationship humans developed with the local environment since the introduction of sedentism and domestication. Descriptions of buildings in PPN archaeological contexts are usually restricted to the macroscopic observation of wooden elements (posts and beams) and mineral components (daub, plaster and stone elements). Reconstructions of microscopic and organic components are frequently based on ethnographic analogy. The direct study of macroscopic and microscopic, organic and mineral, building components performed at Tell Qarassa provides new insights on building conception, maintenance, use and destruction. These elements reflect new emerging paradigms in the relationship between Neolithic societies and the environment. A square building was possibly covered here with a radial roof, providing a glance into a topologic shift in the conception and understanding of volumes, from round-based to square-based geometries. Macroscopic and microscopic roof components indicate buildings were conceived for year-round residence rather than seasonal mobility. This implied performing maintenance and restoration of partially damaged buildings, as well as their adaptation to seasonal variability. PMID:22848723
Zeinoun, Pia; Daouk-Öyry, Lina; Choueiri, Lina; van de Vijver, Fons J R
Personality taxonomies are investigated using either etic-style studies that test whether Western-developed models fit in a new culture, or emic-style studies that derive personality dimensions from a local culture, using a psycholexical approach. Recent studies have incorporated strengths from both approaches. We combine the 2 approaches in the first study of personality descriptors in spoken Arabic. In Study 1, we collected 17,283 responses from a sample of adults in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank (N = 545). Qualitative analysis revealed 9 personality dimensions: Soft-Heartedness, Positive Social Relatedness, Integrity, Humility versus Dominance, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Intellect, and Openness . In Study 2, we converted the qualitative model into an indigenous personality inventory and obtained self-ratings of a sample of adults in the same region (N = 395). We also simultaneously obtained self-ratings on an adapted etic inventory that measures the lexical Big Five (N = 325). Psychometric and conceptual considerations yielded a robust 7-factor indigenous model: Agreeableness/Soft Heartedness, Honesty/Integrity, Unconventionality, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, Extraversion/Positive Social Relatedness, and Intellect . Initial validation evidence shows that 5 of the 7 factors overlapped with the Big Five, whereas Honesty/Integrity and Unconventionality did not overlap. Also, scores on the indigenous tools were better predicted by relevant demographic variables than scores on the etic tool. Our study demonstrated the viability of combining etic and emic approaches as key to the understanding of personality in its cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Andrea L Balbo
Full Text Available We present the results of the microstratigraphic, phytolith and wood charcoal study of the remains of a 10.5 ka roof. The roof is part of a building excavated at Tell Qarassa (South Syria, assigned to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (PPNB. The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN period in the Levant coincides with the emergence of farming. This fundamental change in subsistence strategy implied the shift from mobile to settled aggregated life, and from tents and huts to hard buildings. As settled life spread across the Levant, a generalised transition from round to square buildings occurred, that is a trademark of the PPNB period. The study of these buildings is fundamental for the understanding of the ever-stronger reciprocal socio-ecological relationship humans developed with the local environment since the introduction of sedentism and domestication. Descriptions of buildings in PPN archaeological contexts are usually restricted to the macroscopic observation of wooden elements (posts and beams and mineral components (daub, plaster and stone elements. Reconstructions of microscopic and organic components are frequently based on ethnographic analogy. The direct study of macroscopic and microscopic, organic and mineral, building components performed at Tell Qarassa provides new insights on building conception, maintenance, use and destruction. These elements reflect new emerging paradigms in the relationship between Neolithic societies and the environment. A square building was possibly covered here with a radial roof, providing a glance into a topologic shift in the conception and understanding of volumes, from round-based to square-based geometries. Macroscopic and microscopic roof components indicate buildings were conceived for year-round residence rather than seasonal mobility. This implied performing maintenance and restoration of partially damaged buildings, as well as their adaptation to seasonal variability.
Full Text Available Conservation Agriculture (CA, comprising minimum or no mechanical soil disturbance through no-till seeding, organic soil mulch cover, and crop diversification is now practiced on some 157 million ha worldwide, corresponding to about 11% of the global cropped land. CA adoption in the Middle-East is low compared to other regions. Lack of knowledge on CA practices and systems discourages farmers from giving up ploughing. The main reason why farmers in the Middle-East have begun to apply the no-till system has been the cost reduction in fuel, labor and machinery required for land preparation. Soil and water conservation concerns do not appear to be the main drivers in the Middle-Eastern farmers’ decision to adopt or not to adopt CA. The adoption and uptake of CA by Middle Eastern farmers has been slow but it is nonetheless occurring gradually. Collection of information and research parameters related to agricultural practices are needed for designing a suitable soil and water conservation program for sustainable production intensification. Governmental policy encouraging the adoption and spread of CA systems in the Middle-East region is certainly a necessary condition for uptake. The objective of this article is to review the current status of adoption and spread of CA in the Middle-East, focusing mainly on Syria and Lebanon, and the potential beneficial consequences that can be harnessed through CA systems under rainfed conditions in both countries. The benefits include: higher factor productivity, yield and income; improved soil properties; climate change adaptation, including reduced vulnerability to the erratic rainfall distribution; and reduction in machinery, fuel and labor costs.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the different patterns of egg nests and the morphological differences between the specimens of Cicadatra persica Kirkalidy, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae distributed in fruit orchards in Erneh located on AL-Sheikh mountain southwest of Syria. The appearance of 80 egg nests was studied, and the results showed that there were two basic patterns of egg nests laid by C. persica, 90% of the egg nests were of the first pattern (consists of several adjacent slits, while 10% of them were of the second pattern (consists of several divergent slits. A random sample consisting of 300 specimens (150 males and 150 females were also studied concentrating on the differences in the color of the supra-antennal plate and in the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. The results showed that there were two basic patterns of individuals based on the differences in the color of supra-antennal plate. The first pattern (individuals with yellow supra-antennal plates, constituted more than 90%, and the second one (individuals with black supra-antennal plates constituted less than 10%. The results also showed that there were 27 different patterns based on the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. One of them was a common pattern (2, 3 whose individuals have 2 spurs on the upper side of the tibia of the hind legs and 3 spurs on the lateral side of the tibia of the hind legs. The total percent of this common pattern was 76%. The other 26 patterns were different from each other, and the total percent of all these different patterns was 24%.
To examine the current seroepidemiology of immunoglobulin (Ig)G for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV 1-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) among university females of childbearing age in Syria. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the female students of the Pharmacy College, Kalamoon University, Deratiah, Syria, where 316 sera were collected from October 2009 to November 2010, and subjected to HSV 1-2, VZV, and CMV IgG screening and titration using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based techniques in the Microbiology Laboratory. A total of 164 participants were positive for HSV 1-2 IgG giving a prevalence of 52%, leaving a relatively high proportion of susceptibility among the tested group. For VZV, 91% of the participants (n=287) were positive for its specific IgG, while, regarding CMV, 74.5% (n=235) were positive, and 25.5% were negative for CMV specific IgG. Although most participants were seropositive for herpes viruses IgG, suggesting a natural virus circulation within the community, screening for protective immunity is suggested against HSV, since a relatively high proportion of tested females are still susceptible. In addition, and because of its nasty outcomes during pregnancy, IgG against CMV should also be tested. High percentage of positivity towards VZV could be explained due to introduction of the new vaccine program, and therefore, further analysis during pregnancy is not recommended.
Al-Assil, Bodour; Mahfoud, Maysa; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) introduces advantageous genetic elements into pathogenic bacteria using tools such as class1 integrons. This study aimed at investigating the distribution of these integrons among uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from patients in Aleppo, Syria. It also set to uncover the frequencies of the clinically relevant DfrA1 and DfrA17,7, as well as various associations leading to reduced susceptibility. This study involved 75 Trimethoprim-resistant E. coli isolates from in- and outpatients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from 3 major hospitals in Aleppo. Bacterial identification, resistance and extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) production testing were performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Detection of integrons and DfrA genes was done using PCR and statistical significance was inferred through χ2 (Fisher’s) test. Class1 integrons were detected in 54.6% of isolates while DfrA1 and DfrA17,7 were found in 16% and 70.6% of tested samples respectively. Furthermore, only DfrA17,7 were strongly associated with class1 integrons, as were reduced susceptibility to the majority of individual antibiotics, multidrug resistance and ESBL production. This study demonstrated the high prevalence of class1 integrons among UPEC strains in Aleppo, Syria, as well as their significant associations with MDR. This data give information for local healthcare provision using antibiotic chemotherapy. PMID:23956949
Al-Assil, Bodour; Mahfoud, Maysa; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) introduces advantageous genetic elements into pathogenic bacteria using tools such as class1 integrons. This study aimed at investigating the distribution of these integrons among uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from patients in Aleppo, Syria. It also set to uncover the frequencies of the clinically relevant DfrA1 and DfrA17,7, as well as various associations leading to reduced susceptibility. This study involved 75 Trimethoprim-resistant E. coli isolates from in- and outpatients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from 3 major hospitals in Aleppo. Bacterial identification, resistance and extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) production testing were performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Detection of integrons and DfrA genes was done using PCR and statistical significance was inferred through χ2 (Fisher's) test. Class1 integrons were detected in 54.6% of isolates while DfrA1 and DfrA17,7 were found in 16% and 70.6% of tested samples respectively. Furthermore, only DfrA17,7 were strongly associated with class1 integrons, as were reduced susceptibility to the majority of individual antibiotics, multidrug resistance and ESBL production. This study demonstrated the high prevalence of class1 integrons among UPEC strains in Aleppo, Syria, as well as their significant associations with MDR. This data give information for local healthcare provision using antibiotic chemotherapy.
Ziadat, Feras; Al-Wadaey, Ahmed; Masri, Zuhair; Sakai, Hirokazu
The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other research, predict a significant future increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events in many regions. This increase runoff and soil erosion, and reduce agricultural productivity, as well as increasing risks of flood damage to crops and infrastructure. Implementing adaptation measures and improved land management through erosion control and soil protection are among those that protect water and agriculture and limit their vulnerability. Soil erosion control practices are often based on long-term climatic averages. Special attention is needed to provide protection against average high-return frequency storms as well as severe storms with low-return frequency. Suitable and affordable soil conservation plans, coupled with an appropriate enabling environment, are needed. A watershed and community were selected in the mountainous area of North West Syria. The fields represent the non-tropical highland dry areas and dominated by olive orchards on steep slopes. Farmers were aware of resource degradation and productivity reduction, but lacked financial capital to implement the needed adaptation measures. A micro-credit system was established with the help of the UNDP Global Environment Facility - Small Grants Program (GEF-SGP) with small grants available for each farmer. Haphazard implementation on scattered fields proved inefficient in demonstrating obvious impact. Therefore, each watershed was classified into three erosion risk categories (high, moderate and low), derived from maps of flow accumulation, slope steepness, slope shape and land use. Using field survey of land ownership, the boundaries of 168 farms in the watersheds were mapped. Farmers' fields were classified using the erosion-risk map and considering the on-farm erosion hazard and the off-farm effect on other farmers' fields following the hillslope sequence. More than 60% of the farms were
Haddad, Nabil; Saliba, Hanadi; Altawil, Atef; Villinsky, Jeffrey; Al-Nahhas, Samar
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease transmitted by sand fly bites. This disease is highly prevalent in Syria where Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica are the known aetiological agents. In 2011, more than 58,000 cases were reported in the country by the Ministry of Health. The central region of the country harbors 20 % of the reported cases. However, the epidemiology of the disease in this area is not well understood. An epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010 to identity the circulating parasite and the sand fly vector in the central provinces of Edlib and Hama. Sand fly specimens were collected using CDC light traps and identified morphologically. Total DNA was extracted from the abdomens of female specimens and from Giemsa-stained skin lesion smears of 80 patients. Leishmania parasites were first identified by sequencing the ITS1 gene amplicons. Then polymorphism analysis was performed using the RFLP technique. A total of 2142 sand flies were collected. They belonged to eight species, among which Phlebotomus sergenti and Phlebotomus papatasi were the most predominant. L. tropica ITS1 gene was amplified from two pools of P. sergenti specimens and from skin smears of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. This suggests that P. sergenti is the potential vector species in the study area. The digestion profiles of the obtained amplicons by TaqI restriction enzyme were identical for all analysed L. tropica parasites. Moreover, L. infantum ITS1 gene was amplified from two pools of Phlebotomus tobbi in the relatively humid zone of Edlib. L. tropica is confirmed to be the aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the central provinces. RFLP technique failed to show any genetic heterogeneity in the ITS1 gene among the tested parasites. The molecular detection of this parasite in human skin smears and in P. sergenti supports the vector status of this species in the study area. The detection of L. infantum in P. tobbi specimens indicates a potential
Tinghög, Petter; Malm, Andreas; Arwidson, Charlotta; Sigvardsdotter, Erika; Lundin, Andreas; Saboonchi, Fredrik
To estimate the prevalence of and associations between anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), low subjective well-being (SWB), potential traumas and postmigration stress among refugees from Syria resettled in Sweden. A cross-sectional and population-based questionnaire study based on a known and complete sample frame. The survey included multiple measures of mental ill health and factors of particular relevance for refugees. Weighted analyses were conducted to calculate representative prevalence rates and associations. Associations were investigated through a series of logistic regression analyses. All analyses were supplemented with robust 95% CIs. Sweden. A random sample of 1215 individuals (response rate 30.4%) from Syria aged 18-64 years that were granted residency in Sweden on grounds of asylum between 2011 and 2013. Anxiety, depression, PTSD and low SWB were assessed through Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and WHO-5 Well-being Index, using established cut-offs. A majority of the participants met the criteria for at least one of the studied types of mental ill health, and the comorbidity was high. Depression was the most the common type with 40.2% (95% CI 36.9% to 43.3%), followed by low SWB with 37.7% (95% CI 34.8% to 40.1%), anxiety with 31.8% (95% CI 29.2% to 34.7%) and PTSD with 29.9% (95% CI 27.2% to 32.6%). Refugee-related potentially traumatic events (PTEs) experienced before or during migration was common as was substantial levels of postmigration stress. Most types of refugee-related PTEs, especially being exposed to interpersonal violence, and postmigration stress were associated with increased risks for anxiety, depression, low SWB and PTSD. Mental ill health, in terms of anxiety, depression, low SWB and PTSD, are highly elevated and comorbid among refugees from Syria. Increased attention from multiple societal sectors to adequately support Syrian refugees' mental health needs, promoting recovery and
Full Text Available On December 4, 2015, the Bundestag agreed to the participation of German troops in the Western-led military campaign against the so-called Islamic State or ISIS in Syria.This article will discuss whether the military campaign Germany is now supporting is justified under international law. The main argument put forward by the German Government is that the use of force against ISIS targets in Syria is justified based on UN Security Council Resolution 2249 (2015 and Art. 51 of the UN Charter. Germany thus seems to be claiming that it is engaged in collective self-defence against ISIS in support and at the request of Iraq and France.It will be shown that this line of argument is not convincing. Resolution 2249 does evidently not authorize the use of force. Article 51, on the other hand, while explicitly permitting the use of force in response to an armed attack, is limited to attacks imputable to another state. ISIS, however, is neither a state, nor is it directed by a state.Having found the German Government’s arguments to be unpersuasive, the article will then turn to customary international law as a possible source of justification. Has customary international law, especially in the aftermath of the use of force against Afghanistan under the Taliban in the aftermath of 09/11, evolved in such a way so as to now permit the use of force in self-defence against non-state actors on another state’s territory without that state’s consent?Based on state practice prior and subsequent to Afghanistan it will be shown that customary international law does currently not justify the Western-led military campaign against ISIS in Syria. Bearing in mind that Syria’s Government, in contrast to the Afghan Taliban Government’s attitude towards Al-Qaeda in 2001, is itself attempting to fight ISIS, it must therefore be concluded that Germany’s participation in the Western-led military campaign is unlawful.
I 1961 deltog Danmark i en mission for at redde truet kulturarv i Nubien; i Nubien deltog kronprinsesse Margrethe i arbejdet som arkæolog. Med på opgaven var to danske fotografer. Rejsen gik for deres vedkommende fra Danmark til Nubien gennem Europa, og videre til Syrien fra Tyrkiet, i et folkevo...
Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei
In recent decades, Islam has enhanced its role as an important social and ideological force in Arab societies. In this context, a central debate concerns the desirable role and position of women, the so-called "woman question." Arab states are no longer alone in defining national community when...
Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Yusuf K.
Suleymaniye complex located on the banks of the Barada River was built by Sultan Suleyman I of the Ottoman Empire or Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) between 1554 and 1560, locally known as the Takiyya. This complex represents a direct implantation of architectural style of the Ottoman capital, Istanbul, in the plan of its buildings with their exterior configurations and decorative features. Its main part composes of a mosque, caravanserai, public kitchen and hospice, was designed by Sinan (the 'Great Architect Sinan'), In 1566 a madrasa including a mosque called Selimiye Madrasa was added to the East of the group of buildings by Selim II (1566-1574) of the Ottoman Empire and was linked to the Suleymaniye complex by a souk (arasta). Basic elements of architectural iconography of the complex and the madrasa are hemispherical lead-covered dome, cylindrical minaret, domed portico, courtyard, a large regtangular pool in the courtyard. First restoration was done in the mosque during French occupation in Syria. But then the dome was inclined about 56 cm in 1920. The second restoration was done and the colons were fastened by hawsers to avoid collapsing of the dome in 1928. The network of the drainage around the complex has been changed 25 years ago. After 5 years passed, according to the Syrian engineers saying, the first subsidence deformations have started on the courtyards and the porticos surface and some fractures have been occupied on the wall of the buildings of the madrasa and the Suleymaniye complex. Now these subsidences threaten the madrasa. The aim of the study was to determine the reason of the subsidences in the courtyards especially in the madrasa. Therefore ground penetrating radar (GPR) method was used to reveal ground structure of the whole complex, to determine buried drainage locations, and In addition to research basement of the Suleymaniye mosque. Two dimensional (2D) GPR data were acquired on the parallel GPR profiles on the courtyards around
Courty, M.-A.; Le Tensorer, J.-M.; Boëda, E.; Muhesen, S.; Alsakhel, E.; Wegmüller, F.
Identifying the adaptation of hunter-gatherer communities to particular situations that provided natural resources is a major concern for multidisciplinary team studying archaeological contexts. This challenge is illustrated in the desertic El Kowm basin in central Syria by data from Hummal and El Kowm Paleolithic sites. The sites form prominent mounds at artesian springs resulting from recurrent episodes of lacustrine, limnic and aeolian sedimentation in pseudo-karstic depressions. The few meter sequences provide semi-continuous succession of archaeological levels from the Oldest Palaeolithic (Oldowan) to the early Neolithic period. This long term continuity of occupation is partly due to attracting conditions due to the profusion of water from epithermal artesian wells during periods of high water recharge. In addition, we document here the unique potential of this endoreic basin to have accumulated singular fossil combustible of high energy value during particular environmental episodes. The latter are represented by the recurrence of distinctive black organogenic facies showing a contrasting micro stratification formed of interlayered grey calcareous silty clay, dark brown organic rich clay and dull orange clay. Spatial excavation has shown the unique preservation of Palaeolithic occupation surfaces in association to the microstratified facies. High resolution sampling and multi-proxy analysis have allowed explaining the formation of the microstratified facies from rapid changes of environmental conditions in response to contrasting fluctuations of atmospheric dust loading, precipitation events, rainwater quality and evapotranspiration. Organogenic microfacies formed at different time periods share common compositional assemblage and structural behaviour: occurrence of exotic fine sand-sized debris formed of metal-rich carbonaceous components with polymer, fine charcoal, vitrous carbon, carbon fibres, and exotic rock clasts with a metal-rich carbonaceous
This work is an attempt to estimate the mean residence time of groundwater in the Ain Al-Tanour and Ain-Samak, which are the major karst springs in the Upper Orontes Basin (Central Syria). This estimate, which consists on the application of a mathematical modeling approach, was based on the use of tritium, as a natural radioisotope tracer and a tool for ground water age dating. By adopting a completely mixed reservoir model, linked with exponential time distribution function, the mean residence time (turnover time) of these two springs was evaluated to be about 50 years. This result is in good agreement with previous estimation obtained for the Figeh main spring, which belongs to the same aquifer (Cenomanian-Turonian complex) in the Damascus Basin. On the basis of this evaluation, a value of about 800 million m 3 was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size
Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.
The relationships between equivalent uranium (eU), eTh, K% and their ratios in the 11 lithological units determined by previous research in the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria have been analyzed in order to define their trend variations and evaluate the degree of uranium remobilization. Uranium favorability index U I and alteration-F indicators have been used in this research to characterize the different lithological units by following their radioactive element re-distribution and to determine their favorability as regards uranium potentiality. It was shown that uranium remobilization took place in all the lithological units, but to different degrees. This remobilization is qualified as weak, indicating that limited uranium redistribution is expected in the studied region. A plausible geological model is proposed for the uranium distribution, where the Abou Qila location is found to be favorable for uranium accumulation and merits further uranium exploration. (Authors)
This work represents the results of using of 15 N technique in the evaluation and interpretation of nitrate pollution sources of surface and groundwaters in the Upper Orontes Basin (Central Syria). Based on this method, it was possible to distinguish between two groups of water bodies: 1) the group of fresh and non polluted water, which effectively reflects natural mineralization in nitrogen, such as the waters in the Upper Orontes River, the Qattineh Lake in its western and southern parts, as well as the Al-Qoussier well; 2) the group of polluted water, such as the waters in the other sampling sites. The chemical and isotopic 15 N characteristics of this group reflect the impact of different intensities of pollution processes, which could mainly be derived from anthropogenic source. The intensity of this source was maximum in the Al-Domineh well, which was practically close to a sewage sink. (author)
Full Text Available In the struggle against ISIS and the so-called Islamic State, the United States and its allies continue to achieve significant military victories, as evidenced by the ongoing efforts to liberate the city of Mosul in Iraq. What happens next with the returning or migrating foreign fighters and with whatever remains of ISIS’ influence in the digital battle space where up to this point it has been winning? Evidence of the group inspiring, remotely recruiting and directing attacks in Europe and elsewhere, and its continued ability to attract foreign fighters to the actual battlefield makes it clear that ISIS may be losing the ground war in Syria and Iraq but winning in the other areas, especially in the digital battle space. The authors highlight the importance of creating compelling counter-narratives and products that compete with the prolific ISIS online campaigns.
Hamade, Haya; Naja, Farah; Keyrouz, Sarah; Hwalla, Nahla; Karam, Jeanette; Al-Rustom, Lea; Nasreddine, Lara
The Middle East has one of the lowest rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the world, highlighting the need to promote breastfeeding in this region. Young adults represent a key population of interest, since decisions about infant-feeding appear to be made before children are even conceived. To examine breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavior among female undergraduate students in Lebanon and Syria and determine factors associated with intention to breastfeed in this population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010/11 in Damascus and Beirut. Four universities were selected in each city. A multicomponent questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of participants (n = 194 from Beirut and n = 199 from Damascus). The questionnaire included breastfeeding knowledge (measured by the Infant Feeding Knowledge Test Form), attitude (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale), perceived behavior (Breastfeeding Behavior Questionnaire), and intention (Infant Feeding Intention Scale). Factors associated with intention to breastfeed were examined by multivariate linear regression analysis. The participants had an average breastfeeding knowledge level (mean score, 10.39 +/- 2.09) and neutral perceived behavior (mean score, 22.00 +/- 3.68), while having relatively positive attitudes (mean score, 58.12 +/- 6.49). Knowledge gaps and negative perceptions were identified, particularly linked to breastfeeding in public and among working mothers. Breastfeeding intention was found to be significantly associated with knowledge and attitude in Lebanon (beta = 0.103 and beta = 0.230, respectively), and with perceived behavior in Syria (beta = -0.135). By revealing specific knowledge gaps and misconceptions and identifying country-specific disparities in the predictors of the intention to breastfeed, the findings of this study may provide a basis for devising culture-specific interventions aimed at promoting breastfeeding.
Albarhoum, M.; Soufan, A.H.; Mustafa, H.
Highlights: → We measure shielding properties of dwelling houses in the central region of Syria. → The concrete used for ceiling construction is good for shielding from gamma radiations. → Fairly high linear attenuation coefficients are obtained (from 0.173 to 0.198 cm -1 ). → Blocks used for house walls are not effective against gamma radiations. → Blocks efficiency can be improved by filling their holes with a cement paste. - Abstract: The shielding properties of the concrete and blocks used for the construction of dwelling houses in the Central Region of Syria (CRS) were measured and studied. The concrete used for the ceiling construction was found to have optimum shielding properties with 0.182 cm -1 (or equivalently 0.0859 cm 2 g -1 ) for the linear (mass) attenuation coefficient [L(M)AC]. In addition gamma radiation is attenuated by 73.221% on average, while the blocks used for the walls have smaller LACs (0.082 cm -1 for the bare blocks, and 0.118 cm -1 for the coated ones). Although the LACs for the blocks are smaller than those for the concrete their shielding properties are good to protect from the gamma radiations coming from radioactive or nuclear accidents (78.630% attenuation), even Chernobyl - like disasters, because of their big width (10-12 cm). The LACs were measured by an ionization chamber and simple theoretical calculations have been made to predict the concrete LACs. The calculations showed an average LAC for the six samples equal to 0.1664 cm -1 with 8.47% error with respect to the experimental values. The average LAC for the concrete used for ceiling construction in the CRS was found to be comparable or even better than the average of some international values for the reactor shielding concretes, which are about 0.163 cm -1 .
Heavens, N. G.
Western Hellas Planitia (WHP) and the region encompassed by Syria Planum and Claritas Fossae are the main centers of textured dust storm activity in Mars's southern low to mid-latitudes. (Texture in this context refers to distinct fine structure at the cloud tops indicative of active lifting.) WHP is a well-known initiation zone for regional and global dust storm activity and often the end point of the Utopia "flushing storm" track. Syria-Claritas Fossae (SCF), too, can be a lifting center in global dust storm activity. Indeed, SCF and the area to its west was the region most denuded of dust by the Mars Year (MY) 25 global dust storm, perhaps suggesting that SCF contained the principal lifting center of the storm. Thus, if the Acidalia and Utopia storm tracks are Mars's dust storm alleys, through which dust storms pass quickly again and again; WHP might be a cul-de-sac and SCF something like a mews, where dust storm activity can enter more or less easily but may not as easily leave. In this presentation, I will focus on dust storm activity in these areas in a typical non-global dust storm year, MY 29. Synthesizing visible imagery by the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) also on board MRO, I will consider the climatology, morphology, texture, and vertical structure of dust storm activity in these areas in order to infer their governing dynamics. This investigation has two aims: (1) to understand why these areas are centers of textured dust storm activity; and (2) to connect the characteristics of smaller-scale dust storm activity in these regions to the underlying dynamics in order to understand the role of WHP and SCF in the dynamics of global dust storms. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G).
Differences in tobacco smoking prevalence and frequency between adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey
Jawad, Mohammed; Khader, Ali; Millett, Christopher
Background: Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees. ...
Dixit, Prakash N., E-mail: email@example.com; Telleria, Roberto
Inter-annual and seasonal variability in climatic parameters, most importantly rainfall, have potential to cause climate-induced risk in long-term crop production. Short-term field studies do not capture the full nature of such risk and the extent to which modifications to crop, soil and water management recommendations may be made to mitigate the extent of such risk. Crop modeling studies driven by long-term daily weather data can predict the impact of climate-induced risk on crop growth and yield however, the availability of long-term daily weather data can present serious constraints to the use of crop models. To tackle this constraint, two weather generators namely, LARS-WG and MarkSim, were evaluated in order to assess their capabilities of reproducing frequency distributions, means, variances, dry spell and wet chains of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, and solar radiation for the eight locations across cropping areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon. Further, the application of generated long-term daily weather data, with both weather generators, in simulating barley growth and yield was also evaluated. We found that overall LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters and in 50 years continuous simulation of barley growth and yield. Our findings suggest that LARS-WG does not necessarily require long-term e.g., > 30 years observed weather data for calibration as generated results proved to be satisfactory with > 10 years of observed data except in area with higher altitude. Evaluating these weather generators and the ability of generated weather data to perform long-term simulation of crop growth and yield is an important first step to assess the impact of future climate on yields, and to identify promising technologies to make agricultural systems more resilient in the given region. - Highlights: • LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters. • LARS-WG can serve
Aras, M; Altaş, M; Yilmaz, A; Serarslan, Y; Yilmaz, N; Yengil, E; Urfali, B
Toward the end of 2010, the Arab spring, the waves of revolutionary demonstrations and protests influenced also Syria, where violent clashes turned into a civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people became refugees. The use of excessive force unfortunately culminated in numerous deaths and injuries in many cities. Being the closest city to Aleppo, Damascus and Homs, the biggest cities of Syria, Antioch/Hatay has been the city where initial emergency treatments were performed. For this reason, we examined and retrospectively analyzed the medical records of the patients treated in the clinics of our hospital due to cranial gunshot wounds during the war. The medical records of 186 patients who were injured in the Syrian War and brought to, followed up and treated in the Neurosurgery Clinic of Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine in Hatay, a Turkish city on the Syrian border, between April 2011 and June 2013. A total of 186 patients were evaluated in a period of more than 2 years. Of all 91.4% of the patients were adults (male/female: 152/18) and 8.6% of them were pediatric patients (male/female: 14/2). The average age of the patients was 31 years, with an age range of between 2 months and 67 years. According to Glasgow coma score (GCS) of the patients at the time of admission, GCS was 3 in 32 patients (17.2%), between 4 and 7 in 70 patients (37.6%), and between 8 and 15 in 84 patients (45.1%). We observed that the patients with GCS of 4-7 had a significantly lower mortality among the 56 patients treated surgically compared with the 14 patients treated medically. Cranial gunshot wounds are responsible for high mortality and morbidity. A multiplicity of factors plays a role on morbidity and mortality. These are the duration of transport, the injury pattern, the velocities of the weapons used, and the Glasgow Coma Scales of the patients at the time of admission. The authors recommend that the patients with cranial gunshot wounds who has GCS of 4-7 should be
Vafadari, A.; Philip, G.; Jennings, R.
In recent decades, and in response to an increased focus on disastrous events ranging from armed conflict to natural events that impact cultural heritage, there is a need for methodologies and approaches to better manage the effects of disaster on cultural heritage. This paper presents the approaches used in the development of a Historic Environment Record (HER) for Syria. It describes the requirements and methodologies used for systematic emergency recording and assessment of cultural heritage. It also presents the type of information needed to record in the aftermath of disaster to assess the scale of damage and destruction. Started as a project at Durham University, the database is now being developed as part of the EAMENA (Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa) project. The core dataset incorporates information and data from archaeological surveys undertaken in Syria by research projects in recent decades and began life as a development of the Shirīn initiative1. The focus of this project is to provide a tool not only for the recording and inventory of sites and monuments, but also to record damage and threats, their causes, and assess their magnitude. It will also record and measure the significance in order to be able to prioritize emergency and preservation responses. The database aims to set procedures for carrying out systematic rapid condition assessment (to record damage) and risk assessment (to record threat and level of risk) of heritage places, on the basis of both on the ground and remote assessment. Given the large number of heritage properties damaged by conflict, the implementation of rapid assessment methods to quickly identify and record level of damage and condition is essential, as it will provide the evidence to support effective prioritization of efforts and resources, and decisions on the appropriate levels of intervention and methods of treatment. The predefined data entry categories, use of a data standard, and
Mouty, M.; Al-Hilal, M.; Kattaa, B.
A detailed radon survey has been carried out over the contact zone of marine Paleogene and continental Neogene Formations in Ad-Daww basin (Central Syria), for the purpose of uranium exploration. Radon measurements were performed in a grid pattern using alpha sensitive plastic film technique, type 1B CN-85. Radon concentrations in soil were monitored across the aforementioned zone for 1.5 year, from April 93 to July 94, and their average has been calculated. Alpha Track density was found to be varying from 81 to 227 T/mm2 in Qarytein station, 65 to 124 T/mm2 in Bardeh station and 101 to 196 T/mm2 in Tyas station. The results of this work showed that the anomalous radon values were found to be corresponded to the Oligocene-Miocene geological surface in the study area. These relatively high values are most likely related to scattered uranium mineralization precipitated on surface along a chemically reducing zone where surface water of terrestrial and marine origin intermingled. A comparison between gamma count rate and trak etch density revealed a fairly good correlation, which indicates that the uranium occurrences on the geological contact (Oli - Mio) in Ad-Daww basin are of surficial nature. However, this may give a preliminary indication of probable subsurface extension of these occurrences preserved at depth away from surfacial weathering. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs
This work deals with the physical/chemical characteristics and quality of surface and ground water in the basin of the Orontes river in Syria. It also deals with concentration of basic elements and trace elements in water, soil and some plant leaves in that area. The internationally acknowledged methods were used to determine the physical constituents and to analyze elements of the most important basic and sub compounds in 95 water samples (77 ground samples and 18 surface samples). The instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was used to analyze some major elements and trace elements in 18 soil samples and 9 plant leave samples. Evaluation of analysis results of those samples shows the great geo-ecological and geographic effect and the effect of human activities on polluting the water, soil and plants according to quality of irrigation water, effect of air, liquid and solid rejects of the industrial and municipal sites, nature and repetition of plantations and type of fertilizers and pesticides used in the studied area.(author)
Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R
A scored lithological map including 11 radiometric units is established through applying a factor analysis approach to aerial spectrometric data of Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Syria. Regional uranium migration trends have also been estimated by using the airborne spectrometric data of Area-3, where different regional maps explaining the migration trends have been established. It was found that the four lithological phosphatic units P1, P2, P3 and P4 are the main uranium sources in the study region, where the uranium migration is in an outward direction. The other seven lithological units C1, C2, C3, M1, M2, M3 and M4 are successively and differentially enriched by uranium during the geological evolution of the crust, where uranium migration is generaly in an inward direction. The combination of the obtained uranium migration results with the dominant geological and tectonic conditions allows the proposition of a plausible scenario of six steps, which explain the different geological processes taking place in the study area. Favorable transverse structures for uranium occurences have been localized and qualified as being the most important for prospecting. More detailed exploration activities are needed in the study area to evaluate the potential of such structures as a function of depth. The proposed model could be applicable to similar phosphatic environments.
Full Text Available With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, many states were established. Turkey, the continuation of Ottoman, and Syria, the heirs of the Ottoman Empire had long been the neighborhood in the same geographical area. However, the relations between Turkey and Syria had never been built on a healthy foundation and had not reached the level of long-term friendship. The constant tension in the relations had been dominated by conflict and mutual distrust. Whereas Turkey won its independence with the national struggle after World War II, Syria remained under the French Mandate for a long time. On the one hand, Syrians strove for independence, and on the other hand, they made a great effort for the territorial integrity. Turkey could not accept the British co-operation of the Arabs in World War II and Syria could also not accept that Hatay joined in Turkey in 1939. These events created the ground for insecurity in the relations between Turkey and Syria. The international developments in post-World War II brought Syria and Turkey confronted again. While Turkey established relationships with the Western world led by the United States and developed these, Syrian followed policies close to the Soviet Union. Whereas Turkey tried to form an alliance in the Middle East by leading to Baghdad Pact, Syria made effort to create an alternative alliance under the leadership of Egypt. Those relations with Turkey and Syria broke down so much that both countries came to the brink of war in 1957. That Turkey was left alone in the Cyprus issue by its Western allies in the international platform led Turkey to new searches in its foreign policy. As a result, in 1967 and 1973 Arab-Israeli wars, Turkey sided with the Arabs. Although this case developed Turkey - Syria Relations, it could not be made the long-term and lasting peace. Because, the policies of Hafez al-Assad Authority which gave priority to Arab nationalism in Syria hampered the hopes of peace in the relations
Differences in tobacco smoking prevalence and frequency between adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.
Jawad, Mohammed; Khader, Ali; Millett, Christopher
Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models assessed the association between refugee status and current (past-30 day) tobacco use prevalence and frequency. Prevalence estimates for current tobacco smoking were similar between Palestine refugee and non-refugee groups in Jordan (26.7 % vs. 24.0 %), Lebanon (39.4 % vs. 38.5 %), and the West Bank (39.5 % vs. 38.4 %). In Syria, Palestine refugees had nearly twice the odds of current tobacco smoking compared to non-refugees (23.2 % vs. 36.6 %, AOR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.46-2.62). Palestine refugees consumed more cigarettes per month than non-refugees in Lebanon (β 0.57, 95 % CI 0.17-0.97) and Palestine refugees consumed more waterpipe tobacco per month than non-refugees in Syria (β 0.40, 95 % CI 0.19-0.61) and the West Bank (β 0.42, 95 % CI 0.21-0.64). Current tobacco smoking prevalence is in excess of 20 % in both adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Middle Eastern countries, however Palestine refugees may smoke tobacco more frequently than non-refugees. Comparison of simple prevalence estimates may therefore mask important differences in tobacco use patterns within population groups.
Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from
Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.
In previous published research, a factor analysis approach has been applied to airborne spectrometric data of Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria. A model of four factors (F1, F2, F3 and F4) has proven to be sufficient to represent the acquired data, where 94% of the total data variance is explained. A powerful tool for direct differentiation of various rocks units is obtained through the mapping of these four factors, where a scored lithological map including 11 radiometric units is established. Ninety nine rock samples have been taken according to the four factors to be analyzed by the gamma spectrometry technique in order to determine their content of e U, e Th and K%. The analysis of 65 samples according to F1 indicates that uranium concentration varies between 2.74 and 123.3 ppm with an average of 58.85 ppm and a standard deviation of 32.53 ppm. The analysis of 18 samples taken according to F2 indicates that K% concentration varies between 0.001 and 0.324 with an average of 0.145 and a standard deviation of 0.122. The analysis of 16 samples taken according to F3 indicates that K% concentration varies between 0.024 and 0.558 with an average of 0.227 and a standard deviation of 0.133. These gamma-results are expected and fit very well with the results obtained by the factor analysis approach. Therefore, the validity and efficacy of the factor analysis approach, to be widely used as a guide in exploration and smart sampling for mining programs, are well demonstrated. The established phosphate maps show a width extension and distribution, and clearly indicate the potential of the research area, and it merits to be followed by economic exploration
Meinel, D M; Kuehl, R; Zbinden, R; Boskova, V; Garzoni, C; Fadini, D; Dolina, M; Blümel, B; Weibel, T; Tschudin-Sutter, S; Widmer, A F; Bielicki, J A; Dierig, A; Heininger, U; Konrad, R; Berger, A; Hinic, V; Goldenberger, D; Blaich, A; Stadler, T; Battegay, M; Sing, A; Egli, A
Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae is an important and potentially fatal threat to patients and public health. During the current dramatic influx of refugees into Europe, our objective was to use whole genome sequencing for the characterization of a suspected outbreak of C. diphtheriae wound infections among refugees. After conventional culture, we identified C. diphtheriae using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and investigated toxigenicity by PCR. Whole genome sequencing was performed on a MiSeq Illumina with >70×coverage, 2×250 bp read length, and mapping against a reference genome. Twenty cases of cutaneous C. diphtheriae in refugees from East African countries and Syria identified between April and August 2015 were included. Patients presented with wound infections shortly after arrival in Switzerland and Germany. Toxin production was detected in 9/20 (45%) isolates. Whole genome sequencing-based typing revealed relatedness between isolates using neighbour-joining algorithms. We detected three separate clusters among epidemiologically related refugees. Although the isolates within a cluster showed strong relatedness, isolates differed by >50 nucleotide polymorphisms. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae associated wound infections are currently observed more frequently in Europe, due to refugees travelling under poor hygienic conditions. Close genetic relatedness of C. diphtheriae isolates from 20 refugees with wound infections indicates likely transmission between patients. However, the diversity within each cluster and phylogenetic time-tree analysis suggest that transmissions happened several months ago, most likely outside Europe. Whole genome sequencing offers the potential to describe outbreaks at very high resolution and is a helpful tool in infection tracking and identification of transmission routes. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kurdali, F.; Al-Shamma'a, M.
Variability in the natural abundance isotopes of 15 N and 13 C in leaves of several legume and non-legume plant species grown at different sites of two areas in semi-arid regions of Syria was determined. In the first area (non-saline soil), the 15 N values of a number of fixing and non-fixing reference plants ranged from -2.09 to +9.46, depending on plant species and studied site. 15 N in a number of legume species including Acacia cyanopylla (-1.73), Acacia farnesiana (-0.55), Prosopis juliflora (-1.64) and Medicago arborea (+1.6) were close to the atmospheric value pointing to a major contribution of N 2 fixing in these species; whereas, those of reference plants were highly positive (between +3.6 and +9.46%). In the actinorhizal tree, Elaeagnus angustifolia, the 15 N abundance was far lower (-0.46 to -2.1%) strongly suggesting that the plant obtained large proportional contribution from BNF. In contrast, δ 15 N values in some other legumes and actinorhizal plants were relatively similar to those of reference plants, suggesting that the contribution of fixed N 2 is negligible. On the other hand, δ 13 C% values in leaves of C3 plants were affected by plant species, ranging from a minimum of -28.67% to a maximum of -23%. However, they were the same within each plant species although they were grown at different sites. Moreover, dual stable isotope analysis in leaves of Prosopis juliflora and other non- legumes grown on a salt affected soil (second area) was also conducted. Results showed that salinity did not affect C assimilation in this woody legume since a higher carbon discrimination was obtained indicating that this plant is a salt tolerant species; whereas, N2-fixation was drastically affected (δ 15 N= +7.03). (Author)
Full Text Available Aim: We aimed at analysing the patients, who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital after having abdominal wounding by firearm in the war at Syria, retrospectively. Material and Method: The files of Syrian patients, who applied to Emergency Service of Harran University Medical Faculty because of gunshot wounds and had operation after being hospitalized in General Surgery Clinic due to abdominal injuries between the years of 2011 and 2014, were analysed retrospectively. Results: 175 Syrian patients, who had abdominal injuries by firearms, underwent operation in our general surgery clinic. 99.4% (n=174 of the patients were male, and 0.6% (n=1 were female. Trauma-admission to hospital times of all cases were %u2265 6 hours. 62.8% (n=110 of the patients had isolated abdominal injuries, and 37.1% (n=65 had two or more system injuries. The frequency of more than one organ injuries in abdominal region was 44.5% (n=78 and the most frequent complication was wound infection (10%. Negative laparoscopy was 2.8% (n=5, support for intensive care was 38.2% (n=67, average duration of intensive care unit stay was 5.57 days and mortality was 9.7% (n=17. Discussion: In our study, it was seen that infectious morbidity and mortality increased for the patients, who applied to our hospital because of abdominal injuries by firearm, particularly the ones with gastrointestinal perforation, if trauma-admission to hospital times were %u2265 6 hours. And this shows us that the early intervention to injuries that perforate gastrointestinal tract was an important factor for decreasing morbidity and mortality.
Nazeer M. Asmael
Full Text Available In developing countries such as Syria, the lack of hydrological data affects groundwater resource assessment. Groundwater models provide the means to fill the gaps in the available data in order to improve the understanding of groundwater systems. The study area can be considered as the main recharge area of the eastern side of Barada and Awaj basin in the eastern part of Mt. Hermon. The withdrawal for agricultural and domestic purposes removes a considerable amount of water. The steady-state three-dimensional (3D groundwater model (FEFLOW which is an advanced finite element groundwater flow and transport modeling tool, was used to quantify groundwater budget components by using all available data of hydrological year 2009–2010. The results obtained may be considered as an essential tool for groundwater management options in the study area. The calibrated model demonstrates a good agreement between the observed and simulated hydraulic head. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the model is highly sensitive to hydraulic conductivity changes and sensitive to a lesser extent to water recharge amount. Regarding the upper aquifer horizon, the water budget under steady-state condition indicates that the lateral groundwater inflow from the Jurassic aquifer into this horizon is the most important recharge component. The major discharge component from this aquifer horizon occurs at its eastern boundary toward the outside of the model domain. The model was able to produce a satisfying estimation of the preliminary water budget of the upper aquifer horizon which indicates a positive imbalance of 4.6 Mm3·y−1.
Full Text Available Archaeological fieldwork carried out at the Tell Arbid site in north-eastern Syria exposed settlement remains dating from the early 3rd millennium BC to the mid 2nd millennium BC. Recent excavations in Sector P, on the eastern slope of the site, revealed the existence of a significant occupation of the Post-Akkadian/ Early Jazirah V period and of levels dated to the Early and Classic Khabur Ware/Old Jazirah/Middle Bronze Age I-II periods. Cereal remains were dominated by grains and ear fragments of hulled two-rowed barley Hordeum distichon. Less numerous were wheats represented by emmer Triticum dicoccon, einkorn T. monococcum, and macaroni wheat T. durum. The presence of bread wheat T. aestivum and six-rowed barley Hordeum vulgare could not be excluded. The two periods contained similar sets of cereals, but in the Post-Akkadian Period the percentage of hulled wheat remains was higher, while in the Middle Bronze Age (particularly in its younger phase naked wheat slightly exceeded hulled wheats. Legumes were represented by only very few seeds of lentil Lens culinaris and bitter vetch Vicia ervilia. Diaspores of wild plants were very abundant, particularly those from the families of grasses and legumes. The considerable number of ear and culm fragments probably belonging to cereals as well as numerous seeds/fruits of wild plants suggests that the plant remains originated from fodder or animal dung or belonged to threshing waste. The presence of grass stems with nodes indicated that cereals were reaped low on the straw; occasional use of uprooting was suggested by the occurrence of basal culm fragments with traces of rootlets.
First indications of high slip rates on active reverse faults NW of Damascus, Syria, from observations of deformed Quaternary sediments: Implications for the partitioning of crustal deformation in the Middle Eastern region
Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob; Daoud, Mohamad; Bridgland, David R.
Recent research on rates of crustal shortening within the Palmyra Fold Belt (PFB) in Syria has drawn attention to the possibility that reverse faults near the city of Damascus, which adjoins the SW PFB, have significant slip rates. We infer that the Damascus Fault, directly adjacent to the city, has developed a throw of ~ 2500 m and report the discovery of the en echelon Bassimeh Fault, with a throw of ~ 1000 m, this fault being revealed by warping of the local bedrock and of a terrace, of inferred Late Pleistocene age, of the River Barada. We estimate that this set of faults became active circa 0.9 Ma, synchronous with changes to the pattern of faulting previously reported farther southwest in the northern Jordan Valley. Vertical slip rates on the Bassimeh and Damascus faults of ~ 1.1 and ~ 2.8 mm a- 1, respectively, are thus estimated. We also infer that large historical earthquakes, previously attributed to left-lateral faulting farther west on the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ), probably occurred on this set of reverse faults; these faults thus represent a significant hazard to the city of Damascus. Our observations indicate that as much as half of the northward motion of the Arabian plate, relative to the African plate, may be 'absorbed' by crustal shortening within the PFB, potentially explaining the low slip rate recently measured geodetically on the northern DSFZ in western Syria.
Arranz-Otaegui, Amaia; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Araus, José Luis; Portillo, Marta; Balbo, Andrea; Iriarte, Eneko; Gourichon, Lionel; Braemer, Frank; Zapata, Lydia; Ibáñez, Juan José
In southwest Asia, the accelerated impact of human activities on the landscape has often been linked to the development of fully agricultural societies during the middle and late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period (around 10.2-7.9 ka cal. BP). This work contributes to the debate on the environmental impact of the so-called Neolitisation process by identifying the climatic and anthropogenic factors that contributed to change local and regional vegetation at the time when domesticated plants appeared and developed in southern Syria (around 10.7-9.9 ka cal. BP). In this work a multidisciplinary analysis of plant microremains (pollen and phytoliths) and macroremains (wood charcoal) is carried out along with stable carbon isotope discrimination of wood charcoals in an early PPNB site (Tell Qarassa North, west of the Jabal al-Arab area). Prior to 10.5 ka cal. BP, the results indicate a dynamic equilibrium in the local and regional vegetation, which comprised woodland-steppe, Mediterranean evergreen oak-woodlands, wetland vegetation and coniferous forests. Around 10.5-9.9 ka cal. BP, the elements that regulated the vegetation system changed, resulting in reduced proportions of arboreal cover and the spread of cold-tolerant and wetlands species. Our data show that reinforcing interaction between the elements of the anthropogenic (e.g. herding, fire-related activities) and climatic systems (e.g. temperature, rainfall) contributed to the transformation of early Holocene vegetation during the emergence of fully agricultural societies in southern Syria.
Full Text Available This article explores dynamics behind the emergence of different nationalistic currents that dominated the modern Syrian political scene. By “modern”, here, it is meant the period between 1846, when the term “Syria” was, for the first time, officially associated with a specific territory, and 2000 when Syria’s “fierce”, not strong, ruler Hafez al-Asad died. As such, the article covers multiple periods as one continuous period. Arab Nationalism, which defeated other currents like Pan Syrianism and Communism, comes on the top of these currents. The article also shows how partisan, clan and/or family interests led to the utilization of various nationalist thoughts in this regard.
Street Journal, June 4, 2015; and Griff Witte , Sudarsan Raghavan, and James McAuley, “Flow of Foreign Fighters Plummets as Islamic State Loses Its...ISIS Attacks Around the World,” New York Times, June 14, 2016. 7 James R. Clapper, “Statement for the Record: Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S...Reconstruction, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, MG-1119-OSD, 2011; and James Dobbins and Andrew Parasiliti, eds., Preventing Daesh 2.0
Evaluating the impact of water flotation and the state of the wood in archaeological wood charcoal remains: Implications for the reconstruction of past vegetation and identification of firewood gathering strategies at Tell Qarassa North (south Syria)
Otaegui, Amaia Arranz
that in certain cases, hyper-fragmentation or complete destruction of charred plant macroremains occurs as soon as they come into contact with water. At the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) the destruction of wood charcoal remains was documented during the flotation process....... The aim of this work is to evaluate the assemblage and to determine the factors that conditioned the preservation or disintegration of wood charcoal remains. In particular, attention is paid to the distribution of the alterations (e.g. vitrification, decayed wood) by taxa, and the proportions with which...... they are present before and after flotation. To test some of the patterns observed in the archaeological material a small-scale experiment on modern wood charcoal remains is carried out. The results enable a critic reconstruction of the type of vegetation and firewood gathering strategies at Tell Qarassa North...
Il viaggio religioso come strumento geopolitico. Il pellegrinaggio sciita e l’emergere dell’alleanza regionale tra Iran e Siria - Religious travelling as geopolitical instrument. The Shia pilgrimage and the rise of the regional alliance between Iran and Syria
Full Text Available Religious pilgrimage is almost as old as the history of men. This phenomenon has often been instrumentalized for political ends, creating the premises for new colonization processes, exerting local hegemonies or reinforcing strategic alliances. This article examines the recent re-discovery, in Shia perspective, of the holy sites in Syria. This “re-discovery” which initially was intended as anti-Iraq and pro-Iran has developed social implications and regional significance which cannot be thoroughly assessed for the moment. Among these there is an interesting gender issue. Women offer themselves as cultural mediators and therefore manage to increase their autonomy and obtain an economic independence which they propagate at home. Pilgrimage thus reveals itself as a kind of travel with strong political connotations.
Full Text Available Yousser Mohammad,1 Rafea Shaaban,1 Bassam Abou Al-Zahab,2 Nikolai Khaltaev,3 Jean Bousquet,4,5 Basim Dubaybo6 1National Center for Research in Chronic Respiratory Diseases, Tishreen University School of Medicine, Latakia, Syria; 2Ministry of Health, Damascus, Syria; 3Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospital, Hôpital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France; 5Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Respiratory and Environmental Epidemiology Team, Villejuif, France; 6Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Background: The burden of chronic respiratory disease (CRD is alarming. International studies suggest that women with CRD are undersurveyed and underdiagnosed by physicians worldwide. It is unclear what the prevalence of CRD is in the general population of Syria, particularly among women, since there has never been a survey on CRD in this nation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different patterns of smoking on CRD in women. Materials and methods: We extracted data on smoking patterns and outcome in women from the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases survey. Using spirometric measurements before and after the use of inhaled bronchodilators, we tracked the frequency of CRD in females active and passive narghile or cigarette smokers presenting to primary care. We administered the questionnaire to 788 randomly selected females seen during 1 week in the fiscal year 2009–2010 in 22 primary care centers in six different regions of Syria. Inclusion criteria were age >6 years, presenting for any medical complaint. In this cross-sectional study, three groups of female subjects were evaluated: active smokers of cigarettes, active smokers of narghiles, and passive smokers of either cigarettes or narghiles
Full Text Available This study reviews Byzantine attitudes and state policy towards the region between Antioch and Mount Sinai, stressing the general cautiousness of imperial strategy and, from the late tenth century onwards, the government’s preference for peaceful coexistence and commerce with the Fatimid caliphate. Caliph al-Ḥākim’s destruction of the church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009 did not overturn this state of affairs, and the main bone of contention between Cairo and Constantinople was the city of Aleppo, not Jerusalem. Even here, the two powers were inclined to leave the initiative to local parties, rather than insisting on direct rule, and communications between Muslim and Byzantine-ruled territories were mostly fairly straightforward. During the relative détente of the first half of the eleventh century, pilgrimages to the Holy Land increased, and it may well have been primarily in order to impress pilgrims – those travelling from Byzantium itself, but especially those from the Christian west – that emperors lavished resources on reconstructing the church of the Holy Sepulchre in the 1030s and 1040s. Militant intervention on behalf of the Christian populations of south ern Syria and Palestine was not on their agenda. These conclusions rest on the collation of miscellaneous evidence, whose components are mostly well-known but have seldom received consideration side by side. The study highlights the value of trade to Fatimids and Byzantines alike, the esteem for ‘the holy places’ among Byzantines besides westerners, and the emperors’ desire to demonstrate concern for the Holy Sepulchre without jeopardising relations with the FatimidsEste estudio pasa revista a la política oficial del estado bizantino con respecto a la región situada entre Antioquía y el Monte Sinaí, haciendo énfasis en la prudencia adoptada por lo general en la estrategia imperial así como, a partir de finales del siglo X, en la voluntad del gobierno a favor de
Full Text Available Russia invaded the Caucasian region completely in the secondhalf of 19th century. The Muslim nations of the Caucasia, who rejectedthe domination of Russia, decided to emigrate Ottoman Empire. The oppression and the cruelty that Russia carried out had an importantrole in the decision of emigration. The first refugees, who came fromCaucasia, were settled in Anatolia, Rumelia and partly Syria province.The Ottoman Empire lost war at the result of 1877–1878 Ottoman-Russia war. As the result of the war, Ottoman Empire lost a great dealof land in Balkan geography. Therefore, the Caucasian refugees, whowere settled in Balkans before, became refugee again. Syria provincewas approved as the new settlement region both for Caucasian andRumelian refugees. These refugees, who had been sent to Syriaprovince, encountered, great problems. They experienced the problem ofadapting to natural conditions of Syria such as water and air. Besides,when the epidemic illnesses, which caused due to squalor, were addednearly half of the refugees died. Apart from that, the refugees facedtroubles with Druse and Bedouins in social aspect, thus, theyencountered great problems. After nearly thirty years that emigrantssettle in Syria province, they adapted to its socio-cultural structure andclimate conditions. After emigrants adapted to Syria province, theybecame strong towards Druse and Bedouins that attack them.Ottoman Empire mobilized all its opportunities for the settlementof refugees. However, it could not prevent the unwanted events. XIX yüzyılın ikinci yarısında Rusya Kafkasya Bölgesini tamamenistila etti. İstila neticesinde Rus hâkimiyetini kabul etmeyenKafkasya’nın Müslüman milletleri, Osmanlı Ülkesine göç etme kararıaldı. Bu göç kararında Rusların uyguladıkları baskı ve şiddet büyük birrol oynadı. Kafkasya’dan ilk gelen göçmenler Anadolu ve Rumeli’ye çokaz da olsa Suriye Vilayetine iskân edildi. 1877–1878 Osmanl
Why have the majority of recent polio cases occurred in countries affected by Islamist militancy? A historical comparative analysis of the political determinants of polio in Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.
This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries. The second section analyses official documents, newspaper articles, interviews and historical and ethnographic accounts to understand the relationship between Islamist militant groups and polio in five countries - Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria - that account for 95% of the world's polio cases since 2012. I demonstrate that specific political grievances related to the postcolonial state and/or foreign military intervention help to explain variations in militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination programmes. The paper concludes by considering the policy implications of the analysis. Improved access for polio vaccinators is not predicated on military victory against the militants but securing support of de facto political leaders. This can be achieved by developing a better understanding of the specific sociopolitical contexts in which immunization programmes operate.
Mohammad, Yousser; Shaaban, Rafea; Al-Zahab, Bassam Abou; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean; Dubaybo, Basim
The burden of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) is alarming. International studies suggest that women with CRD are undersurveyed and underdiagnosed by physicians worldwide. It is unclear what the prevalence of CRD is in the general population of Syria, particularly among women, since there has never been a survey on CRD in this nation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different patterns of smoking on CRD in women. We extracted data on smoking patterns and outcome in women from the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases survey. Using spirometric measurements before and after the use of inhaled bronchodilators, we tracked the frequency of CRD in females active and passive narghile or cigarette smokers presenting to primary care. We administered the questionnaire to 788 randomly selected females seen during 1 week in the fiscal year 2009-2010 in 22 primary care centers in six different regions of Syria. Inclusion criteria were age >6 years, presenting for any medical complaint. In this cross-sectional study, three groups of female subjects were evaluated: active smokers of cigarettes, active smokers of narghiles, and passive smokers of either cigarettes or narghiles. These three groups were compared to a control group of female subjects not exposed to active or passive smoking. Exposure to active cigarette smoke but not narghile smoke was associated with doctor-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, neither cigarette nor narghile active smoking was associated with increased incidence of spirometrically diagnosed COPD. Paradoxically, exposure to passive smoking of either cigarettes or narghiles resulted in association with airway obstruction, defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 70% according to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria; association with FEV1 < 80% predicted, evidencing moderate to severe GOLD spirometric grade
Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in
The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues, tha...
Cardinal, Monique C.
This article discusses the almost identical syllabuses of the Christian and Muslim religious education programmes of the Syrian Arab Republic. Content analysis of the students' textbooks and teachers' guides (in Arabic) reveals common themes of citizenship education and national unity. Classroom observations in Damascus also highlight how…
Sharp, Jeremy M
... (Lebanon, Israel-Palestine, Iraq, and Iran). In the Levant, Syrian leaders aim to dominate the internal politics of Lebanon, and have been accused of involvement in the assassination of four parliamentarians and former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri...
CLEMENS BREISINGER; TINGJU ZHU; PERRIHAN AL RIFFAI; GERALD NELSON; RICHARD ROBERTSON; JOSE FUNES; DORTE VERNER
There is broad consensus among scientists that climate change is altering weather patterns around the world. However, economists are only beginning to develop comprehensive tools that allow for the quantification of such weather changes on countries' economies and people. This paper presents a modeling suite that links the downscaling of global climate models, crop modeling, global economic modeling, and sub-national-level dynamic computable equilibrium modeling. Important to note is that thi...
history. Their thoughts have unequivocally formed the basis of modern airpower.1 However, their ideas concerning the most effective use of airpower...were by no means uniform and congruent in their de- termination of what constituted a vital center with strategic effects . In fact the debate...civilians. The Seeds of Dissent We encountered a stoop -shouldered old man . . . who was shuffling along this field of death. “Where are all the houses
jihadist radicalization. These studies examine the recruitment strategies and messaging of jihadist organizations and identify the key components of the...3 (2010); Mohammed M. Hafez and Creighton Mullins , “The Radicalization Puzzle: A Theoretical Synthesis of Empirical Approaches to Homegrown...daily revenue through black market oil sales, and claims responsibility for terrorist attacks across the globe.3 Whether they intended to or not, most
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) United Nations Humanitarian Response Depot United Nations Mine Action Service United Nations Population Fund...5,968,170 0 Belgium January 30, 2013 Two pledges for a total of $2,652,520 0 Botswana January 30, 2013 $50,000 $50,000 Brazil January 30, 2013 $250,000
Naomí Ramírez Díaz
Full Text Available The solid stability of the regime established by the Assad family has been challenged by a population which, deprived of its freedom and dignity, took to the streets in mid-March 2011 to call for the introduction of a democratic system that would guarantee their physical safety, moral integrity and respect for their freedom. This movement, peaceful in nature, broke the dynamic of the accumulation of power of elites which, having lost all legitimacy, have turned to violence to attempt to maintain their interests. As the number of civilian victims rises, the opposition is not playing a very effective role in preventing a power vacuum or social conflict in the event that the regime collapses, and they have been accused of trying to gain power by taking advantage of the people’s movement. Meanwhile, the international community and the regional powers have shown that their regional interests take precedence over the dignity of the Syrian people. In light of the situation, it is difficult to predict the country’s future direction.
al-Suri al-Qawmi al- Ijtima’i). The SSNP was rigidly organized along fascist lines, and its ideology advocated the establishment of a secular...extradited and executed. The SSNP took vengeance by assassinating the Lebanese Prime Minister Riyad al-Sulh (1951). The Party was once again suppressed...was supported by the SSNP and the pro-Iraqi People’s Party. Soon, however, intense Saudi and Egyptian diplomatic pressure and financial aid induced
On the Ides of March, the Syrian civil war began its eighth year of fighting. The original war, between the Bashar al-Assad regime and Sunni Arab rebels, is largely over. Additionally, the American-led fight against the Islamic State is ending. However, these two facts do not equal an end to the
C. P. Melville
Full Text Available Historical data show that like the North Anatolian fault zone, which was delineated by a series of earthquakes during this century from east to west, so was the conjugate Eastern Anatolian fault zone delineated from the northeast to the southwest by a succession of large earthquakes in earlier times, with a major event at its junction with the Dead Sea fault system. This event was associated with surface faulting and occurred in a region seismically quiescent for nearly two centuries.
Full Text Available Relations between Turkey and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (SMB have gained momentum in the light of post-Arab revolt developments. This study aims to present the historical background of the relationship between SMB and AKP and effects of this relationship on foreign policy. For the analytical discussion on the relationship between AKP and SMB integration to ‘particular’ recent foreign policies of Turkey, first of all, it will be examined how the SMB is perceived in Turkey in social and political arenas. Thus, the socio-political dimensions of the process in which the SMB came to the fore and began to be known in Turkey will be explored along with its position in foreign policy during the Justice and Development Party (JDP government and the Syrian crisis.
Sabbagh, Mohammad Ayman
Designing a new approach for learning gross anatomy to improve students' motivation to study anatomy and to enable them to learn independently through case discussion. The study included newly registered students in the first academic year. The total number of students was 165, who were divided by alphabetical order into 15 groups of 11 students. Each group was led by one faculty member and each faculty member lead 3 groups. Each group met twice a week for 2 weeks to discuss one case related to the upper limb anatomy. Students took pre- and posttests and completed an opinion questionnaire about the case discussions. The pretest score shows that 20% of the students received grades of 60% or above and that 80% received grades less than 60%. The posttest showed that 45% of the students received grades of 60% or above and that 55% received grades less than 60%. There was a significant difference between the pre- and posttest for grades 60% (P = 0.0023). In addition, 17% of students achieved the same results (less than 60%) in both the pre- and posttests. The questionnaire revealed that all students stated that the discussion method was useful in their learning process, helped them to increase their motivation to study anatomy (85%), know the usefulness of studying anatomy (84%), and understand the problems (91%). The implementation of the case discussion in teaching anatomy can increase the students' understanding and motivate them to learn.
Full Text Available Having limited legal status has direct negative consequences for Syrian refugees’ access to protection and assistance during their stay in Lebanon. Limited legal status also increases the risks of abuse and exploitation.
The project will provide research on key transitional justice issues, including methods to conduct criminal prosecutions, options for reparations, ways to commemorate the dead, and approaches to national reconciliation. After consulting with Syrians, the Commission will make practical recommendations about a Syrian-led ...
from a 4.6% GDP surplus in 2014 to a 6.3% GDP deficit in 2015. 25 Saudi Arabia , arguably the nation with the most influence over oil prices, is...extremely dependent on oil revenue. However, given its cash reserve fund of over $750 billion, Saudi Arabia is able to withstand low oil prices for...Historically, oil production has played a significant role in Syria’s economy. This paper will argue that the current oil pricing environment will make it cost
Shweikani, R.; Raja, G.
Building materials are one of the main radon sources in dwellings. Therefore, the determination of radon exhalation from these materials will help in prediction the existence of dwelling with potential radon risk. Ceramic tiles and marble samples were collected from Syrian local market. The correlation between radon exhalation from these materials and radium-226 content was studied. Results showed that there is no clear relation between radium content and radon exhalation rate, and the exhalation of radon did not exceed the permissible limits of American Environment Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, the additional annual dose from radon and gamma of the natural radioactivity in ceramic and marble when used as finishing materials in houses was also estimated and found to be not exceeding 20 μSv and 35 μSv from radon and gamma respectively.
Full Text Available Mass media play a critical role through the production of news in influencing how citizens have their perceptions and opinions shaped. This article intends to delve into the role of news production in creating knowledge and shaping public perception and opinion within the Syrian case and demonstrates that news is not an accidental occurrence, neither in terms of subject or timing. Articles on specific issues, such as the reaction to the chemical weapons attack of August 2013 and the allegations of “industrial killings” by the Syrian government, appearing in the mass media, are subjected to analysis based on the theoretical notions outlined in the paper. These two cases hint that the timing and nature of these specific news events are not as “random” and coincidental as would seem at first glance.
Khamis, I.; Hainoun, A.
Analysis of the Syrian energy demand and forecasting was briefly introduced. The need to install an average of 500 MW annually the year 2003 was established. Moreover, short introduction of the main energy resources in the country was made. A primitive criteria for the selection of SMPR was emphasized. An emphasis for the process of introducing the first nuclear power in the country was also recognized. (author)
The Assad regime, Iran, Russia, Iraq, Hezbollah, and the Shi’a militias in Iraq. Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the Gulf States, Jordan, the Sunni...means allies and they certainly seek differing ends once (if) ISIS is defeated or destroyed. In the listings, Iraq and its tribes/ militias figure...destiny in the Sunni areas of the country. The Shi’a militias in Iraq are likely directly under the proxy umbrella of Iran’s Quds Force.3 The Kurds in
and consolidate leadership, manpower, and valuable resources such as financing and weapons; however, as Hafez stressed, “formal mobilization...Their damage to the Muslim community… is greater than the damage of the infidels who fight against Muslims such as the heretic Mongols, the Crusaders...radical Islamists is to refer to their enemies as infidels .144 In the Syrian milieu, there are ample historical examples of Alawites being
Muslim girls in Jordan have become better educated due to 3 decades of free and compulsory (10 years) schooling policy. Fertility has declined from 7.7 during 1971-75 to 5.6 during 1987-90. 58% of Jordanian women use some form of family planning (FP). Over 90% of eligible children are enrolled in school and 60% go on for advanced 2-year vocational or specialized training. There are actually more girls than boys in school. Although female literacy is high, only 14% are engaged in the labor force. A leader from the Business and Professional Women's Club related that man is considered the breadwinner. Some professions are considered unsuitable for women's employment. Traveling after dark alone is considered problematic for a decent woman. A visit to a school revealed that girls envisioned receiving training and working until marriage, having children, and looking after grandchildren. Many thought 3-4 children was an appropriate family size. Government statistics show that men enroll primarily in the industrial training courses and agriculture, while women tended toward more manual vocations such as sewing, knitting, cooking, hair styling, and secretarial skills. Out of the entire class there were only 2 or 3 girls who envisioned working after having children. Husbands were assumed to always work; if unemployment occurred, the girls thought that a factory job might be a possibility. Conversations with several women in the engineering school were conducted in a lecture hall rather than the cafeteria so the boys would not think they were making themselves available to them. Concern was also expressed about working with men, but the issue of unwanted approaches was dismissed during work hours because of their academic qualifications. Only if one worked lake in the day would there be anticipation of problems. There were many styles of dress for women ranging from modern Western garb to traditional attire in grey and black with a slit for the eyes. The most traditional woman expressed that she saw no difficulty in becoming a structural engineer because her personality would triumph.
began in the 1970s with the importation of chemical munitions (Synthèse Nationale De Renseignement Déclassifié Programme Chimique Syrien, Cas...Threats, Senate Armed Services Committee Hearing, April 18, 2013.). 18 Synthèse Nationale De Renseignement Déclassifié Programme Chimique Syrien, Cas...Synthèse Nationale De Renseignement Déclassifié Programme Chimique Syrien, Cas D’emploi Passés D’agents Chimiques Par Le Régime, Attaque Chimique
belat- edly realized that the militants’ increasing ferocity and widespread practice of takfir (declaring other Muslims infidels ) is not winning over...While both chapters have been involved in violence, they have also been working hard to earn new recruits for their organizations and al Qaeda’s
Honeysett, Bethany Eleanor
‘Bless you, may you bury me’ is a common refrain among older people in the Syrian capital Damascus, directed especially towards children and young adults when they help with daily tasks or provide joy by their play or achievements. The sentiment expresses the hope that the old may die before the young and be mourned by them. It makes explicit the interlocking of life-cycles, through aging and mortality, and presumes an understanding of ideal kinship temporality where successive...
Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,
expand Israel’s presence in the Golan by building additional housing, promoting tourism , and investing in infrastructure and industry.38 Thus, the...less hospitable to Iranian forces and prox- ies. Whether undertaken by Israel or by international aid organiza- tions, the provision of humanitarian
“When the history of the Syrian opposition movement is written, the Istanbul conference will feature as a key part of that process. ... The papers in the publication will emphasize democratic principles of inclusiveness and respect for human rights and will stress the importance of consultation and cooperation in the process of ...
divided today. Widespread ethnic conflict in Malaysia ended its consociational government. Fiji had a military coup. South Africa transitioned to...price of coffee dropping in 1985 or after the 1990 invasion of Rwanda from the Uganda-based Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF).262 In the early 1990s
Full Text Available This bibliography contains journal articles, book chapters, books, edited volumes, theses, grey literature, bibliographies and other resources on the Syrian conflict. To keep up with the rapid changing political events, more recent publications have been prioritized during the selection process. The literature has been retrieved by manually browsing more than 200 core and periphery sources in the field of Terrorism Studies. Additionally, full-text and reference retrieval systems have been employed to expand the search.
Rami Makhluf, who was designated by the Treasury Department in February 2008 under E.O. 13460 for improperly benefiting from and aiding the public...assets and restricted the financial transactions of Rami Makhluf, a powerful cousin of President Bashar al Asad. Sanctions Against the
mud houses. It was not poverty , but tradition, that had put a whole family in one room.”7 For thousands of years, rural migrants were assim- ilated...predominantly poor, working class city sub- urbs. I n Ta d a m o n , a n e i g h b o r h o o d o f Damascus, people were considered criminals and homeless
Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and can be transmitted from plant to plant by several species of phloem-feeding leafhoppers. CSD is an important disorder in certain warm and arid citrus-growing areas, and its agent has been recorded from several Med...
Kabbani, Nader; Salloum, Siba
This article examines the implications for access and equity of the Syrian government's efforts to reform higher education in the country over the past decade. In the context of social and economic reforms that are moving the county from a state-controlled to a social market economy, it focuses on adequacy in financing higher education, as well as…
This article examines young Syrians' perceptions of higher education after the 2001 reforms, which expanded access to higher education and permitted the establishment of private universities. Data come from in-depth interviews conducted with 22 Syrians residing in Damascus, aged 18-32 in 2009. Analysis indicates youth are critical of the higher…
This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...
Abou zakhem, B.
Soil water movement is directly affected by the lithology and texture of soil profile. The objective of this study is to determine water movement mechanism through the unsaturated zone, by estimating the direct infiltration rate and evaporation process in Damascus Oasis, using isotope techniques. Two soil profiles were drilled using a hand-auger. Soil samples were subjected to granulometry, mineralogy, chemical and isotopic analysis. Isotopic measurements indicate that the evaporation front is located at shallow depth between 0 and 2 m. Variations in isotopic content indicate to the alternation of wet and dry periods corresponding to infiltration and evaporation processes respectively. Results show considerable difference in isotopic content between the unsaturated zone and the groundwater, which is mainly attributed to limited recharge of the aquifer through the unsaturated. Whereas the indirect groundwater recharge is considered to be more predominant. Chloride concentration correspond to stable isotopes in the unsaturated zone, it increases proportionally with the evaporation rate. Using chemical balance of Chloride, it was possible to estimate the effective recharge average rate which is ranging between 1.8 mm/y and 0.45 mm/y. The calculated mean evaporation rate according to Barnes and Allison model is 18.1 mm/y at water table level of 3 m depth. This rate decreases to 2.4 mm/y at 6 m depth. (author)
This publication is a report from the Nordic expert conference “Illicit trade in cultural artefacts. Stronger together: How can the Nordics join forces to stop the illegal import and export of cultural objects?” which was held in Oslo, 2 to 3 December 2015, following an initiative of the Nordic...
Brønd, Thomas Vladimir
This article focuses on overlooked revolutionary friendship as a primary vehicle of revolutionary politics. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork among revolutionaries of Syria’s peaceful protest movements. The article depicts how friendships emerge in revolutionary moments. It analyzes the experience...
Othman, Ibrahim; Abou Jamous, Jamal
Diffusion factor was estimated for 137 Cs in local rocks marl, limestone, and basalt. Slab activity measuring was constructed. Factors affecting the 137 Cs diffusion has been studied. These are dynamic state of water, length of contacting time and the concentration of radioisotope. (author). 9 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs
Yassine, Taufik; Mukhallalati, Ch. Heyam
The aim of this project is to develop a technique for preparation of 90 Sr- 90 Y generator, we have developed a separation technique for isolation of 90 Y from 90 Sr based on using Sr – Spec resin packed in three columns for separation and purification of 90 Sr- 90 Y .The resulting Y90 is used for therapeutic applications. The first part of this project describe a prototype design for the 90 Sr- 90 Y generator in order to get a very accurate method to obtain the minimum possible 90 Sr Breakthrough. 25 mci of 90 Sr was used in the generator 90 Sr- 90 Y and we obtained the elution yield of 90 Y higher than 88%, Also the eluate was used for preparation of several 90 Y radiopharmaceuticals such as 90 YEDTMP and 90 Y-DOTA-HR 3 . And the work is continues to investigate more radiopharmaceuticals applications in the second part of this project such as 90 Y– FHMA. In this part of the co-coordination research programmer, A protocol based on results of this studies was developed to prepare and operate a higher activity generator (50-100mci), the resulting elution yield was approximately 94% of 90 Y . The elute was used in preparation of new 90 Y radiopharmaceuticals. The monoclonal antibodies is still evolving by conjugate Rituximab to The macrocyclic bifunctional chelating agent,(p-SCN-Bn-DOTA)S-2-(4-Isothiocyanatobenzyle)-1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane-tetraaceticacid to obtain the inmunoconjugate DOTA-Rituximub in simple way and then investigating the radio labeling conditions with 90 Y. (author)
... 2012, with approximately 576,000 Syrian refugees registered in neighboring states by the end of 2012... serious threat to the personal safety of Syrian nationals if they were required to return to their country... issue new EADs with a March 31, 2015 expiration date to eligible Syrian TPS beneficiaries who timely re...
... refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict victims, food and medicine distribution, and the...-commercial development projects directly benefiting the Syrian people, including, but not limited to...
Adel, M.; Abu Daher, D.
The aim of the current study is performing an initial prostate cancer screening test using PSA and F PSA tumour markers. A total of 3000 men in 40-75 years of age were participated in this study. Demographic and clinical data for subjects were collected by the programme staff. Total PSA and free PSA assays were determined using the ImunoTech total and free PSA assay kits, based on IRMA technique (kindly provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency). Criteria for participating in this study included : 1) men of age 50-75 (men of age as low as 40 were included in case of positive family history). 2) No previous history of prostate cancer. The following parameters were followed to refer the suspicious cases to a specialized hospital specific tests: 1)PSA>3 ng/ml . 2)High PSA value according to the participant age group. 3) Low F/TPSA ratio. In the hospital the following tests were performed:1) Complete clinical exam including DRE.2)TRUS in some cases.3) Biopsy for highly suspicious cases. 4)The low suspicious cases were retested in six months. Out of 338 cases referred to a specialized hospital, 264 cases were shown prostatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),while 36 cases proved to be prostatic cancer. However, the contact was lost in 36 cases because of changing the phone number or travelling outside the country . The detection rate of prostate cancer among all participating cases in this study was 1.2%, while this ratio was 10.7% among the referred cases. F/TPSA ratio has shown a good ability to discriminate between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. (author)
Al-Charideh, A. R.
The groundwater of major karst system and the submarine springs in the Syrian coastal limestone aquifer have been studied using chemical and isotopic techniques. Stable isotopes show that the groundwater and submarine springs originates from the direct infiltration of atmospheric water. The elevation of recharge zones feeding the Banyas area (400-600 m a.s.l). The δ 18 O e xtracted for the major submarine spring at Bassieh suggests a mean recharge area elevation of 600-700 m a.s.l. Based on the measured velocity and percentage of fresh water at the submarine springs outlet (Bassieh and Tartous), the estimated discharge rate is 350 million m 3 /y. Adopting a model with exponential time distribution, the mean turnover time of groundwater in the Al-sen spring was evaluated to be 60 years. A value of about 3.7 billion m 3 was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size.(Author)
Breisinger, Clemens; Zhu, Tingju; Al Riffai, Perrihan; Nelson, Gerald; Robertson, Richard; Funes, Jose; Verner, Dorte
There is broad consensus among scientists that climate change is altering weather patterns around the world. However, economists are only beginning to develop tools that allow for the quantification of such weather changes on countries' economies and people. This paper presents a modeling suite that links the downscaling of global climate models, crop modeling, global economic modeling, and subnational-level computable equilibrium modeling. Important to note is that this approach allows for d...
The coastal karst aquifer system (Upper Cretaceous) and the submarine springs in the Syrian coast have been studied using chemical and isotopic methods in order to determine the hydraulic connections between the groundwater and the submarine springs. Results show that the groundwater and submarine springs are having the same slope on the δ 18 O/δ 2 H plot indicate the same hydrological origin for both. In addition this relation is very close to the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) reflecting a rapid infiltration of rainfall to recharge coastal aquifer. The calculated percentage of freshwater in the two locations (Bassieh and Tartous) range from 20 to 96%. The estimation rate of the permanent submarines springs (BS1, BS2 and TS2, TS3) is 11m 3 /s or 350 million m 3 /y. The maximum residence time of the groundwater in the Cenomanian/Turonian aquifer was estimated at around 8 years, using the piston-flow model. (Author)
International Relations: An Experimental Test of Cognitive Schemata, developed another theory for the study of images in international relations.8...but the inconsistency in narrative 84 generates a collective cognitive dissonance for the various audiences. As such, future policymakers
The monastery of St. Moses the Abyssinian is located about 90 km north of Damascus, in the Syrian desert mountains. Like many other monasteries, it was founded in the 5th century, but more unusually it survived the Muslim conquest and thrived through the medieval period. It comprises a complex of central buildings, and a system of cave-hermitages spread across the landscape where the monks would have actually lived. Since 2004 the monastery has been the site of fieldwork by the Royal Ontario Museum. Archaeological research at the site has so far included survey of the region to map caves and other features, especially those that help the monks survive in this desert environment; analysis of the architectural history, including assessment of the seismic history; and petrographic analysis of the ceramics to examine place of production.
needs, and refugee crisis indicates little progress is being made towards meeting these objectives. However, these reports address the symptoms and...protest in 2011by the Syrian government was the application of broad economic sanctions. In contrast to previously existing sanctions targeted at...individual people and entities, these measures affected the Syrian economy writ large and impacted all elements of Syrian society. This paper outlines
This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) face two decisive and domineering decisions when expanding across borders, namely, location and ownership decisions. The location decision involves where an MNE should locate its affiliates (i.e. a specific market or country), whereas the ownership decision involves what level of control to have over them (i.e. a wholly owned subsidiary or joint ventu...
..., including the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) (IEEPA), the National... on protestors, arrests and harassment of protestors and political activists, and repression of...)) by, to, or for the benefit of any person whose property and interests in property are blocked...
Brooks, Julia; Erickson, Timothy B.; Kayden, Stephanie; Ruiz, Raul; Wilkinson, Stephen; Burkle, Frederick M.
Background The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict poses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel, and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law—likely amounting to a war crime—for which continued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to current and future conflicts. This debate article calls upon concerned states, organizat...
John, Harald; van der Schans, Marcel J; Koller, Marianne; Spruit, Helma E T; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Noort, Daan
During the United Nations fact-finding mission to investigate the alleged use of chemical warfare agents in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2013, numerous tissues from a deceased female victim, who had displayed symptoms of cholinergic crisis, were collected. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) authorized two specialized laboratories in the Netherlands and Germany for forensic analysis of these samples. Diverse modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based procedures in combination with either liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) separation were applied. A variety of biotransformation products of the nerve agent sarin was detected, including the hydrolysis product O -isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) as well as covalent protein adducts with e.g., albumin and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE). IMPA was extracted after sample acidification by solid-phase extraction and directly analyzed by LC-tandem-MS with negative electrospray ionization (ESI). Protein adducts were found, either by fluoride-induced reactivation applying GC-MS techniques or by LC-MS-based detection after positive ESI for proteolyzed proteins yielding phosphonylated tyrosine residues or a specific phosphonylated hBChE-derived nonapeptide. These experimental results provided unambiguous evidence for a systemic intoxication and were the first proving the use of sarin in the ongoing bellicose conflict. This scenario underlines the requirement for qualified and specialized analytical laboratories to face repeated violation of the Chemical Weapons Convention.
Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Asfary, A. F.; Mukalati, H.; Hamwi, A.; Kanakri, S.
The transfer factor of Cs 137 and 90 Sr from contaminated soil (Aridisol = Yermosol according to FAO - UNESCO) to some common trees (olive, apricot, grape, pine, apple and lemon) were investigated under field condition for 3 to 6 years. There were large variation in transfer factors values among tree species, and between different parts of tree. The values in fruits for 137 Cs were: 0.011 (highest) in Apricot, 0.0071 in olive, and 0.0025 in vine, and about 0.0012 in olive oil (lowest). The mean transfer factor of 137 Cs in the one year old leaves and stems, ranged between 0.011 and 0.0093 in lemon (highest) and 0.0016 and 0.0015 in pine (lowest). The transfer factor values of 90 Sr were much higher than that of 137 Cs, they were in fruits: 0.13 in apricot, 0.093 in olive, and 0.075 in vine and 0.0053 in olive oil. The transfer factors values of 90 Sr ranged in one year old leaves between 2.89 (apple) and 0.1 (pine), while they ranged in one year old stems between 1.91 (apricot) and 0.16 (pine). The transfer factor of both 137 Cs and 90 Sr decrease in most trees parts with time especially in the one year old leaves, due to aging effects. The transfer factor values of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were lower than that reported for other areas. This might be due to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, where the soil used had a loamy clay structure with high ph (7.8) and high CEC (25.9 meq/100g), exchangeable potassium (1.6 meq/100g) and calcium (14.9 meq/100g), further more, climatic condition in the area, like high light intensity, high temperature and low air humidity, can lead to decrease the uptake of both 137 Cs and 90 Sr. (Authors)
Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.
The primary objectives of this study were to determine the hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater and to study vertical transport processes for trace elements through the unsaturated zone, from the surface water into the groundwater system. A third objective is to identifying the importance of the unsaturated zone in protecting groundwater from contamination. Distribution of trace elements, including Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn and As in the soil with depth were studied. Mineralogy was investigated using X-Ray diffraction techniques and granulometry in three drilled soil profile (KA, KB and KS) in Damascus Oasis, which indicated that the soil consists mainly of calcite, a mineral that has the ability to bind some of the trace elements. Measurement of nitrate concentrations in groundwater permitted an investigation of the urban, industrial and agricultural pollution in the Oasis, in particular, in the eastern part of Damascus city and in the north of Oasis where the irrigation by treated wastewater is applied. Depending on the chemical characteristics of the studied trace elements and soil conditions, these elements have high concentrations in the upper part of the soil (20-30 cm depth), due to absorption by clay minerals and organic matter. These high concentrations represent pollution by leather industries (tannery) in the area. The trace element concentrations decrease towards the east in parallel with river flow direction. The lower part of profiles show low trace element concentrations, below the international permitted limit. The low concentrations of trace elements in groundwater which are also below the international limit, indicates no pollution is presented. The isotopic composition of shallow groundwater indicates the underground recharge, originated from the Anti-Lebanon Mountain, is more significant than the direct recharge through unsaturated zone. It is concluded the unsaturated zone and the decrease of groundwater levels have played an important role in groundwater protection from heavy metals pollution. (author)
Diab, Maria M.; Taftaf, Rokana M. O.; Arabi, Mohammad
Context: Scientific research output measured by the number and quality of publications reflects the research productivity of a certain community. Aims: To examine the quantity and quality of research produced by Syrian institutions with particular emphasis on the clinical and biomedical research. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational analysis of research originating from Syrian institutions indexed by Medline and Science Citation Index (SciVerse) Scopus bibliographic databases. Mat...
DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. i DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the...Sale to Malaysia .” Arms Control Today, September 2003. http://www.armscontrol.org/node/3270 (accessed January 13, 2009). “Russian Arms Sales: A
Radioactive characteristics of pits drilled in the AL-Sharquieh mine while prospecting for recent phosphatic resources have been investigated. The results indicate that phosphatic layers are characterized generally by high radioactive intensities (more than 800 c.p.s). The lithological section in the study area is very complex sedimentologically, and characterized by high faciological variation in all directions. The Schlumberger geoelectrical configuration with fine separation of AB/2 was successfully applied to determine lithological boundaries, and the resistivities of the layers of the lithological section, especially for thin layers. It was shown that the phosphatic layer resistivities increase or decrease as a function of associated material. As a result, two types of phosphatic layers have been geo-electrically distinguished. The first is characterized by high resistivity and relatively low radioactivity, which could be related to the rock phosphatic layers. The second is characterized by low resistivities and high radioactivity, which could be related to the sandy phosphatic layers. (author)
Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Capitanio, Fabian; Adinolfi, Felice
Dynamics and transitions in the agricultural sector of emerging countries are not well understood yet. A decade of major political and economic changes is challenging the Mediterranean Economies, affecting the primary sectors of transition economies which are largely influenced by recent trends. The resulting exposure of agriculture to risks has called great attention on risk management strategies and public intervention. We explore their role in three different economies with a view to a uni...
Seeds from the net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) susceptible cultivar Thibaut were treated by gamma ray radiation and subsequently evaluated for reaction to the pathogen in the M2-M5 generations. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of putative mutants were compared with Thibaut in two different locations. Genetic variation among some mutant lines/cv Thibaut was estimated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Sixteen mutant lines and their mother cultivar Thibaut were analyzed with 14 EcoR1-Mse1 primer combinations. A total number of 504 AFLP bands were analyzed for each pair mutant/Thibaut. Narrow genetic variation among all genotypes was detected with an average of genetic similarity of 0.96. Cluster analysis with the entire AFLP data divided all genotypes into two major groups. The resistant mutant lines were grouped in one subcluster with 0.98 similarity index. Some resistant mutant lines to net blotch with good agronomic performances were produced [it
Full Text Available A partir de mayo de 2011 la Unión Europea ha llevado a cabo una de las operaciones más sofisticadas sobre sanciones en apoyo de las protestas contra el régimen político de Siria. El presente artículo examina las medidas autorizadas por la Unión Europea, su impacto esperado y las implicaciones para sus relaciones con sus socios globales. Aunque hayan quedado seriamente debilitadas por la falta de apoyo de Rusia, las sanciones están teniendo un impacto económico visible. No obstante, las medidas escogidas no son las más adecuadas para detener el derramamiento de sangre. Las sanciones han servido también para redefinir las asociaciones con otras potencias, tanto en Oriente Medio como a nivel global.
Al-Masri, M.S.; Haddad, Kh.
Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from four major Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas. 210 Pb and 210 Po were the main NORM radionuclides detected in the fly and bottom ash. 210 Pb activity concentrations have reached 3393 ± 10 Bq kg −1 and 4023 ± 7 Bq kg −1 in fly ash and bottom ash, respectively; lower values of 210 Po were observed due to its high volatility. In addition, 210 Po and 210 Pb annual emissions in bottom ash from mixed (heavy oil and natural gas) fired power plants varied between 2.7 × 10 9 –7.95 × 10 9 Bq and 3.5 × 10 9 –10 10 Bq, respectively; higher emissions of 210 Po and 210 Pb from gas power plants being observed. However, the present study showed that 210 Po and 210 Pb emissions from thermal power plants fired by natural gas are much higher than the coal power plants operated in the World. - Highlights: ► NORM have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas. ► 210 Pb and 210 Po were the main NORM radionuclides detected in the fly and bottom ash. ► 210 Po and 210 Pb annual emissions from these power plants were estimated.
This paper analyzes the role of the judiciary in Syria’s strongly authoritarian setting wherein ‘the rule by law’ serves as a tool of repression; qualities that have far-reaching implications for foreign assistance programs on judicial reform, the rule of law and reform generally. Firstly, the paper
Chemical and environmental isotopes have been used for studying the Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the Middle Orontes basin. The results indicate that the salinity of groundwater (0.2 to 2 g/l) reveals the dissolution of evaporate rocks is the main factor of high salinity especially in the Homes depression. The degree of salinity and its spaces distribution are basically related to the pattern of groundwater movement in the Upper cretaceous aquifer. The stable isotopes composition of groundwater in the Homes depression are more depleted by -2.5% and -17.0% for δ 18 O and δ 2 H respectively, than the groundwater from Hama elevation, suggested different origin and recharge time between this two groundwater groups. Estimates of their mean subsurface residence times have been constrained on the basis of 14 C D IC. The corrected ages of groundwater are recent and less to 10 thousand years in Hama uplift. However, the corrected age of groundwater in the Homs depression range between 10 to 25 thousand years indicate late Pleistocene recharge period. (author)
candidates born certain long-term -issues of security policy over the in Asia or Africa among the first 40 on its list. The past few years; and-(3) a...and North Africa : A B.?iographi cal Dictionary (New House, 1984). York, Westport, Connecticut, and London. Greenwood Press, Simon, Menill. Moshe...that, however, they have not conflit ,-the Maronites were constantly accused by registered any military successes to justify much their opponents of
Hainoun, A.; Seif Aldin, M.; Almoustafa, S.
An optimal long-term energy supply strategy has been formulated based on minimizing the total system costs for the entire study period 2003-2030. The national energy chain was modelled covering all energy levels and conversion technologies. The results indicate that the primary energy will grow at annual average rate of 4.8% arriving 68 Mtoe in 2030. The total installed electric capacity will be optimally expanded from 6885 to 19500 MW in 2030. Furthermore, to ensure supply security the future national energy system will rely mainly upon oil and natural gas (NG) with limited contribution of renewables and nuclear to the end of study period. The share of NG will increase gradually up to 2020 and then retreat. Owing to the continuous decrease of oil production, oil export is expected to vanish in 2012 and the country will import about 63% of its primary energy demand in 2030. Thus, the expected long-term development of national energy sector indicates a hard challenge for the future national economy. The employing of sensitivity analysis clarifies the importance of wind turbines operation time and discount rate. The analysis proves that nuclear option is insensitive to overnight cost increase up to 85% of the reference case value.
Full Text Available This study aims to explore impact of managerial human capital in performance of a Syrian public organization, Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus, through use some of managerial characteristics are age, level of education, tenure and functional track. This study applied on a sample of 12 managers and 138 employees. The study reveals that there are no significant effect of age, level of education and functional track in performance of Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus, while there is a positive, strong and significant effect of tenure manager in organizational performance, which indicates that managerial characteristics almost irrelevant with performance of Directorate of Finance of the province of Damascus, and the public sector in general. Such results appear a need for efforts are invested in the formulation and implementation of human resource procedures and policies which can bring about effective change in behaviours and roles of the public managers and employees.
Brønd, Thomas Vladimir
This article focuses on overlooked revolutionary friendship as a primary vehicle of revolutionary politics. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork among revolutionaries of Syria’s peaceful protest movements. The article depicts how friendships emerge in revolutionary moments. It analyzes the experience...... of friendship as a primary locus for revolutionary politics and as part of social transformations, which often occur during war and revolutions. Drawing on the anthropology of friendship and social theory, I demonstrate how new zones of social gravity were created in beautiful friendships challenging the neo...
Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl
quantitative and qualitative content analysis aimed at identifying patterns of news reporting of the Arab Spring. The investigation looks into whether temporal developments of the Arab revolutions, the level of journalistic presence in the region, and national differences influence Danish press coverage...... patterns persist, not least in relation to media perceptions of Islam and democracy, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the ability to reform the Arab world from the inside....
Full Text Available The number of European foreign fighters with a jihadist political agenda participating in the Syrian civil war has increased exponentially over the past months and has become an ever-growing concern for European policymakers. It is particularly the possibility that returned foreign fighters have radicalised that makes them a potential threat – if only to themselves and their direct surroundings. In this Research Paper, Edwin Bakker, Christophe Paulussen and Eva Entenmann examine some of the challenges, as well as possible strategies and legal mechanisms available for European policymakers to address the foreign fighters phenomenon. It first assesses the complex threat (potentially posed by returning mujahidin to Europe’s security. The Research Paper then outlines some of the risk assessment and governance challenges that European policymakers, governments and legal practitioners face in relation to (potential foreign jihadi fighters and returnees. Prosecution via international crimes will be analysed before turning to specific national practices. Here, the Research Paper focuses on a few European states that have a considerable number of departing foreign fighters as estimated by their own intelligence services: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the UK. The Research Paper concludes with a series of recommendations.
Full Text Available The significance of women as both distributors and recipients has been pivotal to the implementation of humanitarian assistance but also points to the burgeoning of a new social dynamic that has come about as a result of the upheaval caused by the war.
agendas in semi- anarchic conditions. The US struggled for more than seven years to win by re-stabilizing Iraq’s social system, illustrating the...Chicago Press, 2012 ). 15 Simpson, Emile, War from the Ground Up: Twenty-First Century Combat as Politics (New York, NY: Columbia University Press...JP-1, 1-3. 29 JP-1, 1-6. 18 Third, JP-1 largely assumes that actors are unified entities. However, the publica - tion hints that divisions within
independence during the 1820s in the name of self-determination. Ernest Hemingway and George Orwell supported Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War...municipality under Spanish rule, but on the north coast of Africa, makes it a comfortable recruitment hub from a logistical and operational perspective...networks may be related. If, in the past, information and communication were based on direct interaction, today’s technological landscape provides
William Henry Irvine Shakespeare, “We Wahhabis hate the Turks only less than we hate the Persians for the infidel practices which they have imported into...promise anyone anything to obtain it—London earned the title ‘perfidious Albion,’ or the concept that the British never did anything for their colonial...propaganda in the Levant and Mesopotamia to demonstrate the intentions of the infidel Allies to occupy Muslim lands. The last 18 months of the war
This paper reports on a longitudinal phenomenographic inquiry into understanding how two postgraduate Syrian students' ways of approaching English language learning in their homelands influenced the shape of their personal study abroad goals, language strategy use and L2 identity. It is guided by Norton's [(2013). "Identity and language…
The water in the fissured basalt aquifer system, the Upper Jurassic aquifer of the Yarmouk Basin and the atmospheric precipitation have been investigated using chemical and environmental isotope techniques. The groundwaters flowing through the different aquifers are differentiated by their chemical ratios and their isotopic compositions. The evolution of chemical facies of groundwater from the recharge area towards the basin outlet is characterized by increasing of sodium and magnesium contents as a result of silicate leaching. The stable isotope compositions of precipitation and mountainous spring waters match the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line, while the groundwaters from the central zone and from the major springs of the Yarmouk Basin are mixtures of freshwater, which is isotopically depleted and salty groundwater of Laja plateau area. The interpretations of tritium and radiocarbon ( 14 C) data indicate that the recharge zones of the groundwater in the Yarmouk Basin occur on the high-land of more than 1000 m of altitude. The residence time of the mountainous springs is short (of about 40 years or less). However, water ages corrected by Vogel's concept and Gonfiantini's Model show, in general, a range from 1000 to 11000 years for the central zone groundwater. The groundwater moves from the Mt. Hermon and Mt. Arab towards the central zone and from the north-east (i.e. the Laja plateau) towards south-west (i.e. the major springs). The radiometric flow velocities range from 20 to 60 m/year within the central zone, while the flow velocities from both sides of Mt. Hermon and Mt. Arab are lower (1-7 m/year). (author). 43 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs
Al Saadi, Tareq; Zaher Addeen, Sarah; Turk, Tarek; Abbas, Fatima; Alkhatib, Mahmoud
Medical education can be a time of great psychological distress for students. The ongoing Syrian conflict represents an additional factor potentially contributing to poor mental health among medical students. Studies revealed high levels of psychological distress among Syrians. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among medical students at Damascus University during this period of war. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in addition to questions about demographic and financial characteristics, and questions about the effects of the ongoing war on the participants' lives. 350 students were included. Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 60.6%, 35.1%, and 52.6%, respectively. Depression was more likely in females and those with "intermediate" or "insufficient" personal income. Anxiety was more likely in females and those with "insufficient" personal income while less likely in fifth- and sixth-year compared to second-year students. Stress was lower in fifth-year compared to second-year students and higher in "insufficient" personal income compared to "sufficient" personal income. We concluded that Syrian medical students suffer from high rates of psychological distress. Females, second-year students, and those with "insufficient" personal income were the most affected. Students' perception of their own financial status, rather than the financial status per se was related to psychological distress. There was no evidence of a direct relationship between the ongoing conflict and psychological distress. Further investigations of causes and consequences of poor mental health in Syrian medical students are essential.
Karakoç, Zehra Çağla; Tüzüner, Bora Mete; Ergonul, Onder; Pierro, Anna; Di Fonzo, Eugenio; Koruk, İbrahim; Sambri, Vittorio
We described the serological prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) antibodies among the human population in a historical and strategic region of Turkey. A serologic survey was conducted based on suspected cases in April, 2009, in the Mesopotamia region of Turkey, in the villages that were located alongside the Zergan River. All the sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA (Euroimmune™), and the positive samples were tested by immunofluorescent assay (IFA; Euroimmune™). As confirmation, neutralizing antibodies against WNV were tested by microneutralization assay (MNTA). In total, 307 individuals were included. The MNTA test was found to be positive among 52 individuals out of 307 (17%). In multivariate analysis, age >50 [odds ratio (OR)=5.2, confidence interval (CI) 2.76-9.97, p<0.001) and being in an occupational risk group (OR=2.02, CI 1.02-4.04, p=0.044) were found to be the risk factors for WNV seropositivity with the MNTA test. The physicians in the region should be aware of the risk of WNV infection and should be alerted to detect the clinical cases.
http://www.lexisnexis.com.libproxy.nps.edu/hottopics/lnacademic> [April 8, 2015]. 73 See Hugh Macleod, Annasofie Flamand, and Rami Aysha, “Iraq...www.cnn.com/interactive/2015/04/us/americans-isis. Aysha, Rami , Hugh Macleod, and Annasofie Flamand. “Iraq-style chaos looms as foreign jihadists
..., software, and technology, including, but not limited to, those related to water supply and sanitation... not limited to, commodities, software, and technology related to water supply and sanitation... related to water supply and sanitation, agricultural production and food processing, power generation, oil...
... Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering...-money laundering program requirement; (viii) A broker or dealer in securities registered, or required to... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special measures against Commercial...
An illustrated Arabic treatise, with an English translation and detailed commentary, on the construction of over 100 various astronomical instruments, many of which are otherwise unknown to specialists. It was composed by Najm al-Din al-Misri, a rather shadowy figure, in Cairo around 1330 CE.
Abou Zakhem, Boulos; Kattaa, Bassam
The effects of climate change and overexploitation are being strongly perceived in the studied area and the springs discharge is obviously affected. In this paper, Ras El Ain spring discharge and precipitation were analyzed by normalized methods on an yearly timescale. The deficit of Ras El Ain spring discharge due to overexploitation factors and drought effects was estimated. Cumulative drought analyses were carried out using SPI10 and SQI10. Finally, the decreasing trends of the spring discharge due to the deficiency in rainfall were analyzed. The main results reveal that the annual mean deficit of Ras El Ain spring discharge due to overpumping was between 32 and 45%, whereas, annual mean deficit related to drought was between 22 and 35% on average, during the last 30 years (post-1984). The moving averages of SPI and SQI delineate very well the drought periods during last three decades. The cumulative droughts using SPI10 and SQI10 reveal that wet period (pre-1984) with positive values was characterized by high precipitation and spring discharge. Overexploitation period (1984-1989) is distinguished by decreasing SQI10 values whereas, SPI10 is almost stable. The response of the karst system to the precipitation signal has been changed, during the drought period (1990-2000), and the spring behaviour has been modified due to the first overexploitation period. Finally, overexploitation period (2001-2008) is related to the second phase of groundwater intensive pumping for irrigation purposes. Consequently, this period is completely catastrophic causing the drying up of the spring. The decreasing trends analyzed using DPI and DQI showed annual decreasing rates relative to the mean values of -0.268% and -0.105%, respectively. Thus, the results of theoretical model reveal that precipitation will decrease by about DPI = -20.7% and the discharge will decline by about -9.2% by 2050. Consequently, the declining discharge due to climatic variation under natural conditions as pre-1984 was about 10%. Whereas, the catastrophic drying up of the spring was probably the consequence of the anthropogenic effects. Accordingly, it requires the development of sustainable water resources management program to reduce long-term drought risks, restore the groundwater reservoir and minimize the overexploitation effects on spring discharge.
Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa
The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Safaa Abdulwahab Ismaeel
Full Text Available ?���� Weightlifting sport is one of the important sport field that get rise interesting from coaches and careers and researchers, because it's one of the Olympics event. In view of the specialist of its requirement like the fast movement and pull of the weight in fastest it's possible that for the motion analysis is needed and the main way to determine , analyses and correction the good and weak points. The aim of this study is to put a modern aspects in Motion analysis field that more accuracy considering the individual differences in performance.
Safaa Abdulwahab Ismaeel; Ali Shaboot Alsoodani
?���� Weightlifting sport is one of the important sport field that get rise interesting from coaches and careers and researchers, because it's one of the Olympics event. In view of the specialist of its requirement like the fast movement and pull of the weight in fastest it's possible that for the motion analysis is needed and the main way to determine , analyses and correction the good and weak points. The aim of this study is to put a modern aspects in Motion analysis field that more accura...
Safaa Abdulwahab Ismaeel
Full Text Available Weightlifting sport is one of the important sport field that get rise interesting from coaches and careers and researchers, because it's one of the Olympics event. In view of the specialist of its requirement like the fast movement and pull of the weight in fastest it's possible that for the motion analysis is needed and the main way to determine , analyses and correction the good and weak points. The aim of this study is to put a modern aspects in Motion analysis field that more accuracy considering the individual differences in performance.
Host 1 million Syrian Refugees by 2014,” Hurriyet Daily News, June 21, 2013. 6 Armin Rosen, “Turkey’s Camps Can’t Expand Fast Enough for All the New...Booth and Loveday Morris, “Alleged Chemical Attack Leaves One Family Reel- ing,” Washington Post, August 26, 2013. 2 Loveday Morris and Ahmed Ramadan ...Loveday, and Ahmed Ramadan , “Blasts Kill at Least 27 in Lebanon,” Washington Post, August 24, 2013, p. A1. Mueller, Karl P., Jeffrey Martini, and
The present study is aimed at characterizing the subsurface geological and tectonic structure in Deir El-Adas area, by using Vertical Electrical Sounding survey (VES) and hydrogeological investigations, in order to determine the causes of the failure for the majority of the wells drilled in the area. The survey data was treated in three different approaches including direct VES inversion, pseudo-2D method and horizontal profiling, in order to maximize the reliability of the data interpretation. The results revealed the presence of a local faulted anticline structure at the top of the Paleogene formation, underneath the basaltic outcrops where Deir El-Adas village is situated. The appearance of this subsurface anticline structure has complicated the local hydro-geological situation, and most likely led to limitation of the groundwater recharge in the area. Moreover, the performed piezometric and discharge maps indicated the presence of a notable groundwater watershed, in addition to feeble water productivity of the wells drilled adjacent to Deir El-Adas, mostly related to the subsurface geological and tectonic settings in the area.
Cleary, Jessica E.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The growing and persistent nature of today's protracted refugee situations pose significant threats to the host countries and regions that support these vulnerable people. While stateless, refugees fall under the protection of the international community and its laws. However, it is the effects of state policy that actually shape the living conditions and the opportunities available for refugees, and in turn influence the security re...
The feasibility of using gamma irradiation and sulfur dioxide to control post-harvest diseases and to extend shelf life of table grapes in cold storage (1-2 C deg) was studied using two local varieties of grapes (Baladi and Helwani). The experiment was conducted for two years (1995 and 1996). In the first year, the clusters of both varieties were subjected to one of the following treatments: Irradiation with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy of gamma rays, sulfur dioxide (3 g Na 2 S 2 O 5 / 5 Kg clusters) or combination of both 1.0 KGy of gamma irradiation and sulfur dioxide. In the second year, two additional doses were applied: 0.1 and 0.25 KGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 KGy for Baladi. Clusters of both var. were treated with combined treatments (1.5 KGy and sulfur dioxide for Baladi) and (0.5 KGy and sulfur dioxide for Helwani). Treated and untreated clusters were kept in cold storage (temperature, 1 to 2 C deg). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every two and four weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. With the exception of Helwani var. produced in the first year and treated with sulfur dioxide, the results indicated that separate application of sulfur dioxide and gamma radiation reduced the rotting induced by (B. cinerea) and improved the storability of both varieties. Gamma irradiation in combination with sulfur dioxide preserved the two varieties of table grapes. (author)
Kattan, Z.; Naser, R.; Al-Fares, W.; Kadkoy, N.; Sbenati, M.R.; Al-Hilal, M.; Sleman, I.; Al-Ali, A.
Different techniques such as: hydrochemistry, environmental isotopes, radon and geophysical surveys have been applied all together in investigating the water leakages from the Afamia (A, B and C) dams during the period 2006-2008. Groundwater movement in this area shows the existence of two major discharge cones or sinks in the vicinity of B and C reservoirs. This movement suggests a probable vertical leaking and interconnection between the shallow Neogene aquifer and the deeper Karstified water bearing system of the Upper Cretaceous. Spatial distribution patterns of major ions in the groundwater provided comprehensive arguments for the existence of an active dissolution zone of calcareous rocks at a depth of about 45 m below the land surface, facilitating hence the vertical penetration of stored surface water towards the Cretaceous aquifer. The remarkable contrasts in stable isotope compositions between the depleted and highly enriched waters nearby the B reservoir provide another support for water leaks by vertical penetration beneath or very close to the B dam body. The high radon values in the soils, linearly distributed along some tectonic lineaments, may indicate the usefulness of radon method for tracing and mapping unknown faults. Application of some selected geophysical methods (electromagnetic survey, vertical geoelectric sounding and tomography plates) revealed the presence of alternating lithological heterogeneity between permeable and impermeable layers, which may lead to subhorizontal infiltration through the geological formations of the basin. Vertical leakage which could take place in certain locations via existing faults and karst and fractures that hit the main valley may pass through the dam lake. This structure is most likely causing hydraulic connections between the superficial Neogene deposits and the underlying Cretaceous fractured and permeable carbonates rocks. The presence of clayey and silty zones, mostly of high electrical conductivity values along the B reservoir valley reflects also a possible vertical penetration. Although the Afamia B dam was constructed in a site quite rich in archeological ruins (old water canals, domestic wells and plenty of old graves from the Roman civilization) a number of disconnected tectonic lineaments were noticed in the main stream valley in form of short faults or fractures. Such lineaments have been practically confirmed by several vertical and horizontal trenches that were carried out in some sites. The gained experience in dam's leakage assessment proved the importance of the integral use of isotopes and geophysical techniques in this domain, mainly for the subsurface characterization of lithological and hydrogeological features. These methods, which represent a useful promising tool for solving a large number of geoengineering problems, offer further encouragement to continue similar activities in other dam sites for better managements of water resources in the country.(author)
Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj
Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
.... Apart from exaggerating the scarcity of water resources and the likelihood of war, the major flaw of these assessments is that they just identify and do not solve the problem of water scarcity...
Unity is Strength – this was the core statement made by Syrian freemasons already in 1876 when spreading their ideas all over the Syrian lands. With this phrase in mind, in this book Dorothe Sommer analyses early masonic lodges that existed in the late Ottoman Empire showing how Syrian freemasons
Abdullah Azzam—recruited, trained, and financed thousands of foreign mujahideen, or holy warriors, from more than fifty countries. AQ seeks to rid Muslim...organization. The organization describes the captivity and enslavement of women and children “ infidels ” as an expected result of the invasion of new lands...YouTube and Instagram for financing and fundraising. It utilized social media to attract and direct funding to buy weapons, pay salaries, improve
Full Text Available El presente artículo describe los restos de dos especies poco habituales, el castor y el elefante, descubiertas entre los restos de las matanzas de dos yacimientos prehistóricos del río Khabur en el noroeste de Siria. En la acttualidad la región se caracteriza por una vegetación muy degradada y un entorno estepario que contrasta de forma aguda con las demandas biológicas de ambas razas de animales : abundantes fuentes acuíferas y una vegetación rica y diversa. La investigaciones arqueobotánicas realizadas en la región de Khabur y la existencia de otras especies de mamíferos con necesidades medioambientales similares apoyan la idea de que durante los dos milenios A.C. existío allí un entorno más generoso. Además se analiza la cuestión de si el exceso de caza, la gran demanda de marfil y/o la destrucción del entorno natural provocaron la desaparición de estas especies "clave".
which included the licensing of wells and regulating drilling procedures.128 Violation of such laws was supposed to be punishable with fine and prison ... prisoners . This period, known as the “Damascus Spring” saw a precipitous growth of civil society organizations and protest that caught the newly-minted...local manufacturing firms.95 Archaic laws that had previously made the possession of and trading in foreign currency punishable by law were revoked
B. Hansmann; I. Bashour; R. Bachour; K. Jouni; C. Estephan; A. AL-Ouda; A. Kassam
Conservation Agriculture (CA), comprising minimum or no mechanical soil disturbance through no-till seeding, organic soil mulch cover, and crop diversification is now practiced on some 157 million ha worldwide, corresponding to about 11% of the global cropped land. CA adoption in the Middle-East is low compared to other regions. Lack of knowledge on CA practices and systems discourages farmers from giving up ploughing. The main reason why farmers in the Middle-East have begun to apply the no-...
Hornez, E; Ramiara, P; Mocellin, N; Bajard, X; Legoudeveze, S; Charpail, C; Ollat, D
In August 2012, the Zaatari refugee camp was opened in Jordan under the auspices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. France deployed there a surgical facility to treat victims of war trauma. After a phase of intensive care and resuscitation, surgical management meeting the current standards of war surgery was conducted. Then, patients were transferred to a Jordanian civilian hospital or stayed in the Zaatari camp. A retrospective analysis of patient data was performed. From January to March 2013, 95 patients were managed: 85% of patients were male with a median age of 27 years (4-65); 5% of patients were <18 years of age. All patients were Syrian, civilian or members of the "Free Syrian Army." Penetrating trauma accounted for 95% of lesions. A total of 105 surgeries were performed, including: 33 external fixators, 8 laparotomies, 8 nerve repairs, 6 cover flaps, 4 direct arterial repairs, 2 reversed saphenous vein bypass grafts, and 1 amputation. The median length of stay on the wards was 3.71 days; 43% of patients were transferred to Jordanian civilian hospitals. The presence at the Zaatari camp of a surgical facility, which is experienced and specialized in war surgery, is essential, as long as battles are ongoing. Many victims will later require long-term surgical care for the management of the sequelae associated with these traumas.
... International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-06). In the Order, the President took additional...; POB Lattakia, Syria; Minister of Transport (individual) [SYRIA]. 4. SHUKRI KURDI, Fuad; DOB 1953; POB...; POB Aleppo, Syria; Minister of Economy and Foreign Trade (individual) [SYRIA]. 7. AL-JLEILATI...
The Stomoxyini are obligate blood feeders and several members of the tribe, especially Stomoxys and Haematobia, are major pests of domestic livestock causing billions of U.S. dollars in damages annually. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the spec...
Bakraji, E.H., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Archaeometry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P. O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Rihawy, M.S. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P. O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Castel, C. [CNRS – Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée, Laboratoire “Archéorient”, CNRS/Université Lumière-Lyon 2 (France); Abboud, R. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P. O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)
Highlights: •PIXE and OSL methods were used to classify and date pottery from Tell Al-Rawda site. •Three groups were classified using PIXE, which suggest different sources of the clay. •OSL was used for dating the site and the date found was consistent with typology. -- Abstract: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been utilised to study 48 Syrian ancient pottery fragments taken from excavations at Tell Al-Rawda site. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, and Pb) were determined. The elements concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, to classify the pottery where one main group and other two small groups were defined. In addition, four samples from different places on the site were subjected to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The average age obtained using a single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol was found to be 4350 ± 240 year.
The Middle Cretaceous lamprophyric diatremes of the Jabel Ansaria Ridge contain xenoliths of ancient lower crustal rocks mainly represented by the suite of partly altered garnet granulite and eclogite-like rocks, which were formed at the expense of ferrogabbros and ferroclinopyroxenites most likely in the course of underplating of Fe-Ti basalt. Garnet (Alm26Grs11Py63) megacrysts and coarse-granular garnet-clinopyroxene intergrowths are most likely the varieties of rocks of this series. Garnet megacrysts are represented by large (up to 10 cm in diameter) round "nodules," often molten from the surface. Garnet is usually fractured, and the kelyphite material similar to that in rocks of the eclogite-granulite series occurs in fractures. In addition, we found several intergrowths of garnet with large (up to 3-5 cm in length) crystals of high-Al augite with the low of Ti and Na contents like in rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite. Coarse-grained garnet-clinopyroxene-hornblende rocks with spinel, as well as megacrysts of Al-Ti augite with kaersutite, form the second group in prevalence. This group is close to mantle xenoliths of the "black series" in alkali Fe-Ti basalt worldwide. Kaersutite in these rocks contains gaseous cavities, which provides evidence for the origin of rocks at the expense of a strongly fluidized melt/fluid. In contrast to rocks of the eclogite-granulite series, these rocks did not undergo alteration. Garnet Alm19-26Grs12-13.5Py59-67.5 usually associates with dark opaque spinel. In contrast, the Late Cenozoic plateaubasalts of the region practically do not contain lower crustal xenoliths, whereas xenoliths of mantle spinel lherzolite (fragments of the upper cooled rim of the plume head) are widely abundant. According to data of mineralogical thermobarometry, rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite were formed at 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths of 45-54 km) and 965-1115°C. Rocks of this suite are typical representatives of the continental lower crust. Formation of clinopyroxene-hornblende rocks (analogs of the "black series" of mantle xenoliths in basalt) occurred at close P-T parameters: 12.6 kbar, 1100°C. Judging from the absence of deformations in the rocks, their parental melts were intruded into the stabilized lower crust. Hence, it follows that the ancient continental lower crust existed there in the mid-Cretaceous, but in the Late Cenozoic it was replaced by the spreading mantle plume head. In other words, the deep structure of the region was reconstructed radically in the Late Cenozoic, and only the uppermost horizon of the ancient lithosphere (sialic crust) was not changed. According to the geological and petrological data, the heads of mantle plumes reached the base of the upper sialic crust, and the level of the lower crust of the continents (30-40 km) is optimal for abundant adiabatic melting of the mantle plume head. If this level was not reached, melting was limited, and an excess of volatile components appeared, which resulted in the formation of lamprophyric and even kimberlitic diatremes. The work was supported by grant RFBR # 14-05-00468 and Project of ONZ RAS # 8.
This study aimed to describe the development and evaluation of an outreach dental public health (DPH) programme in Damascus University, in terms of developing undergraduates' required knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA), improving the quality aspects of training and assessment (T&A), and achieving the satisfaction of served children and their social network. The outreach DPH programme offered opportunities to undergraduates to carry out outreach health-promotion activities, conduct and communicate the results of applied DPH research, and build partnership with students in other higher education sectors. A cross-sectional evaluation collected mixed qualitative and quantitative data, by a means of a short-essay and a self-completed questionnaire, from 400 third-year dental undergraduates, on KSA gained from outreach activities and quality aspects of T&A. The latter were compared with corresponding figures of other traditional dental programmes (TDP). Satisfaction with the outreach activities were collected from 215 children with special needs and 130 parents and school staff, by questionnaires. The response rates were 74.8%, 100% and 100% for undergraduates, children and parents/school staff, respectively. The derived categories of students' gained KSA included the following: unique clinical skills, social responsibility, voluntarism, communication, team working, personal growth, reflection on career aspirations and self-satisfaction with the contribution to needy groups. Their satisfaction with quality aspects of T&A was significantly higher than TDP (P < 0.001). Children's and parents/school staff's satisfaction was high. The outreach DPH programme in Damascus University is a successful example of developing undergraduates' required KSA, improving the quality aspects of T&A, and achieving the satisfaction of served community. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz; Bialon, Marta
Fifty-nine dental non-metric traits were scored using Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System on a sample of teeth from 350 human skeletons excavated at three sites in the lower middle Euphrates valley. The dataset was divided into six chronological subsets: Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Early Iron Age with Neo-Assyrian period, Classical/Late Antiquity, Early Islamic (Umayyad and Abbasid) period and Modern period. The matrix of Mean Measure of Divergence values exhibited temporal homogeneity of the sample with only dental non-metric trait scores in the Modern subset differing significantly from most other subsets. Such a result suggests that no major gene flow occurred in the middle Euphrates valley between the 3rd millennium BCE and the early 2nd millennium CE. Only after the Mongolian invasion and large depopulation of northern Mesopotamia in the 13th century CE a major population change occurred when the area was taken over in the 17th century by Bedouin tribes from the Arabian Peninsula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
The distinguished American academic Raymond Hinnebusch, Director of the Centre for Syrian Studies and Professor of International Relations and Middle East Politics at the University of St. Andrews (UK...
Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Schlüter, Benjamin; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Lillywhite, Louis; Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
Since March, 2011, the Syrian civil war has lowered life expectancy by as much as 20 years. We describe demographic, spatial, and temporal patterns of direct deaths of civilians and opposition combatants from conflict-related violence in 6 years of war. We analysed conflict-related violent deaths with complete information on date, place, and cause of death and demographic group occurring from March 18, 2011, to Dec 31, 2016, recorded by the Violation Documentation Center (VDC). We included civilian and combatant deaths in all Syrian governorates, excluding government-controlled areas. We did not include detainees and missing persons, nor deaths from siege conditions or insufficient medical care. We categorised deaths based on VDC weapon type. We used χ 2 testing to compare deaths from different weapons in civilian men, women, boys, and girls and adult and child combatants. We analysed deaths by governorate and over time. The VDC recorded 143 630 conflict-related violent deaths with complete information between March 18, 2011, and Dec 31, 2016. Syrian civilians constituted 101 453 (70·6%) of the deaths compared with 42 177 (29·4%) opposition combatants. Direct deaths were caused by wide-area weapons of shelling and air bombardments in 58 099 (57·3%) civilians, including 8285 (74·6%) civilian women and 13 810 (79·4%) civilian children, and in 4058 (9·6%) opposition combatants. Proportions of children among civilian deaths increased from 8·9% (388 of 4254 civilian deaths) in 2011 to 19·0% (4927 of 25 972) in 2013 and to 23·3% (2662 of 11 444) in 2016. Of 7566 deaths from barrel bombs, 7351 (97·2%) were civilians, of whom 2007 (27·3%) were children. Of 20 281 deaths by execution, 18 747 (92·4%) were civilians and 1534 (7·6%) were opposition combatants. Compared with opposition child soldiers who were male (n=333), deaths of civilian male children (n=11 730) were caused more often by air bombardments (39·2% vs 5·4%, pwar crime. None. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
with Pakistan and Iraq. Next, the administration encouraged France to supply only Caramel fuel (uranium enriched only 20-25 percent) to Iraq. 30-31...1977 (France) Israeli Ambassador to Paris, Gazit, called on France to give Caramel fuel to Iraq, but France resisted the idea claiming the fuel was... Caramel fuel could be tested and substituted for delivery to Iraq. Again, the Frenchman declared this was impossible, as the Caramel fuel was not
Full Text Available Following the severe attacks by the so-called “Islamic State of Iraq and Syria” on the Yazidi population, which started in summer 2014, the state government of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, funded a Special-Quota Project to bring 1,000 very ill or left-behind women and children who were being held hostage to 22 cities and towns in Baden-Württemberg to receive integrated care. Here, we report for the first time on the cases of four Yazidi women living in Ulm, Germany, focusing on the clinically observed and psychometrically assessed mental phenomena or disorders. Our primary aim was to explore what International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnoses are present in this population. Although highly traumatized, these women were suffering primarily from adjustment disorder rather than posttraumatic stress disorder according to official classification systems. Despite their symptoms of depression and anxiety, the women’s responses to self-assessment questionnaires provided no evidence of compulsion, somatization, or eating disorders. The results suggest that further investigation of the individual-level effects of rape and torture, as well the historic, systemic, and collective effects, e.g., on families and societies, is required.
... this Supplement, if destined to military, police, intelligence or other sensitive end-users, are... countries could make a significant contribution to the military potential of such country, including its military logistics capability, or could enhance the ability of such country to support acts of...
Cleary, Jessica E
.... However, it is the effects of state policy that actually shape the living conditions and the opportunities available for refugees, and in turn influence the security repercussions they can set in motion...
Period,” Le Monde Diplomatique , http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/cahier/proche-orient/region-lebanon-refugee (accessed October 16, 2008). 32 job...Julie M. Peteet, “Lebanon: Palestinian Refugees in the Post-War Period,” Le Monde Diplomatique , http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/cahier/proche-orient...Palestinians Refugees in the Post-War Period,” Le Monde Diplomatique , http://mondediplo.com/focus/mideast/a2361 (accessed October 21, 2008). 82
me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless ... Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 4, no. 1 (March 2006): 3–24. 18 Amy C. Cappiccie, “A New Model for Studying Immigration Policy,” Journal of...required cheap labor to keep businesses profitable. Humans (both European and African) moved from highly populated areas to the more sparsely populated
Kassem, A.; Sarhil, A.
The aim of this research to identify the trace elements of the impact on soil samples, plants and water in the coastal basin. Select the racial focus of the basic elements and the elements of impact in each of the samples of soil, some plants and irrigation water (underground and surface) in different parts of the basin, including the Syrian coast between the Lebanese border in the south and Turkey in the north using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that the concentrations of elements were high in some areas of the basin as a result ease of movement through surface and groundwater, due to nature of the geological cost area which is cracked and many faults and porous rock formations. The Large precipitation rain washed quickly the major agricultural soils, including fertilizers and sewage and municipal waste and some of them leak into the groundwater directly or moving from rivers and dams to these ground waters and agricultural soils to fall within the hydrological cycle and increase of this pollutant in the coastal strip, and adversely affect the marine environment through supplying them with many industrial contaminants: such as cement plants, oil and phosphate estuarine, thermal power plant, Baniyas's refinery and ports of ships. The method of neutron activation analysis considers as a reference method and is very effective in the study of environmental samples. 15 element concentrations were calculated using the relative method of INAA, data indicates that there is significant difference in the concentrations of study elements (As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, V, and Zn), depending on the nature of the site geography of irrigation water which used and the proximity of human events scattered along the study area. It is also a big difference in the concentration of these elements in the same soils and plants and the region between the closed systems of agriculture and open one, the increase of excessive pesticide and fertilizer affect in the concentration of some elements in the closed system. Research shows the role of geological and climatic conditions and the nature of the rocks and soils in the transition elements and the impact concentration in the soil, water and vegetation in the coastal zone, The results shown a good agreement in element concentration between the water samples and soil, plant samples to demonstrate the impact of human activities or pollution and salinization caused by the arrival of surface pollutants into the groundwater from leakage ranges from direct irrigation. (author)
Yilmaz, Bahar; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Firincioğullari, Remzi; Gökkaya, Ali; Özbey, Rafet; Özgür, Mustafa
In this study, a rare kind of injury due to smoke bomb capsule impaction to midface and under the cranial base is presented, and maneuvers to reduce mortality are discussed. Three male patients were presented with impacted smoke bomb capsules into the midface and under the cranial base structures. Midface structures, anterior cranial base, and, in 2 patients, unilateral eye were severely damaged. Two patients died after the initial emergency operations because their lung disease progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. One of the patients lived, and soft tissue reconstruction was achieved by using temporal transposition and cheek advancement skin flaps with split-thickness skin graft from donor site. However, craniofacial destruction is important in these patients; a multidisciplinary approach is needed for the treatment of direct smoke bomb injuries because the patients experienced chemical burn and acute trauma. The timing of maxillofacial reconstruction is also a question in these specific patients.
Sparrow, Annie; Almilaji, Khaled; Tajaldin, Bachir; Teodoro, Nicholas; Langton, Paul
Background Public health breakdown from the Syrian government's targeting of healthcare systems in politically unsympathetic areas has yielded a resurgence of infectious diseases. Suspected cholera recently reappeared but conflict-related constraints impede laboratory confirmation. Given the government's previous under-reporting of infectious outbreaks and the reliance of the WHO on government reporting, we sought to assess the reliability of current surveillance systems. Methods We compared weekly surveillance reports of waterborne diseases from the Syrian government's (WHO-associated) Early Warning and Response System (EWARS), based in Damascus, and the independent, non-governmental Early Warning and Response Network (EWARN) headquartered in Gaziantep, Turkey. We compared raw case rates by EWARS and EWARN and assessed the quality of reporting against the WHO benchmarks. Results We identified significant under-reporting and delays in the government's surveillance. On average, EWARS reports were published 24 days (range 12–61) after the reference week compared with 11 days (5–21) for EWARN. Average completeness for EWARS was 75% (55–84%), compared with 92% for EWARN (85–99%). Average timeliness for EWARS was 79% (51–100%), compared with 88% for EWARN (70–97%). EWARS made limited use of rapid diagnostic tests, and rates of collection of stool samples for laboratory cholera testing were well below reference levels. Conclusions In the context of the current Syrian war, the government's surveillance is inadequate due to lack of access to non-government held territory, an incentive to under-report the consequence of government attacks on health infrastructure, and an impractical insistence on laboratory confirmation. These findings should guide the WHO reform for surveillance in conflict zones. PMID:28588951
Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Johansson, Erik
Consideration of urban microclimate and thermal comfort is an absolute neccessity in urban development, and a set of guidelines for every type of climate must be elaborated. However, to develop guidelines, thermal comfort ranges need to be defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of different thermal indices by investigating different thermal environments in Damascus during summer and winter. A second aim was to define the lower and upper limits of the thermal comfort range for some of these indices. The study was based on comprehensive micrometeorological measurements combined with questionnaires. It was found that the thermal conditions of different outdoor environments vary considerably. In general, Old Damascus, with its deep canyons, is more comfortable in summer than modern Damascus where there is a lack of shade. Conversely, residential areas and parks in modern Damascus are more comfortable in winter due to more solar access. The neutral temperatures of both the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the outdoor standard effective temperature (OUT_SET*) were found to be lower in summer than in winter. At 80 % acceptability, the study defined the lower comfort limit in winter to 21.0 °C and the upper limit in summer to 31.3 °C for PET. For OUT_SET*, the corresponding lower and upper limits were 27.6 °C and 31.3 °C respectively. OUT_SET* showed a better correlation with the thermal sensation votes than PET. The study also highlighted the influence of culture and traditions on people's clothing as well as the influence of air conditioning on physical adaptation.
Full Text Available Novel La Sakakin fi Mathabikhi hadzihil-Madinah (LSMHM is considered to have an intense ideological and political nuance for its narration on conflict. It is worth reading this novel to observe the measures chosen by the characters in dealing with existing conflict and its impacts. Sociological approach to literature is applied to reveal the strategy. The reading reveals that the characters in this novel have various strategies in dealing with conflict and related problems. Contending, yielding, problem solving, withdrawing, and inaction are the possible strategies. However, none of the characters choose yielding or problem solving. The existing preferences seem to be the writer’s outlook on that conflict. The conflict itself has been inflicting refuge, social manipulation, excision, and harassment.
Sparrow, Annie; Almilaji, Khaled; Tajaldin, Bachir; Teodoro, Nicholas; Langton, Paul
Public health breakdown from the Syrian government's targeting of healthcare systems in politically unsympathetic areas has yielded a resurgence of infectious diseases. Suspected cholera recently reappeared but conflict-related constraints impede laboratory confirmation. Given the government's previous under-reporting of infectious outbreaks and the reliance of the WHO on government reporting, we sought to assess the reliability of current surveillance systems. We compared weekly surveillance reports of waterborne diseases from the Syrian government's (WHO-associated) Early Warning and Response System (EWARS), based in Damascus, and the independent, non-governmental Early Warning and Response Network (EWARN) headquartered in Gaziantep, Turkey. We compared raw case rates by EWARS and EWARN and assessed the quality of reporting against the WHO benchmarks. We identified significant under-reporting and delays in the government's surveillance. On average, EWARS reports were published 24 days (range 12-61) after the reference week compared with 11 days (5-21) for EWARN. Average completeness for EWARS was 75% (55-84%), compared with 92% for EWARN (85-99%). Average timeliness for EWARS was 79% (51-100%), compared with 88% for EWARN (70-97%). EWARS made limited use of rapid diagnostic tests, and rates of collection of stool samples for laboratory cholera testing were well below reference levels. In the context of the current Syrian war, the government's surveillance is inadequate due to lack of access to non-government held territory, an incentive to under-report the consequence of government attacks on health infrastructure, and an impractical insistence on laboratory confirmation. These findings should guide the WHO reform for surveillance in conflict zones.
39 Osman M. Galal, "The Nutrition Transition in Egypt: Obesity , Undernutrition and the Food Consumption Index," Public Health...Climate, and Society 6, no. 3 (July, 2014): 333 – 4. 142 Colin P. Kelley, et al., “Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the...Egypt: Obesity , Undernutrition, and the Food Consumption Index." Public Health Nutrition 5 (2002): 141-148. Gates, Robert, interview by Robert Siegel
Hernández Roncancio, Ana Carolina
El interés de esta monografía es analizar las interacciones no-lineales con resultados emergentes que mantuvo la comunidad kurda en Siria, durante el periodo 2011-2014, y por las cuales se produjeron formas de auto-organización como resultado de la estructura compleja a la que pertenece. De esta forma, se explica cómo a raíz de la crisis política siria y los enfrentamientos con el Estado Islámico, se transformó el rol de los kurdos en Siria y se influenciaron las estructuras políticas del paí...
I apply Weberian and Linzian concepts of sultanism to Syria and use to understand the failed transition to democracy.......I apply Weberian and Linzian concepts of sultanism to Syria and use to understand the failed transition to democracy....
... General; Position: Director, General Intelligence Directorate (individual) [SYRIA.] 3. NAJIB, Atif (a.k.a. NAJEEB, Atef; a.k.a. NAJIB, Atef); POB Jablah, Syria; Brigadier General; Position: Former head of the...