WorldWideScience

Sample records for synthetic soil materials

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  2. Electrochemical characterization of corrosion in materials of grounding systems, simulating conditions of synthetic soils with characteristics of local soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Y.; Guerrero, L.; Vera-Monroy, S. P.; Blanco, J.; Jimenez, C.

    2017-12-01

    The integrity of structures buried in earthing becomes relevant when analysing maintenance and replacement costs of these systems, as the deterioration is mainly due to two factors, namely: the failures caused in the electrical systems, which are due to the system. Failure in earthing due to corrosion at the interface cause an alteration in the structure of the component material and generates an undesirable resistivity that cause malfunction in this type of protection systems. Two local soils were chosen that were categorized as sandy loam and clay loam type, whose chemical characteristics were simulated by means of an electrolyte corresponding to the amount of ions present determined by a soil characterization based on the CICE (effective cation exchange coefficient), which allows us to deduce the percentage of chloride and sulphate ions present for the different levels established in the experimental matrix. The interaction of these soils with grounding electrodes is a complex problem involving many factors to consider. In this study, the rates and corrosion currents of the different soils on two types of electrodes, one copper and the other AISI 304 stainless steel, were approximated by electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectra. Considerably higher speeds were determined for copper-type electrodes when compared to those based on steel. However, from the Nyquist diagrams, it was noted that copper electrodes have better electrical performance than steel ones. The soil with the highest ionic activity turned out to be the sandy loam. The clay loam soil presents a tendency to water retention and this may be the reason for the different behaviour with respect to ionic mobility. The diffusion control in the steel seems to alter the ionic mobility because its corrosion rates proved to be very similar regardless of the type of soil chemistry. In general, corrosion rates fell since tenths of a millimetre every year to

  3. Metal immobilization in soils using synthetic zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.; Lexmond, T.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils is a technique to improve soil quality. Synthetic zeolites are potentially useful additives to bind heavy metals. This study selected the most effective zeolite in cadmium and zinc binding out of six synthetic zeolites (mordenite-type,

  4. Effects of natural and synthetic soil conditioners on soil moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a natural soil conditioner, Coco-Peat (C-P), and synthetic soil conditioners, Terawet (T-200) and Teraflow (T-F), in improving soil moisture content were examined on five Ghanaian soil series (Akroso, Akuse, Amo, Hake and Oyarifa). In general, the water retention of T-200 and C-P treated soils were similar ...

  5. [Applications of synthetic biology in materials science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxin; Zhong, Chao

    2017-03-25

    Materials are the basis for human being survival and social development. To keep abreast with the increasing needs from all aspects of human society, there are huge needs in the development of advanced materials as well as high-efficiency but low-cost manufacturing strategies that are both sustainable and tunable. Synthetic biology, a new engineering principle taking gene regulation and engineering design as the core, greatly promotes the development of life sciences. This discipline has also contributed to the development of material sciences and will continuously bring new ideas to future new material design. In this paper, we review recent advances in applications of synthetic biology in material sciences, with the focus on how synthetic biology could enable synthesis of new polymeric biomaterials and inorganic materials, phage display and directed evolution of proteins relevant to materials development, living functional materials, engineered bacteria-regulated artificial photosynthesis system as well as applications of gene circuits for material sciences.

  6. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  7. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feuvre, Rosalind A; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2018-06-01

    Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal.

  8. Biodeterioration of synthetic materials - A brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemming, H.C. [Biofilm Centre, University of Duisburg-Essen, Geibelstr. 41, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Although synthetic polymers are part of our global waste problem because they are not sufficiently biologically degraded, microorganisms can severely impair the properties and functions of these materials. It seems as if consumers do not really acknowledge this cause of problems and there is only sparse systematic research about. Damaging mechanisms include (i) covering of surfaces (biofouling) which may be enhanced by leaching of biodegradable additives, (ii) depletion of such additives which can lead to loss of material properties, (iii) intrusion into materials by fungal hyphae, (iv) water uptake, and (v) discoloration. The common countermeasure is the addition of biocides or simply to tolerate the effects of biodeterioration and live on with them. It is suggested to encourage further systematic research, and to develop integrated strategies in order to avoid problems, e.g., based on nutrient and water limitation whenever possible. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Utilisation of transparent synthetic soil surrogates in geotechnical physical models: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abideen Adekunle Ganiyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to obtain non-intrusive measurement of deformations and spatial flow within soil mass prior to the advent of transparent soils have perceptible limitations. The transparent soil is a two-phase medium composed of both the synthetic aggregate and fluid components of identical refractive indices aiming at attaining transparency of the resulting soil. The transparency facilitates real life visualisation of soil continuum in physical models. When applied in conjunction with advanced photogrammetry and image processing techniques, transparent soils enable the quantification of the spatial deformation, displacement and multi-phase flow in physical model tests. Transparent synthetic soils have been successfully employed in geotechnical model tests as soil surrogates based on the testing results of their geotechnical properties which replicate those of natural soils. This paper presents a review on transparent synthetic soils and their numerous applications in geotechnical physical models. The properties of the aggregate materials are outlined and the features of the various transparent clays and sands available in the literature are described. The merits of transparent soil are highlighted and the need to amplify its application in geotechnical physical model researches is emphasised. This paper will serve as a concise compendium on the subject of transparent soils for future researchers in this field.

  10. [Synthetic biology and rearrangements of microbial genetic material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Quan-Feng; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qing-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    As an emerging discipline, synthetic biology has shown great scientific values and application prospects. Although there have been many reviews of various aspects on synthetic biology over the last years, this article, for the first time, attempted to discuss the relationship and difference between microbial genetics and synthetic biology. We summarized the recent development of synthetic biology in rearranging microbial genetic materials, including synthesis, design and reduction of genetic materials, standardization of genetic parts and modularization of genetic circuits. The relationship between synthetic biology and microbial genetic engineering was also discussed in the paper.

  11. Effects of an iron-silicon material, a synthetic zeolite and an alkaline clay on vegetable uptake of As and Cd from a polluted agricultural soil and proposed remediation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Aijun; Wang, Yani; Ling, Xiaodan; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Yetao; Qiu, Hao; Ying, Rongrong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-04-01

    Economic and highly effective methods of in situ remediation of Cd and As polluted farmland in mining areas are urgently needed. Pot experiments with Brassica chinensis L. were carried out to determine the effects of three soil amendments [a novel iron-silicon material (ISM), a synthetic zeolite (SZ) and an alkaline clay (AC)] on vegetable uptake of As and Cd. SEM-EDS and XRD analyses were used to investigate the remediation mechanisms involved. Amendment with ISM significantly reduced the concentrations of As and Cd in edible parts of B. chinensis (by 84-94 % and 38-87 %, respectively), to levels that met food safety regulations and was much lower than those achieved by SZ and AC. ISM also significantly increased fresh biomass by 169-1412 % and 436-731 % in two consecutive growing seasons, while SZ and AC did not significantly affect vegetable growth. Correlation analysis suggested that it was the mitigating effects of ISM on soil acidity and on As and Cd toxicity, rather than nutrient amelioration, that contributed to the improvement in plant growth. SEM-EDS analysis showed that ISM contained far more Ca, Fe and Mn than did SZ or AC, and XRD analysis showed that in the ISM these elements were primarily in the form of silicates, oxides and phosphates that had high capacities for chemisorption of metal(loid)s. After incubation with solutions containing 800 mg L -1 AsO 4 2- or Cd 2+ , ISM bound distinctly higher levels of As (6.18 % in relative mass percent by EDS analysis) and Cd (7.21 % in relative mass percent by EDS analysis) compared to SZ and AC. XRD analysis also showed that ISM facilitated the precipitation of Cd 2+ as silicates, phosphates and hydroxides, and that arsenate combined with Fe, Al, Ca and Mg to form insoluble arsenate compounds. These precipitation mechanisms were much more active in ISM than in SZ or AC. Due to the greater pH elevation caused by the abundant calcium silicate, chemisorption and precipitation mechanisms in ISM treatments

  12. Synthetic Self-Assembled Materials in Biological Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, F.; van Esch, J.H.; Eelkema, R.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic self-assembly has long been recognized as an excellent approach for the formation of ordered structures on the nanoscale. Although the development of synthetic self-assembling materials has often been inspired by principles observed in nature (e.g., the assembly of lipids, DNA,

  13. Using synthetic polymers to reduce soil erosion after forest fires in Mediterranean soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Marcos; Ben-Hur, Meni; Inbar, Assaf

    2010-05-01

    Forest fires are a major environmental problem in the Mediterranean region because they result in a loss of vegetation cover, changes in biodiversity, increases in greenhouse gasses emission and a potential increase of runoff and soil erosion. The large increases in runoff and sediment yields after high severity fires have been attributed to several factors, among them: increase in soil water repellency; soil sealing by detached particles and by ash particles, and the loss of a surface cover. The presence of a surface cover increases infiltration, and decreases runoff and erosion by several mechanisms which include: rainfall interception, plant evapotranspiration, preservation of soil structure by increasing soil organic matter, and increasing surface roughness. The loss of vegetation cover as a result of fire leaves the surface of the soil exposed to the direct impact of the raindrops, and therefore the sensitivity of the soil to runoff generation and soil loss increases. In this work, we propose a new method to protect soils against post-fire erosion based on the application of synthetic polymers to the soil. Laboratory rainfall simulations and field runoff plots were used to analyze the suitability of the application of synthetic polymers to reduce soil erosion and stabilize soil structure in Mediterranean soils. The combination of these two processes will potentially favor a faster recovery of the vegetation structure. This method has been successfully applied in arable land, however it has not been tested in burnt forests. The outcome of this study may provide important managerial tools for forest management following fires.

  14. Effects of Natural and Synthetic Soil Conditioners on Soil Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The field investigation was a 4 × 5 factorial pot-experiment with maize as the test crop. ... The soil samples were air-dried to about 20% (v v–1) moisture content, pounded and passed through a 2- ..... properties of gel-amended container media.

  15. Synthetic opal as a template for nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul A.; Heales, Lindsey; Barber, Richard L.; Turney, Terence W.

    2001-04-01

    Synthetic opal has been used as a template for making 3D inverse opals of silica, titania and silicone rubber. The materials are mesoporous with connected pores and channels and have better opalescence than the opal templates they replace. Thin films of synthetic opal have been grown onto glass substrates by spin coating and these have also been used as templates for making thin films of inverse opal and as masks for depositing metal nanodots. This method produced hexagonally patterned 50 nm gold dots on a flat graphite substrate.

  16. Solubility of 238U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using "US in vitro" digestion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2015-04-01

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by "US P in vitro" digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 - 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 - 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples.

  17. Natural minerals and synthetic materials for sorption of radioactive anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mun Ja; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Seung Soo

    1998-07-01

    Technetium-99 and iodine-129 are fission products with long half-lives, and exist as highly soluble anionic species. Studies on natural and synthetic materials sorbing TcO{sub 4} and/or I have been performed by several researchers. The application of these materials as an additive in the high-level waste disposal has been considered. The iron- or sulfide-containing minerals such as metal iron, iron powder, stibnite and pyrrhotite show a high capacity for TcO{sub 4} sorption. And the small amounts of activated carbon are reported to have high distribution coefficients recently. In the iodine sorption studies, sulfide-, copper-, lead- or mercury-containing minerals can be a candidate. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, Cu{sub 2}S and CuS reveal a high capacity for I sorption. The synthetic materials were found to have high sorption capacity and compensate the defects of natural minerals, which contain hydrous oxides such as zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide and mercarbide. The mercarbide has the high distribution coefficients for the sorption of TcO{sub 4} and I. Recently it was proposed that the synthetic clay, hydrotalcite, could be useful for the fixation of anion. However, to determine the applicability of those natural and synthetic materials as an additive to a buffer or backfill material for sorption of TcO{sub 4} and/or I, the sorption behavior of the anions on those materials under the repository conditions should be identified. (author). 32 refs., 21 tabs., 10 figs

  18. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  19. Materials Manufactured from 3D Printed Synthetic Biology Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana; Micks, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Many complex, biologically-derived materials have extremely useful properties (think wood or silk), but are unsuitable for space-related applications due to production, manufacturing, or processing limitations. Large-scale ecosystem-based production, such as raising and harvesting trees for wood, is impractical in a self-contained habitat such as a space station or potential Mars colony. Manufacturing requirements, such as the specialized equipment needed to harvest and process cotton, add too much upmass for current launch technology. Cells in nature are already highly specialized for making complex biological materials on a micro scale. We envision combining these strengths with the recently emergent technologies of synthetic biology and 3D printing to create 3D-structured arrays of cells that are bioengineered to secrete different materials in a specified three-dimensional pattern.

  20. Elastic properties of synthetic materials for soft tissue modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansy, H A; Grahe, J R; Sandler, R H

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical models of soft tissue are useful for studying vibro-acoustic phenomena. They may be used for validating mathematical models and for testing new equipment and techniques. The objective of this study was to measure density and visco-elastic properties of synthetic materials that can be used to build such models. Samples of nine different materials were tested under dynamic (0.5 Hz) compressive loading conditions. The modulus of elasticity of the materials was varied, whenever possible, by adding a softener during manufacturing. The modulus was measured over a nine month period to quantify the effect of ageing and softener loss on material properties. Results showed that a wide range of the compression elasticity modulus (10 to 1400 kPa) and phase (3.5 0 -16.7 0 ) between stress and strain were possible. Some materials tended to exude softener over time, resulting in a weight loss and elastic properties change. While the weight loss under normal conditions was minimal in all materials (<3% over nine months), loss under accelerated weight-loss conditions can reach 59%. In the latter case an elasticity modulus increase of up to 500% was measured. Key advantages and limitations of candidate materials were identified and discussed

  1. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

  2. Compact polarimetric synthetic aperture radar for monitoring soil moisture condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzouki, A.; McNairn, H.; Powers, J.; Friesen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Coarse resolution soil moisture maps are currently operationally delivered by ESA's SMOS and NASA's SMAP passive microwaves sensors. Despite this evolution, operational soil moisture monitoring at the field scale remains challenging. A number of factors contribute to this challenge including the complexity of the retrieval that requires advanced SAR systems with enhanced temporal revisit capabilities. Since the launch of RADARSAT-2 in 2007, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) has been evaluating the accuracy of these data for estimating surface soil moisture. Thus, a hybrid (multi-angle/multi-polarization) retrieval approach was found well suited for the planned RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) considering the more frequent relook expected with the three satellite configuration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capability of C-band CP data to estimate soil moisture over agricultural fields, in anticipation of the launch of RCM. In this research we introduce a new CP approach based on the IEM and simulated RCM CP mode intensities from RADARSAT-2 images acquired at different dates. The accuracy of soil moisture retrieval from the proposed multi-polarization and hybrid methods will be contrasted with that from a more conventional quad-pol approach, and validated against in situ measurements by pooling data collected over AAFC test sites in Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada.

  3. Solubility of 238U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using “US in vitro” digestion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2015-01-01

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by “US P in vitro” digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 – 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 – 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples

  4. Solubility of {sup 238}U radionuclide from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids using “US in vitro” digestion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Sarmani, Sukiman; Majid, Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok, E-mail: khoo@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    238U radionuclide is a naturally occuring radioactive material that can be found in soil. In this study, the solubility of 238U radionuclide obtained from various types of soil in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids was analysed by “US P in vitro” digestion method. The synthetic gastrointestinal fluids were added to the samples with well-ordered, mixed throughly and incubated according to the human physiology digestive system. The concentration of 238U radionuclide in the solutions extracted from the soil was measured using Induced Coupling Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of 238U radionuclide from the soil samples in synthetic gastrointestinal fluids showed different values due to different homogenity of soil types and chemical reaction of 238U radionuclide. In general, the solubility of 238U radionuclide in gastric fluid was higher (0.050 – 0.209 ppm) than gastrointestinal fluids (0.024 – 0.050 ppm). It could be concluded that the US P in vitro digestion method is practicle for estimating the solubility of 238U radionuclide from soil materials and could be useful for monitoring and risk assessment purposes applying to environmental, health and contaminated soil samples.

  5. Comparative assessment of the effect of synthetic and natural fungicides on soil respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Angelo; Felício, Joanna D'Arc; de Andréa, Mara M

    2012-01-01

    As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g(-1)), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g(-1)), and (14)C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of (14)C-glucose g(-1)). The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

  6. Effect of waste synthetic bag pieces on the CBR value of expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Agarwal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Expansive soils such as black cotton soil which are widely distributed in India have a tendency for volume changes due to change in moisture content. Also exhibits very low bearing capacity and high compressibility. Stabilization of such soil by admixture is used commonly now days. But no mix is suitable to improve all the types of soil. But it is obvious that depending on type of soil & type of admixture the optimum mix can be designed.  In this paper a mix has been designed to improve the bearing capacity of soil by using fly ash and lime mixture, reinforced with waste synthetic bag pieces. Various tests are carried out to determine the CBR value and other soil properties with and without using any admixture and reinforcement. The maximum value of CBR was found to be23.82% for 2.5 mm penetration and 22.21% for 5 mm penetration, when waste synthetic bag pieces of size 2 cm * 2 cm were used at a proportion of 0.1%.

  7. EPR-based material modelling of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Asaad; Alani, Amir M.

    2013-04-01

    In the past few decades, as a result of the rapid developments in computational software and hardware, alternative computer aided pattern recognition approaches have been introduced to modelling many engineering problems, including constitutive modelling of materials. The main idea behind pattern recognition systems is that they learn adaptively from experience and extract various discriminants, each appropriate for its purpose. In this work an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR). EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial tests are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well-known conventional material models and it is shown that EPR-based models can provide a better prediction for the behaviour of soils. The main benefits of using EPR-based material models are that it provides a unified approach to constitutive modelling of all materials (i.e., all aspects of material behaviour can be implemented within a unified environment of an EPR model); it does not require any arbitrary choice of constitutive (mathematical) models. In EPR-based material models there are no material parameters to be identified. As the model is trained directly from experimental data therefore, EPR-based material models are the shortest route from experimental research (data) to numerical modelling. Another advantage of EPR-based constitutive model is that as more experimental data become available, the quality of the EPR prediction can be improved by learning from the additional data, and therefore, the EPR model can become more effective and robust. The developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis.

  8. Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0–1 cm; below-crust soils, 2–5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances.

  9. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  10. Spies and Bloggers: New Synthetic Biology Tools to Understand Microbial Processes in Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Cheng, H. Y.; Del Valle, I.; Fulk, E. M.; Gao, X.; Bennett, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    Microbes can be programmed through synthetic biology to report on their behavior, informing researchers when their environment has triggered changes in their gene expression (e.g. in response to shifts in O2 or H2O), or when they have participated in a specific step of an elemental cycle (e.g. denitrification). This use of synthetic biology has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbes' roles in elemental and water cycling, because it allows reporting on the environment from the perspective of a microbe, matching the measurement scale exactly to the scale that a microbe experiences. However, synthetic microbes have not yet seen wide use in soil and sediment laboratory experiments because synthetic organisms typically report by fluorescing, making their signals difficult to detect outside the petri dish. We are developing a new suite of microbial programs that report instead by releasing easily-detected gases, allowing the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of behaviors in sediments and soils. Microbial biosensors can, in theory, be programmed to detect dynamic processes that contribute to a wide range of geobiological processes, including C cycling (biofilm production, methanogenesis, and synthesis of extracellular enzymes that degrade organic matter), N cycling (expression of enzymes that underlie different steps of the N cycle) and potentially S cycling. We will provide an overview of the potential uses of gas-reporting biosensors in soil and sediment lab experiments, and will report the development of the systematics of these sensors. Successful development of gas biosensors for laboratory use will require addressing issues including: engineering the intensity and selectivity of microbial gas production to maximize the signal to noise ratio; normalizing the gas reporter signal to cell population size, managing gas diffusion effects on signal shape; and developing multiple gases that can be used in parallel.

  11. Ceramic materials based on synthetic calcium phosphate for medical uses

    OpenAIRE

    Toropkov, N. E.; Antonkin, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the different methods of synthesis of hydroxyapatite and receiving on its base of ceramic materials in various ways. We have also developed our own technology. The conditions of compatibility and saddle the assumption and the suitability of the material for implantation.

  12. Improving geotechnical properties of clayey soil using polymer material

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Hussein; Al-Soudany Kawther

    2018-01-01

    This study illustrates the application of polymer material for clayey soil stabilization. The article will focus on studying the strength behavior of the clayey soils reinforced with homogenously polymer fiber. In the current research, “polypropylene” was selected as polymer material to reinforce the natural clay soil. This polymer fiber was added to the clayey soil with four different percentages of (0, 1.5, 3, and 5%) by weight of soil. Various tests with different polymer contents were per...

  13. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, R S; Brandon, J R; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H K; Dodson, J M; Friel, I; Inglis, P N; Madgwick, T D; Markham, M L; Mollart, T P; Perkins, N; Scarsbrook, G A; Twitchen, D J; Whitehead, A J; Wilman, J J; Woollard, S M

    2009-01-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synthesized in planar form; however, non-planar geometries are also possible and enable a number of key applications. This paper reviews the material properties and characteristics of single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond, and how these can be utilized, focusing particularly on optics, electronics and electrochemistry. It also summarizes how CVD diamond can be tailored for specific applications, on the basis of the ability to synthesize a consistent and engineered high performance product.

  14. Synthetic building materials for transport buildings and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Vera

    2017-10-01

    The most effective building materials account for the highest growth not only in construction of residential and public buildings, but also other capital projects including roadways, bridges, drainage, communications and other engineering projects. Advancement in the technology of more efficient and ecologically responsible insulation materials have been a priority for safety, minimal maintenance and longevity of finished construction projects. The practical use of modern building materials such as insulation, sound reduction and low energy consumption are a benefit in cost and application compared to the use of outdated heavier and labor-intensive materials. The most efficient way for maximizing insolation and sound proofing should be done during the design stages of the project according to existing codes and regulations that are required by Western Government. All methods and materials that are used need to be optimized in order to reach a high durability and low operational and maintenance cost exceeding more than 50 years of the life of the building, whether it is for public, industrial or residential use. Western construction techniques and technologies need to be applied and adapted by the Russian Federation to insure the most productive successful methods are being implemented. The issues of efficient insulation materials are outlined in this article.

  15. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation With Synthetic Bone Substitutes Compared With Other Grafting Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Mordenfeld, Arne; Becktor, Jonas Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses of no differences in implant treatment outcome after maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) with synthetic bone substitutes (SBS) compared with other grafting materials applying the lateral window technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase and ...

  16. Operational Mapping of Soil Moisture Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Application to the Touch Basin (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean François Desprats

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is a key parameter in different environmental applications, suchas hydrology and natural risk assessment. In this paper, surface soil moisture mappingwas carried out over a basin in France using satellite synthetic aperture radar (SARimages acquired in 2006 and 2007 by C-band (5.3 GHz sensors. The comparisonbetween soil moisture estimated from SAR data and in situ measurements shows goodagreement, with a mapping accuracy better than 3%. This result shows that themonitoring of soil moisture from SAR images is possible in operational phase. Moreover,moistures simulated by the operational Météo-France ISBA soil-vegetation-atmospheretransfer model in the SIM-Safran-ISBA-Modcou chain were compared to radar moistureestimates to validate its pertinence. The difference between ISBA simulations and radarestimates fluctuates between 0.4 and 10% (RMSE. The comparison between ISBA andgravimetric measurements of the 12 March 2007 shows a RMSE of about 6%. Generally,these results are very encouraging. Results show also that the soil moisture estimatedfrom SAR images is not correlated with the textural units defined in the European Soil Geographical Database (SGDBE at 1:1000000 scale. However, dependence was observed between texture maps and ISBA moisture. This dependence is induced by the use of the texture map as an input parameter in the ISBA model. Even if this parameter is very important for soil moisture estimations, radar results shown that the textural map scale at 1:1000000 is not appropriate to differentiate moistures zones.

  17. Comparison of natural organic acids and synthetic chelates at enhancing phytoextraction of metals from a multi-metal contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clistenes do Nascimento, Williams A.; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Xing, Baoshan

    2006-01-01

    Chemically assisted phytoremediation has been developing to induce accumulation of metals by high biomass plants. Synthetic chelates have shown high effectiveness to reach such a goal, but they pose serious drawbacks in field application due to the excessive amount of metals solubilized. We compared the performance of synthetic chelates with naturally occurring low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) in enhancing phytoextraction of metals by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) from multi-metal contaminated soils. Gallic and citric acids were able to induce removal of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni from soil without increasing the leaching risk. Net removal of these metals caused by LMWOA can be as much as synthetic chelates. A major reason for this is the lower phytotoxicity of LMWOA. Furthermore, supplying appropriate mineral nutrients increased biomass and metal removal. - Organic acids can be as efficient as synthetic chelates for use in phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils

  18. Modeling L-band synthetic aperture radar observations through dielectric changes in soil moisture and vegetation over shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    L-band airborne synthetic aperture radar observations were made over California shrublands to better understand the effects by soil and vegetation parameters on backscatter. Temporal changes in radar backscattering coefficient (s0) of up to 3 dB were highly correlated to surface soil moisture but no...

  19. Use of additive material to stabilize the soil swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaee, B.; Estabragh, A. R.; Bordbar, A. T.; Eskandari, G. H.

    2009-04-01

    Change volume increasing of soil, because of increase in its humidity content causes appearing of swelling phenomenon in the soil. This phenomenon has created a lot of damages in the building which is constructed on this kind of soils. Usage the additive materials which stabilize the swelling, has been the subject of many researches. In this research the Potential expansibility of the expansive soils, which were stabilized by additive materials such as Lime, cement and coal ash, was investigated. To get this purpose, by preparing soil samples mixed with upper additive material, changes of potential swelling of stabilized soils were compared. The results revealed that usage of these stabilizing materials caused the decrease in destructive effects due to swelling of soils to some extent. Keywords: swelling, soil stabilizing, additive material, coal ash

  20. Optimization of Soil Hydraulic Model Parameters Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: An Integrated Multidisciplinary Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauwels, Valentijn; Balenzano, Anna; Satalino, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are a very valuable source of information for the modeling of the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. During the last couple of decades, most of the research on the use of SAR data in hydrologic applications has...... that no direct relationships between the remote-sensing observations, more specifically radar backscatter values, and the parameter values can be derived. However, land surface models can provide these relationships. The objective of this paper is to retrieve a number of soil physical model parameters through...

  1. Degradation patterns of natural and synthetic textiles on a soil surface during summer and winter seasons studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Howes, Johanna M.; Forbes, Shari L.; Stuart, Barbara H.

    2017-10-01

    Textiles are a valuable source of forensic evidence and the nature and condition of textiles collected from a crime scene can assist investigators in determining the nature of the death and aid in the identification of the victim. Until now, much of the knowledge of textile degradation in forensic contexts has been based on the visual inspection of material collected from soil environments. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential of a more quantitative approach to the understanding of forensic textile degradation through the application of infrared spectroscopy. Degradation patterns of natural and synthetic textile materials as they were subjected to a natural outdoor environment in Australia were investigated. Cotton, polyester and polyester - cotton blend textiles were placed on a soil surface during the summer and winter seasons and were analysed over periods 1 and 1.5 years, respectively, and examined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy. Statistical analysis of the spectral data obtained for the cotton material correlated with visual degradation and a difference in the onset of degradation between the summer and winter season was revealed. The synthetic material did not show any signs of degradation either visually or statistically throughout the experimental period and highlighted the importance of material type in terms of preservation. The cotton section from the polyester - cotton blend samples was found to behave in a similar manner to that of the 100% cotton samples, however principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the degradation patterns were less distinct in both the summer and winter trial for the blend samples. These findings indicated that the presence of the synthetic material may have inhibited the degradation of the natural material. The use of statistics to analyse the spectral data obtained for textiles of forensic interest provides a better foundation for the interpretation of the data

  2. Energetic Materials Effects on Essential Soil Processes: Decomposition of Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Litter in Soil Contaminated with Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    availabilities of their respective food sources (bacteria and fungi ), were also unaffected-or-increasing in soil with CL-20 treatments. This is...ENERGETIC MATERIALS EFFECTS ON ESSENTIAL SOIL PROCESSES: DECOMPOSITION OF ORCHARD...GRASS (DACTYLIS GLOMERATA) LITTER IN SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH ENERGETIC MATERIALS ECBC-TR-1199 Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini

  3. Device for manufacturing methane or synthetic gas from materials containing carbon using a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, W.

    1984-01-01

    This invention concerns a device for manufacturing methane or synthetic gas from materials containing carbon using a nuclear reactor, where part of the carbon is gasified with hydration and the remaining carbon is converted to synthetic gas by adding steam. This synthetic gas consists mainly of H 2 , CO, CO 2 and CH 4 and can be converted to methane in so-called methanising using a nickel catalyst. The hydrogen gasifier is situated in the first of two helium circuits of a high temperature reactor, and the splitting furnace is situated in the second helium circuit, where part of the methane produced is split into hydrogen at high temperature, which is used for the hydrating splitting of another part of the material containing carbon. (orig./RB) [de

  4. Increasing the lego of 2D electronics materials: silicene and germanene, graphene's new synthetic cousins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lay, Guy; Salomon, Eric; Angot, Thierry; Eugenia Dávila, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The realization of the first Field Effect Transistors operating at room temperature, based on a single layer silicene channel, open up highly promising perspectives, e.g., typically, for applications in digital electronics. Here, we describe recent results on the growth, characterization and electronic properties of novel synthetic two-dimensional materials beyond graphene, namely silicene and germanene, its silicon and germanium counterparts.

  5. Application of Synthetic Mineral Alloys as Materials for Bulletproof Vests and Products for Different Objects Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ignatova.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Authors study ballistic properties of the material which has never been used for impact protection and the presented results prove that synthetic mineral alloys belong to the field of bulletproof ballistic protection and particularly to the means of objects’ protection from kinetic threats. Although the material has been described in connection with such specific embodiments as SVD and a cumulative jet, it is evident that many alternatives and modifications of their application for various protective articles are possible.

  6. Dynamic testing of horseshoe designs at impact on synthetic and dirt Thoroughbred racetrack materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, C A; Peterson, M L; Thomason, J J; McIlwraith, C W

    2016-01-01

    Different horseshoe designs have been developed in an attempt to optimise footing for equine athletes. Horseshoe performance is assumed to be dependent on the surface and gait, but there are limited data on horseshoe performance on different surfaces, independent of gait variation. To quantify the dynamic loading for 3 aluminium racing shoe designs on Thoroughbred racetrack surface materials, using a biomechanical surface tester. A flat racing plate, a serrated V-Grip and a shoe with a 6 mm toe grab and 10 mm heel calks were tested on synthetic and dirt surfaces under typical operating conditions of temperature and moisture content for the respective material samples. Samples were tested under laboratory conditions, replicating a track surface by compacting material into a latex-lined mould surrounded by silica sand for representative boundary conditions. Peak loading and loading rates were measured vertically and horizontally (craniocaudal), simulating aspects of primary and secondary impacts of the hoof in a galloping horse. Maximum vertical and shear loads and loading rates were not significantly different between shoe types, with the exception of a reduced craniocaudal loading rate for the V-Grip shoe on the synthetic surface. All other statistical significance was related to the surface material. These 3 different Thoroughbred racing shoes do not have a significant impact on loading and loading rate, with the exception of the V-Grip shoe on a synthetic surface. Although the V-Grip may reduce craniocaudal peak load rates in a synthetic material with relatively high wax and/or low oil content, the reduction in load rate is less than the difference found between materials. This study indicates that shoeing has little effect, and that a track's surface material and its preparation have a significant effect on the dynamic loading during the impact phase of the stance. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Comparative Response of Four Pedogenic Soil Materials to Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative response of four Pedogenic soil materials to cement stabilization was investigated. The studies focused on the compaction characteristics, the unconfined sompressive strength and the California bearing ratio of the samples. The results obtained show that soil materials from Maiduguri responded favorably to ...

  8. Immobilization of pentachlorophenol in soil using carbonaceous material amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bwen@rcees.ac.cn; Li Ruijuan; Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Fang Jing; Xiao Ke [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Khan, Shahamat U. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, MSN 3E2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, three pentachlorophenol (PCP) laboratory-spiked and one field-contaminated soil were amended with 2.0% char, humic acid (HA) and peat, respectively. The amended soils were aged for either 7 or 250 days. After amendment, CaCl{sub 2} extractability of PCP was significantly decreased. Desorption kinetics indicated that the proposed amendment could lead to a strong binding and slow desorption of PCP in soils. Amendment with char reduced the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PCP most significantly for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in all soils studied. The results of both physicochemical and biological tests suggested that amendment reduced PCP bioavailability quickly and enduringly, implying that carbonaceous material amendment, especially char amendment, was a potentially attractive in situ remediation method for sequestration of PCP in contaminated soil. - Carbonaceous material amendment was a potential in situ remediation method for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil.

  9. Tablet-level origin of toughening in abalone shells and translation to synthetic composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Juster, Allison L; Latourte, Felix J; Loh, Owen Y; Gregoire, David; Zavattieri, Pablo D

    2011-02-01

    Nacre, the iridescent material in seashells, is one of many natural materials employing hierarchical structures to achieve high strength and toughness from relatively weak constituents. Incorporating these structures into composites is appealing as conventional engineering materials often sacrifice strength to improve toughness. Researchers hypothesize that nacre's toughness originates within its brick-and-mortar-like microstructure. Under loading, bricks slide relative to each other, propagating inelastic deformation over millimeter length scales. This leads to orders-of-magnitude increase in toughness. Here, we use in situ atomic force microscopy fracture experiments and digital image correlation to quantitatively prove that brick morphology (waviness) leads to transverse dilation and subsequent interfacial hardening during sliding, a previously hypothesized dominant toughening mechanism in nacre. By replicating this mechanism in a scaled-up model synthetic material, we find that it indeed leads to major improvements in energy dissipation. Ultimately, lessons from this investigation may be key to realizing the immense potential of widely pursued nanocomposites.

  10. Sequential Ensembles Tolerant to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Soil Moisture Retrieval Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to complicated and undefined systematic errors in satellite observation, data assimilation integrating model states with satellite observations is more complicated than field measurements-based data assimilation at a local scale. In the case of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR soil moisture, the systematic errors arising from uncertainties in roughness conditions are significant and unavoidable, but current satellite bias correction methods do not resolve the problems very well. Thus, apart from the bias correction process of satellite observation, it is important to assess the inherent capability of satellite data assimilation in such sub-optimal but more realistic observational error conditions. To this end, time-evolving sequential ensembles of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF is compared with stationary ensemble of the Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (EnOI scheme that does not evolve the ensembles over time. As the sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the surface roughness is more sensitive to the SAR retrievals than measurement errors, it is a scope of this study to monitor how data assimilation alters the effects of roughness on SAR soil moisture retrievals. In results, two data assimilation schemes all provided intermediate values between SAR overestimation, and model underestimation. However, under the same SAR observational error conditions, the sequential ensembles approached a calibrated model showing the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, while the stationary ensemble converged towards the SAR observations exhibiting the highest RMSE. As compared to stationary ensembles, sequential ensembles have a better tolerance to SAR retrieval errors. Such inherent nature of EnKF suggests an operational merit as a satellite data assimilation system, due to the limitation of bias correction methods currently available.

  11. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing

  12. Stimulation of soil microorganisms in pesticide-contaminated soil using organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Yudha Perwira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals such as pesticides have contributed to significant increases in crop yields; however, they can also be linked to adverse effects on human health and soil microorganisms. For efficient bioremediation of pesticides accumulated in agricultural fields, stimulation of microorganisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the relationships between bacterial biomass and total carbon (TC and total nitrogen (TN in 427 agricultural soils. The soil bacterial biomass was generally positively correlated with TC and TN contents in the soil, but some soils had a low bacterial biomass despite containing high amounts of TC and TN. Soils of two fields (fields A and B with low bacterial biomass but high TC and TN contents were investigated. Long-term pesticide use (dichloropropane-dichloropropene and fosthiazate in field A and chloropicrin in field B appeared to have contributed to the low bacterial biomass observed in these soils. Soil from field A was treated with different organic materials and incubated for 1 month under laboratory conditions. The bacterial biomass in field A soil was enhanced in treatments containing organic materials rich in TN. Application of organic materials stimulated the growth of microorganisms with the potential to bioremediate pesticide-polluted soils.

  13. Using Synthetic Biology to Engineer Living Cells That Interface with Programmable Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyde, Keith C; Scott, Felicia Y; Paek, Sung-Ho; Zhang, Ruihua; Ruder, Warren C

    2017-03-09

    We have developed an abiotic-biotic interface that allows engineered cells to control the material properties of a functionalized surface. This system is made by creating two modules: a synthetically engineered strain of E. coli cells and a functionalized material interface. Within this paper, we detail a protocol for genetically engineering selected behaviors within a strain of E. coli using molecular cloning strategies. Once developed, this strain produces elevated levels of biotin when exposed to a chemical inducer. Additionally, we detail protocols for creating two different functionalized surfaces, each of which is able to respond to cell-synthesized biotin. Taken together, we present a methodology for creating a linked, abiotic-biotic system that allows engineered cells to control material composition and assembly on nonliving substrates.

  14. Bioinspired fabrication and characterization of a synthetic fish skin for the protection of soft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Natasha; Vera, Marc; Szewciw, Lawrence J; Barthelat, Francois; Stoykovich, Mark P; Vernerey, Franck J

    2015-03-18

    The scaled skin of fish is a high-performance natural armor that represents a source of inspiration for novel engineering designs. In this paper, we present a biomimetic fish skin material, fabricated with a design and components that are simple, that achieves many of the advantageous attributes of natural materials, including the unique combination of flexibility and mechanical robustness. The bioinspired fish skin material is designed to replicate the structural, mechanical, and functional aspects of a natural teleost fish skin comprised of leptoid-like scales, similar to that of the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus. The man-made fish skin material consists of a low-modulus elastic mesh or "dermis" layer that holds rigid, plastic scales. The mechanics of the synthetic material is characterized under in-plane, bending, and indentation modes of deformation and is successfully described by theoretical deformation models that have been developed. This combined experimental and modeling approach elucidates the critical mechanisms by which the composite material achieves its unique properties and provides design rules that allow for the engineering of scaled skins. Such artificial scaled skins that are flexible, lightweight, transparent, and robust under mechanical deformation may thus have potential as thin protective coatings for soft materials.

  15. Improving geotechnical properties of clayey soil using polymer material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the application of polymer material for clayey soil stabilization. The article will focus on studying the strength behavior of the clayey soils reinforced with homogenously polymer fiber. In the current research, “polypropylene” was selected as polymer material to reinforce the natural clay soil. This polymer fiber was added to the clayey soil with four different percentages of (0, 1.5, 3, and 5% by weight of soil. Various tests with different polymer contents were performed to study the effect of using such a polymer as a stabilizing agent on geotechnical properties of clay. As the fiber content increases, the optimum moisture content (OMC is increased while the specific gravity decreases. For Atterberg’s limits, the results indicated increasing liquid limit and plasticity index while decreasing plastic limit with increase in polymer content. The outcomes of the tests also reflected a considerable improvement in the unconfined compressive strength with noticeable improvement in the shear strength parameter (undrained shear strength, cu of the treated soils. The undrained shear strength obtained from treated soil with 5% polymer addition is more than three times that of the untreated soil. With an increase in polymer content, the consolidation parameters (Compression index Cc and recompression index Cr decreases. Finally, the benefit of the reinforcement is increased with increasing polymer fiber content.

  16. Soil washing treatability testing for rad-waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leis, K.S.; Lear, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Soil washing treatability testing was successfully completed on soil contaminated with Ra-226 and Th-232. The objective of the soil washing study was to determine if the radiologically contaminated fraction of the soil could be separated from the bulk of the soil material. The cleanup criteria was 38 microm) fraction was allowed to settle and was washed to separate it from the highly contaminated fine (< 38 microm) fraction. The clean coarse fraction comprised 85.7% of the total solids and had less than 15 pCi/g of Ra-226 and Th-232. This material was to be disposed at a RCRA Subtitle D disposal facility. The suspended fines were flocculated and dewatered to minimize the amount of highly contaminated material produced by the soil washing. The dewatered fines would require disposal at a low-level radiological disposal facility. Mass balance calculations were made to determine production rates and chemical and equipment requirements for the full-scale soil washing treatment

  17. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Suk [Engine Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%.

  18. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog; Kim, Hong Suk

    2015-01-01

    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%

  19. Influence of Parent Material and Topography on some Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected physical and chemical properties and nutrient ratios on three landscape positions (interfluve crest, middle slope and foot slope) were examined on soils formed on banded gneiss and quartzite schist parent materials. Parent material significantly (p<0.05) influenced gravel, coarse sand and copper contents in the ...

  20. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  1. Soil Moisture Estimation in South-Eastern New Mexico Using High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Azad Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture monitoring and characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of this hydrologic parameter at scales from small catchments to large river basins continues to receive much attention, reflecting its critical role in subsurface-land surface-atmospheric interactions and its importance to drought analysis, irrigation planning, crop yield forecasting, flood protection, and forest fire prevention. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data acquired at different spatial resolutions have been successfully used to estimate soil moisture in different semi-arid areas of the world for many years. This research investigated the potential of linear multiple regressions and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN based models that incorporate different geophysical variables with Radarsat 1 SAR fine imagery and concurrently measured soil moisture measurements to estimate surface soil moisture in Nash Draw, NM. An artificial neural network based model with vegetation density, soil type, and elevation data as input in addition to radar backscatter values was found suitable to estimate surface soil moisture in this area with reasonable accuracy. This model was applied to a time series of SAR data acquired in 2006 to produce soil moisture data covering a normal wet season in the study site.

  2. Porous Chromatographic Materials as Substrates for Preparing Synthetic Nuclear Explosion Debris Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Scott D.; Liezers, Martin; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Garcia, Ben J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Carman, April J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated several porous chromatographic materials as synthetic substrates for preparing surrogate nuclear explosion debris particles. The resulting synthetic debris materials are of interest for use in developing analytical methods. Eighteen metals, including some of forensic interest, were loaded onto materials by immersing them in metal solutions (556 mg/L of each metal) to fill the pores, applying gentle heat (110°C) to drive off water, and then treating them at high temperatures (up to 800°C) in air to form less soluble metal species. High-boiling-point metals were uniformly loaded on spherical controlled-pore glass to emulate early fallout, whereas low-boiling-point metals were loaded on core-shell silica to represent coated particles formed later in the nuclear fallout-formation process. Analytical studies were applied to characterize solubility, material balance, and formation of recalcitrant species. Dissolution experiments indicated loading was 1.5 to 3 times higher than expected from the pore volume alone, a result attributed to surface coating. Analysis of load solutions before and after filling the material pores revealed that most metals were passively loaded; that is, solutions filled the pores without active metal discrimination. However, niobium and tin concentrations were lower in solutions after pore filling, and were found in elevated concentrations in the final products, indicating some metals were selectively loaded. High-temperature treatments caused reduced solubility of several metal species, and loss of some metals (rhenium and tellurium) because volatile species were formed. Sample preparation reproducibility was high (the inter-batch relative standard deviation was 7.8%, and the intra-batch relative standard deviation was 0.84%) indicating that this material is suitable for use as a working standard for analytical methods development. We anticipate future standardized radionuclide-loaded materials will find use in

  3. Push-out bond strength of bioceramic materials in a synthetic tissue fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Shokouhinejad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the push-out bond strength of EndoSequence Root Repair Material (ERRM and Bioaggregate (BA, new bioceramic materials, to that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA after incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, a synthetic tissue fluid, for either 1 week or 2 months.One-hundred and twenty root sections were filled with ProRoot MTA, BA, or ERRM. Each tested material was then randomly divided into two subgroups (n = 20: root sections were immersed in PBS for 1 week or 2 months. The bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. After that, the failure modes were examined with stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The push-out data and failure mode categories were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and chi-square tests, respectively.The bond strength of ERRM was significantly higher than that of BA and MTA at both incubation periods. No significant difference was found between the bond strength of MTA and BA at either 1 week or 2 months. Increasing the incubation time to 2 months resulted in a significant increase in bond strength of all the materials. The failure mode was mainly mixed for MTA and BA, but cohesive for ERRM at both incubation periods.ERRM had significantly higher bond strength to root canal walls compared to MTA and BA. Increasing the incubation time significantly improved the bond strength and bioactive reaction products of all materials.

  4. Assessment on urban soil pollution by biocides from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a monitoring study of stormwater runoff from a residential catchment as well as direct façade runoff analysis, the present study was assessing the pollution of urban soil to biocides from building material. The stormwater runoff of a residential catchment in Silkeborg (Denmark) was monitored...... from a freshly painted or rendered house, it is obvious that a huge part is actually draining directly to the soil and not to the sewer system. Consequently, the soil in urban areas is exposed to stormwater highly polluted by biocides which might affect the microbial community there....

  5. Soil hydraulic material properties and layered architecture from time-lapse GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Stefan; Roth, Kurt

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the subsurface material distribution and its effective soil hydraulic material properties is essential to predict soil water movement. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a noninvasive and nondestructive geophysical measurement method that is suitable to monitor hydraulic processes. Previous studies showed that the GPR signal from a fluctuating groundwater table is sensitive to the soil water characteristic and the hydraulic conductivity function. In this work, we show that the GPR signal originating from both the subsurface architecture and the fluctuating groundwater table is suitable to estimate the position of layers within the subsurface architecture together with the associated effective soil hydraulic material properties with inversion methods. To that end, we parameterize the subsurface architecture, solve the Richards equation, convert the resulting water content to relative permittivity with the complex refractive index model (CRIM), and solve Maxwell's equations numerically. In order to analyze the GPR signal, we implemented a new heuristic algorithm that detects relevant signals in the radargram (events) and extracts the corresponding signal travel time and amplitude. This algorithm is applied to simulated as well as measured radargrams and the detected events are associated automatically. Using events instead of the full wave regularizes the inversion focussing on the relevant measurement signal. For optimization, we use a global-local approach with preconditioning. Starting from an ensemble of initial parameter sets drawn with a Latin hypercube algorithm, we sequentially couple a simulated annealing algorithm with a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The method is applied to synthetic as well as measured data from the ASSESS test site. We show that the method yields reasonable estimates for the position of the layers as well as for the soil hydraulic material properties by comparing the results to references derived from ground

  6. Wind erosion control of soils using polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Movahedan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils is one of the most important problems in environment and agriculture which could affects several fields. Agricultural lands, water reservoires, irrigation canals, drains and etc. may be affected by wind erosion and suspended particles. As a result wind erosion control needs attention in arid and semi-arid regions. In recent years, some polymeric materials have been used for improvement of structural stability, increasing aggregate stability and soil stabilization, though kind of polymer, quantity of polymer, field efficiency and durability and environmental impacts are some important parameters which should be taken into consideration. In this study, a Polyvinil Acetate-based polymer was used to treat different soils. Then polymer-added soil samples were investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel to verify the effecte of polymer on wind erosion control of the soils and the results were compared with water treated soil samples. The results of wind tunnel experiments with a maximum 26 m/s wind velocity showed that there was a significat difference between the erosion of polymer treated and water treated soil samples. Application of 25g/m2 polymer to Aeolian sands reduced the erosion of Aeolian sands samples to zero related to water treated samples. For silty and calyey soils treated by polymer, the wind erosion reduced minimum 90% in relation to water treated samples.

  7. Effects of soil stripping and dressing for decontamination of radioactive materials on soil fertility of agricultural land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Namiko; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Kunihito

    2015-01-01

    Farms that were highly contaminated with radioactive materials following the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident were decontaminated by removing topsoil and subsequently dressing with fresh soil. We investigated the chemical properties of soils following such decontamination on farms in Iitate village, Fukushima. The nitrogen content of dressed soil was considerably lower than that of the subsoil that was not stripped for decontamination, as a result of which the amount of dressed soil greatly affected the soil fertility of decontaminated farms. The potassium (K) content of soil differs markedly depending on the type of soil dressing material used; accordingly, the type of soil dressing material affected the soil K content on decontaminated farms. On most of the decontaminated farms where sandy soils were used as the soil dressing material, soil exchangeable K contents were less than 25 mg K_2O/100 g, which is the criterion value for inhibiting cesium absorption in rice and soybean cultivation. However, even in the soil dressing material from agricultural land, soil K content after soil dressing was generally lower than that before soil dressing. During fallow management and at the restart of cultivation on decontaminated farms, it is important to know in advance the chemical properties of soil and take the necessary measures based on this information. (author)

  8. Method of predicting air pollution of coal mines with use of new synthetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Putilina, O.N.

    1988-08-01

    Presents a methodological approach that enables on the basis of laboratory experiment to give a hygienic evaluation of synthetic materials used in coal mines to harden coal and rock masses to prevent rock falls and caving and for hermetization of ventilation equipment. Polyurethane, carbamidoformaldehyde and phenolformaldehyde plastic foam are studied in an experiment tha examined quantitative emission ofsubstances from their original components in the process of forming contaminants. Synthetics in a beaker are placed in an exsiccator, mixed with air, samples of volatiles particles collected and dynamics of their emission are calculated using regression and linear equations. Amounts of 2,4- toluenediisocyanate and diethylamine produced by polyurethane, and formaldehyde and methanol from carbamidoformaldehyde did not exceed limits of maximum concentrations; phenolformaldehyde plastic foam produced amounts of phenols and formaldehydes that are significantly higher than maximal permissible concentrations. Laboratory procedure and use of formulae were confirmed by testing air in a Donetsugol' mine. Polyurethane and carbamidoformaldehyde didnot contaminate air above hygienically safe limits, while phenolformaldehyde plastic foam exceeded safety limits proving need for hygienic measures to protect miners from its contaminants. Adequacy of laboratory-mathematical method to evaluate emissions of harmful chemicals from resins under mining conditions shows value of laboratory testing of many resins for safety in mine use. 4 refs.

  9. Fabrication of Porous Materials from Natural/Synthetic Biopolymers and Their Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeni Gunathilake T.M. Sampath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and their applications have been widely studied in recent years. Replacing the oil based polymer materials with biopolymers in a sustainable manner might give not only a competitive advantage but, in addition, they possess unique properties which cannot be emulated by conventional polymers. This review covers the fabrication of porous materials from natural biopolymers (cellulose, chitosan, collagen, synthetic biopolymers (poly(lactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid and their composite materials. Properties of biopolymers strongly depend on the polymer structure and are of great importance when fabricating the polymer into intended applications. Biopolymers find a large spectrum of application in the medical field. Other fields such as packaging, technical, environmental, agricultural and food are also gaining importance. The introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. There are many techniques used to fabricate porous polymers. Fabrication methods, including the basic and conventional techniques to the more recent ones, are reviewed. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the pore characteristics of biomaterials used for various applications. This review can aid in furthering our understanding of the fabrication methods and about controlling the porosity and microarchitecture of porous biopolymer materials.

  10. Fabrication of Porous Materials from Natural/Synthetic Biopolymers and Their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Udeni Gunathilake T M; Ching, Yern Chee; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Sabariah, Johari J; Lin, Pai-Chen

    2016-12-07

    Biopolymers and their applications have been widely studied in recent years. Replacing the oil based polymer materials with biopolymers in a sustainable manner might give not only a competitive advantage but, in addition, they possess unique properties which cannot be emulated by conventional polymers. This review covers the fabrication of porous materials from natural biopolymers (cellulose, chitosan, collagen), synthetic biopolymers (poly(lactic acid), poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid)) and their composite materials. Properties of biopolymers strongly depend on the polymer structure and are of great importance when fabricating the polymer into intended applications. Biopolymers find a large spectrum of application in the medical field. Other fields such as packaging, technical, environmental, agricultural and food are also gaining importance. The introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. There are many techniques used to fabricate porous polymers. Fabrication methods, including the basic and conventional techniques to the more recent ones, are reviewed. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the pore characteristics of biomaterials used for various applications. This review can aid in furthering our understanding of the fabrication methods and about controlling the porosity and microarchitecture of porous biopolymer materials.

  11. Material dynamics in polluted soils with different structures - comparative investigations of general soil and aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubner, H.

    1992-01-01

    In structured soils, a small-scale heterogeneity of physical and chemical properties will develop which results in a reduced availability of the reaction sites of the soil matrix. In view of the lack of knowledge on the conditions within the individual aggregates were carried out for characterizing the aggregates and comparing them with the soil in, general soil samples were taken from natural structure of a podzolic soil and a podazolic brown earth from two sites in the Fichtelgebirge mountains as well as a parabraun earth from East Holstein. The horizons differed with regard to their texture and structure; silty material tends to have a subpolyhedral structure and calyey material a polyhedral structure. The general soil samples and aggregate samples from the three B horizons were subjected, with comparable experimental conditions, to percolation experiments inducing a multiple acid load. The soil solution from the secondary pore system and aggregate pore system is more heterogeneus for the higher-structured subpolyhedral texture of the perdzolic soil than for the less strongly aggregated subpolyhedral structured of the podzolic brown earth. (orig.) [de

  12. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-bin Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compelling findings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1 polyethylene glycol as an adjustable biomolecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2 Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3 Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting substrates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury

  13. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-bin Kong; Qiu-yan Tang; Xu-yi Chen; Yue Tu; Shi-zhong Sun; Zhong-lei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compellingfindings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1) polyethylene glycol as an adjustable bio-molecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2) Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3) Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting sub-strates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury.

  14. The use of synthetic materials in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stanek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress urinary incontinence is a very serious problem which has been noticed by the WHO. This difficult medical condition poses a serious problem as it affects c.a. 20% of the female population and it increases up to 35% in the group of females over 60 years of age. Since there is no single standard surgical procedure which could solve this problem, numerous synthetic materials are used for the operations. It seems that the materials are effective as they improve the condition of women suffering from stress urinary incontinence. Unfortunately these materials have their shortcomings which might lead to certain post-operative complications. Stress urinary incontinence is a disease which affects the social life of the patients. It has a high percentage of recurrence and causes the patient substantial difficulties with keeping high standards of personal hygiene which is consequence makes it impossible to fulfill their social roles. The etiology of this disease is complex and calls for a cross-disciplinary approach to the problem. As there are no standardized or unanimous treatment methods of stress urinary incontinence, numerous sources based on the clinical experience of many medical centers suggest performing TVT and TOT procedures as the most effective treatment methods. The efficacy of the TOT procedure is about 90.8%.

  15. Synthetic organic chemicals in earthworms from agriculture soil amended with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Biosolids resulting from municipal wastewater treatment are known to contain residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other synthetic organic compounds. Many of these are contaminants of emerging concern for their potential endocrine disruption of fish and wildli...

  16. [Plants' materials and synthetic agonists of cannabinoid receptors use as a substitute of Marihuana, appearing in a current forensic toxicology practice of evidence materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Florek, Ewa; Zaba, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis sativa species Indica (Marihuana) is nowadays one of the most common plant drug, with psychoactive activity, presently appearing on the illegal market in Poland. It is reported that frequency of securing evidential materials so called substitute of Marihuana, is growing rapidly during the last few years. The substitutes of Marihuana occurring on the market are of natural or synthetic origins, for example different species of raw plants' materials having action similar to Cannabis or raw plants' materials with no psychoactive properities but with an addition of components so called synthetic cannabinoids. The review presents recent developments in drug market and current problems of forensic toxicology on the example of Marihuana.

  17. Porous chromatographic materials as substrates for preparing synthetic nuclear explosion debris particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, S.D.; Carman, A.J.; Martin Liezers; Antolick, K.C.; Garcia, B.J.; Eiden, G.C.; Sweet, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    Several porous chromatographic materials were investigated as synthetic substrates for preparing surrogate nuclear explosion debris particles. Eighteen metals, including some of forensic interest, were loaded onto materials by immersing them in metal solutions (556 mg/L of each metal) to fill the pores, applying gentle heat (110 deg C) to drive off water, and then treating them at high temperatures (up to 800 deg C) in air to form less soluble metal species. High-boiling-point metals were uniformly loaded on spherical controlled-pore glass to emulate early fallout, whereas low-boiling-point metals were loaded on core-shell silica to represent coated particles formed later in the nuclear fallout-formation process. Analytical studies characterized material balance and the formation of recalcitrant species. Metal loading was 1.5-3 times higher than expected from the pore volume alone, a result attributed to surface coating. Most metals were passively loaded; that is, solutions filled the pores without active metal discrimination. However, niobium and tin concentrations were lower in solutions after pore filling, and were found in elevated concentrations in the final products, indicating selective loading. High-temperature treatments caused reduced solubility of several metals, and the loss of some volatile species (rhenium and tellurium). Sample preparation reproducibility was high (the inter- and intra-batch relative standard deviations were 7.8 and 0.84 %, respectively) indicating suitability for use as a working standard for analytical methods development. We anticipate future standardized radionuclide-loaded materials will find use in radioanalytical methods development and/or serve as a starting material for the synthesis of more complex nuclear explosion debris forms (e.g., Trinitite). (author)

  18. Mobilization of PAH by synthetic gastrointestinal juice from contaminated soil of a former landfill area; Mobilisierung von PAK durch synthetische Verdauungssaefte aus dem kontaminierten Bodenmaterial einer Altlastenflaeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, A.; Selenka, F.; Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1998-10-01

    In the present study, the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in contaminated soil material, which may be available for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, is estimated by means of evaluating the PAH mobilization by synthetic gastric and intestinal juice in an in vitro test system. Five contaminated soil materials from a former landfill site are analysed in this gastrointestinal model for the PAH of the U.S.EPA-standard. For quantification, an HPLC method with reversed-phase chromatography and on line fluorescence detection is used. The PAH concentration of the contaminated soil materials ranged from 37 {mu}g/g up to 196 {mu}g/g in total. The mobilization of the PAH in the gastrointestinal model ranged from 0.3% up to 1.3% when gastrointestinal juice was used alone. In the presence of whole milk powder, however, the mobilization was enhanced to values from 10.8% up to 14.5%. Since the soil material was taken from different parts of the contaminated area, and since the mobilization of the PAH from the different materials shows only minor differences, the mobilization data evaluated may be considered as representative for the whole contaminated area. Compared to other contaminated soil materials, especially those from gas work areas or coke plants, the mobilization rate of PAH by the gastrointestinal model from the soil materials used in this study is low. The health risk caused, by ingestion of this soil material, as far as PAH are concerned, is actually smaller than the risk calculated from the total content of PAH of the contaminated soil. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im allgemeinen wird nur ein Teil der Schadstoffe aus oral aufgenommenem kontaminiertem Bodenmaterial im Gastrointestinaltrakt resorbiert. In der vorliegenden Studie wird der resorptionsverfuegbare Anteil der PAK aus dem real kontaminierten Bodenmaterial einer ehemaligen Deponie aus dem sueddeutschen Raum anhand der Mobilisierbarkeit der PAK durch die Verdauungssaefte des oberen

  19. Soil stabilization with recycled materials improves subgrade performance : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The use of recycled materials for subgrade stabilization can provide the support needed for construction vehicle loading and more typical long-term traffic loading. This is a particular need in Michigan due to the prevalence of weak subgrade soils. U...

  20. Relationship of soil potassium forms with maize potassium contents in soils derived from different parent materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mehmood Butt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of soil potassium (K dynamics is essential for sustainable crop production. Bioavailability of K depends on forms and distribution within the soil profile. The objectives of this research were to determine which soil K forms control the maize (Zea mays K contents and compare the extracting capability of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB with ammonium acetate (NH4OAc method. Nine soils representing three different parent materials, i.e. loess, sandstone and shale were sampled at three surface genetic horizons. Within each parent material, three soils at varying level of development were selected. Besides basic soil parameters, K was fractioned into water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K, and NaTPB-extracted K. The maize was sown in pots having 2 kg soil from each genetic horizon. Crop was harvested at seven weeks and plant was analysed for K contents. Results show that NaTPB-extracted K gave best correlation as compared to NH4OAc method. This conveys that a non-exchangeable K portion that becomes available to plants can be better estimated by NaTPB method than NH4OAc extraction.

  1. Electron beam irradiation to the allogeneic, xenogenic and synthetic bone materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soung Min; Park, Min Woo; Jeong, Hyun Oh [School of Dentistry Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-07-01

    For the development of the biocompatible bony regeneration materials, allogenic, xenogenic and synthetic bone were irradiated by electron beam to change the basic components and structures. For the efficient electron beam irradiating condition of these allogenic, xenogenic and artificial bone substitutes, the optimal electron beam energy and their individual dose were established, to maximize the bony regeneration capacity. Commercial products of four allogenic bones, such as Accell (ISOTIS OrthogBiologics Co., USA), Allotis (Korea Bone Bank Co., Korea), Oragraft (LifeNet Co., USA), and Orthoblast (Integra Orthobiologics Inc., USA), six xenogenic bones, such as BBP (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), Bio-oss (Geistlich Pharma AG, Switzerland), Indu-cera (OscoTec Co., Korea), OCS-B (Nibec Co., Korea), and OCS-H (Nibec Co., Korea), and six synthetic bones, such as BMP (Couellmedi Co., Korea), BoneMedik (Meta Biomed Co., Korea), Bone plus (Megagen Co., Korea), MBCP (Biomatlante Co., France), Osteon (Genoss Co., Korea), and Osteogen (Impladent LTD., USA), were used. We used 1.0 and 2.0 MeV superconduction accelerator, and/or microtrone with different individual 60, 120 kGy irradiation dose. Different dose irradiated specimens were divided 6 portions each, so total 360 groups were prepared. 4 portions were analyzed each by elementary analysis using FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Microscopy) and another 2 portions were grafted to the calvarial defect of Sprague-Dawley rat, following histologic, immunohistochemical analysis and TEM study were processed at the 8th and 16th weeks, in vivo. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST)

  2. High-resolution nondestructive testing of multilayer dielectric materials using wideband microwave synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hee; James, Robin; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-04-01

    Fiber Reinforced Polymer or Plastic (FRP) composites have been rapidly increasing in the aerospace, automotive and marine industry, and civil engineering, because these composites show superior characteristics such as outstanding strength and stiffness, low weight, as well as anti-corrosion and easy production. Generally, the advancement of materials calls for correspondingly advanced methods and technologies for inspection and failure detection during production or maintenance, especially in the area of nondestructive testing (NDT). Among numerous inspection techniques, microwave sensing methods can be effectively used for NDT of FRP composites. FRP composite materials can be produced using various structures and materials, and various defects or flaws occur due to environmental conditions encountered during operation. However, reliable, low-cost, and easy-to-operate NDT methods have not been developed and tested. FRP composites are usually produced as multilayered structures consisting of fiber plate, matrix and core. Therefore, typical defects appearing in FRP composites are disbondings, delaminations, object inclusions, and certain kinds of barely visible impact damages. In this paper, we propose a microwave NDT method, based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging algorithms, for stand-off imaging of internal delaminations. When a microwave signal is incident on a multilayer dielectric material, the reflected signal provides a good response to interfaces and transverse cracks. An electromagnetic wave model is introduced to delineate interface widths or defect depths from the reflected waves. For the purpose of numerical analysis and simulation, multilayered composite samples with various artificial defects are assumed, and their SAR images are obtained and analyzed using a variety of high-resolution wideband waveforms.

  3. Comparison of candidate materials for a synthetic osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao Wei; Perera, A Promoda P; Tan, Anna; Tan, Donald; Khor, K A; Beuerman, Roger W; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2011-01-05

    Osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis is one of the most successful forms of keratoprosthesis surgery for end-stage corneal and ocular surface disease. There is a lack of detailed comparison studies on the biocompatibilities of different materials used in keratoprosthesis. The aim of this investigation was to compare synthetic bioinert materials used for keratoprosthesis surgery with hydroxyapatite (HA) as a reference. Test materials were sintered titanium oxide (TiO(2)), aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)), and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with density >95%. Bacterial adhesion on the substrates was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and the spread plate method. Surface properties of the implant discs were scanned using optical microscopy. Human keratocyte attachment and proliferation rates were assessed by cell counting and MTT assay at different time points. Morphologic analysis and immunoblotting were used to evaluate focal adhesion formation, whereas cell adhesion force was measured with a multimode atomic force microscope. The authors found that bacterial adhesion on the TiO(2), Al(2)O(3), and YSZ surfaces were lower than that on HA substrates. TiO(2) significantly promoted keratocyte proliferation and viability compared with HA, Al(2)O(3,) and YSZ. Immunofluorescent imaging analyses, immunoblotting, and atomic force microscope measurement revealed that TiO(2) surfaces enhanced cell spreading and cell adhesion compared with HA and Al(2)O(3). TiO(2) is the most suitable replacement candidate for use as skirt material because it enhanced cell functions and reduced bacterial adhesion. This would, in turn, enhance tissue integration and reduce device failure rates during keratoprosthesis surgery.

  4. Dissipation of fragrance materials in sludge-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFrancesco, Angela M; Chiu, Pei C; Standley, Laurel J; Allen, Herbert E; Salvito, Daniel T

    2004-01-01

    A possible removal mechanism for fragrance materials (FMs) in wastewater is adsorption to sludge, and sludge application to land may be a route through which FMs are released to the soil environment. However, little is known about the concentrations and fate of FMs in soil receiving sludge application. This study was conducted to better understand the dissipation of FMs in sludge-amended soils. We first determined the spiking and extraction efficiencies for 22 FMs in soil and leachate samples. Nine FMs were detected in digested sludges from two wastewater treatment plants in Delaware using these methods. We conducted a 1-year die-away experiment which involved four different soils amended with sludge, with and without spiking of the 22 FMs. The initial dissipation of FMs in all spiked trays was rapid, and only seven FMs remained at concentrations above the quantification limits after 3 months: AHTN, HHCB, musk ketone, musk xylene, acetyl cedrene, OTNE, and DPMI. After 1 year, the only FMs remaining in all spiked trays were musk ketone and AHTN. DPMI was the only FM that leached significantly from the spiked trays, and no FMs were detected in leachate from any unspiked tray. While soil organic matter content affected the dissipation rate in general, different mechanisms (volatilization, transformation, leaching) appeared to be important for different FMs.

  5. Suitability of technical materials for machinery subsoilers for soil tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bednář

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil processing belongs to the basic elements in the process of crop production. Currently classic tillage method is decreasing and the only trend has stated as a shallow plowing. Suitable post harvest soil tillage greatly affects yields in the next cycle. The aim of the study is the analysis of abrasive wear of selected construction materials and their subsequent use for DXRV-HD cultivator. The performed tests are focused on monitoring the mechanical properties of the materials and their use for variable cutting tip of cultivator body. Tested materials are divided into four categories. These materials include tool steel (19436, carbon steel (12050, cast iron with globular graphite and welding material supplied as a functional complex on low carbon steel by the Abraweld company. These materials are tested together with the original part of share cultivator. The present experiment is focused on metallorgraphic, mechanical and abrasive analysis. Structural component of the material is identified by metallographic photos and then compared with the impact strength tested on Charpy hammer. Followed the abrasion resistance according to CSN 01 5084 and the total evaluation of the tested samples are done.

  6. A State-of-the-Art Review on Soil Reinforcement Technology Using Natural Plant Fiber Materials: Past Findings, Present Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Gowthaman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating sustainable materials into geotechnical applications increases day by day due to the consideration of impacts on healthy geo-environment and future generations. The environmental issues associated with conventional synthetic materials such as cement, plastic-composites, steel and ashes necessitate alternative approaches in geotechnical engineering. Recently, natural fiber materials in place of synthetic material have gained momentum as an emulating soil-reinforcement technique in sustainable geotechnics. However, the natural fibers are innately different from such synthetic material whereas behavior of fiber-reinforced soil is influenced not only by physical-mechanical properties but also by biochemical properties. In the present review, the applicability of natural plant fibers as oriented distributed fiber-reinforced soil (ODFS and randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil (RDFS are extensively discussed and emphasized the inspiration of RDFS based on the emerging trend. Review also attempts to explore the importance of biochemical composition of natural-fibers on the performance in subsoil reinforced conditions. The treatment methods which enhances the behavior and lifetime of fibers, are also presented. While outlining the current potential of fiber reinforcement technology, some key research gaps have been highlighted at their importance. Finally, the review briefly documents the future direction of the fiber reinforcement technology by associating bio-mediated technological line.

  7. A State-of-the-Art Review on Soil Reinforcement Technology Using Natural Plant Fiber Materials: Past Findings, Present Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthaman, Sivakumar; Nakashima, Kazunori; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2018-04-04

    Incorporating sustainable materials into geotechnical applications increases day by day due to the consideration of impacts on healthy geo-environment and future generations. The environmental issues associated with conventional synthetic materials such as cement, plastic-composites, steel and ashes necessitate alternative approaches in geotechnical engineering. Recently, natural fiber materials in place of synthetic material have gained momentum as an emulating soil-reinforcement technique in sustainable geotechnics. However, the natural fibers are innately different from such synthetic material whereas behavior of fiber-reinforced soil is influenced not only by physical-mechanical properties but also by biochemical properties. In the present review, the applicability of natural plant fibers as oriented distributed fiber-reinforced soil (ODFS) and randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil (RDFS) are extensively discussed and emphasized the inspiration of RDFS based on the emerging trend. Review also attempts to explore the importance of biochemical composition of natural-fibers on the performance in subsoil reinforced conditions. The treatment methods which enhances the behavior and lifetime of fibers, are also presented. While outlining the current potential of fiber reinforcement technology, some key research gaps have been highlighted at their importance. Finally, the review briefly documents the future direction of the fiber reinforcement technology by associating bio-mediated technological line.

  8. The toxicological mode of action and the safety of synthetic amorphous silica—A nanostructured material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), in the form of pyrogenic (fumed), precipitated, gel or colloidal SAS, has been used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications including food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products for many decades. Based on extensive physico-chemical, ecotoxicology, toxicology, safety and epidemiology data, no environmental or health risks have been associated with these materials if produced and used under current hygiene standards and use recommendations. With internal structures in the nanoscale size range, pyrogenic, precipitated and gel SAS are typical examples of nanostructured materials as recently defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). The manufacturing process of these SAS materials leads to aggregates of strongly (covalently) bonded or fused primary particles. Weak interaction forces (van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding, physical adhesion) between aggregates lead to the formation of micrometre (μm)-sized agglomerates. Typically, isolated nanoparticles do not occur. In contrast, colloidal SAS dispersions may contain isolated primary particles in the nano-size range which can be considered nano-objects. The size of the primary particle resulted in the materials often being considered as “nanosilica” and in the inclusion of SAS in research programmes on nanomaterials. The biological activity of SAS can be related to the particle shape and surface characteristics interfacing with the biological milieu rather than to particle size. SAS adsorbs to cellular surfaces and can affect membrane structures and integrity. Toxicity is linked to mechanisms of interactions with outer and inner cell membranes, signalling responses, and vesicle trafficking pathways. Interaction with membranes may induce the release of endosomal substances, reactive oxygen species, cytokines and chemokines and thus induce inflammatory responses. None of the SAS forms, including colloidal nano-sized particles, were

  9. The toxicological mode of action and the safety of synthetic amorphous silica-a nanostructured material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2012-04-11

    Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS), in the form of pyrogenic (fumed), precipitated, gel or colloidal SAS, has been used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications including food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products for many decades. Based on extensive physico-chemical, ecotoxicology, toxicology, safety and epidemiology data, no environmental or health risks have been associated with these materials if produced and used under current hygiene standards and use recommendations. With internal structures in the nanoscale size range, pyrogenic, precipitated and gel SAS are typical examples of nanostructured materials as recently defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). The manufacturing process of these SAS materials leads to aggregates of strongly (covalently) bonded or fused primary particles. Weak interaction forces (van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding, physical adhesion) between aggregates lead to the formation of micrometre (μm)-sized agglomerates. Typically, isolated nanoparticles do not occur. In contrast, colloidal SAS dispersions may contain isolated primary particles in the nano-size range which can be considered nano-objects. The size of the primary particle resulted in the materials often being considered as "nanosilica" and in the inclusion of SAS in research programmes on nanomaterials. The biological activity of SAS can be related to the particle shape and surface characteristics interfacing with the biological milieu rather than to particle size. SAS adsorbs to cellular surfaces and can affect membrane structures and integrity. Toxicity is linked to mechanisms of interactions with outer and inner cell membranes, signalling responses, and vesicle trafficking pathways. Interaction with membranes may induce the release of endosomal substances, reactive oxygen species, cytokines and chemokines and thus induce inflammatory responses. None of the SAS forms, including colloidal nano-sized particles, were shown

  10. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  11. A smelling trip into the past: the influence of synthetic materials on the history of perfumery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nicolaï, Patricia

    2008-06-01

    Contemporary perfumery has its roots in the work of the past, and many of the perfumes from this time have long since disappeared. What follows is a short account of some of the most famous perfumes from the past which have been inspired by the novel synthetic materials of the time. These important creations include, 'Fougère Royale' by Houbigant (1884) containing coumarin (1), 'Jicky' by Guerlain (1889) containing vanillin (2) and linalool (3), 'Vera Violetta' by Roger & Gallet (1892) containing alpha- and beta-ionone (4 and 5, resp.), 'Trèfle Incarnat' by Piver (1898) containing isoamyl salicylate (6), 'La Rose Jacqueminot' of Coty (1904) containing Rhodinol (7), 'Après l'Ondée' by Guerlain (1906) containing para-anisaldehyde (8), 'Quelques Fleurs' by Houbigant (1912) containing hydroxycitronellal (9), 'N degrees 5' by Chanel (1921) containing the aldehydes C-10 (10), C-110 (11), and C-12 (12), 'Nuit De Noël' by Caron (1922) containing 6-isobutylquinoline (14), and 'Femme' by Rochas (1944) containing the so-called 'aldehyde C-14' (15, gamma-undecalactone). The Osmotheque, the International Conservatory of Perfumes, was launched in 1990 and is regarded as a primary source of knowledge for the history of perfumery. Its vocation is to compile an amazing collection of 1700 perfumes (400 of them almost forgotten fragrances)--jewels of perfumery.

  12. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, D.; Almendros, P.; Alvarez, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1) and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1) soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn); Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM) yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn) was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils) and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil). The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk. (Author)

  13. Use of CRM's as mutual calibrating materials and control of synthetic multielement standards as used in INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1986-01-01

    The comparability of analytical results from different laboratories requires accurately known concentrations in the applied standards. Dilution effects of different multielement synthetic standard solutions have been studied by measuring 10 - 12 different concentrations of the same solution. Peak area comparison of four Certified Reference Materials (CRM's) using one value for the evaluation of the other three repetitively led to the intercomparison (degree of compatibility) of the certified values. The idea of the preparation of each laboratory's ''secondary reference standard'' by comparison of synthetic multielement standards with as many CRM's as practically feasible is advocated to improve the reliability of analytical results. (author)

  14. Use of CRM's as mutual calibrating materials and control of synthetic multielement standards as used in INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1987-01-01

    Dilution effects of different multielement synthetic standard solutions were studied by measuring 10-12 different concentrations of the same solution. Peak area comparison of four Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) using one value for the evaluation of the other three repetitively led to the intercomparison (degree of compatibility) of the certified values. The idea of the preparation of each laboratory's 'secondary reference standard' by comparison of synthetic multielement standards with as many CRMs as practically feasible is advocated to improve the reliability of analytical results. (author)

  15. Sampling and analysis of alien materials in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liphard, K G

    1987-02-01

    For the determination of alien materials in soil, sampling is the decisive step. After minute planning, samples can be obtained by probing, boring or abrasion. Some types of substances can be verified by advance sampling, partly already in the field. Inorganic substances present as anions or cations are eluted and determined with water, heavy metals are determined after preparing a number of solutions by spectroscopic methods. Organic alien substances are extracted with solvents and, as a rule, analysed by chromatography.

  16. Stability of a novel synthetic amorphous manganese oxide in contrasting soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Knytl, V.; Komárek, M.; Della Puppa, L.; Bordas, F.; Mihaljevič, M.; Klementová, Mariana; Šebek, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 214, FEB (2014), s. 2-9 ISSN 0016-7061 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Amorphous manganese oxide * Stability * Soils * Chemical stabilization * Pollution Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2014

  17. Protein cages and synthetic polymers: a fruitful symbiosis for drug delivery applications, bionanotechnology and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Martin; Nussbaumer, Martin G; Renggli, Kasper; Bruns, Nico

    2016-11-07

    Protein cages are hollow protein nanoparticles, such as viral capsids, virus-like particles, ferritin, heat-shock proteins and chaperonins. They have well-defined capsule-like structures with a monodisperse size. Their protein subunits can be modified by genetic engineering at predetermined positions, allowing for example site-selective introduction of attachment points for functional groups, catalysts or targeting ligands on their outer surface, in their interior and between subunits. Therefore, protein cages have been extensively explored as functional entities in bionanotechnology, as drug-delivery or gene-delivery vehicles, as nanoreactors or as templates for the synthesis of organic and inorganic nanomaterials. The scope of functionalities and applications of protein cages can be significantly broadened if they are combined with synthetic polymers on their surface or within their interior. For example, PEGylation reduces the immunogenicity of protein cage-based delivery systems and active targeting ligands can be attached via polymer chains to favour their accumulation in diseased tissue. Polymers within protein cages offer the possibility of increasing the loading density of drug molecules, nucleic acids, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents or catalysts. Moreover, the interaction of protein cages and polymers can be used to modulate the size and shape of some viral capsids to generate structures that do not occur with native viruses. Another possibility is to use the interior of polymer cages as a confined reaction space for polymerization reactions such as atom transfer radical polymerization or rhodium-catalysed polymerization of phenylacetylene. The protein nanoreactors facilitate a higher degree of control over polymer synthesis. This review will summarize the hybrid structures that have been synthesized by polymerizing from protein cage-bound initiators, by conjugating polymers to protein cages, by embedding protein cages into bulk polymeric

  18. Parental material and cultivation determine soil bacterial community structure and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Gao, Jusheng; Huang, Ting; Kendall, Joshua R A; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are the key components of the soil environment, playing important roles during soil development. Soil parent material provides the foundation elements that comprise the basic nutritional environment for the development of microbial community. After 30 years artificial maturation of cultivation, the soil developments of three different parental materials were evaluated and bacterial community compositions were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing approach. Thirty years of cultivation increased the soil fertility and soil microbial biomass, richness and diversity, greatly changed the soil bacterial communities, the proportion of phylum Actinobacteria decreased significantly, while the relative abundances of the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Armatimonadetes and Nitrospira were significantly increased. Soil bacterial communities of parental materials were separated with the cultivated ones, and comparisons of different soil types, granite soil and quaternary red clay soil were similar and different with purple sandy shale soil in both parental materials and cultivated treatments. Bacterial community variations in the three soil types were affected by different factors, and their alteration patterns in the soil development also varied with soil type. Soil properties (except total potassium) had a significant effect on the soil bacterial communities in all three soil types and a close relationship with abundant bacterial phyla. The amounts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as the abundances of the nifH gene in all cultivated soils were higher than those in the parental materials; Burkholderia and Rhizobacte were enriched significantly with long-term cultivation. The results suggested that crop system would not deplete the nutrients of soil parental materials in early stage of soil maturation, instead it increased soil fertility and changed bacterial community, specially enriched the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to accumulate

  19. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at National Taipei University of Technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at National Taipei University of Technology. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  20. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  1. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at National Sun Yat-sen University) 

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at National Sun Yat-sen University. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  2. Nucleic Acid Extraction from Synthetic Mars Analog Soils for in situ Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarro, Angel; Ruvkun, Gary; Zuber, Maria T.; Carr, Christopher E.

    2017-08-01

    Biological informational polymers such as nucleic acids have the potential to provide unambiguous evidence of life beyond Earth. To this end, we are developing an automated in situ life-detection instrument that integrates nucleic acid extraction and nanopore sequencing: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) instrument. Our goal is to isolate and determine the sequence of nucleic acids from extant or preserved life on Mars, if, for example, there is common ancestry to life on Mars and Earth. As is true of metagenomic analysis of terrestrial environmental samples, the SETG instrument must isolate nucleic acids from crude samples and then determine the DNA sequence of the unknown nucleic acids. Our initial DNA extraction experiments resulted in low to undetectable amounts of DNA due to soil chemistry-dependent soil-DNA interactions, namely adsorption to mineral surfaces, binding to divalent/trivalent cations, destruction by iron redox cycling, and acidic conditions. Subsequently, we developed soil-specific extraction protocols that increase DNA yields through a combination of desalting, utilization of competitive binders, and promotion of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that a combination of desalting and utilizing competitive binders may establish a "universal" nucleic acid extraction protocol suitable for analyzing samples from diverse soils on Mars.

  3. Prospects for biological soil-borne disease control: application of indigenous versus synthetic microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological disease control of soil-borne plant diseases has traditionally employed the biopesticide approach whereby single strains or strain mixtures are introduced into production systems through inundative/inoculative release. The approach has significant barriers that have long been recognized,...

  4. Nucleic Acid Extraction from Synthetic Mars Analog Soils for in situ Life Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarro, Angel; Ruvkun, Gary; Zuber, Maria T; Carr, Christopher E

    2017-08-01

    Biological informational polymers such as nucleic acids have the potential to provide unambiguous evidence of life beyond Earth. To this end, we are developing an automated in situ life-detection instrument that integrates nucleic acid extraction and nanopore sequencing: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) instrument. Our goal is to isolate and determine the sequence of nucleic acids from extant or preserved life on Mars, if, for example, there is common ancestry to life on Mars and Earth. As is true of metagenomic analysis of terrestrial environmental samples, the SETG instrument must isolate nucleic acids from crude samples and then determine the DNA sequence of the unknown nucleic acids. Our initial DNA extraction experiments resulted in low to undetectable amounts of DNA due to soil chemistry-dependent soil-DNA interactions, namely adsorption to mineral surfaces, binding to divalent/trivalent cations, destruction by iron redox cycling, and acidic conditions. Subsequently, we developed soil-specific extraction protocols that increase DNA yields through a combination of desalting, utilization of competitive binders, and promotion of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that a combination of desalting and utilizing competitive binders may establish a "universal" nucleic acid extraction protocol suitable for analyzing samples from diverse soils on Mars. Key Words: Life-detection instruments-Nucleic acids-Mars-Panspermia. Astrobiology 17, 747-760.

  5. Simulation of consolidation in partially saturated soil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    1982-03-01

    Partially saturated soil materials undergo consolidation, heave, collapse and failure due to changes in pore fluid pressure. The precise nature of the mechanics of such deformations is only poorly understood at present. Experimental evidence has shown that the volume change behavior of unsaturated soils cannot be adequately explained through changes in effective stress, even when a saturation dependent parameter is incorporated into the definition of effective stress. Two independent stress-state variables, involving combinations of total stress, pore air pressure and pore water pressure, are required to characterize volume changes and saturation changes in the partially saturated state. In general, two coupled conservation equations, one for the water-phase and the other for the air-phase need to be solved in order to predict the deformation behavior of unsaturated soils. If directional displacements and changes in the stress-field are required, then the conservation equations are to be integrated with an additional set of multi-dimensional force balance equations. For lack of a sufficient understanding of elastic constants such as Poisson's Ratio and Lame's constants as applied to unsaturated soils, little has been achieved so far in integrating the conservation equations and the force balance equations. For the long-term modeling of consolidation with respect to uranium mill tailings, it may be acceptable and economical to solve a single conservation equation for water, assuming that the air-phase is continuous and is at atmospheric pressure everywhere in the soil. The greatest challenge to modeling consolidation in the unsaturated zone at the presnt time is to develop enough experimental data defining the variation of void ratio and saturation with reference to the two chosen stress-state variables

  6. Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

  7. Analytical Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Measurements with a Scanty Amounts of Plant and Soil Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, R.; Rao, P.; Kaur, P.

    2018-01-01

    Elemental evaluations in scanty powdered material have been made using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements, for which formulations along with specific procedure for sample target preparation have been developed. Fractional amount evaluation involves an itinerary of steps; (i) collection of elemental characteristic X-ray counts in EDXRF spectra recorded with different weights of material, (ii) search for linearity between X-ray counts and material weights, (iii) calculation of elemental fractions from the linear fit, and (iv) again linear fitting of calculated fractions with sample weights and its extrapolation to zero weight. Thus, elemental fractions at zero weight are free from material self absorption effects for incident and emitted photons. The analytical procedure after its verification with known synthetic samples of macro-nutrients, potassium and calcium, was used for wheat plant/ soil samples obtained from a pot experiment.

  8. A synthetic aperture microwave radiometer to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Hilliard, L. M.; Swift, C. T.; Ruf, C. S.; Garrett, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    A concept is presented for a microwave radiometer in space to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity as part of an 'Earth Probe' mission. The measurements could be made using an array of stick antennas. The L-band channel (1.4 GHz) would be the primary channel for determining soil moisture, with the S-band (2.65-GHz) and C-band (5.0-GHz) channels providing ancillary information to help correct for the effects of the vegetation canopy and possibly to estimate a moisture profile. A preliminary study indicates that an orbit at 450 km would provide coverage of better than 95 percent of the earth every 3 days. A 10-km resolution cell (at nadir) requires stick antennas about 9.5-m long at L-band. The S-band and C-band sticks would be substantially shorter (5 m and 2.7 m, respectively).

  9. Development of soil-cement blocks with three interventions: natural soil, soil corrected with sand and soil more phase change materials (PCMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Valter Bezerra; Gomes, Uilame Umbelino; Reis, Edmilson Pedreira; Valcacer, Samara Melo; Silva, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the results of characterization tests of soil samples collected in Mossoro-RN, UFERSA-RN Campus, located approximately 20 meters high, and "5 ° 12'34.68 south latitude and 37 ° 19'5.74 "west longitude, with the purpose of producing soil-cement for the manufacture of pressed blocks with good resistance to compression and thermal stability. The following tests were performed: granulometry, plasticity limit, liquidity limit, particle size correction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence. In this soil, based on the results of the granulometric analysis, 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of eicosane paraffin and 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of paraffin 120 / 125F were added, forming analysis compositions, standard soil-cement block and natural soil-cement block with addition of 10% medium sand and 0% paraffin. Paraffins are referred to as PCMs (Phase Change Material). The contrasting effect between the different dosages on the compressive strength values of the soil-cement blocks was observed. The objective is to create new materials that give the block quality equal to or higher than the recommendations of ABNT norms, and that offer greater thermal comfort in the constructions. Soil particles of different sizes were added to 8% (by weight) of cement, and about 9.20% of water added to the mixture

  10. Microbial mineralization processes in Antarctic soils and on plant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelter, M.

    1991-01-01

    Soil samples and different plant material from the maritime and continental Antarctic were analyzed for their actual and potential respiration by different methods: total CO 2 -evolution, biological oxygen demand and use of 14C-labeled glucose which may serve as a model for dissolved organic carbohydrates. Since these methods are argued to indicate the mineralization of different fractions of the total organic material by different actual populations, a comparison between the data from these techniques is carried out with regard to their contributions of the total organic matter debris in these environments. The part of respired material calculated from 14C-studies may contribute to nearly 90% of the metabolized material. Results show that the individual fractions differ significantly with respect to the parent material. There are several aspects which have to be taken into account when looking at these data: the original content of water; the contents of dissolved and particulate carbohydrates; and, other edaphic factors. Of special interest is the overall respiration of plant material (mainly lichens) which is strongly influenced by the bacterial respiration of dissolved carbohydrates, probably by ongrowing organisms due to their efficiency in using dissolved organic matter. In terms of respiratory activity, the (bacterial) respiration of glucose may contribute to more than 50% of the total CO 2 -evolution. This influences considerably the modeling of overall respiration of plant material in those environments where close interactions between different parts of the system are very important for their life strategy. Further, the bacterial part may be an overlooked part of metabolic rates in Antarctic lichens

  11. Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. -- Highlights: •Composition of SOM significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs. •Anthropogenic carbonaceous materials in soil largely control the transport of PAHs. •The classic enrichment theory is invalid if anthropogenic CMs are abundant in the soil. •Organic petrology analysis introduced to study the fate and transport of PAHs. -- Anthropogenic carbonaceous materials in soil, especially black carbon, largely control the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

  12. Search for Extralunar Materials in Apollo Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.; Honniball, C.; Crites, S.; Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been proposed that the lunar surface is a pristine collector of material from across the solar system. The Moon is exposed to the same meteorite flux as the Earth, but because its surface is unaltered by processes such as plate tectonics, aqueous alteration, or recent volcanism, the Moon may have recorded a much longer meteoritic history than the chemically and physically active Earth. By studying lunar soils at the individual grain level, we have the potential to identify and study material from across the inner solar system. We have developed three hyperspectral imaging microscopes to search a large quantity of lunar soil grains for rare lunar, and extra-lunar minerals. We are using lunar-exotic mineralogy as a tracer to detect extralunar candidates. One hyperspectral microscope covers the 1-2.5 micron region for detection of water and hydroxyl overtones in alteration minerals such as phyllosilicates. The second instrument covers the 2.5 to 5 micron region to characterize the 3 micron water region, and for detection of organics and carbonates. The third covers the thermal infrared for detection of phosphates and zeolites as well as the major lunar silicates. We are examining 1 million grains of varying sizes from Apollo 11 ,12, 14 and 16 landing sites. Using the USGS spectral library and the Tetracorder mineral mapping algorithm, we are matching library mineral spectra with the grain spectra we acquire. To validate our ability to detect and match mineral spectra, we are conducting scans of relevent mineral seperates and mixtures at the individual grain level. Results of this mineral inventory will provide contraints on various models and estimates for material transfer between the terrestrial planets.

  13. Sinus Floor Elevation and Augmentation Using Synthetic Nanocrystalline and Nanoporous Hydroxyapatite Bone Substitute Materials: Preliminary Histologic Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouka, Sofia-Maria; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    To compare the tissue composition of augmented sites after using two different synthetic bone substitute materials, nanocrystalline and nanoporous hydroxyapatite (HA), for sinus floor elevation and augmentation. Forty-four patients received 88 titanium screw implants (Camlog Promote plus) of 4.3-mm diameter and 11- or 13-mm length, placed simultaneously during sinus floor elevation and augmentation. Nanocrystalline (Ostim) or nanoporous (NanoBone) HA were used exclusively. Bone substitute materials and implant lengths were allocated by randomization. Bone biopsy specimens were obtained from the former area of the lateral access window at implant exposure during healing abutment placement after 6 months. Biopsy specimens were prepared and examined histologically and histomorphometrically. All implants were osseointegrated at the time of exposure. Clinically and histologically, no signs of inflammation in the augmented sites were present. The histomorphometric analysis of 44 biopsy specimens revealed 31.8% ± 11.6% newly formed bone for sites augmented with nanocrystalline HA and 34.6% ± 9.2% for nanoporous HA (P = .467). The proportion of remaining bone substitute material was 28.4% ± 18.6% and 30% ± 13%, respectively (P = .453). The proportion of soft tissue within the biopsy specimens was 39.9% ± 11.1% and 35.4% ± 6.8%, respectively (P = .064). No significant differences were found between the area fractions of bone, bone substitute material, and soft tissue concerning the bone substitute material utilized. Within the present study, both synthetic bone substitute materials, nanocrystalline and nanoporous HA, were found to support bone formation in sinus floor elevation and augmentation procedures by osteoconductivity. They were not completely resorbed after 6 months. The amounts of newly formed bone, soft tissue, and bone substitute material remnants were found to be similar, indicating that both materials are likewise suitable for sinus floor elevation and

  14. Influence of Pichia pastoris cellular material on polymerase chain reaction performance as a synthetic biology standard for genome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Alexander; Woodhouse, Stefan; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in synthetic genomics are now well underway in yeasts due to the low cost of synthetic DNA. These new capabilities also bring greater need for quantitating the presence, loss and rearrangement of loci within synthetic yeast genomes. Methods for achieving this will ideally; i) be robust to industrial settings, ii) adhere to a global standard and iii) be sufficiently rapid to enable at-line monitoring during cell growth. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) is increasingly used for industrial production of biotherapeutic proteins so we sought to answer the following questions for this particular yeast species. Is time-consuming DNA purification necessary to obtain accurate end-point polymerase chain reaction (e-pPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data? Can the novel linear regression of efficiency qPCR method (LRE qPCR), which has properties desirable in a synthetic biology standard, match the accuracy of conventional qPCR? Does cell cultivation scale influence PCR performance? To answer these questions we performed e-pPCR and qPCR in the presence and absence of cellular material disrupted by a mild 30s sonication procedure. The e-pPCR limit of detection (LOD) for a genomic target locus was 50pg (4.91×10(3) copies) of purified genomic DNA (gDNA) but the presence of cellular material reduced this sensitivity sixfold to 300pg gDNA (2.95×10(4) copies). LRE qPCR matched the accuracy of a conventional standard curve qPCR method. The presence of material from bioreactor cultivation of up to OD600=80 did not significantly compromise the accuracy of LRE qPCR. We conclude that a simple and rapid cell disruption step is sufficient to render P. pastoris samples of up to OD600=80 amenable to analysis using LRE qPCR which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Medical Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    "Town clenched in suffocating grip of asbestos"USA Today, article on Libby,Montana, February, 2000"Researchers find volcanoes are bad for your health… long after they finish erupting"University of WarwickPress Release, 1999"Toxic soils plague city - arsenic, lead in 5 neighborhoods could imperil 17,000 residents"Denver Post, 2002"Ill winds - dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents"Science News, 2002A quick scan of newspapers, television, science magazines, or the internet on any given day has a fairly high likelihood of encountering a story (usually accompanied by a creative headline such as those above) regarding human health concerns linked to dusts, soils, or other earth materials. Many such concerns have been recognized and studied for decades, but new concerns arise regularly.Earth scientists have played significant roles in helping the medical community understand some important links between earth materials and human health, such as the role of asbestos mineralogy in disease (Skinner et al., 1988; Ross, 1999; Holland and Smith, 2001), and the role of dusts generated by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake in an outbreak of Valley Fever ( Jibson et al., 1998; Schneider et al., 1997).Earth science activities tied to health issues are growing (Skinner and Berger, 2003), and are commonly classified under the emerging discipline of medical geology (Finkelman et al., 2001; Selinus and Frank, 2000; Selinus, in press).Medical geochemistry (also referred to as environmental geochemistry and health: Smith and Huyck (1999), Appleton et al. (1996)) can be considered as a diverse subdiscipline of medical geology that deals with human and animal health in the context of the Earth's geochemical cycle ( Figure 1). Many medical geochemistry studies have focused on how chemical elements in rocks, soils, and sediments are transmitted via water or vegetation into the food chain, and how regional geochemical variations can result in disease

  16. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsing Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils.

  17. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

  18. The production of synthetic material gas (SNG) from pit coal by a combined auto-allothermic steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, A.

    1975-01-01

    The steam gasification of pit coal requires temperatures which cannot yet be reached with the present state of HTGR technology for material technical reasons. The use of nuclear heat thus remains limited to some fields of application outside the gasifier, which are specified. The production costs of synthetic natural gas from autothermal gasification on the one hand, and from combined auto-allothermal gasification on the other hand are calculated considering the heat price of pit coal and of the selling price of electrical energy and are compared. (GG/LH) [de

  19. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: litter quality or parent material?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil

  20. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: Litter quality or parent material?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil

  1. Improvements in or relating to method of preparing porous material/synthetic polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, P.R.; McGahan, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method for preparing a composite material is described comprising polymerising a monoethylenically unsaturated monomer of a mixture of copolymerisable monoethylenically unsaturated monomers in a porous material, excluding a porous natural cellulosic fibre material, the polymerisable liquid being admixed in the porous material with a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon or a halogen derivative thereof. It is preferable that the polymerisable liquid and the hydrocarbon or halogen derivative are present in the porous material. Impregnation may be carried out by a vacuum technique or by simple immersion. The monomers that may be used are listed, but a mixture of styrene and acrylonitrile is preferred in the proportions 60 : 40 by volume. Polymerisation may be effected by irradiation, preferably with 60 Co γ-radiation. Suitable porous materials include concrete, stone, and fibreboard. If concrete is used the composite material may be used for pressure pipes and other articles normally made of steel. Examples of the application of the process are given. (U.K.)

  2. Elasticity and breaking strength of synthetic suture materials incubated in various equine physiological and pathological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, C M; Buckley, C T; Jenner, F; Moissonnier, P; Brama, P A J

    2014-07-01

    Selection of suture material in equine surgery is often based on costs or subjective factors, such as the surgeon's personal experience, rather than objective facts. The amount of objective data available on durability of suture materials with regard to specific equine physiological conditions is limited. To evaluate the effect of various equine physiological and pathological fluids on the rate of degradation of a number of commonly used suture materials. In vitro material testing. Suture materials were exposed in vitro to physiological fluid, followed by biomechanical analysis. Three absorbable suture materials, glycolide/lactide copolymer, polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone were incubated at 37°C for 7, 14 or 28 days in phosphate-buffered saline, equine serum, equine urine and equine peritoneal fluid from an animal with peritonitis. Five strands of each suture material type were tested to failure in a materials testing machine for each time point and each incubation medium. Yield strength, strain and Young's modulus were calculated, analysed and reported. For all suture types, the incubation time had a significant effect on yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype was also shown significantly to influence changes in each of yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype of fluid have significant effects on the biomechanical properties of various suture materials. These findings are important for evidence-based selection of suture material in clinical cases. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring Fingerprints of the Extreme Thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula Grown on Synthetic Martian Regolith Materials as the Sole Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Kölbl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The biology of metal transforming microorganisms is of a fundamental and applied importance for our understanding of past and present biogeochemical processes on Earth and in the Universe. The extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula is a metal mobilizing archaeon, which thrives in hot acid environments (optimal growth at 74°C and pH 2.0 and utilizes energy from the oxidation of reduced metal inorganic sources. These characteristics of M. sedula make it an ideal organism to further our knowledge of the biogeochemical processes of possible life on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. Exploring the viability and metal extraction capacity of M. sedula living on and interacting with synthetic extraterrestrial minerals, we show that M. sedula utilizes metals trapped in the Martian regolith simulants (JSC Mars 1A; P-MRS; S-MRS; MRS07/52 as the sole energy sources. The obtained set of microbiological and mineralogical data suggests that M. sedula actively colonizes synthetic Martian regolith materials and releases free soluble metals. The surface of bioprocessed Martian regolith simulants is analyzed for specific mineralogical fingerprints left upon M. sedula growth. The obtained results provide insights of biomining of extraterrestrial material as well as of the detection of biosignatures implementing in life search missions.

  5. Exploring Fingerprints of the Extreme Thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula Grown on Synthetic Martian Regolith Materials as the Sole Energy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Somoza, Veronika; Schimak, Mario P; Strbak, Oliver; Blazevic, Amir; Milojevic, Tetyana

    2017-01-01

    The biology of metal transforming microorganisms is of a fundamental and applied importance for our understanding of past and present biogeochemical processes on Earth and in the Universe. The extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula is a metal mobilizing archaeon, which thrives in hot acid environments (optimal growth at 74°C and pH 2.0) and utilizes energy from the oxidation of reduced metal inorganic sources. These characteristics of M. sedula make it an ideal organism to further our knowledge of the biogeochemical processes of possible life on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. Exploring the viability and metal extraction capacity of M. sedula living on and interacting with synthetic extraterrestrial minerals, we show that M. sedula utilizes metals trapped in the Martian regolith simulants (JSC Mars 1A; P-MRS; S-MRS; MRS07/52) as the sole energy sources. The obtained set of microbiological and mineralogical data suggests that M. sedula actively colonizes synthetic Martian regolith materials and releases free soluble metals. The surface of bioprocessed Martian regolith simulants is analyzed for specific mineralogical fingerprints left upon M. sedula growth. The obtained results provide insights of biomining of extraterrestrial material as well as of the detection of biosignatures implementing in life search missions.

  6. Response of Slope Made Up of Soil and Other Waste Materials under Sinusoidal Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Chanda, Nipa; Ghosh, Sima; Pal, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Performance of small scale embankment slopes under dynamic loading is experimentally evaluated in the present work conducting shake table test. Model slopes are made up of soil and soil dust mixtures at various water level conditions. Material dust types as taken in the experiment are saw dust, stone dust, brick dust, and building demolish dust. Shear strength of soil such as cohesion and internal friction angle increases on an average 25% and 23%, respectively, when soil is mixed with 30% bu...

  7. Neutron cross sections of cryogenic materials: a synthetic kernel for molecular solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, J.R.; Gillette, V.H.; Petriw, S.; Cantargi, F.; Pepe, M.E.; Sbaffoni, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new synthetic scattering function aimed at the description of the interaction of thermal neutrons with molecular solids has been developed. At low incident neutron energies, both lattice modes and molecular rotations are specifically accounted for, through an expansion of the scattering law in few phonon terms. Simple representations of the molecular dynamical modes are used, in order to produce a fairly accurate description of neutron scattering kernels and cross sections with a minimum set of input data. As the neutron energies become much larger than that corresponding to the characteristic Debye temperature and to the rotational energies of the molecular solid, the 'phonon formulation' transforms into the traditional description for molecular gases. (orig.)

  8. Characteristics of biomass ashes from different materials and their ameliorative effects on acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Renyong; Li, Jiuyu; Jiang, Jun; Mehmood, Khalid; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Renkou; Qian, Wei

    2017-05-01

    The chemical characteristics, element contents, mineral compositions, and the ameliorative effects on acid soils of five biomass ashes from different materials were analyzed. The chemical properties of the ashes varied depending on the source biomass material. An increase in the concrete shuttering contents in the biomass materials led to higher alkalinity, and higher Ca and Mg levels in biomass ashes, which made them particularly good at ameliorating effects on soil acidity. However, heavy metal contents, such as Cr, Cu, and Zn in the ashes, were relatively high. The incorporation of all ashes increased soil pH, exchangeable base cations, and available phosphorus, but decreased soil exchangeable acidity. The application of the ashes from biomass materials with a high concrete shuttering content increased the soil available heavy metal contents. Therefore, the biomass ashes from wood and crop residues with low concrete contents were the better acid soil amendments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Nanoenhanced Materials for Reclamation of Mine Lands and Other Degraded Soils: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful mine soil reclamation facilitates ecosystem recovery, minimizes adverse environmental impacts, creates additional lands for agricultural or forestry uses, and enhances the carbon (C sequestration. Nanoparticles with extremely high reactivity and deliverability can be applied as amendments to improve soil quality, mitigate soil contaminations, ensure safe land–application of the conventional amendment materials (e.g., manures and biosolids, and enhance soil erosion control. However, there is no report on using nanoenhanced materials for mine soil reclamation. Through reviewing the up-to-date research results on using environment-friendly nanoparticles for agricultural soil quality improvement and for contaminated soil remediation, this paper synthesizes that these nanomaterials with high potentials for mine soil reclamation include zeolites, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles, phosphate-based nanoparticles, iron sulfide nanoparticles and C nanotubes. Transport of these particles in the environment and their possible ecotoxicological effects are also discussed. Additionally, this article proposes a practical and economical approach to applying nanotechnology for mine soil reclamation: adding small amounts of nanoparticles to the conventional soil amendment materials and then applying the mixtures for soil quality improvements. Hence the cost of using nanoparticles is reduced and the benefits of both nanoparticles and the conventional amendment materials are harnessed.

  10. Synthetic Light-Curable Polymeric Materials Provide a Supportive Niche for Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kyle H; Scherba, Jacob C; Bever, Alaina M; Alexander, Morgan R; Celiz, Adam D; Mooney, David J

    2018-01-01

    Dental disease annually affects billions of patients, and while regenerative dentistry aims to heal dental tissue after injury, existing polymeric restorative materials, or fillings, do not directly participate in the healing process in a bioinstructive manner. There is a need for restorative materials that can support native functions of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), which are capable of regenerating dentin. A polymer microarray formed from commercially available monomers to rapidly identify materials that support DPSC adhesion is used. Based on these findings, thiol-ene chemistry is employed to achieve rapid light-curing and minimize residual monomer of the lead materials. Several triacrylate bulk polymers support DPSC adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation in vitro, and exhibit stiffness and tensile strength similar to existing dental materials. Conversely, materials composed of a trimethacrylate monomer or bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate, which is a monomer standard in dental materials, do not support stem cell adhesion and negatively impact matrix and signaling pathways. Furthermore, thiol-ene polymerized triacrylates are used as permanent filling materials at the dentin-pulp interface in direct contact with irreversibly injured pulp tissue. These novel triacrylate-based biomaterials have potential to enable novel regenerative dental therapies in the clinic by both restoring teeth and providing a supportive niche for DPSCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Laboratory-scale bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil of Kuwait with soil amendment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B H; Chino, H; Tsuji, H; Kunito, T; Nagaoka, K; Otsuka, S; Yamashita, K; Matsumoto, S; Oyaizu, H

    1997-10-01

    A huge amount of oil-contaminated soil remains unremediated in the Kuwait desert. The contaminated oil has the potentiality to cause pollution of underground water and to effect the health of people in the neighborhood. In this study, laboratory scale bioremediation experiments were carried out. Hyponex (Hyponex, Inc.) and bark manure were added as basic nutrients for microorganisms, and twelve kinds of materials (baked diatomite, microporous glass, coconut charcoal, an oil-decomposing bacterial mixture (Formula X from Oppenheimer, Inc.), and eight kinds of surfactants) were applied to accelerate the biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons. 15% to 33% of the contaminated oil was decomposed during 43 weeks' incubation. Among the materials tested, coconut charcoal enhanced the biodegradation. On the contrary, the addition of an oil-decomposing bacterial mixture impeded the biodegradation. The effects of the other materials were very slight. The toxicity of the biodegraded compounds was estimated by the Ames test and the tea pollen tube growth test. Both of the hydrophobic (dichloromethane extracts) and hydrophilic (methanol extracts) fractions showed a very slight toxicity in the Ames test. In the tea pollen tube growth test, the hydrophobic fraction was not toxic and enhanced the growth of pollen tubes.

  12. Novel bio-synthetic hybrid materials and coculture systems for musculoskeletal tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeseung Janice

    Tissue Engineering is a truly exciting field of this age, trying to regenerate and repair impaired tissues. Unlike the old artificial implants, tissue engineering aims at making a long-term functional biological replacement. One strategy for such tissue engineering requires the following three components: cells, scaffolds, and soluble factors. Cells are cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold with medium containing various soluble factors. Once a tissue is developed in vitro, then it is implanted in vivo. The overall goal of this thesis was to develop novel bio-synthetic hybrid scaffolds and coculture system for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. The most abundant cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) components are collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which are the natural scaffold for chondrocytes. As two different peptides, collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) and hyaluronic acid binding peptide (HABPep) were previously shown to bind to collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) of GAG, respectively, it was hypothesized that immobilizing CMP and HABP on 3D scaffold would results in an interaction between ECM components and synthetic scaffolds via peptide-ECM bindings. CMP or HABPep-conjugated photopolymerizable poly(ethylene oxide) diacrylate (PEODA) hydrogels were synthesized and shown to retain encapsulated collagen or HA, respectively. This result supported that conjugated CMP and HABPep can interact with collagen and HA, respectively, and can serve as biological linkers in 3D synthetic hydrogels. When chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were seeded, cells in CMP-conjugated scaffolds produced significantly more amount of type II collagen and GAG, compared to those in control scaffolds. Moreover, MSCs cultured in CMP-conjugated scaffolds exhibited lower level of hypertrophic markers, cbfa-1 and type X collagen. These results demonstrated that enhanced interaction between collagen and scaffold via CMP improves chondrogenesis of chondrocytes and MSCs and

  13. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of coal combustion byproducts as soil liming materials - their influence on soil pH and enzyme activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, G W; Siddaramappa, R; Wright, R J; Codling, E E; Gao, G

    1994-03-01

    To evaluate coal combustion byproducts as liming materials and address issues related to soil quality, the authors compared the influence of different amounts of four combustion byproducts (fly ash and bed ash from a fluidized bed combustion furnace, lime-injected multistage burner residue, and spray dryer residue) and CaCO[sub 3] on soil pH and activities of urease, phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and dehydrogenase in an acidic soil. Studies comparing the influence of the combustion byproducts and CaCO[sub 3] on soil pH showed that on weight basis of application, substantial differences were observed in the ability of these materials to influence soil pH but that such differences decreased markedly after the data were transformed to a CaCO[sub 3] equivalent basis of application. Analysis of covariance for these transformed data indicated that whereas the liming abilities of fly ash and CaCO[sub 3] were not significantly different when compared on the CaCO[sub 3] equivalent basis, those of bed ash, multistage burner residue, and spray dryer residue were less than that of CaCO[sub 3]. Studies comparing the influence of the byproducts and CaCO[sub 3] on soil enzyme activities showed that the effect of these liming materials on the enzyme activities studied was largely due to their influence on soil pH. These studies showed that the combustion byproducts tested functioned as soil liming materials in a manner similar to that of CaCO[sub 3] and seemed to have little adverse effect on soil quality.

  15. BIOLOGICAL AND SYNTHETIC MATERIALS IN RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY FOR BREAST CANCER TREATMENT (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Zikiryakhodzhaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years has been a worldwide trend towards rejuvenating breast cancer, and the evolution of reconstructive breast surgery is proceeding at a rapid pace. The surgical method is the primary method in the combined and complex treatment of breast cancer, and radical mastectomy is still the main option for surgical treatment in most Russian clinics. Most women who need a mastectomy prefer a one-stage breast reconstruction, because the woman is quickly rehabilitated psychologically and physically after this operation. Nevertheless, the use of silicone endoprostheses did not solve the problems of breast reconstruction in combined treatment in oncology. The issue remains unresolved of various complications, related not only to infections, but also to the development of capsular contracture after radiotherapy. Many patients with a one-stage breast reconstruction using a silicone endoprostheses lack the volume of their own tissues for reliable shelter of the endoprosthesis. In such cases, synthetic reticulated implants, biological implants or autologous flaps are used to cover and strengthen the lower slope of the reconstructed breast.

  16. Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique in Ultrasonic Inspection of Coarse Grained Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz (Uppsala Univ., Signals and Systems, Box 528, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    Experience from the ultrasonic inspection of nuclear power plants has shown that large focused transducers are relatively effective in suppressing grain (structure) noise. Operation of a large focused transducer can be thought of as an integration (coherent summation) of individual beams reflected from the target and received by individual points at the transducer surface. Synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), in its simplest version mimics an acoustic lens used for focusing beams at a desired point in the region of interest. Thus, SAFT should be able to suppress the grain noise in the similar way as the focused transducer does. This report presents the results of investigation of SAFT algorithms applied for post-processing of ultrasonic data acquired in inspection of coarse grained metals. The performance of SAFT in terms of its spatial (cross-range) resolution and grain noise suppression is studied. The evaluation is made based on the experimental data obtained from the ultrasonic inspection of test specimens with artificial defects (side drilled holes). SAFT algorithms for both contact and immersion mode are introduced and experimentally verified

  17. Response of plant species to coal-mine soil materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.D.; Tucker, T.C.; Thames, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The two-year Black Mesa Coal Mine Research Study on the area near Kayenta, Arizona investigating the growth and establishment of seven plant species in unmined soil and coal-mined soils found that plant species grew better in unmined soil and that irrigation is essential during seedling establishment for the effective stabilization of coal-mined soils in a semi-arid environment. Differences among the species included variations in germination, response to irrigation, seedling establishment, and stem growth. 12 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Phosphorus collectors from filter paper and synthetic cloth coated with iron or aluminium oxide to provide phosphorus by diffusion in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bernardi Luchese

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus collectors made from filter paper and synthetic cloth, were tested to evaluate their feasibility of determining the need for phosphate application. The collectors were coated with two types of oxides, iron oxide and aluminium oxide. The capacity of the collectors was tested by placing them in a 2 mL of solution containing phosphorus (PO4(3- in the concentration of 0.0, 1.00, 3.00, 5.00, 7.00, 9.00 and 11.00 µ g.mL-1, respectively, after which they were placed in contact with four types of soil (LBa, LRd, LEd and Ca and incubed for 0.0 and 24 h. In this test the soils were kept at a humidity equivalent to 150 mmHg suction. The amount of phosphorus extracted from the solutions was tested at intervals between 0,0 and 11.0 µ g of phosphorus/mL. Results indicated that collectors were most efficient in Dystrophic Dark-Red Latosol (LEd and less efficient in "Bruno álico" Latosol (LBa and Cambisol (Ca. Synthetic cloth was the support yielding the best performance, whereas iron oxide lining was the most adequate lining material. Phosphorus collection increased with time of incubation.Coletores de fósforo feitos de papel filtro e pano sintético (perfex foram usados no estudo da determinação da necessidade de adubação fosfatada. Foram preparados coletores impregnados com óxido de ferro e outros com óxido de alumínio. A capacidade foi testada colocando-os em 2 mL de uma solução padrão de fósforo (na forma de fosfato com 0,0; 1,00; 3,00; 5,00; 7,00; 9,00 e 11;00 µg.mL-1 , depois foram colocados em contato com 4 tipos de solos (Lba, LRd, Led e Ca e incubados por 0,0 e 24 horas. No teste, os solos foram mantidos com uma umidade equivalente a 150 mmHg de sucção. Os resultados mostraram que os coletores foram mais eficientes, na extração de fósforo, no solo LED e menos eficiente no LBa e Ca (Cambissolo. O pano sintético foi a matriz (material suporte que proporcionou melhores resultados. O óxido de ferro foi o substrato foi o

  19. Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using a Novel Synthetic Grafting Material: A Case with Two-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fairbairn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report highlights the use of a novel in situ hardening synthetic (alloplastic, resorbable, bone grafting material composed of beta tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulfate, for alveolar ridge preservation. A 35-year-old female patient was referred by her general dentist for extraction of the mandibular right first molar and rehabilitation of the site with a dental implant. The nonrestorable tooth was “atraumatically” extracted without raising a flap, and the socket was immediately grafted with the synthetic biomaterial and covered with a hemostatic fleece. No membrane was used, and the site was left uncovered without obtaining primary closure, in order to heal by secondary intention. After 12 weeks, the architecture of the ridge was preserved, and clinical observation revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva. At reentry for placement of the implant, a bone core biopsy was obtained, and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. The implant was successfully loaded 12 weeks after placement. Clinical and radiological follow-up examination at two years revealed stable and successful results regarding biological, functional, and esthetic parameters.

  20. Biomimetic poly(amidoamine hydrogels as synthetic materials for cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenardi Cristina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly(amidoamines (PAAs are synthetic polymers endowed with many biologically interesting properties, being highly biocompatible, non toxic and biodegradable. Hydrogels based on PAAs can be easily modified during the synthesis by the introduction of functional co-monomers. Aim of this work is the development and testing of novel amphoteric nanosized poly(amidoamine hydrogel film incorporating 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine moieties to create RGD-mimicking repeating units for promoting cell adhesion. Results A systematic comparative study of the response of an epithelial cell line was performed on hydrogels with agmatine and on non-functionalized amphoteric poly(amidoamine hydrogels and tissue culture plastic substrates. The cell adhesion on the agmatine containing substrates was comparable to that on plastic substrates and significantly enhanced with respect to the non-functionalized controls. Interestingly, spreading and proliferation on the functionalized supports are slower than on plastic exhibiting the possibility of an easier control of the cell growth kinetics. In order to favor the handling of the samples, a procedure for the production of bi-layered constructs was also developed by means the deposition via spin coating of a thin layer of hydrogel on a pre-treated cover slip. Conclusion The obtained results reveal that PAAs hydrogels can be profitably functionalized and, in general, undergo physical and chemical modifications to meet specific requirements. In particular the incorporation of agmatine warrants good potential in the field of cell culturing and the development of supported functionalized hydrogels on cover glass are very promising substrates for applications in cell screening devices.

  1. Localization of self-generated synthetic footstep sounds on different walked-upon materials through headphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Spagnol, Simone; Geronazzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    typologies of surface materials: solid (e.g., wood) and aggregate (e.g., gravel). Different sound delivery methods (mono, stereo, binaural) as well as several surface materials, in presence or absence of concurrent contextual auditory information provided as soundscapes, were evaluated in a vertical...... localization task. Results showed that solid surfaces were localized significantly farther from the walker's feet than the aggregate ones. This effect was independent of the used rendering technique, of the presence of soundscapes, and of merely temporal or spectral attributes of sound. The effect...

  2. Lime-Stabilized Black Cotton Soil and Brick Powder Mixture as Subbase Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srikanth Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various researchers, for the past few decades, had tried to stabilize black cotton soil using lime for improving its shrinkage and swelling characteristics. But these days, the cost of lime has increased resulting in increase in need for alternative and cost effective waste materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. Brick powder, one among the alternative materials, is a fine powdered waste that contains higher proportions of silica and is found near brick kilns in rural areas. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of lime-stabilized black cotton soil and brick powder mixture as subbase material in flexible pavements. Black cotton soil procured from the local area, tested for suitability as subbase material, turned out to be unsuitable as it resulted in very less CBR value. Even lime stabilization of black cotton soil under study has not showed up the required CBR value specified for the subbase material of flexible pavement by MORTH. Hence the lime-stabilized black cotton soil is proportioned with brick powder to obtain optimum mixture that yields a better CBR value. The mixture of 20% brick powder and 80% lime-stabilized black cotton soil under study resulted in increase in the CBR value by about 135% in comparison with lime-stabilized black cotton soil. Thus it is promising to use the mixture of brick powder and lime-stabilized black cotton soil as subbase material in flexible pavements.

  3. Retention of low-level radioacrive waste material by soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Fowler, E.B.; Polzer, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Beacuse of the wide variations in soil and waste characteristics, the degree of radionuclide retention would be expected to vary; knowledge of that variation may be of value in predicting radionuclde mobility. This report discusses results of investigations of radioactive waste/soil interactions as they relate to radionucldie retention and its variability among soils and radionuclides. In soil column leaching studies, radioactive waste solutions were applied to four different soil types; 241 Am, 88 Y, and 172 Hf were retained in the top four cm of soil with better than 90% retained by a protective surface sand layer. Less than 50% of the 85 Sr, 137 Cs, and 83 Rb was retained by the surface sand. No 88 Y, 172 Hf, 85 Sr, 137 Cs, or 83 Rb was detected by gamma counting in the leachate solutions, however, using a more sensitive analytical technique small amounts of 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu and 241 Am were found in leachates from all soils. It appears that release of this small fraction of mobile radionuclide may have a significant long-term impact on the environment. It aslo appears that reliance for attenuation of some radionuclides can not be placed solely on characteristics of the soil matrix

  4. Improvements in or relating to method of preparing porous material/synthetic polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, P.R.; McGahan, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Monomers in a porous natural material, e.g. cellulose fibre, wood, are polymerized with gamma radiation. Addition of a chlorinated hydrocarbon to the monomer improves fire resistance, brittleness and friction coefficient and reduces the radiation dose required for polymerization. (U.K.)

  5. Influence of synthetic packing materials on the gas dispersion and biodegradation kinetics in fungal air biofilters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta-Boldú, F.X.; Illa, J.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Flotats, X.

    2008-01-01

    The biodegradation of toluene was studied in two lab-scale air biofilters operated in parallel, packed respectively with perlite granules (PEG) and polyurethane foam cubes (PUC) and inoculated with the same toluene-degrading fungus. Differences on the material pore size, from micrometres in PEG to

  6. Electro-Synthetic Optimization of Host Material Based on MIL-100(Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witri Wahyu Lestari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electro-synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks types of MIL-100(Fe (MIL = Material Institute of Lavoisier in ethanol: water (1: 1 with electrolyte TBATFB 0.1 M has been optimized by varying voltage (12, 13, 14 and 15 Volt and temperature (room temperature, 40, 60 and 80 °C. The product showed light brown powder which upon activation becomes dark brown. Optimum condition achieved during use voltage of 15 Volts and at a temperature of 40 °C with 33% yield. The obtained material was characterized by XRD and compared to CCDC 640536 simulated patterns to confirm the phase purity of the product. As comparison hydrothermal and reflux method have been carried out. Characterization by FTIR has also undertaken to ensure the coordination between the metal cation (Fe3+ and the BTC ligand (BTC = 1,3,5-Benzene Tri Carboxylate. Meanwhile pore analysis using SAA confirmed that MIL-100(Fe obtained by electrolysis method has a BET surface area reached till 569.191 m²/g with a total pore volume of 0.4540 cc/g and an average pore diameter reached 16 Å. Based on SEM analysis, morphology material show particle size between 0.4-8.6 μm and has a thermal stability up to 350 °C according thermo-gravimetric analysis. Due to the presence of Lewis acid sites on Fe-trimeric unit, porosity features on MIL-100(Fe and a fairly high thermal stability, this material is potentially used as the host material for the catalyst in the conversion reactions model for green diesel production.

  7. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  8. Foreign Body Giant Cell-Related Encapsulation of a Synthetic Material Three Years After Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jonas; Barbeck, Mike; Sader, Robert A; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Russe, Philippe; Choukroun, Joseph; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2016-06-01

    Bone substitute materials of different origin and chemical compositions are frequently used in augmentation procedures to enlarge the local bone amount. However, relatively little data exist on the long-term tissue reactions. The presented case reports for the first time histological and histomorphometrical analyses of a nanocrystaline hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute material implanted in the human sinus cavity after an integration period of 3 years. The extracted biopsy was analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with focus on the tissue reactions, vascularization, new bone formation, and the induction of a foreign body reaction. A comparably high rate of connective tissue (48.25%) surrounding the remaining bone substitute granules (42.13%) was observed. Accordingly, the amount of bone tissue (9.62%) built the smallest fraction within the biopsy. Further, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive and -negative multinucleated giant cells (4.35 and 3.93 cells/mm(2), respectively) were detected on the material-tissue interfaces. The implantation bed showed a mild vascularization of 10.03 vessels/mm(2) and 0.78%. The present case report shows that after 3 years, a comparable small amount of bone tissue was observable. Thus, the foreign body response to the bone substitute seems to be folded without further degradation or regeneration.

  9. The effect of patient age on bone formation using a fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material in maxillary sinus grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Wurm, Alexander; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Gerber, Thomas; Reichert, Christoph; Jäger, Andreas; Götz, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinus floor augmentation is a treatment that has been proposed for patients in whom the alveolar bone height is insufficient. This procedure is commonly used in patients aged 40 to 70 years and older. However, little information exists whether the factor of age might influence the outcome of augmentation procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the patient's age has an effect on bone formation and incorporation in maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures. A fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material (NanoBone, Artoss) was used for sinus floor augmentation in patients with a subantral vertical bone height of at least 3 mm and maximum of 7 mm. After 7 months healing time, biopsy specimens were taken and were divided into two groups according to the patient's age. Exclusion criteria were poor general health (eg, severe renal/and or liver disease), history of a radiotherapy in the head region, chemotherapy at the time of surgical procedure, noncompensated diabetes mellitus, symptoms of a maxillary sinus disease, active periodontal or systemic diseases, smoking, and poor oral hygiene. Histologic analyses with hematoxylin-eosin stain were performed. Multinucleated osteoclast-like cells were identified by histochemical staining (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]). Quantitative and age-dependent assessment of bone formation, residual bone grafting material, and soft tissue formation following sinus augmentation was performed using histomorphometric analysis and the Bonferroni adjustment of the Student t test. Twenty biopsy specimens from 17 patients were taken and divided into two groups according to age (group 1: 41 to 52 years; group 2: 66 to 71 years) containing 10 specimens each, which were analyzed in triplicate resulting in a total of 30 specimens per group. A regeneration process with varying amounts of newly formed bone surrounded by marrow-like tissue was present in all augmented regions. No signs of

  10. Accessing Synthetically-Challenging Isoindole-Based Materials for Assessment in Organic Photovoltaics via Chemical and Engineering Methodologies =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jeremy

    Isoindoles are a broad class of compounds that comprise a very small space within the domain of established photoactive materials for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Given this scarcity, combined with the performance appeal of presently and well known isoindole-based compounds such as the phthalocyanines, it is a worthy undertaking to develop new materials in this domain. This thesis aims to bring to light the suitability of five novel, or underexplored, classes of isoindole-based materials for OPVs. These classes are the boron subphthalocyanine (BsubPc) polymers, oxygen-bridged dimers of BsubPcs (mu-oxo-(BsubPc) 2), boron subnaphthalocyanines (BsubNcs), group XIII metal complexes of 1,3-bis(2-pyridylimino)isodinoline (BPI), and the boron tribenzosubporphyrins (BsubPys). The synthesis of these materials was proven to be challenging as evident in their low isolated yields, lengthy synthetic and purification processes, and/or batch-to-batch variations. This outcome was not surprising given their undeveloped chemical nature. The photo- and electro-physical properties were characterized and shown to be desirable for all classes other than the group XIII metal complexes of BPI for OPVs. mu-Oxo-(BsubPc)2 and BsubNcs show promise in this application while BsubPc polymers and BsubPys will be subjects of future exploration. The results from the work herein aid to develop and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the structure-property relationships of isoindole derivatives. On a broader scale, the work demonstrates their versatility as functional materials for OPVs and their possible expansion to other organic electronic technologies like organic light emitting diodes and organic field effect transistors.

  11. Cement conditioning of waste materials and polluted soil using the GEODUR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocdersen, K.; Hjelmar, O.; Mortonsen, S.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper two areas of application of the GEODUR additive in cement stabilization of waste materials have been investigated: stabilization of radioactive contaminated soil and stabilization of municipal solid waste incinerator ash. Preliminary experimental work on a clayey soil contaminated with radioactive cesium and strontium has indicated that the GEODUR process is a technically feasible method for soil solidification. The retarding effects of humic materials in the soil are eliminated by the additive even at low cement contents. The solidified soil is not particularly strong, but that satisfactory water permeability. Retention of cesium is reasonably good, but not as good as for the untreated soil. Retention of strontium is not good but is considerably improved by carbonation. The volume stability during permanent immersion of the solidified products in water is satisfactory, but crack formation during dryout cannot be excluded

  12. Detection of tritium sorption on four soil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Yanguo; Zuo Rui; Wang Jinsheng; Hu Qinhong; Sun Zongjian; Zeng Ni

    2011-01-01

    In order to measure groundwater age and design nuclear waste disposal sites, it is important to understand the sorption behavior of tritium on soils. In this study, batch tests were carried out using four soils from China: silty clays from An County and Jiangyou County in Sichuan Province, both of which could be considered candidate sites for Very Low Level Waste disposal; silty sand from Beijing; and loess from Yuci County in Shanxi Province, a typical Chinese loess region. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. The average distribution coefficient from all of these influencing factors was about 0.1-0.2 mL/g for the four types of soil samples. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment. - Research highlights: → In this study, batch sorption tests validate the adsorption of tritium on all of the four tested soil samples collected in China, and the distribution coefficient is found to be non-zero and less than 0.4 mL/g. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment.

  13. Toxicity Determinations for Five Energetic Materials, Weathered and Aged in Soil, to the Collembolan Folsomia Candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    obtained from the Soil Fauna and Ecotoxicology Research Unit, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute (Silkeborg...AND AGED IN SOIL , TO THE COLLEMBOLAN FOLSOMIA CANDIDA ECBC-TR-1273 Carlton T. Phillips Ronald T. Checkai Roman G. Kuperman Michael Simini...for Five Energetic Materials, Weathered and Aged in Soil , to the Collembolan Folsomia candida 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: litter quality or parent material?

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil respiration and net N-mineralization of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil in a laboratory incubation experiment and estimated gross N-mineralization and immobilization with a simulation model. Speci...

  15. Adsorption and desorption of Am(III) on calcareous soil and its parent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weijuan; Zhang Fuming; Tao Zuyi

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of Am(III) on a calcareous soil (sierozem) and its parent material (loess) were studied by batch technique. The molarities of the Am(III) aqueous solutions were less than 5 x 10 -9 mol/l. High adsorbability was found of Am(III) on the calcareous soil and its parent material. In order to decrease the adsorption and, hence, to investigate the adsorption characteristics properly, stable Eu 3+ as hold back carrier and analogue was added to the aqueous solution. The relative contributions of CaCO 3 , organic matter (OM) to the Am(III) adsorption on calcareous soil and its parent material were investigated. The adsorption and desorption isotherms of Am(III) on untreated soil and loess and the three kinds of treated soils and three kinds of treated loesses to remove CaCO 3 , OM and both CaCO 3 and OM were determined, respectively. It was found that all isotherms were linear, the average distribution coefficients (K d ) for the untreated soil and for the untreated loess were almost equal, while there was an obvious difference between the values of the average distribution coefficients (K d ) for the treated soil and the treated loess to remove CaCO 3 or OM. The adsorption-desorption hysteresis on the untreated and treated soils and loesses actually occurred and there was an obvious difference between the hysteresis coefficients on both the corresponding treated soil and loess. It can be concluded that the adsorbability of Am(III) on calcareous soil is similar to that on its parent material, and that the contributions of CaCO 3 and OM to the Am(III) adsorption by the untreated soil are different from those by the untreated parent material. (author)

  16. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Compost from Food Waste: Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about the Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar Series titled Compost from Food Waste:Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

  17. Ferrocyanide safety program: Final report on adiabatic calorimetry and tube propagation tests with synthetic ferrocyanide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.F.; Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on Fauske and Associates, Inc. Reactive System Screening Tool tests, the onset or initiation temperature for a ferrocyanide-nitrate propagating reaction is about 250 degrees Celcius. This is at about 200 degrees Celcius higher than current waste temperatures in the highest temperature ferrocyanide tanks. Furthermore, for current ambient waste temperatures, the tube propagation tests show that a ferrocyanide concentration of 15.5 wt% or more is required to sustain a propagation reaction in the complete absence of free water. Ignoring the presence of free water, this finding rules out propagating reactions for all the Hanford flowsheet materials with the exception of the ferrocyanide waste produced by the original In Farm flowsheet

  18. Key parameters in testing biodegradation of bio-based materials in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Mistriotis, A

    2018-05-05

    Biodegradation of plastics in soil is currently tested by international standard testing methods (e.g. ISO 17556-12 or ASTM D5988-12). Although these testing methods have been developed for plastics, it has been shown in project KBBPPS that they can be extended also to lubricants with small modifications. Reproducibility is a critical issue regarding biodegradation tests in the laboratory. Among the main testing variables are the soil types and nutrients available (mainly nitrogen). For this reason, the effect of the soil type on the biodegradation rates of various bio-based materials (cellulose and lubricants) was tested for five different natural soil types (loam, loamy sand, clay, clay-loam, and silt-loam organic). It was shown that use of samples containing 1 g of C in a substrate of 300 g of soil with the addition of 0.1 g of N as nutrient strongly improves the reproducibility of the test making the results practically independent of the soil type with the exception of the organic soil. The sandy soil was found to need addition of higher amount of nutrients to exhibit similar biodegradation rates as those achieved with the other soil types. Therefore, natural soils can be used for Standard biodegradation tests of bio-based materials yielding reproducible results with the addition of appropriate nutrients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analysis of histopathologic effects of synthetic meshes based on material, weight, and pore size in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Sean B; Saberski, Ean R; Kreutzer, Donald L; Novitsky, Yuri W

    2012-08-01

    While synthetic prosthetics have essentially become mandatory for hernia repair, mesh-induced chronic inflammation and scarring can lead to chronic pain and limited mobility. Mesh propensity to induce such adverse effects is likely related to the prosthetic's material, weight, and/or pore size. We aimed to compare histopathologic responses to various synthetic meshes after short- and long-term implantations in mice. Samples of macroporous polyester (Parietex [PX]), heavyweight microporous polypropylene (Trelex[TX]), midweight microporous polypropylene (ProLite[PL]), lightweight macroporous polypropylene (Ultrapro[UP]), and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (DualMesh[DM]) were implanted subcutaneously in mice. Four and 12 wk post-implantation, meshes were assessed for inflammation, foreign body reaction (FBR), and fibrosis. All meshes induced varying levels of inflammatory responses. PX induced the greatest inflammatory response and marked FBR. DM induced moderate FBR and a strong fibrotic response with mesh encapsulation at 12 wk. UP and PL had the lowest FBR, however, UP induced a significant chronic inflammatory response. Although inflammation decreased slightly for TX, marked FBR was present throughout the study. Of the three polypropylene meshes, fibrosis was greatest for TX and slightly reduced for PL and UP. For UP and PL, there was limited fibrosis within each mesh pore. Polyester mesh induced the greatest FBR and lasting chronic inflammatory response. Likewise, marked fibrosis and encapsulation was seen surrounding ePTFE. Heavier polypropylene meshes displayed greater early and persistent fibrosis; the reduced-weight polypropylene meshes were associated with the least amount of fibrosis. Mesh pore size was inversely proportional to bridging fibrosis. Moreover, reduced-weight polypropylene meshes demonstrated the smallest FBR throughout the study. Overall, we demonstrated that macroporous, reduced-weight polypropylene mesh exhibited the highest degree of

  20. Analysis of synthetic profile of CZTS as photovoltaic material obtained with variations of titanium and TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M.; Vera, E.; Gómez, J.; Pineda, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Semiconductor type Cu2ZnTiS4 (CZTiS) and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS),were synthetized starting from a hydrothermal route from precursor powders such as copper, zinc, tin, titanium isopropoxide and tiocarbammide metal nitrates dissolved in deionized water in concentrations of 1molL-1. Dosed and placed in a steel autoclave equipped with a Teflon jacket under magnetic stirring (150rpm) and at a temperature of 300°C for 24 hours in order to promote the formation of the respective ceramic phases. Segregates have been repeatedly washed with ethanol at all times until obtaining crystalline-looking solids. Subsequently, in order to promote the production of pure crystalline phases, the materials were subjected to a second reaction stage in a tubular furnace at 400°C in flow (50mLmin-1) for the purpose of Reduce the concentration of secondary phases of sulphides. The characterization of the CZTiS and CZTS materials was performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy where the presence of Kesterite type crystalline structures was confirmed in the two materials revealing that the effect of titanium with a higher ionic radius than tin produces a distortion in the cell of the CZTiS material compared to the report for the CZTS system. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), confirm the regular aggregates obtained with composition consistent with the proposal theoretically and validated by Energy-Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) techniques and comparison between secondary emission spectra and Retro-dispersed.

  1. In vitro degradation and cell response of calcium carbonate composite ceramic in comparison with other synthetic bone substitute materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fupo; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Fanwen; Zhu, Jixiang; Tian, Xiumei; Chen, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The robust calcium carbonate composite ceramics (CC/PG) can be acquired by fast sintering calcium carbonate at a low temperature (650 °C) using a biocompatible, degradable phosphate-based glass (PG) as sintering agent. In the present study, the in vitro degradation and cell response of CC/PG were assessed and compared with 4 synthetic bone substitute materials, calcium carbonate ceramic (CC), PG, hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics. The degradation rates in decreasing order were as follows: PG, CC, CC/PG, β-TCP, and HA. The proliferation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) cultured on the CC/PG was comparable with that on CC and PG, but inferior to HA and β-TCP. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of rMSCs on CC/PG was lower than PG, comparable with β-TCP, but higher than HA. The rMSCs on CC/PG and PG had enhanced gene expression in specific osteogenic markers, respectively. Compared to HA and β-TCP, the rMSCs on the CC/PG expressed relatively lower level of collagen I and runt-related transcription factor 2, but showed more considerable expression of osteopontin. Although CC, PG, HA, and β-TCP possessed impressive performances in some specific aspects, they faced extant intrinsic drawbacks in either degradation rate or mechanical strength. Based on considerable compressive strength, moderate degradation rate, good cell response, and being free of obvious shortcoming, the CC/PG is promising as another choice for bone substitute materials. - Highlights: • A calcium carbonate composite ceramic (CC/PG) was acquired. • The in vitro degradation and cell response of CC/PG were compared to 4 materials. • The CC/PG showed moderate degradation rate. • The CC/PG exhibited good cell response. • The CC/PG was free of obvious drawback compared to other materials

  2. Decaying organic materials and soil quality in the Inland Northwest: A management opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Harvey; Martin F. Jurgensen; Michael J. Larsen; Russell T. Graham

    1987-01-01

    Organic debris, including wood residue, is important to the development and function of. forest soil. Organic matter stores nutrients and moisture plus it provides important habitats for microbes beneficial to tree growth. To protect long-term forest soil productivity, organic horizons and their parent materials should be maintained.

  3. Stimulation of soil microorganisms in pesticide-contaminated soil using organic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ima Yudha Perwira; Kiwako S. Araki; Motoki Kubo; Dinesh Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Agrochemicals such as pesticides have contributed to significant increases in crop yields; however, they can also be linked to adverse effects on human health and soil microorganisms. For efficient bioremediation of pesticides accumulated in agricultural fields, stimulation of microorganisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the relationships between bacterial biomass and total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) in 427 agricultural soils. The soil bacterial biomass was generally p...

  4. Evaluating the impact of synthetic herbicides on soil dwelling macrobes and the physical state of soil in an agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, J O; Ofori, E S K; Yeboah, S; Marri, D; Offei, B K; Apaatah, F; Sintim, J O; Ofori-Ayeh, E; Osae, M

    2018-07-30

    This study evaluated three herbicides active ingredients: Paraquat, Glyphosate and 2,4-D Amine in commercial formulations as Frankoquat, Roundup and Agriherb respectively under field conditions to determine their influence on soil dwelling macrobes and the physical state of soil. Herbicides were serially diluted to three treatment concentrations for each plus three controls. Herbicide concentrations were applied to the demarcated field on three consecutive occasions in splits. Macrobes extraction from soil was done under a stereo microscope at 20 × magnification. The Simpson's diversity index was used to calculate the soil macrobes diversity. Soil water content, bulk density and total porosity of sampled soils were determined. The study revealed that both herbicides and non-herbicides treatment had no statistical significance (p > 0.05) on the soil dwelling macrobes. Also, a Simpson's index of diversity, estimated as 53.46%, showed how the experimental area is lowly diverse in the specific soil dwelling macrobes identified. Significant correlations existed between the soil water content, bulk density, total porosity and number of soil macrobes at p dwelling macrobes decreased with increasing soil physical conditions. Thus, the dynamics in soil physical properties affected macrobes abundance in soil, with the slightest influence coming from the herbicides concentrations used in the experiment. The study recommended that Frankoquat and Roundup herbicides could be used to control weeds on farmer's field because, their influence were slightly felt on the soil macrobes and also, quite a number soil dwelling macrobes recovered after application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental study of polyurethane foam reinforced soil used as a rock-like material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Komurlu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polyurethane foam type thermoset polymerizing, due to chemical reaction between its liquid ingredients, was tested as binder after solidifying and then a rock-like material mixing with a sandy silt type soil was prepared. The uniaxial compressive strengths (UCSs of polyurethane foam reinforced soil specimens were determined for different polyurethane ratios in the mixture. Additionally, a series of tests on slake durability, impact value, freezing–thawing resistance, and abrasion resistance of polyurethane reinforced soil (PRS mixture was conducted. The UCS values over 3 MPa were measured from the PRS specimens. The testing results showed that treated soil can economically become a desirable rock-like material in terms of slake durability and resistances against freezing–thawing, impact effect and abrasion. As another characteristic of the rock-like material made with polyurethane foam, unit volume weight was found to be quite lower than those of natural rock materials.

  6. Study on reinforcement of soil for suppressing fugitive dust by bio-cementitious material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qiwei; Qian, Chunxiang

    2017-06-01

    Microbial-induced reinforcement of soil, as a new green and environmental-friendly method, is being paid extensive attention to in that it has low cost, simple operation and rapid effects. In this research, reinforcement of soil for suppressing fugitive dust by bio-cementitious material was investigated. Soil cemented by bio-cementitious material had superior mechanical properties, such as hardness, compressive strength, microstructure, wind-erosion resistance, rainfall-erosion resistance and freeze-thaw resistance. The average hardness of sandy soil, floury soil and clay soil is 18.9 º, 25.2 º and 26.1 º, while average compressive strength of samples is 0.43 MPa, 0.54 MPa and 0.69 MPa, respectively; meanwhile, the average calcite content of samples is 6.85 %, 6.09 %, and 5.96 %, respectively. Compared with the original sandy soil, floury soil and clay soil, the porosity decreases by 38.5 %, 33.7 % and 29.2 %. When wind speed is 12 m/s, the mass loss of sandy soil, floury soil and clay soil cemented by bio-cementitious material are all less than 30 g/(m2·h). After three cycles of rainfall erosion of 2.5 mm/h, the mass loss are less than 25 g/(m2·h) and the compressive strength residual ratio are more than 98.0 %. Under 25 cycles of freeze-thaw, the mass loss ratio are less than 3.0 %.

  7. Methods to ensure the quality of excavated soil material from geogenically metalliferous sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhard, Peter; Sager, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Soils at geogenically metalliferous sites might exceed heavy metal threshold levels with respect to agricultural use, apart from anthropogenic contamination sources. As a fundamental substrate for green plants and green plant production, soil is not easily renewable, its formation needs long time (e.g. 500 years for 20 mm). In Austria, about 10ha of soil get sealed every day, resulting in complete loss of its biological functions. Excavated soil material has been classified as waste from a legal point of view, which made 33 mill. tons resp. 48% of total waste in Austria in 2010. Recycling of excavated soil material for agricultural use will be an important task to reduce future waste and to enlarge agricultural substrate volumes, but methods to ensure proper qualities are needed to improve regulations. Within this investigation, the transfer of various metals from geogenically metalliferous soils to various crop plants will be investigated, and correlated with various simple soil test methods. Four excavated soil materials from the metalliferous schist zone within the Austrian province of Styria (Kraubath/Mur, Übelbach) and a low-metal reference sample have been taken as substrates to grow raygrass (lolium multiflorum) as a green cover, salad (Lactuca sativa) as a vegetable food item, oats (Avena sativa), maize (Zea mais) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) as a hyperaccumulating species. Results and recommendations will be presented.

  8. Resilient modulus for unbound granular materials and subgrade soils in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic Empirical (ME pavement design methods started to gain attention especially the last couple of years in Egypt and the Middle East. One of the challenges facing the spread of these methods in Egypt is lack of advanced properties of local soil and asphalt, which are needed as input data in ME design. Resilient modulus (Mr for example is an important engineering property that expresses the elastic behavior of soil/unbound granular materials (UGMs under cyclic traffic loading for ME design. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resilient modulus data for soil/UGMs in Egypt, a comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted to measure resilient modulus of typical UGMs and subgrade soils typically used in pavement construction in Egypt. The factors that affect the resilient modulus of soil/UGMs were reviewed, studied and discussed. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the most well-known Mr Prediction models for the locally investigated materials was investigated.

  9. Effect of synthetic and natural water-absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality of potato in a semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengtao; Zhang, Lei; McLaughlin, Neil B; Mi, Junzhen; Chen, Qin; Liu, Jinghui

    2016-02-01

    The effect of water-absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality was investigated in a field experiment in a semi-arid region in northern China in 2010-2012. Treatments included two synthetic water-absorbing amendments, potassium polyacrylate (PAA) and polyacrylamide (PAM), and one natural amendment, humic acid (HA), both as single amendments and compound amendments (HA combined with PAA or PAM), and a no amendment control. Soil amendments had a highly significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on photosynthesis characteristics, dry biomass, crop root/shoot (R/S) ratio and tuber nutritional quality. They improved both dry biomass above ground and dry biomass underground in the whole growing season by 4.6-31.2 and 1.1-83.1% respectively in all three years. Crop R/S ratio was reduced in the early growing season by 2.0-29.4% and increased in the later growing season by 2.3-32.6%. Soil amendments improved leaf soil plant analysis development value, net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate by 1.4-17.0, 5.1-45.9, 2.4-90.6 and 2.0-22.6% respectively and reduced intercellular CO2 concentration by 2.1-19.5% in all three years. Amendment treatment with PAM + HA always had the greatest effect on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality among all amendment treatments and thus merits further research. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Uptake of soil P, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca by Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. induced by synthetic chelating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helinä Hartikainen

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a synthetic chelating compound on the dry matter yield and the uptake of soil P, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca by Italian rye grass was studied in a pot experiment with three mineral soil samples irrigated with water or 0.001 M Na2-EDTA(dinatrium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution. The Na2-EDTA treatment seemed not to affect the quantity of the dry matter yields, but it affected markedly their chemical composition. Increased contents of P, Al and Fe were found in all the harvests. In two soil samples the P supply was improved by 35—45 %. The accumulation of Al, Fe and Mn induced by Na2-EDTA tended to be the more effective the greater the stability constant for the corresponding metal-EDTA chelate was. Thus, the iron uptake increased most intensively, i.e. by 217—458 %, and that of aluminium by 33—120 %. On the basis of the first two harvests the manganese absorption by the rye grass seemed to decrease probably due to the enormous accumulation of iron. The results also suggested that the addition of Na2-EDTA to the soil was not able essentially to affect the magnesium and calcium supply to the plants.

  11. Soil Materials and Health: An new experience for teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Cationic clays are very extended compounds on the earth surface so they constitute the main component of soils and sedimentary rocks. Due to their presence and special properties that they have, mankind has used them with therapeutic aims from Prehistory, not being rare to find references to this subject in works of classic authors. During the Renaissance and with the appearance of the first Pharmacopeia, its use was regulated to a certain extent. The scientific development reached during the XXth century has allowed to understand and to study the reasons of the useful and peculiar properties of clays, directly related to their colloidal size and crystalline structure. These properties are translated in a high specific surface area, optimal rheological properties and/or excellent sorptive capacity; everything makes cationic clays very useful for a wide range of applications. In the field of health, cationic clays are used in Pharmaceutical Technology and Dermopharmacy as ideal excipients and substances of suitable biological activity due to their chemical inertness and low or null toxicity for the patient (Carretero, 2002; Lopez Galindo et al., 2005; Choy et al., 2007; del Hoyo, 2007). Cationic clays can be used in a wide range of applications in health. However, it must be also considered that the risk exposure to cationic clays may cause several diseases, as it has been seen above. Cationic clays have been used as excipients and active principles in the pharmaceutical industry. The last tendencies are their use in geomedicine, as much to come up as to treat diseases. One stands out his presence in spas and aesthetic medicine. Development of new pharmaceutical formulations is observed, based on cationic clays, for cancer therapy. It has to emphasize the importance in the synthesis of biosensors with cationic clays. Cationic clays can be considered a group of promising materials in the development of new health applications. The study of the use of the cationic

  12. Liquid scintillation counting of calcium-45 in plant and soil material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, S.S.; Dodd, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The recovery efficiencies of 45 Ca, for plant material using dry ashing with HCL as the extractant, and for soils using column extraction with MgCl 2 as the extractant, have been determined. The extraction and detection procedures, using available scintillation solvent systems, are given and show a combination of a high counting efficiency with high recovery efficiencies. The extraction procedures are simple, involving minimal operator time, and allow simultaneous 45 Ca determination in both plant and soil material. Both extraction procedures exhibit good reproducibility over a wide range of specific activities while being relatively insensitive to quenching and carrier calcium normally encountered in plant and soil material. These procedures are particularly useful in ecological studies requiring the examination of a large number of plant and/or soil samples over a wide range of radioactive concentrations. (U.K.)

  13. Krylov Iterative Methods and the Degraded Effectiveness of Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration for Multidimensional SN Calculations in Problems with Material Discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warsa, James S.; Wareing, Todd A.; Morel, Jim E.

    2004-01-01

    A loss in the effectiveness of diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) schemes has been observed with certain S N discretizations on two-dimensional Cartesian grids in the presence of material discontinuities. We will present more evidence supporting the conjecture that DSA effectiveness will degrade for multidimensional problems with discontinuous total cross sections, regardless of the particular physical configuration or spatial discretization. Fourier analysis and numerical experiments help us identify a set of representative problems for which established DSA schemes are ineffective, focusing on diffusive problems for which DSA is most needed. We consider a lumped, linear discontinuous spatial discretization of the S N transport equation on three-dimensional, unstructured tetrahedral meshes and look at a fully consistent and a 'partially consistent' DSA method for this discretization. The effectiveness of both methods is shown to degrade significantly. A Fourier analysis of the fully consistent DSA scheme in the limit of decreasing cell optical thickness supports the view that the DSA itself is failing when material discontinuities are present in a problem. We show that a Krylov iterative method, preconditioned with DSA, is an effective remedy that can be used to efficiently compute solutions for this class of problems. We show that as a preconditioner to the Krylov method, a partially consistent DSA method is more than adequate. In fact, it is preferable to a fully consistent method because the partially consistent method is based on a continuous finite element discretization of the diffusion equation that can be solved relatively easily. The Krylov method can be implemented in terms of the original S N source iteration coding with only slight modification. Results from numerical experiments show that replacing source iteration with a preconditioned Krylov method can efficiently solve problems that are virtually intractable with accelerated source iteration

  14. Calculating the movement speed of a contaminated material in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, D.

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the project which consisted in the development of an application to facilitate and display a graphic where the displacement and behavior of radioactive contaminants in soil could be observed. Once the data are introduced to the system, this makes the necessary calculations to display a graphic where the displacement of the substance is displayed in a given time. Through the graphs resulting from the program, we can quickly see the behavior and movement of a contaminant substance, but by numerical simulation, it can determine the possible impact caused by a supposition spills of a radioactive substance in soil and thus able to take the appropriate measures to control or avoid an impact resulting highly harmful to health and the environment, so as to determine the distance and time in which the substance already change or transform into another. (Author)

  15. Characterizing the Phyllosilicates and Amorphous Phases Found by MSL Using Laboratory XRD and EGA Measurements of Natural and Synthetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Morris, Richard V.; Chipera, Steve; Bish, David L.; Bristow, Thomas; Archer, Paul Douglas; Blake, David; Achilles, Cherie; Ming, Douglas W.; Vaniman, David; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover landed on the Peace Vallis alluvial fan in Gale crater on August 5, 2012. A primary mission science objective is to search for past habitable environments, and, in particular, to assess the role of past water. Identifying the minerals and mineraloids that result from aqueous alteration at Gale crater is essential for understanding past aqueous processes at the MSL landing site and hence for interpreting the site's potential habitability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument and evolved gas analyses (EGA) from the SAM instrument have helped the MSL science team identify phases that resulted from aqueous processes: phyllosilicates and amorphous phases were measure in two drill samples (John Klein and Cumberland) obtained from the Sheepbed Member, Yellowknife Bay Fm., which is believed to represent a fluvial-lacustrine environment. A third set of analyses was obtained from scoop samples from the Rocknest sand shadow. Chemical data from the APXS instrument have helped constrain the chemical compositions of these secondary phases and suggest that the phyllosilicate component is Mg-enriched and the amorphous component is Fe-enriched, relatively Si-poor, and S- and H-bearing. To refine the phyllosilicate and amorphous components in the samples measured by MSL, we measured XRD and EGA data for a variety of relevant natural terrestrial phyllosilicates and synthetic mineraloids in laboratory testbeds of the CheMin and SAM instruments. Specifically, Mg-saturated smectites and vermiculites were measured with XRD at low relative humidity to understand the behavior of the 001 reflections under Mars-like conditions. Our laboratory XRD measurements suggest that interlayer cation composition affects the hydration state of swelling clays at low RH and, thus, the 001 peak positions. XRD patterns of synthetic amorphous materials, including allophane, ferrihydrite, and hisingerite were used in full-pattern fitting (FULLPAT) models to help

  16. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  17. A Biogeotechnical approach to Stabilize Soft Marine Soil with a Microbial Organic Material called Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I.; Cho, G. C.; Kwon, Y. M.; Im, J.

    2017-12-01

    The importance and demands of offshore and coastal area development are increasing due to shortage of usable land and to have access to valuable marine resources. However, most coastal soils are soft sediments, mainly composed with fines (silt and clay) and having high water and organic contents, which induce complicated mechanical- and geochemical- behaviors and even be insufficient in Geotechnical engineering aspects. At least, soil stabilization procedures are required for those soft sediments, regardless of the purpose of usage on the site. One of the most common soft soil stabilization method is using ordinary cement as a soil strengthening binder. However, the use of cement in marine environments is reported to occur environmental concerns such as pH increase and accompanying marine ecosystem disturbance. Therefore, a new environmentally-friendly treatment material for coastal and offshore soils. In this study, a biopolymer material produced by microbes is introduced to enhance the physical behavior of a soft tidal flat sediment by considering the biopolymer rheology, soil mineralogy, and chemical properties of marine water. Biopolymer material used in this study forms inter-particle bonds between particles which is promoted through cation-bridges where the cations are provided from marine water. Moreover, biopolymer treatment renders unique stress-strain relationship of soft soils. The mechanical stiffness (M) instantly increase with the presence of biopolymer, while time-dependent settlement behavior (consolidation) shows a big delay due to the viscous biopolymer hydrogels in pore spaces.

  18. Effect of selenium-enriched organic material amendment on selenium fraction transformation and bioavailability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Dinh, Quang Toan; Anh Thu, Tran Thi; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Wenxiao; Wang, Mengke; Song, Weiwei; Liang, Dongli

    2018-05-01

    To exploit the plant byproducts from selenium (Se) biofortification and reduce environmental risk of inorganic Se fertilizer, pot experiment was conducted in this study. The effects of Se-enriched wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (WS + Se) and pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) (P + Se) amendment on organo-selenium speciation transformation in soil and its bioavailability was evaluated by pak choi uptake. The Se contents of the cultivated pak choi in treatments amended with the same amount of Se-enriched wheat straw and pak choi were 1.7 and 9.7 times in the shoots and 2.3 and 6.3 times in the roots compared with control treatment. Soil respiration rate was significantly increased after all organic material amendment in soil (p organic materials and thus resulted in soluble Se (SOL-Se), exchangeable Se (EX-Se), and fulvic acid-bound Se (FA-Se) fraction increasing by 25.2-29.2%, 9-13.8%, and 4.92-8.28%, respectively. In addition, both Pearson correlation and cluster analysis showed that EX-Se and FA-Se were better indicators for soil Se availability in organic material amendment soils. The Marquardt-Levenberg Model well described the dynamic kinetics of FA-Se content after Se-enriched organic material amendment in soil mainly because of the mineralization of organic carbon and organo-selenium. The utilization of Se in P + Se treatment was significantly higher than those in WS + Se treatment because of the different mineralization rates and the amount of FA-Se in soil. Se-enriched organic materials amendment can not only increase the availability of selenium in soil but also avoid the waste of valuable Se source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) hosts robust phyllosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities when grown in soil amended with various organic and synthetic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Sarah M; Walsh, Christopher S; Wallis, Anna E; Ottesen, Andrea R; Brown, Eric W; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-12-15

    Due to the intimate association between plants and their microbial symbionts, an examination of the influence of agricultural practices on phytobiome structure and diversity could foster a more comprehensive understanding of plant health and produce safety. Indeed, the impact of upstream crop producti006Fn practices cannot be overstated in their role in assuring an abundant and safe food supply. To assess whether fertilizer type impacted rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacterial communities associating with tomato plants, the bacterial microbiome of tomato cv. 'BHN602' grown in soils amended with fresh poultry litter, commercially available sterilized poultry litter pellets, vermicompost or synthetic fertilizer was described. Culture independent DNA was extracted from bulk and rhizosphere soils, and washes of tomato blossoms and ripe fruit. PCR amplicons of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced and profiled using the QIIME pipeline. Bulk and rhizosphere soil, and blossom and fruit surfaces all supported distinct bacterial communities according to principal coordinate analysis and ANOSIM (R=0.87, p=0.001 in year 1; R=0.93, p=0.001 in year 2). Use of microbiologically diverse organic fertilizers generally did not influence bacterial diversity, community structure or relative abundance of specific taxa on any plant organ surface. However, statistically significant differences in sand and silt contents of soil (pfertilized plants. Plant anatomy, and other factors related to field location, possibly associated with edaphic and air characteristics, were more influential drivers of different tomato organ microbiomes than were diverse soil amendment applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. What Makes the Optimal Wound Healing Material? A Review of Current Science and Introduction of a Synthetic Nanofabricated Wound Care Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Matthew R; MacEwan, Sarah; Kovacs, Tamas R; Batts, Joel

    2017-10-02

    Wound matrix materials are used to improve the regeneration of dermal and epidermal layers in both acute and chronic wounds. Contemporary wound matrices are primarily composed of biologic materials such as processed xenogeneic and allogeneic tissues. Unfortunately, existing biologic wound matrices possess multiple limitations including poor longevity, durability, strength, and enzymatic resistance required for persistent support for new tissue formation. A fully-synthetic, resorbable electrospun material (Restrata Wound Matrix, Acera, St.Louis, Missouri ) that exhibits structural similarities to the native extracellular matrix offers a new approach to the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. This novel matrix is the first product to combine the advantages of synthetic construction (e.g. resistance to enzymatic degradation, excellent biocompatibility, strength/durability and controlled degradation) with the positive attributes of biologic materials (e.g. biomimetic architecture similar to human extracellular matrix (ECM), fibrous architecture optimized to support cellular migration and proliferation, engineered porosity to encourage tissue ingrowth and vascularization). These features allow RWM to achieve rapid and complete healing of full-thickness wounds that, in preclinical studies, is comparable to Integra Bilayer Wound Matrix (Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, New Jersey), a gold standard biologic material with diverse clinical indications in the wound care. Together, this review suggests that the RWM offers a unique fully-synthetic alternative to existing biologic matrices that is effective, widely available, easy to store, simple to apply and low cost.

  1. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Tahsin; Huma, Tayyaba; Jalal, Fatima; Iqbal, Sarosh; Abrar, Shazia; Kiran, Shumaila; Nosheen, Sofia; Hussain, Waqar; Rafique, Muhammad Asim

    2017-12-16

    The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger ( A. niger ). All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  2. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gulzar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger (A. niger. All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  3. The use of laboratory sand, soil and crushed-glass filter columns for polishing domestic-strength synthetic wastewater that has undergone secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M G; Burke, P; Rodgers, M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of intermittently loaded, 150 mm-diameter stratified filter columns of 2 depths (0.65 and 0.375 m) comprising different media--sand, crushed glass and soil--in polishing the effluent from a laboratory horizontal flow biofilm reactor (HFBR) treating synthetic domestic-strength wastewater. The HFBR has been successfully used to remove organic carbon and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from domestic wastewater. In this treatment method, wastewater is allowed to flow over and back along a stack of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. Biofilms on the sheets reduce organic carbon, suspended matter, and nutrients in the wastewater, but to achieve the quality of a septic tank system, additional treatment is required. In all filters, at a hydraulic loading rate of 100 L m(-2) d(-1), 40-65% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and practically 100% of total suspended solids (TSS) were removed, nitrification was complete, and bacterial numbers were reduced by over 80%, with best removals achieved in the soil filters (93%). Soil polishing filters with the depth of 0.65 m performed best in terms of organic carbon, total nitrogen (Tot-N) and bacterial removal. Data from this preliminary study are useful in the design of treatment systems to polish secondary wastewaters with similar water quality characteristics.

  4. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  5. Effects of Different Organic Materials and Exogenous Zn on Zn Distribution in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    HAO Jia-li; BU Yu-shan; JIA Zheng-rong; XI Ji-long; YAO Jing-zhen; DUAN Chao

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment with a complete combinatorial design of two factors was conducted to study the effects of different organic materials and different concentrations of exogenous zinc on the soil total zinc, available zinc, zinc forms and zinc content distribution of pak-choi. The results showed that the total zinc, available zinc, and different forms of zinc contents in soil all increased as the concentration of exogenous zinc increased. Both lawn grass and maize straw decreased the total zinc...

  6. Impact of Waste Materials and Organic Amendments on Soil Properties and Vegetative Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. McGeehan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials, and materials derived from wastes, possess many characteristics that can improve soil fertility and enhance crop performance. These materials can be particularly useful as amendments to severely degraded soils associated with mining activities. This study evaluated biosolids, composts, log yard wastes, and two organic soil treatments for improved soil fertility and vegetative performance using side-by-side comparisons. Each plot was seeded with a standardized seed mix and evaluated for a series of soil chemical and physical parameters, total vegetation response, species diversity, ecological plant response, and invasion indices. All treatments were successful at improving soil fertility and promoting a self-sustaining vegetative cover. The level of available nitrogen had a strong impact on vegetative coverage, species distribution, and extent of unseeded vegetation. For example, high nitrogen treatments promoted a grass-dominated (low forb plant community with a low content of unseeded vegetation. In contrast, low nitrogen treatments promoted a more balanced plant community with a mixture of grass and forb species and greater susceptibility to unseeded vegetation establishment.

  7. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Airborne radionuclides in the proglacial environment as indicators of sources and transfers of soil material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokas, Edyta; Wachniew, Przemysław; Jodłowski, Paweł; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-11-01

    A survey of artificial ( 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am) and natural ( 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 210 Pb) radioactive isotopes in proglacial soils of an Arctic glacier have revealed high spatial variability of activity concentrations and inventories of the airborne radionuclides. Soil column 137 Cs inventories range from below the detection limit to nearly 120 kBq m -2 , this value significantly exceeding direct atmospheric deposition. This variability may result from the mixing of materials characterised by different contents of airborne radionuclides. The highest activity concentrations observed in the proglacial soils may result from the deposition of cryoconites, which have been shown to accumulate airborne radionuclides on the surface of glaciers. The role of cryoconites in radionuclide accumulation is supported by the concordant enrichment of the naturally occurring airborne 210 Pb in proglacial soil cores showing elevated levels of artificial radionuclides. The lithogenic radionuclides show less variability than the airborne radionuclides because their activity concentrations are controlled only by the mixing of material derived from the weathering of different parent rocks. Soil properties vary little within and between the profiles and there is no unequivocal relationship between them and the radionuclide contents. The inventories reflect the pathways and time variable inputs of soil material to particular sites of the proglacial zone. Lack of the airborne radionuclides reflects no deposition of material exposed to the atmosphere after the 1950s or its removal by erosion. Inventories above the direct atmospheric deposition indicate secondary deposition of radionuclide-bearing material. Very high inventories indicate sites where transport pathways of cryoconite material terminated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of radioactive silts and soils with organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Barinov, A.S.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Moscow SIA RADON is developing the ''Clinker'' method to treat radioactive silts and grounds. The ''Clinker'' method consists of radioactive silt (ground) mixed with lime and other components. This mixture is calcined at 800 to 1000 o C. The product is ground to a surface area size of 2500 to 4500 cm 2 /g, mixed with water at a water-to-cement ratio not less than 0.25, and aged to form a solid monolith. The ''Clinker'' method was compared to the traditional cementation methods. The ''Clinker'' method reduces the final volume and enhance the strength characteristics of the final product. The ''Clinker'' cement compound has higher hardening rate. Preliminary data show that it has higher cold resistance, sulfate and leaching corrosion durability in comparison to one prepared by the traditional cementation method. The range of applicability of the ''Clinker'' method is increased by the possibility of treating materials containing up to 80% (mass) of organic materials, such as turf, flora and fauna decomposition products, and manmade material, including natural materials, such as petroleum products and polymers. In addition, the ''Clinker'' method does not require expensive waste binders, i.e., cement. The ''Clinker'' cement can be used for cementation of other radioactive waste. (author)

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA FILL MATERIALS AND SOILS 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Foundation Fill Data Base project of the Foundation Fill Materials Specifications Task Area of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Work included determination of radon concentrations...

  11. Sorption and migration of 137Cs attached to organic materials of tea in silty clay soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, H.; Oezmen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the organic material of tea on the adsorption behavior of 137 Cs on the silty clay soil has been examined by batch experiments, using 137 Cs extracted tea contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, with water. The variation of K d values was studied as a function of contact time and a volume-solid ratio (V/m). The equilibrium time of 137 Cs extracted from the tea is slower by 9 times than that of 137 Cs + ions for the silty clay soil. The V/m ratio did not affect the 137 Cs adsorption strongly. The sorption of 137 Cs extracted form the tea in terms of the distribution coefficient K d is higher (a factor of 2.5) than that of 137 Cs + ions. This result indicates that 137 Cs-complexes with organic materials of tea are much sorbed than 137 C + ions on the silty clay soil. The migration of 137 Cs extracted from the tea in the silty clay soil has been studied under a steady flow of tea-extract by using a soil zone apparatus. The 137 Cs concentrations contained in both effluent fractions and in soil samples were measured using a HPGe detector. The distribution patterns of 137 Cs in the layers of the soil zone were obtained as one- and two-dimensional. The migration of 137 Cs extracted from the tea in soil is mainly influenced by flow. The results indicate that the migration of 137 Cs-complexes with organic materials and 137 Cs adsorbed fine silts cannot be described by such a K d based on ion-exchange reactions, but it is important to consider the moving mechanism of particulates besides ion-exchange reactions. (Author)

  12. A Linkage Between Parent Materials of Soil and Potential Risk of Heavy Metals in Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large area exceeding soil quality standards for heavy metals in South western China has been identified previously reported on a nationwide survey of soil pollution, yet the ecological risk of heavy metal in soil is unknown or uncertainty.To assess thoroughly the ecological risk in this region, seven soil profiles with a depth of 2m on the different parent materials of soil were conducted in Yunnan province, China, and the level of total concentrations and the fraction of water soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonates, humic acid, iron and manganese oxides and organic matter of As, Cd, Hg and Pb was investigated in soil profiles. The results indicate that parent materials of soil critically influenced the ecological risk of heavy metal.The fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable of Cd and Hg in alluvial material and in terrigenous clastic rocks showed 2-6 times higher than those in carbonate rock; As and Pb has almost same fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable in three parent materials of soil.The findings suggest that parent materials of soil play a critical role in ecological risk of heavy metal.Thus, more studies are needed to better understand a linkage between the parent materials of soil, different soil-forming processes and the potential risk of heavy metals under various geographic conditions, which is the key for the evaluating soil quality and food safety. Those soils with high concentration of Cd and Hg originated alluvial material and terrigenous clastic rocks need to be continuously monitored before determining a cost-effective remediation technology. Keywords: Heavy metals; Ecological risk;Parent materials of soil;China

  13. Feasibility of soil-EFB mixtures as a filled barrier material for waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Ismail Abustan; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Hasnain Isa

    2010-01-01

    This paper present the results of laboratory experiment that is involved the characterization and removal efficiency test of soil-EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch) of oil palm mixture. In this study, soil samples were mixed with EFB at 10 % (EFB10), 30 % (EFB30), and 50 % (EFB50). The characterization included the physical and chemical properties of the soil-EFB mixture such as compaction behaviour, cation exchange capacity, permeability and its surface physical morphology. Batch Equilibrium Test was performed in order to determine the adsorption capability of the soil-EFB mixture with the heavy metals solution. Five solutions with different concentrations (2.5 mg/l, 5.0 mg/l, 7.5 mg/l, 10.0 mg/l and 12.5 mg/l) were used in this experiment. Base on the compaction test, the value of optimum water content was influence by the EFB introduced into the soil. This is due to the presence of hydroxyl group, which was probably attributed to absorb water. The permeability of the soil-EFB mixtures ranges from 2.4 x 10 -7 to 6.5 x 10 -7 cm/s meanwhile the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) result ranges from 11.6 to 31.9 meq/ 100 g. The study has revealed that different percentages of soil-EFB mixture possess different capabilities to remove heavy metals. From the removal efficiency test, it is shown that the removal percentages of heavy metals for soil-EFB mixtures were relatively high as compared to soil alone. Based on the characterization and removal data, the soil-EFB mixture has a good potential to be used as filled barrier material. (author)

  14. Reducing the leachability of nitrate, phosphorus and heavy metals from soil using waste material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridullah

    Full Text Available Abstract Contaminants like nitrate (NO3, phosphorus (P and heavy metals in water are often associated with agricultural activities. Various soil and water remediation techniques have been employed to reduce the risk associated with these contaminants. A study was conducted to examine the extent of leaching of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr, NO3 and P. For this purpose sandy and silt loam soils were amended with different waste materials, namely wood ash, solid waste ash, vegetable waste, charcoal, and sawdust. The soils were saturated with wastewater. Irrespective of the waste applied, the pH and EC of the amended soils were found to be greater than the control. Charcoal, sawdust and wood ash significantly decreased heavy metals, nitrate and phosphorus concentrations in the leachate. Treatments were more efficient for reducing Ni than other heavy metals concentrations. Waste amendments differed for heavy metals during the process of leaching. Heavy metals in the soil were progressively depleted due to the successive leaching stages. This research suggests that waste material may act as an adsorbent for the above contaminants and can reduce their leachability in soils.

  15. Moessbauer and magnetic studies of parent material from argentine pampas soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidegain, J. C.; Bartel, A. A.; Sives, F. R.; Mercader, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to establish a correlation between the different types of soils using hyperfine and magnetic parameters as climatic and environmental proxies, we have studied the differentiation of soil developed around 38.5 o south latitude, in the central Pampas of Argentina, by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and environmental magnetism. The soils transect (climosequence) investigated stretches from the drier west (around 64 o W) to the more humid east (at around 59 o W) in the Buenos Aires Province, covering a distance of 600 km. The soils studied developed during recent Holocene geologic times in a landscape characterized by small relict plateaus, slopes and depressions, dunes and prairies. The parent material consists of eolian sandy silts overlying calcrete layers. The low mean annual precipitation in the western parts of the region gives rise to soils without B-horizons, which limits the agricultural use of land. The preliminary results show an increase of the paramagnetic Fe 3+ relative concentration from west to east in the soils investigated. Magnetite is probably mainly responsible for the observed enhancement in the susceptibility values. The magnetic response of the parent material is similar to that of the loess part of the previously investigated loess-paleosol sequences of the Argentine loess plateau.

  16. Certified reference materials for the determination of mineral oil hydrocarbons in water, soil and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Liebich, A.; Win, T.; Nehls, I.

    2005-07-01

    The international research project HYCREF, funded by the European Commission in the 5{sup th} Framework programme, aimed to develop methods to prepare homogeneous and stable water-, soil- and waste reference materials contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons and to test certify the mineral oil content by gas chromatographic methods. As mineral oil products are important sources for environmental contaminations a high need exists for certified reference materials for their determination using the new gas chromatographic methods (soil: ISO/FDIS 16703, waste: ENpr 14039, water: ISO 9377-2). The experimental conditions and results for preparation and characterisation of a total of nine reference materials (3 water, 3 soil- and 3 waste materials) are described and discussed. Target values for the reference materials were defined at the beginning of the project in order to have clear quality criteria, which could be compared with the achieved results at the end of the project. These target specifications were related to the maximum uncertainty from test certification exercises (<5% for soil/waste and <10% for water), the maximum inhomogeneity between bottles (<3%) and minimum requirements for stability (>5 years for soil/waste and >2 years for water). The feasibility studies showed that solid materials (soil, waste) could be prepared sufficiently homogeneous and stable. The test certified values of the 6 solid materials comprise a wide range of mineral oil content from about 200-9000 mg/kg with expanded uncertainties between 5.7-13.1% using a coverage factor k (k=2). The development of new water reference materials - the so-called ''spiking pills'' for an offshore- and a land-based discharge water represents one of the most innovative aspects of the project. The spiking pill technology facilitates the application and storage and improves the material stability compared with aqueous materials. Additional to the preparation and test certification of

  17. Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800–1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil.

  18. Strontium-doped hematite as a possible humidity sensing material for soil water content determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

    2013-09-10

    The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800-1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil.

  19. Stability of soil's microaggregates derived from different parental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon de Rodriguez, Clara; Elizalde Albes, Graciano

    1998-01-01

    In two polipedons derived from different parental materials, it was found that microaggregates (50 - 250 μm ) aren't affected in their stability by the time, by the physical ultrasonic forces, neither by the blockage of electrostatic bonds of water, suggesting that in these aggregates, there are stronger bonds than the ones which can be broken by these agents. On the contrary water, the chemical treatments with HCl and H 2 O 2 concentrated, disjoin the microaggregates, being possible to differentiate a polipedon from other

  20. Non-destructive alpha-particle activation analysis of P, Cl, K and Ca in marine macro-alga samples using synthetic multielement reference material as comparative standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Naitoh, H.; Suzuki, N.

    1992-01-01

    A Synthetic Reference Material (SyRM) composed with accurately known amounts of 12 elements has been prepared. The elemental composition of the SyRM is closely similar to that of marine macro-algae sample. The elemental composition of the SyRM was regulated by the starting materials used for the synthesis. The SyRM was used as a comparative standard for non-destructive alpha-particle activation analysis of marine macro-alga samples. P, Cl, K and Ca were determined simultaneously without correction for alpha range due to difference in the elemental composition between the analytical samples and the comparative standard. (author) 19 refs.; 4 tabs

  1. Review of behavior of plutonium in soils and other geologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishita, H.

    1979-10-01

    Available information on the physical and chemical reactions of Pu in soils and other geologic materials is reviewed. The primary intent of this review was to bring together information that may be helpful in assessing the movement and biological availability of Pu in terrestrial environment. The review is divided into two general categories, e.g., studies of chemical reactions of Pu in aqueous solutions and studies of Pu reactions in the more complex systems of soils and other geologic materials. The latter category is further divided into studies of Pu in materials that were freshly contaminated in the laboratory and of Pu in materials that had been contaminated in natural environments and had resided there for varying numbers of years. After the discussion of physical and chemical reactions of Pu, several reported examples of the actual movement of Pu in terrestrial environments are given

  2. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E.; Loureiro, C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications

  3. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    de O. Pinto, Tatiana; Garc?a, Andr?s C.; Guedes, Jair do N.; do A. Sobrinho, Nelson M. B.; Tavares, Orlando C. H.; Berbara, Ricardo L. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+) within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants) of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC), vermicompost solid residue (VCR) and humin for remediation of Cd2+-c...

  4. Relative Density of Backfilled Soil Material around Monopiles for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The relative density of backfilled soil material around offshore monopiles is assessed through experimental testing in the Large Wave Channel (GWK) of the Coastal Research Centre (FZK) in Hannover. The relative density of the backfill material was found to vary between 65 and 80 %. The dependency...... of the relative density of backfill on the maximum pile bending moment is assessed through three-dimensional numerical modeling of a monopile foundation located at the offshore wind farm at Horns Reef, Denmark....

  5. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  6. Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, A.

    1996-01-01


    The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern

  7. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de O Pinto, Tatiana; García, Andrés C; Guedes, Jair do N; do A Sobrinho, Nelson M B; Tavares, Orlando C H; Berbara, Ricardo L L

    2016-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+) within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants) of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC), vermicompost solid residue (VCR) and humin for remediation of Cd2+-contaminated soils. We characterized the interactions between these materials and Cd2+ and evaluated their capacity to alter Cd2+ availability to rice plants. Our results show that under the conditions in this study, biochar and humin were not effective for soil remediation. Although biochar had high Cd2+ retention, it was associated with high Cd2+ bioavailability and increased Cd2+ accumulation in rice plants. VC and VCR had high Cd2+ retention capacity as well as low Cd2+ availability to plants. These characteristics were especially notable for VCR, which was most effective for soil remediation. The results of our study demonstrate that in the tested materials, the bioavailability of Cd2+ to plants is related to their structural characteristics, which in turn determine their retention of Cd2+.

  8. Assessment of the Use of Natural Materials for the Remediation of Cadmium Soil Contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de O Pinto

    Full Text Available Rice plants accumulate cadmium (Cd2+ within the grain, increasing the danger of human exposure. Natural materials have been used in soil remediation, but few studies have examined the risks (based on the bioavailability of these metals to plants of using these materials, so the practice remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse, vermicompost (VC, vermicompost solid residue (VCR and humin for remediation of Cd2+-contaminated soils. We characterized the interactions between these materials and Cd2+ and evaluated their capacity to alter Cd2+ availability to rice plants. Our results show that under the conditions in this study, biochar and humin were not effective for soil remediation. Although biochar had high Cd2+ retention, it was associated with high Cd2+ bioavailability and increased Cd2+ accumulation in rice plants. VC and VCR had high Cd2+ retention capacity as well as low Cd2+ availability to plants. These characteristics were especially notable for VCR, which was most effective for soil remediation. The results of our study demonstrate that in the tested materials, the bioavailability of Cd2+ to plants is related to their structural characteristics, which in turn determine their retention of Cd2+.

  9. Exploring the Nutrient Release Potential of Organic Materials as Integrated Soil Fertility Management Components Using SAFERNAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the nutrient release potential of different organic materials and assess their role in integrated soil fertility management for coffee using the new coffee yield model SAFERNAC. It involved an incubation experiment conducted at TaCRI Lyamungu Screenhouse for

  10. Influence of nano-material on the expansive and shrinkage soil behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Taha, Omer Muhie Eldeen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study performed on four types of soils mixed with three types of nano-material of different percentages. The expansion and shrinkage tests were conducted to investigate the effect of three type of nano-materials (nano-clay, nano-alumina, and nano-copper) additive on repressing strains in compacted residual soil mixed with different ratios of bentonite (S1 = 0 % bentonite, S2 = 5 % bentonite, S3 = 10 % bentonite, and S4 = 20 % bentonite). The soil specimens were compacted under the condition of maximum dry unit weight and optimum water content (w opt ) using standard compaction test. The physical and mechanical results of the treated samples were determined. The untreated soil values were used as control points for comparison purposes. It was found that with the addition of optimum percentage of nano-material, both the swell strain and shrinkage strain reduced. The results show that nano-material decreases the development of desiccation cracks on the surface of compacted samples without decrease in the hydraulic conductivity.

  11. METHOD OF ESTIMATING THE TRAVEL TIME OF NONINTERACTING SOLUTES THROUGH COMPACTED SOIL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pollutant travel time through compacted soil material (i.e., when a pollutant introduced at the top first appears at the bottom) cannot be accurately predicted from the permeability (saturated hydraulic conductivity) alone. The travel time is also dependent on the effective p...

  12. EVALUATION OF THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL AND SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS AFTER SEEDING ON THE SURFACE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. B. Saaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, vascular surgery using small diameter synthetic grafts is associated with a higher incidence of complications (thrombosis, restenosis, intimal hyperplasia than in operations using autologous vessels. However, the occurrence of concomitant pathology, reoperations and multifocal vascular disease limit the use of autologous vein and arteries. The important factor providing a long-term patency is the presence of vascular cells, which produce biologically active substance and provide mechanical properties. Aim. Selection of the optimal scaffold for creating cell-seeded tissue-engineering vessels. Materials and methods. Endothelial (EC and smooth muscle cells (SMC derived from human myocardium were seeded on different surfaces: decellularized homoarteriа, хenopericardium, polytetrafl uoroethylene (PTFE, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, polycaprolactone (PCL and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA. Results. Synthetic biodegradable materials polycaprolactone and polylactide-co-glycolide provide cell adhesion. The cells cultured on the polycaprolactone and polylactide-coglycolide scaffolds retain their functional properties: viability and proliferative properties, maintain specifi c endothelial antigens and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Conclusion. Synthetic biodegradable polycaprolactone and polylactide-co-glycolide electrospun scaffolds can be used for creation of cell-fi lled vascular prostheses. 

  13. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm -3 , reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH 4 m -2 d -1 , covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH 4 m -2 d -1 and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of

  14. Preparation of calibration materials for microanalysis of Ti minerals by direct fusion of synthetic and natural materials: experience with LA-ICP-MS analysis of some important minor and trace elements in ilmenite and rutile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegård, M; Mansfeld, J; Dundas, S H

    2001-08-01

    Calibration materials for microanalysis of Ti minerals have been prepared by direct fusion of synthetic and natural materials by resistance heating in high-purity graphite electrodes. Synthetic materials were FeTiO3 and TiO2 reagents doped with minor and trace elements; CRMs for ilmenite, rutile, and a Ti-rich magnetite were used as natural materials. Problems occurred during fusion of Fe2O3-rich materials, because at atmospheric pressure Fe2O3 decomposes into Fe3O4 and O2 at 1462 degrees C. An alternative fusion technique under pressure was tested, but the resulting materials were characterized by extensive segregation and development of separate phases. Fe2O3-rich materials were therefore fused below this temperature, resulting in a form of sintering, without conversion of the materials into amorphous glasses. The fused materials were studied by optical microscopy and EPMA, and tested as calibration materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, equipped with laser ablation for sample introduction (LA-ICP-MS). It was demonstrated that calibration curves based on materials of rutile composition, within normal analytical uncertainty, generally coincide with calibration curves based on materials of ilmenite composition. It is, therefore, concluded that LA-ICP-MS analysis of Ti minerals can with advantage be based exclusively on calibration materials prepared for rutile, thereby avoiding the special fusion problems related to oxide mixtures of ilmenite composition. It is documented that sintered materials were in good overall agreement with homogeneous glass materials, an observation that indicates that in other situations also sintered mineral concentrates might be a useful alternative for instrument calibration, e.g. as alternative to pressed powders.

  15. Influence of inocula with prior hydrocarbon exposure on biodegradation rates of diesel, synthetic diesel, and fish-biodiesel in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Schiewer, Silke

    2014-08-01

    To achieve effective bioremediation within short warm seasons of cold climates, microbial adaptation periods to the contaminant should be brief. The current study investigated growth phases for soil spiked with diesel, Syntroleum, or fish biodiesel, using microbial inocula adapted to the specific substrates. For modeling hydrocarbon degradation, multi-phase first order kinetics was assumed, comparing linear regression with nonlinear parameter optimization of rate constants and phase durations. Lag phase periods of 5 to >28d were followed by short and intense exponential growth phases with high rate constants (e.g. from kFish=0.0013±0.0002 to kSyntr=0.015±0.001d(-1)). Hydrocarbon mineralization was highest for Syntroleum contamination, where up to three times higher cumulative CO2 production was achieved than for diesel fuel, with fish biodiesel showing initially the slowest degradation. The amount of hydrocarbons recovered from the soil by GC-MS decreased in the order fish biodiesel>diesel>Syntroleum. During initial weeks, biodegradation was higher for microbial inocula adapted to a specific fuel type, whereby the main effect of the inoculum was to shorten the lag phase duration; however, the inoculum's importance diminished after daily respiration peaked. In conclusion, addition of an inoculum to increase biodegradation rates was not necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pedotransfer functions for isoproturon sorption on soils and vadose zone materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeys, Julien; Bergheaud, Valérie; Coquet, Yves

    2011-10-01

    Sorption coefficients (the linear K(D) or the non-linear K(F) and N(F)) are critical parameters in models of pesticide transport to groundwater or surface water. In this work, a dataset of isoproturon sorption coefficients and corresponding soil properties (264 K(D) and 55 K(F)) was compiled, and pedotransfer functions were built for predicting isoproturon sorption in soils and vadose zone materials. These were benchmarked against various other prediction methods. The results show that the organic carbon content (OC) and pH are the two main soil properties influencing isoproturon K(D) . The pedotransfer function is K(D) = 1.7822 + 0.0162 OC(1.5) - 0.1958 pH (K(D) in L kg(-1) and OC in g kg(-1)). For low-OC soils (OC isoproturon sorption in soils in unsampled locations should rely, whenever possible, and by order of preference, on (a) site- or soil-specific pedotransfer functions, (b) pedotransfer functions calibrated on a large dataset, (c) K(OC) values calculated on a large dataset or (d) K(OC) values taken from existing pesticide properties databases. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. New Experiences in Dike Construction with Soil-Ash Composites and Fine-Grained Dredged Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duszyński Remigiusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The supporting structure inside a coastal dike is often made of dredged non-uniform sand with good compaction properties. Due to the shortage of natural construction material for both coastal and river dikes and the surplus of different processed materials, new experiments were made with sand-ash mixtures and fine-grained dredged materials to replace both dike core and dike cover materials resulting in economical, environmentally friendly and sustainable dikes. Ash from EC Gdańsk and dredged sand from the Vistula river were mixed to form an engineering material used for dike construction. The optimum sand-ash composites were applied at a field test site to build a large-scale research dike. Fine-grained dredged materials from Germany were chosen to be applied in a second full-scale research dike in Rostock. All materials were investigated according to the standards for soil mechanical analysis. This includes basic soil properties, mechanical characteristics, such as grain-size distribution, compaction parameters, compressibility, shear strength, and water permeability. In the field, the infiltration of water into the dike body as well as the erosion resistance of the cover material against overflowing water was determined. Results of both laboratory and field testing are discussed in this paper. In conclusion, the mixing of bottom ash with mineral soil, such as relatively uniform dredged sand, fairly improves the geotechnical parameters of the composite, compared to the constituents. Depending on the composite, the materials may be suitable to build a dike core or an erosion-resistant dike cover.

  18. New Experiences in Dike Construction with Soil-Ash Composites and Fine-Grained Dredged Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyński, Remigiusz; Duszyńska, Angelika; Cantré, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    The supporting structure inside a coastal dike is often made of dredged non-uniform sand with good compaction properties. Due to the shortage of natural construction material for both coastal and river dikes and the surplus of different processed materials, new experiments were made with sand-ash mixtures and fine-grained dredged materials to replace both dike core and dike cover materials resulting in economical, environmentally friendly and sustainable dikes. Ash from EC Gdańsk and dredged sand from the Vistula river were mixed to form an engineering material used for dike construction. The optimum sand-ash composites were applied at a field test site to build a large-scale research dike. Fine-grained dredged materials from Germany were chosen to be applied in a second full-scale research dike in Rostock. All materials were investigated according to the standards for soil mechanical analysis. This includes basic soil properties, mechanical characteristics, such as grain-size distribution, compaction parameters, compressibility, shear strength, and water permeability. In the field, the infiltration of water into the dike body as well as the erosion resistance of the cover material against overflowing water was determined. Results of both laboratory and field testing are discussed in this paper. In conclusion, the mixing of bottom ash with mineral soil, such as relatively uniform dredged sand, fairly improves the geotechnical parameters of the composite, compared to the constituents. Depending on the composite, the materials may be suitable to build a dike core or an erosion-resistant dike cover.

  19. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S., E-mail: almir@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adelaide@ird.gov.br, E-mail: vanessa@ird.gov.br, E-mail: maura@ird.gov.br, E-mail: poliana@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  20. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  1. THE STUDY OF DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL MATERIALS WITH THE USAGE OF WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Trykoz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. More often the qualified building materials are replaced by the industrial wastes for environmental improvement. This refers to both metallurgical slags and biological solids of water treatment plants. In order to understand the possibilities of their usage it needs studying deformation properties of composite soil materials with industrial wastes addition. Methodology. The soil of real buildings and structures foundation is in the complicated conditions and the stress-strained state. While studying this state the total deformation modulus Е0 is used as the deformation characteristic. This one is determined according to the results of sample soil testing in the compression instrument (odometer. This instrument prevents the possibility of lateral expansion of sample soil under the vertical load. Findings. As a result of the testing the compression curves are plotted as the dependence of the porosity coefficient on pressure. These data allow determining the compressibility coefficient and the strain modulus. It is found that a biological solids addition increases the compressibility coefficient four times compared to the clay. The two types of samples are compared. The first type contains 50% of biological solids. The second type contains 50% of biological solids and 50% of slag. The comparison shows that the second type is compressed twelve times less. An addition into the clay of biological solids increases the strain modulus from 7.8 to 20.3 MPa. The slag increases the strain modulus to 52.7 MPa. Originality. While making the composition based clay materials the functional groups of biological solids interact with hydroxyl groups which are placed on the surface of clay particles and form a spatial structure. Besides an addition of biological solids contributes to peptization, soil aggregates destroy themselves, and form contacts between separate particles. It causes the decrease of soil compressibility due to the total porosity

  2. Multi-phase physicochemical modeling of soil-cementitious material interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakarai, Kenichiro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    Multi-phase physicochemical modeling based on thermodynamic approach is studied on gel and capillary pores of nano-micrometers and large voids of micro-millimeters among soil foundation. A computational method about transportation of moisture and ions in pore structure for simulating concrete performance was extended for predicting time-dependent material properties of cemented soil. The proposed model was verified with experimental results of cement hydration, change of relative humidity and leaching of calcium ion from cement hydrate to underground water. (author)

  3. Degradation of sustainable mulch materials in two types of soil under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen; Aceituno, Patricia; Campos, Juan; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Mulching is a technique used in cultivation worldwide, especially for vegetable crops, for reducing weed growth, minimising or eliminating soil erosion, and often for enhancing total yields. Manufactured plastic films, mainly polyethylene (PE), have been widely used for this purpose due to their excellent mechanical properties, light weight and relatively low prices in recent years. However, the use of PE is associated with serious environmental problems related to its petrochemical origin and its long shelf-life, which causes a waste problem in our crop fields. For this reason, the use of biodegradable mulch materials (biopolymers and papers) as alternative to PE is increasing nowadays, especially in organic farming. However, these materials can suffer an undesirable early degradation (and therefore not fulfilling their function successfully), greatly resulting from the type of soil. For this reason, this study aimed to analyse the degradation pattern of different mulch materials buried in two types of soils, clay and sand, under laboratory conditions (25°C, dark surroundings, constant humidity). The mulch materials used were: 1) black polyethylene (15 µm); black biopolymers (15 µm): 2) maize starch-based, 3) potato starch-based, 4) polylactic acid-based, 5) black paper, 85 g/m2. Periodically (every 15-20 days), the weight and surface loss of the different materials were recorded. The results indicate that mulch degradation was earlier and higher in the clay soil, especially in the paper and in the potato starch-based materials, followed by the maize starch-based mulch, while polylactic acid-based suffered the least and the latest degradation. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, degradation. Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  4. Effect of different mulch materials on the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in an organic pepper crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Peco, Jesús; Campos, Juan; Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The use biodegradable materials (biopolymers of different composition and papers) as an alternative to conventional mulches has increased considerably during the last years mainly for environmental reason. In order to assess the effect of these materials on the soil microbial activity during the season of a pepper crop organically grown in Central Spain, the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured in laboratory. The mulch materials tested were: 1) black polyethylene (PE, 15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. Soil samples (5-10 cm depth) under the different mulches were taken at different dates (at the beginning of the crop cycle and at different dates throughout the crop season). Additionally, samples of bare soil in a manual weeding and in an untreated control were taken. The results obtained show the negative effect of black PE on the DHA activity, mainly as result of the higher temperature reached under the mulch and the reduction in the gas interchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The values corresponding to the biodegradable materials were variable, although highlighting the low DHA activity observed under Bioflex®. In general, the uncovered treatments showed higher values than those reached under mulches, especially in the untreated control. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, dehydrogenase activity (DHA). Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  5. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences

  6. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Erica M. [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences.

  7. Effect of different materials in soil on the neutron moisture gauge readings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Majid, S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron moisture gauges that depend on scattering and thermalization of neutrons have been in use for a long time. The hydrogen in water is the effective element in thermalizing the neutrons coming from a neutron source, where they are detected by neutron detector such as B F 3 counter or boron lined counter. The high cross-section of boron for thermal neutrons makes detectors containing boron ideal for this application. There are always some possibility that some materials exist in soil other than water which can moderate and hence introduce false results in moisture contents measurements. For example, materials such as hydrocarbons, asphalt, wood, etc., contain both hydrogen and carbon. These elements are good neutron moderators. The effects of the existence of such materials in the soil on the gauge readings were examined. Elements of high neutron cross-section such as boron can be a source of large error as well, since they absorb thermal neutrons giving low moisture content value. The effect of such materials as part of the soil constituent on the gauge reading was also examined.3 fig

  8. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  9. Size- and composition-dependent toxicity of synthetic and soil-derived Fe oxide colloids for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höss, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Andreas; Meyer, Carolin; Bosch, Julian; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2015-01-06

    Colloidal iron oxides (FeOx) are increasingly released to the environment due to their use in environmental remediation and biomedical applications, potentially harming living organisms. Size and composition could affect the bioavailability and toxicity of such colloids. Therefore, we investigated the toxicity of selected FeOx with variable aggregate size and variably composed FeOx-associated organic matter (OM) toward the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Ferrihydrite colloids containing citrate were taken up by C. elegans with the food and accumulated inside their body. The toxicity of ferrihydrite, goethite, and akaganeite was dependent on aggregate size and specific surface area, with EC50 values for reproduction ranging from 4 to 29 mg Fe L(-1). Experiments with mutant strains lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod-2) showed oxidative stress for two FeOx and Fe(3+)-ions, however, revealed that it was not the predominant mechanism of toxicity. The OM composition determined the toxicity of mixed OM-FeOx phases on C. elegans. FeOx associated with humic acids or citrate were less toxic than OM-free FeOx. In contrast, soil-derived ferrihydrite, containing proteins and polysaccharides from mobile OM, was even more toxic than OM-free Fh of similar aggregate size. Consequently, the careful choice of the type of FeOx and the type of associated OM may help in reducing the ecological risks if actively applied to the subsurface.

  10. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  11. Concentration of radionuclides in building materials and soils in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackers, J.G.

    1985-11-01

    About 150 samples of building materials used in the Netherlands have been analysed by gamma spectrometry for their Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 concentrations. From 26 samples of soils the radioactivity concentration was measured. Calibration was performed by the use of a large volume standard source made as a mixture of monazite, pitchblende and silica. The results are reported in Bq.kg -1 ; the statistical error is within 5% (standard deviation) and for most of the results the systematic error is smaller than 15%. Most of the building materials and all soil samples revealed activity concentrations smaller than 100 Bq.kg -1 for Ra-226 and Th-232 and smaller than 1000 Bq.kg -1 for K-40. Part of the results is compared with data published elsewhere. (Auth.)

  12. Analysis of soil reference materials for vanadium(+5) species by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandiwana, Khakhathi L.; Panichev, Nikolay

    2010-01-01

    Solid Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) with known vanadium(+5) content are currently not commercially available. Because of this, vanadium species have been determined in solid CRMs of soil, viz. CRM023-50, CRM024-50, CRM049-50, SQC001 and SQC0012. These CRMs are certified with only total vanadium content. Vanadium(+5) was extracted from soil reference materials with 0.1 M Na 2 CO 3 . The quantification of V(+5) was carried out by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). The concentration of V(+5) in the analyzed CRMs was found to be ranging between 3.60 and 86.0 μg g -1 . It was also found that SQC001 contains approximately 88% of vanadium as V(+5) species. Statistical evaluation of the results of the two methods by paired t-test was in good agreement at 95% level of confidence.

  13. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  14. Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prep...

  15. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  16. Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireles, F.; Garcia, M.L.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C.; Montero, M.E.; Colmenero, L.; Villalba, L.

    2007-01-01

    Indoor radon gas ( 222 Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the 238 U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The 222 Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6±4.9Bqm -3 and 46.5±5.3Bqm -3 , respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8±5.4Bqm -3 . These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm -3

  17. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  18. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

  19. Soiled-based uranium disequilibrium and mixed uranium-thorium series radionuclide reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology has assigned the Technical Measurements Center (TMC), located at the DOE Grand Junction Colorado, Projects Office and operated by UNC Geotech (UNC), the task of supporting ongoing remedial action programs by providing both technical guidance and assistance in making the various measurements required in all phases of remedial action work. Pursuant to this task, the Technical Measurements Center prepared two sets of radionuclide reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. A total of six reference materials, two sets comprising three reference materials each, were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides using mill tailings materials, ores, and a river-bottom soil diluent. One set (disequilibrium set) contains varying amounts of uranium with nominal amounts of radium-226. The other set (mixed-nuclide set) contains varying amounts of uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay series nuclides. 14 refs., 10 tabs

  20. Hybrid Silicon-Based Organic/Inorganic Block Copolymers with Sol-Gel Active Moieties: Synthetic Advances, Self-Assembly and Applications in Biomedicine and Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sebastian; Bertin, Annabelle

    2018-03-07

    Hybrid silicon-based organic/inorganic (multi)block copolymers are promising polymeric precursors to create robust nano-objects and nanomaterials due to their sol-gel active moieties via self-assembly in solution or in bulk. Such nano-objects and nanomaterials have great potential in biomedicine as nanocarriers or scaffolds for bone regeneration as well as in materials science as Pickering emulsifiers, photonic crystals or coatings/films with antibiofouling, antibacterial or water- and oil-repellent properties. Thus, this Review outlines recent synthetic efforts in the preparation of these hybrid inorganic/organic block copolymers, gives an overview of their self-assembled structures and finally presents recent examples of their use in the biomedical field and material science. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  2. Rehabilitating acid soils for increasing crop productivity through low-cost liming material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Javid Ahmad; Kundu, Manik Chandra; Hazra, Gora Chand; Santra, Gour Hari; Mandal, Biswapati

    2010-09-15

    Productivity of red and lateritic soils is low because of their acidity and deficiencies in few essential nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, boron, molybdenum etc. We compared the effectiveness of basic slag, a low-cost liming material, with that of calcite as an ameliorant for these soils using mustard followed by rice as test crops. Experiments were conducted with three levels of each of basic slag and calcite along with a control on farmers' fields at 14 different locations. Influence of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) on the effectiveness of the slag was also tested. On an average, basic slag performed better than calcite in increasing yields of both mustard and rice and left over higher amounts of available Ca, Si and Zn in residual soils. The slag also improved N, P, K and Ca nutrition of mustard and Si and Zn nutrition of rice with a favorable benefit:cost (B:C) ratio over the calcite (4.82 vs. 1.44). Effectiveness of the basic slag improved when it was applied in combination with FYM or PM (B:C, 5.83 and 6.27). Basic slag can, therefore, be advocated for use in the acidic red and lateritic soils for economically improving their productivity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rehabilitating acid soils for increasing crop productivity through low-cost liming material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Javid Ahmad; Kundu, Manik Chandra; Hazra, Gora Chand; Santra, Gour Hari; Mandal, Biswapati

    2010-01-01

    Productivity of red and lateritic soils is low because of their acidity and deficiencies in few essential nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, boron, molybdenum etc. We compared the effectiveness of basic slag, a low-cost liming material, with that of calcite as an ameliorant for these soils using mustard followed by rice as test crops. Experiments were conducted with three levels of each of basic slag and calcite along with a control on farmers' fields at 14 different locations. Influence of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) on the effectiveness of the slag was also tested. On an average, basic slag performed better than calcite in increasing yields of both mustard and rice and left over higher amounts of available Ca, Si and Zn in residual soils. The slag also improved N, P, K and Ca nutrition of mustard and Si and Zn nutrition of rice with a favorable benefit:cost (B:C) ratio over the calcite (4.82 vs. 1.44). Effectiveness of the basic slag improved when it was applied in combination with FYM or PM (B:C, 5.83 and 6.27). Basic slag can, therefore, be advocated for use in the acidic red and lateritic soils for economically improving their productivity.

  4. Rehabilitating acid soils for increasing crop productivity through low-cost liming material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Javid Ahmad [Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal (India); Kundu, Manik Chandra, E-mail: mckundu@rediffmail.com [Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal (India); Hazra, Gora Chand [Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal (India); Santra, Gour Hari [Department of Soil Science and Agril. Chemistry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751003, Orissa (India); Mandal, Biswapati [Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal (India)

    2010-09-15

    Productivity of red and lateritic soils is low because of their acidity and deficiencies in few essential nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, boron, molybdenum etc. We compared the effectiveness of basic slag, a low-cost liming material, with that of calcite as an ameliorant for these soils using mustard followed by rice as test crops. Experiments were conducted with three levels of each of basic slag and calcite along with a control on farmers' fields at 14 different locations. Influence of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) on the effectiveness of the slag was also tested. On an average, basic slag performed better than calcite in increasing yields of both mustard and rice and left over higher amounts of available Ca, Si and Zn in residual soils. The slag also improved N, P, K and Ca nutrition of mustard and Si and Zn nutrition of rice with a favorable benefit:cost (B:C) ratio over the calcite (4.82 vs. 1.44). Effectiveness of the basic slag improved when it was applied in combination with FYM or PM (B:C, 5.83 and 6.27). Basic slag can, therefore, be advocated for use in the acidic red and lateritic soils for economically improving their productivity.

  5. Multiangular L-band Datasets for Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity Retrieval Measured by Airborne HUT-2D Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Seppänen, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2009-04-01

    SMOS is the European Space Agency's next Earth Explorer satellite due for launch in 2009. It aims for global monitoring of soil moisture and ocean salinity utilizing a new technology concept for remote sensing: two-dimensional aperture synthesis radiometry. The payload of SMOS is Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis, or MIRAS. It is a passive instrument that uses 72 individual L-band receivers for measuring the brightness temperature of the Earth. From each acquisition, i.e. integration time or snapshot, MIRAS provides two-dimensional brightness temperature of the scene in the instrument's field of view. Thus, consecutive snapshots provide multiangular measurements of the target once the instrument passes over it. Depending on the position of the target in instrument's swath, the brightness temperature of the target at incidence angles from zero up to 50 degrees can be measured with one overpass. To support the development MIRAS instrument, its calibration, and soil moisture and sea surface salinity retrieval algorithm development, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) has designed, manufactured and tested a radiometer which operates at L-band and utilizes the same two-dimensional methodology of interferometery and aperture synthesis as MIRAS does. This airborne instrument, called HUT-2D, was designed to be used on board the University's research aircraft. It provides multiangular measurements of the target in its field of view, which spans up to 30 degrees off the boresight of the instrument, which is pointed to the nadir. The number of independent measurements of each target point depends on the flight speed and altitude. In addition to the Spanish Airborne MIRAS demonstrator (AMIRAS), HUT-2D is the only European airborne synthetic aperture radiometer. This paper presents the datasets and measurement campaigns, which have been carried out using the HUT-2D radiometer and are available for the scientific community. In April 2007 HUT-2D participated

  6. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  7. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east-west from Virginia to California, and north-south from northern Manitoba to the US-Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba-North Dakota segment of the north-south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  8. Cytocompatibility and biologic characteristics of synthetic scaffold materials of rabbit acellular vascular matrix combining with human-like collagen I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqian; Wang, Jie; Dong, Fusheng; Song, Peng; Tian, Songbo; Li, Hexiang; Hou, Yali

    2017-10-01

    Scaffold material provides a three-dimensional growing environment for seed cells in the research field of tissue engineering. In the present study, rabbit arterial blood vessel cells were chemically removed with trypsin and Triton X-100 to prepare rabbit acellular vascular matrix scaffold material. Observation by He&Masson staining revealed that no cellular components or nuclei existed in the vascular intima and media after decellularization. Human-like collagen I was combined with acellular vascular matrix by freeze-drying to prepare an acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I scaffold to compensate for the extracellular matrix loss during the decellularization process. We next performed a series of experiments to test the water absorbing quality, biomechanics, pressure resistance, cytotoxicity, and ultra-micro structure of the acellular vascular matrix composite material and natural rabbit artery and found that the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I material behaved similarly to natural rabbit artery. In conclusion, the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I composite material provides a new approach and lays the foundation for novel scaffold material research into tissue engineering of blood vessels.

  9. Analysis and Modeling of Process of Residual Deformations Accumulation in Soils and Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A. S.; Dolgih, G. V.; Kalinin, A. L.

    2017-11-01

    It is established that under the influence of repeated loads the process of plastic deformation in soils and discrete materials is hereditary. To perform the mathematical modeling of plastic deformation, the authors applied the integral equation by solution of which they manage to obtain the power and logarithmic dependencies connecting plastic deformation with the number of repeated loads, the parameters of the material and components of the stress tensor in the principal axes. It is shown that these dependences generalize a number of models proposed earlier in Russia and abroad. Based on the analysis of the experimental data obtained during material testing in the dynamic devices of triaxial compression at different values of the stress deviator, the coefficients in the proposed models of deformation are determined. The authors determined the application domain for logarithmic and degree dependences.

  10. Development of construction materials like concrete from lunar soils without water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Frantziskonis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. A unique approach is attempted that utilizes factors such as initial vacuum and then cyclic loading to enhance the mechanical properties of dry materials similar to those available on the moon. The application of such factors is expected to allow reorientation, and coming together, of particles of the materials toward the maximum theoretical density. If such a density can provide deformation and strength properties for even a limited type of construction, the approach can have significant application potential, although other factors such as heat and chemicals may be needed for specific construction objectives.

  11. Laser assisted removal of synthetic painting-conservation materials using UV radiation of ns and fs pulse duration: Morphological studies on model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouli, P.; Nevin, A.; Andreotti, A.; Colombini, P.; Georgiou, S.; Fotakis, C.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to establish the optimal parameters for the cleaning of complex layers of polymers (mainly based on acrylics, vinyls, epoxys known as Elvacite, Laropal, Paraloid B72, among others) applied during past conservation treatments on the surface of wall paintings, laser cleaning tests were performed with particular emphasis on the plausible morphological modifications induced in the remaining polymeric material. Pulse duration effects were studied using laser systems of different pulse durations (ns and fs) at 248 nm. Prior to tests on real fragments from the Monumental Cemetery in Pisa (Italy) which were coated with different polymers, attention was focused on the study of model samples consisting of analogous polymer films cast on quartz disks. Ultraviolet irradiation is strongly absorbed by the studied materials both in ns and fs irradiation regimes. However, it is demonstrated that ultrashort laser pulses result in reduced morphological alterations in comparison to ns irradiation. In addition, the dependence of the observed alterations on the chemical composition of the consolidation materials in both regimes was examined. Most importantly, it was shown that in this specific conservation problem, an optimum cleaning process may rely not only on the minimization of laser-induced morphological changes but also on the exploitation of the conditions that favour the disruption of the adhesion between the synthetic material and the painting.

  12. Development and characterization of a synthetic PVC/DEHP myocardial tissue analogue material for CT imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Sherif; Paul, Narinder; Naguib, Hani E

    2018-04-01

    A simple myocardial analogue material has great potential to help researchers in the creation of medical CT Imaging phantoms. This work aims to outline a Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) plasticizer/PVC material to achieve this. DEHP-PVC was manufactured in three ratios, 75, 80, and 85% DEHP by heating at 110 °C for 10 min to promote DEHP-PVC binding followed by heating at 150 °C to melt the blend. The material was then tested utilizing FTIR, tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis and imaged with computed tomography. The FTIR testing finds the presence of C-CL and carbonyl bonds that demonstrate the binding required in this plasticized material. The tensile testing finds a modulus of 180-20 kPa that increases with the proportion of plasticizer. The dynamic mechanical analysis finds a linear increase in viscoelastic properties with a storage/loss modulus of 6/.5-120/18 kPa. Finally, the CT number of the material increases with higher PVC content from 55 to 144HU. The 80% DEHP-PVC ratio meets the mechanical and CT properties necessary to function as a myocardial tissue analogue.

  13. Determination of soil mechanics of salt rock as a potential backfilling material in an underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappei, G.

    1987-09-01

    Within the framework of the research and development project 'Backfilling and sealing of boreholes, chambers and roadways in a final dump', the Institute for Underground Dumping chose - from the broad range of possible stowing materials - the material 'salt spoil' and investigated its soil-mechanical properties in detail. Besides the implementation of soil-mechanical standard analyses (determination of the grain size distribution, bulk density, limits of storage density, proctor density, permeabilities, and shear strength) of two selected salt spoils (heap salt and rock salt spoil), the studies concentrated on the determination of the compression behaviour of salt spoil. In order to obtain data on the compaction behaviour of this material in the case of increasing stress, compression tests with obstructed lateral expansion were carried out on a series of spoil samples differing mainly in the composition of grain sizes. In addition to this, for a small number of samples of rock salt spoil, the creep behaviour at constant stress was determined after the compaction phase. (orig./RB) [de

  14. On the corrosion and soiling effects on materials by air pollution in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tzanis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the European project, entitled MULTI-ASSESS, specimens of structural metals, glass, stone and concrete materials were exposed to air pollution at a station, which was installed for this purpose on a building, located in the centre of Athens. The main purpose of this project was to determine the corrosion and soiling effects of air pollution on materials. A set of the specimens was exposed in a position that was sheltered from rain and partly from wind, and another set was exposed in unsheltered positions on the roof of the above said building. In addition, other specimens were exposed at different heights on the same building, in order to investigate for the first time the corrosion and soiling effects on various materials as a function of height. For the determination of these effects, chemical analysis of the specimens was performed and basic parameters as the weight change, the layer thickness and the optical properties were calculated. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and their plausible interpretation is attempted.

  15. Parameterization experiments performed via synthetic mass movements prototypes generated by 3D slope stability simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Antonio C.

    2010-05-01

    The central purpose of this work is to perform a reverse procedure in the mass movement conventional parameterization approach. The idea is to generate a number of synthetic mass movements by means of the "slope stability simulator" (Colangelo, 2007), and compeer their morphological and physical properties with "real" conditions of effective mass movements. This device is an integrated part of "relief unity emulator" (rue), that permits generate synthetic mass movements in a synthetic slope environment. The "rue" was build upon fundamental geomorphological concepts. These devices operate with an integrated set of mechanical, geomorphic and hydrological models. The "slope stability simulator" device (sss) permits to perform a detailed slope stability analysis in a theoretical three dimensional space, by means of evaluation the spatial behavior of critical depths, gradients and saturation levels in the "potential rupture surfaces" inferred along a set of slope profiles, that compounds a synthetic slope unity. It's a meta-stable 4-dimensional object generated by means of "rue", that represents a sequence evolution of a generator profile applied here, was adapted the infinite slope model for slope. Any slope profiles were sliced by means of finite element solution like in Bishop method. For the synthetic slope systems generated, we assume that the potential rupture surface occurs at soil-regolith or soil-rock boundary in slope material. Sixteen variables were included in the "rue-sss" device that operates in an integrated manner. For each cell, the factor of safety was calculated considering the value of shear strength (cohesion and friction) of material, soil-regolith boundary depth, soil moisture level content, potential rupture surface gradient, slope surface gradient, top of subsurface flow gradient, apparent soil bulk density and vegetation surcharge. The slope soil was considered as cohesive material. The 16 variables incorporated in the models were analyzed for

  16. Synthesis and investigation of sorbing materials based on natural and synthetic dispersed oxide systems for sorbing active leaching products of lava-like fuel-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryip, Yi.M.; Shimchuk, T.V.; Tokarchuk, M.V.; Tokarchuk, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory sorbent samples were synthesized on the basis of modified natural clayey raw material and fumed silica. Using chemical methods, composition of synthesized sorbents was established. Oxide and hydroxide structures, plated on the fumed silica and natural montmorillonite clay surface were identified. A forecast about sorbing properties of synthesized materials is made

  17. Histological evaluation of tissue reactions to newly synthetized calcium silicate- and hydroxyapatite-based bioactive materials: in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opačić-Galić Vanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Development of materials which could be used as biological bone substitutes is one of the most valuable and active fields of biomaterial research. The goal of the study was to research the reaction of tissue on calcium silicate- (CS and hydroxyapatitebased (CS-HA newly synthesized nanomaterials, after being implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of a rats and direct pulp capping of rabbit teeth. Methods. The tested materials were implanted in 40 Wistar male rats, sacrificed after seven, 15, 30, and 60 days. The direct pulp capping was performed on the teeth of rabbits. Cavities were prepared on the vestibular surface of the incisors. The animals were sacrificed after 10 and 15 days. The control material was mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Histological analysis covered the tracking of inflammatory reaction cellular components, presence of gigantic cells, and necrosis of the tissue. Results. Seven days after the implantation, the strongest inflammatory response was given by the MTA (3.3 Ѓ} 0.48, while CS and CS-HA scored 3 ± 0.71. After 60 days, the rate of inflammatory reactions dropped, which was the least visible with CS-HA (0.2 ± 0.45. The least visible inflammatory reaction of the rabbits’ pulp tissue was spotted with the CS (1.83 ± 0.75, than with the MTA and CS-HA (2.67 ± 1.53, 3 ± 0.63. Conclusion. The newly synthesized materials caused a slight reaction of the subcutaneous tissue. CS-HA showed the best tissue tolerance. Nanostructural biomaterials caused a slight to moderate inflammatory reaction of the rabbits’ pulp tissue only in the immediate vicinity of the implanted material.

  18. Considerations on the parent material in the soil developed on the evaporite deposits from Stana (Cluj district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea Bedelean

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This research concerned three profiles developed on Eocene (Priabonian gypsum parent material from Stana (Cluj district in order to investigate their properties. The soil and parent material samples were collected from individual horizons in each profile. Both the mineralogical and structural-textural features of the parent material (evaporitic deposits reflect the depositional context. From a mineralogical point of view, the deposits are represented by gypsum, and anhydrite. Typical sulfate facies are present: laminitic, nodular, gypscretic, and entherolitic. Physical and mineralogical properties of the soil layers were determined in the laboratory. The field observations and the results of the analyses allowed us to classify the soil as a rendzinic regosol, according to the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (S.R.T.S. 2000.

  19. The anti-calcification potential of a silsesquioxane nanocomposite polymer under in vitro conditions: potential material for synthetic leaflet heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Hossein; Kidane, Asmeret G; Burriesci, Gaetano; Ramesh, Bala; Darbyshire, Arnold; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2010-11-01

    Calcification currently represents a major cause of failure of biological tissue heart valves. It is a complex phenomenon influenced by a number of biochemical and mechanical factors. Recent advances in material science offer new polymers with improved properties, potentially suitable for synthetic leaflets heart valves manufacturing. In this study, the calcification-resistance efficacy and mechanical and surface properties of a new nanocomposite polymeric material (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane; POSS-PCU) which has been developed by our group are assessed by means of in vitro testing. In particular, thin sheets of nanocomposite, glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium (BP) and polyurethane (PU) were exposed to a calcium solution into a specially designed in vitro accelerated physiological pulsatile pressure system for a period of 31days and a total of 4×10(7) cycles. The samples were investigated for signs of calcification after exposure to calcium solution by means of X-ray, microscopic and chemical inspections. Mechanical and surface properties were also studied using stress-strain behaviour and surface morphology and hydrophobicity. Comparison shows that, in the experimental conditions, the level of calcification for the nanocomposite is considerably lower than for the fixed BP (p=0.008) and PU samples (p=0.015). Also, mechanical properties were unchanged in POSS-PCU, while there was a significant deterioration in PU samples (pnanocomposite remained more hydrophobic than the PU sample (pnanocomposite in synthetic leaflets heart valves may lead to potential advantages in terms of long-term performances and durability. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Interaction of Peat Soil and Sulphidic Material Substratum: Role of Peat Layer and Groundwater Level Fluctuations on Phosphorus Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Heru Purwanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P often becomes limiting factor for plants growth. Phosphorus geochemistry in peatland soil is associated with the presence of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations. The research was conducted to study the role of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations on P concentration in peatland. The research was conducted on deep, moderate and shallow peat with sulphidic material as substratum, peaty acid sulphate soil, and potential acid sulphate soil. While P concentration was observed in wet season, in transition from wet to dry season, and in dry season. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer and soil horizon. The results showed that peat layer might act as the main source of P in peatland with sulphidic material substratum. The upper peat layer on sulphidic material caused by groundwater level fluctuations had no directly effect on P concentration in the peat layers. Increased of P concentration in the lowest sulphidic layer might relate to redox reaction of iron in the sulphidic layer and precipitation process. Phosphorus concentration in peatland with sulphidic material as substratum was not influenced by peat thickness. However, depletion or disappearance of peat layer decreased P concentration in soil solution. Disappearance of peat layer means loss of a natural source of P for peatland with sulphidic material as substratum, therefore peat layer must be kept in order to maintain of peatlands.

  1. [Effects of Different Kinds of Organic Materials on Soil Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Efficiency by Sedum alfredii Hance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gui-hua; Xu, Hai-zhou; Zhu, Lin-gang; Ma, Jia-wei; Liu, Dan; Ye, Zheng-qian

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of clean organic materials i. e., biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), and bamboo shell (BS) on phytoextraction remediation of two heavy metal contaminated soils (collected from Wenzhou and Fuyang, which referred to "Wenzhou soil" and "Fuyang soil", respectively.) using a cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that the effects of organic materials on availabilities of soil heavy metals were different due to different kinds of heavy metals, organic materials, and the application rates of the organic materials. Addition with 5% BR showed the greatest activation to copper (Cu), Zn in Wenzhou soil, and in Fuyang soil 1% BS had the highest activation for Cu, Zn, lead ( Ph) and Cd. Growth of shoot biomass of Sedum alfredii Hance increased with the addition rate of organic materials, and the plant dry weights were increased by 23.7%-93.0%. In Wenzhou soil, only 1% BS treatment had the best effect on Cd uptake and accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, increased by 22.6%, while other treatments were inferior to the control. For Zn, MR treatments were inferior to the control, while other treafments were superior to the control, of which 5% BR, 1% BS and 5% BS exceeded the control by 39. 6%, 32.6% and 23.8%, respectively. In Fuyang soil, for Cd, the treatment effects of 5% BS, 1% BR and 5% BR were the greatest, of which Cd accumulation in shoots exceeded the control by 12.9%, 12.8% and 6.2%, respectively, while Cd accumulations in shoots in all other treatments were less than that of control. For Zn, the treatments of adding organic materials promoted Zn accumulation in shoots of Sedum alfredii Hance, and the best treatments were as follows: 5% BS. 5% BR and 5% MR, exceeded the control by 38.4%, 25.7% and 22.4%, respectively.

  2. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  3. An improved SOIL*EX trademark process for the removal of hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, R.R.; Bonnema, B.E.; Navratil, J.D.; Falconer, K.L.; Van Vliet, J.A.; Diel, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    Rust's patented SOIL*EX process is designed to remove hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and a matrix of other materials while destroying volatile organic compounds often associated with contaminated soil and debris. The process is comprised of three major process operations. The first operation involves the dissolution of contaminants that are chemically or mechanically bonded to the solid phase. The second process operation involves separation of the solid phase from the dissolution solution (mother liquor), which contains the dissolved contaminants. The final operation concentrates and removes the contaminants from the mother liquor. A pilot-scale SOIL*EX system was constructed at Rust's Clemson Technical Center for a Proof-of-Process demonstration. The demonstration program included the design, fabrication, and operation of pilot scale and demonstration equipment and systems. The pilot plant, an accurate scaled-down version of a proposed full-scale treatment system, was operated for five months to demonstrate the efficiency of the overall process. The pilot plant test program focused on demonstrating that the SOIL*EX process would remove and concentrate the contaminants and destroy volatile organic compounds. The pilot plant processed nearly 20 tons of soils and sludges, and test results indicated that all contaminants of concern were removed. Additionally, Rust completed numerous bench scale tests to optimize the chemistry. This paper discusses the pilot plant test criteria and results along with the salient design features of the SOIL*EX system and planned improvements

  4. Compound soil-tyre chips modified by cement as a road construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Promputthangkoon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to overcome the two problems of low-quality soil and a growing number of discarded tyres bymixing low-CBR soil with recycled tyre chips. The compound soil-tyre chips was then stabilised by Portland cement with theaim of using them as a new material in road construction in order to reduce the occurrence of shrinkage cracks. To achievethe purposes of this research three standard geotechnical testing programmes were employed: (1 modified compaction tests,(2 California Bearing Ratio tests (CBR, and (3 unconfined compression tests. The modified compaction test results provedthat for the mixtures having very low tyre chips and cement content, the behaviour is very complex. It was also observed thatthe greater the percentage of rubber added the lower the global density. However, this is predictable as the specific gravityof the rubber is much lower than that of the soil. For the relationship between the optimum moisture content (OMC and thecement content, it was observed that there is no clear pattern.For the specimens having no cement added, the CBR for unsoaked specimens was observed to be greater than that forsoaked specimens. However, when the cement was introduced the CBR test showed that the resistance to penetration for thesoaked specimens was significantly greater, indicating the effects of cement added on the strength. In addition, it was foundthat the CBR values for both soaked and unsoaked specimens gradually increased with the increase of cement content.Lastly, the unconfined compressive strength progressively increased with the increased percentage of cement.

  5. Application of supercritical and subcritical fluids for the extraction of hazardous materials from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupan Dara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcritical and supercritical extractions are novel, non destructive techniques which can be applied for the removal of hazardous compounds from contaminated soil without any changes of the soil composition and structure. The aim of the presented review paper is to give information on up-to day results of this method commonly applied by several institutions worldwide. Interest in the application of SC CO2 has been more expressed in the last two decades, which may be related to its favorable characteristics (non-toxic, non-flammable, increase diffusion into small pores, low viscosity under SC conditions, low price and others. However, interest in wet oxidation (WO and especially in SCWO (the application of water under supercritical conditions with air has also increased in the last few years. Interest in H2O as a SC fluid, as well as in extraction with water under subcritical conditions may also be related to specific characteristics and the enhanced rate of extraction. Moreover, the solubility of some specific compounds present in soil can be easily changed by adjusting the pressure and temperature of extraction. The high price of the units designed to operate safely at a pressure and temperature much higher than the a critical one of the applied fluids is the main reason why, at present, there is no more broader application of such techniques for the removal hazardous materials from contaminated soil. In the present paper, among many literature citations and their overall review, some specific details related to the development of specific analytical methods under SC conditions are also considered.

  6. Comparison of relative INAA and k0-INAA using soil and sediment reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the results obtained by the relative INAA and k 0 -INAA methods for the same input parameters (sample mass, nuclear data, net peak area for the same gamma line and the same measurement and same cooling and measurement times). In total eight environmental soil and sediment reference materials (RM) or certified reference materials (CRM) from different producers were analysed. In this work only the recommended or certified values were considered, allowing comparison of the two methods for 30 elements. The results point out that k 0 -INAA possesses superior qualities compared to relative INAA, being insensitive to flux gradients, and independent of recommended/certified values in RMs/CRMs, often used as standards in relative INAA. (author)

  7. Stabilization of metal(loid)s in two contaminated agricultural soils: Comparing biochar to its non-pyrolysed source material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakal, Lukáš; Raya-Moreno, Irene; Mitchell, Kerry; Beesley, Luke

    2017-08-01

    Two metal(loid) contaminated agricultural soils were amended with grape stalk (wine production by-product)-derived biochar as well as its pre-pyrolysed origin material, to investigate their geochemical impacts on As, Cr, Cu and Zn. Detailed physico-chemical evaluation combined with a column leaching test determined the retention of metal(loid)s from soil solution by each amendments. A pot experiment measured metal(loid)s in soil pore water and their uptake to ryegrass when the amendments were mixed into soils at 1 and 5% (w/w). Total Cr and Zn concentrations were reduced furthest in column leachates by the addition of raw material and biochar respectively, compared to the untreated soil; Cr(III) was the predominant specie initially due to rapid acidification of leachates and organic complexation resulting from raw material addition. Loadings of metal(loid)s to the amendments recovered from the post-leached columns were in the order Cu » Zn > Cr ≈ As. In the pot test ryegrass Cr uptake was initiated by the addition of both amendments, compared to the untreated soil, whereas only biochar addition resulted in significant increases in Zn uptake, explained by its significant enhancement of ryegrass biomass yield, especially at 5% dosage; raw material addition significantly decreased biomass yields. Inconsistent relationships between pore water parameters and ryegrass uptake were common to both soils investigated. Therefore, whilst both amendments modified soil metal(loid) geochemistry, their effects differed fundamentally; in environmental risk management terms these results highlight the need to investigate the detailed geochemical response of contaminated soils to diverse organic amendment additions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  9. Steroid Biomarkers Revisited - Improved Source Identification of Faecal Remains in Archaeological Soil Material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Prost

    Full Text Available Steroids are used as faecal markers in environmental and in archaeological studies, because they provide insights into ancient agricultural practices and the former presence of animals. Up to now, steroid analyses could only identify and distinguish between herbivore, pig, and human faecal matter and their residues in soils and sediments. We hypothesized that a finer differentiation between faeces of different livestock animals could be achieved when the analyses of several steroids is combined (Δ5-sterols, 5α-stanols, 5β-stanols, epi-5β-stanols, stanones, and bile acids. We therefore reviewed the existing literature on various faecal steroids from livestock and humans and analysed faeces from old livestock breed (cattle, horse, donkey, sheep, goat, goose, and pig and humans. Additionally, we performed steroid analyses on soil material of four different archaeological periods (sites located in the Lower Rhine Basin, Western Germany, dating to the Linearbandkeramik, Urnfield Period / Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman Age with known or supposed faecal inputs. By means of already established and newly applied steroid ratios of the analysed faeces together with results from the literature, all considered livestock faeces, except sheep and cattle, could be distinguished on the basis of their steroid signatures. Most remarkably was the identification of horse faeces (via the ratio: epi-5β-stigmastanol: 5β-stigmastanol + epicoprostanol: coprostanol; together with the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid and a successful differentiation between goat (with chenodeoxycholic acid and sheep/cattle faeces (without chenodeoxycholic acid. The steroid analysis of archaeological soil material confirmed the supposed faecal inputs, even if these inputs had occurred several thousand years ago.

  10. Radon exhalation and its dependence on moisture content from samples of soil and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, Munazza; Matiullah

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon has long been recognized as a potential health hazard for mankind. Building materials are considered as one of the major sources of radon in the indoor environment. To study radon exhalation rate and its dependence on moisture content, samples of soil and some common types of building materials (sand, cement, bricks and marble) were collected from Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Mandibahauddin and Narowal districts of the Punjab province (Pakistan). After processing, samples of 200 g each were placed in plastic vessels. CR-39 based NRPB detector were placed at the top of these vessels and were then hermetically sealed. After exposing to radon for 30 days within the closed vessels, the CR-39 detectors were processed. Radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 122±19 to 681±10mBqm -2 h -1 with an average of 376±147mBqm -2 h -1 in the soil samples whereas an average of 212±34, 195±25, 231±30 and 292±35mBqm -2 h -1 was observed in bricks, sand, cement and marble samples, respectively. Dependence of exhalation on moisture content has also been studied. Radon exhalation rate was found to increase with an increase in moisture, reached its maximum value and then decreased with further increase in the water content

  11. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  12. Soil erosion model predictions using parent material/soil texture-based parameters compared to using site-specific parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Foltz; W. J. Elliot; N. S. Wagenbrenner

    2011-01-01

    Forested areas disturbed by access roads produce large amounts of sediment. One method to predict erosion and, hence, manage forest roads is the use of physically based soil erosion models. A perceived advantage of a physically based model is that it can be parameterized at one location and applied at another location with similar soil texture or geological parent...

  13. Improved Biosensors for Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Cheng, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Microbes drive processes in the Earth system far exceeding their physical scale, affecting crop yields, water quality, the mobilization of toxic materials, and fundamental aspects of soil biogeochemistry. The tools of synthetic biology have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbial Earth system processes: for example, synthetic microbes can be be programmed to report on environmental conditions that stimulate greenhouse gas production, metal oxidation, biofilm formation, pollutant degradation, and microbe-plant symbioses. However, these tools are only rarely deployed in the lab. This research gap arises because synthetically programmed microbes typically report on their environment by producing molecules that are detected optically (e.g., fluorescent proteins). Fluorescent reporters are ideal for petri-dish applications and have fundamentally changed how we study human health, but their usefulness is quite limited in soils where detecting fluorescence is challenging. Here we describe the construction of gas-reporting biosensors, which release nonpolar gases that can be detected in the headspace of incubation experiments. These constructs can be used to probe microbial processes within soils in real-time noninvasive lab experiments. These biosensors can be combined with traditional omics-based approaches to reveal processes controlling soil microbial behavior and lead to improved environmental management decisions.

  14. Synthetic bone substitute material comparable with xenogeneic material for bone tissue regeneration in oral cancer patients: First and preliminary histological, histomorphometrical and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Lorenz, Jonas; Stuebinger, Stefan; Seitz, Oliver; Landes, Constantin; Kovács, Adorján F; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    The present study was first to evaluate the material-specific cellular tissue response of patients with head and neck cancer to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute NanoBone (NB) in comparison with a deproteinized bovine bone matrix Bio-Oss (BO) after implantation into the sinus cavity. Eight patients with tumor resection for oral cancer and severely resorbed maxillary bone received materials according to a split mouth design for 6 months. Bone cores were harvested prior to implantation and analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically. Implant survival was followed-up to 2 years after placement. Histologically, NB underwent a higher vascularization and induced significantly more tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP-positive) multinucleated giant cells when compared with BO, which induced mainly mononuclear cells. No significant difference was observed in the extent of new bone formation between both groups. The clinical follow-up showed undisturbed healing of all implants in the BO-group, whereas the loss of one implant was observed in the NB-group. Within its limits, the present study showed for the first time that both material classes evaluated, despite their induction of different cellular tissue reactions, may be useful as augmentation materials for dental and maxillofacial surgical applications, particularly in patients who previously had oral cancer.

  15. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  16. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  17. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd.

  18. Crystallisation of hydroxyapatite in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) as a synthetic route to tough mechanical hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakabe, Akane; Hirota, Ken; Mizutani, Tadashi, E-mail: tmizutan@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2017-01-01

    Partially phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) was prepared by treating poly(vinyl alcohol) with 100% phosphoric acid, and 5, 10 and 20% of the hydroxyl groups were converted to phosphoric acid ester. Addition of Ca{sup 2+} to an aqueous solution of phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave a transparent gel. Five cycles of alternate soaking of the gel in aqueous CaCl{sub 2} and aqueous (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} were carried out to crystallise hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix. The X-ray diffraction peaks of HAP formed in 5% phosphorylated PVA were sharp, while those of HAP formed in 20% phosphorylated PVA were broad. The contents of inorganic phase in the hybrid powder were increased from 58 to 76 wt% as the fraction of phosphate groups in the gel was decreased from 20% to 5%. The hybrid powder was first subjected to uniaxial pressing, followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and warm isostatic pressing (WIP) at 120 °C at pressures of 300–980 MPa, to obtain the specimens for three-point bending test. These hybrid specimens showed bending strengths of 15–53 MPa. The hybrid compacts prepared from 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) showed the smallest Young's modulus, the largest displacement at break, and the largest fracture energy, showing that it has the highest toughness among the hybrid materials prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) with varying degrees of phosphorylation. - Graphical abstract: Densification of hydroxyapatite crystallised in 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave the toughest compact. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite was crystallised in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gels. • Crystallite size of hydroxyapatite decreased as phosphate density was increased. • The hybrid specimens prepared in 10% phosphorylated gel was the toughest. • Phosphate density in organic matrix regulated the mechanical properties of the hybrid.

  19. Crystallisation of hydroxyapatite in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) as a synthetic route to tough mechanical hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Akane; Hirota, Ken; Mizutani, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Partially phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) was prepared by treating poly(vinyl alcohol) with 100% phosphoric acid, and 5, 10 and 20% of the hydroxyl groups were converted to phosphoric acid ester. Addition of Ca 2+ to an aqueous solution of phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave a transparent gel. Five cycles of alternate soaking of the gel in aqueous CaCl 2 and aqueous (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 were carried out to crystallise hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix. The X-ray diffraction peaks of HAP formed in 5% phosphorylated PVA were sharp, while those of HAP formed in 20% phosphorylated PVA were broad. The contents of inorganic phase in the hybrid powder were increased from 58 to 76 wt% as the fraction of phosphate groups in the gel was decreased from 20% to 5%. The hybrid powder was first subjected to uniaxial pressing, followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and warm isostatic pressing (WIP) at 120 °C at pressures of 300–980 MPa, to obtain the specimens for three-point bending test. These hybrid specimens showed bending strengths of 15–53 MPa. The hybrid compacts prepared from 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) showed the smallest Young's modulus, the largest displacement at break, and the largest fracture energy, showing that it has the highest toughness among the hybrid materials prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) with varying degrees of phosphorylation. - Graphical abstract: Densification of hydroxyapatite crystallised in 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave the toughest compact. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite was crystallised in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gels. • Crystallite size of hydroxyapatite decreased as phosphate density was increased. • The hybrid specimens prepared in 10% phosphorylated gel was the toughest. • Phosphate density in organic matrix regulated the mechanical properties of the hybrid.

  20. Fusion Bead Procedure for Nuclear Forensics Employing Synthetic Enstatite to Dissolve Uraniferous and Other Challenging Materials Prior to Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, David G; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E

    2017-06-06

    There is an increasing demand for rapid and effective analytical tools to support nuclear forensic investigations of seized or suspect materials. Some methods are simply adapted from other scientific disciplines and can effectively be used to rapidly prepare complex materials for subsequent analysis. A novel sample fusion method is developed, tested, and validated to produce homogeneous, flux-free glass beads of geochemical reference materials (GRMs), uranium ores, and uranium ore concentrates (UOC) prior to the analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The novelty of the procedure is the production of glass beads using 9 parts high purity synthetic enstatite (MgSiO 3 ) as the glass former with 1 part of sample (sample mass ∼1.5 mg). The beads are rapidly prepared (∼10 min overall time) by fusing the blended mixture on an iridium strip resistance heater in an argon-purged chamber. Many elements can be measured in the glass bead, but the rare earth group in particular is a valuable series in nuclear forensic studies and is well-determined using LA-ICP-MS. The REE data obtained from the GRMs, presented as chondrite normalized patterns, are in very good agreement with consensus patterns. The UOCs have comparable patterns to solution ICP-MS methods and published data. The attractions of the current development are its conservation of sample, speed of preparation, and suitability for microbeam analysis, all of which are favorable for nuclear forensics practitioners and geochemists requiring REE patterns from scarce or valuable samples.

  1. The Effect of Binder and Waste Granular Materials (WGM on the Shear Strength and Shear Resistance of Dredged Marine Soils (DMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman Mohammad Zawawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dredged marine soil (DMS is considered as weak and soft problematic soil. It is possible to give this type of soil a second life if only its geotechnical properties are improved. Infusing soil with solidification agent is the common practice of soil improvement. This study uses binder and waste granular material (WGM such as cement, bottom ash (BA and palm oil clinker (POC. The aforementioned materials are capable to fortify the poor features of the soil. Series numbers of soil bed samples were tested for its shear strength and shear resistance. Test results show that the mentioned soil parameters were corresponded with each other. In short, geo-waste and biomass materials are possible to be reused instead of being discarded.

  2. Utilization of Sandy Soil as the Primary Raw Material in Production of Unfired Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to use sandy soil as the main raw material in making unfired bricks. The sprayed-cured brick specimens were tested for compressive and flexural strength, rate of water absorption, percentage of voids, bulk density, freezing/thawing, and water immersion resistance. In addition, the microstructures of the specimens were also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD technique. The test results show that unfired brick specimens with the addition of ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS tend to achieve better mechanical properties when compared with the specimens that added cement alone, with GGBS correcting particle size distribution and contributing to the pozzolanic reactions and the pore-filling effects. The test specimens with the appropriate addition of cement, GGBS, quicklime, and gypsum are dense and show a low water absorption rate, a low percentage of voids, and an excellent freezing/thawing and water immersion resistance. The SEM observation and XRD analysis verify the formation of hydrate products C–S–H and ettringite, providing a better explanation of the mechanical and physical behavior and durability of the derived unfired bricks. The results obtained suggest that there is a technical approach for the high-efficient comprehensive utilization of sandy soil and provide increased economic and environmental benefits.

  3. A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1997-05-01

    Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process

  4. Removal and recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from wastes, soils and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1993-07-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites (Figure 1). In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (uranium trioxide) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use

  5. Development and Rainfed Paddy Soils Potency Derived From Lacustrine Material in Paguyaman, Gorontalo

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin

    2011-01-01

    Rainfed paddy soils that are derived from lacustrine and include of E4 agroclimatic zone have many unique properties and potentially for paddy and corn plantations. This sreseach was aimed to: (1) study the soil development of rainfed paddy soils derived from lacustrine and (2) evaluate rainfed paddy soils potency for paddy and corn in Paguyaman. Soil samples were taken from three profiles according to toposequent, and they were analyzed in laboratory. Data were analyzed with descripti...

  6. Certified Reference Material IAEA-448: Soil from Oil Field Contaminated with Technically Enhanced Radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    To ensure reliable evaluation of potential radiological hazards and proper decision making related to radiation protection measures, the IAEA, through the IAEA Environment Laboratories, supports Member State laboratories in their efforts to maintain readiness and to improve the quality of analytical results. It does so by producing reference materials, by developing standardized methods for sample collection and analysis, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for external quality control of analytical results. The problem of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contamination is known to be widespread, occurring in oil and gas production facilities throughout the world. It has become a subject of attention in many IAEA Member States. In response to this radiological concern, facilities in many Member States have been characterizing the nature and extent of NORM in oil and gas installations and in the surrounding environment, evaluating the potential for exposure to workers and the public, and developing methods for properly managing these relatively high massic activity residues. Within this context, the IAEA Environment Laboratories, in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, an IAEA Collaborating Centre, have prepared a new certified reference material of soil contaminated with NORM, identified as IAEA-448, certified for the massic activity of 226Ra. This report presents the methodologies used for the production and certification of IAEA-448

  7. Evaluation of automated analysis of 15N and total N in plant material and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of N-15 and total N using an automated nitrogen analyser interfaced to a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (ANA-MS method) was evaluated. The coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated analyses of homogeneous standards and samples at natural abundance...... was lower than 0.1%. The CV of repeated analyses of N-15-labelled plant material and soil samples varied between 0.3% and 1.1%. The reproducibility of repeated total N analyses using the automated method was comparable to results obtained with a semi-micro Kjeldahl procedure. However, the automated method...... analysis showed that the recovery of inorganic N in the NH3 trap was lower when the N was diffused from water than from 2 M KCl. The results also indicated that different proportions of the NO3- and the NH4+ in aqueous solution were recovered in the trap after combined diffusion. The method is most suited...

  8. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...

  9. Synthetic biology approaches to fluorinated polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuronyi, Benjamin W; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2015-03-17

    The catalytic diversity of living systems offers a broad range of opportunities for developing new methods to produce small molecule targets such as fuels, materials, and pharmaceuticals. In addition to providing cost-effective and renewable methods for large-scale commercial processes, the exploration of the unusual chemical phenotypes found in living organisms can also enable the expansion of chemical space for discovery of novel function by combining orthogonal attributes from both synthetic and biological chemistry. In this context, we have focused on the development of new fluorine chemistry using synthetic biology approaches. While fluorine has become an important feature in compounds of synthetic origin, the scope of biological fluorine chemistry in living systems is limited, with fewer than 20 organofluorine natural products identified to date. In order to expand the diversity of biosynthetically accessible organofluorines, we have begun to develop methods for the site-selective introduction of fluorine into complex natural products by engineering biosynthetic machinery to incorporate fluorinated building blocks. To gain insight into how both enzyme active sites and metabolic pathways can be evolved to manage and select for fluorinated compounds, we have studied one of the only characterized natural hosts for organofluorine biosynthesis, the soil microbe Streptomyces cattleya. This information provides a template for designing engineered organofluorine enzymes, pathways, and hosts and has allowed us to initiate construction of enzymatic and cellular pathways for the production of fluorinated polyketides.

  10. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil and ground water pollution with organic matter and toxic materials is an ordinary environmental problem. In this case, oil compounds are among the most important environmental pollutants. Tehran oil refinery is one of the largest and oldest refineries in Iran located south of Tehran city. Since the beginning of its activity in 1968, its waste materials (solid, semisolid and liquid have been disposed in large lagoons next to the refinery site. During this long period, considerable changes in soil properties have occurred, which are of great research interests for soil and environmental scientists. Materials and Methods: The studied area (about 60 ha was located in the south of Tehran (latitude: 35°30.299' to 35°30.814' N and longitude: 51°25.682' to 51°26.296' E. Six pedons, including four Technosols developed on the oil refinery waste materials (pedons no. 1, 3, 4 and 6 and two reference pedons (pedons no. 2 and 5 were fully described and sampled. Particle size distribution (PSD of gypsiferous samples was determined by the specific method for gypsiferous soils (Hesse, 1976. PSD of non-gypsiferous samples were determined according to the standard hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder, 1986, but the oil-polluted samples were analyzed according to the standard ultrasound method (Sawhny, 1996. Organic carbon content was determined by Walkley and Black (1934. pH and EC were measured in soil saturation extracts using EC and pH meter (Jenway. Gypsum and CaCO3 contents were determined using acetone (Sparks, 1996, and calcimetery methods, respectively. Mineralogical analysis was done by Decarreau (1990. Micromorphological descriptions were carried out using the terminology of Stoops (2003. Diagnostic horizons were identified and finally the studied pedons were classified according to the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2014 and the World Reference Base (FAO, 2014. Results and Discussion: Horizons of both polluted and

  11. Characterization of local chemistry and disorder in synthetic and natural α-Al2O3 materials by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottana, A.; Murata, T.

    1997-11-01

    X-ray absorption fine spectra at the Al K-edge were measured experimentally on and calculated theoretically via the multiple-scattering formalism for a chemically pure and physically perfect synthetic α-Al 2 O 3 (α-alumina), a natural 'ruby/sapphire' (corundum) and a series of artificial 'corundum' produced for technical purposes and used as geochemical standards. The Al K-edge spectra differ despite of the identical coordination (short-range arrangement) assumed by O around Al, and vary slightly in relation to the slightly different chemistries of the materials (substitutional defects) as well as on account of the location taken by foreign atoms in the structural lattices (positional defects). A quantitative treatment of the observed changes is made in terms of short-range modification of the coordination polyhedron and of medium- to long-range modifications in the overall structure; both of them induced by substitutions. In some technical 'corundums', the impurities of admixed 'β-alumina', where Al is both in four- and six-fold coordination, produce another small but detectable effect on Al K-edges. Therefore, XAFS spectroscopy proves its potentials for both measuring a light element such as Al, and detecting minor coordination changes and substitutions (ca. 1∼3 wt.% as oxide) of the absorber by dilute other atoms, at least under favorable conditions as those occurring in this system are

  12. Wind sorting affects differently the organo-mineral composition of saltating and particulate materials in contrasting texture agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri, Laura Antonela; Funk, Roger; Leue, Martin; Sommer, Michael; Buschiazzo, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    There is little information about the mineral and organic composition of sediments eroded by wind at different heights. Because of that, wind tunnel simulations were performed on four agricultural loess soils of different granulometry and their saltating materials collected at different heights. The particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter mainly smaller than 10 μm (PM10) of these soils was obtained separately by a laboratory method. Results indicated that the granulometric composition of sediments collected at different heights was more homogeneous in fine- than in sandy-textured soils, which were more affected by sorting effects during wind erosion. This agrees with the preferential transport of quartz at low heights and of clay minerals at greater heights. SOC contents increased with height, but the composition of the organic materials was different: stable carboxylic acids, aldehydes, amides and aromatics were preferentially transported close to the ground because their were found in larger aggregates, while plant debris and polysaccharides, carbohydrates and derivatives of microbial origin from organic matter dominated at greater heights for all soil types. The amount of SOC in the PM10 fraction was higher when it was emitted from sandy than from fine textured soils. Because of the sorting process produced by wind erosion, the stable organic matter compounds will be transported at low heights and local scales, modifying soil fertility due to nutrient exportation, while less stable organic compounds will be part of the suspension losses, which are known to affect some processes at regional- or global scale.

  13. Effect of aging on the bioavailability and fractionation of arsenic in soils derived from five parent materials in a red soil region of Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanan; Zeng, Xibai; Lu, Yahai; Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Li, Lianfang; Wu, Cuixia

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging time and soil parent materials on the bioavailability and fractionations of arsenic (As) in five red soils were studied. The results indicated that As bioavailability in all soils decreased during aging, especially with a sharp decline occurring in the first 30 days. After aging for 360 days, the highest available As concentration, which accounted for 12.3% of the total, was observed in soils derived from purple sandy shale. While 2.67% was the lowest proportion of the available As in soils derived from quaternary red clay. Furthermore, the best fit of the available As changing with aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model (R"2 = 0.939–0.998, P < 0.05). Notably, Al oxides played a more crucial role (R"2 = 0.89, P<0.05) than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. The non-specially and specially absorbed As constituted the primary forms of available As. - Highlights: • The soil derived from purple sandy shale had a relatively higher risk of As toxicity for agricultural production. • The best fit of the variations of available As during the aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model. • Al oxides played a more crucial role than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. - Al oxides played a more crucial role than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging in these red soils.

  14. A time-domain synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging method for material flaw quantification with validations on small-scale artificial and natural flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefei; He, Jingjing; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub

    2015-02-01

    A direct time-domain reconstruction and sizing method of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) is developed to improve the spatial resolution and sizing accuracy for phased-array ultrasonic inspections. The basic idea of the reconstruction algorithm is to coherently superimpose multiple A-scan measurements, incorporating the phase information of the sampling points. The algorithm involves data mapping and in-phase summation according to time-of-flight (TOF). Data mapping refers to the process of placing each of the sampling points to a two-/three-dimensional grid that represents the geometry model of the object being inspected. The value for each of the cells of the grid is a summation of all sampling points mapped into the cell. A sizing method based on the concept of 6 dB-drop is proposed to characterize the flaw boundary. The extents, orientation and the shape of the flaw can then be inferred to provide more information for life assessment calculations. Lab experiments are performed using a 10 MHz phased-array ultrasonic transducer to collect data from a cylinder material block with closely spaced artificial flaws and from a material block with a natural flaw. The developed method is used to process the experimental data to characterize the flaws. Using the developed method, the improvement of spatial resolution is observed. Results indicate that four closely spaced 0.794 mm-diameter flat-bottomed holes are clearly identified, and the quantification of size and orientation of the natural flaw is very close to the actual measurement made from digital microscopy after cutting the testing piece apart. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New phosphorus biofertilizers from renewable raw materials in the aspect of cadmium and lead contents in soil and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębska Magdalena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recycling phosphorus from waste for fertilization purposes appears to be an alternative for non-renewable sources and a solution for managing harmful products of civilisation. Fertilizers from secondary raw materials are considered to be safe to the environment. This study presents an assessment of the effects of five new biofertilizers made from sewage sludge ash and/or animal bones on the content of cadmium and lead in the soil, in wheat grains and straw (test plant, in the mass of the the accompanying weeds and in the post-harvest residues. Biofertilizers were produced in the form of suspension or granules and activated using Bacillus megaterium or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. They were tested in four field experiments. The Cd and Pb contents of the soil and plant material were determined using the ICP-MS technique. Similar to superphosphate, new biofertilizers showed no change in the Cd and Pb contents of the soil and plants biomass when applied at amounts up to 80 kg; P2O5 ha−1. Both Cd and Pb in the soil and plants occurred naturally, and the amounts were within the acceptable standards. Biofertilizers from renewable raw materials, with low toxic element contents, are not thought to pose a hazard to the soil and plants when applied in reasonable amounts. They can be a substitute for conventional phosphorus fertilizers.

  16. Diffusion of iodine and Technetium-99 through waste encasement concrete and unsaturated soil fill material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Wood, Marcus I.; Hanchar, John M.; Stores-Gascoyne, Simcha; Lauren Browning

    2004-01-01

    An assessment of long-term performance of low level waste-enclosing cement grouts requires diffusivity data for radionuclide species such as, 129I and 99Tc. The diffusivity of radionuclides in soil and concrete media was collected by conducting soil-soil and concrete-soil half-cell experiments. The soil diffusivity coefficients for iodide were 7.03 x 10-8 cm2/s and 2.42 x 10-7 cm2/s for soils at 4% and 7% moisture contents, respectively. Iodide diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content and is about an order of magnitude slower at lower moisture content. The soil diffusivity coefficients for 99Tc were 5.89 ± 0.80 x 10-8 cm2/s (4% moisture content) and 2.04 ± 0.57 x 10-7 cm2/s (7% moisture content), respectively. The soil diffusivity of iodide and 99Tc were similar in magnitude at both water contents, indicating that these ions have similar diffusion mechanisms in unsaturated coarse-textured Hanford soil. The diffusivity of iodide in concrete ranged from 2.07 x 10-14 cm2/s (4% soil moisture content) to 1.31 x 10-12 cm2/s (7% soil moisture content), indicating that under unsaturated soil moisture conditions, iodide diffusivity is highly sensitive to changing soil moisture conditions. Depending on the soil moisture content, the diffusivity of 99Tc in concrete ranged from 4.54 x 10-13 cm2/s to 8.02 x 10-12 cm2/s. At 4% soil moisture content, iodide diffused about 20 times more slowly than 99Tc, and at 7% soil moisture content, iodide in concrete diffused about 6 times slower than 99Tc

  17. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Cheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  18. Influence of Fertilizer Materials on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils: cases of Wine Stefanesti-Arges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejan, C.

    2009-07-01

    The overall objective is the preservations or improvement Heritage ground, avoiding the loss of organic matter. This objective is consistent with the general approach of sustainable agriculture is an investment in the long term. Organic materials play an important role in the global funtionnement soil, through its physical, chemical and biological properties which define the concept of fertility. (Author)

  19. Influence of Fertilizer Materials on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils: cases of Wine Stefanesti-Arges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective is the preservations or improvement Heritage ground, avoiding the loss of organic matter. This objective is consistent with the general approach of sustainable agriculture is an investment in the long term. Organic materials play an important role in the global funtionnement soil, through its physical, chemical and biological properties which define the concept of fertility. (Author)

  20. High-coercivity minerals from North African Humid Period soil material deposited in Lake Yoa (Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, J.; Kroepelin, S.; Wennrich, V.; Viehberg, F. A.; Wagner, B.; Rethemeyer, J.; Karls, J.; Melles, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Holocene is a period of fundamental climatic change in North Africa. Humid conditions during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP) have favored the formation of big lake systems. Only very few of these lakes persist until today. One of them is Lake Yoa (19°03'N/20°31'E) in the Ounianga Basin, Chad, which maintains its water level by ground water inflow. Here we present the magnetic characteristics together with proxies for lacustrine productivity and biota of a sediment core (Co1240) from Lake Yoa, retrieved in 2010 within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 - Our Way to Europe (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Magnetic properties of AHP sediments show strong indications for reductive diagenesis. An up to ~ 80 m higher lake level is documented by lacustrine deposits in the Ounianga Basin, dating to the early phase of the AHP. The higher lake level and less strong seasonality restricted deep mixing of the lake. Development of anoxic conditions consequently lead to the dissolution of iron oxides. An exception is an interval with high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, deposited between 7800 - 8120 cal yr BP. This interval post-dates the 8.2 event, which was dry in Northern Africa and probably caused a reduced vegetation cover. We propose that the latter resulted in the destabilization of soils around Lake Yoa. After the re-establishment of humid conditions, these soil materials were eroded and deposited in the lake. Magnetic minerals appear well preserved in the varved Late Holocene sequence, indicating (sub-) oxic conditions in the lake. This is surprising, because the occurrence of varves is often interpreted as an indicator for anoxic conditions of the lake water. However, the salinity of lake water rose strongly after the AHP. We therefore hypothesize that the conservation of varves and absence of benthic organisms rather relates to the high salinity than to anoxic conditions.

  1. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  2. Factors influencing As(V) stabilization in the mine soils amended with iron-rich materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Juhee; Kim, Minhee; Kim, Yong-Seong; Nam, Seung Mo; Moon, Deok Hyun; Hyun, Seunghun

    2017-09-04

    Chemical stability of As(V) in amended mine-impacted soils was assessed according to functions of incubation period (0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 months), amendment dose (2.5 and 5%), and application timing (0 and 3rd month). Six soils contaminated with 26-209 mg kg -1 of As(V) were collected from two abandoned mine sites and were treated with two alkaline iron-rich materials (mine discharge sludge (MS) and steel-making slag (SS)). Seventeen to 23% of As(V) in soils was labile. After each designated time, As(V) stability was assessed by the labile fractions determined with sequential extraction procedures (F1-F5). Over 6 months, a reduction (26.9-70.4%) of the two labile fractions (F1 and F2) and a quantitative increase (7.4-29.9%) of As(V) in F3 were observed (r 2  = 0.956). Two recalcitrant fractions (F4 and F5) remained unchanged. Temporal change of As(V) stability in a sample was well described by the two-domain model (k fast , k slow , and F fast ). The stabilization (%) correlated well with the fast-stabilizing domain (F fast ), clay content (%), and Fe oxide content (mg kg -1 ), but correlated poorly with kinetic rate constants (k fast and k slow ). Until the 3rd month, the 2.5%-MS amended sample resulted in lower As(V) stabilization (25-40%) compared to the 5% sample (50-60%). However, the second 2.5% MS addition on the 2.5% sample upon the lapse of the 3rd month led to a substantial reduction (up to 38%) of labile As(V) fraction in the following 4th and 6th months. As a result, an additional 15-25% of As(V) stability was obtained when splitting the amendment dose into 3-month intervals. In conclusion, the As(V) stabilization by Fe-rich amendment is time-dependent and its efficacy can be improved by optimizing the amendment dose and its timing.

  3. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  4. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik, E-mail: khalik@salam.uitm.edu.my; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  5. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The Kd values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The Kd values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  6. Use of INAA in the preparation of a set soil Reference Materials with certified values of total element contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Horakova, J.; Soukal, L.

    1997-01-01

    A set of certified Reference Materials was prepared consisting of four natural agricultural soils with normal (n) and elevated (e) levels of element contents: CRM 7001 Light Sandy Soil (n), CRM 7002 Light Sandy Soil (e), CRM 7003 Silty Clay Loam (n), and CRM 7004 Loam (e). In these materials, certified and/or information values of the total contents of the elements As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and their fractions extractable by aqua regia, boiling and cold 2M nitric acid were derived from an interlaboratory comparison in which 28 laboratories participated. Highly precise and accurate procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were employed for homogeneity testing and also for certification of the total element contents. For comparation purposes, NIST SRM-2704 Buffalo River Sediment was analyzed by INAA, as well. The INAA results obtained compared very well with the certified and/or information values for four soil CRMs and also with NIST values for SRM-2704. From this agreement, a very high reliability of the new soil CRMs can be inferred. (author)

  7. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  8. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  10. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  11. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF THE SOIL BEHAVIOUR BY USING NEWLY DEVELOPED ADVANCED MATERIAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Veselý

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a theoretical background, implementation and validation of the newly developed Jardine plastic hardening-softening model (JPHS model, which can be used for numerical modelling of the soils behaviour. Although the JPHS model is based on the elasto-plastic theory, like the Mohr-Coulomb model that is widely used in geotechnics, it contains some improvements, which removes the main disadvantages of the MC model. The presented model is coupled with an isotopically hardening and softening law, non-linear elastic stress-strain law, non-associated elasto-plastic material description and a cap yield surface. The validation of the model is done by comparing the numerical results with real measured data from the laboratory tests and by testing of the model on the real project of the tunnel excavation. The 3D numerical analysis is performed and the comparison between the JPHS, Mohr-Coulomb, Modified Cam-Clay, Hardening small strain model and monitoring in-situ data is done.

  12. Growth of soil algae and cyanobacteria on gold mine tailings material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Seiderer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of revegetation of gold mine tailings storage facilities is to reduce aeolian pollution, nutrient leaching and erosion caused by exposure to wind and water. The establishment of biological soil crusts may prove to be a more cost-effective way to reach the same goal and the aim of this study was therefore to determine if it is possible to establish algae and cyanobacteria on gold mine tailings. Different treatments of Chlamydomonas, Microcoleus and Nostoc were inoculated on gold mine tailings in controlled conditions and algal growth was measured on all of the treatments after 6 weeks. Nostoc treatments had the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations and produced a surface crust, while Chlamydomonas treatments penetrated the tailings material and provided the strongest crust. The results were promising but more research is necessary to determine the best organism, or combination of organisms, to colonise mine tailings and to eventually produce biological crusts. Significance: Determination of the best organisms to colonise mine tailings and to produce biological crusts for the revegetation of gold mine tailings storage facilities.

  13. An attempt to prepare and characterize a soil reference material for Cr(VI) and Cr(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, G.; Katz, S.A.; Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A.

    1994-01-01

    Reference materials for the speciation and quantification of chromium in contaminated soils were prepared by impregnating diatomaceous earth with BaCrO 4 and Cr 2 O 3 . The chromium concentrations of these materials were confirmed to be 200 mg/kg both by atomic absorption spectrometry and by instrumental neutron activation analysis, but monthly assays over two calendar quarters of the reference material impregnated with BaCrO 4 revealed the hexavalent chromium was not stable in this matrix. (author) 6 refs,; 2 tabs

  14. Landslide rehabilitation with geo synthetics in open coal mine Oslomej

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrievski, Ljupcho; Ilievska, Frosina; Ilievski, Darko

    2004-01-01

    In November 2002 stability is violated and landslides are registered in open coal mine Oslomej, Republic of Macedonia. Around the profile IV existing open irrigation channel was interrupted and landslide was extended to the regional way R421 Kicevo - Oslomej. The landslide was classified like big and dangerous, including danger for disruption of the regional road and pipeline Studencica - Oslomej for supplying of thermal power plant Oslomej with technical water. According to the proposed solution, main project design for landslide rehabilitation was prepared with using geo synthetics Stabilenka 200/45. In fill is local soil material which had been placed and compacted in layers, it had formed a composite construction. Stabilenka acts as a reinforcement due to its ability to absorb tensile forces. With the design solution two retaining walls of reinforced soil and complete drainage system of geo composite materials had been constructed This paper deals with details of the design and the construction. (Author)

  15. Survey Method for Radiological Surveys of 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Soils and Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    This technical basis is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by radiological control technician (RCTs) to guide the excavation effort in accordance with the 300-FF-1 waste site Record of Decision (ROD). The ROD for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit requires selective excavation, removal, and disposal of contaminated soil above 350 pCi/g total uranium activity. Soil above this level will be disposed of as radioactive waste. The remaining soil will remain onsite

  16. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  17. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  18. Stabilization and solidification of a heavy metal contaminated site soil using a hydroxyapatite based binder

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Wei-Yi; Feng, Ya-Song; Jin, Fei; Zhang, Li-Ming; Du, Yan-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) is an efficient and environment-friendly material for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. However, the application of conventional HA powder in stabilizing contaminated soils is limited, due to high cost of final products, difficulties in synthesizing purified HA crystals. A new binder named SPC, which composes of single superphosphate (SSP) and calcium oxide (CaO), is presented as an alternative in this study. HA can form in the soil matrix by an ...

  19. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments. Report No. EE-141

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-01-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed by means of a literature survey and also through discussions with workers in relevent disciplines. This report discusses both the impacts of hydrocarbons on soil and a range of methods available to assist in the decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, oily sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars and some pesticides.

  20. Performance of base hydrolysis methods in extracting bound lipids from plant material, soils, and sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angst, Gerrit; Cajthaml, T.; Angst, Šárka; Mueller, K.E.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Beggel, S.; Kriegs, S.; Mueller, C.W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, November (2017), s. 97-104 ISSN 0146-6380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015075 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cutin * suberin * soil organic matter * biomarkers * Fagus sylvatica L. * Zea mays L. Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 3.081, year: 2016

  1. Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.; Peppin, Stephen S. L.; Cocks, Alan C. F.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a physically intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil

  2. EFFECT OF REACTIVE MATERIALS ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN INDIAN MUSTARD GROWN IN CR(VI-CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive materials represent a promising agent for environmental co-remediation. The research was aimed to determine the influence of hexavalent chromium in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil as well as zero valent-iron, and lignite additives on the content of macroelements in the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.. The average accumulation of the analysed elements in Indian mustard grown in Cr(VI contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order Mg>Na>P>Ca>K. Soil contamination at 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increase in magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium content in Indian mustard. The application of zero-valent iron had a positive influence on the average Na and K content of the tested plant. The application of lignite had a positive influence on the average magnesium, sodium and calcium content in the above-ground parts of the studied plant. In the non-amended treatments (without reactive materials, the increasing rates of chromium (VI had an explicitly positive effect on the content of phosphorous and sodium in Indian mustard.

  3. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; Perk, Marcel van der

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations

  4. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, Vienna A-1400 (Austria); Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, TC Utrecht 3508 (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  5. A soil sampling reference site: the challenge in defining reference material for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  6. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1996-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis

  7. Evaluation of fundamental parameters method for biological materials and soil analysis by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.; Muia, L.M.; Maina, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Two methods of determination of trace elements in plant materials, viz. the fundamental parameters method (FPM) and the empirical method with the use of standard samples, were compared. Hay CRM and fresh tea leaves were used in measurements. Good agreement was achieved for the determination of a number of elements by both methods. Also Soil-7 Certified Reference Material (CRM) was analysed using emission-transmission method for absorption correction and FPM for concentration determination. The agreement with CRM was found to be reasonably good for several elements. (author)

  8. Evaluation of fundamental parameters method for biological materials and soil analysis by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holynska, B; Muia, L M; Maina, D M

    1987-01-01

    Two methods of determination of trace elements in plant materials, viz. the fundamental parameters method (FPM) and the empirical method with the use of standard samples, were compared. Hay CRM and fresh tea leaves were used in measurements. Good agreement was achieved for the determination of a number of elements by both methods. Also Soil-7 Certified Reference Material (CRM) was analysed using emission-transmission method for absorption correction and FPM for concentration determination. The agreement with CRM was found to be reasonably good for several elements.

  9. INTERACTION’S EFFECT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL AND AGGREGATION ON EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF TPHS FROM PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH MAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ganjidoust and Gh. Naghizadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE is a type of low-temperature thermal desorption process that its numerous advantages have caused a wide spread use of it. Microwave heating is a potentially attractive technique as it provides volumetric heating process to improve heating efficiencies as compared with conventional techniques. The ability to rapidly heat the sample solvent mixture is inherent to MAE and the main advantage of this technique. Presently MAE has been shown to be one of the best technologies for removing environmental pollutants specially PAHs, phenols and PCBs from soils and sediments. Five different mixtures and types of aggregation (Sand, Top soil, Kaolinite besides three concentrations of crude oil as a contaminant (1000, 5000 and 10000 mg/L were considered. The results indicated that regardless of aggregation, the presence of humus component in soil reduces the efficiency. Minimum and maximum efficiencies were for sandy soil (containing organic components and kaolinite (without any organic content, respectively. According to the results of this research when some amount of humus and organic materials are available in the matrix, it causes the extraction efficiency to perform as a function of just humus materials but not aggregation. Increasing the concentration of crude oil reduced the efficiency with a sharp steep for higher concentration (5000-10000 mg/L and less steeper for lower concentration (1000-5000 mg/L. The concentration of the contaminant, works just as an independent function with extraction time and aggregation factors. The extraction period of 10 min. can be suggested as an optimum extraction time in FMAE for PAHs contaminated soils.

  10. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  11. Microbiological estimation of copper, magnesium and molybdenum in soil and plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, E G

    1948-01-01

    A description is given of some microbiological assays for the estimation of copper, magnesium, and molybdenum in soils as well as in plant tissues. Some results obtained with the application of these tests are recorded.

  12. The Effect of Equilibration Time and Tubing Material on Soil Gas Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection of soil vapor samples representative of in-situ conditions presents challenges associated with the unavoidable disturbance of the subsurface and potential losses to the atmosphere. This article evaluates the effects of two variables that influence the concentration...

  13. Dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of contaminated fine-grained soils and barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, A.; Fang, H.Y.; Inyang, H.I.

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of contaminated fine-grained soils and tracking of contaminant migration within barriers have been challenging because current methods and/or procedures are labor and time-intensive, and destructive. To demonstrate the effective use of both dielectric constant and electrical conductivity in the characterization of contaminated fine-grained soils, pore fluids were prepared at different ionic strengths, and were used as permeates for kaolinite, bentonite and a local soil. Then, both dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of the soils were measured by means of a capacitor over a wide range of frequencies and moisture content. It was observed that although each soil has its unique dielectric constant and electrical conductivity at a given moisture content, increases in ionic strength cause a decrease in the dielectric constant of the system at very high frequencies (MHZ), whereas the dielectric constant increases at low frequencies (kHz). Electrical conductivity of a soil-water system is independent of frequency. However, it is a function of ionic strength of the pore fluid. It is clearly demonstrated that dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of soils are functions of both moisture content and ionic strength, and can be used to characterize the spatial and temporal levels of contamination. This method/procedure can be used in estimating the level of contamination as well as the direction of contaminant movement in the subsurface without the use of extensive laboratory testing. Based on obtained results, it was concluded that the proposed method/procedure is promising because it is non-destructive and provides a quick means of assessing the spatial distribution of contaminants in fine-grained soils and barriers

  14. Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-10-14

    We present a physically intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack will then propagate across the soil to form a new lens. The process is controlled by two factors: the cohesion of the soil and the geometrical supercooling of the water in the soil, a new concept introduced to measure the energy available to form a new ice lens. When the supercooling exceeds a critical amount (proportional to the cohesive strength of the soil) a new ice lens forms. This condition for ice-lens formation and growth does not appeal to any ad hoc, empirical assumptions, and explains how periodic ice lenses can form with or without the presence of a frozen fringe. The proposed mechanism is in good agreement with experiments, in particular explaining ice-lens pattern formation and surges in heave rate associated with the growth of new lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can be predicted given only the unfrozen properties of the soil. We use our theory to estimate ice-lens growth temperatures obtaining quantitative agreement with the limited experimental data that are currently available. Finally we suggest experiments that might be performed in order to verify this theory in more detail. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios and should therefore be useful in the prediction of macroscopic frost-heave rates. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  15. Removal of Pb, Zn, and Cd from contaminated soil by new washing agent from plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yaru; Zhang, Shirong; Wang, Guiyin; Huang, Qinling; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun

    2017-03-01

    Soil washing is an effective approach to remove soil heavy metals, and the washing agent is generally regarded as one of the primary factors in the process, but there is still a lack of efficient and eco-friendly agents for this technique. Here, we showed that four plant washing agents-from water extracts of Coriaria nepalensis (CN), Clematis brevicaudata (CB), Pistacia weinmannifolia (PW), and Ricinus communis (RC)-could be feasible agents for the removal of soil lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd). The metal removal efficiencies of the agents increased with their concentrations from 20 to 80 g L -1 , decreased with the increasing solution pH, and presented different trends with the reaction time increasing. CN among the four agents had the highest removal efficiencies of soil Pb (62.02%) and Zn (29.18%) but owned the relatively low Cd removal efficiencies (21.59%). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the abilities of plant washing agents for the removal of soil heavy metals may result from bioactive substances with specific functional groups such as -COOH, -NH 2 , and -OH. Our study provided CN as the best washing agents for the remediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals.

  16. Use of different surface covering materials to enhance removal of radiocaesium in plants and upper soil from orchards in Fukushima prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mamoru; Akai, Hiroko; Saito, Yuichi; Takase, Tsugiko; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Sekiya, Nobuhito; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko

    2017-04-04

    The effectiveness of a decontamination methodology whereby herbaceous plants were grown through different materials covering the soil surface followed by subsequent removal of the material, associated plant tissues and attached soil on 137 Cs removal from soil was evaluated. Revegetation netting sown with Kentucky bluegrass and white clover had a high effectiveness in 137 Cs removal when rolling up the plants, roots, and rhizosphere soil approximately 6 months after sowing. The removal rate was lower when there was higher 137 Cs vertical migration down the soil profile. The maximum removal effectiveness of 93.1% was observed by rolling up fertilized Kentucky bluegrass with a well-developed root mat without netting, indicating that applying nutrients to encourage the development of roots or root mats in the 3 cm topsoil rhizosphere is an efficient technology to increase the decontamination effect of plant removal in orchards. Netting and weeding were able to remove up to 80% of 137 Cs in the soil without the use of heavy machinery. There was a significant relationship between the removal ratio and the removed soil weight per area. Using the relationship on the site below the canopy, removal of 14.3 kg m -2 DW soil would achieve a removal ratio of 80%. The effectiveness of the technique will decrease with time as radiocaesium migrates down the soil profile but this would be expected to occur slowly in many soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of 15N enriched plant material for labelling of soil nitrogen in legume dinitrogen fixation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    The soil nitrogen in a field plot was labelled with nitrogen-15 (15N) by incorporating labelled plant material derived from previous experiments. The plot was used the following 3 years for determination of the amount of N2 fixed by different leguminous plants. The atom % 15N excess in grains of cereals grown as reference crops was 0.20, 0.05 and 0.03 in the 3 years, respectively. In the first year the level of enrichment was adequate for estimating symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In the second and third year lack of precision in determination of the 15N/14N ratios of legume N, may have caused an error in estimates of nitrogen fixation. About 23% of the labelled N was taken up by plants during the 3 years of cropping; after 4 years about 44% of the labelled N was found still to be present in the top soil. The labelling of the soil nitrogen with organic bound 15N, compared to adding mineral 15N at sowing, is advantageous because the labelled N is released by mineralization so that the enrichment of the plant available soil N pool become more uniform during the growth season; and high levels of mineral N, which may depress the fixation process, is avoided. (author) 7 tabs., 1 ill., 30 refs

  18. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  19. Microbial assimilation of 14C of ground and unground plant materials decomposing in a loamy sand and a clay soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Ladd, J.N.; Amato, M.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of grinding plant materials on the microbial decomposition and the distribution of plant-derived carbon in soil was measured. Ground and unground, C-14-labelled subclover leaves (Trifolium subterraneum) were added to a loamy sand and clay soil and incubated for 42 d at 25 degrees C....

  20. The Bio-accessibility of Synthetic Fe-Organo Complexes in Subsurface Soil with Elevated Temperature: a Proxy for the Vulnerability of Mineral Associated Carbon to Warming Rachel C. Porras, Peter S. Nico, and Margaret Torn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, R. C.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, subsurface soils (>30 cm) represent an important reservoir of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the vulnerability of this deep SOC and, in particular mineral-associated SOC, to warming, and its potential to amplify the effects of climate change is highly uncertain. To gain insight into the bio-accessibility and temperature sensitivity of mineral-associated organic C, we conducted a series of incubations using soils collected from three depths (0-10, 50-60, and 80-90 cm) under coniferous forest. The soils are moderately acidic (mean pH=6.5) sandy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haploxeralfs. To understand how mechanisms controlling SOC bio-accessibilty or temperature sensitivity differ with depth and with the properties of Fe-organo complexes (i.e.,degree of crystallinity, amount of reactive surface area, or surface saturation), we used a 13C labeled glucose substrate to prepare synthetic Fe-organo complexes spanning a range of crystallinity and mineral surface saturation. The synthetic Fe-organo complexes were then added to soil from three depths. The soils containing the 13C labeled Fe-organo adduct were incubated at two temperatures (ambient and +4°C) and respired 13CO2 was measured and used to estimate flux rates. Differences in measured 13CO2 fluxes as a function of depth, surface loading, and mineral properties are discussed in terms of their implications for the temperature sensitivity of mineral protected organic carbon in subsurface soils.

  1. Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

  2. Production and characterization of APAT-RM004 (compost) and APAT-RM005 (agricultural soil) matrix reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, M.; Balzamo, S.; Barbizzi, S.; Centioli, D.; Zorzi, P. de; Galas, C.; Gaudino, S.; Guagnini, T.; Pati, A.; Ravaioli, C.; Rosamilia, S.; Sentina, G.

    2006-01-01

    Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials (usually those with plant origins) and it is used in gardening and agriculture, mixed in with the soil. It improves soil structure, increases the amount of organic matter, and provides nutrients. Compost is a common name for humus, which is the result of the decomposition of organic matter. Generally, compost is the raw material obtained by the aerobic decomposition of the organic residues of the municipal waste or of the vegetable market waste. Composting is the industrial operation to produce compost on a large scale and it is the controlled decomposition technique of organic matter. Rather than allowing nature to take its slow course, a composter provides an optimal environment in which decomposer can thrive. The compost raw material used to prepare the APAT-RM004 reference material has been obtained from an aerobic composting plant located near Rome (Italy). This plant produces compost from organic waste originating from municipal routine plant trimmings, pruning, lawn mowing and wastes deriving from vegetable markets. The homogeneity test was carried out on 10 different units (bottles) sequentially selected over the whole bottling process. This study has been carried by measuring the total contents of C by CHN-S considering a sample intake of 0.02g and by the determination of the Hg content by direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80) considering a sample intake of 0.5g. Both techniques achieve high precision levels and require little or no sample processing prior to analysis

  3. Synthetic staggered architecture composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite design inspired by nature. ► Tuning microstructure via changing ceramic content and aspect ratio. ► Experimental display of structure–property correlationship in synthetic composites. - Abstract: Structural biocomposites (for example, nacre in seashells, bone, etc.) are designed according to the functional role they are delegated for. For instance, bone is primarily designed for withstanding time-dependent loading (for example, withstanding stresses while running, jumping, accidental fall) and hence the microstructure is designed primarily from enhanced toughness and moderate stiffness point of view. On the contrary, seashells (which lie in the abyss of oceans) apart from providing defense to the organism (it is hosting) against predatory attacks, are subjected to static loading (for example, enormous hydrostatic pressure). Hence, emphasis on the shell structure evolution is directed primarily towards providing enhanced stiffness. In order to conform between stiffness and toughness, nature precisely employs a staggered arrangement of inorganic bricks in a biopolymer matrix (at its most elementary level of architecture). Aspect ratio and content of ceramic bricks are meticulously used by nature to synthesize composites having varying degrees of stiffness, strength and toughness. Such an amazing capability of structure–property correlationship has rarely been demonstrated in synthetic composites. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanical behavior of synthetic staggered composites, the problem becomes two-pronged: (a) synthesize composites with varying brick size and contents and (b) experimental investigation of the material response. In this article, an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize staggered ceramic–polymer composites having varying aspect ratio and ceramic content using freeze-casting technique. This will in-turn help us in custom-design manufacture of hybrid bio-inspired composite materials

  4. Respiration rates in forest soil organic horizon materials treated with simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonius, P O

    1990-01-01

    The entire organic horizon above the mineral soil was collected under a mature black spruce (Picea mariana) stand in central New Brunswick. The organic horizon consisted of litter, fermentation, and humus layers of 1.5, 4.0, and 1.0 cm depths respectively. In concert with a series of simulated rain experiments, which dealt with the effects of acid precipitation of pH 4.6, 3.6, and 2.6 compared with controls at pH 5.6 on germination and early growth of forest tree seedlings, 30 randomly distributed, unplanted tubes in each rain chamber were exposed to treatment during each of the 5-week treatments of the various tree species. During the experiments, ca 315 mm of simulated rain was deposited on the soil surfaces in the tube containers. Marked decreases in soil microbial activity were found only with pH 2.6 rain, but responsiveness to increasing temperature was lower as rain of greater acidity was applied to the soil. Ammonium nitrogen mineralization rates were not affected by treatment of soil with acidified precipitation. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Environmental impact of hazardous inorganic materials. Pollution and remediation of soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, S.; Hakuta, T. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Barrington, S.; Wasay, S. [McGill University, (Canada)

    1998-02-10

    Recently, soil pollution has become a grave social problem. This paper reviews history, laws and regulations, current status and measures related to soil pollution, centered by those of Japan. Soil pollution problems in Japan date back to around 1880, when pollution of the Watarase River basin started by waste water exhausted from Asio Mine. Various grave problems have been recorded since then, including the Itai-itai and Minamata Diseases caused by Cd and methyl mercury, respectively, which started in 1945 and 1956, with the result that the government has amended laws/regulations related to treatment and cleaning of industrial wastes. Later, the related laws/regulations have been frequently amended, and the environmental standards related to soil pollution was established in 1991. Treatment for remediation of polluted soils has been effected with the aid of inorganic acids, organic solvents, chelating agents, natural organic acids (such as acetic and formic acids) and biological surface active agents. They must be carefully planned to take into consideration various aspects, such as pH level and other conditions, cost and environmental safety, before being actually used. One of the recommended measures is on-the-site treatment in an enclosed space while regenerating and recycling the agent. 66 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Development of atmosphere-soil-vegetation model for investigation of radioactive materials transport in terrestrial biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katata, Genki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Zhang, Leiming; Held, Andreas; Serca, Dominique; Klemm, Otto

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the transport of radionuclides in the terrestrial biosphere we have developed a one-dimensional numerical model named SOLVEG that predicts the transfer of water, heat, and gaseous and particulate matters in atmosphere-soil-vegetation system. The SOLVEG represents atmosphere, soil, and vegetation as an aggregation of several layers. Basic equations used in the model are solved using the finite difference method. Most of predicted variables are interrelated with the source/sink terms of momentum, water, heat, gases, and particles based on mathematically described biophysical processes in atmosphere, soil and vegetation. The SOLVEG can estimate dry, wet and fog deposition of gaseous and particulate matters at each canopy layer. Performance tests of the SOLVEG with several observational sites were carried out. The SOLVEG predicted the observed temporal changes in water vapor, CO 2 , and ozone fluxes over vegetated surfaces. The SOLVEG also reproduced measured fluxes of fog droplets and of fine aerosols over the forest. (author)

  7. Certified Reference Materials for Radioactivity Measurements in Environmental Samples of Soil and Water: IAEA-444 and IAEA-445

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Reference Materials are an important requirement for any sort of quantitative chemical and radiochemical analysis. Laboratories need them for calibration and quality control throughout their analytical work. The IAEA started to produce reference materials in the early 1960's to meet the needs of the analytical laboratories in its Member States that required reference materials for quality control of their measurements. The initial efforts were focused on the preparation of environmental reference materials containing anthropogenic radionuclides for use by those laboratories employing nuclear analytical techniques. These reference materials were characterized for their radionuclide content through interlaboratory comparison involving a core group of some 10 to 20 specialist laboratories. The success of these early exercises led the IAEA to extend its activities to encompass both terrestrial and marine reference materials containing primordial radionuclides and trace elements. Within the frame of IAEA activities in production and certification of reference materials, this report describes the certification of the IAEA-444 and IAEA-445: soil and water spiked with gamma emitting radionuclides respectively. Details are given on methodologies and data evaluation

  8. Evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings sites for liner requirements: Characterization and interaction of tailings, soil, and liner materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Martin, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of laboratory experiments using soils from Clive, Utah and tailings samples from three inactive uranium processing sites. The results are to be used to predict contaminant behavior for comparison with the regulatory criteria to decide whether a liner is needed. The interactions of leachates with soils and liner material were studied using both batch and column methods. It is determined that batch leaching tests are suitable for screening a large number of tailings samples for relative contaminant concentrations between samples but not for determining contaminant concentrations and release rates in tailings leachate. The results of column leaching tests on samples of tailings from inactive sites indicate that contaminant concentrations are highest in initial leachate from the columns and that concentrations decrease by an order of magnitude or more after one pore volume

  9. Oil palm waste and synthetic zeolite: an alternative soil-less growth substrate for lettuce production as a waste management practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghe, G.Y.; Tokashiki, Y.; Kitou, M.; Kinjo, K. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). United Graduate School of Agricultural Science

    2008-12-15

    A study was conducted to assess the characteristics and the prospective utilization of oil palm waste (OP) and synthetic zeolite (SZ) developed by coal fly ash, as an alternative substrate to peat and commercial perlite for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The SZ, OP, sphagnum peat (PE), perlite (PL) and two different SZ-OP mixtures (v/v) at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 were utilized as the substrates under this study. The substrates formulated by mixing SZ with OP at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 showed improved substrate physical and chemical properties such as air space, bulk density, particle density, water-holding capacity, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which were in the ideal substrate range when compared with PL. Furthermore, the water-holding capacity of the substrate having a 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ with OP was higher than that of the PL by 28.23%, whereas the bulk density was lower than that of PL by 35%. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to assess the influence of the substrates on the growth and development of lettuce. The results of the study suggest that the SZ-OP-based substrates and OP can be successfully utilized as alternatives to the commercial perlite and to substitute the conventional peat substrate for lettuce cultivation. In addition, this can be proposed as an alternative waste management practice.

  10. Development and Rainfed Paddy Soils Potency Derived from Lacustrine Material in Paguyaman, Gorontalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed paddy soils that are derived from lacustrine and include of E4 agroclimatic zone have many unique properties and potentially for paddy and corn plantations. This sreseach was aimed to: (1 study the soil development of rainfed paddy soils derived from lacustrine and (2 evaluate rainfed paddy soils potency for paddy and corn in Paguyaman. Soil samples were taken from three profiles according to toposequent, and they were analyzed in laboratory. Data were analyzed with descriptive-quantitative analysis. Furthermore, assessment on rainfed paddy soils potency was conducted with land suitability analysis using parametric approach. Results indicate that all pedon had evolved with B horizons structurization. However, pedon located on the summit slope was more developed and intensely weathered than those of the shoulder and foot slopes.The main pedogenesis in all pedons were through elluviation, illuviation, lessivage, pedoturbation, and gleization processes. The main factors of pedogenesis were climate, age (time and topography factors. Therefore, P1 pedons are classified as Ustic Endoaquerts, fine, smectitic, isohypertermic; P2 as Vertic Endoaquepts, fine, smectitic, isohypertermic; and P3 as Vertic Epiaquepts, fine, smectitic, isohypertermic. Based on the potentials of the land, the highest of land suitability class (LSC of land utilization type (LUT local paddy was highly suitable (S1, while the lowest one was not suitable with nutrient availability as the limiting factor (Nna. The highest LCS of paddy-corn LUT was marginally suitable with water availability as the limiting factor (S3wa, while the lower LSC was not suitable with nutrient availabily as the limiting factor (Nna.

  11. Evaluation of gamma activities of naturally occurring radioactive materials in uncontaminated surface soils of Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice Miller; Mitko Voutchkov

    2014-01-01

    In this study a geological, lithological or pedogenesis analysis is used to explain the values and distribution of the primordial specific gamma activities in the Jamaican soil environment. A random systematic sampling method resulted in Jamaica being divided into 50 square grids with a maximum sampling density of 225 square meters per sample. The resulting sixty-eight (68) samples were measured on a Canberra HPGe detector for 24 h and the photopeaks for the primordial gammas of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K analyzed. Spearman's correlation was used to investigate the relationships between the primordial specific activities and the geological features of the soil samples collected and the geographic information system, ArcGIS v10.1 used to graphically depict the gamma profile of the primordials across the island. The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that in general the variations of the primordial gamma specific activities over the underlying soil geologies were statistically significant. However, the pairwise Post-Hoc test results did not suggest a significant variation in mean specific for any of the primordial with all the underlying geology even when the unadjusted p value was used. This result along with the Spearman's coefficient correlation values suggested a moderate to weak relationship between the gamma profile of the top soil and its underlying geology. With the exception of a weak correlation with 232 Th (-0.295) no other primordial radionuclide correlated with the UNESCO/FAO soil categories for the island. The most significant correlations for soil characteristics and gamma activities were organic matters which were positive for 232 Th (0.518), 238 U (0.481) but negative for 40 K (-0.284). (author)

  12. Recent advances of numerical simulation studies for radioactive cesium adsorption on soil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Radiocesium (Cesium 134 and 137) emitted from destroyed Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Production Station is known mostly to remain for a long time on earth's surfaces and to become sources of radiation exposure to habitants. Large scale decontamination work carried out by national and local governments inevitably produces tremendous amount of radioactive wastes of soils whose volume must be effectively and economically reduced based on a scientifically reliable technique. This paper employs the atomic and molecular simulation method applied to adsorption mechanism of soils and cesium ions and presents the examples of proposals with the results of this field. (S. Ohno)

  13. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Bao, Shanhu; Sai, Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yuhong

    2017-03-14

    The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μ Sv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10 -4 /Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China's mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  14. Functional mining of transporters using synthetic selections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genee, Hans Jasper; Bali, Anne Pihl; Petersen, Søren Dalsgård

    2016-01-01

    transporters, PnuT, which is widely distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. We demonstrate that with modular replacement of the biosensor, we could expand our method to xanthine and identify xanthine permeases from gut and soil metagenomes. Our results demonstrate how synthetic-biology approaches can......-responsive biosensor systems that enable selective growth of cells only if they encode a ligand-specific importer. We developed such a synthetic selection system for thiamine pyrophosphate and mined soil and gut metagenomes for thiamine-uptake functions. We identified several members of a novel class of thiamine...

  15. Characterization of PCC Cement by Addition of Napa Soil from Subdistrict Sarilamak 50 Kota District as Alternative Additional Material for Semen Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawardi, M.; Deyundha, D.; Zainul, R.; Zalmi P, R.

    2018-04-01

    The study has been conducted to determine characteristics of the portland composite cement by the addition of napa soil from Sarilamak subdistrict, 50 Kota District as an alternative additional material at PT. Semen Padang. Napa soil is a natural material highly containing silica and alumina minerals so that it can be one of material in producing cement. This study aims to determine the effect of napa soil on the quality of portland composite cement. Napa soil used in the variation compositions 0%, 4%, 8%, 12% and 16%, for control of cement used 8 % of pozzolan and 0 % of napa soil. Determination of cement quality by testing cement characteristics include blaine test, sieving, lost of ignition or LOI, insoluble residue, normal consistency, setting time and compressive strength. Cement was characterized using XRF. Fineness of cement decreases with the addition of napa soil. Lost of Ignition of cement decreased, while the insoluble residue increased with the addition of napa soil. Normal consistency of cement increasing, so does initial setting time and final setting time of cement. While the resultant compressive strength decreases with the addition of napa soil on 28 days, 342, 325, 307, 306, and 300 kg / cm2.

  16. A 3-step framework for understanding the added value of surface soil moisture measurements for large-scale runoff prediction via data assimilation - a synthetic study in the Arkansas-Red River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Crow, W. T.; Nijssen, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) plays an important role in runoff generation both by partitioning infiltration and surface runoff during rainfall events and by controlling the rate of subsurface flow during inter-storm periods. Therefore, more accurate SM state estimation in hydrologic models is potentially beneficial for streamflow prediction. Various previous studies have explored the potential of assimilating SM data into hydrologic models for streamflow improvement. These studies have drawn inconsistent conclusions, ranging from significantly improved runoff via SM data assimilation (DA) to limited or degraded runoff. These studies commonly treat the whole assimilation procedure as a black box without separating the contribution of each step in the procedure, making it difficult to attribute the underlying causes of runoff improvement (or the lack thereof). In this study, we decompose the overall DA process into three steps by answering the following questions (3-step framework): 1) how much can assimilation of surface SM measurements improve surface SM state in a hydrologic model? 2) how much does surface SM improvement propagate to deeper layers? 3) How much does (surface and deeper-layer) SM improvement propagate into runoff improvement? A synthetic twin experiment is carried out in the Arkansas-Red River basin ( 600,000 km2) where a synthetic "truth" run, an open-loop run (without DA) and a DA run (where synthetic surface SM measurements are assimilated) are generated. All model runs are performed at 1/8 degree resolution and over a 10-year period using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model at a 3-hourly time step. For the DA run, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method is applied. The updated surface and deeper-layer SM states with DA are compared to the open-loop SM to quantitatively evaluate the first two steps in the framework. To quantify the third step, a set of perfect-state runs are generated where the "true" SM states are directly inserted

  17. Survey method for radiological surveys of 300 FF-1 Operable Unit soil and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, A.A.

    1997-06-01

    This technical basis document is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by the Radiological Control Technician to determine if excavated areas require continued remediation in accordance with the Record of Decision for the operable unit

  18. Chapter 3: Selecting materials for mine soil construction when establishing forests on Appalachian mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Skousen; Carl Zipper; Jim Burger; Christopher Barton; Patrick. Angel

    2017-01-01

    The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), a method for reclaiming coal-mined land to forest (Chapter 2, this volume), is based on research, knowledge, and experience of forest soil scientists and reclamation practitioners. Step 1 of the FRA is to create a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and consists of topsoil, weathered...

  19. Modified composites based on mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide and synthetic minerals: a potential material for the treatment of various toxic heavy metals and its toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seung-Gun; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Song, Mi-Kyung; An, Byungryul; Kim, Song-Bae; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2014-02-28

    The composites of mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide and/or commercial synthetic zeolite were investigated for use in the removal of toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead and arsenic, from aqueous solution. Four types of adsorbents, dried alginate beads (DABs), synthetic-zeolite impregnated beads (SZIBs), meso-iron-oxyhydroxide impregnated beads (MIOIBs) and synthetic-zeolite/meso-iron-oxyhydroxide composite beads (SZMIOIBs), were prepared for heavy metal adsorption tests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the removal efficiencies of cations and anions of heavy metals and the possibility of regenerating the adsorbents. Among these adsorbents, the MIOIBs can simultaneously remove cations and anions of heavy metals; they have high adsorption capacities for lead (60.1mgg(-1)) and arsenic (71.9mgg(-1)) compared with other adsorbents, such as DABs (158.1 and 0.0mgg(-1)), SZIB (42.9 and 0.0mgg(-1)) and SZMIOIB (54.0 and 5.9mgg(-1)) for lead and arsenic, respectively. Additionally, the removal efficiency was consistent at approximately 90%, notwithstanding repetitive regeneration. The characteristics of meso-iron-oxyhydroxide powder were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and transmission electron microscopy. We also performed a comparative toxicity study that indicated that much lower concentrations of the powdered form of mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide had stronger cytotoxicity than the granular form. These results suggest that the granular form of meso iron oxyhydroxide is a more useful and safer adsorbent for heavy metal treatment than the powdered form. This research provides promising results for the application of MIOIBs as an adsorbent for various heavy metals from wastewater and sewage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows

  1. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows the

  2. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela, E-mail: coroirina@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trincă, Lucia Carmen, E-mail: lctrinca@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trofin, Alina Elena, E-mail: aetrofin@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Ana, E-mail: anagarlea@gmail.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Ţopa, Denis, E-mail: topadennis@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara, E-mail: catipeptu@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, 73 D. Mangeron Street, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Jităreanu, Gerard, E-mail: gerardj@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  3. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  4. A Multi-Wavelength Grain-by-Grain Survey of Lunar Soils in Search of Rare Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S.; Lucey, P. G.; Viti, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon is unique among terrestrial planets for its lack of an atmosphere and global tectonic or volcanic processes. These factors and its position in the inner solar system mean that it is a potential repository of meteoritic material from all of the terrestrial planets. The National Research Council's 2007 report on the Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon highlighted this unique possibility and defined the search for rare materials including those from the early Earth as a key goal for future lunar exploration. Armstrong et al. (2002) estimated that Earth material could be present at the 7 ppm level in surface lunar regolith and emphasized that since a single gram of lunar fines contains over 10 million particles, the search for terran material in lunar soils should begin with the current stock of lunar samples. Joy et al. (2012) demonstrated that mineral and lithologic relics of impactors can survive and be recognized in lunar samples, and recent work by Burchell et al. (2014) suggests that fossil fragments from Earth could survive the extreme shocks associated with transport to the Moon. Following the concept laid out by Armstrong et al. (2002), we are conducting a survey of lunar soil samples using microscopic hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy across visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared wavelengths to conduct a search for rare particles, including those that could be sourced from the early Earth. Our system currently consists of three microscopic imaging spectrometers with ~30 micron spatial resolution, permitting resolved imaging of individual grains. Fields of view of at least 1 cm and scan rates near 1 mm/sec permit rapid processing of relatively large quantities of sample. Existing spectrometers cover the 0.5 to 2.5 micron region, permitting detection and characterization of the common iron-bearing lunar minerals olivine and pyroxene, and the 8-14 micron region, which permits detection of other, rarer minerals of interest such as

  5. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... of the treatment was least in the soil which had been incubated with the labeled material for the longest time. Additions of unlabeled, decomposable organic material also increased the rate of decomposition of the labeled organic matter. The evolution of labeled CO2 during the 1st month of incubation after...... addition was in some cases 4–10 times larger than the evolution from the controls. During the continued incubation the evolution decreased almost to the level of the controls, indicating that the effect was related to the increased biological activity in the soils during decomposition of the added material...

  6. Soils and earthen building materials used for the Buddhist Temple Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Gruber, M.; Herbstová, Vladislava; Frankeová, Dita; Wimmer-Frey, I.; Drdácký, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2016), s. 406-417 ISSN 1558-3058 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : adobe * conservation * earth * mineralogical composition * mortar * soil * temple * texture Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15583058.2014.991460

  7. RCRA materials analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Detection limits in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskelo, A.; Cremers, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) that this report supports is research, development, testing and evaluation of a portable analyzer for RCRA and other metals. The instrumentation to be built will be used for field-screening of soils. Data quality is expected to be suitable for this purpose. The data presented in this report were acquired to demonstrate the detection limits for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of soils using instrument parameters suitable for fieldable instrumentation. The data are not expected to be the best achievable with the high pulse energies available in laboratory lasers. The report presents work to date on the detection limits for several elements in soils using LIBS. The elements targeted in the Technical Task Plan are antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, and zirconium. Data for these elements are presented in this report. Also included are other data of interest to potential customers for the portable LIBS apparatus. These data are for barium, mercury, cesium and strontium. Data for uranium and thorium will be acquired during the tasks geared toward mixed waste characterization

  8. Investigation of various synthetic conditions for large-scale synthesis and electrochemical properties of Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C as anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guo-Hui, E-mail: dgh1516@gmail.com [Shanghai Shanshan Tech Co., Ltd., 3158 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209 (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Hua-Jing; Zhou, Liang [Shanghai Shanshan Tech Co., Ltd., 3158 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209 (China); Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, 2360 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209 (China); Chong, Lina; Yang, Jun [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Qiao, Yong-Min; Zhang, Dian-Hao [Shanghai Shanshan Tech Co., Ltd., 3158 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209 (China)

    2014-12-05

    Graphical abstract: A gel and spray-drying method is demonstrated for large-scale preparation of Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C secondary microspheres via optimizing various synthetic conditions. The electrochemical performances of the Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C microspheres are investigated. - Highlights: • Various synthetic conditions are investigated. • Materials can be produced at ∼1 kg scale by using our demonstrated synthesis method. • Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C sample possesses high electronic conductivity and rate property, and excellent cycling performance. • Secondary micro-spherical Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C sample has high tap density et al. - Abstract: Poor electronic conductivity is one of the biggest obstacles for practical application of lithium titanate as lithium-ion battery anode material. Utilizing the advantages of coating and doping techniques to optimize the conductive and rate performances of lithium titanate was reported in this work. Herein, the effects of various synthetic conditions including calcination temperatures and holding times, lithium overdoses, carbon contents, doping contents and doping elements on phase, primary particles’ size and electrochemical performance were comprehensively investigated. The optimal Li{sub 3.98}Al{sub 0.06}Ti{sub 4.96}O{sub 12}/C secondary microspheres were synthesized, which possessed high electronic conductivity, tap density, reversible capacity and first columbic efficiency, and excellent rate performances. Furthermore, the synthesized samples were characterized by various techniques.

  9. Phyllosilicate weathering pathways in chlorite-talc bearing soil parent materials, D.R. Congo: early findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Mathijs; Oostermeyer, Fran; Timmermans, Els; De Meulemeester, Aschwin; Mees, Florias; Van Driessche, Isabel; Erens, Hans; Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The study of the formation and transformation of clay minerals is of the upmost importance to understand soil formation and to adjust land-use management to the land surface conditions. These clay minerals determine to a large extent the soil physical and chemical properties. It is commonly observed that over time the mineralogy of any parent material is transformed to a simple assemblage composed mostly of Al and Fe oxides and low-activity clays, e.g. kaolinite. This is especially obvious in the humid tropics, which have been protected from glacial erosion, allowing deep, highly weathered soils to form. Despite the abundant presence of kaolinite in these soils, its formation pathways are still under debate: either neoformation by dissolution-crystallisation reactions or solid-state transformation of 2:1 phyllosilicates. To elucidate this, weathering sequences in a unique 40 m core taken below a termite mound, reaching a talc-chlorite bearing substrate in the Lubumbashi area, Katanga, DR Congo are being investigated in detail using a.o. quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical characterization, micromorphology and µXRF-scanning with the main objective to improve the understanding of the formation pathways of kaolinite subgroup minerals in humid tropical environments. Based on an initial characterization of the core, two zones of interest were selected for more detailed analysis, for which the early findings will be presented. The first zone extends from ca. 9 m to 11 m below the surface is dominated by kaolinite but shows early traces of primary talc and micas. The second zone extends from 34 to 36 m below the surface and contains large amounts of chlorite, with smaller amounts of talc, micas and kaolinite.

  10. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.

    1996-05-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines

  11. Differences in soil solution chemistry between soils amended with nanosized CuO or Cu reference materials: implications for nanotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Heather V A; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H

    2014-07-15

    Soil toxicity tests for metal oxide nanoparticles often include micrometer-sized oxide and metal salt treatments to distinguish between toxicity from nanometer-sized particles, non-nanometer-sized particles, and dissolved ions. Test result will be confounded if each chemical form has different effects on soil solution chemistry. We report on changes in soil solution chemistry over 56 days-the duration of some standard soil toxicity tests-in three soils amended with 500 mg/kg Cu as nanometer-sized CuO (nano), micrometer-sized CuO (micrometer), or Cu(NO3)2 (salt). In the CuO-amended soils, the log Cu2+ activity was initially low (minimum -9.48) and increased with time (maximum -5.20), whereas in the salt-amended soils it was initially high (maximum -4.80) and decreased with time (minimum -6.10). The Cu2+ activity in the nano-amended soils was higher than in the micrometer-amended soils for at least the first 11 days, and lower than in the salt-amended soils for at least 28 d. The pH, and dissolved Ca and Mg concentrations in the CuO-amended soils were similar, but the salt-amended soils had lower pH for at least 14 d, and higher Ca and Mg concentrations throughout the test. Soil pretreatments such as leaching and aging prior to toxicity tests are suggested.

  12. Attenuation coefficients of soils and some building materials of Bangladesh in the energy range 276-1332 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.N.; Miah, M.M.H.; Chowdhury, M.I.; Kamal, M.; Ghose, S.; Rahman, Runi

    2001-01-01

    The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of different types of soil, sand, building materials and heavy beach mineral samples from the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar area of Bangladesh were measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector and the γ-ray energies 276.1, 302.8, 356.0, 383.8, 661.6 and 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV emitted from point sources of 133 Ba, 137 Cs and 60 Co, respectively. The linear attenuation coefficients show a linear relationship with the corresponding densities of the samples studied. The variations of the mass attenuation coefficient with γ-ray energy were exponential in nature. The measured mass attenuation coefficient values were compared with measurements made in other countries for similar kinds of materials. The values are in good agreement with each other in most cases

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  14. Effects of polyacrylamide on soil erosion and nutrient losses from substrate material in steep rocky slope stabilization projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Chen, Wenlu; Li, Chengjun; Pu, Yanpin; Sun, Haifeng

    2016-06-01

    Erosion of denuded steep rocky slopes causes increasing losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, which is a severe problem in rocky slope protection. Thus, it is important to determine the appropriate materials that can reduce the erodibility and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus of the soil. In this paper, twenty-seven simulated rainfall events were carried out in a greenhouse, in which the substrate material was artificial soil; nine types of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) were studied, which consisted of three molecular weight (6, 12, and 18 Mg mol(-1)) and three charge density (10, 20, and 30%) formulations in a 3 by 3 factorial design. The results showed that: (1) Polyacrylamide application reduced total nitrogen losses by 35.3% to 50.0% and total phosphorus losses by 34.9% to 48.0% relative to the control group. (2) The losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus had significant correlation with the molecular weight. Besides, the losses of total phosphorus, particulate-bound phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen (NH4-N) were significantly correlated with their molecular weight and charge density. However, the losses of dissolved organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved organic phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus (PO4-P) were non-significantly correlated with molecular weight and charge density. (3) Particulate-bound nitrogen and phosphorus were responsible for the losses of nitrogen and phosphorus during runoff events, where particulate-bound nitrogen made up 71.7% to 73.2% of total nitrogen losses, and particulate-bound phosphorus made up 82.3% to 85.2% of total phosphorus losses. (4) Polyacrylamide treatments increased water-stable aggregates content by 32.3% to 59.1%, total porosity by 11.3% to 49.0%, final infiltrative rate by 41.3% to 72.5%, and reduced soil erosion by 18.9% to 39.8% compared with the control group. Overall, the results of this study indicated that polyacrylamide application in the steep rocky slope stabilization projects could

  15. Modified composites based on mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide and synthetic minerals: A potential material for the treatment of various toxic heavy metals and its toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung-Gun [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae-Chun; Song, Mi-Kyung [Center for Integrated Risk Research, Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); An, Byungryul [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song-Bae [Environmental Functional Materials and Biocolloids Laboratory, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Hyup [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Convergence Green Technology and Policy, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Woo, E-mail: plead36@kist.re.kr [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Meso-iron-oxyhydroxide was found to be efficient for anion heavy metal adsorption. • The composite bead can simultaneously remove the cations and anions of heavy metals. • Powdered form had stronger cytotoxicity than did the granular form. • Adsorbent recovery is facilitated by granulation process of powder-type. - Abstract: The composites of mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide and/or commercial synthetic zeolite were investigated for use in the removal of toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead and arsenic, from aqueous solution. Four types of adsorbents, dried alginate beads (DABs), synthetic-zeolite impregnated beads (SZIBs), meso-iron-oxyhydroxide impregnated beads (MIOIBs) and synthetic-zeolite/meso-iron-oxyhydroxide composite beads (SZMIOIBs), were prepared for heavy metal adsorption tests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the removal efficiencies of cations and anions of heavy metals and the possibility of regenerating the adsorbents. Among these adsorbents, the MIOIBs can simultaneously remove cations and anions of heavy metals; they have high adsorption capacities for lead (60.1 mg g{sup −1}) and arsenic (71.9 mg g{sup −1}) compared with other adsorbents, such as DABs (158.1 and 0.0 mg g{sup −1}), SZIB (42.9 and 0.0 mg g{sup −1}) and SZMIOIB (54.0 and 5.9 mg g{sup −1}) for lead and arsenic, respectively. Additionally, the removal efficiency was consistent at approximately 90%, notwithstanding repetitive regeneration. The characteristics of meso-iron-oxyhydroxide powder were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller and transmission electron microscopy. We also performed a comparative toxicity study that indicated that much lower concentrations of the powdered form of mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide had stronger cytotoxicity than the granular form. These results suggest that the granular form of meso iron oxyhydroxide is a more useful and safer adsorbent for

  16. Development of soil-cement blocks with three interventions: natural soil, soil corrected with sand and soil more phase change materials (PCMs); Desenvolvimento de blocos solo-cimento com tres intervencoes: solo natural, solo corrigido com areia e solo mais materiais de mudanca de fase (MMFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Valter Bezerra; Gomes, Uilame Umbelino; Reis, Edmilson Pedreira; Valcacer, Samara Melo; Silva, A.S., E-mail: valter.fisic@hotmail.com, E-mail: umbelino@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: pedreira.reis@ig.com.br, E-mail: gmarinho@ct.ufrn.br, E-mail: samaravalcacer@hotamil.com, E-mail: ariadness2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the results of characterization tests of soil samples collected in Mossoro-RN, UFERSA-RN Campus, located approximately 20 meters high, and {sup 5} ° 12'34.68 south latitude and 37 ° 19'5.74 {sup w}est longitude, with the purpose of producing soil-cement for the manufacture of pressed blocks with good resistance to compression and thermal stability. The following tests were performed: granulometry, plasticity limit, liquidity limit, particle size correction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence. In this soil, based on the results of the granulometric analysis, 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of eicosane paraffin and 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of paraffin 120 / 125F were added, forming analysis compositions, standard soil-cement block and natural soil-cement block with addition of 10% medium sand and 0% paraffin. Paraffins are referred to as PCMs (Phase Change Material). The contrasting effect between the different dosages on the compressive strength values of the soil-cement blocks was observed. The objective is to create new materials that give the block quality equal to or higher than the recommendations of ABNT norms, and that offer greater thermal comfort in the constructions. Soil particles of different sizes were added to 8% (by weight) of cement, and about 9.20% of water added to the mixture.

  17. Report: Potential environmental impact of exempt site materials - a case study of bituminous road planings and waste soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, Marjorie; Bland, Michael; Grimes, Sue

    2009-09-01

    The use of waste materials for ecological benefit, agricultural improvement or as part of construction works are often exempt from waste management control in order to maximize the reuse of material that would otherwise be disposed of to landfill. It is important, however, to determine whether there is potential for such waste to cause environmental harm in the context of the basis for granting exemptions under the relevant framework objective to ensure that waste is recovered or disposed of without risk to water, air, soil, plants or animals. The potential for environmental harm was investigated by leaching studies on two wastes commonly found at exempt sites: bituminous road planings and waste soils. For bituminous road planings, the organic components of the waste were identified by their solubility in organic solvents but these components would have low environmental impact in terms of bioavailability. Leaching studies of the heavy metals copper, lead and zinc, into the environment, under specific conditions and particularly those modelling acid rain and landfill leachate conditions showed that, except for copper, the amounts leached fell within Waste Acceptance Criteria compliance limits for defining waste as inert waste. The fact that the amount of copper leached was greater than the Waste Acceptance Criteria level suggests that either additional testing of wastes regarded as exempt should be carried out to ensure that they are in analytical compliance or that legislation should allow for the potential benefits of reuse to supersede deviations from analytical compliance.

  18. Influence of the composition and high shear stresses on the structure and properties of hybrid materials based on starch and synthetic copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, V A; Lipatova, I M; Losev, N V; Rodicheva, J A; Koifman, O I

    2018-09-15

    The method of mechanical activation in the rotor-stator device was used to combine the starch hydrogel and the latex of the synthetic copolymer. The compatibility of the components was found to improve consistently by the preliminary mechanoactivation of the starch gel and the joint activation of the mixturs. The joint activation was shown to promote the crystallization of starch and the amorphous phase ordering of the composite. An increase in the starch content and co-activation were found to result in rise in the Young's modulus and tensile strength, but joint activation ensures an increase in the elasticity of the samples. The kinetic parameters of moisture transfer through composite films were estimated. A distinct compensative effect was found, consisted in a significant increase in the sorption coefficient and a decrease in the diffusion coefficient with increasing starch content. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  1. Modelling transport of waste material leachate in soils in support of environmental standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren JCH; Aalbers TG; de Wilde PGM

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands a process of defining environmental standards is going on. These standards serve to protect the environment at the one hand, and to stimulate the reuse of rest-materials, e.g. ash from blast-furnaces, as building materials at the other hand. In order to come to an environmental

  2. Effect of addition of organic materials and irrigation conditions on soil quality in olive groves in the region of Messinia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Repas, Spiros; Koubouris, Georgos; Psaras, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cultivation practices are associated to soil degradation mainly due to low soil organic matter content. The application of organic materials to land is a common practice in sustainable agriculture in the last years. However, its implementation in olive groves under different irrigation regimes has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of alternative carbon input techniques (i.e. wood shredded, pruning residues, returning of olive mill wastes the field with compost) and irrigation conditions (irrigated and rainfed olive orchards) on spatial distribution of soil chemical (pH, EC, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, humic and fulvic acids, available P, and exchangeable K) and microbial properties (soil basal microbial respiration and microbial biomass carbon) in two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-40 cm). The study took place in the region of Messinia, South western Peloponnese, Greece during three year soil campaigns. Forty soil plots of olive groves were selected (20 rainfed and 20 irrigated) and carbon input practices were applied on the half of the irrigated and rainfed soil parcels (10 rainfed and 10 irrigated), while the remaining ones were used as controls. The results showed significant changes of chemical and biological properties of soil in olive orchards due to carbon treatments. However, these changes were depended on irrigation conditions. Microbial parameters appeared to be reliable indicators of changes in soil management. Proper management of alternative soil carbon inputs in olive orchards can positively affect soil fertility.

  3. Alpha spectroscopic determination of plutonium and uranium in food, biological materials, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frindik, O.

    1980-07-01

    An alpha-spectrometric method for the plutonium determination which was tested in different samples is described in detail. In particular, this method is capable of determining the very low plutonium levels found in food at present, and allow recoveries of 85-95% of the tracer added. Inorganic samples, such as soil samples for example, can be analyzed by using an abbreviated modification of the method. The measuring preparations show a high degree of spectral purity. Uranium can be separated during the analytical procedure and, after purification, can also be determined alpha-spectrometrically. 90-100% of the uranium are recovered. (orig.) [de

  4. High calcium fly ash geopolymer stabilized lateritic soil and granulated blast furnace slag blends as a pavement base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phummiphan, Itthikorn; Horpibulsuk, Suksun; Rachan, Runglawan; Arulrajah, Arul; Shen, Shui-Long; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2018-01-05

    Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) was used as a replacement material in marginal lateritic soil (LS) while class C Fly Ash (FA) was used as a precursor for the geopolymerization process to develop a low-carbon pavement base material at ambient temperature. Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) tests were performed to investigate the strength development of geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis were undertaken to examine the role of the various influencing factors on UCS development. The influencing factors studied included GBFS content, Na 2 SiO 3 :NaOH ratio (NS:NH) and curing time. The 7-day soaked UCS of FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends at various NS:NH ratios tested was found to satisfy the specifications of the Thailand national road authorities. The GBFS replacement was found to be insignificant for the improvement of the UCS of FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends at low NS:NH ratio of 50:50. Microstructural analysis indicated the coexistence of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH) and Sodium Alumino Silicate Hydrate products in FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends. This research enables GBFS, which is traditionally considered as a waste material, to be used as a replacement and partially reactive material in FA geopolymer pavement applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of digestate from anaerobically digested cattle slurry and plant materials on soil microbial community and emission of CO2 and N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Jensen, Erik S.

    2013-01-01

    ) anaerobically digested cattle slurry/grass-clover, or (5) fresh grass-clover was applied to soil at arable realistic rates. Experimental unites were sequentially sampled destructively after 1, 3 and 9 days of incubation and the soil assayed for content of mineral N, available organic C, emission of CO2 and N2O......, microbial phospholipid fatty acids (biomass and community composition) and catabolic response profiling (functional diversity). Fertilizing with the anaerobically digested materials increased the soil concentration of NO3− ca. 30–40% compared to when raw cattle slurry was applied. Grass-clover contributed...... with four times more readily degradable organic C than the other materials, causing an increased microbial biomass which depleted the soil for mineral N and probably also O2. Consequently, grass-clover also caused a ∼10 times increase in emissions of CO2 and N2O greenhouse gasses compared to any...

  6. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haribala Bai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10−4/Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China’s mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  7. Efficiency of a Multi-Soil-Layering System on Wastewater Treatment Using Environment-Friendly Filter Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi-soil-layering (MSL system primarily comprises two parts, specifically, the soil mixture layer (SML and the permeable layer (PL. In Japan, zeolite is typically used as the permeable layer material. In the present study, zeolite was substituted with comparatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly materials, such as expanded clay aggregates, oyster shells, and already-used granular activated carbon collected from water purification plants. A series of indoor tests indicated that the suspended solid (SS removal efficiency of granular activated carbon was between 76.2% and 94.6%; zeolite and expanded clay aggregates achieved similar efficiencies that were between 53.7% and 87.4%, and oyster shells presented the lowest efficiency that was between 29.8% and 61.8%. Further results show that the oyster shell system required an increase of wastewater retention time by 2 to 4 times that of the zeolite system to maintain similar chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency. Among the four MSL samples, the zeolite system and granular activated carbon system demonstrated a stable NH3-N removal performance at 92.3%–99.8%. The expanded clay aggregate system present lower removal performance because of its low adsorption capacity and excessively large pores, causing NO3−-N to be leached away under high hydraulic loading rate conditions. The total phosphorous (TP removal efficiency of the MSL systems demonstrated no direct correlation with the permeable layer material. Therefore, all MSL samples achieved a TP efficiency of between 92.1% and 99.2%.

  8. Efficiency of a multi-soil-layering system on wastewater treatment using environment-friendly filter materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chia-Chun; Wang, Pei-Hao

    2015-03-23

    The multi-soil-layering (MSL) system primarily comprises two parts, specifically, the soil mixture layer (SML) and the permeable layer (PL). In Japan, zeolite is typically used as the permeable layer material. In the present study, zeolite was substituted with comparatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly materials, such as expanded clay aggregates, oyster shells, and already-used granular activated carbon collected from water purification plants. A series of indoor tests indicated that the suspended solid (SS) removal efficiency of granular activated carbon was between 76.2% and 94.6%; zeolite and expanded clay aggregates achieved similar efficiencies that were between 53.7% and 87.4%, and oyster shells presented the lowest efficiency that was between 29.8% and 61.8%. Further results show that the oyster shell system required an increase of wastewater retention time by 2 to 4 times that of the zeolite system to maintain similar chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Among the four MSL samples, the zeolite system and granular activated carbon system demonstrated a stable NH3-N removal performance at 92.3%-99.8%. The expanded clay aggregate system present lower removal performance because of its low adsorption capacity and excessively large pores, causing NO3--N to be leached away under high hydraulic loading rate conditions. The total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiency of the MSL systems demonstrated no direct correlation with the permeable layer material. Therefore, all MSL samples achieved a TP efficiency of between 92.1% and 99.2%.

  9. A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not

  10. Novel synthetic approach for 1, 4-dihydroxyanthraquinone and the development of its Lithiated salts as anode material for aqueous rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gurukar, Suresh Shivappa; Rajashekara Shetty, Vijeth; Mariappa, Ramaiah; Kittappa, Mahadevan Malavalli; Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.

    2015-01-01

    of active species in the aqueous media, reasonable discharge capacity with 0.9 V average voltages and agreeable cycling performance during charge-discharge process with reproducibility are achieved. For the construction of the full cell, the anode material

  11. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the B ampersand T Metals Company site, Columbus, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, Mm.; Yu, C.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil were derived for the B ampersand T Metals Company site in Columbus, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that following remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 n-mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three scenarios were considered; each assumed that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The three scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food and water consumed. The evaluations indicate that the dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of total uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the B ampersand T Metals site did not exceed 1, I 00 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker, current use) or 300 pCi/g for Scenario B (resident with municipal water supply, a likely future use). The dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded at the site if the total uranium concentration of the soil did not exceed 880 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident with an on-site water well, a plausible but unlikely future use)

  12. Effect of curing time on selected properties of soil stabilized with fly ash, marble dust and waste sand for road sub-base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Seyhan; Khatib, Jamal M; Yilmaz, Gulgun; Comert, A T

    2017-07-01

    The properties of sub-base filling materials in highway construction are essential, as they can determine the performance of the road in service. Normally, the existing materials are removed and replaced with new materials that have adequate load-bearing capacity. Rising environmental concern and new environmental legislations have made construction professionals consider other methods. These methods include stabilizing the existing materials with other additives to improve their performance. Additives can be waste materials generated by different industries. In this work, the existing excavated soil is stabilized with waste materials. The wastes consisted of fly ash, marble dust and waste sand. The percentage addition of waste materials was 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (by mass) of the existing soil. The soil/waste specimens were cured for 1, 7, 28, 56, 90 and 112 days before testing. Testing included the dry unit weight and unconfined compressive strength ( q u ) as well as X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy observation. Also, the California Bearing Ratio values were obtained and are reported in this investigation. The results showed that the q u values increased with the increase in waste materials content. Also, there is tendency for the dry unit weight to increase with the increase in waste materials.

  13. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  14. Novel synthetic approach for 1, 4-dihydroxyanthraquinone and the development of its Lithiated salts as anode material for aqueous rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gurukar, Suresh Shivappa

    2015-08-17

    The influence of organic electrode materials in the field of lithium ion battery is becoming a keen interest for the present generation scientists. Here we are reporting a novel method of synthesis of electrode material by the combination of sono-chemical and thermal methods. The advantages of organic active material towards lithium ion battery are of core interest of this study. The structural confirmations are by FT-IR, 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF Mass Spectroscopy and powder XRD data. The electrochemical properties of Lithiated-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone were studied using electrochemical-techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry, Galvanostatic Cyclic Potential Limitation and Potentiostatic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The satisfactory results towards stability of active species in the aqueous media, reasonable discharge capacity with 0.9 V average voltages and agreeable cycling performance during charge-discharge process with reproducibility are achieved. For the construction of the full cell, the anode material was coupled with the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a cathode material.

  15. Raw material and energetic matrix: a synthetic, generic and attention considerations for the future of the Camacari Industrial pole, Bahia, Brazil; Materias-prima e matriz energetica: uma visao sintetica, generica e de atencao para o futuro do Polo Industrial de Camacari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lins Neto, Joao Bispo [Braskem S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil). Gerencia de Energia], e-mail: joao.lins@braskem.com.br; Lima, Alberto Ferreira [Bahia Pulp, Camacari, BA (Brazil). Gerencia de Qualidade e Desenvolvimento de Produto], e-mail: alberto_lima@bahiapulp.com; Petti, Ana Carla [Braskem S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil). Gerencia de Gestao e Regulacao de Energia], e-mail: ana.petti@braskem.com.br; Correia, Antonia Lucia Santiago [PETROBRAS S.A., Norte/Nordeste (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    This paper makes a synthetic evaluation of the present and raw material situation and the energetic matrix, and future perspectives, focusing on the following aspects: analysis of the existent production chains; threats to the raw material and incomes; integration between the enterprises and opportunities for new business, and availability and competitiveness of the energetic matrix.

  16. Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68

  17. Effective diffusion coefficients of DNAPL waste components in saturated low permeability soil materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral-Cinar, Derya; Demond, Avery H.

    2017-12-01

    Diffusion is regarded as the dominant transport mechanism into and out of low permeable subsurface lenses and layers in the subsurface. But, some reports of mass storage in such zones are higher than what might be attributable to diffusion, based on estimated diffusion coefficients. Despite the importance of diffusion to efforts to estimate the quantity of residual contamination in the subsurface, relatively few studies present measured diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in saturated low permeability soils. This study reports the diffusion coefficients of a trichloroethylene (TCE), and an anionic surfactant, Aerosol OT (AOT), in water-saturated silt and a silt-montmorillonite (25:75) mixture, obtained using steady-state experiments. The relative diffusivity ranged from 0.11 to 0.17 for all three compounds for the silt and the silt-clay mixture that was allowed to expand. In the case in which the swelling was constrained, the relative diffusivity was about 0.07. In addition, the relative diffusivity of 13C-labeled TCE through a water saturated silt-clay mixture that had contacted a field dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) for 18 months was measured and equaled 0.001. These experimental results were compared with the estimates generated using common correlations, and it was found that, in all cases, the measured diffusion coefficients were significantly lower than the estimated. Thus, the discrepancy between mass accumulations observed in the field and the mass storage that can attributable to diffusion may be greater than previously believed.

  18. In-situ synthetize multi-walled carbon nanotubes@MnO2 nanoflake core-shell structured materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Jiaoxia; Jia, Yi; Ma, Chun'an

    2012-10-01

    A new type of core-shell structured material consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoflake is synthesized using an in-situ co-precipitation method. By scanning electron microscopy and transition electron microscope, it is confirmed that the core-shell nanostructure is formed by the uniform incorporation of birnessite-type MnO2 nanoflake growth round the surface of the activated-MWCNTs. That core-shell structured material electrode presents excellent electrochemical capacitance properties with the specific capacitance reaching 380 F g-1 at the current density of 5 A g-1 in 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. In addition, the electrode also exhibits good performance (the power density: 11.28 kW kg-1 at 5 A g-1) and long-term cycling stability (retaining 82.7% of its initial capacitance after 3500 cycles at 5 A g-1). It mainly attributes to MWCNTs not only providing considerable specific surface area for high mass loading of MnO2 nanoflakes to ensure effective utilization of MnO2 nanoflake, but also offering an electron pathway to improve electrical conductivity of the electrode materials. It is clearly indicated that such core-shell structured materials including MWCNTs and MnO2 nanoflake may find important applications for supercapacitors.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

    2011-12-31

    The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

  20. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  1. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  2. Critical Evaluation of an Intercalibration Project Focused on the Definition of New Multi-Element Soil Reference Materials (AMS-MO1 and AMS-ML1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soils are complex matrices and their geochemical investigation necessarily needs reliable Certified Reference Materials (CRMs, i.e. standards, to support analytical precision and accuracy. In particular, the definition of soil multi-element CRMs is particularly complex and involves an inter-laboratory program that employs numerous analytical techniques. In this study, we present the results of the inter-calibration experiment focused on the certification of two new soil standards named AMS-ML1 and AMS-MO1. The two soils developed on sandstone and serpentinite parent materials, respectively. The experiment involved numerous laboratories and focused on the evaluation of soil physicochemical parameters and geochemical analyses of major and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Inductive Coupled Plasma techniques (ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The data was statistically elaborated. Three levels of repeatability and accuracy in function of the different analytical methods and instrumentation equipment was observed. The statistical evaluation of the results obtained by ICP-OES on Aqua Regia extracts (i.e., Lilliefors test for normally, Grubbs test for outliers, Cochran test for outliers in variances and ANOVA allowed to computed some certified values for the two proposed soil standards. This preliminary study will represent the first step of a more thorough intercalibration ring-test involving a higher number of laboratories, in order to propose the investigated matrices as CRMs.

  3. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  4. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  5. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination of soil, coal ash and zeolitic materials from Figueira thermoelectric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungaro, Denise Alves; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Campello, Felipe Arrelaro; Miranda, Caio da Silva; Izidoro, Juliana de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 40 K contents in feed pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash from cyclone and baghouse filters, zeolites synthesized from the ashes and two different soil samples. All the samples used in the study was collected at Figueira thermoelectric power plant, located in the city of Figueira, Paraná State, which coal presents a significant amount of uranium concentration. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized coal were 4216 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 180 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 27 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, 28 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 192 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The ashes fraction presented concentrations ranging from 683.5 to 1479 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, from 484 to 1086 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 291 to 1891 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 67 to 111 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, from 80 to 87 Bq -1 for 232 Th and from 489 to 718 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Similar ranges were observed for zeolites. The activity concentration of 238 U was higher than worldwide average concentration for all samples. The concentration of the uranium series found in the ashes were lower than the values observed in similar studies carried out 10 years ago and under the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01). Nevertheless, the concentrations of this specific area are higher than others coal mines and thermoelectric power plants in and out of Brazil, so it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation. (author).

  6. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination of soil, coal ash and zeolitic materials from Figueira thermoelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fungaro, Denise Alves; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Campello, Felipe Arrelaro; Miranda, Caio da Silva; Izidoro, Juliana de Carvalho, E-mail: dfungaro@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K contents in feed pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash from cyclone and baghouse filters, zeolites synthesized from the ashes and two different soil samples. All the samples used in the study was collected at Figueira thermoelectric power plant, located in the city of Figueira, Paraná State, which coal presents a significant amount of uranium concentration. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized coal were 4216 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, 180 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 27 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 28 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 192 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The ashes fraction presented concentrations ranging from 683.5 to 1479 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, from 484 to 1086 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 291 to 1891 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, from 67 to 111 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, from 80 to 87 Bq{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 489 to 718 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Similar ranges were observed for zeolites. The activity concentration of {sup 238}U was higher than worldwide average concentration for all samples. The concentration of the uranium series found in the ashes were lower than the values observed in similar studies carried out 10 years ago and under the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01). Nevertheless, the concentrations of this specific area are higher than others coal mines and thermoelectric power plants in and out of Brazil, so it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation. (author).

  7. Soil microbial biomass under pine forests in the north-western Spain: influence of stand age, site index and parent material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahia, J.; Perez-Ventura, L.; Cabaneiro, A.; Diaz-Ravina, M.

    2006-07-01

    The effects of stand age, site index and parent material on soil biochemical properties related to biomass (extractable C, microbial C and metabolic quotient) were examined in the 0-15 cm mineral soil layers of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris stand from NW Spain. Two productivity levels (low and high site index), two ages (young and old) and two parent soil materials (granite and acid schists) were considered. The data indicated that there were differences in microbial parameters in soils under different species. In general in P. pinaster forest higher values of biochemical parameters expressed on organic C basis, were observed in the stands of high site index as compared with the low ones; in contrast, in P. sylvestris no differences among stand site index were detected. In both species different results were also observed depending on parent material and a significant effect of stand age was detected for extractable C and microbial C in P. pinaster forest developed over granite. The data seem to indicate that measured parameters may have the potential to be used as indicators of the effect of forest management on soil organic matter quality. (Author) 25 refs.

  8. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Release and Movement of Radionuclides in Soils Contaminated with Fallout Materials from an Underground Thermonuclear Detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-07-06

    Studies The degree of dissolution of the fallout material in H2 0, HCl, DTPA, CDTA, and EDDHA solutions was investigated by the suspension method...days was: EDDHA >DTPA>CDTA>H 2 0. while after 65 days the order of effect was: CDTA> EDDHA >DTPA>H 20. Portions of gamma ray spectra of the 106 day...the same amounts of radionuclides as did H120. The most abundant radio- nuclide was radiotungsten for H120, DTPA, CDTA, and EDDHA supernatant liquids

  10. A graphical technique for distinguishing plant material and soil from atmospheric deposition in biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores the limits to which a new graphical technique can distinguish the various hierarchical levels of sources of trace elements within biomonitors. When applied to data from Portuguese lichens, it appears to resolve four levels of sources, from plant material down to individual types of pollution. Careful factor analysis appears to offer very similar results, being weaker than the graphical method in some aspects and stronger in others. As a result, it now seems possible to determine sources for elements in lichens with better precision and confidence than was available previously. (author)

  11. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Middlesex Sampling Plant Site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site in Middlesex, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. The site became contaminated from operations conducted in support of the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1943 and 1967. Activities conducted at the site included sampling, storage, and shipment of uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores and residues. Uranium guidelines for single radioisotopes and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the MSP site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The RESRAD computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four scenarios were considered for the site. These scenarios vary regarding future land use at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed

  12. Degradation of atrazine and isoproturon in surface and sub-surface soil materials undergoing different moisture and aeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Salah; Wood, Martin

    2005-02-01

    The influence of different moisture and aeration conditions on the degradation of atrazine and isoproturon was investigated in environmental samples aseptically collected from surface and sub-surface zones of agricultural land. The materials were maintained at two moisture contents corresponding to just above field capacity or 90% of field capacity. Another two groups of samples were adjusted with water to above field capacity, and, at zero time, exposed to drying-rewetting cycles. Atrazine was more persistent (t(1/2) = 22-35 days) than isoproturon (t(1/2) = 5-17 days) in samples maintained at constant moisture conditions. The rate of degradation for both herbicides was higher in samples maintained at a moisture content of 90% of field capacity than in samples with higher moisture contents. The reduction in moisture content in samples undergoing desiccation from above field capacity to much lower than field capacity enhanced the degradation of isoproturon (t(1/2) = 9-12 days) but reduced the rate of atrazine degradation (t(1/2) = 23-35 days). This demonstrates the variability between different micro-organisms in their susceptibility to desiccation. Under anaerobic conditions generated in anaerobic jars, atrazine degraded much more rapidly than isoproturon in materials taken from three soil profiles (0-250 cm depth). It is suggested that some specific micro-organisms are able to survive and degrade herbicide under severe conditions of desiccation. Copyright (c) 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Solid phase speciation of arsenic by sequential extraction in standard reference materials and industrially contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreweghe, Samuel van; Swennen, Rudy; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Cappuyns, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Leaching experiments, a mineralogical survey and larger samples are preferred when arsenic is present as discrete mineral phases. - Availability, mobility, (phyto)toxicity and potential risk of contaminants is strongly affected by the manner of appearance of elements, the so-called speciation. Operational fractionation methods like sequential extractions have been applied for a long time to determine the solid phase speciation of heavy metals since direct determination of specific chemical compounds can not always be easily achieved. The three-step sequential extraction scheme recommended by the BCR and two extraction schemes based on the phosphorus-like protocol proposed by Manful (1992, Occurrence and Ecochemical Behaviours of Arsenic in a Goldsmelter Impacted Area in Ghana, PhD dissertation, at the RUG) were applied to four standard reference materials (SRM) and to a batch of samples from industrially contaminated sites, heavily contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals. The SRM 2710 (Montana soil) was found to be the most useful reference material for metal (Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) fractionation using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. Two sequential extraction schemes were developed and compared for arsenic with the aim to establish a better fractionation and recovery rate than the BCR-scheme for this element in the SRM samples. The major part of arsenic was released from the heavily contaminated samples after NaOH-extraction. Inferior extraction variability and recovery in the heavily contaminated samples compared to SRMs could be mainly contributed to subsample heterogeneity

  14. The development in the in-situ decontamination technique for the large quantity of soils contaminated by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubaki, Junichiro

    2012-01-01

    The new filtration and condensation techniques that decontaminate effectively the large quantity of contaminated soils, was developed. The facility treating the soils of 5 tons per day is being developed. (M.H.)

  15. The Use of Adsorbent Materials of Improving the Characteristics of Polluted Soils, Part 1 Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted with Oil Products, Cultivated with Technical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study are presented in pot experimental variants regarding alternatives to improve the characteristics of soils polluted with 74.12 ± 3.50 g·kg-1 D.M. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH in order to apply the phytoremediation process using technical plants from the common flax (Linum usitatissimum. The harmful effects of TPH polluted soils to plants was reduced by using fly ash from thermal plant as temporary adsorbent of non-polar pollutants, petroleum products. The increase of water retention capacity of the soil was achieved by treatments with indigenous volcanic tuff. The lack of nutrients, based on N and P in soils contaminated with TPH rich in C compounds are completed using sewage sludge anaerobically stabilized. The use of appropriate amounts of fly ash and fertilizer agents in the presence of volcanic tuff caused the formation of strong networks of roots and rich harvests of plants, stems and seeds from the treated soil. The TPH reduction efficiency of TPH polluted soils treated with fly ash (TPH soil: fly ash ratio 12:1 wt. / wt. and anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge respectively indigenous volcanic tuff during one vegetative cycle of crops was in the range of 56.2 - 63.25 %.

  16. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-08-21

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4\\',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie; Gao, Wenyang; Wojtas, Łukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sulfur‐Limonene Polysulfide: A Material Synthesized Entirely from Industrial By‐Products and Its Use in Removing Toxic Metals from Water and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Michael P.; Evans, Austin M.; Worthington, Max J. H.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Lewis, David A.; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d‐limonene, by‐products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur‐limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next‐generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing. PMID:26481099

  19. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleiman, Mohamad [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Berdahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gilbert, Haley E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quelen, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marlot, Lea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Preble, Chelsea V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Montalbano, Amandine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosseler, Olivier [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Akbari, Hashem [Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  20. Characteristics of soil under variations in clay, water saturation, and water flow rates, and the implications upon soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikman, M.; Mirotchnik, K.; Kantzas, A.

    1997-01-01

    A potential remediation method for hydrocarbon contaminated soils was discussed. The new method was based on the use of proven and economic petroleum reservoir engineering methods for soil remediation. The methods that were applied included water and gas displacement methods together with horizontal boreholes as the flow inlet and outlets. This system could be used in the case of spills that seep beneath a plant or other immovable infrastructure which requires in-situ treatment schemes to decontaminate the soil. A study was conducted to characterize native soils and water samples from industrial plants in central Alberta and Sarnia, Ontario and to determine the variables that impact upon the flow conditions of synthetic test materials. The methods used to characterize the soils included X-Ray computed tomographic analysis, grain size and density measurements, and X-Ray diffraction. Clay content, initial water saturation, and water and gas flow rate were the variables that impacted on the flow conditions

  1. The response of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and soil microbes to the crumb rubber material used in artificial turf fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon T; Fiorenza, Andrew; Sperl, Cassandra; Ledda, Brianne; Lawrence Patterson, Charles; Tucker, Clara C; Tucker, Wade; Ho, Yuwan Lisa; Panico, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    Municipalities have been replacing grass fields with artificial turf, which uses crumb rubber infill made from recycled tires. Crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals. Water runoff from crumb rubber fields contains heavy metals. These components can damage the environment. We contaminated topsoil with new crumb rubber and measured its impact on earthworms and soil microbes. Specifically, we compared soil microbe activity and earthworm health, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress under two soil regimes: clean topsoil and clean topsoil contaminated with crumb rubber. We then characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published New York soil background levels and to levels set by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) as remediation goals. We found that: 1) contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates, 2) earthworm survivorship was not impacted by exposure to contaminated soil, 3) earthworms' ability to cope with heat and light stress remained unchanged after living in contaminated soil, but 4) earthworms living in contaminated soil gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil. We also found that, with the exception of zinc, heavy metals in our contaminated soil did not exceed the background levels found throughout New York State or the remediation targets set by the DEC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of a natural sepiolite bearing material and lime on the immobilization and persistence of cadmium in a contaminated acid agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueying; Hu, Pengjie; Tan, Changyin; Wu, Longhua; Peng, Bo; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2018-05-25

    Soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) represents a substantial threat to human health and environmental quality. Long-term effectiveness and persistence of remediation are two important criteria for the evaluation of amendment techniques used to remediate soils polluted with potentially toxic metals. In the current study, we investigated the remediation persistence of a natural sepiolite bearing material (NSBM, containing 15% sepiolite) and ground limestone (equivalent to > 98.0% CaO) on soil pH, Cd bioavailability, and Cd accumulation by pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) during the growth of four consecutive crops in a Cd-contaminated acid soil with different amounts of NSBM (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%). Soil pH levels ranged from 5.21 to 7.76 during the first crop, 4.30 to 7.34 during the second, 4.23 to 7.80 during the third, and 4.33 to 6.98 during the fourth, and increased significantly with increasing the application rate of NSBM. Soil CaCl 2 -Cd and shoot Cd concentrations decreased by 8.11 to 99.2% and 6.58 to 94.5%, respectively, compared with the control throughout the four cropping seasons. A significant negative correlation was found between soil CaCl 2 -Cd and soil pH. Combined use of 0.1% lime and NSBM showed greater effects than NSBM alone, especially, when the application rate of NSBM was ˂ 2%. Moreover, pak choi tissue Cd concentrations in the treatments with NSBM addition alone at ≥ 2% or at ≥ 1% NSBM combined with 0.1% lime met the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) over the four crops, allowed by the Chinese and European regulations. Based on the present study, safe crop production in the test soil is possible at a soil pH > 6.38 and CaCl 2 -Cd soil Cd immobilization by NSBM without or with lime is a potentially feasible method of controlling the transfer of soil Cd into the food chain.

  3. Development of method for quantification of 222Rn exhalation ratio at radioactive waste dam and soil study as mitigator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian uranium mining company (INB) processed 2.32 10 6 tons of uranium ore in its ore treatment unit (UTM - Caldas), located in the Pocos de Caldas plateau. During 16 years of operation, this unit discarded 2.39 10 6 tons of solid waste in a tailing dam, with an average activity concentration of 226 Ra of 7311 ± 184 Bq kg -1 . Most of the atoms of 222 Rn generated from the radioactive waste of the tailing dam remain bounded to the mineral structure. However, a fraction of these atoms can be released from the mineral structure and then emanate. Reaching the porous space of the waste piles, the 222 Rn moves towards the interface waste-atmosphere, exhaling into the atmosphere. The featuring properties of the 222 Rn transport and the biological damage caused by its progeny transform this small chain of radionuclides into a scourge of nature. Because of that, the dry area of the tailing dam was the scope of this work. A methodology was developed for quantifying the exhalation rate of 222 Rn. Moreover, the soil from its surroundings was experimentally evaluated as a cover material to reduce the exhalation of 222 Rn. A collector of 222 Rn was developed, being denominated 607. This collector was proved to be exact and precise after laboratory tests, when a standard for 222 Rn exhalation was prepared with caldasite, an uranium ore with high concentration of 226 Ra (26611 ± 581 Bq kg -1 ), crushed to the granulometric interval from 1.168 mm to 0.589 mm. The results of 222 Rn exhalation rate using the collector 607 were not influenced by the adsorption of water steam, considering sampling periods lower than 5 days and mass of water steam lower than 7 g. Sampling for measuring 222 Rn exhalation rates in the dry area of the tailing dam was carried out using the collector 607, following the experimental design established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The average exhalation rate in the west part of the tailing dam was 1.30 ± 1.24 Bq m

  4. Soil reinforcement with recycled carpet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassian, Hossein; Poorebrahim, Gholamreza; Gray, Donald H

    2004-04-01

    A root or fibre-reinforced soil behaves as a composite material in which fibres of relatively high tensile strength are embedded in a matrix of relatively plastic soil. Shear stresses in the soil mobilize tensile resistance in the fibres, which in turn impart greater strength to the soil. A research project has been undertaken to study the influence of synthetic fibrous materials for improving the strength characteristics of a fine sandy soil. One of the main objectives of the project is to explore the conversion of fibrous carpet waste into a value-added product for soil reinforcement. Drained triaxial tests were conducted on specimens, which were prepared in a cylindrical mould and compacted at their optimum water contents. The main test variables included the aspect ratio and the weight percentage of the fibrous strips. The results clearly show that fibrous inclusions derived from carpet wastes improve the shear strength of silty sands. A model developed to simulate the effect of the fibrous inclusions accurately predicts the influence of strip content, aspect ratio and confining pressure on the shear strength of reinforced sand.

  5. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Influence of surface chemistry of carbon materials on their interactions with inorganic nitrogen contaminants in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaraj; Padhye, Lokesh P

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic nitrogen contaminants (INC) (NH 4 + , NO 3 - , NO 2 - , NH 3 , NO, NO 2 , and N 2 O) pose a growing risk to the environment, and their remediation methods are highly sought after. Application of carbon materials (CM), such as biochar and activated carbon, to remediate INC from agricultural fields and wastewater treatment plants has gained a significant interest since past few years. Understanding the role of surface chemistry of CM in adsorption of various INC is highly critical to increase adsorption efficiency as well as to assess the long term impact of using these highly recalcitrant CM for remediation of INC. Critical reviews of adsorption studies related to INC have revealed that carbon surface chemistry (surface functional groups, pH, Eh, elemental composition, and mineral content) has significant influence on adsorption of INC. Compared to basic functional groups, oxygen containing surface functional groups have been found to be more influential for adsorption of INC. However, basic sites on carbon materials still play an important role in chemisorption of anionic INC. Apart from surface functional groups, pH, Eh and pH zpc of CM and elemental and mineral composition of its surface are important properties capable of altering INC interactions with CM. This review summarizes our current understanding of INC interactions with CM's surface through the known chemisorption mechanisms: electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, electron donor-acceptor mechanism, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interaction, chemisorption aided by minerals, and interactions influenced by pH and elemental composition. Change in surface chemistry of CM in soil during aging is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  8. AlphaGUARD, the new reference for continuous radon monitoring in air, soil, gas, water and material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, F.; Buerkin, W.; Villert, J.

    2016-01-01

    The company Saphymo GmbH has more than 25 years of experience in the field of radon measurement. More than 20 years ago Saphymo developed the professional and robust radon monitor AlphaGUARD, quickly recognized as a standard for reliable and continuous measurements of the radon concentration. Today AlphaGUARD is internationally established as the reference in radon measurement. Following up on this success story the new generation of AlphaGUARD can now be presented. Based on the excellent measurement characteristics of its predecessor the new AlphaGUARD combines the well-proven principle of the pulse ionisation chamber with new and additional features. The robust housing is oriented on the well-proven design of the predecessor and includes now an integrated flow controlled and powerful pump. The instrument can be operated in flow as well as in diffusion mode (without pump). Via the new large display and the intuitive menu navigation all measurement data can be retrieved. The presentation of time series in charts is possible as well as the parametrisation of the instrument. A wide range of accessories, developed in cooperation with various radon experts of universities and laboratories, enables the user a varied and flexible application of the AlphaGUARD: Measurement of the radon concentration in air (radon, thoron, radon progenies), in water (sampling and time resolved measurements) and in soil (soil gas measurements, exhalation measurements), emanation measurements from material, multi spot measurement, online measurement with remote data transmission via Ethernet/DSL, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPRS/3G or satellite. Due to its high sensitivity and its fast and linear response over a large measuring range the AlphaGUARD is excellently suited for calibration laboratories. Furthermore the AlphaGUARD enables ideal prerequisites for field applications: robust housing for operations under harsh conditions, long battery life for the measurement at any location, low

  9. Spatial distribution of metals in soils in Baltimore, Maryland: Role of native parent material, proximity to major roads, housing age and screening guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesilonis, I.D.; Pouyat, R.V.; Neerchal, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of heavy metal above-background (anthropic) contents of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn in Baltimore City surface soils and related these levels to potential contaminating sources. Composite soil samples (0-10 cm depth) were digested using a nitric and hydrochloric extraction technique. Slightly more than 10% of plots exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency screening guidelines for Pb. In a principal component analysis, the first component corresponded to Co, Cr, and Fe, which are constituents of local mafic rocks. The second component corresponded to Cu, Pb, and Zn which were significantly higher within than beyond a 100 m buffer of the major roads within the city; furthermore, Pb and Zn were higher in older residential lots. - Spatial distribution of metals in soils of an older US city (Baltimore) was affected by parent material, proximity to major roads, and housing age

  10. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  11. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  12. Synthetic Sling Failure - Evaluations and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mackey, Thomas C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall

  13. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of

  14. Decontamination of soils and materials containing medium-fired PuO{sub 2} using inhibited fluorides with polymer filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temer, D.J.; Villarreal, R.; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination of soils and/or materials from medium-fired plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) with an effective and efficient decontamination agent that will not significantly dissolve the matrix requires a new and innovative technology. After testing several decontamination agents and solutions for dissolution of medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, the most successful decontamination solutions were fluoride compounds, which were effective in breaking the Pu-oxide bond but would not extensively dissolve soil constituents and other materials. The fluoride compounds, tetra fluoboric acid (HBF{sub 4}) and hydrofluorosilicic acid (H{sub 2}F{sub 6}Si), were effective in dissolving medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, and did not seem to have the potential to dissolve the matrix. In both compounds, the fluoride atom is attached to a boron or silicon atom that inhibits the reactivity of the fluoride towards other compounds or materials containing atoms less attracted to the fluoride atom in an acid solution. Because of this inhibition of the reactivity of the fluoride ion, these compounds are termed inhibited fluoride compounds or agents. Both inhibited fluorides studied effectively dissolved medium-fired PuO{sub 2} but exhibited a tendency to not attack stainless steel or soil. The basis for selecting inhibited fluorides was confirmed during leaching tests of medium-fired PuO{sub 2} spiked into soil taken from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When dissolved in dilute HNO{sub 3}, HCl, or HBr, both inhibited fluoride compounds were effective at solubilizing the medium-fired PuO{sub 2} from spiked INEL soil.

  15. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  16. Novel approach for quantitatively estimating element retention and material balances in soil profiles of recharge basins used for wastewater reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshel, Gil, E-mail: eshelgil@gmail.com [Soil Erosion Research Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, HaMaccabim Road, Rishon-Lezion. P.O.B. 30, Beit-Dagan, 50250 (Israel); Lin, Chunye [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwaidajie St., Beijing, 100875 (China); Banin, Amos [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot (Israel)

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in element content and distribution in soil profiles in a study designed to monitor the geochemical changes accruing in soil due to long-term secondary effluent recharge, and its impact on the sustainability of the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) system. Since the initial elemental contents of the soils at the studied site were not available, we reconstructed them using scandium (Sc) as a conservative tracer. By using this approach, we were able to produce a mass-balance for 18 elements and evaluate the geochemical changes resulting from 19 years of effluent recharge. This approach also provides a better understanding of the role of soils as an adsorption filter for the heavy metals contained in the effluent. The soil mass balance suggests 19 years of effluent recharge cause for a significant enrichment in Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mg, K, Na, S and P contents in the upper 4 m of the soil profile. Combining the elements lode record during the 19 years suggest that Cr, Ni, and P inputs may not reach the groundwater (20 m deep), whereas the other elements may. Conversely, we found that 58, 60, and 30% of the initial content of Mn, Ca and Co respectively leached from the upper 2-m of the soil profile. These high percentages of Mn and Ca depletion from the basin soils may reduce the soil's ability to buffer decreases in redox potential pe and pH, respectively, which could initiate a reduction in the soil's holding capacity for heavy metals. - Highlights: • Sc proved as a reliable tracer for reconstructing the initial soil elemental contents. • Mass-balance for 18 elements resulting from 19 years of SAT operation is presented. • After 19 years of operation Cr, Ni, and P inputs may not reach the groundwater. • The inputs of other 15 elements may reach the groundwater. • 58, 60, 30% of initial soil content of Mn, Ca, Co res. leached from the upper 2-m.

  17. Synthetic inorganic ion-exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, M.

    1979-01-01

    Exchange isotherms for hydrogen ion/alkali metal ions have been measured at 20 and 40 0 C, with a solution ionic strength of 0.1, in crystalline antimonic(V) acid as a cation-exchanger. The isotherms showed S-shaped curves for the systems of H + /Na + , H + /K + , H + /Rb + and H + /Cs + , but not for H + /Li + exchange. The selectivity coefficients (logarithm scale) vs equivalent fraction of alkali metal ions in the exchanger give linear functions for all systems studied. The selectivity sequences are shown. Overall and hypothetical (zero loading) thermodynamic equilibrium constants were evaluated for these ion-exchange reactions. (author)

  18. Effects of some organic materials on bicarbonate extractable phosphate content of soils having different pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of rice husk compost (RC, town waste compost (TW and tobacco waste (TB on bicarbonate extractable phosphate content (P in soils having different pH levels under greenhouse conditions. Soil samples used in this study were taken from surfaces (0-20 cm of agricultural fields around Samsun, Northern Anatolia. The experiment was conducted according to split plot design with four doses of organic matterials (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5, %. After a month of mixing organic matterials into soils, lettuce were grown in the medias. According to the results, RC, TW and TB applications into acidic (Tepecik, neutral (Kampüs and alkaline (Çetinkaya soils increased extractable P content. It was observed that effectiveness of organic matterials changed depend on soil reaction, type and dose of organic matterials. All organic wastes were more effective on increment of bicarbonate extractable phosphate content in neutral soil pH when compared the other soil pH levels.

  19. Application of the Organic Synthetic Designs to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, V. M.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we propose a synthesis of the heterocyclic compounds and the insoluble materials on the meteorites. Our synthetic scheme involves the reaction of sugars and amino acids, the so-called Maillard reaction. We have developed this scheme based on the combined analysis of the regular and retrosynthetic organic synthetic principles. The merits of these synthetic methods for the prebiotic design are addressed.

  20. State-of-the-art synthetic membrane for capping landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriofske, K.P.; Gagle, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Very Low Density Polyethylene (VLDPE) has emerged as a superior capping material for landfill closures. Landfills must be capped by a material which will undergo substantial deformation in areas of localized settlement prior to rupture. Methane and hydrogen sulfide gases must be contained and directed to collection points without permeating the landfill cap. Vegetative growth in the cover sods will be protected by the gas impermeability of the geosynthetic membrane. VLDPE compounded with carbon black is minimally affected by radiation and is inert to ultraviolet rays. This property sustains VLDPE's ability to retard gas permeation at levels superior to other geosynthetics. Cover soil stability on long cap slopes in all weather conditions is crucial. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in full-scale, on-site test conditions that VLDPE exhibits friction characteristics equaling or exceeding other synthetics used for this purpose without diminishing physical and chemical properties. Large-scale, multiaxial stress tests have demonstrated the ability of VLDPE to deflect substantially in all directions of a potential settlement area. Only PVC can equal the elastic deformation properties of VLDPE, but PVC is more gas-permeable susceptible to degradation due to natural soil radiation or ultraviolet light and heat. Test results are presented to illustrate these points. The geosynthetic cap membrane must prevent water percolation into the landfill to prevent the formation of hazardous leachates. The use of a VLDPE cap reduces the depth of cap soils, thus increasing landfill volume. The economics and reduction in long-term liabilities of closure costs are enhanced by the use of VLDPE in the cap system. Since the expected half-life of polyethylene exceeds hundreds of years, the inclusion of VLDPE in the cap system will provide pollution security for many generations

  1. The effect of increasing Diesel and lubricating oil contamination on the aggregate stability and compressibility of two soil materials (Ah and Bt material)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, M.; Goetz, D.; Wiechmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of mineral oil on two factors determining the soil mechanics properties is introduced: The water stability of the aggregates without loading and their compressibility under load, and the resulting density of storage. The unpolarized mineral oil immiscible with the water represents a 4th phase in the soil. The effect of the mineral oil on the sum of the acting forces (cohesion and adhesion forces, surface and boundary energy) and the wettability are shown with investigations, which describe the total effects. (orig.) [de

  2. Proceedings of Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) Conference 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, Pamela [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); SEED 2015 Conference Chair; Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers; SEED 2015 Conference Organizer

    2016-10-27

    synthetic biology centers and related infrastructure (synthesis/software/foundries) meet to discuss technology, standards, and education. SEED2015 will be the second in an annual series of meeting held to bring researchers from industry and academia in the area of Synthetic Biology. The first SEED conference was highly successful, attracting 285 attendees with varying backgrounds from academia, industry and government. The SEED series provides leadership in the development of the field of synthetic biology and serves to broaden the participants in the field by appealing to broad sectors in industry and providing a means for young investigators and those outside of the field to participate. Further, the series closely integrates with groups such as the SBCC to provide a means by which the synthetic biology community can communicate with policy makers. Further, we will pursue making the meeting the center for the exchange of educational materials as centers for synthetic biology emerge globally. Proceedings will be published each year in the journal ACS Synthetic Biology. After each SEED meeting, surveys are distributed to assess the success of the conference and to help guide changes year-to-year. The diverse application areas further extend the expertise needed from people in areas such as plant biology, agriculture and soil science, environmental science, medicine, and the chemical industry. These areas could have a widespread impact on society in a number of ways. For example, the CRISPR/Cas9 system that serves to immunize bacteria from phage has provided the fundamental chemistry that is used to edit the genomes of diverse organisms, including human stem cells, crop plants, and livestock animals.

  3. Data analysis of the 1984 and 1986 soil sampling programs at Materials Disposal Area T in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.

    1993-09-01

    An environmental surveillance program for Materials Disposal Area T (MDA-T) at Los Alamos, New Mexico is described. The waste-use history of this disposal site is described, followed by a description of the materials and methods used to analyze data from two surface soil radionuclide sampling programs performed at this disposal site. The disposal site's physical features are related to the spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration contours in an attempt to evaluate radionuclide migration mechanisms in and around the site. The usefulness of the data analysis efforts is evaluated and recommendations are made for future studies

  4. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  5. Anisotropic evaluation of synthetic surgical meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberski, E R; Orenstein, S B; Novitsky, Y W

    2011-02-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia repair contribute to the overall mechanical behavior of the repair. The anisotropic potential of synthetic meshes, representing a difference in material properties (e.g., elasticity) in different material axes, is not well defined to date. Haphazard orientation of anisotropic mesh material can contribute to inconsistent surgical outcomes. We aimed to characterize and compare anisotropic properties of commonly used synthetic meshes. Six different polypropylene (Trelex(®), ProLite™, Ultrapro™), polyester (Parietex™), and PTFE-based (Dualmesh(®), Infinit) synthetic meshes were selected. Longitudinal and transverse axes were defined for each mesh, and samples were cut in each axis orientation. Samples underwent uniaxial tensile testing, from which the elastic modulus (E) in each axis was determined. The degree of anisotropy (λ) was calculated as a logarithmic expression of the ratio between the elastic modulus in each axis. Five of six meshes displayed significant anisotropic behavior. Ultrapro™ and Infinit exhibited approximately 12- and 20-fold differences between perpendicular axes, respectively. Trelex(®), ProLite™, and Parietex™ were 2.3-2.4 times. Dualmesh(®) was the least anisotropic mesh, without marked difference between the axes. Anisotropy of synthetic meshes has been underappreciated. In this study, we found striking differences between elastic properties of perpendicular axes for most commonly used synthetic meshes. Indiscriminate orientation of anisotropic mesh may adversely affect hernia repairs. Proper labeling of all implants by manufacturers should be mandatory. Understanding the specific anisotropic behavior of synthetic meshes should allow surgeons to employ rational implant orientation to maximize outcomes of hernia repair.

  6. The effectiveness of sulfidic materials as a source of sulfur fertilizer for the production of rice in two sulfur deficient soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Hasnat M. Shamim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of sulfidic materials (SM and gypsum (G application at the rates of 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 kg S ha-1on the growth, yield, and mineral nutrition of rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR 16: Shahi balam cultivated in two sulfur deficient soilsof Sirajgonj (Typic Haplaquept and Gazipur (Typic Paleustult were evaluated in a greenhouse study. The best growth, yieldperformance, and nutrition of rice were recorded by the SM160 treatment in both the Sirajgonj (e.g. grain: 9.8 g/plant andGazipur (8.6 soils, followed by the SM120 (8.5, 7.5 > SM80 (7.3, 7.3 > G160 (7.1, 6.9 treatments. The application of SMincreased the average grain yield by 82% (increased over control: IOC for Sirajgonj soil and 78% for Gazipur soil, irrespectiveof application rates. In the case of gypsum, these increments were 40 and 37% for Sirajgonj and Gazipur soils, respectively. Theapplication of gypsum at the highest rate of G160 was not as effective as even the dose of SM80 in both of the soils. However,almost similar and significant (p<0.05 effects were observed for the grain weight, percent filled grains, and harvest index ofrice grown in both the soils. The applied SM increased the average organic matter and available sulfur contents in the soilsby 20 to 46%, and 140 to 228% IOC, respectively, while these increments were 6 to 20% and 88 to 187% for gypsum treatments,indicating that the SM was potential and effective than gypsum not only as a source of sulfur fertilizer but also to enrich thefertility and productivity status of the soils. Moreover, the SM treatment was found to be maintained the high nutrient statusin both the soils till the final harvest at maturity of rice, reflecting a good indication for its long term use. The use of SM didnot show any adverse effect on the plant and soil.

  7. The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production. Report of the FAO/IAEA consultants meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production' was held in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from May 28-30, 2001. The consultants' presentations reviewed recent advances in the use of fallout radionuclides to measure soil erosion as well as approaches and technologies applied for soil conservation worldwide. Also, activities and experiences of FAO and UNEP in the field of land degradation, soil conservation and related issues were presented. Based on the information provided by the Scientific Secretary, a full project proposal was prepared during the second part of the Consultants' Meeting. The consultants also provided recommendations on the formulation and implementation of a future CRP on the subject

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. INFLUENCE OF LIMING AND WASTE ORGANIC MATERIALS ON THE ACTIVITY OF PHOSPHATASE IN SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kuziemska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on soil following a two-year pot experiment that was conducted in 2009–2010, in three repetitions in Siedlce. The experiment included the following factors: 1 – amount of Ni in soil (0, 75, 150 and 225 mg·kg-1 soil by applying an aqueous NiSO4·7H2O solution; 2 – liming (0 and Ca according to 1 Hh as CaCO3; 3 – organic waste products (rye straw at a dose of 4 t·ha-1 and brown coal at a dose of 40 t·ha-1. In each experimental year, orchard grass was the test plant and four swaths were harvested. The activities of acidic and alkaline phosphatase, pH and the content of carbon in organic compounds were determined in the soil samples collected after each grass swath and in each experimental year. It was found that Ni at 75 mg·kg-1 soil activated the enzymes under study, whereas higher doses caused their statistically-confirmed inactivation. The lowest activity of the investigated enzymes was detected in soil supplemented with 225 Ni·kg-1 soil. Liming caused an increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase and a reduction in the activity of acidic phosphatase. Straw and brown coal induced a substantial increase in the activity of both enzymes in the tested soil samples. Both liming and straw and carbon eliminated the negative effect of higher nickel doses on the activity of the enzymes under study.

  11. Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    these tests. Acetone (CAS: 67-64-1; high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] grade) was used for preparing EM solutions during the soil amendments... chromatography grade, purity: 99.9%) was used in the HPLC determinations. Certified standards of the energetics (AccuStandard, Inc., New Haven, CT) were used...H.; Van Gestel, C.A.M. Handbook of Soil Invertebrate Toxicity Tests; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, 1998. McLellan, W.L.; Hartley, W.R.; Brower

  12. Material Weakening of Slip Zone Soils Induced by Water Level Fluctuation in the Ancient Landslides of Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yong Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the effect of repeated wetting and drying on the reduction of slip zone soils taken from the Huangtupo landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. The variation process of the physical property and substance composition of the slip zone soils under the wetting-drying cycles was studied through liquid and plastic limit test and X-ray diffraction test. The results indicate that (1 the shearing strength of the slip zone soil dramatically decreased after one wetting-drying cycle and then gradually decreased until reaching a relatively stable state at the fourth cycle; (2 the plasticity index of the slip zone soil varied with increasing number of cycles and a variation process opposite to that of the strength value was observed; and (3 the clay mineral content in the slip zone soil increased and the calcite and quartz contents relatively decreased with increasing number of cycles. The variations in the plasticity index of the slip zone soil, as well as the increase in its clay mineral content, play important roles in the strength reduction. The results of this study provide a foundation for revealing the deformation and damage mechanism of landslides in reservoir banks.

  13. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann using different soils as source of casing materials Cultivo de Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann usando diferentes solos como fonte de material para a camada de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonçalves de Siqueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial productivity of the Agaricus blazei mushroom is closely related to both the quality of the compost and the choice of soil to be used as a casing material. This study aims to evaluate Agaricus blazei's productivity using two compost formulations and three soils. The two compost formulations were (i crushed sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum (L. and Coastcross hay (Cynidon dactylon (L. Pers., and (ii crushed sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum (L. and corn husk (Zea mays L.; they were amended with wheat bran, lime, gypsum, superphosphate and urea. The casing materials were extracted from three soils classed as Rhodic Hapludox, Xanthic Hapludox, and Humic Haplaquox. The Rhodic Hapludox soil material was mixed with fragments of Eucalyptus charcoal in the proportion of 4:1. The compost was prepared during six weeks and thereafter heat treated during 48 h at the end of the composting period. The sugarcane bagasse:coast-hay compost was superior to the sugarcane bagasse: corn husk compost. The Rhodic Hapludox plus charcoal casing material showed to be a better casing material than either the Xanthic Hapludox and Humic Haplaquox soil materials. The choice of the soils where the casing material is taken is an important factor to the success of the Agaricus blazei mushroom cultivation.A produtividade do cogumelo Agaricus blazei depende da qualidade do composto e da terra de cobertura. Avaliou-se a produtividade deste cogumelo utilizando-se duas formulações de composto e materiais retirados de três tipos de solo usados como camada de cobertura. As duas formulações de composto consistiram em (i bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum (L. e capim Coastcross (Cynidon dactylon (L. Pers., e (ii bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum (L. e palha de milho (Zea mays L.. As duas formulações foram suplementadas com farelo de trigo, calcário, gesso, superfosfato simples e uréia. Como camadas de cobertura foram

  14. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann V.; Richards, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic fabric fibers have been proposed as indicators of past spreading of wastewater sludge. Synthetic fiber detectability was examined in sludges (dewatered, pelletized, composted, alkaline-stabilized) and in soils from experimental columns and field sites applied with those sludge products. Fibers (isolated by water extraction and examined using polarized light microscopy) were detectable in sludge products and in soil columns over 5 years after application, retaining characteristics observed in the applied sludge. Concentrations mirrored (within a factor of 2) predictions based on soil dilution. Fibers were detectable in field site soils up to 15 years after application, again retaining the characteristics seen in sludge products. Concentrations correlated with residual sludge metal concentration gradients in a well-characterized field site. Fibers found along preferential flow paths and/or in horizons largely below the mixed layer suggest some potential for translocation. Synthetic fibers were shown to be rapid and semi-quantitative indicators of past sludge application. - Synthetic fabric fibers present in wastewater sludge are a semi-quantitative long-term indicator of past sludge application in soils

  15. Synthetic biodegradable functional polymers for tissue engineering: a brief review

    OpenAIRE

    BaoLin, GUO; MA, Peter X.

    2014-01-01

    Scaffolds play a crucial role in tissue engineering. Biodegradable polymers with great processing flexibility are the predominant scaffolding materials. Synthetic biodegradable polymers with well-defined structure and without immunological concerns associated with naturally derived polymers are widely used in tissue engineering. The synthetic biodegradable polymers that are widely used in tissue engineering, including polyesters, polyanhydrides, polyphosphazenes, polyurethane, and poly (glyce...

  16. SATL Based Lesson for Teaching Grignard Reagents in Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesizing new products from raw materials has been very popular aspects of research in organic chemistry. Traditionally, Grignard reagent has been very vital component of such synthetic procedures. Hence learning of various issues concerning with applications of Grignard reactions in synthetic organic chemistry is ...

  17. The presence of radioactive materials in soil, sand and sediment samples of Potenga sea beach area, Chittagong, Bangladesh: Geological characteristics and environmental implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Barua, Bijoy Sonker; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Kamal, Masud; Abdur Rashid, Md.; Abdul Sani, S. F.; Ahmed, H.; Nikouravan, Bijan; Bradley, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Accurate quantification of naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil provides information on geological characteristics, possibility of petroleum and mineral exploration, radiation hazards to the dwelling populace etc. Of practical significance, the earth surface media (soil, sand and sediment) collected from the densely populated coastal area of Chittagong city, Bangladesh were analysed using a high purity germanium γ-ray spectrometer with low background radiation environment. The mean activities of 226Ra (238U), 232Th and 40K in the studied materials show higher values than the respective world average of 33, 36 and 474 Bq/kg reported by the UNSCEAR (2000). The deduced mass concentrations of the primordial radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in the investigated samples are corresponding to the granite rocks, crustal minerals and typical rocks respectively. The estimated mean value of 232Th/238U for soil (3.98) and sediment (3.94) are in-line with the continental crustal average concentration of 3.82 for typical rock range reported by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). But the tonalites and more silicic rocks elevate the mean value of 232Th/238U for sand samples amounting to 4.69. This indicates a significant fractionation during weathering or associated with the metasomatic activity in the investigated area of sand collection.

  18. Calculating the movement speed of a contaminated material in soil; Calculo de la velocidad de movimiento de un material contaminado en suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, D.

    2014-07-01

    The present work describes the project which consisted in the development of an application to facilitate and display a graphic where the displacement and behavior of radioactive contaminants in soil could be observed. Once the data are introduced to the system, this makes the necessary calculations to display a graphic where the displacement of the substance is displayed in a given time. Through the graphs resulting from the program, we can quickly see the behavior and movement of a contaminant substance, but by numerical simulation, it can determine the possible impact caused by a supposition spills of a radioactive substance in soil and thus able to take the appropriate measures to control or avoid an impact resulting highly harmful to health and the environment, so as to determine the distance and time in which the substance already change or transform into another. (Author)

  19. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years, synthetic cannabinoid mixtures have been easy to buy in drug paraphernalia shops, novelty stores, gas stations, and over ... abuse, authorities have made it illegal to sell, buy, or possess some of ... use is that standard drug tests cannot easily detect many of the chemicals ...

  20. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  1. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  2. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  3. Source Material and Concentration of Wildfire-Produced Pyrogenic Carbon Influence Post-Fire Soil Nutrient Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Michelotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC is produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (O. PyC affects nutrient availability, may enhance post-fire nitrogen (N mineralization rates, and can be a significant carbon (C pool in fire-prone ecosystems. Our objectives were to characterize PyC produced by wildfires and examine the influence that contrasting types of PyC have on C and N mineralization rates. We determined C, N, O, and hydrogen (H concentrations and atomic ratios of charred bark (BK, charred pine cones (PC, and charred woody debris (WD using elemental analysis. We also incubated soil amended with BK, PC, and WD at two concentrations for 60 days to measure C and N mineralization rates. PC had greater H/C and O/C ratios than BK and WD, suggesting that PC may have a lesser aromatic component than BK and WD. C and N mineralization rates decreased with increasing PyC concentrations, and control samples produced more CO2 than soils amended with PyC. Soils with PC produced greater CO2 and had lower N mineralization rates than soils with BK or WD. These results demonstrate that PyC type and concentration have potential to impact nutrient dynamics and C flux to the atmosphere in post-fire forest soils.

  4. Parity-Time Synthetic Phononic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Willatzen, Morten; Velasco, V. R.

    2016-01-01

    media, have been devised in many optical systems with the ground breaking potential to create nonreciprocal structures and one-way cloaks of invisibility. Here we demonstrate a feasible approach for the case of sound where the most important ingredients within synthetic materials, loss and gain......, are achieved through electrically biased piezoelectric semiconductors. We study first how wave attenuation and amplification can be tuned, and when combined, can give rise to a phononic PT synthetic media with unidirectional suppressed reflectance, a feature directly applicable to evading sonar detection....

  5. Synthetic biology of microbes synthesizing polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA have been produced as bioplastics for various purposes. Under the support of China National Basic Research 973 Project, we developed synthetic biology methods to diversify the PHA structures into homo-, random, block polymers with improved properties to better meet various application requirements. At the same time, various pathways were assembled to produce various PHA from glucose as a simple carbon source. At the end, Halomonas bacteria were reconstructed to produce PHA in changing morphology for low cost production under unsterile and continuous conditions. The synthetic biology will advance the PHA into a bio- and material industry.

  6. [Salem witches, flying brooms, and synthetic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Tejero, Manuel; Castellanos Tejero, M de los Angeles

    2002-10-01

    As supplementary material to Health Education programs about synthetic drugs, the authors present a historical summary on LSD, stramonium and khat. "Tripis", Special K and other synthetic pills contain these substances and are being widely used by youths. The history of these main hallucinogenic active ingredients has a strong tie to the mythology of witchcraft and witches: a historically interesting time period bearing a large amount of religious intolerance. The objective of this review is to end the belief today's youth have that they are taking new substances which have no risks.

  7. Synthetic clay excels in 90Sr removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Kodama, Tatsuya; Paulus, William J.; Carlson, C.

    2000-01-01

    Tests with actual ground water from Hanford site, and fundamental studies of 2Na + →Sr 2+ exchange equilibria revealed that a synthetic clay is extremely selective for 90 Sr with a high capacity for uptake. Comparative studies with existing Sr selective ion exchangers clearly revealed that the present synthetic clay exhibited the best performance for 90 Sr removal from actual ground water collected from three different locations at Hanford. This novel Sr ion sieve is expected to be useful for the decontamination of the environment after accidental release and contamination with 90 Sr. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  8. The use of 32P radioisotope techniques for evaluating the relative agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock materials in a soybean-maize crop rotation in acid soils of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahisarakul, J.; Pakkong, P.

    2002-01-01

    A series of greenhouse experiments was conducted over three years to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of phosphate rock materials in a soybean - maize crop sequence, using 32 P isotope dilution techniques. For the first two years, the crops were grown in a pot experiment in four acid soils of Thailand. In the first year, four increasing rates of TSP and one rate of four phosphate rocks (PRs) were used. The PRs used were Algerian PR, North Carolina PR, Petchaburi PR, and Ratchaburi PR. Soybean did not respond to P application from TSP, while there was good response in maize which was planted after soybean (1st residual effect). The percent P derived from TSP or PR fertilizer (%Pdff) had the following order: Warin soil > Mae Tang soil > Rangsit soil > Pakchong soil for soybean and Warin soil > Pakchong soil > Rangsit soil > Mae Tang soil for maize. In the second year, the soybean - maize rotation was replanted to study the residual effect of TSP and PRs, both applied at 180 mg P kg -1 . No significant response of soybean and maize to TSP was found in terms of dry matter yield. In terms of %Pdff and %RAE the soils ranked as follows: Rangsit soil > Pakchong soil Mae Tang soil > Warin soil for soybean and Warin soil > Rangsit soil > Mae Tang > Pakchong soil for maize. Both crops absorbed more P from TSP than from PRs. The %RAE in the 2nd year experiment was higher than %RAE in the 1st year In the third year, TSP and two PRs were applied at one P rate to Pakchong and Warin soils. The applied PRs were North Carolina PR (NCPR) and Lamphun phosphate rock (LPPR). PRs were applied either alone or in combination with TSP (50:50). Soybean was planted first, followed by maize. The P-response in terms of dry matter yield and %Pdff was highly significant in both soils. The RAE ranked as follows: TSP > NCPR + TSP > LPPR + TSP > NCPR > LPPR. Maize showed the same trend in RAE as soybean in both soils. The RAE for both crops was highest in Warin soil. (author)

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  10. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings: effects of rock material on vegetation on soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Carlile, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    A field-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of pit-run rock and washed cobble on vegetation and soil moisture. The success of various seed mixtures, transplanting and irrigation levels were evaluated. Total cover changed negligibly from the first growing season to the next, but the structure of the vegetation changed markedly. Moderate levels of irrigation increased the establishment of perennial grasses and shrubs. Rock placed on the surface prior to planting resulted in increased cover of weeds, shrubs and forbs and decreased grass cover relative to soil without surface rock. The most successful seed mixture was one of predominantly shrub and forb species adapted to the local environment. No significant differences in soil moisture were found between surface cover types. 6 references, 7 figures

  11. The emerging age of cell-free synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark Thomas; Wilding, Kristen M; Hunt, Jeremy M; Bennett, Anthony M; Bundy, Bradley C

    2014-08-25

    The engineering of and mastery over biological parts has catalyzed the emergence of synthetic biology. This field has grown exponentially in the past decade. As increasingly more applications of synthetic biology are pursued, more challenges are encountered, such as delivering genetic material into cells and optimizing genetic circuits in vivo. An in vitro or cell-free approach to synthetic biology simplifies and avoids many of the pitfalls of in vivo synthetic biology. In this review, we describe some of the innate features that make cell-free systems compelling platforms for synthetic biology and discuss emerging improvements of cell-free technologies. We also select and highlight recent and emerging applications of cell-free synthetic biology. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of chemically processed bonemeal alone and in combination with organic materials on plant growth. [Part] I : Rice-wheat rotation in an alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasami, S.; Vimal, O.P.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chemically processed bonemeal added 60 kg P 2 O /ha alone and in combination with various organic materials viz., wheat straw and rice straw 3 tons/hs, starch 500 kg/ha and EDTA 250 kg/ha was studied on rice in an alluvial soil. The residual effect was studied on wheat using 32 P as a tracer. The results showed that in the first crop(rice) bonemeal organic matter combination had a significant effect both on dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. In the second crop (wheat) except chemically processed honemeal in combination with EDTA, all other combinations showed a marked positive effect on yield, total P-uptake and 'A' values. Comparison of P-uptake from soil and fertilizer indicated that there was a marked residual effect on the subsequent wheat crop. (author)

  13. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faillace, E.R.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1995-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site in Fairfield, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that, after remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed (1) 30 mrem/yr for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or (2) 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation

  14. Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: "chemical and ecotoxicological studies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deydier, E; Guilet, R; Cren, S; Pereas, V; Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L

    2007-07-19

    As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO(3).2H2O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer.

  15. Engineering emergent multicellular behavior through synthetic adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    In over a decade, synthetic biology has developed increasingly robust gene networks within single cells, but constructed very few systems that demonstrate multicellular spatio-temporal dynamics. We are filling this gap in synthetic biology's toolbox by developing an E. coli self-assembly platform based on modular cell-cell adhesion. We developed a system in which adhesive selectivity is provided by a library of outer membrane-displayed peptides with intra-library specificities, while affinity is provided by consistent expression across the entire library. We further provide a biophysical model to help understand the parameter regimes in which this tool can be used to self-assemble into cellular clusters, filaments, or meshes. The combined platform will enable future development of synthetic multicellular systems for use in consortia-based metabolic engineering, in living materials, and in controlled study of minimal multicellular systems. Stanford Bio-X Bowes Fellowship.

  16. Soil stabilization 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenberg, E. J.; Thompson, M. R.; Tayabji, S. D.; Nussbaum, P. J.; Ciolko, A. T.

    Seven papers cover the following areas: design, construction and performance of lime, fly ash, and slag pavement; evaluation of heavily loaded cement stabilized bases; coal refuse and fly ash compositions; potential highway base course materials; lime soil mixture design considerations for soils of southeastern United States; short term active soil property changes caused by injection of lime and fly ash; soil cement for use in stream channel grade stabilization structures; and reaction products of lime treated southeastern soils.

  17. Investigation of counter-measures in the case of radioactive materials penetration in soils and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachse, G.; Anders, G.; Puehrer, H.; Stohn, W.

    1975-03-01

    Proceeding from the methods known from hydraulic engineering for the protection of ground waters from penetrating noxious substances, suitable measures for preventing the contamination of ground waters and soils are discussed. Since preventive measures are always of priority, a facility using concrete containers with double walls is considered to be an appropriate method for temporary storage of low and medium activity waste waters. (author)

  18. WISB: Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology promises to create high-impact solutions to challenges in the areas of biotechnology, human/animal health, the environment, energy, materials and food security. Equally, synthetic biologists create tools and strategies that have the potential to help us answer important fundamental questions in biology. Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology (WISB) pursues both of these mutually complementary 'build to apply' and 'build to understand' approaches. This is reflected in our research structure, in which a core theme on predictive biosystems engineering develops underpinning understanding as well as next-generation experimental/theoretical tools, and these are then incorporated into three applied themes in which we engineer biosynthetic pathways, microbial communities and microbial effector systems in plants. WISB takes a comprehensive approach to training, education and outreach. For example, WISB is a partner in the EPSRC/BBSRC-funded U.K. Doctoral Training Centre in synthetic biology, we have developed a new undergraduate module in the subject, and we have established five WISB Research Career Development Fellowships to support young group leaders. Research in Ethical, Legal and Societal Aspects (ELSA) of synthetic biology is embedded in our centre activities. WISB has been highly proactive in building an international research and training network that includes partners in Barcelona, Boston, Copenhagen, Madrid, Marburg, São Paulo, Tartu and Valencia. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Certification of a reference material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the International Standard ISO 11262:2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined referring to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the International Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil reference material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The reference material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114.

  20. Effects of long-term organic material applications and green manure crop cultivation on soil organic carbon in rain fed area of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Sugino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term field experiment on organic material application and crop rotation with green manure crops has been conducted since 1976 at Lopburi Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Agriculture, Lop Buri Province, Thailand, to clarify the effect of organic materials and green manure crop on soil organic carbon changes. The stock change factors that stand for the relative change of soil organic carbon on the carbon stock in a reference condition (native vegetation that is not degraded or improved. Stock change factor for input of organic matter (FI, representing different levels of C input to soil such as organic material application, crop residue treatment and green manure crop cultivation, was computed with the present field experimental results. While the computed FI of "High input with manure" was within the range of IPCC default FI value, some of the computed FI of " High input without manure" was much higher than the IPCC default though it was varied due to the biomass production and nutrient contents of the green manure crops planted as the second crops after corn. Therefore, the FI computed by field experimental results can contribute to more accurate estimation of SOC changes in farm land especially in Southeast Asia because the default FI mostly depends on the experimental data in temperate zones. Moreover, the field experiment has focused the effect of reduced tillage practices on SOC changes and corn yield since 2011. The results of the experiment will be used to compute Stock change factor for management regime (FMG which represents the effects of tillage operations.